Writing Styles: The Main Rules

Personal Communication

Personal communication involves online chats, live streams, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. The detail on personal touch is found on page 179 in part 6.20 (Myers, 2021). Most of the information relating to personal communication does not contain meaningful recoverable data. For this reason, the report only gives room for in-text citation, which is done by providing surnames and initials of the communicating person alongside indicating the exact date of the material used.

Significance of Heading Organization

To help outline various sections of the paper that one is writing or reading, it is essential to use distinct levels of headings. The outline is more like bullet points used to show different sections. The use of various levels helps ensure proper paper organization for a better flow of ideas (Bradley, Noble & Hendricks, 2020). By doing this, the writer or the person reading stands a better chance to realize when to change headings according to the level of importance in each section. Heading levels also help in general presentation of work by ensuring proper organization of ideas for easier identification of the required information.

What is a DOI?

DOI as an initial stands for the digital object identifier. It is used to explain a number required to provide a link between the journals or the paper drafted to the location of a similar online document (Myers, 2021). Therefore, DOI is used to uphold the global academic and scholarly articles quality and standard. The use of the identifier in question helps to identify the written information and connects one to the actual required area through the internet. The use of this digital identifier also allows one to have a precise and fast access of the article required. DOI carries the information such as the publication period and in other instances the volume of the material for easier identification.

Browsing the Jerry Falwell Library

In my visit to the library, I found significant posts on the topics that touch on my field of study. From the site, there are excess of printed materials alongside electronic books that are easily accessible when researching various subjects (Myers, 2021). The platform helped me to locate particular chapters required in multiple books. One can get accessible links and guidelines from the site to other sources that can help comprehend my field of study.

Locating Scholarly Articles

Among many available options to assist in locating scholarly materials is to surf through the ILLIAD. This is an important system that allows the person browsing to make an application for an article by using interlibrary lending. Another helpful option is to search for the commonly known Google Scholar and use the available advanced options to access reliable outcomes (Myers, 2021). In this case, the results available include a well-listed citation style arranged according to their significance levels. In addition, browsing using the Directory of Open Access Journal or DOAJ would be another reliable third option (Myers, 2021). The use of this website helps one to get access to both scientific and academic journals published in different languages. The materials are all available for printing and download at no extra cost from the user’s side.

Different Types of Citation

From the publication manual, pages 169-192 of chapter 6 provide information relating to various citation styles. In addition, the section also gives clear, well-written areas about available sources (Myers, 2021). In this regard, in-text citation uses the author’s last name, followed by the publication period, which is usually written in parentheses. For instance, in the publication manual for writing standards of scientific journals and articles, we have:

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

An example from Liberty University on Psychology 255Crawford, R. (2016, 2017). Introduction to research: less fright, more insight. Dubuque, Iowa. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

An Example of a Manuscript that is UnpublishedHardy, T. (1868-69). The poor man and the lady. Unpublished manuscript.

Below is an Example of an Edited Book: Horowitz, A. (2015). Alex Rider: Storm-breaker, Paris: Larousse-Harraps.

An example of a Scholarly Journal Relating to After-stroke Rehabilitation: Kerr, A. L., Curtis, M. T., Dominguez, M., & Viola, V. (2018). Post-stroke exercise is as effective as skilled rehabilitation: Effects in young and aged mice—Behavioral Neuroscience. Advance online publication.

Scholarly Journal Article

According to the APA format, providing the right DOI of an article is essential whenever it is available. The structure of journal article references is as follows: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume (number), pages–pages.

  • Example: Langel, S. N., Wang, Q., Vlasova, A. N., & Saif, L. J. (2020). Host factors affecting a generation of immunity against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in pregnant and lactating swine and passive protection of neonates. Pathogens, 9(2), 130.

Online Magazine Article

Structure: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Date). Title of the article. Newspaper/Magazine Title. URL.

Example: Tuchman, P. (2017). How do you sell a work of art built into the earth? The New York Times.

Blog Post

Structure: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Date). Blogpost title. Publisher. URL.

Example: Cush, A. (2016). You’ll never guess who’s angry about CNN “deceptively” editing a video of Sylville Smith’s sister. Gawker.

Chapter in an Edited Material

Structure: Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. In Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. #–#). Publisher.

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. In Editor’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name et al. (Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. #–#). Publisher.

Example: Wiener, P. (2013). Gender issues across the globe. In A. A. Krugman & F. D. Kempe (Eds.), Gender identity and gender politics (pp. 134–146). Springer.

Johnson, E. T. (2014). Diabetes Mellitus. In M. A. Thompson & R. W. Gullie (Eds.), Public health (3 rd. Ed, pp. 122-144). Elsevier.

Unknown Author

When the article’s author is unknown, the work’s title is permanently moved to the beginning of references, followed by the publication period.

Structure: Book title: Subtitle. (Year). Publisher.

Example: Alluvial archaeology in Europe. (2009). Routledge.

No Author, Edited Book

Structure: Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.

Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. & Editor’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Eds.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.

Example: Palenchar, M. & Greenwald, H. (Eds.). (2009). The management of organizations: Responsibility for performance. Russell Sage Foundation.

Author with a Translator

Structure: Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Translator’s first initial. Middle initial. Last name, Trans.). Publisher.

Example: Leary, P. (2009). Metaphors in the history of psychology. (A. W. Burt & F. L. Kornberg, Trans.). University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1921).


Bradley, L., Noble, N., & Hendricks, B. (2020). The APA Publication Manual: Changes in the seventh edition. The Family Journal, 28(2), 126-130.

Myers, S. M. (2021). Unsung and Unheard: An Analysis of the History and Impact of Female American Vocal Composers.