World’s Expos are held on a regular basis. The next expo will be facilitated in the year 2020 in Dubai after the latter won the bid. Hence, Expo 2020 refers to a mega global event that will be staged in Dubai in the stated year. The event is expected to last for a period of six months. This expo is anticipated to lure millions of visitors. There are numerous points of attractions in such a major world event.
For example, thousands of participants will be given a chance to demonstrate numerous cultural events. There are also hundreds of exhibits and pavilions that will be discovered by visitors. Some of the notable participants who will take part in Expo 2020 are well established business enterprises, international organizations and various nations across the globe. As already mentioned, Expo 2020 will be held in the city of Dubai.
In order to drive the agenda for this event, the organizing team adopted the phrase “Connecting Minds, Creating the Future” as the main theme. The key tenet of this theme is based on the concepts of cooperation and partnership. The latter are largely believed to be the main driving forces that have spurred both cultural and economic growth in Dubai as a modern metropolitan.
The real estate segment is one of the markets anticipated to take part in the Expo 2020 exhibition in Dubai. It is pertinent to mention that Dubai is a fast growing urban area that will continue to experience exponential broadening in the construction sector. Before the actual dates of Expo 2020, there will be a construction boom in the real estate market in order to provide the required infrastructure.
After the expo, the real estate market will get secured formidable position in the Dubai market as well as the surrounding regions. It is crucial to underscore the fact that capital inflow will significantly increase in the wider United Arab Emirates. As a consequence, the desire and willingness to purchase or build property will obviously skyrocket.
Although real estate market will be one of the beneficiaries of Expo 2020, the hospitality industry is anticipated to secure the growth and development opportunities in Dubai. It is interesting to learn that most visitors of the Dubai Expo 2020 event will also double up as tourists.
As a matter of fact, such a world expo is regarded as a tourist attraction destination. Thousands of both local and foreign visitors will plan to visit the event. Therefore, there will be need to construct additional state-of-the-art hotels and other relevant recreational facilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The hospitality industry demands efficient services such as transport and communication. Hence, another sector of the market that will grow ahead of Expo 2020 is the logistics. Movement of both people and goods will be a vital area of operation before and during Expo 2020. The logistics market will also employ thousands of workers owing to the new opportunities.
When employment opportunities are created in this type of market, business enterprises that operate under the sector are also bound to experience a major boom. In the long run, the logistics market will remain vibrant.
The latter market is also likely to attract potential investors in the region owing to the profitability of the sector. This will be a major boost in the tourism sector bearing in mind that Dubai is already one of the most attractive destinations across the world.
Amway – Developing Competitive Marketing Strategies Case Study essay help site:edu
How Amway is creating customer value and value for the organization through sustainable customer relationships
The world of business has become highly competitive over the years. This has put pressure on companies to do the best they can to maintain their competitiveness. The world of business has been changing rapidly as customer tastes and preferences and technological changes keep on changing, forcing business organizations to adjust their way of doing things (Halme et al. 103).
There are many organizations in the market, all striving to get a big share of the market. It should be noted that the larger the consumer base, the higher the chances of an organization being competitive. It is, therefore, important for an organization to create customer value through any possible means, one of which is sustainable customer relations (Halme et al. 104).
This paper examines Amway’s creation of customer value for the benefit of the customers and the organization itself. It also looks at how Amway is serving the consumer market, as well as its global market to some extent. Finally, the paper examines the marketing strategies of Amway.
Amway, an organization whose line of operations is nutrition, health, as well as beauty and home products, is a company that has been keen to establish business strategies that will help it maintain its market position. It has been offering products that will satisfy the customers with the aim of retaining them and attracting more customers. It is imperative to note that customers are the lifeline of an organization.
In other words, a business organization will only succeed if it has a good flow of customers. This is reflected directly in the sales and profitability. An organization will only gain a competitive advantage if it is able to offer products that are either satisfactory to the consumers or beyond customer expectations (Kotler and Keller n.p.).
Amway develops products based on what customers need for it to maintain good customer relations. The company takes into consideration consumer preferences and requirements through feedback channels and incorporates the same in the products.
Once the company gets the feedback from customers, it can be able to know what needs to be added to the products or the changes that need to be incorporated. This is referred to as customer engagement. In doing this, the organization listens to the customers and responds to their needs accordingly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Customer engagement is a means through which an organization measures customer satisfaction and determines customer expectations at the same time. When customers are engaged in organizational decision making in whatever way, they feel appreciated and part of the organization. Their loyalty increases, giving the company a competitive edge.
This not only creates value to the customers, but it also creates value to the organization. It creates value as the company listens to the customers and offers them what they need, thereby satisfying their needs. On the other hand, involving customers in decision making through seeking their feedback creates value to the organization because customer satisfaction gives the organization a competitive edge.
Amway also produces goods that are safe and healthy for human use. It is a company that deals with products that are highly sensitive, which could cause health problems to consumers if not checked carefully. This could tarnish the image of the company and affect its relationship with customers. The company has Research and Development (R
Limousine Service Company Coursework essay help free: essay help free
This is a performance management framework of a Limousine service company which has just been started in Austin, TX. The company’s workforce comprises of 25 employees who are expected to steer it in achieving the targeted scales in the market. The company expects a 5% revenue growth for a couple of years to come.
An annual employee turnover rate of 10% is also another significant target which the company expects to achieve in the near future. Our business strategy alone will not enable us reach our targets, and therefore, there is need for more action to be applied through performance management.
The company will have to incorporate a few management approaches that are essential for business success in its operations. Following is an overview of some of the key approaches that are appropriate for the business and a summary of how each of them will be developed to give the desired results.
Performance Management Framework This refers to a set of business practices that would tend to play a key role in helping organizations achieve their business goals in the market. These practices are crucial for business success, since they help to improve the management strategies applied by business organizations, thus enabling them to execute their roles better and more effectively (Ferreira
Indian Culture: Dance Research Paper college admissions essay help
India is a country with a diverse culture. India “is characterized by multiple religions such as Jainism, Sikhism, Bahai Faith, and Buddhism” (“Indian Culture” par. 6). The people of India use over 400 languages. The women of the country wear colorful saris. Indian men wear clothes known as kurtas. Men also wear sherwani whenever they have special occasions.
This is a long coat buttoned from the collar to the knees. India has “several customs and traditional practices” (“Indian Culture” par. 3). Diwali is one of the major festivals in the country. India has become a famous nation because of its elegant architectural designs. The Taj Mahal is a good example of the country’s architecture.
According to Narayan (29), “India is a nation with a rich tradition of both non-classical and classical dance”. Group dancing is a common practice in the country. Some of the common traditional dances include Kachupudi, Kathakali, Kathak, Bharatanatym, and Mohiniyattam.
Natya (also called acting) is a common concept in this nation. The concept “encompasses both dance and drama” (Narayan 30). Group dancing is “a unique aspect of the country’s culture” (“Rajasthan Dances” par. 3). The above group dances always attract millions of tourists from different parts of the world.
Rajasthan is one of the most populous states in India. The state has over 30 administrative districts. This Indian state produces some of the best folk dances. These folk dances are significant because they support the people’s traditions, practices, and customs. This single fact explains why such dances are spectacular.
Most of the “individuals engaged in these dances follow their religious values and traditions” (“Rajasthan Dances” par. 5). This practice makes these dances admirable and beautiful.
The dancers and spectators wear colorful attires. The practice makes these dances meaningful to many people from different parts of the world. The performers use daring movements and expressions in order to make their dances more beautiful (Narayan 87).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The “first group dance embraced by the people of Rajasthan is Kalbelia” (Sinha 29). The people of Kalbelia are snake charmers. Kalbelia dance borrows a lot from the movements of various snakes. The people of Kalbelia use black costumes in order to make the dance more enjoyable.
The “performers produce the best music from an instrument called the Been” (Kumar 49). The people also use the instrument to charm different snakes. Ghoomar dance is also common in the region. This dance is common among many Indian women. Every woman usually covers her face using a long veil.
Graceful and flexible body movements characterize Chari dance. This spectacular dance is common whenever there are celebrations. This “group dance requires a lot of patience, training, and skill” (Kumar 64). The performers place pots on their heads.
The people of Rajasthan also embrace the dance whenever a new child is born. Fire dance is another common ballet in this region (Kumar 64). The dancers usually hold fire rods in their hands. This dance requires a lot of professionalism and dedication.
Kacchi-Ghodi is another common dance in Rajasthan. The dance is common whenever there are gay ceremonies or occasions. The performers use elaborate dresses to make the music enjoyable. Another common dance is Terah Taal. The “dancers place brass discs on their foreheads, hands, and legs” (Sinha 95). Some other common dances in the region include Jhoria, Matka-bhawai, and Kathputli (“Rajasthan Dances” par. 6).
Works Cited Indian Culture 2014. Web.
Kumar, Amrita. Journeys Through Rajasthan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Indian Culture: Dance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Narayan, Shovana. The Sterling Book of Indian Classical Dances. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Rajasthan Dances 2014. Web.
Sinha, Aakriti. Let’s Know Dances of India. New Delhi: Star Publications, 2006. Print.
Indian Furniture and Finishes Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Findings And Discussion
Introduction Furniture is a commodity that every house requires. Good artisans make furniture that is appealing to the eyes and tastes of users. The quality of skill that Indian designers use in making their furniture is very appealing, and people compete for their products in the whole world. The designers make furniture from wood, metals, plastic, or cement depending on their customers’ tastes (Volpe and Spinelli par. 3).
Indian furniture comes from wood because it is locally available and easy to use. The furniture industry is worth five billion Euros, and grows by 60% annually, contributing 0.5% to the Indian GDP (Fairclough 105).
Indian artisans are famous for producing furniture that is durable and free from friction and microbes. In addition, their furniture usually has attractive hand finishes. Good finishes on furniture are essential as they enhance sanitation, stability, and beauty.
Methodology This study involved extensive reading and analysis of different sources of information. Most of the information came from both online and print scholarly journals. Pictures and notes from websites were also very important in compiling this paper.
Findings And Discussion The research indicated that Indian furniture is very durable. Most artisans use hardwood, which is heavy and strong (“Indian Natural Wood Furniture” par. 3). Its density makes the products waterproof and capable of supporting heavy weights. Therefore, it can last up to one hundred years more than plastic, MDF and metallic furniture. Artisans use traditional mortise and dovetail joints that produce strong structures.
Painting helps prevent the wood from losing and absorbing water, reducing its chances of warping. These properties, make Indian furniture the best for use in hotels, where workers move and clean the furniture daily. They do not warp or absorb water.
Indian furniture experience minimal attacks by microorganisms. The hardwood has a high density, which makes them resistant to decomposition. The Teak Tree, for example, has a natural oil content that resists microorganisms that attack wood (Gaver 144). Water is essential in this process. Dry wood is, therefore, microbe-free, as water does not easily penetrate through the hardwood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Paints prevent attack by insects, make cleaning easy, and prevent direct contact between water and timber. Besides, they keep the furniture dry and reduce the chances of decomposition. Experts treat soft trees that are not resistant to microbes with insecticides to protect them from destructive microorganism such as termites. This property makes such furniture ideal for use in hotels.
Their furniture has a relatively low coefficient of friction. They have metallic rollers with adhesive pads that provide strength and rigidity. The rollers are wide enough to prevent the furniture from boring holes in the carpet. The size of the rollers corresponds to the weight of the furniture.
Excess weight increases friction between surfaces, making the rollers fall off. Artisans usually screw the rollers on the furniture to prevent them from falling. Products that are fitted with rollers are very suitable for use in hotels because they reduce friction between the furniture and the ground. Therefore, they ease the movement of the furniture (Kashyap 171).
Conclusion Indian designers usually make their furniture from wood that is resistant to microbes and other decomposing factors. The use of hardwood also makes their products durable. Their finishing skills make the products very beautiful and water-resistant. The combination of all these properties makes these products appropriate for use in hotels since they appeal and resist shock that may result from frequent movements.
Works Cited Indian Natural Wood Furniture. n.d. Web.
Fairclough, Oliver. ”In the Richest and Most Elegant Manner: A Suite of Furniture for Clive of India.” Furniture History, (2000): 102–114. Print.
Gaver, William et al. “Electronic Furniture for the Curious Home: Assessing Ludic Designs in the Field.” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 22.1- 2 (2007): 119–152. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Indian Furniture and Finishes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kashyap, SN. “Assessment of Furniture in Old Age Homes of Uttarakhand, North India.” Journal of Human Ecology-New Delhi 34.3 (2011): 171. Print.
Volpe, Aurelio, and Mauro Spinelli. Furniture Distribution in India, (2014): n. pag. Print.
Evaluation of the Dehumidifier Market Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Executive Summary Dehumidifiers are some of the most commonly used household appliances. They are used for the purposes of reducing the levels of humidity in the air. Ideal levels of humidity range between 30 and 50 percent. At this level, the growth of microbes and other disease vectors is inhibited. The appliances are of great importance since they help the population deal with a number of health issues.
The use of the appliances has become popular over the years following the realisation of the benefits associated with them. Statistics have shown that in countries like Korea, the sales of the appliances rose from 40,000 to 1.5 million units between 2009 and 2013.
In addition, Samsung recorded a 631 percent increase in sales between May and January 2013. In light of this, it is apparent that the dehumidifier market has a significant potential for a company wishing to invest in new areas.
Introduction Companies need to regularly evaluate their markets to determine their success. A company may also seek to enter new markets in order to support growth. Such a business requires information touching on the new market in order to make an informed decision (Esslinger 2009). For example, it is important to gather information on the customer needs. Data about other businesses operating in the market should also be sought.
It is important to study the nature of the existing regulations to better understand possible barriers to entry. Companies seeking to enter new markets have to make a number of considerations prior to making any investments.
To begin with, the market must be viable and able to achieve higher returns compared to other possible opportunities. The new market should also be easy to enter. As such, the company should encounter minimum constraints as it seeks to invest capital into the new opportunity.
Before selecting the preferred opportunity, the management team must discuss and review a number proposed opportunities. The most promising venture is then selected. In most cases, the board of directors is involved in the evaluation process (Hague 2003). Usually, a project manager is then appointed to help the company further explore the market opportunity and determine its feasibility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The project manager is required to evaluate the new market. Following the assessment, the project administrator makes recommendations to the board. They may propose for the company to enter into the new market or abandon the venture.
In cases where it is recommended that the opportunity presented by the new market be exploited, the project manager needs to present to the board what actions need to be taken in order to enter into the new frontier. As such, they must come up with an action plan that is to be implemented.
Timescales need to be clearly stated in order to help the board determine the implications that the implementation will have on their business. An execution proposal is also required to guide the implementation of the project (Kelley
Evaluation of World Markets Report (Assessment) college application essay help
The current state of globalization has opened up different international markets for companies operating in different business industries. The globalisation concept enables companies to invest in foreign markets and expand their market share across the globe.
One of the clear phenomena following this development is that most of the companies investing in different international markets have to evaluate the target markets for viability. The British company looking to invest in a foreign market requires clear understanding of the potential held by various markets before making the investment.
The most feasible target market is the one with the highest chances of success in the business in both the short-term and long-term basis. The company needs to understand the trends of consumption of its products, and relate this to the business environment in the various potential markets.
The Chinese market is one of the largest producer and consumer of Bicycles. The high population in China influences the citizens to find alternative sources of transportation, and cycling is the most feasible alternative to using automobiles in the overcrowded streets. Statistics reveal that more than half the Chinese population owns a bicycle. This statistic indicates that China would be a potential target nation for the British company.
While China may present a unique opportunity for the British company, it is also apparent that there are many Chinese companies that produce electric bicycles.
Companies like the Zhejiang Jueshuai Electrical
“Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief” by John Frame Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
There are several ways to analyze John Frame’s book: Systematic Theology. One can talk about the nuts and bolts of the Christian belief system. However, a more practical approach is to provide a solution to one of the problems that crop out from reading the book.
How does man respond when confronted by the realization of God’s goodness and holiness? One of the best ways to solve this problem is to approach it from the point of view of God’s love for mankind.
It is difficult to live as a believer in a fallen world. Numerous Christian authors, evangelists, and pastors tried to exhort believers to walk in the Spirit. More often than not, the attempt ended in failure. Those who struggle to understand the need to live holy lives require a paradigm shift. In the past, Christian believer were compelled to change their behavior, and their attitudes under the threat of eternal damnation.
Based on modern understanding of human behavior it is a counterproductive approach. Frame said, “It is when we are most aware of God’s providential control over us that we are also most aware of the necessity to live responsibly before him.”1 This statement is a commentary on a Bible verse that says, it is God’s kindness that leads people to repentance.
Following the same frame of mind, it is best to pursue God and to obey his commands not because of fear but due to the realization of God’s love for people, especially those God considers as his children. The best starting point is to realize how heaven perceives human beings. In order to fully appreciate this value system Frame pointed out the relative importance of angels.
He asserted that angels learn from believers when angels observe the Church. Since the Church is considered the Body of Christ, therefore, the living members and not the building edifice, it means that the angels learn from observing the way believers behave on earth.
Frame added another layer when he went back to the creation event. Frame said that Adam and Eve were created in the image of God. It pertains not only to a particular form but also to the abilities of God. Therefore, man’s value from the perspective of heaven is greater than what most people think. Man was created and equipped to work on the earth as lord.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Frame clarifies this statement by saying that man is “a lord subordinate to God’s ultimate lordships.”2 It is interesting to note that when Adam was without sin, he was considered a king, prophet, and priest. In God’s valuation system, a human being is far more important than anything that he ever created.
It is easier to process the requirements if the believer begins from a state of positive affirmation. It is more difficult to obey if the believer begins from a state of condemnation. It is therefore interesting to find out why religious leaders are not spending more time and energy promoting something that works in accordance to human nature.
It is imperative to point out that a believer should think and act in accordance to the authority and responsibility of a child of God. Believers must acknowledge that sin is a difficult problem to solve. However, a positive framework based on value makes it easier to integrate the problem-solving mechanisms that God prepared for the redemption of mankind.
It is true that mankind continues to suffer as a consequence of sin. However, the shift in perspective makes it easier to see God’s helping hand. Frame said that the Holy Spirit is continuously at work in the lives of the believers. He also added that God leads his children through a process by which they become more intimately attached to Christ.3
It is therefore easier to accept that believers must continually live a life of repentance and faith. It is also easier to accept the assurance of salvation.4
It is also easier to participate in sanctification. Frame said that sanctification is not passive; we need to be involved in the process. At the end we partake of the divine nature.5 It is no longer a burden to help establish God’s Kingdom through the Church. It is considered a great joy to make disciples. The sacraments are no longer seen as a ste of odious tasks to perform. It is now viewed as a “means of grace.”6
Conclusion At the end believers are exhorted to live holy lives and walk in the power of the Spirit. However, believers are struggling to obey and live in accordance to God’s will. God’s positive valuation of man must be highlighted. It empowers believers to live in accordance to God’s standards. At the same time it magnifies a biblical truth, that it is God’s goodness that leads people to repentance.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief” by John Frame specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, Frame’s Systematic Theology can be summarized as God’s conscious attempt to intervene by helping human beings attain salvation, spiritual regeneration, and sanctification. For many believers it is hard to follow in the footsteps of Jesus Christ, because they begin their journey in a negative frame of mind.
Frame’s book is different because it started from a lofty perception of man based on God’s original design. Therefore, it is easier to view God’s intervention as actions that emanate from love and not from condemnation. If this mindset is propagated throughout Christendom a religious revival is not far behind.
Bibliography Frame, John. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief. NJ: P
8 MATLT Program Learning Outcomes Reflective Essay college essay help near me
The Masters of Teaching and Learning with Technology (MATLT) Program can be discussed as the great opportunity to improve the professional competence and develop skills of integrating technologies in the educational environment.
The focus on attaining the 8 MATLT Program Learning Outcomes provides a learner with a chance to improve the knowledge in the field and to respond to the modern tendencies in the sphere of education. The educational journey associated with attaining the 8 MATLT Program Learning Outcomes is rather challenging for a student as a learner and as an educator.
However, this educational journey provides an individual with a lot of benefits to grow and develop in order to use the received knowledge in future endeavors. This project provides the discussion of the stages in attaining the 8 MATLT Program Learning Outcomes with references to the redesigned activities and achieved results.
Attainment of PLO 1
The Effects of Human Activities on the Environment Essay essay help online
The climate of planet Earth has been changing rapidly within the past few decades. According to many scientists and analysts, “climate change is mainly caused by unsustainable human activities” (Pittock 42). For very many years, scholars argued that the Earth’s geological activities were responsible for climatic change. Modern studies have focused on the effects of different human activities on the environment.
Scientists have also examined how environmental degradation results in new climatic patterns. The current level of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is also associated with climate change. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases destroy the ozone layer thus resulting in new energy changes.
James Lovelock believes that “living organisms evolve by Darwinian natural selection in an environment predetermined by human activities” (Pittock 58). James goes further to “explain why evolution is not caused by our planet’s geological activity” (Oreskes 1686). Many people have ignored the issue of climate change. Such individuals believe that climate change has been an ongoing process.
This situation explains why such persons do not care about the challenges arising from climate change. The science community is trying to convince more people about the reality of climate change. The science community also focuses on different activities than can destroy the environment.
Climate change has become a major challenge because humans have destroyed their natural environments. Human beings “have always cleared forests for urban development, resources, agriculture, and timber” (Oreskes 1686). Many people do not see the dangers of climate change. Such “individuals believe that animals, birds, and plants will adapt well to these changes” (Pittock 86).
However, the science community continues to explain how global warming continues to affect different ecosystems and natural habitats. Scientists have also explained why more animal and plant species might become extinct within the next forty years.
Human beings have also been using coal as an important source of energy. The practice has increased the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Scientific studies have explained how carbon dioxide increases global temperatures. Increased global temperatures can cause tsunamis and typhoons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human activities also affect weather patterns. Such patterns determine the amount of rainfall received in various regions across the globe (Pittock 72). These changes explain why global warming is a major problem. The current rate of climate change is a major challenge because it will affect the fate of humankind.
Scientists are using different technological devices and satellites in order to gather more evidence and data. The collected information has made it easier for the science community to understand how our climate is changing at a very fast rate. The science community has presented several facts to support their arguments. The first fact “is the rising global sea level” (Pittock 64).
Global temperatures have also increased within the past 30 years. The Antarctic and Antarctica ice sheets have also reduced within the last 20 years (Pittock 94). Our planet has also recorded several extreme events such high temperatures, typhoons, and intense rainfalls. The acidity of different seawaters has increased by over 25 percent.
The issue of climate change has encountered various skeptic arguments. Many skeptics “have argued that global climate has always changed in the past” (Oreskes 1686). Such individuals have also explained why humans are not able to cause climate change.
However, the science community has presented the best arguments in order to explain how climate change occurs. Such arguments encourage human beings to conserve the environment. This practice will support the needs of every future generation.
Works Cited Oreskes, Naomi. “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change.” Essay: Beyond the Ivory Tower 306.1 (2005): 1686. Print.
Pittock, Barrie. Climate Change: The Science, Impacts and Solutions. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. Print.
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Turkey, Media and Human Rights Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction The study focuses on the freedom of the press in Turkey. Turkey is supposed to be one of the more liberal Muslim countries but events of the past few months on media crackdown do not reflect that.
Some of the issues this study explores relate to how the government recently shut down social media sites, namely Twitter and YouTube before the elections. The research also covers media censorship and highlights any laws related to the freedom of the press in Turkey.
Today, the media industry in Turkey faces challenges related to press freedom, including indirect or direct government censorship, imprisonment of journalists, and laws that would allow prosecutions of journalists that criticize the governments.
According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Turkey has the highest number of imprisoned journalists in the world (more than China and Iran). At the same time, a judicial package was adopted in 2012, which addressed these challenges but they were not strong enough to allow and protect full press freedom.
Evidence from available studies indicates that Turkey’s press freedom has been deteriorating over the years and has dropped in the ranking of organizations such as Reporters Without Borders by fifty places.
Other organizations such as Freedom House have categorized Turkey as partly free and the 2012 European Commission Progress Report for Turkey (EU membership annual report) categorized press freedom as one of their main concerns. In addition, research shows that 68 percent of the imprisoned journalist’s cases were related to the Kurdish Issue.
Many of the journalists were charged under laws that were unrelated to media and the press like anti-terror laws and organized crime laws. There are also issues of court-ordered suspension of online sites and conflicts of interest due to media ownership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Possible Cause of the Increased Media Crackdown in Turkey In the year 2010, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Human Rights Investigation Commission issued a report on its outcomes concerning the allegation that some of the news reports by Turkish Media had violated the presumption of innocence (Çataklar). The outcomes of this Commission were devastating to the Turkish Media. For instance, it criticized the media and their reporting methods.
The Commission accused the media of striving to be the first power rather than the fourth power. This was a source of concern for the Turkish government and society. The report noted that media continuously reported “fabricated news, violation of the right to respect for private life and the infringement of the presumption of innocence” (Çataklar).
According the report, “press freedom, freedom of opinion and expression and presumption of innocence should be exercised within the articles of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Supreme Court decisions and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights”.
In this regard, the Commission summed up their concerns and suggested possible solutions to these problems. In its recommendations, the Commission claimed that it included “opinions of the media members and academics”. The content of this report could have sparked the outrageous government crackdown on the media and journalists.
Some of the Common Challenges to Journalists in Turkey According to Freedom House, Turkey’s civil liberties rating has deteriorated from three to four. This has resulted from the ongoing pretrial detention of many people, including “Kurdish activists, journalists, union leaders, students, and military officers with charges that appear to be politically motivated”. This new rating suggests that Turkey is not only dangerous to journalists alone, but also other groups of citizens too.
Many publications, including an article by The Economist have highlighted that Turkey remains the most dangerous country for journalists (A dangerous place to be a journalist 1) because many journalists facing charges have covered news that the government considers sensitive and dangerous to national security.
For example, some journalists have covered issues related to police complicity in the murder of Hrant Dink, a journalist and the influence of the Gulenists within the security forces (A dangerous place to be a journalist).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Turkey, Media and Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most important point one should consider is the impact of detention of journalists on journalism, press freedom and free speech and expression. This is a step backward in the gains made in the media freedom and human rights. Turkish media are under pressure to be subservient and deferential to interests of the government yet no media should play such a role.
Thus, the case of Turkish media highlights vulnerability of journalists. In any society, journalists have the right to gather information and deliver the same to the public. These are core roles and principles, which guide journalism and its integrity as a profession.
Many organizations and the US have expressed their concerns about the state of media freedom in Turkey. In addition, Turks have also protested against the government’s actions. At the same time, several reports by various organizations with different mandates have documented the state of media freedom in Turkey.
They have noted that the major challenges relate to “government interference in media affairs, the structure of the media sector, firing or harassment of columnists, growing practice of self-censorship, and prosecution, detention and imprisonment of journalists over criminal and terrorism-related charges” (Onur). In addition, there are some other issues related to hate speech and the use of defamatory terms.
One major obstacle that many journalists and the media industry encounter in Turkey is the escalating cases related to “the government’s interference in media-related affairs”. In most cases, the Prime Minister and the ruling party, Justice and Development Party (AKP) have lashed out at different” journalists, columnists and newspapers because of their decisive position on critical affairs in the country”.
The Turkish government has used different but direct techniques to restrict media freedom in the country. For instance, the government has publicly criticized and condemned journalists and columnists. They have asked the public to boycott newspapers and only buy them from pro-government media houses.
In some instances, the government has forced many senior editors to eliminate some investigative pieces from their dailies or Web sites and exert pressure on media owners to dismiss some news commentators or columnists (Onur).
The Turkish government has claimed that negative media coverage of the government could have unprecedented, unwanted consequences for the economy because such news portrays the government in a negative manner and destroys the image of the ruling party.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey, Media and Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Self-censorship
Various actions of the government have forced journalists and columnists into a state of self-censorship. At the same time, journalists also face direct pressure from the government. Therefore, one may notice that many prominent columnists and journalists in Turkey were fired or had their contracts terminated. Most journalists affected were mainly fierce critics of the government.
The government has also resorted to filing libel lawsuits against some of the journalists. Yeni Akit is a pro-government newspaper. However, recent coverage of significant events by the media has led to serious concerns in the country and globally.
For instance, the daily has accused other parties of financing terrorists while it has increasingly published hate speech and targeted “Jews, Christians, Greeks, Armenians, Kurds, Alevis, the LGBT community and the government’s critics” (Onur).
The current state of the media market in Turkey has “encouraged the government interference in the industry”. The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV) has noted that more than “80 percent of the market is under the control of two pro-government media houses”. Onur claims that the inadequacy of the legal framework and regulations to support media cross-merger has hindered transparency in the industry.
In addition, the law restricts participation in tender processes and diversified investments. Consequently, the media industry has become highly polarized and structured. In this context, media owners have sacrificed public interests of receiving news because of business interests as they assist “the government in strengthening political power and fighting critics”. Therefore, the Turkish media cannot act as a watchdog for the public.
Prosecution, Imprisonment and Human Rights of Journalists
Perhaps the most outrageous aspects of the government’s attempts to restrict press freedom in Turkey are by arresting, detaining and prosecuting journalists (Franklin). Many reports have noted that Turkey remains the most dangerous country for journalists. Currently, more than 100 journalists have been arrested and detained.
A significant number of these journalists face charges related to being a part of terrorist groups, using propaganda to support terrorism or directly offering supports to terrorists (Bilefsky and Arsu). Many journalists have faced charges under specific, similar offenses. For instance, most cases relate to the infamous Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK) Case and the Ergenekon Case (Onur).
The government has been able to exploit legal loopholes to carry out mass prosecution of journalists. The Anti-Terror Law and the Turkish Criminal Code have provided such opportunities. In addition, several other journalists face trials for different offenses.
A report by the Organization for Security
The Concept of Leadership Research Paper college essay help near me
Literature Review What is Leadership?
The concept of leadership can be explained as an individual’s ability to successfully integrate the skills and capabilities of employees within a team or company into a cooperative whole that can work together.
Such a process helps to continue and improve the current operational framework of a company (Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman
Caribana Parade Project of the Toronto Sun Proposal essay help: essay help
Introduction Despite the fact that project management is an art and a science, the backbone of a successful project lies in application of soft skills in deliverable variables. These variables authenticate project leadership and management science, risk assessment, and analysis which are basically the soft skills in project management.
Project Management is done to prepare, synchronize, and manage the multifarious activities of business projects. Project management is normally compared to the three balls that are juggled by the circus performers. By developing Project management, it is possible to visualize the future risks and hurdles in the implementation of any project in order to take suitable remedial measures.
Risks and opportunities are inversely proportional to each other. When there is any risk, some opportunities might be there and similarly, in opportunities there are bound to be risks. However, if the anticipated gains are more than the losses, then the risks are acceptable.
Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly present a protagonist approach in the notion that projects are more about the soft skills rather than the technical skills. Specifically, the treatise expounds on the management of the Caribana Parade project of the Toronto Sun through the project task, deliverables, risks, critical path, and quality management plan.
Project Charter and Plan Objectives of the project
The primary objective of this project proposal is to systematize involvement of Toronto Sun at the event christened Caribana Parade Festival.
The objective is to be met through deployment and critical design of a float parade (consisting of float pieces, a truck, and design), conscription and micromanagement of several volunteers, procurement of entertainment besides giveaway materials within a timeframe of 57 days, and proactive control of the tasks during the parade day on August 2, 2008 as from 10.00 am.
The giveaway materials will consist of t-shirts, necklaces, volunteer kit, snacks, sunscreen, water bottles, whistles, and candies. Besides, the team will have to procure advertising banners and decorators for the company float.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance of the project
The Caribana Parade project will indicate the dominance and activities of the Toronto Sun as a strategic partner and sponsor of the annual event in Toronto.
Thus, successfully carting the float of the Toronto Sun during the annual Caribana parade, which is the biggest and most attended annual event in the city, will give the company a competitive advantage through extra marketing exposure. Besides, the success of the Toronto Sun during the event will contribute to sustainability and increased return on investment as a result of the marketing exposure.
Critical issues facing Morrison
Cost constraint: Relatively low budget of only $400 in cash besides offers of contra advertisements.
Time constraint: Morrison has only 40 days to complete the project, before August 2, 2008.
Scope constraint: There are series of milestones and multiple deliverables. The ability to realize these deliverables and milestones is solely dependent on stakeholders’ availability and corporation.
Stakeholders and their interests in the project
Stakeholders External/Internal Larissa Presso Internal Samantha Morrison Internal Promotions and public relations department Internal Volunteers External Driver External Schedule and resource requirements
Project management includes planning, making the required arrangements, selecting the right staff, providing instructions, keeping a tap on the progress, executing remedial measures, being innovative, and finally coordinating with the customers. All project management applications have fixed guidelines that plan and then execute. A project can never be successful if there is no team work.
We will write a custom Proposal on Caribana Parade Project of the Toronto Sun specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The top management should leave their egos and work as a team (Muller
Management at Stamford Hospital Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Stamford Hospital is one of the leading hospitals in healthcare provision in Stamford and across Connecticut. The hospital is a nonprofit organization and it has been in the business for more than 100 years. Stamford Hospital is said to have created about 2300 job opportunities for health care providers (Stamford Hospital, 2014). Its vision is to offer quality health care services to its patients.
The hospital uses new technology in its operations and it is one of the Planetree Alliance member hospitals. The Planetree Alliance members are obliged to provide patient-centered services, and this assertion means that all members must focus on maximizing their patients’ satisfaction. The hospital provides medical services in areas such as cancer treatment, cardiac services, orthopedics, and general health (Stamford Hospital, 2014).
Stamford Hospital is a partner of the New York-Presbyterian Healthcare System and a key training partner of the Columbia University, which offers medical courses. The hospital has an employee development program that mainly focuses on equipping workers with the right skills to achieve its corporate goals (Stamford Hospital, 2014).
The hospital recorded its first positive profit margin in 2004 and since then it has posted promising results on its financial accounts. The hospital’s success in the past few years has been attributed to good management. This paper will analyze the company’s management, assess the gaps in the management, and provide some recommendations for future improvement.
Employees’ career development opportunities For managers and other personnel to accomplish their duties and achieve a corporation’s goals, an education program is necessary to equip them with skills to handle new challenges that come up in the course of executing their duties (Frampton
Public and Private Partnerships in Intelligence Analytical Essay custom essay help
There has been a growing concern on the role of private and pubic partnerships in intelligence issues in the United States.
Evidence from research studies indicates that the Intelligence Community is rapidly diverting its focus towards the incredible input of partnership between the public and private sectors in dealing with intelligence matters.
In other words, such a partnership is capable of eliminating challenges such as poor coordination and management of intelligence information within the Intelligence Community.
Even though the partnership can aid the community in addressing emerging weaknesses, how well has the private sector been represented in key issues regarding the aspect of intelligence contracting? Can the entire Intelligence Community acknowledge the momentous role played by the public and private sector partnerships?
These are some of the concerns that should be addressed by key players in the community in order to realize the anticipated benefits.
After careful review of literature, Hansen (2014, 58) confirms that the intensity of public and private partnership in intelligence affairs is below par owing to poor understanding of the underlying issues and lack of adequate research on the importance of the partnership.
Needless to say, main actors in the Intelligence Community should go through a simple education program on the importance of public and private partnerships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, we may not ignore the aspects of capacity building and training of employees working within the Intelligence Community. Some critics of the Intelligence Community argue that such a partnership is a waste of time. Worse still, it is financially demanding.
Hansen (2014, 59) observers that “the practice of intelligence contracting has grown in an inefficient manner as has the post-9/11 capability surge of the intelligence community in general”. From this assertion, it is evident that there are numerous benefits associated with public and private partnerships.
For instance, operations of the whole Intelligence Community require the input of both the public and private sectors so that adequate data for analysis may be obtained from the community level.
Despite the few drawbacks, research studies elaborate that numerous benefits have already been gained because of the support offered by the partnership towards the operations of the Intelligence Community. Hence, the public sector has been supporting the community through contractors.
It is also apparent that the Intelligence Community will be motivated to concentrate on intelligence matters owing to the watchdog role played by the private sector (Trim 2001, 51). In addition, allowing the participation of the private sector in intelligence matters may assist in minimizing cost overruns and wastage of other vital resources.
As a matter of fact, poor public contractors have been contributing towards such losses for a long time. Contracting under the public and private sector partnerships will indeed assist in incorporating intelligence professionals who have been locked out of the service for several decades (Hansen 2014, 61).
The partnership will also reduce the challenges posed by inadequate human personnel (Trim 2001, 52).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Public and Private Partnerships in Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the public and private partnerships may encounter numerous flaws in the course of its execution. For instance, the risk of contracting untrustworthy and rapacious capitalists from the private sector is a reality that we may not ignore.
Such culprits do not prioritize the interests of the public when performing their roles (Hansen 2014, 65). Worse still, intelligence contracting may jeopardize national security of the United States in the absence of extreme caution.
References Hansen, Morten. 2014. “Intelligence Contracting: on the motivations, interests, and capabilities of core personnel contractors in the US Intelligence Community.” Intelligence and National Security 29, no. 1 (January): 58-81.
Trim, Peter. 2001. “Public–private partnerships in the defense industry and the extended corporate intelligence and national security model.” Strategic Change 10, no.1 (March): 49-58.
Solar Technology in Gemasolar Technology Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents How It Works
Cost of the project
Advantages of the Gemasolar Technology
The world today requires energy for quite a number of things. Without energy the world will come to a standstill. For many years, the demand for power has been fulfilled through the use of fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal and products derived from oil.
Kulichenko and Jens claim that there was need to find new sources of energy after a while because of; high cost of traditional sources, difficulty of guaranteeing supply of traditional sources, global economic growth that has brought about a growing demand for more energy and increased global warming (52).
Solar power is inexhaustible, plentiful and clean energy. Solar technology is used to convert solar radiation to other forms of useful power. Solar thermal power plants are mainly located in extremely dry and uncultivated areas not used for agricultural activities.
Such areas provide the ideal or appropriate conditions for solar energy radiation absorption.
This report is about the Gemasolar energy plant located in Fuentes de Andalucía in Seville province of Spain. Gemasolar energy plant is a concentrated solar power plant which uses a central receiver technology with molten heat storage system.
The plant started working mid 2011.Technical feasibility of Central receiver technology was first proved during the 1980s by operation of six research power plants ranging from one to five MWe capacities and by one to ten MWe. A demonstration plant with a steam receiver was connected to the southern California grid.
The Spain Central tower receiver power plant was the pioneer commercial scale power plant globally that used this kind of technology. (Jayasimha 10) Without a doubt, solar power towers are to be the backbone of the entire power generation scheme.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The plant has the ability to take in sun rays and provide energy at night and also during cloudy days (Rirdan 102). Central receiver towers are large scale power plants.It is made up of two axis tracking mirrors or heliostats which reflect solar radiation at the very top of the tower where the receiver is placed.
The main goal of the Gemasolar project is to demonstrate the technical and economical viability of molten salt solar thermal power technologies to deliver clean cost competitive bulk electricity (Negewo 93). The plant is owned by Torresol energy investments.
Originally it was known as Solar Tres before the name was changed to Gemasolar. Torresol energy investment is owned 40% by Masdar, a company based in Abu Dhabi. 60% is owned by Sener from Spain (Hanna 45).
The Gemasolar power plant is made up of 185 hectares of solar field. The high tower receiver is 140 meters high. It also has 2,650 heliostats each having 120 square meters “distributed in concentric rings around the tower” (Negewo 92). Sodium and potassium nitrates make up the molten salt which is usually stored in tanks made of steel.
The biggest tank at the plant has a diameter of 23 meters and a height of 14 meters. The molten salt is used as heat transfer fluid and energy storage medium.
It is easy to manage the solar power due to the storage capacity of the steel tanks. It is supplied on demand. Connected to the tower at ground level are the hot and cold storage tanks. The tanks can store salts which provide energy for up to 15 hours without the sun.
Molten salts in the cold tanks are stored at 290°c and 565°c in the hot storage tank (“Cleantechchnica”:Spain Gemasolar). The implementation of the molten salt heat storage system allows creation and appearing of electricity when there is any solar radiation.
We will write a custom Report on Solar Technology in Gemasolar Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How It Works Solar radiation first falls on mirrors known as heliostats. It is then reflected on to the receiver situated at the top of a supporting tower. Solar radiation is concentrated by the heliostats at 1000:1 ratio. This is controlled by a network of communication with 26 fiber optic rings present in it.
The orientation of the heliostats is automatically turned towards the sun by geared motors so that they reflect beam radiation on the receiver all day. A fluid flowing through the receiver absorbs the concentrated radiation and transports the heat to the ground level where it is used to operate a thermodynamic cycle.
“The receiver is capable of absorbing 95% of the radiation transmitted to the molten salts in the central receiver” (You tube: The World’s first Base load).
Cold salt is pumped up to the top of the tower at the central receiver where it is heated up. The liquid salt is brought back to the hot storage tanks being kept there at the temperature of 565°c. After leaving the storage tank, the heated salt is moved to the heat exchanger chamber via steam pipes and steam is formed as a result of condensation.
By means of this steam the turbines are turned; they generate electricity. According to Rirdan, any extra heat generated is kept in the molten storage tank and is used to produce electricity when the sun’s heat and radiation is absent.
Power generated is transferred to a substation located in Villanueva Del Rey, Andalucía, and further transmitted to the National grid system (102).
Cost of the project Estimated cost of project was €171 million. It was financed by several financial institutions including European Investment Bank, Banco popular and Banesto ICO. Engineering, procurement and construction were done by Sense Company. This was inclusive of the development of a molten salt receiver and the manufacturing of heliostats.
A company called SGS was tasked with provision of assistance in the civil works for example construction progress audit, power limit substantiation, commissioning and initial operation of the power plant. Outukumpu was charged with the task of constructing hot and cold storage tanks.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solar Technology in Gemasolar Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Nord block gear motors were manufactured by Nord drive systems. Working together, Schneider electronics and Hirscham electronics were the companies that built the communication network. It took 29 months to construct the power plant.
Energy output Electric power is up to 19.9 MW. Net electric production expected per year is 110Ghw.The electricity generated of approximately 110 MWe per year is the highest electrical generation in the world for solar plants.
Advantages of the Gemasolar Technology These are the reasons why the Central receiver tower technology is preferred to other renewable energy production methods. It has a prolonged operating time without solar radiation. This means that it can work through the night or on cloudy days using energy from the stored heated salt.
Energy output from this power plant is higher than that of other technologies in a facility with the same power. It has guaranteed electrical production for 6500 hours per year which is approximately two to three times higher than that of renewable energies. It is more scalable to any application both large and small thus it has significance to utilities.
It is more consistent energy supply with centralized and dispatch able generation model (Negewo 101). Its potential in MENA significantly exceeds any foreseeable regional demand even when quite onerous site conditions are required. It has significant potential for future development thereby reducing cost.
It works well with current large scale desalination technologies (Negewo 101).Other benefits of the central receiver power plant include: It provides clean and safe power to approximately 25,000 homes. There is less carbon dioxide emission by more than 30,000 tonnes a year (Enviromission Solar Tower 13).
In addition, the turbines do not have to be shut down quite often and hence the plant has a longer lifespan. The plants electrical generation can also be controlled to suit the demand for electricity.
Breaks or leakages are greatly reduced since there are no tubes or heat exchange fluids that spread out across the solar field and hence leads to low operational and maintenance costs (Rapier).
Conclusion Solar is improving its cost and performance by 20 % each year and is expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future (Seba 17).Concentrating solar thermal electricity is rapidly expanding in Spain and globally. In the USA, a first generation solar power thermal station of 354 MWe has been operating for more than 20 years.
As of mid 2011 about, 1100MWe of CST was installed globally. In principle, given sufficient land, 24 hours storage is feasible and solar thermal power can be operated either as base load, intermediate load or peak load depending on amount of storage installed and electricity prices.
Works Cited Enviromission Solar Tower. Web.
Hanna, Nick. The Green Investing Handbook: .A Guide to Profiting from the Sustainability Revolution. London, UK. Harriman house limited, 2010. Print.
Jayasimha, Balakrishna. 2006. Application of Scheffler Reflectors for process industry: International Solar Cooker Conference, Granada, Spain. Web.
Kulichenko, Natalia, and Wirth Jens. Concentrating Solar Power in Developing Countries. Washington, DC., World Bank, 2012. Print.
Negewo, Bekele. Renewable Energy Desalination: An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap. New York. World Bank publications, 2012. Print.
Rapier, Robert. Power Plays: Energy Options in the Age of Peak Oil. New York. Apress, 2012. Print.
Rirdan, Daniel. The Blue Print: Averting Global Collapse.Louisville. Corinno Press, 2012. Print.
Seba, Tony. Solar Trillions: 7 Market and Investment Opportunities in the Emerging Clean-Energy Economies. Madrid. IMF Publications, 2010. Print.
Spain’s Gemasolar 24/7 Power Plant (VIDEO) 2011. Web.
The World’s First Baseload (24/7) Solar Power Plant. Web.
Leadership is Action and Not Position Case Study college admission essay help
Summary of the pertinent facts of the case From the case study provided, it is evident that an individual can be given executive duties depending on his/her actions but not managerial position. For instance, Charles Turner was doubtful about the position he was given since he was not sure whether he could perform the tasks that characterized his new job.
He was given a huge responsibility of improving the sales of the organization; nonetheless, he had not established the certainty of the market. Normally, it is arguable that leadership is not a subject of an individual’s position but rather his actions in the duties he/she has been given.
In addition, it is all about how an individual treats other people, works hard towards achieving his goals, as well as doing the right things. This is a crucial provision in the context of leadership and execution of critical organizational duties.
Leadership also concerns how an individual is able to take institutional responsibilities. Charles needed to work with some other senior people like Ferris, who had worked in his position before, to ensure that he could perform his duties as stipulated by the rules and regulations of their organization.
Additionally, he was able to give Charles some new ideas through making some excellent reports which enlightened him (Charles). After the orientation, he was able to fill the vacant managerial positions in different regions with ease. Consequently, this showed that he was a good leader by actions and not position.
This is because he was ready to learn from others and respected the fact that not every individual is perfect.
Regardless of his position, Charles could consult Ferris whenever he had any problem. On the other hand, Ferris was also able to understand that consultation was the only way out for an individual to find solutions to his or her problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, Ferris was able to realize that egotism and voracity, which could result into distrust within the organization or even failure of the company in this context. That is the reason why he was ready to help Charles whenever he needed some assistance.
After the introduction of the new plant, the two principals were able to work together towards improving the sales of the product. Moreover, they were able to employ some working staff who assisted in achieving the targeted goals.
Conclusively, the two principals were able to prove to the public that leadership is not the position an individual holds but rather his actions within his position. Philosophically, the term “pragmatic leadership” draws its basic definition from the kind or nature of the roles that the specific person undertakes/spearheads.
This is relevant in the provided case despite the challenges. Generally, a pragmatic leader may be termed as an individual charged with the obligation of planning, organizing as well motivating and controlling his/her subjects for a common goal.
Most pragmatic leaders usually assume superior roles within distinct teams and have the authority to exercise certain definite powers. Within corporate settings, the leaders have the obligation to enhance the apprehension of the basic leadership process.
In undertaking such roles, corporate leaders formulate plans and decisions. Apart from these, these leaders bear the obligation of supervising, controlling and organizing various factors within the corporate organization. Some of these factors may include human resource or other personnel, finances, as well as the critical information resources.
An assessment of the situation It is arguable that a true leader is not determined by the position he or she holds in an organization but what he/she can do in the given position. Despite all the challenges being faced in the current situation, leaders are not supposed to lose hope in what they want to accomplish.
We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership is Action and Not Position specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, this will clearly prove that their leadership is not based on their position but rather what they are able to do as discussed earlier. As revealed in the case provided, leaders should be aware that they are always surrounded by individuals who have more experience than them.
Therefore, he has to respect the people who are working and him. According to the situation in this context, it is evident that leadership without action is not recognized. For instance, Ferris was able to take responsibility as a manager through the reorganization (Gill 202).
Additionally, he was able to provide some assistance to his colleague Charles Turner whenever he needed. Through his actions as a manager, the organization was able to increase its sales. Besides, their organization was able to actively compete in the market with some other companies which produced similar products.
For the organization to achieve its short-term and long-term goals, it must enhance its leadership roles and motivate its workers. This is a critical recommendation to solve the current problems identified earlier.
Through credible leadership, inspiration, and exemplary performances, the workforce will be able to progress the firm via management efficiency. Organisational Behaviour (OB) studies employees in the realms of their thinking, feelings, and operations within the organization.
It is recommendable for company to enhance its leadership provisions so as to curb the mentioned problems (Alyssa 65). Motivated employees will ensure that customer needs are met with precision and promptness. Additionally, motivating workers will enhance teamwork and problem solving techniques.
Consequently, the company should only recruit professionals who are able to structure credible distribution mechanisms. Additionally, employees should be empowered. Consequently, they will achieve self-determination and motivation.
As indicated before, it is important to agree that a true leader is not determined by the position he is holding but what he is able to accomplish within the organization for prosperity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership is Action and Not Position by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In spite of all the challenges being faced by most of the organizations in the current situation, leaders are not supposed to lose hope in what they want to accomplish as mentioned earlier. This is a critical provision in the context of leadership and execution of critical organizational duties.
Assessment of possible alternative strategies and likely consequences One of the possible alternatives was to reduce the prices of the products and improve their quality. Consequently, such products would realize bountiful sales and the organization would actively compete with other companies which produces similar products as discussed earlier.
This will also ensure that Charles could sell the products and meet the required deadline. Besides, the profile of the manager in charge would also be improved. The other possible alternative was to acquire much training before fully assuming his responsibilities (Krar and Arthur 203).
To fill the managerial positions that were vacant, Turner is supposed to employ workers who are competent enough. Subsequently, they will be able to provide some vital ideas that could bring some vital changes in the organization (Gill, 12).
Providing proper training to the worker on how to handle the customers will also improve their relationship. Therefore, the company will be able to retain most of their customers. To reduce the imbalance of power, all the manager sin the department should be consulted before making some vital decisions.
Organizations tend to acknowledge the value created by their employees and leaders. Various studies show that this could be depicted by the changing trends in the production and management processes. Various studies indicate that viable changes introduce new values to the organizational employees.
The accruing values could be in the form of skills and knowledge acquired through training. Thus, in this context, training appears as an important attribute, which may adjust the employees’ attitudes accordingly. The assertions researchers suggest that training sustains organizational productivity.
It empowers the employees in terms of innovation and creativity. On the other hand, when an organization trains the employees and its leaders for various roles, it helps the business to survive in the competitive market environment.
Based on this reason, leadership and employees’ training and support can support successful wealth creation in an organization and successful completion of duties. It is clear that without appropriate leadership and workforce training, the employees may dismally perform their duties.
This source will offer supportive literature for the action research. It establishes that lack of workforce training may negatively affect the organization performance.
The choice of action and strategy Leaders are expected to be accountable by implementing the stipulated goals. Additionally, they should ensure that the organization is able to take the needs of all people into consideration by developing some vital programs and implementing them.
During the recruitment process, leaders are supposed to show their actions by employing people of different gender and race. Moreover, they should also consider those people who are disabling. Leaders are also required to share their responsibilities with different people in order to meet their requirements (Fulmer and Jared 159).
To show their actions, leaders are supposed to look for feedback from the other members and the customers. This will help them make some changes to the areas that had some weaknesses hence improving their performances and that of the organization.
Generally, leadership skills are hardly hereditary abilities. An individual who eventually becomes a great leader undergoes many learning processes. They study other leaders, try to imitate their conducts and select their role models.
Most American leaders have chosen Abraham Lincoln as their role model due to his intelligence and leadership prowess (Pace 200). Of course, great leaders can falter; however, they can improve their skills by the feedback they get from different people.
This helps them develop into great leaders since they are able to transform their behaviors to the better (Gill, 12).
Accordingly, the concerned leadership is aimed at ensuring that the project is carried out successfully. Besides, it is going to frame and include all the viable steps that will be used in the plan.
As a leader, Charles Turner was also going to provide more information and adequate procedures that will be helpful in the completion of the project. This will set a good example to team that is responsible for carrying out the project.
According to Vijay (2011), some Friga rules of engagement are going to be employed to ensure that the project is successful. The key questions that are going to be useful in driving the project will be identified.
An analysis of generalizations In this particular case, it is evident that leaders are supposed to consult with some other leaders before making vital decisions. Additionally, they are supposed to practice what is required by the rules of the organization. They are also supposed to be responsible for all the activities that are taking within the organization (Ricketts 216).
Leaders are also supposed to be ready to accept the ideas provided by other workers to make sure that they improve in their performances. At the time of recruitment, the leaders are supposed to practice maximum fairness in terms of gender and race.
Conclusively, it is vital to agree that leadership is based on what leaders are able to do and not various positions they are able to occupy in their organizations. Concurrently, in the context of organizational leadership, it is also important to establish some plans that are frequently updated to match the organizational needs.
The business plan should also contain some of the information on what the project is all about and how it is going to be carried out. Additionally, as a leader, the knowledge and skills of the people setting up the project must also be taken into consideration (Alyssa 54).
They must have some information regarding the business and its environment. As provided in the case study, this will assist them in making the right decisions that will make the project be successful. The company’s knowledge is also used to evaluate some of the factors considered important for the intended project.
Algorithm should be applied to avoid political infringement in the process of setting up the priorities. This is a critical provision in the context of leadership and execution of critical organizational duties.
Works Cited Fulmer, Robert and Jared Bleak. The Leadership Advantage: How the Best Companies Are Developing Their Talent to Pave the Way for Future Success. New York: AMACOM/American Management Association, 2008. Print.
Gill, Roger. Theory and Practice of Leadership. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2010. Print.
Alyssa, Gregory. Great leaders are born or made. 2009. Web. https://www.sitepoint.com/are-great-leaders-born-or-made/
Krar, Stephen and Arthur Gill. Exploring Advanced Manufacturing Technologies. New York, NY: Industrial Press, 2003. Print.
Pace, John. Professional development series: Books 1-4. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006. Print.
Ricketts, Cliff. Leadership: Personal Development and Career Success. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, 2011. Print.
Eco-tourism in Dubai Proposal essay help site:edu
Introduction In the past decade, Dubai has grown to be not only a commercial hub, but also an excellent tourist destination (Anheier 2012, p. 94). A key sector driving Dubai’s flourishing tourism industry is the eco-tourism sector.
Even though eco-tourism is a new industry in Dubai, the rapid tourism boom in the region threatens coastal and desert habitats (Simm 2012, p. 1).
From the ecological concerns about the growing tourism industry in Dubai, this paper proposes a research study to assess the cost of adopting eco-tourism. To have a more practical approach to this issue, this paper proposes a case study that focuses on one hotel located on the Palm Tree Island – Fairmont the palm, Dubai.
The palm tree island is an artificial island off Dubai’s coast that hosts several hotels and resorts. The 2006 palm-tree island project provides a good case study for this paper because the project ended and now hosts several high-end resorts, villas, and hotels (Page 2012).
This paper therefore proposes a research study to establish the cost of adopting eco-tourism in Fairmont the palm, hotel.
Even though Dubai’s climate is characterised by arid conditions, the World Tourism Destination ranks it among the top tourist destinations in the world. In fact, Dubai is ahead of China, Turkey, France, Hong Kong, Germany and other top tourist destinations in the world, in terms of attracting the largest tourist numbers (Stephens 2008).
Statistics, which show that about 10,000,000 tourists visit Dubai every year, support the growing relevance of Dubai as a top tourist destination. For instance in 2010 alone, Taylor (2011) estimates the number of tourists who visited Dubai to be about 9,000,000 people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support its growing tourism sector, Dubai also reported increased hotel capacity, which analysts estimated at 70% in 2011 (Kumae 2012). The growth of the general tourism industry has also led to the growth of other tourism sectors like the cruise ship industry, which grows by about 10% every year (Stephenson 2010).
In 2010, Dubai hosted close to 400,000 cruise ship passengers. Observers expect this number to grow to about 600,000 travellers by 2015 (Mohammed 2011). The growing tourism industry in Dubai has brought significant economic development in the emirate.
However, underlying this growth is a worsening ecological crisis that threatens the existence of the tourism industry in the first place (Badescu 2011).
Notably, the U.A.E has among the world’s greatest ecological footprint, considering its rapid growth and harsh climatic condition. The rapid growth of Dubai and Abu Dhabi are especially among the greatest threat to the ecological sustainability of the region (Routledge 2012).
Through the decline of environmental quality at the palm tree island, this paper seeks to understand the cost of adopting eco-tourism as a new model for sustaining eco-tourism at Fairmont the palm, Dubai. This seaside hotel is located on the palm tree island as a magnificent tourist lounge.
The challenges facing the hotel resemble many other challenges facing Dubai’s hotel industry – sustainability. Therefore, as Dubai’s tourism sector embraces eco-tourism as a sustainable model, this paper proposes to investigate the cost of embracing eco-tourism as a sustainable model for Fairmont the Palm, Dubai.
To understand the cost of adopting eco-tourism as a new model for sustaining the tourism sector at Fairmont the Palm, Dubai
To estimate the cost of regulating eco-tourism activities at Fairmont the Palm, Dubai
To evaluate the financial cost and savings of improving operations at Fairmont the Palm, Dubai to eco-tourism accreditation standards
To ascertain the cost of developing new facilities and infrastructure for eco-tourism at Fairmont the palm, Dubai
To find out the implication of adopting eco-tourism on the local community living around Fairmont the Palm, Dubai hotel
To establish the impact of adopting eco-tourism on the tourist numbers coming to visit Fairmont the Palm, Dubai
Originality of Research and Contribution to Knowledge
Albeit a fledgling industry, Dubai local authorities have expressed interest in eco-tourism as a sustainable model for development (especially in the tourism sector) (Dluzewska 2008).
We will write a custom Proposal on Eco-tourism in Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This new interest has even prompted the government to rebuild some of the damaged underwater natural resources, off Dubai’s coastline, by sinking old aeroplanes and ships to reconstruct the damaged marine life (Tomlinson 2010).
This effort to reconstruct the environment demonstrates a significant interest, not only within the government, but also within private developers (hotels) about the possible advantages of embracing eco-tourism.
With this renewed interest in eco-tourism comes the need to evaluate the potential cost implications for embracing this model of tourism (Stewart 2008).
The uniqueness of the above analysis contributes to the existing body of knowledge regarding the cost of implementing eco-tourism, plus the environmental impact of the growth of the tourism industry on the environment.
The findings of the paper therefore specifically contribute immensely to the growing body of knowledge surrounding Dubai’s eco-tourism sector. Since eco-tourism is an emerging field in Dubai, the findings of this study will be pivotal in explaining the underlying economic factors affecting the growth and sustainability of the industry.
Reviews of literature and relevant concepts Review of Literature and Relevant Concepts
The emergence of ecological concerns, amid the growth of the tourism industry in Dubai, is part of a larger global concern regarding the importance of embracing sustainable economic practices in most aspects of development (Wang 2010).
Therefore, an assessment of the cost of adopting eco-tourism in Dubai is only part of a wider global concern for the environmental impact of economic activities on the environment (Thullen 1996). Many researchers have argued that the growth of the tourism industry bears negative implications for the environment (Assaker 2011).
However, it is crucial to show that unlike other economic sectors, tourism and the environment share an interdependent relationship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Eco-tourism in Dubai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Measuring the economic costs of tourism is a two-thronged approach where the investment and profitability of the venture measure against occupancy rates and market surveys (UNEP 2012).
Knowing the appropriate co-efficiency of occupancy is a strong indicator of the success or viability of tourism investments. Investors interested in adopting eco-tourism ventures would therefore be significantly interested in achieving a break-even occupancy level so that they achieve a favourable return on investment (Baum 2012).
UNEP (2012) suggests that the gross operating result method is the best way for understanding the economic costs of embracing eco-tourism.
This method mainly works by comparing the available budget for financing the investment and the possible profitability of the investment, without considering the intangible costs associated with the project, such as, social or environmental costs.
However, eco-tourism projects cannot openly adopt this measurement model because the potential cost of embracing eco-tourism also has significant implications for the community and other stakeholders (Ruiz-Molina 2010).
Therefore, when calculating the cost of embracing eco-tourism, economists equally consider the cost and benefits of embracing eco-tourism for the local population (Jalilvand 2012).
Cost benefit analyses of tourism projects often show that very little investments in occupancy rates (like 20%) have significant benefits for the local community (UNEP 2012). Therefore, even with low occupancy levels, the income of the local population may increase significantly.
The main conceptual framework underlying the nature of the proposed study lies in sustainable development models. Many scholars agree that eco-tourism is a sustainable model for defining the relationship between the tourism industry and the environment (Yang 2008).
Environmentalists also agree that eco-tourism is the best way to uphold a sustainable relationship between tourism activities and the environment (Yang 2008).
Indeed, for many reasons, eco-tourism remains a sustainable model for the environment because it not only preserves the environment, but also creates jobs and awareness about the importance of “going green.” Through this conceptualisation, it is easier to understand how eco-tourism is a sustainable model for generating revenue and protecting the environment.
Research Design, Data Collection, and Analysis Research Design
Considering the multifaceted nature of the research topic, this paper proposes a mixed research design that uses qualitative and quantitative research methods.
A mixed research approach is crucial for the proposed study because some issues about the research require a qualitative approach, while other issues require a quantitative understanding.
For example, stakeholder interests in the growth of the tourism industry, and the protection of the environment, require a qualitative approach to understand the phenomenon.
Similarly, an understanding of the economic impact of adopting sustainable practices in the tourism industry requires a quantitative approach. It is therefore inevitable to use both techniques. The research project will be deductive.
Deductive projects follow the top-down logic where information about industry activity provides a logical solution regarding a specific phenomenon. This approach explains how industry dynamics in the adoption of eco-tourism affect Fairmont the Palm, Dubai.
Therefore, conclusions about general industry dynamics associated with the cost of adopting eco-tourism associate with Fairmont’s willingness to do the same.
This approach is appropriate for this paper because Fairmont has not embraced eco-tourism yet and therefore, it would be difficult to find enough information regarding its willingness to do so, internally. An inductive approach is therefore impossible.
However, external case studies may provide an overview of the cost of embracing eco-tourism. Therefore, a deductive approach would be most appropriate for this paper.
Considering the flexibility and convenience of online sampling techniques, the proposed study will use online surveys as the main data collection technique. Besides, the flexibility of styling of online surveys, this data collection technique is appropriate for this study because it saves time and requires minimal financial resources to conduct.
Therefore, considering this paper partly uses the qualitative research method, it will be easy to accommodate varied research questions.
Even though online questionnaires have their limitations (like limited sampling availability), the minimal resources for the study (time and finances) make online questionnaires the preferable technique for this paper (Sue 2011).
Besides the online data collection procedure, journals and books comprise the main sources for secondary data. Journals and books comprise the main sources of secondary data because they are reliable sources of information. Peer–reviewed content will be most preferable.
Context and Participants
The proposed study includes the incorporation of primary and secondary research. For purposes of primary research, professionals, who are knowledgeable about the research topic, will give their insights regarding the subject. Mainly, their contribution compares similar findings derived from secondary research.
A random selection process identifies ten respondents as the research sample. I will obtain the ten respondents through an online panel platform provided by a trusted provider, such as, Recruiting Agencies and knowledgeable expert networks.
The main advantage of this method is the potential high commitment and engagement of the respondents to the research process. Indeed, all the respondents sampled would have initially agreed to participate in similar research.
A random selection process informs this process because it will be difficult to know the respondent at a personal level. Therefore, so long as the respondents meet the criterion of selection (knowledge about the research and having worked with a reputable consultancy firm); they will be eligible for the research.
The main motivator for adopting this method is to have a highly representative sample of the respondents. There will be no preferred firms in this study because of the deductive nature of the research. A sample size of ten respondents conveniently suits this study because there is limited time to conduct the research.
Moreover, the subject of research focuses on one hotel and therefore, a few respondents sufficiently address the research topic.
Therefore, considering the fixed allocated time for data collection and the focused nature of the research topic, the study can appropriately accommodate ten respondents. The following time schedule shows how the research will occur
Preliminary Research Two weeks Contacting Research Respondents One week Data Collection Two weeks Data Analysis Three Weeks Data Presentation/compiling One week Data Analysis
The coding and member check techniques form the main data collection techniques for the proposed paper. Both techniques complement one another through a distributed function system.
The coding technique will mainly analyse secondary data by providing an interpretive tool for sorting and differentiating the huge volumes of secondary data into easily understandable data pools (Babbie 2010, p. 400). This data analysis tool eases the process of identifying different types of information through codes.
The member-check technique complements the coding technique by establishing the accuracy, transferability, and authenticity of the information sourced. In detail, the member-check technique ensures that the context and attitudes of the findings presented in the final study represent the original sources of information (Klenke 2008, p. 43).
Therefore, this data analysis technique ensures all the findings derived from the secondary pieces of information (for example) mirror the opinions and context of the authors who developed the information.
Conclusion of Proposal While many researchers have explored the ecological impact of the tourism industry on the environment, the proposed research seeks to provide a specific assessment of the cost of adopting eco-tourism in Dubai.
Location-specific attributes about the Island and the unique environmental dynamics of the region characterise the research process. Therefore, the findings of the paper provide a specific analysis of the location of the study – Dubai.
This is a limitation to the proposed study because it would be difficult to generalise the findings across other geographic regions.
However, a potential strength of this study is the unique nature of the research topic because the dynamics surrounding the research will be specific to the region.
Therefore, a high accuracy of the paper’s finding is expected. Comprehensively, the proposed research provides an accurate assessment of the cost of having sustainable tourism and hospitality industries.
References Anheier, H. (2012) Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance. London: SAGE.
Assaker, G. (2011) ‘Modeling a causality network for tourism development: an empirical analysis’. Journal of Modelling in Management. 6(3) pp. 258 – 278.
Babbie, E. (2010) The Practice of Social Research. London: Cengage Learning.
Badescu, V. (2011) Macro-Engineering Seawater in Unique Environments: Arid Lowlands and Water Bodies Rehabilitation. New York: Springer.
Baum, T. (2012) ‘Human resource management in tourism: a small island perspective’. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 6(2) pp. 124 – 132.
Dluzewska, A. (2008) ‘Direct and indirect impact of the tourism industry on drylands: the example of Southern Tunisia’. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 19(6) pp. 661 – 669.
Jalilvand, M. (2012) ‘The impact of electronic word of mouth on a tourism destination choice: Testing the theory of planned behavior (TPB)’. Internet Research. 22(5) pp. 591 – 612.
Klenke, K. (2008) Qualitative Research In The Study Of Leadership. London: Emerald Group Publishing.
Kumae, R. (2012) ‘Tourism in Dubai: The Sunrise Sector’. Middle East Journal of Business. 7(1) pp. 15 – 16.
Mohammed, K. (2011) ‘Food safety challenges and initiatives in the Dubai hospitality industry’. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. 3(5) pp. 443 – 449.
Page, K. (2012) Middle East Review. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Routledge. (2012) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play. London: Routledge.
Ruiz-Molina, M. (2010) ‘Good environmental practices for hospitality and tourism: The role of information and communication technologies’. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 21(4) pp. 464 – 476.
Simm, C. (2012) Eco-tourism in Dubai Web.
Stephens, M. (2008) ‘Dubai – a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding’. Journal of Place Management and Development. 1(1) pp. 62 – 91.
Stephenson, M. (2010) ‘Islamic hospitality in the UAE: indigenization of products and human capital’. Journal of Islamic Marketing. 1(1) pp. 9 – 24.
Stewart, D. (2008) The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. London: Taylor
Role of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Development of Sustainable Environmental Initiatives Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Role of the NGOs
Introduction The past decade has witnessed non-governmental organisations (NGOs) come up with numerous sustainable environmental initiatives. Besides, the organisations have increasingly participated in most of the United Nations’ meetings aimed at conserving environment.
Today, many directors from most of the United Nations organisations acknowledge the role that NGOs play in environment conservation.1
The questions that currently ringer in people’s mind include why the NGOs are increasingly participating in environmental conservation projects, whether their initiatives are different from those they initiated in the past, and what exactly is the role of the non-governmental organisations in environmental conservation initiatives.
Today, the role of non-governmental organisations in the development of sustainable environmental initiatives is less technical and more of advisory. This paper will evaluate the role of NGOs in the development of sustainable environmental initiatives.
Role of the NGOs One of the challenges that NGOs encounter in their daily attempts to conserve the environment is the lack of legal authority to impose their policies in the agendas discussed during environmental meetings. Nevertheless, the NGOs have significant influence in ensuring that most of the environmental initiatives are implemented.
They participate in the setting of environmental agendas informally. The non-governmental institutions use their influence to marshal people behind any agenda that they realise it would facilitate to conserve the environment.2
Once the agenda receives massive support from the public, the NGOs’ representatives inform the national and global policymakers about the agenda and call upon them to take the necessary actions. The public has limited knowledge about environmental issues that require urgent consideration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the NGOs act as the revelation for the public. They identify these issues, repackage them in a way that the public would understand them, and mobilise the public to compel the government to take actions.
Although an amorphous method of the policy-making process, the NGOs value the use of public in instilling pressure on governments to partake in sustainable environmental initiatives.3
Besides setting environmental agendas for both local and international environmental meetings, NGOs play a central role in the establishment of environmental policies. For instance, In Jamaica, NGOs played a significant role in the establishment of the country’s environmental policies.
The major problem that the NGOs face is that after helping in the establishment of environmental policies, they are not given the mandate to implement them.
They are relegated to the observer’s position, where they monitor the implementation process, which underlines the reason why many non-governmental organisations are not participating directly in environment conservation projects in Jamaica. Their roles only include sourcing the fund for the project and offering technical advice.
In most of the developing countries, the governments are leaving the role of environmental conservation to non-governmental organisations. Most of the NGOs are autonomous and do not have interests in national resources.
Therefore, the public is more likely to trust them than it can trust the government.4 In the United Arab Emirates, the government has delegated the duty of reclaiming the lost coral reefs and addressing environment pollution to non-governmental organisations.
We will write a custom Essay on Role of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Development of Sustainable Environmental Initiatives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government has given the World Wild Fund (WWF) the mandate to come up with environmental policies aimed at helping the country establish sustainable environmental projects.5 Besides, the NGO is working on capacity building in the country.
Environment conservation calls for concerted efforts from all the stakeholders. In a bid to achieve this goal, all the stakeholders ought to have experience in environmental conservation strategies.
Currently, WWF is working to make sure that every institution in the United Arab Emirates has the capacity to initiate and run programs aimed at conserving environment.
In 2009, the NGO trained 20 nationals from the country on how to conserve coral reefs thus ensuring that it has left people that are capable of running the coral reef conservation projects even when it stops operating in the country.
Capacity building is one of the crucial roles played by the NGOs in the development of sustainable environmental initiatives. Failure to equip the public with environmental conservation skills leads to the environmental initiatives not yielding any positive results.
The public continues engaging in activities that degrade the environment out of ignorance.6 Non-governmental organisations understand that, to achieve environmental conservation objectives, they need to deal with the parties that are directly involved in environmental pollution.
In most cases, the public pollute environment without knowing. Hence, NGOs educate it on how to conserve the environment as a strategy to avoid chances of the public polluting the environment unknowingly.
In most of the developing countries, the government is ever a step behind on matters of development of sustainable environment initiatives. The government is always short of moral authority that is critical in enhancing environment conservation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Development of Sustainable Environmental Initiatives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The non-governmental organisations come in to instil this moral authority. Hence, besides setting agendas for environmental conservation meetings, the NGOs also act as the ‘conscience-keeper’ by keeping the government alert at all times and making sure that it implements the established environmental policies.7
The public has limited trust in the government, which makes a majority of government representatives to run their institutions without considering the public interest.
This aspect underlines the reason why most of the international organisations like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) undertake activities that violate domestic health and environmental regulations without fear.8
Government representatives do not fight for the people’s interests at the international levels since they feel that most of the people did not approve their appointments.
The NGOs come in to close the gap between the government and the public by making sure that the government meets the public’s interest even if they feel that the public does not have faith in them.
In China, non-governmental organisations play a significant role in making sure that the government implements environmental conservation policies. China is currently one of the developed economies. The Chinese government directs most of its attention to economic development, neglecting the issue of environment conservation.9
Most of the environment conservation policies have direct effects on economic development. Some aim at reducing the rate of carbon dioxide emission, which means either doing away with some industries or changing the machines used in most of the industries. Such moves would affect the Chinese economy negatively.
This element could be the reason why the Chinese government is always reluctant to implement environmental conservation regulations. Non-governmental organisations take the initiative to ensure that the government does not abdicate its responsibility of conserving the environment.
China has environmental NGOs that seek to ensure that the central government does not shift all its priorities to economic development and abandon the environmental conservation initiatives.
United Nations’ organisations, especially those that face ‘popularity’ and financial challenges like the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) are turning to non-governmental organisations for partnerships.
Nevertheless, it is hard to ascertain if these partnerships have helped the UN organisations reinstate their previous environmental conservation programs.10
The reason why it is hard to ascertain if the partnership is helping the organisations in reviving sustainable development projects is that the move calls for inclusion of developmental and environmental issues, institutional coordination, and establishment of essential policies.
Since the environmental meeting held in Rio Brazil, non-governmental institutions have been working in partnership with international organisations to help in the establishment of sustainable development projects across the globe.11
In spite of the non-governmental organisations helping to develop sustainable environmental initiatives in collaboration with other international organisations, the partnership has numerous disadvantages.
For a long time, the NGOs have worked as ‘conscience-keepers’ making sure that the government and other institutions stick to the established environmental policies. However, the partnership with other institutions is leading to the NGOs being absorbed into the existing patterns.
Some of the NGOs are adopting the behaviour of these institutions, therefore, not being able to compel the institutions to adopt and implement environmental policies. In addition, non-governmental organisations do not have independent sources of fund.
They depend on the international organisations, individual benefactors, or charitable foundations. Consequently, the NGOs do not decide on projects to pursue autonomously.
In a majority of the developing countries, non-governmental organisations are compelled to participate in projects identified by the donors. Hence, it becomes hard for the NGOs to pursue the most critical sustainable development projects.
In Bosnia, non-governmental organisations work in collaboration with international donors to come up with sustainable environmental initiatives. However, the main concern is that the NGOs have limited influence on the projects undertaken in the country.12
The foreign donors decide on the projects to pursue. Consequently, some of the most critical sustainable development projects have remained unattended to as the foreign donors pursue those projects that are of benefit to them.
In Bosnia, people have overestimated the role of non-governmental organisations in environmental conservation. While many believe that NGOs have significant influence in the development of sustainable environmental initiatives, the situation on the ground is very different.
Even though the NGOs have the ability to rally the public behind critical sustainable development projects, foreign donors have forced them to participate in the projects they approve. In addition, a majority of the NGOs lack the requisite skills for the management of environmental conservation projects.
To run their projects, they have to depend on experts from either the government or other organisations.13 In a bid to get this support, NGOs have been forced to give in to some of the demands from the government and other institutions, therefore, not being able to pursue the sustainable environmental initiatives autonomously.
Conclusion Non-governmental organisations play significant roles in the development and implementation of sustainable environmental initiatives. In most cases, NGOs do not directly participate in the implementations of the initiatives and, where they do, they work in partnership with either the government or other private organisations.
The main roles of the NGOs in the development of sustainable environmental initiatives include capacity building, setting agendas, and conscience keeping. Non-governmental organisations educate the public on how to conserve the environment by enlightening it on the impacts of its daily activities to the environment.
Moreover, the NGOs mobilise the public to support certain environmental goals leading to the goals being included in the agendas of most of the global environmental meetings. Besides, the NGOs help to keep the government and organisations alert by reminding them about their duty to conserve the environment.
Bibliography Al Mubarak, R, The role of NGOs in tackling environmental issues, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/role-ngos-tackling-environmental-issues
Advertizing Campaign: Mountain Dew Wants Some Street Creed Research Paper custom essay help
Targeting a specific audience has never been easy for any company; involving not only a thorough analysis of what the target audience can be hooked with, but also working on the development of the brand awareness and creating a positive legend which people can relate the product in question to.
Considering the recent promotional campaign which Mountain Dew together with Pepsi Co. developed for their recent product, one will be able to draw certain conclusion concerning the efficiency of the methods which the companies have used.
Because of the lack of focus on such segments of their target audience as the adults and the people of other cultures than the Latino and the African Americans, the beverage can possibly lose its popularity among the rest of the USA population.
Considering the promotional campaign which Mountain Dew has developed, one must admit that the company has gone into great lengths to attract new clientele.
Shifting the emphasis from the beverage qualities and the legend behind Mountain Dew, which used to concern any audience disregarding their national or cultural background, the company has started stressing the style of the beverage in the context of the Latin and African American culture, which might seem a touch unnatural.
To be honest, one has to admit that the idea of touching upon the issue of national and racial minorities brought into an advertisement is actually a very interesting approach.
Addressing not only the product marketing, but also several social issues, it captures the spirit of the today American society in a bottle, showing how diverse the latter is. Therefore, one of the greatest advantages of the campaign is its value in the light of the modern political correctness issue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The campaign, however, also has its downsides, and, weirdly enough, some of these are merely the reverse side of the positive issues. To start with, the idea of focusing solely on the people of certain nationality does not seem politically correct enough.
Even though Stanford claims that “The initial ad mixes in snowboarders and a country singer to keep the brand’s mainstream hooked in” (Stanford 2012), there is a threat to lose the rest of the USA population, who will not be interested in the product any longer as soon as it is marketed as the drink created for certain national minorities.
In addition, the focus on the teen audience can result in losing the adult public, which could also contribute to the product popularity. Hence, it can be considered that, even though the promotional company which Mountain Dew and Pepsi Co. are following has its strong points, yet it is highly likely to backfire sooner or later.
Judging by the above-mentioned example, one can come to the conclusion that the design of an advertisement campaign should be more universal and appealing towards not only the target audience, but also the rest of the population. To demonstrate the efficiency of the latter technique, one should consider the strategy offered below.
For Mountain Dew to be more successful in its partnership with Pepsi Co. and appeal not only to the younger audience and the Latino and African Americans, but also to the rest of the population. For the given approach to work, it will be necessary to create the legend that will appeal to the people of any ethnicity and cultural background.
For example, the key idea can revolve around being successful and “cool,” without attributing the idea of “coolness” to any of the existing subcultures. One of the most successful advertisements which Mountain Dew has ever produced, the 2006 commercial, could point in the right direction (herdivineshadow, 2006, August 21).
Even though the commercial had a Black character as the lead, the focus of the legend was not the character’s culture, but the strength that the drink gives. Witty and fun, the commercial is a perfect example of how sensitive racial issue should be tackled.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Advertizing Campaign: Mountain Dew Wants Some Street Creed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the commercial which Mountain Dew and Pepsi Co. could go with now should develop the legend that the drink should have. For example, focusing on being fresh and full of ideas after drinking Mountain Dew, or Mountain Dew helping one to focus, should be considered first.
Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that, no matter how hard the promotional campaign and try to attract new customers, it is essential to keep the old and loyal pones in their places.
Since the recent advertisement campaign was aimed at the audience other that the people who make the bulk of Mountain Dew fans, there is a considerable threat to lose even more devoted fans for the sake of attracting new public who may possibly dislike the beverage after all.
With such companies as Pepsi Co., the risks are quite low, however, since the drink already has a very long history and can hardly lose its key admirers even with a new promotional campaign; with such drinks as Mountain Dew, which are not as well-known among the USA population, the risks are higher.
Once shifting from one type of target audience to another, the managers of the marketing department must not forget to make sure that the
Reference List Herdivineshadow (2006, August 21). Mountain Dew ad. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elBx5lbnCe0
Stanford, D. (2012). Mountain Dew wants some street cred. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.
Intelligence and Character Reflective Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Integrating Intelligence and Character
Introduction Many think that the major function of educators is to give certain amount of knowledge to young people to make them ready to complete some tasks in the society. Many people also stress that educators should help young people develop an appropriate moral system to help them fit in the contemporary society.
Nonetheless, even this approach is not a complete one as young learners also need to form a strong character to be able to employ obtained skills and principles in their lives.
Dr. Martin Luther King gave quite a comprehensive definition, “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically… Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education” (King n.p.). I believe these words should be known to all students.
Moreover, these words should become a certain slogan for all students as this can help them make the right choices.
I was not acquainted with these simple but wise words when I was in high school. However, now I understand that I followed the principles mentioned by Dr. Martin Luther King even without knowing them. More so, I would employ them many times in different situations.
It may seem that these principles are manifested when it comes to major life decisions, e.g. choosing a higher educational establishment, going to another country or starting a career.
Nevertheless, now I know that following these principles in one’s everyday life is what makes an individual think intensively and critically integrating intelligence and character.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More New Matter I have always loved history and I have always understood that history is what makes us people of certain cultural background. History was one of my favorite subjects when I was in high school. One day a new history teacher came into our classroom.
From the very beginning, we understood that our classes would not be a bed of roses. We had to work really hard, but still the teacher was never satisfied with our results. More importantly, we got really bad grades, which was quite frustrating especially for me the one who loved the subject.
It was clear that our works had nothing to do with our teacher’s assessment and evaluation. Soon we understood that to get a good grade it was enough to read certain books and be as close to his lectures and the assigned resources as possible. Many students decided to accept the new rules and their grades did improve.
Being Consistent However, I did not want to choose that path. Of course, I would not say the teacher gave wrongful data and facts. Nonetheless, it was obvious that there was so much to find out in various sources. I also saw how narrow my studies would have been if I had accepted the teacher’s rules.
I understood that I could have deprived myself of a variety of interesting and important facts which could make me more experienced. I was eager to be an active learner.
I knew that only different opinions and different viewpoints can make people see the truth and find out more. Our teacher’s approach deprived us of possibility to develop our personal viewpoints. Students did not want to search for more facts and opinions.
I was very young and a bit too self-confident. I wanted to make all students as well as the teacher himself see how wrong they were.
We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence and Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I started preparing for every class harder. I also paid attention to the chapters we were about to discuss. I had to be prepared for everything. I started asking our teacher different questions which were far beyond his lectures. I added a lot of facts during our classes and I made him answer questions which were relevant but were somehow omitted in his course.
I kept getting really bad grades but I knew I was right and I knew I had to follow my principles. Eventually, we had a very important project to carry out. I have to admit that it was one of the toughest periods of my life as I worked really hard. In the end, I came up with a perfect project which was based on profound research.
I answered all questions and the teacher had to grade me accordingly. Soon, my persistence made our teacher ask students to implement their own research without any restrictions and without assigned sources. Our lessons became more interesting and more efficient.
Integrating Intelligence and Character To sum up, I had to integrate my character and intelligence not to lose my fascination with a subject. Moreover, it is possible to state that I had to employ my intelligence as well as remain consistent to be the dedicated student I had always been, i.e. to be myself.
I believe every person has such occasions and has to integrate his/her character and intelligence, but some students do it occasionally and do not understand how important it is. They only do it as if it were a single case which should not be repeated.
Therefore, it is essential to make students aware of Dr. Martin Luther King’s words concerning intelligence and character. Young people should be consistent and could not change their ways to fit certain situation.
Works Cited King, Martin Luther. The Purpose of Education. n.d. Web.
The Examined Life Essay essay help online: essay help online
When it comes to defining the philosophy of nursing science, one can be certain that a lot of debates are expected. Because of the specific nature of the issue and a lot of aspects which the philosophy of nursing science involves, the definition is rather hard to provide.
However, taking a closer look at some of the most prominent works in the given sphere, comparing and contrasting these works and analyzing the differences, one can possibly come to a certain conclusion about the definition of the philosophy of nursing science.
With the help of Gaarder’s book, Okasha’s article and the movie known as The examined life, the definition of the philosophy а nursing science can be found.
Speaking of the movie, one must mention that it offers a very specific interpretation of the philosophy of nursing science. One of the most spectacular things about the movie is that it goes beyond academic articles and takes the audience into the real life.
Thus, the existing nursing theories and concepts are applied to practice. Moreover, the movie stretches the issue even further, introducing a global aspect of fellow citizenship into nursing (Mann, Basmajian
The Role of Communication and Personality in Negotiation: Walking the Tightrope Essay best college essay help
Making business deals is not an easy task; the knowledge of the business processes and procedures, as well as the basic theoretical background concerning the issues in question is not enough.
Quite often, a negotiation situation depends not on the profound knowledge of the business issue, but on the types of personality which both sides а the deal have, as well as the communicational strategies and approaches which both sides resort to.
In my own recent experiment with a business deal, I created a simulation of a situation in which I was making a bank loan to start a business venture.
It was considered that with the help of communication skills and the specific features of my personality, I would win over the insurance agent and he will entrust me with a bank loan which I was looking forward to.
Indeed, in the course of negotiation with the insurance agent, it turned out that the role of communication and personality in negotiation was crucial and could be used either for creating a perfect image of a loan person, or, on the contrary, to destroy the trustworthy image with a single careless phrase.
To start with, I visited the local bank with a project of my supposed company and a plan on how the given company is going to work, as well as when and what amount of revenues it will supposedly produce. At this point, the right communication technique meant a lot, since it was the project which the manager was focused on.
It was important that I tried to keep my speech to the minimum, so that my vis-à-vis would not lose the track of the conversation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Bercovitch and Jackson, “In negotiation process, the role of personality traits such as charisma, cognitive complexity, or persuasiveness is important, but the idea that ‘great negotiations are born not made’ is incorrect” (Bercovitch
The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America Proposal college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Brief Outline of the topic of the proposed research The European Union is one of the largest economies in the world and a considerable trade partner for the United States of America.
The two blocs are also agricultural trading partners and leading competitors where food market is involved. According to Haas (2007), “The European Union (EU) and Unites States’ (US) governments provide support to their respective agricultural sectors” (p.43).
This strategy is one of the relevant factors in the success experienced in this sector.
Several policies exist in both regions of the world. It is crucial to compare them to establish the effect that they have had on the respective countries. With the population of the world said to be over seven billion and increasing every day (Anatole 2012, p. 17), agriculture is increasing in significance.
Countries around the world have adapted policies aimed at increasing their agricultural output and shifting balance of trade to their advantage (International Food
The Triple Bottom Line and the Global Reporting Initiatives Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Triple Bottom Line Reporting Initiative
The Global Reporting Initiative
The GRI Is More Applicable
Introduction At present, many businesses have acknowledged the importance of paying a lot of attention to the issues of sustainability. Social equality and environmental concerns are being put to the fore by many organizations.
It is also necessary to note that the 2008 crisis which is often associated with the ignorance of principles of sustainability has also shown that it is essential to adhere to these principles (Jackson, Boswell and Davis 2011).
The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) are aimed at developing a more sustainable business environment on the global scale. These initiatives are based on quite similar principles.
Moreover, it is possible to note that GRI is a more comprehensive and detailed version of the TBL. This is the major reason why I would choose this reporting initiative as a manager of a company.
The Triple Bottom Line Reporting Initiative To understand major peculiarities as well as advantages and downsides of both initiatives, it is necessary to define them. The TBL reporting initiative is employed in business accounting “to further expand stakeholders’ knowledge of the company” (Jackson, Boswell and Davis 2011, 56).
Robins (2006, 2) provides quite a precise definition of the TBL reporting initiative which “aims to extend decision making and disclosure so that business decisions explicitly take into consideration the impacts on society and the environment, as well as on proﬁt”. Clearly, this approach makes companies address three major issues when reporting, i.e. financial data, data on social and environmental sustainability.
This approach was developed in the 1990s. Companies started including data on their social and environmental sustainability initiatives in their financial reports.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to surveys implemented in the early 2000s almost 70% of big European corporations and 40% of corporations in the USA exploited the approach in 2002 (Robins 2006, 4).
Robins (2006) also stressed that the scandals of 2001 associated with such companies as Enron (the USA), the HIH (the Health International Holdings) (Australia) and other organizations made companies committed to adherence to TBL reporting initiative.
Thus, huge corporations (usually operation globally) adopted the approach and started including data on social and environmental sustainability initiatives in their financial reports.
However, it is necessary to note that the TBL initiative cannot be regarded as a comprehensive guideline to form reports. This is largely an approach, an idea, and companies are free to choose their own ways to report on their sustainability strategies.
The Global Reporting Initiative On the contrary, though the Global Reporting Initiative is based on the principles of the TBL but it “provides criteria to measure a company’s behavior in each leg of the Triple Bottom Line” (Stenzel 2010, 1). The GRI is a specific guideline for the companies to follow.
This initiative is aimed at providing a single format for companies to add transparency and accuracy to companies’ accounting. It is necessary to note that the GRI is used in Europe predominantly but it is spreading across the globe at a considerable pace.
Such companies as National Australia Bank, Mauser Group, Coca-Cola’s divisions and many other huge corporations are participating in the GRI. Many researchers as well as business people claim that there are some disadvantages in this approach. For instance, it requires more time to create such a report and there is often lack of time.
We will write a custom Essay on The Triple Bottom Line and the Global Reporting Initiatives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The GRI Is More Applicable I would choose the GRI due to a number of reasons. In the first place, the GRI provides a specific comprehensive format which can be used for reporting. Therefore, there is no need to waste time on developing an appropriate reporting framework for the company.
It is important to note that the GRI provides a detailed reporting framework that addresses all three dimensions of the TBL reporting initiative.
Adherence to the GRI format ensures transparency and comprehensiveness of a report. I would be sure that the report highlights all the necessary points which reveal the company’s involvement in the sustainability movement.
Apart from this, the use of GRI can help create a favourable image of the company. Unified reporting format makes it clear for stakeholders that the company is moving in the right direction. Investors, companies and customers want to be sure that the company is responsible and is following the principles of sustainability.
A company that provides a clear and comprehensive report including financial data as well as data on social and environmental sustainability initiatives attracts more investors and clients, which, in its turn, can ensure the company’s development and growth.
Conclusion To sum up, it is possible to note that the TBL reporting initiative and the GRI add transparency and clarity to accounting reports. These initiatives help companies follow the principles of sustainability.
However, it is also important to note that the GRI provides specific guidelines to develop accounting reports while the TBL is rather a set of principles to follow in reporting. I would choose the former approach due to its comprehensiveness.
The GRI can help a company follow the principles of sustainability and develop a favourable image in the business world, which will inevitably lead to growth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Triple Bottom Line and the Global Reporting Initiatives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Jackson, Aimee, Katherine Boswell and Dorothy Davis. 2011. “Sustainability and Triple Bottom Line Reporting – What Is It All about?” International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 1(3): 55-59.
Robins, Fred. 2006. “The Challenge of TBL: A Responsibility to Whom?” Business and Society Review 111(1): 1-14.
Stenzel, Paulette L. 2010. “Sustainability, the Triple Bottom Line, and the Global Reporting Initiative.” Global EDGE Business Review 4(6): 1-2.
The Doctrine of the Person and Work of Christ Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction The person of Christ has been the center of theological debates in both Christian and non-Christian arenas. Theologians and philosophers have attempted to define the person of Christ using human and divine attributes, which Christ portrays. Moreover, the prophets and disciples provided insights about the person of Christ, which have enhanced the definition of Christ using both the human nature and the divine nature.
Among Christians, Christ is the savior of humanity. The apostasy of humanity compelled God to devise means of saving humans from sin and averting their eternal condemnation. In this view, God sent Christ to save humanity by becoming flesh through normal birth, living as an example, preaching about the Kingdom of God, and shedding His blood to redeem humans from their sins.
Frame (2013) holds that Jesus Christ is “our Lord, Savior, Redeemer, King, Friend, Shepherd, Leader, and Teacher” (887). Essentially, the person of Christ and His works portray Him as the savior of humanity in the world in which the sins have pervaded. Therefore, the research paper aims to describe the person of Christ and His works in relation to the divine nature and the human nature.
The Person of Christ Virginal Conception of Jesus Christ
To execute some of His roles such as the salvation of the humankind, Christ took the human nature and bore all the attributes of men. The human life of Christ is evident in the various aspects of His life from birth until death. It is imperative to understand that Christ was born of a woman, who was a virgin. The birth of Christ was not unique for it occurred like other births of babies.
As a result, several people view Christ as the son of Joseph, a mere carpenter (Placher 2001, 7). Moreover, when Christ was born, He went through the stages and processes that Jews undergo. For instance, after 8 days, the Jews named and initiated Christ according to their culture.
The element of initiation and naming after 8 days was very instrumental in compounding the human nature of Christ and increasing the bond between Him and humanity.
Humanity of Christ
To affirm His human nature, Christ also felt emotional and physical pain just like other humans. When Lazarus, who was the brother of Mary and Martha, died and stayed in the grave for three days, He demonstrated emotions like ordinary humans. Owen (2001) explains that Christ shed tears, which is an emotional demonstration that takes place during an unfortunate demise of a close family or friend (22).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the scripture, Christ wept when He saw the suffering that mourners like Martha and Mary experienced due to the loss of their brother (John 10:35 [King James Version]). Moreover, Jesus Christ felt the physical pain when the Romans and Jews tortured and crucified Him.
After the death Christ, Joseph of Arimathea took His body and buried it in a grave. The events of death and burial reflect aspects of human nature since all humans must die when their lifetimes on earth end.
Christ as a Spirit
The spirit form of Christ is evident in several scenarios that occurred during His life on earth. Disciples of Christ witnessed some of the events that distinguished the human nature of Christ and demonstrated His spiritual person. When Christ was only 12 years of age, He surprised the elders in the synagogue with His extensive knowledge concerning the issues of the scripture.
The extensive knowledge of the scripture that Christ had is one of the factors that distinguished Him from other children of His age (Placher 2001, 6). In addition, during the baptism of Christ, unique anointment and spiritual presence of God demonstrated the existence of the trinity and the spiritual nature of Christ.
Deity of Christ
Some of the events that reveal the spiritual person of Christ include the transfiguration and incarnation. During transfiguration, Christ appeared to be more of spiritual than human. Transfiguration is one the activities that can only materialize in the spiritual form of a person.
Other major factors that show the divinity and the deity of the spirit person of Christ include the events such as the one that transpired during his baptism in the River Jordan (Frame 2013, 889). When John baptized Christ, a dove landed on His head and a voice spoke from heaven confirming that indeed Christ was the beloved son of God.
The voice from heaven spoke and said that, “this is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased” (Matt. 3:17). Therefore, the events that occurred during the baptism of Christ are very practical in portraying the spiritual person of Christ and creating a distinction between Him and the humans.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Doctrine of the Person and Work of Christ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Christ the Image of God and the Hypostatic Union
The fact that Christ remained infallible irrespective of all manner of insults that He received during His lifetime on earth substantiates His spiritual person. The substantiation materializes since God is the only infallible being in heaven and on earth. Therefore, the infallible nature of Christ depicts Him as God, who took the form of man and operated as a complete spirit in the human form.
According to the scripture, Christ explains that whoever has seen Him has already seen God, since God is in Him and He is in God (John14:9). It is imperative to highlight that Christ is a reflection of God and He is one of the members of the trinity. In the exposition of the hypostatic union, during His lifetime on earth, Christ lived as a human being and as a spirit.
In essence, Christ had the form of a spirit and the form of a human being, all of which facilitated His role and work of salvation on earth. The concept of the hypostatic union explains that Christ did not only take a complete human nature, but He also took a complete spiritual being.
The Work of Christ Savior and Priest
Christ plays very important roles in the lives of Christians, who view Him as the savior, priest, and a prophet. When men sinned against God, Christ came to save them and restore the union between them and God. Through the act of sacrificing Himself for humanity, Christ played the role of a savior.
The sacrifice that Christ made to save the humankind from the wrath of God was an act of reconciliation aimed at bringing together the union between God and humanity. The concept of sacrifice is very clear in the scripture because the disciples assert that, “while we were yet sinners Christ died for us” (Rom. 5:8).
Furthermore, Christ is a priest, who sacrificed Himself for humanity to bring atonement. According to Placher (2001), as Christ understands the weaknesses of humans, He sympathizes and intercedes for them before God (4). The roles of cleansing humanity of their sins and interceding for their redemption are the roles of the savior and the priest.
The ability of Christ to preach the word and pass commands from God to the humankind presents Him as a true prophet and clearly elucidates His prophetic role. For Christ represents the eternal life through His sacrifice to the humankind. The excellence that Christ demonstrated through His words and deeds from the scripture affirms His role as prophet (Owen 2001, 5).
Although Christ came to the earth as a savior, Christians believe that a day is coming when Christ will come with a prophetic authority and every knee shall bow before Him (Phil. 2:10-11). The process and establishment of the prophetic authority held by Christ is one that is eternal and beyond human rule or influence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Doctrine of the Person and Work of Christ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion During His lifetime on earth, Christ lived a life that represented the divine nature and the human nature. The representation of the person of Christ has been the center of controversy in the field of theology. As a result, the person of Christ has been the center of theological debates in both Christian and non-Christian arenas.
The ability to combine the divine nature and human nature into one entity, Christ, is a phenomenon that theologians call ‘hypostatic union’.
Some of the aspects that substantiate the argument that Christ was indeed a human being include the virgin conception, His humanity, and sufferings, whereas the elements that demonstrate His divine nature person include the deity, infallible nature, savior of humanity, priesthood, and prophethood. During His time on earth, Christ played the roles such as prophet, savior, and priest.
The roles are very practical in the life of several individuals, who profess the Christian religion. According to the Christians, these roles played by Christ are still functional and applicable in the daily engagements of life.
Reference List Frame, John. 2013. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief. New Jersey, NJ: Presbyterian
Good Hotel: Doing Good, Doing Well? Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The Mission/Vision behind the Good Hotel Concept
Three Alternatives for Pam Janusz
Good Hotel’s Target Customers
JdV’s Marketing Strategy for Good Hotel
Positioning Good Hotel
Abstract Good Hotel uses the best business concept in order to emerge successful. The hotel’s business strategy supports the changing needs of every customer. This essay discusses the three alternatives considered by Pam Janusz after the hotel changes ownership. The paper also explores the effectiveness of JdV’s marketing strategy for Good Hotel. The discussion also offers the best strategies for positioning Good Hotel.
The Mission/Vision behind the Good Hotel Concept Good Hotel has been “a politically correct business” (Gilinsky
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Essay college admissions essay help
Abstract Teva is a leading player in the global pharmaceutical industry. The multinational company has continued to acquire new businesses and firms. This paper analyzes Teva’s competitive advantages and strengths. The discussion also evaluates the company’s resources and opportunities. The article also explains how Teva should move forward in order to remain a leading competitor in the industry.
How Teva Competes in the Generic Pharmaceutical Industry According to the case study, Teva has continued to compete against different pharmaceutical companies across the world. The company uses its strengths to compete in the generic pharmaceutical industry. By 2006, Teva had executed over 14 transactions with different companies. The company also established new mergers and acquisitions in order to increase its bargaining power (Pearce
Evaluation of the BackTrack Software Suite Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Description and Purpose of BackTrack
Feedback and Reviews
Experience with BackTrack and Test Results
Benefits of BackTrack
Cost of the Product
The Software’s Impact on the Production Environment
Advanced Research is an actively developing medical research company, and it needs to test and promote the corporate network security in order to avoid cyber attacks and losses of the corporate information. Advanced Research’s main requirements to the security testing software are the ability to identify vulnerabilities, prevent attacks by unauthorized sources and the cost-effectiveness of the security project.
The company uses a mix of Microsoft and *NIX technologies in order to support the corporate network. That is why, the BackTrack software suite can be discussed as an effective choice to meet the company’s requirements. The purpose of this proposal is to describe and evaluate the software and present its purpose and benefits supported with credible evidence.
Description and Purpose of BackTrack BackTrack is the Linux security distribution or the penetration testing suite the latest version of which was released in 2012. The purpose of BackTrack is to provide complete tools for the effective penetration testing process (Ali
Yahoo and Amazon: Building a Competitive Advantage Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Brief history of the companies The Yahoo and the Amazon are online companies which also offer similar trading platforms across the globe. The Amazon.com was established in the year 1994. The company has been active in the online shopping platform. From its inception, the Amazon Company’s product line objective has been to provide quality products at the convenience of the clients.
The services offered by the company include online advertisement, online purchasing, and online consultancy. The Amazon has a product or service to any one, from a toddler to an old man. The company has expanded from the US to all other continents due to its customer-centricity business model.
On the other hand, the Yahoo Company also operates on the online platform and was founded in 1994 and has experienced rapid growth over the years. Yahoo offers series of online products such as broadband, Yahoo finance, games, online TV, and online shopping.
Yahoo expanded due to the various online platforms its offers to different customers across the globe due to its ‘good, better, best’ pricing strategy. As a result, the demand for its products and survives has continued to grow since the objective of this pricing strategy is to attract and retain customers who want affordable goods and services.
Key strategic differences Customer-to-Customer verses Business-to-Business platforms
Amazon has employed the laggard activism strategy to not only capture the global market, but also leapfrog the dominant Yahoo Company. Unlike Yahoo which operates on the Customer-to-Customer (C2C) platform, the dynamic Amazon functions on the Business-to-Business (B2B) platform.
As a result, the Amazon has penetrated the global market due to a balance in factors such as the Western business style, global business approach, and flexible organizational structure (Kashmanian, Wells,
Clipboard Tablet Company Analytical Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Strategic Review
System Feedback Loops
Strategic Review Clipboard Tablet Company operates in the communications industry. It manufactures and markets computer tablets. It has had three main products namely, X5, X6, and X7. The earliest model, namely X5, has been in the market for more than 7 years. Model X6 and X7 have been in the market for more than 6 and 5 years respectively.
Company strategic review seeks to determine the capacity of an organization to meet its target business requirements and goals. For the Clipboard Tablet Company, this strategy helps in the identification of past and the present state of the performance of X5, X6, and X7. This plan leads to an illustration of the company strengths, threats, existing opportunities, and more importantly, its weaknesses.
The information aids in the prioritization of areas that require change or attention. Different sensitivities of the Clipboards Tablet Company’s products imply that it has to market and price its products differently.
For instance, for the success of X5, its marketing has to be done as a low cost product while X6 needs to be marketed as a high performance product. This different promotional tactics can aid in segregation of the company’s markets. The strategy leads to the creation of different brand equities for different products.
The promotion strategy that was deployed by Joe Schmoe as the ex-company’s chair involved setting a financial plan for investigations and establishment of recommendable charges for X5, X6, and X7, which were somewhat constant between 2012 and 2015.
X5 traded at roughly $300 with an approximate $8,000,000 financial resources in research and design. X6 went for $ 430 with a research and design budget of $8,160,000. Finally, X7 was placed in the market at a price of $190 with a budget allocation of $7, 920, 000 for research and design.
Irrespective of the sales levels and price fluctuations of the tablets, Joe Schmoe planned to maintain a budget for research and design constantly at $24, 000,000 over the years from 2012 to 2015. This observation suggests a strong belief of the company in the strategy of product improvements through research and design to drive sales.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, this strategy was effective in the extent that the company’s overall profitability increased from 10% in 2011 to 26% in 2012. However, the strategy does not reflect strengths of each of the products in the market.
For instance, even though X6 customers mainly worry about its performance as opposed to price fluctuations, no budgetary allocation, especially for placing the products in the market as high performance product, was considered by the marketing VP. Clipboard Company could have increased its profits margin by increasing prices for X6 by positioning and creating brand image of high performance in its potential consumers.
Different success strategies are effective for a given period and for products at different phases of their life cycle. This claim also applies to the case of utilizing research and design as a strategy for increasing profitability of an organization. For instance, Clipboard Tablet Company had an increase of 40 percent in sales of its X5 brand in 2011 to 2012. As a result, the company earned a profit margin of $139,504,962.
This figure was an increase by 16% to settle at 30% profitability increase up from 14% in 2011. The total costs for the organization also raised by 30 percent. These changes were also accompanied by changes in the company’s market saturation for X5. It increased from 15 percent in 2011 to 27 percent in 2012. This increase highlights a product that is approaching the maturation phase in its life cycle.
X5 also acquired immense success since its repeat customers doubled in 2012. Upon considering that the performance of the X5 brand was at its peak, Clipboard Tablet Company could have considered it beneficial to reduce budgetary allocations for its research and development in 2013. However, as revealed before, its budgetary allocation for research and development has remained constant.
This observation evidences a weakness in the change of strategy to improve profitability of the organization since cutting down research and design budget would have resulted in higher profit margins for model X in 2013.
Market research theory suggests that ensuring customer connections and their retention requires the creation of a dialogue that is sensible with the customers. Holt and Quelch (2010) assert, “The importance of brand in a business strategy affirms a paradigm of calculating its economic value called brand equity” (p.73). Brand equity encompasses a long-term investment that an organization has to manage effectively.
We will write a custom Essay on Clipboard Tablet Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It measures the economic worth of an organization. Without effective management of the brand equity for Clipboard Tablet Company, it is practically impossible to gain optimal profitability.
Organizations that are globalizing their brands face the problem of seeking various ways of improving their brand equity. This challenge is particularly significant for an organization that is attempting to position its products that have varying customer appeals such as the case of Clipboard Tablet Company.
Upon considering that Clipboard Tablet Company customers value different characteristics of products while making purchases, it implies that the organization needs to create different brand equities, inventories, and loyalties. Unfortunately, the strategy deployed by the marketing VP has no clear indication of these aspects.
For instance, the budgetary allocation for X7 is equal to budgetary allocation of X5 for 2012 to 2015 ($7,920,000), yet X5 customers are concerned only with the product prices. X7 customers are also interested with the performance of the product and not its price.
While this situation sounds as a weakness for the company, it is an opportunity, which can help in redefining the company’s success. Clipboard Tablet Company can reduce budgetary allocation for X5 in research to improve its performance, especially by noting that it has reached the maturity phase as discussed before.
The savings on X5 can be channeled to further research and development of X7, which was introduced in the market in 2012, and is still in the growth phase. For X7, apart from investing in the product research and development to improve its performance, the strategy of investing in the emerging new cost-cutting production techniques can also change the company profitability equation.
In fact, the marketing VP for the company set the price of the products at $190, yet customers needed less costly products of superior performance. This claim suggests that the success of the X7, now and in the future, depends on exploration of low-cost strategy in production so that the company can position it as a low-cost brand without compromising its performance expectations.
Although investing in high-tech low-cost production technologies is expensive, X6 serves as a major strength for the company in terms of availing financial resources. Its customers are insensitive to prices. Thus, with little investment in research and development for its performance, the company can raise its market price without harming its demand.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Clipboard Tablet Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational Diagnosis Organizational analysis involves a comprehensive approach that details both inside and outside forces that interact with an organization. Holt and Quelch (2010) state that it leads to the development of a clear understanding on organizational weaknesses, threats, opportunities, and strengths whilst laying a foundation of understanding their environmental implications on the success of an organization.
In an effort to develop the capacity for reproducing the approach for 2016, a promotion model is applied to help in predicting and assessing the outcome of every item in the four years starting from 2012. The main objective of forecasting rests in the need for maximization of profits in a bid to increase the performance of Clipboard Tablet Company.
This ambition can be accomplished by harmonizing of overheads and merchandise costing strategies (Clancy, Kreig
Solar Energy Houses Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The mitigation of climate change has taken drastic steps as global warming is happening faster than expected. Dodds, Higman and Sherman (17) explain that there are various suggestions that have been made on how to reduce the impact of climate change.
One such suggestion is the acceptance and use of solar energy houses. Solar energy houses are houses that do not use electrical power that is made through processes that emit carbon dioxide. The electrical energy that is used is derived from solar power. The houses are installed with panels that convert sunlight into electrical energy.
There are various benefits of using solar energy houses. One such advantage is that it reduces the use of power that is made through processes that encourage emission of carbon dioxide. McKinney et al. (232) explain that many countries currently use electrical power that is produced through generator cells.
The process of burning fuel to create energy emits carbon dioxide, which is in turn expelled into the atmosphere. The increased emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere causes the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. This, in turn, affects global warming and climate change. The solar energy houses do not emit carbon dioxide. Therefore, they help reduce the emission of carbon dioxide.
In the same breadth, another advantage of the solar energy houses is that they reduce the emission of carbon dioxide through other processes. There are many human activities that emit carbon dioxide. For example, cooking with charcoal or firewood, lighting firewood in the fireplace to keep warm, and cooking using gas all lead to the emission of carbon dioxide.
The use of solar power can allow individuals to stop depending on fossil fuels. For example, the use of solar power can allow a person to cook with the clean electrical power. Given solar power is significantly free, there would be no worries of an increasing electricity bill.
Similarly, the use of charcoal and gas will be reduced. This will, in turn, reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere. Heaters and other appliances at home would also depend on the clean solar power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dodds, Highman and Sherman (246) also explain that the use of solar energy houses can help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that is emitted from greenhouses. The greenhouses can use solar photons to this end.
There have been researches that show that the photons can be converted into chemical energy, which in turn can be used in the greenhouses. The chemical fuel will allow photosynthesis to take place without the use of direct sunrays. Enhanced photosynthesis will mean that there will be more intake of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen.
It is also important to mention that solar energy houses encourages the use of charcoal fuel in the third world countries. Considering that the third world countries receive many hours of sunlight, they are more suitable for this particular action. The third world countries have been using compressed cooking gas and charcoal to cook. The cutting down of trees to make charcoal reduces photosynthesis.
As mentioned, photosynthesis helps with the reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A lot still needs to be done to control the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, one of the steps that would help reduce the release of carbon dioxide is the acceptance and use of solar energy houses.
Works Cited Dodds, Felix, Andrew Highman, and Richard Sherman. Climate Change And Energy Insecurity: The Challenge For Peace, Security And Development. New York: Routledge, 2012. Print
McKinney, L. Michael, Robert M. Schoch, and Logan Yonavjak. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Sudbury: Jones
Market Plan for T17 Technology House Company Essay essay help free
Introduction T17 RAG Technology House has made an important decision to enter the microcomputer business in the global market. The strategy that has been taken by the corporate headquarters is that after two years, this new division should be able to sustain its own operations and generate substantial profits for the mother company.
According to Keller (2003, p. 76), two years may be a short period for a large company to break even and generate returns on its investment. As shown in the previous analyses, it is clear that the top management has decided to make a massive investment into this new project. This means that any form of failure in this project may not be acceptable.
The corporate headquarters has made the decision of making a seed capital of $ 7 million within a period of two years. Such a massive investment must be used to generate a strong value to the parent firm. As the head of this new division, it is important to draw a clear market plan that would help achieve the expectations set by the headquarters within a timeframe of two years.
This may not be a simple task, especially given that the products are to be delivered to the global market. All the major continents are targeted, and within the two years, the products should be available in North and South America, Europe, Asia-pacific, Africa, and Middle East regions.
In this market plan, the focus will be to find the most appropriate marketing strategies, financial plans, and assessment approaches that will propel the firm to the desired heights.
History of the Firm According to Fisher and Vallaster (2008, p. 74), one of the best ways of developing an effective plan for the success of a firm is to start by analysing its history. The process of analysing a firm’s history helps in determining the past trends in order to determine what the future holds for the firm. As stated in the section above, this is a new PC division that has just been introduced by the parent firm.
This division lacks any history because it has just been created and it is yet to take off in the market. This means that its past can be analysed by knowing the history of the parent firm. T17 RAG Technology House has been operating in the market for some time as a large international electronic firm. It has specialised in various electronic products, but had not made an entry into the personal computer business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to succeed in the challenging market environment, the management had developed a mission statement that would guide its operations. The mission statement reads as follows: “RAG Technology was founded with the vision of producing innovative and affordable computing solutions to enable people explore and develop themselves in any industry.”
From this mission statement, it is clear that this firm has been struggling to develop the revolutionary computing products that have the capacity to meet the needs of people in various industries across the world. Another important factor that the mission statement focuses on is the fact that this company offers its products at affordable prices.
This message is specifically meant to appeal to the cost cutters who are interested in efficient products at affordable prices. The firm has been operating in the global market, and given its financial strength, it is clear that its past operations have been successful.
Market Assessment According Fisher and Vallaster (2008, p. 114), when developing a market plan one of the most important stages, is the market assessment process. This is specifically important in cases where the firm is entering a new market. The management team will need to conduct an assessment of the external market in order to determine how the external market forces may affect the firm once it gets operational.
In the PC industry, one of the most important factors that the management of this division will have to be ready to deal with is the stiff competition that is posed by the rival firms such as Adroit Inc., RISE, Pikainen Tech, and SmartBox. The main problem that this firm may face is that most of the people in the market today, including the cost cutters, buy the brands that they trust.
This means that it will take some time before this new brand can win the trust of the target market. With a timeframe of two years that the top management expects the new division to break-even with the investment made, only a superior marketing strategy can be of help to this firm.
The current personal computer market has five major segments that this new division should be aware of before introducing its products to the market. The graph below shows the five market segments.
We will write a custom Essay on Market Plan for T17 Technology House Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first segment has the cost-cutters. These are customers in the lower market segment who want cheap products. Although they prefer high performance products, their buying decisions are closely guided by the prices of the products they buy. They are comfortable with the low-priced products even if their performance is not the best in the market.
A large population of consumers falls into this market segment. Above the cost-cutters is the Workhorse. This segment has the consumers who are interested in the easy-to-use products that are modestly priced. Although they base their buying decision on the prices of the products, quality also plays a major role in defining their buying decision.
They may be willing to pay a little more- as long as the price remains modest- in order to get better quality products. They are mostly office workers who want efficient PC to help them in their daily work. This is the largest group of customers that this new division should target. The innovators are consumers who need personal computers with a capacity to handle large computational problems (Kotler
Tort Law: “Butler v. United States” Case Study essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Details of the Case
The Sides’ Arguments during the Case
The Ruling in the Case
Negligence is usually discussed as a tort which is associated with performing a wrong act which causes damages or with failing to perform the act necessary to treat a person accordingly and to cope with the illness (Pozgar, 2012, p. 32-34).
While referring to the cases of negligence which can be discussed in the context of the tort law, it is necessary to focus on the case Butler v. United States (2012) involving Kay Butler as a plaintiff and the United States of America and Veterans Administration as defendants. The decision on the case was announced on December 19, 2012 (Butler v. United States 2012, 2014, par. 3).
The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals supported the judgment declared by the district court, and Mrs. Butler’s appeal was not satisfied because of failing to support the argument. In order to understand the aspects of the case, it is necessary to provide the case’s details, and analyze the effectiveness of the stated arguments in relation to the principles of the healthcare law and tort law.
Details of the Case Mr. Butler, a husband of Kay Butler and a veteran of the armed forces, was diagnosed by a physician working at the Veterans Administration center in Durham, North Carolina, as having a vascular condition. Dr. Jonathan Gray concluded that Mr. Butler needed the urgent surgery. The diagnosis was announced in 2004. During the post-operative period, Mr. Butler was paralyzed from the chest down.
The health state of the patient worsened significantly during the following months. Mr. Butler died from developed sepsis on March 15, 2005 (Butler v. United States 2012, 2014, par. 5-7).
Mrs. Butler claimed to receive the compensation benefits from the Veterans Administration for negligent actions of the physicians which led to the death of the patient. Having received the benefits, Mrs. Butler appealed to court against the United States of America as a defendant in the case.
The Sides’ Arguments during the Case The arguments of Mrs. Butler was based on providing the evidence to support the fact that carelessness of the surgeons, negligence during diagnosing and performing the surgery, and the lack of proper skill led to the injury and the death of the patient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The claim of Mrs. Butler was satisfied in relation to the duty of the physicians and the Veterans Administration. However, the argument of Mrs. Butler against the United States to affirm the wrongful death of the husband lacked the evidence of the experts in the field (Pozgar, 2012, p. 34).
The Veterans Administration and the United States as defendants provided the support to their arguments with references to the Federal Tort Claims Act and principles of confirming the fact of negligence. Referring to the North Carolina law, the expert witness is required to discuss violation of the standard of care (Butler v. United States 2012, 2014, par. 5-7).
The argument of the defendants failed to reject the medical malpractice action in relation to the Veterans Administration, but the argument to support the position of the United States as a defendant was reasonable (Mandelstam, 2002, p. 54).
The Ruling in the Case The complaint against the Veterans Administration was affirmed, and Mrs. Butler received the compensation associated with causing the death of her husband and necessary VA benefits. However, the complaint against the United States of America as a defendant because of the loss of consortium was not affirmed.
It was stated that Mrs. Butler’s FTCA claim directed toward arguing the duty of the United States of America as a defendant cannot affect the received benefits and compensation (Butler v. United States 2012, 2014, par. 5-7). As a result, the previous decision of the district court was discussed as reasonable (Hammaker, 2010, p. 122). The problem was in the fact that Mrs. Butler did not present the required expert witness
Conclusion In spite of the fact that Mrs. Butler’s claim related to responsibility of the Veterans Administration and physicians was affirmed, her legal argument to state the loss of consortium was weak because of impossibility to provide the expert’s evidence. In this case, the best legal argument related to the issue was provided by the United States of America as a defendant.
Mrs. Butler’s argument related to stating the negligence in relation to the physicians’ activity was rather effective because she provided the evidence to support the fact that the surgical procedure was performed with violating the norms, and the physicians failed to diagnose the patient. All the elements of negligence such as the duty to care, breach of duty, injury, and causation were presented and supported with evidence.
We will write a custom Case Study on Tort Law: “Butler v. United States” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this case Mrs. Butler presented a prima facie case of negligence. That is why, Mrs. Butler received the compensation. However, Mrs. Butler failed to provide the necessary support and evidence for the argument while appealing to the court against the United States of America as a defendant.
While discussing the standard of care, it is necessary to provide the expert’s evidence to support the argument in North Carolina. The defendant provided the most convincing argument in this case, and the claim was not affirmed.
References Butler v. United States 2012. (2014). Retrieved from https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-4th-circuit/1618662.html
Hammaker, D. (2010). Health care management and the law: Principles and applications. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Mandelstam, M. (2002). Manual handling in health and social care: An A-Z of law and practice. New York, NY: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Pozgar, G. (2012). Legal aspects of health care administration. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
The Change Analysis: Google and Twitter Compare and Contrast Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In the realm of the 21st century, economic expansion seems to have become the key to successful evolution of a company. The examples of Google and Twitter prove the necessity for a company to grow by adopting the strategy of mergers and acquisitions.
Despite the fact that both companies have a unique pattern of development, they still have a range of points of contact in terms of the images of managing change that they had to go through and, therefore, being pressured into change by similar factors.
A closer look at the current strategy adopted by the Google, Inc. will reveal that the company is clearly putting a very strong emphasis onto the function of a Nurturer.
To be more exact, the organization is obviously doing its best in facilitating the cooperation between different departments of the organization and therefore, making the performance of these departments more cohesive. The necessity to reconsider the course of the company’s processes and reinforce the communication processes between different departments is quite obvious. As an IT company, Google, Inc. must
Twitter in its turn, seems to be focused on the process of nurturing to a much greater degree than Google, though the latter is also clearly searching for non-trivial ways of solving the problems that it encounters on a regular basis within the global market (Siganos, 2013). In the Twitter, Inc., however, the concept of nurturing seems to have been the basis for the company’s functioning since its very foundation.
Indeed, if considering the vision and mission of the Twitter, Inc., one will be able to spot the fact that the organization is geared towards not only recognizing all stakeholders as equally valuable, but also to see information as the key value and the necessity to distribute the acquired data among all stakeholders fairly, therefore, preventing any possible conflicts from happening (Sprangler, 2013).
When it comes to defining the rest of the images of managing change, one must admit that, in Google and Twitter, these are somehow downplayed. It would be wrong to claim that neither of the companies uses such a powerful tool as the image of a coach – quite on the contrary, recent researches show that both organizations are eager for enhancing the core values for the staff to comply with.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the world of global economy, common values are quite hard to retain, and both Google and Twitter understand it pretty well (Jansen, 2009). As a result, the companies seem to have shaken off their unique definitions of coaching, as well as making the role of the Director less obvious, in order to promote change through expansion into the world market.
While such a decision might seem flawed, on a larger scale, it is very wise, since it allows for a maximum flexibility for the companies to operate in (Steiber
Apple Incorporation in 2010 Essay best college essay help
Abstract Apple is a leading manufacturer of personal computers (PCs) and mobile devices. This paper begins by analyzing how Apple competes in the PC market. The discussion also examines how Apple’s strategy has been evolving within the past few years.
Apple has also remained competitive because of its superior smartphones and MP3 players. The paper also identifies the major challenges effecting Apple Incorporation. The paper concludes by explaining why Steve Jobs is an effective strategic leader.
Apple Incorporation in 2010 Apple Incorporation uses appropriate strategies to compete in the personal computer (PC) market. Throughout the 1990s, Apple used the best distribution channels to deliver quality products to different consumers (Yoffie
Project and Knowledge Management Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Definition
Significant and challenges
Importance of project knowledge management
Definition A process-based system that intends to implement projects from the starting to end point is referred to as project management. On the other hand, information can only be managed using technique-based systems through knowledge management.
As much as both project and knowledge managements are dominant in several global organisations, it is vital to mention that the practices have unique perceptions and interpretations. In addition, both of these practices have been in existence for a long time and also gone through various phases of transformations.
The various needs of organisations, misunderstandings, understandings, geography and industry dynamics have indeed influenced the evolution of project knowledge management in a number of ways.
Successful business enterprises clearly comprehend the values of project knowledge management in the day-to-day operations of an organisation. They also clearly appreciate the risks associated with lack of proper project knowledge management in place. In this case, there are specific methodologies that must be put into action in order for any organisational project to excel.
Even though the project management techniques applied are beneficial to both an individual project and the entire firm, it is often necessary to evaluate the practical implementations of the techniques adopted to execute a particular project. This explains why the application of relevant knowledge cannot be ignored when there is need to implement successful organisational projects (Shepherd
Ethical Issues at the Radiology Department Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Handling of Ethical Dilemma
Introduction Being a radiographer means being very cautious and careful with instructions. It is especially important to follow the existing code of ethics once a patient and a radiographer do not speak the same language.
Since the radiographer was not concerned with the fact that the patient could not speak English properly, the former broke the principles of radiography ethics by conducting a procedure that could harm the patient in the case study provided.
History The case of ethics in radiography, which is discussed below, is quite simple. According to the case details, an elderly (56-year-old) Asian woman, who had a feeding (nasogastric) tube implanted, was admitted into a hospital. In the hospital, she underwent a computer tomography on her brain.
Due to the specifics of her condition (a feeding tube), she had to have her chest and abdomen checked with X-rays every day for more than fifteen days, which is considered inacceptable due to exposure to great doses of radiation and the following negative effects on the functioning of the organs.
Since the radiographer was aware of the threat that the procedure poses to people, it was imperative that the procedure should have been carried out less frequently or that the patient should have given a written consent for the radiography to be carried out.
It seems that the procedure was not obligatory in the given case, since the patient supposedly felt well and did not need an urgent examination, yet the standard daily examination of the tube was still desirable (Duncan
Ministry of Defence in the UK: The Army 2020 Programme Dissertation college essay help near me
Introduction This paper makes an analysis of the extent to which the Army 2020 provides the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) with opportunities for improving workforce efficiency through the use of information systems.
The paper examines the different ways in which the workforce is most effective, how the army currently operates in the UK and how the changes envisaged through the Army 2020 Programme are going to impact the present members of the Ministry of Defence in the UK, particularly those that are working in the army.
The researcher has made the analysis by making a discreet examination of the issues relative to people, processes and technology. People issues pertain to aspects such as mental attitudes about working from ten to five and about discrimination at the workplace between office and field workers.
Another aspect in this regard is to examine the pressures of family life, particularly in view of the fact that in current times, both parents tend to work in order to add to the family income and to enjoy better standards of living. It is essential to examine the impact of extra working hours and the further impact of this pattern on children and family life.
Process issues relate to the policies followed by the army and the manner in which the Army 2020 is going to impact the lives of people working in the MOD, mainly because of the increase in the workforce with the inclusion of additional 30,000 reservists. The MOD’s strategy will be examined in the context of how it plans to deal with the Reserves and how the Reserves will be integrated into the new Army Information Systems.
It is essential to determine whether the MOD’s ICT strategy aligns well with the introduction of additional Reserves and whether units will communicate effectively with Reserves after they start working. The expected impact of the Information Systems on these reserves will be examined in the light of the new strategies emanating from Army 2020.
It is imperative in this regard to ascertain if there are plans to attain higher efficiency in remote access and mobile working in the UK MOD, particularly in the army. It is also essential to determine whether the associated risks relative to information security and information assurance can be effectively dealt with and whether such risks are outweighed by the benefits accruing from the Army 2020 Programme.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technical issues will emerge after introduction and implementation of the new Information Systems, which is why there is a need to examine the extent to which they will add value to the ongoing functions of the MOD.
It is essential to ascertain if there are any issues in regard to remote access and mobile working and whether there are any technical solutions to address the concerns emerging from information security and information assurance.
Overall, the objective of the paper is to assess how the UK MOD can make the Army 2020 an excellent opportunity in addressing some of the emerging issues. This is best done through the implementation of the MOD’s Information Systems that will adequately support Army 2020 and create a much more efficient workforce for the future.
Literature Review The origin of the Army 2020 Programme can be traced to the outcomes of the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) of 2010 and the Three Month Exercise in 2011, after which the then Secretary of State for Defence (Dr. Liam Fox) made announcement in Parliament on 18 Jul 11 about making major structural, technological and manpower changes in the army by the year 2020.
The envisaged changes included reducing the total strength of the army to 120,000 by 2020, which was planned to be done by establishing a regular to reserve ratio of 70/30.
However, there have been some changes in the established objectives and the new envisaged strength of the army is now set at about 82,000 and that of reserves has been fixed at 30,000, thus bringing the total strength of the armed forces at 112,000 by 2020 (Army 2020 – Context 2013).
Given that the UK army was at a crucial stage after having completed combat missions in Afghanistan and withdrawn entirely from Germany in becoming entirely UK based after so many decades, the Army 2020 Study Team was set up under the leadership of Lieutenant General Nick Carter with the assignment to study and make suggestions about how best military capabilities can be delivered in keeping with the current limitations relative to manpower and the army’s capabilities.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Ministry of Defence in the UK: The Army 2020 Programme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main objective of the Army 2020 study was to redefine the objectives and capabilities of the army so that it has the added ability of defence and deterrence. Another pertinent goal was to have the required expertise to engage in overseas capacity building. In addition, it was planned to make the army more involved within the country in order to contribute more towards internal resilience.
The Army 2020 team was also assigned the job of meeting the objectives set by the Future Reserves 2020 Study by way of constructing an integrated design for the army so that Reserves could be gainfully used in emergency as well as routine work.
The Army 2020 Study Team was able to complete its assignment on 12 June 2013, after which Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond made an announcement in Parliament on 5 July through which he outlined the different processes that would lead to the restructuring of the army. The Reaction Force (RF) would be given the status of a contingency group that would provide the natural deterrence strength to the military.
Personnel in the RF would be appropriately trained to perform all kinds of intervention tasks. The RF would comprise of three armoured infantry brigades and an air assault brigade and will become the very basis for future operations in terms of establishing durability and stability.
Because the RF will always be on standby, it will be manned mostly by personnel sourced from the main army, while a few will be deputed from the Reserves. The Adaptable Force (AF) will comprise of people sourced from the Regulars and Reserves and will be controlled by a divisional commander.
It will comprise of seven infantry brigades. The AF will be assigned tasks relative to assignments at the base, engagement in defence, maintaining stabilisation, complying with commitments in other nations and involvement in institutional resilience. The Force Troops (FT) will be a specialist group that will provide support to Reaction and Adaptable Forces from different brigade headquarters.
Regional Points of Command (RPoC) primarily pertain to involvement with UK societies and resilience activities related to the UK homeland. It was assessed by the Army 2020 Team that the given functions will be best performed if a regional footprint is maintained while considering the control and command functions of regular and reserve forces.
Capability will be maximised and fully integrated by deploying regular and reserve soldiers as also contractors and civilians. The success of this strategy will be dependent on the manner in which the Future 2020 programme works in being excellently equipped and manned by the required people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ministry of Defence in the UK: The Army 2020 Programme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The objective is to make extra efforts in providing specialised military capabilities by way of training programmes that will focus on supporting strong relationships amongst people and employers. In addition, the required legislation will be passed in allowing for the training programmes to be framed and implemented effectively.
Stronger initiatives to implement the Army 2020 programme will be taken after June 2014, whereby new hiring will be made from 1st to 15th January 2015. The number of soldiers will be reduced as a consequence of the Redundancy scheme and the Reserves will be hired by the end of 2018. In addition, a large number of troops will return from Germany (Ministry of Defence 2014b).
It is apparent that the strategic justification for the Army 2020 programme rests on the National Security Strategy and the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), which laid out what the army is expected to provide by way of frequency of delivery of the given tasks. The required funding would be arranged by the Ministry of Defence (MOD).
The final decision is that the army would comprise of about 82,000 regular soldiers and 30,000 reserves, thus forming a total strength of about 112,000 personnel. Concrete plans have now been put in place in defining the role and structure of the army in the coming future.
It is now assumed that the army will continue to be involved in stabilising situations in nations such as Afghanistan, but efforts will have to be made in altering the army’s working system so that better ways are found in meeting the impending threats.
The army has to be made appropriately stable in teaming up with partner countries to achieve the military capability and to remove the prevailing instabilities in different parts of the world. The deployment of reserves has to be evolved in such ways that they can be used as part of an integrated army.
The programme also envisages creating an entirely UK focused army that engages civil societies constructively, while ensuring cost efficiencies that motivate the creation of further designs directed at improving capabilities towards optimisation (House of Commons 2014).
The Ministry of Defence conducted an internal review survey (Continuous Attitude Survey (AFCAS) 2014) through which it sought the views of army personnel about their perceptions in regard to the prevailing working conditions. It was also desired to know what attitudes they had about the current circumstances in which they have to work.
After having assessed the information emerging from the responses of defence personnel, the MOD released the compiled statistics that provide a glimpse into the overall perceptions of military personnel in the context of their working conditions in defence.
The AFCAS (2014) made comparisons with different years’ data for officers as well as other ranks in each of the services in reflecting that there are considerable differences in perceived roles and experiences by way of working conditions, family life and terms and conditions of service.
The objective of the AFCAS 2014 was to analyze and monitor the attitudes of military personnel deployed in important management assignments. The survey assessed different parameters such as welfare, health, leaves, personal life, housing, career growth, leadership opportunities, employment, morale and remuneration. The army personnel also gave their opinions about how they felt working with reserves.
The information that emerged from the survey will be very useful in developing and keeping track of policies in the military while also being informative about the outcomes of policies followed by Armed Forces Pay Review Body, Defence Board and other Defence programmes such as the Armed Forces Covenant and the New Employment Model (Army Reserves Continuous Attitude Survey 2014).
It is apparent from a comparison of the present survey outcomes with those of AFCAS 2013 that there is not much change in the overall satisfaction levels in most aspects of service life. About 48 percent of the total service personnel were found to be satisfied with their personal and official lives, while 27 percent remained dissatisfied.
It becomes apparent that there is not much change in the morale of military personnel as compared to 2013. About 40 percent of the respondents felt they continued to have high morale, while 29 percent responded in saying they did not perceive themselves as having high morale in their working environment.
It also becomes apparent that after demonstrating low morale in the previous three years, army personnel now feel little better because 34 percent of the staff from the Other ranks category rated their morale as high. The biggest reason why service personnel wishes to leave the defence is the adverse impact on their personal and family lives (Samale 2013).
Many service personnel were motivated to continue with the service because of availability of facilities such as a pension, job security, health care and dental care. About 81 percent of the defence personnel felt proud of being in the service and 29 percent felt they were given value while working. An increasing percentage of staff responded in saying they were overloaded in terms of quantum of work.
A significant proportion of defence personnel is accustomed to availing most of their leaves during the year. About 51 percent of the people having working contracts with the Reserves in the previous two years felt that reservists were better integrated in comparison to the previous year (Ministry of Defence 2014c).
It was for the first time in 2014 that the Joint Forces Command issued instructions in refining ICT services in the armed forces. It was envisaged to introduce the Defence Core Network Services Programme (DCNS) in improving the MOD ICT service deliveries in order to be supportive of digital agendas and to allow greater efficiency in mobile working as well as fixed users.
The new package is expected to be installed within six months through interventions such as Integrated Programme Plans, strategic sourcing involving master category strategies and tools and processes of service integration and management. However, success of procurement processes in regard to the new ICT structures depends to a great deal on the SIAM capabilities and ISS Transformation Programme.
The DCNS is a part of the ISS programme that focuses on delivering information and communication technology (ICT) services in order to allow the MOD to work efficiently in conducting military operations. DCNS will eventually provide the required services by integrating better performance that will entail lesser complexities for users.
It will be characterised with greater agility in order to enable greater adaptability that will help in meeting up with the quickly changing nature of military operations. The system will prove to be highly cost-effective. DCNS proposes to use permanent services instead of buying equipment and systems and will make use of the ICT Service Portfolio Management to achieve this objective.
In order to elucidate on how the given services will help users, the agency has introduced Architecture Reference Model (ARM) that depicts the ways in which the different services will assist in various business and operational situations.
The Target Supply Chain Model (TSCM) has been introduced in defining the ways in which such services will be sourced from different industries. The objective is to introduce a Service Tower concept that incorporates the various strategies of Service Integration and Management (SIAM).
This method allows for making the best use of cross-governmental ICT services through small contracts that hold the promise of achieving greater output. In addition, a category management strategy will be used in situations where the defined range of services is divided into distinct groups in relation to their similarities and differences.
This will allow making future procurements of service integrators for managing supply contracts and integrating end-to-end services. However, procurement of services instead of equipment and effective integration of service portfolio management processes will necessitate changes in organizational skills, particularly in relation to ISS from the wider MOD perspective.
The given functions are well substantiated through the workstream associated with the Target Operating Model (TOM). Implementing such changes will require the organisation to use the ISS Transformation Programme.
A significant component of the envisaged operating approach is that it is an efficient function of SIAM through which it is emphasised that specific processes allow ISS to adopt industry-focused best practices in delivering the required ICT services. Delivery is the eventual objective of the DCNS Programme that comprises of projects used in procuring services in keeping with the procedures provided for in the model (Ministry of Defence 2014a).
The defence ICT strategy of 2013 is so framed that it supersedes the plan framed in 2010 and is applicable to all departments and functions controlled by the MOD. The objective is to permit flow of information between different MOD departments as well as other partnerships in the area of national security.
The Defence ICT Strategy 2013 articulates the actions that are to be initiated in ensuring procurement of ICT in ways that it can be easily supported through coherent ways in aligning and complying with government strategies. It is essential to have a broader perspective in order to cover all defence functions instead of just considering those that are being used by the MOD.
This implies that the MOD will have to make use of shared solutions and strategies with other governmental agencies and departments within the country as well as internationally. Obviously, the strategy will have to address the needs of information technology, its flows and new plans as relevant to aspects such as Digital in Defence, Cyber Strategy, MOD Information Strategy and Government Digital Strategy.
The defence ICT strategy must consider the entire scope of information policies laid down by the MOD. The vision of the MOD information strategy of 2011 pertained to adopting systems of “Agile exploitation of our information capabilities to improve effectiveness and efficiency on operations and in support areas through access to, and sharing of timely, accurate and trusted information” (Ministry of Defence p.2).
Going digital in defence is an integral part of the vision of the MOD in adopting modern and innovative systems of operation. The Defence ICT strategy of 2013 has altered the manner in which ICT is sought and used across its entire functions. In fact, the plan has now proved to be a motivating force in creating more coherence into the functioning of different defence departments.
The strategy gives immense significance to NATO and aims at establishing a single intelligence environment directed towards dealing with the three core areas of enabling enterprise reach, configuring for 2020 and preparing for any contingency (Ministry of Defence 2013a).
In order to achieve its defence vision, the MOD has to change the ways in which it exploits the value systems relative to power perceptions in its information systems. It has been recognized by the defence reform review that information is a significant asset that is critical in issues of both battle and business.
There is a strong need to make cost-effective deliveries in the context of military competence as also the effective delivery of MOD’s objectives in primary and support functions. In effect, the information strategy of the MOD is supported by the Defence ICT strategies and seeks to create a corporate environment in which there is constant change in the management of information.
The objective is to achieve success in introducing defence reforms in effective and cost-efficient ways. Considerable investment has been made in the Defence Information Infrastructure (DII) in attaining the means to achieve the required transformation and to exploit and use the required information at the right time and place.
This allows for making the right decisions and for creating the required impact and to achieve the required outcomes within the given time frame.
The MOD believes that the required changes can be delivered through the establishment of information themes relative to information superiority, collaborative information culture, value attached to information as being a strategic asset and guaranteed defence process, identity-based accessibility to information systems, efficiency in records management and innovation and agility.
The MOD has created a strategy to meet its information objectives by establishing information themes that will contribute to the achievement of required outcomes. Providing information at the right time will allow the departments to make decisions at the right time.
Information superiority will be primarily achieved through collaboration across national and international boundaries, which will help in creating shared awareness that will further facilitate the achievement of quick results.
Collaboration in this context pertains to sharing of secure and protected information with partners, which is possible only if the MOD’s data is secured in terms of cyber capabilities and systems. It is essential for defence functionaries to change their outlook and to give value to information in treating it as an asset.
Information proves to be of value only if it is made available to the right people that have the required competence in being able to manage and use it effectively. If the defence is to improve and hold on to its information advantages, it is critical to innovate in terms of usage and development of information systems and procedures.
Information superiority is crucial for making the right decisions in all situations and environments. The decision to take specific actions invariably involves assessing risks as well as advantages relative to such actions, which is why it is often said that there is not much difference between decision making in business and battle.
It is most important to have the ability to take timely and well-informed decisions and considerable support is provided in this regard through information systems.
For example, if the UK and its allies are to succeed in Afghanistan, they will have to be crucially dependent on intelligence as well as situational information. Consequently, a great deal of effort is being made in the development of IX, IM and the necessary infrastructure to be used by the Command Control and Information Infrastructure (CCII).
To achieve efficiency, the MOD is making use of the Operational Information Superiority Programme Board to swerve and improve the equipment programme by using wide-ranging interventions such as the Equipment Programme Plan and Urgent Operational Requirement (UOR) in order to sustain information supremacy.
In addition, the MOD’s policy of maintaining information supremacy has matured a great deal through improvement of Network Enabled Capability (NEC), NEC governance systems and Life Capability Management (TLCM). Collaboration is an essential means to connect information and data processes as well as people across national and international functions.
Eventually, the goal is to enhance end to end efficacy of operations. In the MOD, collaboration involves including industry functionaries and foxhole so that data, processes and information can flow freely across all functions and departments. However, the MOD faces daunting challenges in establishing common standards and procedures that are consistent and efficient.
Effective collaboration practices will result in operational effectiveness, better military reforms, agility of supply chains and conformity with prevailing regulations and government procedures. Supply chain integration will lead to considerable benefits for the MOD.
Adopting supportive styles of operation will lead to consistency amongst fixed and deployed functions. Collaborative working environments allow the MOD to continue working with industries in defining shared standards, instruments and processes.
A lot of progress has been made by the defence in developing and rolling out the MOSS (DII ALAMEIN Microsoft Office SharePoint Server) capabilities. Use of adoption tool kits will enable the defence to have a platform through which it can effectively collaborate with different agencies for a prolonged period of time.
With the evolvement of collaboration opportunities, the need has developed for enhancing consistency in standards and procedures across different programmes, which has resulted in providing speedy collaboration with social media and social networks.
Given that information is crucial and needs to be safeguarded and shared through secure means, the objective of the MOD is to ensure the information without comprising on any issue. The MOD needs to protect its data from varied risks such as cyber threats, intentional leakage of data and unintended loss of data.
In addition, it is required to take preventive measures against the challenges imposed by cyber threats directed at stealing and destroying the current information. Cyber threats emerge from the usual operational opponents and state entities such as intelligence agencies of other nations and non-state entities such as computer hackers.
To safeguard the current information, all functionaries have to be in the know of involved risks and to recognize their duties while accessing and dealing with information. This is possible only by adopting varied processes of investing in and developing capabilities while remaining consistent in partnerships with the academia and industries.
It is thus essential to establish a trusted atmosphere so that the information systems can be handled by reliable sources in collaboration with the MOD’s allies in the government and across the entire supply chain. If this trustworthy atmosphere is supported by an efficient compliance system, the risks faced by the department will be considerably reduced.
This will further lead to enhanced effectiveness and agility in the MOD’s working systems, while individual productivity will improve by using interventions such as Access Management (IdAM) that will allow decisions to be taken in a credulous atmosphere.
Use of Access Management (IdAM) will help in promoting the adoption of information labelling and digital identity in establishing connections between people and the required information as and when required.
High standards of collaboration are being established by the Transglobal Secure Collaboration Program (TSCP) in attempts to collaborate and protect information sharing with different entities. By making use of such standards, the MOD is collaborating with industrial partners in allowing small and medium enterprises to get accessibility to RLI-hosted CWE.
Given that the defence is always in need of valuable information and reliable data, it is vital to view information as an extremely valuable asset (The National Archives 2010).
Agile utilization of information capability depends on availability of reliable data and if such data is exploited by the defence personnel in improving their knowledge, they can always generate accurate and relevant information that can be of immense help in decision-making processes (Philips 2012a).
People working in the defence have to be equipped with the required behaviours and skills relative to acquiring information so that defence outputs are delivered efficiently. All people working in the defence are expected to generate and use data in different ways while being involved in their daily work routines.
The basic idea is that it is significant for all people working in the Defence to help in establishing an information culture that acknowledges the significance of information and recognises its critical contribution in assisting during the decision making process. If the MOD is to succeed consistently, it is essential to establish such a culture.
However, with the envisaged reduction in the size of the workforce under the Army 2020 Programme, this is not going to be easy to achieve because of the challenges associated with keeping up with the required knowledge, systems and skills. Moreover, with the proposed merger and reduction in size of organizations, there is the added risk of losing essential knowledge.
The cultural change that will occur once the new procedures are in place and the consequences of downsizing of the workforce will lead to added difficulties for the MOD in complying with its tasks relative to Freedom of Information (FOI), the Public Records Act (PRA) and Data Protection Act (DPA).
Thus, there will be need for bringing in cultural change directed at meeting up with the MOD’s aspirations of establishing better relations with allies and industrial partners.
The Government’s Civil Service Learning Programme is envisaged to create a strong impact on training in the main functions relative to information technology. The programme also aims at using the Defence IM Passport in adapting and applying shared approaches towards the improvement of behaviours and skills.
This will allow the adoption of strategies of better integration of government functioning across all departments and will lead to economies of scale, thus implying better functionality and greater efficacy. The MOD has proposed to introduce operational information training through programmes of enhancing foundation skills of the personnel deployed in operations.
As per the Army 2020 programme, The Head of Profession for Knowledge and Information Management (HOP KIM) has been assigned the responsibility of representing the MOD in meetings of the Government Knowledge Council with the objective of aligning governmental interests in introducing and updating functional competencies in regard to information.
This will allow the future workforce to get the required professional guidance. Through such functions, the Head of Profession for Knowledge and Information Management (HOP KIM) will arrange for the acquirement of cyber competencies through education and training at different levels. In addition, he will analyze the impact of changes taking place in the general acquirement of skill sets in defence establishments.
He will also pursue and carry forward the agenda for developing cyber skills in different departments. It is planned to imbibe the necessary skills amongst the workforce through induction programmes. This has been established as a priority for the future so that adequate significance is attached to intelligence and protection of information.
Accessibility to and management of information in the departments will be made possible through a range of information systems that will assist people and organizations associated with defence. Such a portfolio of information systems will keep changing over time with the evolvement of new information and the prospects that are created with innovations and new technologies.
The services will be provided through the Defence Business Services Organisation (DBSO). The defence intranet has now become a significant means of communication that is made possible for people accessing the home page.
The intranet systems will enable greater functionality in ensuring that messages about changes in defence are communicated through processes such as web and library services, records archiving and review services, historical analysis and Controlled Values Repository (CVR). The objective is to make reliable data available to defence personnel through web-based services that will be provided by the DBSO.
Consistency, inter-operability and rationality of future systems will allow information exchange standards to be recognized at all levels of the MOD’s working. All these information services will add to efforts in achieving the defence information vision because a broad audience will be reached in most departments of the MOD.
In addition, they will also contribute in improving MOD’s quality of services because of availability of better information. All these factors will work in enhancing the MOD’s ability in explaining to the courts, Parliament and the public at large about its actions and initiatives. Costs will eventually be reduced in the long term because the department will face lesser extent of legal cases and claims in regard to information.
Innovations will go a long way in allowing the MOD to make gainful use of the new opportunities emerging from the adoption of leading-edge technologies. The present planned outlays for information systems will result in considerable improvement, while there are added prospects of achieving much more because of the innovative usage of new information.
It cannot be denied that defence departments have always delivered some levels of innovations, but there is need to integrate them in exploiting other opportunities in industry and other departments. Innovations will assist the MOD to optimise its investments, which in turn will be supportive for ICT through understandings relative to the best ways in which investments can be made to achieve the best possible results.
They will also help in collaboration efforts by categorizing new ways of exploiting and sharing information across the entire MOD. Efforts towards innovation will facilitate the MOD in establishing its leadership in the usage of information and data. The MOD is already having room-based video conferencing and will soon have capabilities of desktop conferencing.
However, video services in the MOD are currently inconsistent and innovations will help in sustaining MOD’s efforts by way of more exceptional ability amongst the workforce in terms of collaboration and sharing of knowledge.
Therefore, in order to benefit from opportunities of innovation, the MOD will have to make use of the best external practices, make use of research, identify current shortcomings and identify the dormant capabilities in regard to information systems.
Given that we live in a constantly changing world, it is essential for the MOD to identify the best opportunities as and when they are available in order to make the best use of information. The constant improvements being made in ICT should primarily relate to a higher flow of information, which will provide the MOD with opportunities as well as challenges.
It is now recognized that in the present technological environment, operations should not be dependent on actions to be taken on land, water, or in the air. Rather, there is now only one battle-space, which is cyberspace on which defence forces have to rely on to a great extent.
This is because defence forces are now much dependent on information obtained through new forms of intelligence and surveillance technologies and associated support systems. In order to remain consistently successful, the MOD has to become more responsive and efficient in the management and exploitation of information.
Such capability will allow the MOD to carry out its commitments and to effectively face the emerging challenges while remaining within its budgetary limitations. The strategy will help the MOD in improving the use of information across all departments (Ministry of Defence 2011).
It is envisaged that the Defence Core Network Services Programme (DCNS) will drastically improve the Information Communications Technology (ICT) of the MOD by way of better user experiences and by way of enterprise-wide end to end ICT services that will be provided in keeping with the agility and costs of best practices in the industry.
In this regard, the digital agenda will be supported by DCNS through enabling of efficient mobile services and better quality for fixed users. Achieving the required programme benefits and the successful procurement of new ICT services will greatly depend on the ISS Transformation Programme and the applicability of SIAM capabilities.
The DCNS programme relates to making future ISS deliveries relative to ICT services in defence establishments so that the Ministry of Defence can carry out military operations and work effectively as a department of state. In effect, this programme is a branch of the Defence Major Projects Portfolio (DMPP).
DCNS has the capability of delivering the required ICT service to end-users who perceive the same as being integrated with better and less complex results that are characterized with agility in making the services to be easily and quickly adaptable to meet up with the fast-changing circumstances. In addition, it proves to be cost-effective in several ways.
To provide better services, DCNS aims at acquiring services instead of buying systems and equipment for the implementation of ICT management services. The workstreams are defined by the Services Portfolio working systems with the objective of creating coherence amongst the services in making them compliant with the Defence Information Reference Model (DIRM).
The manner in which the services will comply with user requirements is best explained by the Architecture Reference Model (ARM) that reveals the ways in which varied services can be deployed in different business and operational circumstances.
The Target Supply Chain Model (TSCM) was set up with the objective of defining the ways in which services can be sourced from industries and used gainfully for a given period of time.
The objective is to use a service tower model that will be coordinated with Service Integration and Management (SIAM) to maximise the usage of commoditised ICT services in adopting a category management strategy in situations when the services can be bifurcated into distinct groupings of comparable goods. It is proposed to source a service Integrator in the management and integration of supply contracts.
An essential component of the envisaged operating strategy is the adoption of SIAM functions that specify the procedures having the potential to allow ISS to benefit from industry-specific best practices so that well-integrated ICT services are delivered. The main objective of the DCNS strategy is to deliver successfully. The process entails that future services will have to be procured in complying with the DCNS strategy.
Thereafter, the projects will lead to change in services from the present status to new engagements while ensuring consistency in continuity of service. The MOD approach is to move away from seeking significant contracts and to focus more on smaller versions such as the Managed Service Providers (MSP).
They will be sourced through ICT services pertaining to frameworks such as the Public Services Network (PSN), which will be managed by reducing transition risks in assisting integration processes relative to new Service Towers.
The DCNS objective for the coming two years pertains to creating opportunities for planning and commencing with implementing of supply chain models that are compliant with the core principles of DCNS. The DCNS believes in using transparency in the management of supply chains, which allows for understanding the opportunities and associated costs of providing better services.
It aims at establishing higher levels of segregation in supply chains characterised with smaller contracts and using new government structures as far as possible. Another objective is to utilise integrated functions in regard to managing end to end supply chains. Portfolio-based strategies help in the replacement of current contracts with more efficient commercial engagements.
By balancing the risks of transition from present contracts it is essential to ensure that the objectives of DCNS are met effectively. In this regard, the DCNS has established the Target Supply Chain Model (TSCM), which has the nature of evolving on a continuous basis in reflecting new Tower supply chain approaches on the basis of discrete strategies that allow effectively meeting up with the new challenges in the market atmosphere.
Significant changes brought forth with the implementation of the Tower Approach pertain to commercial strategies introduced through ISSS and TOM. The extent of integration that was allocated in the past in respect of the Service Integration Layer is a consequence of the MSP models of the past that were required to be reduced in scale, though not in terms of capacity,
The SIAM strategy focuses on ensuring that the varied components of different services in the supply chains are delivered to users in the MOD so that their requirements can be met with efficiently. SIAM functionaries have already outlined their strategy on how they plan to deal with the six main aspects, which are(Governance, Organisation, Process, Service Management Architecture, ISS Service-Based Model for SIAM and ISS E2E.
All these have a strong bearing on the working of the ISS. In effect, SIAM is a strategic approach that allows delivery of IT services in a highly complex and differently sourced atmosphere.
SIAM can be said to be an improvement over conventional methods of sourcing because it encompasses varied characteristics that permit integrating and managing module services obtained from varied providers in creating E2E services capable of being used effectively by end uses.
The ISS implements a strategy of sourcing from different suppliers, which has to be cautiously balanced in terms of being flexible so that the required services are provided to businesses in being efficiently integrated. The objective is to have services that can deliver high levels of continuity in services. Once the ISS is able to allow larger numbers of contracts, the supply chains would become highly complicated.
Such a situation will create situations in which there will be need to constantly define controls so that they are implemented on a constant basis and enforced effectively. In the process, the ISS benefits by imbibing abilities to deal with these suppliers in areas such as operation of activities, designing of services and allowing component services to be conveniently moved amongst different MSPs.
However, the strategy can succeed only if ISS establishes several contracts for SIAM. The main characteristics of SIAM are customer management, supplier management, service lifecycle management and organization. The main objective is to organize all these capabilities in ways that the required quality is achieved and delivery of projects and programmes are made timely.
Given that the ISS has started adopting the tower-focused contract strategy, it is implied that the organization will have to make appropriate adjustments so that the SIAM processes strengthen the need for required changes.
The DCNS programmes are required to be technically supported through the GRAPEVINE projects in terms of procuring, evaluating and transitioning IUS services and Connectivity relative to the OSM. Strategically, the teams support the overall transformation process of the ISS.
The main objective of the DCNS OpIS is to make agile deliveries of operational information services, which can be effectively used during wartime to make missions successful. These objectives can be achieved by establishing comprehensive architectural requirements, clear and targeted policies, effective use of DCNS services and effective strategies of sourcing.
In order to achieve the given objectives, the DCNS OplS strategy will have to make efforts in moving towards a futuristic state in which capabilities are delivered by providing the required services. As far as possible, the DCNS OplS should make use of its usual services and adopt other approaches only if there are different operational circumstances.
By adopting such approaches, the DCNS will succeed in maximising consistency while effectively achieving commercial efficacy to improve quality of information that can be used in operations and strategic functions in land, sea and air.
The scope of the project relates to four major areas, which are Defence Technical Training Change Programme (DTTCP), Army Recruitment Training Division, Classrooms Information Infrastructure Project (ACIIP), Navy Training Information Infrastructure Project (NTIIP) and Air Training Information Infrastructure Project (ATIIP).
EMBRACE is a project of the MOD and falls within its ICT (Information and Communication Technology) strategy that focuses on transformation initiatives established for responding to the new challenges. EMBRACE is a project that will help in developing greater consistency in the compliance of policy initiatives relative to the MOD’s ICT strategies, ultimate objective being to achieve efficiency and better management practices.
High-Grade Messaging (HGM) is a technology development proposed to be used by the MOD in securing the availability of assured mechanisms for disseminating crisis information and operational command and control in the entire ministry. In addition, HGM is supportive of strategic deterrence and strategic intelligence functions (Ministry of Defence 2014a).
Reserve forces in the UK are known to have made significant contributions that are constantly increasing in the same proportion as the extent to which the entire armed forces are being restructured (Blitz 2012).
In meeting the security challenges that have been created for the future, it has become essential to revitalise the Reserve Forces in order to reverse past patterns relative to decline in their total strength and reduction in investments (Philips 2012b).
It is proposed to make additional investments amounting to 1.8 billion pounds in the coming ten years with the objective of enhancing the strength of the Reserve Forces and to provide them training and better infrastructure.
However, the changes will result in positive impact only if shifts are made in the thinking patterns relative to how Reserve Forces are to be dealt with and how they will be used in combat and civil functions. The Reserve Forces are considered to command immense value for the armed forces and are crucial for delivering internal and external security.
The 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review had outlined the manner in which the armed forces will be structured and proposed the roles that will be played by the reserve forces in the future.
It is envisaged to provide additional roles for the reserves as they will be used in larger numbers not only in the force but also in enhancing capabilities of defence in some specialized functions that do not require full-time work (Ministry of Defence 2013c).
In the Army 2020 Programme, the Armed Forces have been restructured in making the best possible use of available resources. The objective is to employ national talent in providing the government with varied choices towards addressing the wide-ranging challenges that will emerge in regard to national security.
It is planned to complement the Regulars with the Reserves so that they work together by working as a strong force in enhancing military capabilities in diverse ways, particularly in regard to delivering the required range of skills and military abilities.
It was conveyed by the Independent Commission on the Reserve Forces in 2010 that the numbers of Reserves in the armed forces were on a constant decline and that they should be invigorated in meeting the increasing demands of a changing security atmosphere.
The enhanced dependence of the Reserves implies there is greater need to be assured that more Reserves will be trained and that their training standards are such that they can be effectively utilised as and when required (R. P. Defence 2014). There is thus a need to develop relationships in the context of utilising Reserves.
Given that societies rely heavily on national security, it is apparent that the economy and the business world cannot survive without the active participation of Reserves (Ashcroft 2014). It is now acknowledged by researchers and the government that enhanced dependence on reserves proves to be more cost-effective for the country as a whole.
It is thus essential for societies to play a greater role in encouraging and supporting the deployment of Reserves in national security. This objective can be achieved only if more people join the Reserves and more industries employ reserves. It is known that Reserves and their families contribute much more to the nation than other sections of society.
In addition, the defence is also dependent on them and must reward them appropriately. Once an individual joins as a Reservist, he becomes committed to receive training to be developed as a leader and to make use of the available opportunities in return for appropriate incentives and rewards.
Therefore, it is the duty of the government to provide reservists with high-class training, inspiring challenges, leadership opportunities and career growth (Ministry of Defence 2013b).
It is known that those employing reservists contribute more to the security of the nation, which is why the Defence recognises and attaches immense value the commitments made by businesses in this regard. The MOD has already declared that it will make the employment process of reservists simpler and attractive, while also providing for recognition to businesses contributing in this regard.
However, if these strategies have to succeed, there will have to be a significant shift in cultural and societal perceptions amongst businesses and amongst senior functionaries in the armed forces. Obviously, the envisaged changes and targets will take some time to achieve.
Substantial changes are planned to be made in the army in this regard. The Future Reserves 2020 Programme has been framed by the government in providing for additional funding of £1.8 billion, in the next decade. Policies will be created in attracting more significant numbers of people to enlist reservists by making rewarding and challenging offers.
It is expected that reservists will be required for practically all functions in the future. However, they will have to be trained appropriately in the required functions, which is why the government has already started investing in providing for high standards of training within and outside the nation. In addition, the MOD has simplified the application and selection procedures for reservists.
The MOD has taken initiatives to invest in reservists and their family members and also introduced policy measures that will create better alignment of their salary with that of regular soldiers.
After introduction of the new armed forces pension scheme, reservists will also be eligible to draw pension in relation to the time they spend in performing the given functions. The MOD has assured that appropriate welfare support will be provided to reservists, which will be at par with the regulars.
Reservists will be provided with occupational health services as also with rehabilitation assistance if they suffer injuries during employment or training. Reservists’ skills will be enhanced to the extent that they can be gainfully employed as civilians in keeping with the qualifications required for civil functions. Moreover, the government has announced a bonus of £5,000 for regulars that leave the army to join as reservists.
The government recognises the contributions made by employers in recruiting reservists and plans to set up a National Relationship Management with the objective of strengthening its relationships with such employers.
Appropriate financial incentives will be given to employers owning small and medium enterprises and the MOD will establish employer recognition systems with the objective of developing corporate conventions in ensuring that those employing reservists are given their due recognition.
The new legislation will be introduced in allowing the armed forces to hire reservists so that the entire range of envisaged tasks can be performed by them. The Territorial Army will be renamed the Army Reserve in reflecting the essential changes that will characterise the new roles of reservists.
It will take time to implement all the proposed changes, but there is no doubt that the MOD is committed in working to achieve all its goals. (Ministry of Defence 2013b).
Methodology The methodology for this research is based upon the research philosophy that is about making analysis of the extent to which the Army 2020 provides the UK Ministry of Defence with opportunities of increasing workforce efficiency through the use of information systems.
The methodology will focus on how the Army 2020 will prove to be an asset in providing the MOD with additional opportunities of increasing workforce efficiency through the use of information systems.
The methodology aims at examining the different ways in which the workforce is most effective, how the army currently operates in the UK and how the changes envisaged through the Army 2020 Programme are going to impact the present members of the Ministry of Defence in the UK, particularly those that are working in the army.
The methodology relates to making a discreet enquiry into the core issues of people, processes and technology. All these aspects will be thoroughly clarified through the methodology that will be followed in arriving at the outcomes in regard to the expected applicability and effectiveness of the Army 2020 Programme.
Given that people issues pertain to aspects such as mental attitudes relative to working hours and preferential treatments are given to some sections of employees, it is essential to have the perceptions of employees about such aspects in the working environment, which is best obtained through the present methodology, which seeks to have information about the attitudes of employees on different parameters that have a direct bearing on their satisfaction levels.
Another factor is the examination of the pressures of family life, particularly in view of the fact that in current times, both parents tend to work in attempts to add to the family income and to enjoy better standards of living. It is essential to examine the impacts of extra working hours and the effect of this pattern on children and family life.
All these research objectives are best achieved by examining the prevailing circumstances in the MOD and how they impact the needs and expectations of defence personnel.
A critical evaluation is then possible of the different circumstances that prevail in the MOD, which can then be used in framing research outcomes that will be very helpful for MOD authorities in determining the perceptions of different sections of employees in regard to the success of the Army 2020 Programme.
Research Design This study employed a qualitative research design for purposes of structuring the research process. According to Hopkins (2000), this type of research design will help the researcher to examine the issues at hand since the research is largely interested in evaluating the relationship between different variables.
Qualitative studies are either descriptive or experimental, but this particular study will employ a descriptive approach since the subjects, in this case, are people working in different positions in the UK Ministry of defence and it is pertinent to have their views about what they feel about the current working environment and what changes they wish to have in achieving greater satisfaction from their jobs.
Primary data was gathered by means of undertaking an online survey specifically designed to measure the respondents’ perceptions, values, satisfaction, and opinion in regard to their working environment in the defence forces in the UK.
According to Sekaran (2013), a survey is useful when the researcher is particularly interested in descriptive assessment of a particular phenomenon as it is the case in this study. Secondary data was collected by means of undertaking a detailed review of related literature.
This research aimed at achieving the objectives of making adjustments about the current activities of regulars and reserves employed in the UK MOD, particularly in the context of their expectations from the Army 2020 programme and what shortcomings they wish to get rid of in the implementation of the new procedures, particularly in regard to the efficacy of the new information systems that will have a strong bearing on their work and the satisfaction they will derive from such portfolios.
On the basis of the literature review and the answers to questions that were forwarded to individual respondents via e-mail, it was proposed to ascertain the following:
Whether the Army 2020 provides adequate opportunities of increasing workforce efficiency through the use of information systems.
How the changes envisaged through the Army 2020 Programme are going to impact the present members of the Ministry of Defence.
What employees in the MOD feel about working from ten to five and about discrimination at the workplace between office and field workers?
What are the pressures of family life, particularly in view of the fact that in current times, both parents tend to work in order to add to the family income and to enjoy better standards of living.
What are the impacts of extra working hours and the impact of this pattern on children and family life?
What impact will the policies followed by the army have on the lives of people working in the MOD?
Does the MOD’s ICT strategy aligns well with the introduction of additional Reserves and whether units will communicate effectively with Reserves after they start working.
What is the expected impact of the Information Systems on regulars and reserves in view of the new strategies emanating from Army 2020?
Will higher efficiency be achieved in the areas of remote access and mobile working in the UK MOD?
What are the associated risks relative to information security and information assurance and whether they can be effectively dealt with?
Will such risks are outweighed by the benefits of the new policies envisaged in Army 2020?
How can the UK MOD make the Army 2020 an excellent opportunity in addressing some of the emerging issues through the implementation of its Information Systems?
This research used different characteristics that were present in every chosen department for the purpose of this survey.
Individuals were also chosen from diverse backgrounds in order to have a broad cross-section of respondents in enabling the study to have a broad perspective while concluding the findings. 15 employees were chosen from different departments of the MOD, while there were 10 respondents selected from amongst the currently employed reservists who have been involved in the MOD’s activities in the recent past.
Five respondents were also chosen from different departments in the MOD in order to have their perceptions about the imminent changes being introduced through the Army 2020 Programme.
The respondents were provided with a questionnaire containing 20 questions about different aspects of the working environment in the MOD. The questions focused on extracting information pertaining to the performance of the MOD and what impact the Army 2020 will have on their official and personal lives.
The questionnaire was designed after conducting a mock pre-test by way of in-depth interviews amongst decision-makers in different departments of the MOD. Attempts were made to represent the widest possible cross-section of individuals and businesses in relation to the working of the MOD.
The criteria used for selecting respondents rested on the willingness of a given employee in coming forth with free and unprejudiced opinion of the MOD’s working. Respondents were selected from a broad base in attempts to include people that were aware of and directly involved with the MOD’s field and office functions.
The average age of the respondents was 34 years and 61 percent of respondents were from the field forces, while the remaining were those that were involved in office work.
Target Population and Sample The target population for this study comprised of people that were directly engaged with field and office working in the UK MOD. In order to get responses from individual respondents the email option was considered most meaningful because it allows having specific information from the perspective of respondent’s confidentiality.
Purposive and convenience sampling approaches were utilized for purposes of coming up with the desired sample. Purposive sampling was used to assist in the process of selecting a sample that has prior knowledge and understanding of the MOD’s working (Cohen et al., 2007).
Afterwards, the subjects were requested to respond to the questionnaire by virtue of being in the right location at the right time, otherwise known as convenience sampling (Sekaran, 2013).
Data Gathering Instruments Primary data for the study in the case of individual respondents was collected by means of an online semi-structured questionnaire schedule. A questionnaire is desirable in a descriptive study basically because it is easy to administer the tool in an online setting (Cohen et al., 2007).
The tool has been designed to measure the respondents’ perceptions, attitudes, and values regarding the MOD’s working by using a five-point Likert-type scale, which allows determining how these variables combine to enhance or lessen their opinion in the context of the MOD’s working.
Apart from the ability to attain a high response rate, it is also easy to undertake a comparative analysis when using a questionnaire due to the fact that most items consist of closed-ended questions (Sekaran, 2013).
The questionnaire used in this particular study was also subjected to thorough testing to ensure that issues of data validity and reliability are appropriately dealt with. Secondary data for this study was collected through a comprehensive review of literature, sourced from reliable sources, including textbooks and journals.
Data Analysis The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data assessment techniques for gathering primary and secondary data. Quantitative assessment involved coding the data contained in the questionnaires and entering them into a statistical package.
Afterwards, cleaning and analysis of the data were performed using the same package to generate frequency distributions and descriptive statistics that were used to answer the study’s main objectives. Data was presented in different forms and the qualitative data generated by the open-ended questions was analyzed by using a process known as qualitative content approach.
This method involves cleaning, coding, and evaluating responses that were given in either verbal or written communication so as to permit them to be considered quantitatively (Sekaran, 2013). All the people surveyed, are based in the UK have been working with the MOD for over three years. The responses from 1 to 5 pertained to responding to one of the following for each question:
Tend to Agree
Neither Agree nor Disagree
Tend to Disagree
Results The outcomes of the survey revealed several aspects about the perceptions of army personnel in the context of their current working conditions. In addition, it also threw light on their attitudes about the current circumstances in which they have to work.
Upon making comparison of the responses of different respondents it became apparent that officers, as well as other ranks in each of the services, indicated that there are considerable differences in perceived roles and experiences by way of working conditions, family life and terms and conditions of service.
The compiled data gave ample opportunities of analyzing and monitoring the attitudes of military personnel deployed in important management assignments. The survey assessed different parameters such as welfare, health, leaves, personal life, housing, career growth, leadership opportunities, employment, morale and remuneration. The army personnel also gave their opinions about how they felt working with reserves.
The information that emerged from the survey will be very useful in developing and keeping track of policies in the military while also being informative about the outcomes of policies followed by different departments in the MOD.
It becomes evident from a comparison of the present survey outcomes with those of AFCAS 2013 that there is not much change in the overall satisfaction levels in most aspects of service life. Majority of the service personnel were found to be satisfied with their personal and official lives, while some remained dissatisfied. It thus becomes apparent that there is not much change in the morale of military personnel as compared to 2013.
It is also evident that after demonstrating low morale in the previous three years, army personnel now feel little better because 35 percent of the staff from the Other ranks category rated their morale as quite high.
The biggest reason why service personnel wish to leave the defence is because of the adverse impact on their personal and family lives. Many service personnel were motivated to continue with the service because of availability of facilities such as pension, job security, health care and dental care.
Majority of the defence personnel feel proud of being in the service, although only about 30 percent feel they are given value while working. An increasing percentage of staff responded in saying they were overloaded in terms of quantum of work. Overall, life in the army continues to be quite high; to the extent of 72 percent.
In terms of organizational engagement, the respondents clearly revealed they had a high sense of pride in being a part of the army and felt proud about contributing to the nation’s security.
Over half of the respondents declared their workload was quite high, but despite this situation, over 45 percent were willing to continue working in the army because of the benefits accruing in terms of other factors such as job security and other facilities not available in other employments.
Almost 60 percent of the respondents were found to be satisfied with the current salary levels, while 55 percent asserted they felt privileged to be given the authority to use the latest technologically advanced gadgets and new information systems. In terms of training and career growth, 58 percent of the respondents felt satisfied with the current provisions and practices.
It is apparent from the outcomes of the sample survey that the army personnel are mostly contented about their current status and the facilities they get by way of being employees of the MOD. It is apparent that in view of the strenuous circumstances military personnel have to work, they do deserve more than what employees working in other sectors get.
Nevertheless, just as growth is imperative in every field of human activity it is logical that army personnel should be offered ample opportunities of growth and career advancement so that they are able to progress and afford higher standards of living in keeping with the fast pace of development that is taking place in the present economic environment because of globalisation.
At the same time, the MOD has to approach each issue very cautiously because of its constraints relative to funding and organization in view of its answerability before the UK Parliament.
It is apparent that the MOD faces an uphill task because it has to make the best use of its meagre resources that will primarily be made available from the savings in costs emanating from the downsizing of the armed forces as provided for in the Army 2020.
Discussion There are some major elements of the Army 2020 Programme through which the MOD envisages to bring major structural and procedural changes in the working of the ministry and its departments, which will have a strong bearing on the working conditions and satisfaction levels of regular soldiers and reservists while also creating ground for vastly improving the effectiveness and efficacy of the Ministry’s performance in a highly evolving national and international security environment.
The establishment of a Reaction Force is in keeping with the objective of attaining higher readiness so that contingency tasks can be performed at short notice. The Reaction Force will be equipped and trained so that it can carry out all the operations and interventions in any enduring requirement in the future.
In addition, provisions have been made for the establishment of an Adaptable Force comprising of regular and reserve soldiers that will be assigned logistics and infantry functions respectively in meeting the obligations of the MOD. This manpower will be used for wide-ranging tasks such as defence engagements, enduring actions and overseas assignments.
A third category of staff in the MOD will pertain to a brigade of Command Support, Combat Service Support and Combat Support, which will be primarily involved in maximising sustainability and efficacy in the MOD’s functions. However, there are apprehensions amongst a section of analysts in regard to moving away from the strategy announced by the SDSR in regard to the Five Brigade Model.
Some controversies were created by the announcements made in regard to the Army 2020 Programme, not only in the context of decision making about particular regiments and units but also in regard to a number of strategic issues. It has not been substantiated as to what factors were responsible in driving the given plans and how such projects were envisaged and assessed.
There is no clarification on the ways through which the proposed changes in regard to the army’s strength and configuration would guarantee that the envisaged functions could be undertaken effectively (Brooke-Holland
The ADCO: Description of the Organization Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) is one of the most successful and significant oil companies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which operates in the region since 1930s. The company is discussed as the largest producer of oil in the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) group.
The ADCO contributes significantly to the economy of Abu Dhabi and other Emirates because of constantly developing and improving the approaches to oil production in the region. Thus, the ADCO operates onshore, and its share in the industry is more than 50% (Wildcat Publishing 40).
The activities of the ADCO are not limited only by the oil production, and the company is interested in producing gas for Abu Dhabi (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
The ADCO is the most influential player in the oil and gas industry of the UAE that is why much attention should be paid to the discussion of the business’s strategy, description of organization’s divisions, analysis of the role of the management information systems (MIS) division, to performing the Value Chain and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis, and to proposing the recommendations for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness.
The ADCO Business Focus and Porter’s Three Generic Strategies
In order to discuss the specifics of the ADCO’s business focus or strategy, it is necessary to determine the company’s business type.
The ADCO is focused on the oil and gas production. Since the 1960s, the company produced more than 10 billion barrels of oil and a lot of gas in order to support the activities of such companies as GASCO (Wildcat Publishing 40). From this point, the company is oriented to increasing production volumes and improving the operation strategies.
The company’s business focus can be determined with the help of referring to Porter’s Three Generic Strategies. These strategies are used to determine how a company can develop a strategy in order to achieve the competitive advantage within the industry. Strategies differ in relation to the market scope which can be broad and narrow or focused and in relation to the cost (Baltzan and Phillips 98).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, companies can choose between proposing lower cost and differentiation. Furthermore, companies can choose to work for the narrow market while addressing the unique needs of the target audience. From this point, the three proposed strategies are the Cost Leadership, Differentiation, and Focused Strategy (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Porter’s Three Generic Strategies (Baltzan and Phillips 99).
The ADCO can be discussed as following the cost leadership strategy because of operating within the broad market and proposing different types of oil and gas products in the UAE. Furthermore, the ADCO operates with the focus on low costs while developing new approaches to saving costs and guaranteeing the effective use of resources.
The ADCO focuses on more profits while promoting the most advantageous reservoir development and decreasing costs (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”). From this point, lower costs cannot be discussed as synonymous to lower prices because in spite of the fact that the ADCO’s pricing strategy is rather flexible, the company pays more attention to saving and controlling costs.
Main Divisions in the ADCO
The structure of the petroleum company which specializes in exploring and producing oil and gas depends on the necessity to provide operations and administration. It is important to focus on the organizational structure of the ADCO in order to understand how authority is delegated within the company.
The ADCO can be discussed as divided into four main departments which are also divided into units depending on the performed function. These departments are the administrative department, exploration department, production department, and marketing department.
The administrative department includes such divisions as Human Resources, Finance, Accounting, and Management Information Systems. The ADCO is governed by the Board of Directors including nine members. Mr. Abdul Munim Saif Al-Kindy is the company’s Chief Executive Officer.
We will write a custom Assessment on The ADCO: Description of the Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The finance department in the ADCO is headed by the chief financial officer who regulates the strategic financial issues. Much attention is paid to accounting in order to control the revenues and expenses (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
Human Resources Department is the important division because the ADCO follows the strategy of hiring the high-quality professionals and experts in the field.
The focus is also on Management Information Systems because of the necessity to manage and control the work of South East Asset, Bab and Gas Asset, BuHasa/Huwaila/BQ Asset, and NEB Asset from the office, and organize all the connected operations in departments (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
The exploration department in the ADCO works to locate and explore the onshore oil and gas reserves. The ADCO focuses on acquiring hydrocarbons and minerals as a result of the geophysical exploration and geological operations. The ADCO works with the professionals in the industry and pay much attention to hiring geologists and experts to work in laboratories.
The ADCO production department works to organize and control drilling activities. It also includes the engineering division. The field production is realized with the focus on using the advanced technologies and support of the partners. The marketing department of the ADCO includes the sales division and cooperates with the logistics unit.
Specialists in marketing are responsible for developing the strategies of promoting the company’s products widely (US Geological Survey 28). The company focuses not only on increasing production volumes but also on improving the sales volumes.
The MIS Division in Generating Business Intelligence and Achieving Competitive Advantage
Management Information Systems (MIS) work to assist people in solving a variety of business problems. The MIS division works to incorporate the information related to different departments and units, to analyze and manage with the help of computer technologies, and to distribute it within all the company’s departments.
The whole system works because of the continuous monitoring of inputs, feedbacks, necessary transformations, and outputs (Baltzan and Phillips 112). The role of the MIS department in the work of the petroleum company is significant because the system guarantees the access to the same information for different departments responsible for managing and performing operations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The ADCO: Description of the Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Business intelligence can be described as the work of technologies to collect, manage, analyze, store, and distribute the data necessary for problem solving and for the decision-making process.
The MIS department promotes the further development of business intelligence in relation to the petroleum company because all the departments receive the access to the effective single system with the help of which it is possible to organize operations, control sales, distribute the information to different parties, resolve tax issues, maintain costs, and organize accounting procedures.
The example of the ADCO demonstrates that the use of the MIS is also effective to increase the competitive advantage because the information system works to reducing costs, develop strategies, improve productivity and performance, and contribute to improving management (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
As a result, the business value related to such petroleum companies as the ADCO can increase significantly because of the use of the MIS.
The Value Chain and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Michael Porter proposed the Five Forces Model in order to discuss the competitive forces which can influence the company’s performance within the industry (Figure 2). While referring to the analysis of the competitive advantage of the ADCO and to analyzing its profitability, it is necessary to discuss Buyer Power, Supplier Power, Threat of Substitute, Threat of New Entrants, and Rivalry among Competitors in relation to the ADCO.
Figure 2. Porter’s Five Forces Model (Baltzan and Phillips 114).
The Buyer Power within the oil and gas industry in the UAE is rather low because the market and industry is controlled by the ADNOC group. The ADCO is the most successful member of the group, and the company can control the prices and costs with little attention to the Buyer Power. Furthermore, much attention is paid to developing the MIS in order to organize the production and marketing effectively.
The Supplier Power in the industry is rather high because the companies from the ADNOC group prefer to work with the partners during a long period of time. The effectiveness of cooperation is based on reputation. As a result, there is a chain of suppliers working with the ADCO, and these suppliers can be discussed as rather influential because of the prolonged partnership connections (Vassiliou 54).
Threat of Substitute
Discussing the oil and gas industry in the UAE and referring to the ADNOC group, it is possible to note that the Threat of Substitute is high while paying attention to the competition within the group. In order to reduce the Threat of Substitute, the ADCO works to invest in exploration and developing new technologies to enhance operations and promote sales.
Threat of New Entrants
The Threat of New Entrants related to the petroleum industry in the UAE is rather high because of the variety of barriers to overcome in order to enter the industry.
The ADCO and the other companies belonging to the ADNOC group operate in the field during a long period of time that is why it is rather difficult for new competitors to enter the industry where the focus is on using significant human, financial, and intellectual resources.
Rivalry among Competitors
The ADCO operates in the oil and gas industry in the UAE since the 1930s. In spite of the fact that it is rather difficult to enter the industry, the completion among petroleum companies should be discussed at the international level.
From this point, the Rivalry among Competitors tends to be rather high because of using many resources to promote companies and gain more customers. As a result, to reduce the rivalry, the UAE petroleum companies united in such groups as the ADNOC group (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
In order to analyze the business’s potential, Porter also proposed to use the Value Chain Analysis. The focus is on activities which add value to the company’s production and increase the competitive advantage. These activities can be classified as primary and support ones. The primary activities include the raw materials and resources and the activities associated with production (Baltzan and Phillips 121).
The ADCO works to explore the reserves, drill and produce oil and gas, market the oil and gas, and deliver the products. The support value activities include the company’s infrastructure, the policies and activities of human resource management, the technology development and advancements associated with the laboratories’ activities, and the use of the MIS to manage and control all the processes (Figure 3).
Figure 3. The Value Chain for the ADCO
The ADCO adds to the business value while focusing on primary activities, and exploration and drilling add to the business value by 60%. More than 7% is referred to the MIS, and more than 10% is referred to the development of technologies in order to create the competitive advantage with the focus on the eco-friendly exploration and production (“Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations”).
The Plan to Measure the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Business and Recommendations on Improvements
The business potential can also be measured with the help of metrics oriented to assess the company’s progress in achieving the success and addressing the customers’ expectations. It is important to develop the plan which includes the approaches to measure the business’s efficiency and effectiveness.
The Efficiency It metrics can be used at the ADCO in order to measure the performance of the MIS and associated systems as well as the approaches to using the company’s resources. The Effectiveness IT metrics measures the impact of the operations and outcomes on the business’s progress and goals achievement (Baltzan and Phillips 128).
The plan to measure efficiency and effectiveness of business should include the focus on analyzing the efficiency and effectiveness indicators. While measuring the efficiency in relation the ADCO operations, it is necessary to focus on such factors as the following ones:
The hours spent on exploration, drilling, and production.
The hours spent to analyze and distribute the data and information with the help of the MIS.
The resources spent to perform the exploration and production procedures.
Thus, the focus on the business efficiency is the first step of the plan. The second step is the concentration on the business effectiveness. It is important to measure how the ADCO is close to adding more value to business. The important indicators are the following ones:
Savings and revenues.
The net profit.
In order to contribute to increasing the ADCO’s efficiency and effectiveness, it is necessary to concentrate on the following recommendations:
The realization of the business process reengineering with the emphasis on intensifying the workflow between the parties of the ADNOC group.
The improvement of the reservoir development by using the advanced technologies and procedures.
The improvement of the MIS to contribute to the business progress and integration of resources.
Optimization of the systems’ work with the focus on the MIS.
Conclusion The Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) is one of the most influential petroleum companies in the United Arab Emirates, and its progress depends on utilizing the effective strategies and innovative systems important to support administration and operations.
From this point, the ADCO can be discussed as the successful competitor within the industry, and the company’s success is a result of the effective strategy followed by the managers. Much attention is paid to developing the technological advantage and to the use of the MIS as the guarantee of the effective use and distribution of the necessary data.
Works Cited Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations. 2014. Web.
Baltzan, Paige, and Amy Phillips. Business Driven Technology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008. Print.
US Geological Survey. Minerals Yearbook, 2008: Area Reports, International, Africa and the Middle East. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2010. Print.
Vassiliou, Macy. The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry. New York, NY: Scarecrow Press, 2009. Print.
Wildcat Publishing. The Oil
Life Insurance Ethical Issues Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Summary
Summary Most companies are enforcing different strategies aimed at cushioning the companies from losses. Among the recent strategies that have resulted in a lot of ethical questions is the strategy where businesses take insurance cover for the death of their employees. As such, this paper goes deeper looking into the ethical issues surrounding life insurance for companies.
The emphasis of this paper are the complaints raised about life insurance in JPMorgan Chase. Most of the issues raised in the case are about the corporate life insurance policy and the benefits that accrue from the policy with respect to the company and its employees.
Several complaints have kept coming up concerning the commitment of the company to ensure that its employees are healthy, on the one hand, and the desire of the company to make billions of money from insurance firms on the corporate insurance life policies that are embraced by JPMorgan Chase, on the other hand.
Key facts The JPMorgan Chase case is one of the numerous examples of cases where companies seek to maximize output from their employees, devoid of devoting a lot of attention to the employees as the key resources as far as business continuity and profitability are concerned.
In the assessment of the JPMorgan Chase, the mysterious death of employees and the continued embrace of corporate insurance life policies come out as serious ethical concerns in the operation of the company.
A look at the arguments presented by Kimbrell (2014) and Martens and Martens (2014) points at the fact that the bank seems to be reaping from the deaths of its employees, having entered into agreements with insurance banks in the matter of corporate life insurance.
According to Kimbrell (2014), suspicious deaths are often reported in JPMorgan Chase as claims of using the deaths of the employees to earn more for the company keep coming up. The issues are raised by different commentators in the realms of business ethics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Wall Street Journal remains keen on documenting the deaths of the employees and the amount of money that JPMorgan Chase receives from insurance companies out of these deaths. The New York Times is also keen as far as reporting the developments of the deaths of employees and the benefits that JPMorgan Chase gets from the death of its employees are concerned.
Moral Analysis The bottom line in this ethical case of JPMorgan Chase is the morality surrounding the death of employees as the company keeps making money from these deaths. What needs to be explored, morally speaking, is the ethical stance that is embedded in corporate insurance life policies.
From the outset, it looks like there is either no moral consideration or very little consideration of morals in firms as they come up with strategies that cushion them from the business shocks that prevail in the volatile business environment. While it is obvious that JPMorgan Chase embraces corporate life insurance policies, more people are interested in the manner in which the corporate life insurance policies are enforced.
Here, it makes sense to assert that, “because the so-called company-owned life insurance offers employers generous tax breaks, the market is enormous; hundreds of corporations have taken out policies on thousands of employees”(Gelles, 2014, para. 5).
The above assertion shows that companies are becoming fond of corporate life insurance; instead of focusing on business practices that can promote the welfare of the employees and other stakeholders, businesses are involved in practices that prey on the employees.
Gelles (2014) asserted that, “JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo hold billions of dollars of life insurance on their books, and count it as a measure of their ability to withstand financial shocks” (para 5). The implication of the above statement is that employees in JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo are viewed the perspective of being the tools of profitability, rather than being part of the organizational success through their input.
Therefore, it is imperative to note that the main actors in the case are the JPMorgan Chase Bank, on the one hand, and its employees and the corporate world at large, on the other hand. The employees, who are often on the receiving end when it comes to corporate life insurance policies, keep raising questions about the moral stance in corporate life insurance.
We will write a custom Essay on Life Insurance Ethical Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethically speaking, corporate life insurance is one of the ways through which companies dehumanize their employees because they take their employees as tools for generating income. Several values that come out in the case include social justice, the sacredness of human life, and care. Social justice is a principle that calls for all firms to pay attention to moral values in embracing different practices and strategies.
In the case, the principle is breached because JPMorgan Chase seems to value the death of its employees. The issue of care also comes up, as there is no commitment of the company to take care of the employees because the company knows that the death of any of the employees can raise income. This is why a substantial number of suspicious deaths of employees have been reported (Kimbrell, 2014; Martens
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis at the Workplace Research Paper essay help
Abstract Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis are some of the most pronounced workplace injuries that limit the efficiency of workers. This paper offers a consummate discourse regarding the concept of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis at the workplace.
It addresses the prevalence of the conditions at the workplace and their management as a way of enhancing efficiency at the workplace. The paper finds that the disastrous effects of the two injuries can be greatly reduced through application of ergonomic principles.
Introduction Achieving Workplace Efficiency through the Practice of Ergonomics
Effectiveness of the human resource in an organization is a factor of the organizational success. Healthy personnel in an organization contribute immensely to the success of an organization. Moreover, health of the employees is a subset of the work conditions of the workers.
Health defines the quality and the quantity of the work input by the workers. In this regard, an organization’s primary obligation is to institute measures of ensuring workers are at their optimal health. Therefore, principles of ergonomics in the workplace should be invariably observed (Konz, 2011).
Literature Review Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome hinders the efficiency at the workplace. The condition affects the palm area of the hand leading to numbness. The defect impairs the coordination of the muscle movement in the palm of the hand thereby causing intense pain.
Because of the vitiated coordination in the palm region, grasping of objects becomes a grueling affair. Poor muscle coordination also leads to impaired movement of the hands. The fact that the hand achieves 99% of the workplace chores makes the condition a severe affair that must be controlled (Karwowski
“Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Summary of the Book
Dating is a vital practice since it allows people to know and love each other in a bid to make a happy life. Deal (2012) presented various pertinent arguments regarding dating and paid particular attention to a single parent.
This book titled as Dating and the Single Parents has a discussion about dating from how it commences to how a stable relationship is established. Author points out that dating of single parents begins with the willingness and readiness to prepare the children for it. When this vital decision is made, a single parent starts to look for a dating partner with whom he or she dates.
A successful dating process should end up in a marital commitment and the preparation of a stepfamily. The individuals reengage and become a part of a new family. Essentially, the single parents might decide to live together and marry. Whereas Deal presents these ideas and their appropriate directions, he not only provides advice for people involved in dating, but also makes substantive basis to affirm his argument.
Intent of the Book
Deal’s suggestions were tactful as they addressed the issues of single parents seeking new relationships that may lead to marriage.
It addresses what divorce incorporates and how it influences the life of single parents. Its preliminary section indicates the self-evaluation of the single parents and their own life. Furthermore, it provides the guidelines of evaluating and coming up with pertinent knowledge about their readiness to get into another relationship.
Deal discusses some of the attributes to consider when dating such as its purpose, how to groom, and challenges that can be experienced in the process. He elaborates on how dating would affect a person’s spiritual life. Furthermore, the author provides real-life situations and testimonies from experiences of other single parents and children.
Precisely, Deal has also brought out some scenarios where single parents and their children experience challenges as this love progresses. Moreover, he considers how partners match their characters in order to live together successfully. Deal uses the symbolic Yellow, Red, and Green lights as the checklists to locate a partner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fate of the children is addressed as exemplified in the case where he gives precise life experiences on love that occurs between the individual parents. This love that leads to marriage between single parents has been identified as risky unless a person finds a partner who is committed in fulfilling his or her roles in a new family, especially those related to the kids.
In a bid to wrap-up the whole idea in the book, the author gives life advices that concern marriage. He advises on the devotion involving marriage life, and the credible preparatory measures as an individual enters into a new family seeking to bring up the step-children. He recommends a clear understanding between the members of the separate families coming together and supports the treatments suited for them.
Conclusively, Deal brings out the expected aspects while considering re-marrying after divorce, which raises the concept of the combined families. Furthermore, he provides proper advices defended by justified bible quotes to support his arguments.
Use of the Book for Christian Premarital Couples
The premarital couples are in an essential stage that requires proper counseling from the pastors. Therefore, the pastors require appropriate principles to assist them in offering clear and non-misleading guidance for the couples.
There are four types of premarital couples namely harmonized couples, conflicted couples, traditional couples and vitalized couples. In this light, the proper literature based on the church teachings is used by the pastors when preparing these prenuptial couples.
In consideration of all the features argued by Deal (2012), great teachings for the premarital couples have been provided. It presents some of the important learning experiences for both counselors and the counselees.
The features involved in any premarital counseling include steps to bring the couples together, issues that entail the roles of the couples, occurrences of grounding the religious marriages, and the resources helping pastors during counseling. Therefore, the book bears a great potential for changing the lives of the prenuptial couples in different perspectives.
We will write a custom Book Review on “Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When assessing the steps to bring couples together in church, the single parents provide most important information that involves blending of the divorced parents. The pastors would apply the illustrations argued by Deal to counsel the couples. He also provides some of the values to incorporate during dating and the expectations from a promising partner.
The premarital couples interested in learning their characters properly before accepting marriage commitments would find the evaluation guidelines in this book very helpful. Deal (2012) argues that dating forms a crucial step in understanding the partner even though the personal characters are not revealed fully by the activities performed while dating.
Deal provides Christian perspectives that are prominent among premarital couples. For instance, he argues how God is forgiving which implies that couples should emulate such aspect in their entire marriage life. The warnings that he pronounces against the lies in dating, the challenges in raising up step-children, and the risks involved in re-marriages are very helpful during the evaluation and while choosing the best remarriage partner.
Furthermore, he argues that since different religions have varying perception on marrying, dating would play a vital role in evaluating how such issues can be resolved. In essence, Deal reviews the differences that exist especially when considering different beliefs from different churches. The interpretations of the scriptures divide people along their beliefs in marriage and dating.
In regard to Deal’s arguments on the best place to meet a promising marriage partner, Christians find the book useful as they read the key steps involving the red light, the green light, and the yellow light (Deal, 2012). The blending concept is also important to the Christian premarital couples who share diverse backgrounds such as single parents raising their own kids.
Critique of the Book
The ideas postulated by Deal (2012) have been critiqued under this title, which based on theological perspectives. This critique is based on the fact that marriage, dating, and relationships form essential parts of the society.
Although the author tries to bring out the different aspects entailed in remarriage between single parents tirelessly, there are various features that have not been justified. However, most of the issues addressed are true and justified. The following issues and critiques have come out clearly in the book.
The Evident Lies in Dating among Christian Pre-couples
Deal (2012) postulates that most couples who are considered did not like their marital status, which is attributed to their dating lives. However, this does not imply that it is the usual occurrence for most dates since they allow people to know and identify their most suited life partners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, it is through dating that people are able to learn secrets about their partners (Brady, 2011). Deal (2012) argues that most people show their best characters making it hard to determine the real personalities even when suitors try to select a partner.
However, some of the little camouflage that most people employ while dating is essential. Since it is advisable to spend a longer time while dating before a person decides to be/get married, Deal (2012) shows the dating period as shorter to an extent of preventing the identification of the real characters. It is common to have a proper dating method.
According to theological point of view, it is uncommon to encounter dating partners who lie to each other (Brady, 2011). This is in respect to the church teachings about being faithful and the acknowledgement that lies are not expected among dating Christians. This contrasts what Deal claims to be prevalent among Christian dating couples.
Developing creative dating ideas can facilitate the understanding of the partner’s character as bad and good. Similarly, Christians can undergo an artistic dating process that can lead them easily into knowing the true characters of their partners (Harper
Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution Essay best college essay help
Retail banking in the UAE
Retail banking concerns the transaction of banks with consumers without relying on corporate intermediaries. Here, the services on offer include savings or transacting accounts, loans, credit and debit cards, and mobile or internet banking facilities. A common thing about retail banking in the UAE is that all banks offer Islamic banking.
As a result, many of their loans to consumers are interest free and the banks provide a variety of instruments that help small businesses to grow. When loaning out money to retail clients, banks rely on the relationship they have with the client, the financial statement of the client, and the credit score. Banks exist mainly because of their credit offering business.
As banks lend out money, they run the risk of not getting it back because they do not control the circumstances that face the borrower. The UAE banking sector has 23 domestic banks and 28 foreign banks serving both the retail and corporate markets (Moukahal 2011).
The central bank of the UAE took over the operations of the Currency Board through the enactment of Federal Law 10, which gave it the mandate to advice government on monetary and financial issues (Hashmi 2007). The central bank also deals with currency issuing, credit policy formulation, and maintenance of foreign and gold currency reserves (Hashmi 2007).
Under the role of monitoring and formulating a credit policy, the central bank also acts as the supervisor for the entire financial sector. It licenses banks and obliges them to use International Accounting Standards (IAS).
Hashmi (2007) explains that banks need UAE nationals as their majority shareholders and they must have vivid corporate structures. In addition, they must be shareholding companies and maintain a risk weighted asset ratio of at least 10% (Moukahal 2011).
Bank risk appetite
Risk appetite concerns the exposure to potential adverse effects that could arise from an event to which the particular organization expressing the appetite is willing to accept. Consequently, after meeting its risk appetite threshold, a bank will proceed to initiate and implement risk management procedures and business control measures so that it lowers the exposure to accepted and manageable levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A number of reasons can affect a bank’s risk appetite. They include the demand for favourable returns by equity investors, the desire of rating agencies and consultants to minimize risk as a default, the demands by regulators and consumers on an uninterrupted service, and the need for the bank to offer a predictable and steady return for shareholders.
Pursuing opportunities that have potential high rewards forces banks to take on high risks. When setting the risk level that could be accepted, a bank will seek to balance its loss potential with its profit potential. In this regard, banks will concern their business activities with the allocation of time and resources to activities that minimize risk exposure.
They will consider whether they need to take any immediate action concerning their risk exposure and rely on their formal response strategies to erode the impact of the risk event. Finally, banks will rely on the history of the bank itself or the industry in the country and throughout the world to evaluate options for reducing effects of risk events.
When banks have a high-risk appetite, they advance more loans to borrowers. Therefore, the indicators of a favourable economy for lending will also work as indicators for increased risk appetite for banks. A growing economy provides citizens with a variety of ways to earn money and pay back loans from banks.
In return, banks find it increasingly profitable to increase their loan offerings because there are many people capable of repaying them back. When the favourable environment for lending changes and banks realize that the credit worthiness of its clients is plummeting, they reduce their lending activities.
However, the transition period could be hectic and the bank could end up with a large amount of non-performing loans on its asset books. Writing off the loans would then expose the bank to losses and they could lead to collapse of the bank when they are too much.
In the UAE, bank risk appetite follows the performance of the economy as indicated by the rate of economic growth, the level of consumer confidence, and the level of risk aversion in the financial industry. Banks can borrow money for subsequent lending and their ability to borrow will affect their lending ambitions.
We will write a custom Essay on Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, when they are evaluating their risk appetite, banks will also include their capital base and shock-absorption capacity. As the regulator of banks, the central bank compels the banks to disclose their credit exposures periodically and maintain a considerable amount of their assets within the central bank deposit facility.
The move ensures that an individual bank’s high-risk appetite does not jeopardise the stability of the entire banking industry and, in extension, the economy when a risk event occurs (Hull 2007).
General overview of a bank ALCO Assets and Liability Management committee
A bank will usually have Asset/Liabilities Committees (ALCO), which is a risk-management unit in the bank that works to evaluate, monitor, and approve risk related practices. Banks need a considerable amount of liquid assets for them to handle expected and unexpected financial balance sheet fluctuations.
A bank will be in a favourable liquidity option when it is able to obtain needed funds promptly and at reasonable costs (van Greuning
Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The prevalent mood across the United States after the Second World War was rife with optimism and unparalleled success. The middle class “rapidly expanded, unemployment was low, and the United States (the only country with a nuclear bomb) became the most powerful country on earth” (Burr par.14).
Unfortunately, this mood lasted for a short period of about four years before the Soviet Union started stockpiling nuclear bombs in 1949. Given that the United States was the only state with nuclear weapons by then, the Soviet’s decision to test its first nuclear weapons openly in 1949 caused tensions in the US.
The hitherto mood of success turned somber and Americans became paranoid due to the fears of a nuclear bomb being dropped from the Soviet Union. Americans started preparing for nuclear bomb attacks. The political environment was awash with speculations and conspiracy theories, with some politicians claiming that Soviet spies had infiltrated the American government.
The film industry thus sought to highlight the changing mood across the United States with film directors coming up with movies to underscore the situation.
Some of the outstanding superhero movies that underscored the Cold War paranoia include Captain America directed by Albert Pyun in 1990 and Batman, which was released in 1966. This paper explores these two superhero movies and their correlation with Cold War paranoia in terms of characters and the plotlines.
Batman (1966) This movie is commonly referred to as Batman: The Movie and it is an adaptation of the Batman Television Series, with emphasis on the character, Batman, who featured extensively in DC Comics (Garcia 55). The movie’s plotline elicits fear, apprehension, and confusion, which characterized the Cold War paranoia.
When Batman tries to rescue Schmidlapp from a yacht, the vessel disappears and he comes out with his leg in a shark’s mouth (Batman). This form of unexpected events underscores the uncertainty that surrounded the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Americans did not know what to expect if either of the warring sides launched a nuclear attack against the other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Batman and Robin later realize that the call claiming that Schmidlapp had been kidnapped was a set up by the United Underworld, which sought to eliminate Batman. This aspect underscores the many conspiracy theories that surrounded the Cold War. As the movie progresses, the plot exposes the view that everyone loses in a war.
Batman and Robin fail in their attempt to protect the kidnapping of the United World Organization’s Council, while the United Underground loses its missiles and submarines in the war. Similarly, both the United States and the Soviet Union lost substantially during the Cold War. Innocent civilians died as collateral damage on top of property destruction coupled with the death of thousands of soldiers involved in the war.
On the choice of characters, Batman represents the kind of a superhero that Americans wanted to be assured of safety from the threats of nuclear bombs from the Soviet Union.
Americans knew that the government could not protect them sufficiently if a nuclear war broke out because in a nuclear war, there are no winners as everyone loses (Burr par. 16). In addition, the use of Catwoman, under the disguise of Miss Kitka – a Soviet journalist, highlights the allegations of communist sympathizers within the United States at the time.
Captain America This movie is an adaptation of the Marvel’s Comics Superhero. In the movie, the need to come up with a superhero to protect Americans from the threat of a nuclear attack from the Soviet Union stands out. Even though the plot oscillates between Italy and the United States, fear and unpredictability come out clearly.
The Italian government eliminates Tadzio’s family before kidnapping him for experimental purposes as it seeks to make a fascist superhero (Captain America). However, one of the project masterminds, Dr. Vaselli, cannot stand the thought of using an innocent boy as a guinea pig and so she escapes to the United States where she kick starts a similar project. She successfully transforms one of the soldiers, Steve Rogers, into a superhero.
Even though the director of this movie does not mention the Soviet Union directly, the themes used point to the Cold War paranoia at the time. The idea of coming up with a superhero being was born out of the uncertainty surrounding the possibility of using nuclear bombs during the Cold War (Snellings par. 17).
We will write a custom Essay on Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cloning of a superhero in Italy and the replication of the same in the United States can be taken to imply the making of a nuclear bomb in the US and the subsequent replication of the same by the Soviet Union. On the use of characters, the script follows that of Batman with superhero characters taking the center stage.
Conclusion Fear, apprehension, and uncertainty characterized the Cold War era. Americans lived in ‘nuclear war preparedness’ as the Soviet Union was allegedly planning to drop a nuclear bomb anywhere in the US. Moviemakers sought to make films highlighting this feeling of uncertainty.
In addition, Americans wanted a form of protection, which could only come from a superhero as opposed to relying on government forces. Therefore, filmmakers used superheroes in their movies to meet the society’s expectations at the time, as shown in the movies, Batman and Captain America.
Works Cited Batman. Dir. Leslie Martinson. Century City, LA: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, 1966. Film.
Burr, William. Nobody Wins a Nuclear War” But “Success” is Possible Mixed Message of 1950s Air Force Film on a U.S.-Soviet Conflict, 2011. Web.
Captain America. Dir. Albert Pyun. New York: Marvel Entertainment, LLC, 1990. Film.
Garcia, Bob. “Batman: Making the Original Movie.” Cinefantastique 24.25 (1994): 55-58. Print.
Snellings, April. Captain America Trades World War II Action for Cold War Paranoia in ‘The Winter Soldier, 2014. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Clinical Analysis: Conflicted Couple Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Identification of the key areas
Introduction This paper is aimed at discussing the problems encountered by a conflicted couple. In particular, it is necessary to focus on the experiences of Walter and Pam. This analysis will include three sections. At first, one should identify the strengths and weaknesses of their relations. Secondly, much attention should be paid to the personalities of both partners, especially the way in which their character traits affect their interactions.
Finally, it is critical to develop a strategy for supporting this couple. Overall, the methods, which can help these people, should reduce the impact of differences in their character traits; moreover, they should improve the conflict resolution techniques of this couple. Much attention should be paid to empathetic listening and the use of the Bible because these approaches can make Walter and Pam more resilient to various stressors.
Identification of the key areas One should first note that background of these people does not throw much light on the nature of their problems. For instance, both of them come from Protestant families with many children. Additionally, these belong to the same age group.
Certainly, there are some differences in the income level. Walter earns twice as much as Pam. This is one of the issues that may contribute to the inequality of partners, and this risk should not be overlooked. Nevertheless, this issue is not one of the top concerns for this couple.
It is possible to identify several strengths in the relationship between Walter and Pam. One of the main positive aspects is the high level of commitment to the marriage. Both partners believe that this marriage will be their last one, and they want to preserve these relations. Moreover, they are ready to take steps in order to improve them. Thus, it is possible to say that both partners may be willing to accept the suggestions of a counselor.
Moreover, they will be ready to change some aspects of their behavior in order to address potential problems. Furthermore, Walter and Pam are not afraid of expressing their feelings to each other. Moreover, they can do even at the time, when they have some significant disagreements.
Both of them describe each other as good listeners and this skill is critical for conflict resolution (Darling
Spinner Pet Sitters Coursework college admissions essay help
The current report presents a balanced scorecard for Spinner Pet Sitters. Based on the balanced scorecard and the company’s performance, the report also provides recommendations for Shelly to improve its performance in the coming years.
Balanced Scorecard for Spinner Pet Sitters A balanced scorecard is a strategic management tool, which is used to align a business’ performance and activities with its mission, vision, and objectives. Based on the information provided in the case study, the following balanced scorecard is developed for Spinner Pet Sitters:
Perspective Objectives Measures Organizational Goal Actual Performance Gap Financial Perspective Increase quarterly profits to $ 5,000
Increase return on capital employed (ROCE) to $ 4,000
Profit results for the quarter
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter
Profit for the quarter = $ 5,000
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter = $ 4,000
Profit for the quarter = $ 6,000
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter = $ 1,500
Customer Perspective Increase customer satisfaction to 95 percent
Increase customer recommendation rate to 80 percent
Customer satisfaction rate
Customer recommendation rate
Customer satisfaction rate = 95 percent
Customer recommendation rate = 80 percent
Customer satisfaction rate = 95 percent
Customer recommendation rate = 100 percent
Internal Processes To reduce duplication of activities in relation to different functions in the organization
To reduce bottlenecks in the processes
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions = 25 percent
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle = 15 percent
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions = 20 percent
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle = 15 percent
People / Innovation / Growth Assets To reduce turnover of employees
To increase job satisfaction among employees
Employees’ turnover rate
Employees’ job satisfaction rate
Employees’ turnover rate = 25 percent
Employees’ job satisfaction rate = 90 percent
Employees’ turnover rate = 0 percent
Employees’ job satisfaction rate = 50 percent
Recommendations for Spinner Pet Sitters Keeping in view the planned and actual performance of Spinner Pet Sitters and the gaps identified in the balanced scorecard presented above, following recommendations have been put forward for Spinner Pet Sitters to improving its performance.
The quarterly profits were reported to be above the targeted level, which is a positive sign for the company. However, in order to maintain the continuous growth in profits, the company needs to achieve higher efficiency in its operations. On the other hand, the return on capital employed was considerably lower than expected. In the coming periods, this could be improved by investing additional capital resources for enhancing the operational efficiency of the business.
As far as the customer satisfaction rate and customer recommendation rate are concerned, the actual results show that all expectations were met during the quarter. However, it is recommended that the business should keep its focus on delivering high quality and practicing effective customer care to ensure sustainability.
The efficiency level in the company’s processes should be improved in order to reduce the duplication of activities.
Jobs should be enriched and job designs should be reconsidered to improve the overall job satisfaction level of employees.
Reference List Balanced Scorecard Institute. (2013). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Retrieved from https://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSC-Basics/About-the-Balanced-Scorecard
Kaplan, R. S.,
Saudi Arabia Commercial Law Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The main contradiction between the UPICC and the Saudi Arabia commercial law is based on the fact that the Saudi Arabia law is largely Sharia law. The parties in commercial contracts have the freedom to contract, but the scope of the remedies and other modes of enforcing the contract are regulated by the Islamic law.
The issue has raised several issues of conflict that may pose a considerable danger to the parties entering into the contract if they are motivated by the UPICC remedies. With the UPICC, the contracts are supposed to be uniform from the making process to the enforcement stages. The uniform nature of the contracts has continuously guided state-to-state commercial contracts.
With distinct countries agreeing to enter into international commercial contracts, it has become easier to enforce the contracts. The Saudi Arabia commercial law is largely formulated on the basis of Islamic law, thus there are a lot of contractual differences that are evident.1 The remedies are mainly formulated to correspond with the guidelines of the Sharia law.
The greater portion of the Sharia law is characteristically different between Sharia law and the UPICC. The differences are based on the principles guiding the contracts, as well as the enforcement of the commercial contracts when a breach occurs. This essay will discuss the theoretical differences between UPICC principle and Saudi commercial law in the light of Islamic law.
The first essential point of consideration is the principle of commercial law in the light of Sharia law. Sharia law principles sharply contradict the principles of the international commercial law. Thus, the four schools of Saudi jurisprudence are contrary to the principles imposed by the UPICC. The most important point to note is that when the conflict occurs, the Saudi Islamic law should prevail over other laws.2
This implies that the Sharia law in Saudi Arabia takes pre-eminence over any other statute. In some situations, the enforcement of any right emanating from any other law will be subject to the decision of the court.3 Though there are rules and regulations used to supplement Sharia law, there is a prevailing element of Sharia law if there is any conflict between the rules and Sharia law.
The contradiction between the Islamic law and the international commercial laws is based on the fact that some of the transactions are not enforceable in Sharia law. For instance, any payment in form of receipts and other modes of payments are not enforceable if there is interest imposed on one party.4
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is emphasis on the use of fairness when entering into contracts. The Islamic law highly protects the consumer at the expense of other parties in the contract. The Islamic law is guided on equitable remedies, while it is clear that majority of the commercial contracts are based on the principle of rights and remedies between the parties. The rights and remedies cut across common law and other laws.5 T
here is unnecessary scrutiny of contracts under Islamic law to ascertain that the parties in the contract have not enriched themselves unjustly, yet Islamic law discourages unjust enrichment. If it is evident that a party is enriching themselves justly, then the courts declare the contract void.
The international commercial law is not based on the equitable principles of unjust enrichment, but on the fact that both parties in the transaction engage in a fair bargain; in other words, the parties have the freedom to contract or not.
Once the above principle is evident, any right derived from the contract is enforceable. Commercial transaction regulations do not require proof that the contract does not lead to unjust enrichment, unlike the Sharia law.6
The international commercial laws are aimed at providing remedies where the parties have agreed on the terms of the contracts. Despite the fact that the Islamic law allows the parties in a contract to agree on the conditions of the contract, any contract that is prohibited in the Sharia law does not enjoy this right.7 The Islamic law has provided a strict mechanism of rejecting an award for damages.
This is specifically where the damages represent a loss, either direct or indirect. Any contract that seeks liquidated damages is also classified in this category. The reason why the Islamic law still commands great respect is based on the fact that it serves the majority in the country.
The utility of the law in the given environment ensures that it prevails over other legal principles.8 The utilitarian principle provides that the greater good should be the impetus when deciding whether to incorporate a given principle in the scope of operation.
We will write a custom Essay on Saudi Arabia Commercial Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Islamic population in Saudi Arabia allows the enforcement of Sharia law. It should be noted that the law does not allow the enforcement of foreign judgments in Saudi Arabia. Some of the foreign commercial judgments are issued in foreign countries, which means that if the judgment is being enforced against a party in Saudi Arabia, then such a party will escape liability.9
The commitment of Saudi Arabia to enforce the laws to conform to the requirements of some of the treaties that the country has entered is of great benefit to the contracting parties. However, the commercial contracts are subject to the Islamic law, thus a party seeking to rely on the provisions of a given commercial judgment will be barred from doing so.
The courts and other bodies of law in Saudi Arabia have a way of ensuring that there are commitments to be met under the provisions in the Islamic law. The Islamic law provides a strict position that does not allow the operation of other laws.
Commercial transactions made in other countries have to be weighed against the provisions of Islamic law. Any of the distinct provisions will not be allowed to take effect if they are not structured according to the provisions of the existing Islamic law.10
Conclusion The provision of Islamic law imposes strict guidelines that are to be used if parties desire to enter into a contract that is to be interpreted according to the principles of the international commercial law. If the contract is to be enforceable in Saudi Arabia, then parties are required to ensure that the rights and remedies provided in the contract are enforceable under the provisions of the Islamic law.
The courts have a strict tendency of imposing a regulatory framework where they fail to enforce foreign judgments. The duty of the Saudi Arabia government under the treaty law is to ensure that parties to the treaty are protected by the law. However, such protection must conform to the principles of Islamic law.
Bibliography Glenn, H. Patrick, Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law (Oxford University Press 2014).
IBP USA, Middle East and Arabic Countries Company Law Handbook (Intl Business Pubns USA, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Arabia Commercial Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Luttrell, Sam, Bias Challenges in International Commercial Arbitration: The Need for a ‘real Danger’ Test (Wolters Kluwer Law
Global Warming Refugees Essay argumentative essay help
Global warming was a bogeyman story in the first part of the twentieth century but it has become a reality for people of the twenty-first century. People have acknowledged changes which have been taking place and are trying to react accordingly. Thus, it has become estimated that 150-200 million people will become refugees due to climate warming (Afifi and Jäger 101).
It is noteworthy that researchers stress that the number of forced migrants is quite rough as further research is required. Nonetheless, it is clear that a lot of people will have to leave their homelands trying to escape from unfavorable climate conditions. It is necessary to understand particular causes of migration to be able to develop efficient measures to help people.
In the first place it is necessary to note that climate change is associated with extreme weathers. Numerous tornadoes, storms, floods, droughts and so on damage vast areas and make them uninhabitable: people’s dwellings are destroyed, ecosystems are damaged, lands turn into marshes, cultivated land deteriorates and so on (Miller and Spoolman 513).
It is especially true for coastal areas which are affected by these natural disasters as well as ocean rise. Global warming often damages farming and vast areas become unsuitable for cultivation. This leads to famine. Clearly, urban areas are also becoming less comfortable. Global warming leads to spread of numerous diseases which were not common or were typical of African or Asian areas.
Higher temperatures also speed up a variety of chemical reactions producing dangerous chemicals “in photochemical smog in urban areas” (Miller and Spoolman 513). Finally, people also predict numerous wars for resources such as water, food, oil, wood, and so on.
Obviously, all these events will force millions of people leave their homelands as this is already happening since refugees from African countries are trying to escape to European or other developed countries.
Admittedly, the most effective way to diminish the effect of global warming is to reduce climate change or, at least, slow it down. However, people are yet to find the solution to this problem. Meanwhile, they have to start developing strategies to avoid events mentioned above. Of course, the most effective way to solve this problem would be creation of a global government which would distribute natural resources among people of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will require construction of systems which could transport resources across countries. It may seem a costly project but it will be cost-effective compared to numerous programs to tackle issues concerning refugees.
However, the global government is unlikely to exist as national interests often (or rather always) overweigh. Though, it is clear that governments of developing countries will not try to solve such issues as famine due to lack of funds and monetary assistance from other countries is not enough.
Therefore, it is clear that people are unlikely to come up with an efficient solution and lots of people will become forced migrants. Of course, it is hard to predict the number of people who will leave their homelands but it is apparent that the number will be large.
Scientists as well as all stakeholders seem unable to forget about personal/national interests and really focus on issues concerning global warming. However, it is still necessary to discuss the issue and raise awareness among people. This will draw more attention to the problem and may contribute to development of the effective solution.
Works Cited Afifi, Tamer, and Jill Jäger. Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability. New York, NY: Springer Science
Natural Catastrophes and Environmental Justice Essay writing essay help
Although natural catastrophes cannot be avoided, it is still possible to effectively manage the negative effects associated with such calamities in order to minimize human suffering and promote environmental justice. When all people are meaningfully involved and fairly treated in regards to catastrophes that impact the environment, it amounts to environmental justice.
The development of any nation or state should not merely focus on the educational level of individuals, national origin, income, ethnicity, or race.
To a large extent, every individual can proactively add value to environmental protection. In other words, the existing policies, regulations and environmental laws can be swiftly enforced and implemented when both citizens and non-citizens are indiscriminately involved in the process (Bardsley and Sweeney 1133).
Disempowerment in terms of policy or economic wellbeing might lead to unfair treatment of the undeserving population. Hence, the disadvantaged segment of the population may eventually bear the immense burden of dealing with negative repercussion of pollution to the environment. Environmental pollution emanates from the skewed and tribal policies executed by the local, state and federal authorities.
Commercial operations as well as municipal and industrial wastes also contribute towards degradation of the immediate environment. As it stands now, most natural catastrophes are being aggravated by human activities that pollute the environment. For instance, there is an increased build-up of aerosols and Green House Gases in the atmosphere to an extent that the shortwave radiation from the sun cannot be radiated back.
Consequently, the earth has become warmer than it used to be some decades ago. The latter has significantly contributed to global warming and the much-taunted climate change. In any case, the extreme weather events (drought, floods) have been occasioned by human population to the immediate environment. Unless human management of the environment is improved, environmental justice will hardly be realized.
A robust environmental justice framework should be put in place in order to minimize the negative impacts of natural catastrophes to certain segments of the population. Exposure to harmful wastes alongside natural calamities can be reduced if appropriate justice is awarded to the environment (Bardsley and Sweeney 1130).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of underlying assumptions that have continually generated various unequal protections and exposure to natural disasters that are also man-made. Environmental justice cannot be attained unless certain political and ethical queries are asked. Needless to say, every individual has a basic right of protection from the harmful effects of natural calamities.
When we degrade our environment, we fail to execute any justice to it. However, protection should still be granted to the vulnerable populations by the concerned government authorities owing to poor legislative or environmental protection agenda in place.
The negative impacts posed to populations by natural catastrophes such as hurricanes may be eliminated if not reduced when proper environmental justice is exercised (Brown 112). This form of justice should be a priority area not just in regions prone to natural disasters. It should be a bi-partisan engagement between the public and policy makers.
Environmental polluters should also be held accountable for their actions as part and parcel of environmental justice. Pollution of the environment is definitely a major cause of concern in the 21st century. Since climate change is closely associated with drastic alteration of weather parameters, there is urgent need for a strong public voice and environmental protection advocacy programs against pollution (Brown 109).
Works Cited Bardsley, Douglas and Susan, Sweeney. “Guiding Climate Change Adaptation within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems.” Environmental management 45.5 (2010): 1127-1141. Print.
Brown, Katrina. “Global Environmental Change I: A Social Turn for Resilience?” Progress in Human Geography 38.1 (2014): 107-117. Print.
The Kyoto Protocol Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol
The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol
Introduction Today, one of the major threats to humanity is global warming. This has been attributed to the increased emission of greenhouse gases into the earth’s atmosphere. The industrialized countries of the West are mainly responsible for the current high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Therefore, “the Kyoto Protocol was formulated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in order to set binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions”. Currently, a number of the industrialized countries have signed and ratified the Protocol. This paper examines the Kyoto Protocol as well as the role of the United States of America in it.
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol A number of international conferences on climate change laid the foundation for the formation of the Kyoto Protocol. For instance, in 1992, the United Nations held a conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, which led to various outcomes. One of the major outcomes of the conference was the formation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The mandate of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was to reduce any form of human activities that would threaten international climate. In 1995, parties to the Convention met in Berlin in order to develop specific targets that would reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
This marked the beginning of major negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol. Consequently, the negotiations on the Protocol were concluded on December 11, 1997. “Due to a complex ratification process, the Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005”.
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was formed in order to stabilize the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by the developed countries. It is based on the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Thus, it seeks to operationalize the principles of the Convention. The Protocol has set binding obligations on the developed countries because they are the major emitters of greenhouse gases.
Therefore, the developing countries are not bound by its obligations. However, “countries that are bound by the Protocol are those that have approved it”. In its first commitment period, 35 developed countries signed and ratified it. This target aimed at reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by five percent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol The United States of America is partly responsible for the increased levels of greenhouse gases. It accounts for twenty five percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. It is also one of the countries, which participated in the negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol.
Thus, during President Clinton’s administration, the United States signed the Protocol. However, “President Clinton did not submit it to the Senate for advice and consent”. His major concern was that the Protocol exempted the developing countries from its binding obligations. Consequently, in 2001, the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol.
Conclusion The Kyoto Protocol is one of the major international strategies that seek to curb climate change by stabilizing the greenhouse effect. However, its success highly depends on the cooperation among developed and developing countries. Furthermore, the withdrawal of major states like the United States of America may jeopardize its future effectiveness.
Works Cited Saundry, Peter. The Kyoto Protocol and the United States. 25 December 2006. Web. .
UNFCCC. An Introduction to the Kyoto Protocal. 10 June 2011. Web.
Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Human Resources and Job Design
Introduction Management is an important part of any organization. All successful organizations employ successful management procedures in all their functions. The application of operations management in the areas of quality control, human resource, and supply chain is an important practice in management.
According to Mentzer, the control of quality in an organization is influenced by the existing structures that are intended at serving these functions (9). The quality of products and services produced in an organization dictates the success that the organization enjoys in comparison with its competitors.
Areas such as human resource and job design management constitute other aspects of an organization that determine the level of organizational success. Human resource management ensures that an organization has employees who are devoted to the aims of the organization. Such employees have the skills that are necessary for operating in the respective industry (Mentzer 21).
The third area of management that contributes significantly in determining success in an organization is supply chain management. The distribution of goods and services to and from organizations should be managed efficiently.
One of the organizations that enjoy success in management of the above areas is the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). This essay looks at the operations management in the areas of managing quality, human resources and job design, and the supply chain.
Managing Quality Management of quality contributes to the output of organizations. The output is only significant when the quality control and management are utilized. ADNOC is located in the mining and distribution industry of petroleum in Abu Dhabi. It is considered one of the global leaders in the petroleum technology.
This company is a leader in the provision of petroleum services, with quality control being key in its operations. According to Gitlow, quality control entails putting in place measures that are aimed at enhancing the output in organizations (23). This process begins with setting up a department that is charged with the mandate of overseeing the success of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ADNOC has a quality control department whose objective involves the provision of standard petroleum products and/or the provision of services along these lines. ADNOC has branches and subsidiaries in different parts of the country.
The ancillaries keep the necessary quality control procedures written in the policy statement of the company. After its establishment in 1971, ADNOC set out to establish many companies, affiliates, and subsidiaries, all of which have quality control departments.
ADNOC has branches in the oil industry. These branches stretch in the areas of exploration, refining, gas production, and transportation of products. The company also distributes crude oil, gas, and refined products to overseas markets, with local distribution forming a significant part in its operations.
The management of quality in production, distribution, and storage of products from this organization requires a dedicated workforce with the ability to handle quality control functions of this organization.
Quality control in the production of the organization’s chief products is indicated by the organization’s position on the global and local markets. This organization is among the most successful of its kind. ADNOC has a quality control representative in each of its subsidiaries, including the main company.
The quality control representative is in charge of the quality control program in each of these subsidiaries. The quality control representative who is responsible for control of the company’s output coordinates activities under the quality control department.
Aside from the management of these activities directly in the organization, ADNOC’s quality control representatives and departments have additional functions.
We will write a custom Report on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization requires the quality control and management department to provide information on the latest requirements for suppliers, relevant government affiliates, investors, and other organizational affiliates. The other function of quality control representatives is the provision of modifications in the processes in ADNOC to ensure that the outputs are according to the international standards.
Top managers and quality control bosses hold frequent meetings to ensure that the department is operating as it should in terms of making the right decisions. The quality control department is required to provide its findings to the senior management, which makes its adjustments to the organization as deemed possible.
Gitlow states that quality control should be focused on ensuring that the output is above or equivalent to the global standards (24). Organizations should seek not only to achieve quality control targets but also to set targets for other organizations in the industry. This function of quality control departments is one that ADNOC has carried out over the last few years.
Employees in the organization are part of the quality control management process. Therefore, the organization has developed and implemented training and education programs for its employees who are required to provide feedback to the different departments of the organization.
This information contributes to the development of standards in the organization. Quality control managers and representatives in this organization also follow up with the findings of quality control department in the organization.
Aside from the quality control department in the organization, ADNOC outsources quality control services from third parties. The program in the organization is successful with the combination of internal and external quality control parties.
The work of quality check programs in ADNOC is to ensure that the output is acceptable and up to the necessary standards. ADNOC has a dedicated management team that takes value as an important part of the production process.
The mining part of the company is an important one. The quality assurance role in this area includes the promotion of safe mining activities. The company has engaged on a campaign to reduce pollution along the process of oil drilling and mining and in the transfer of this product to the local and international markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization has a crisis and emergency division that is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the activities that the organization undertakes are safe for the local environment. An oil spill is one of the major disasters that the organizations can face. The prevention of this disaster is a priority of its crisis and emergency management team.
The other activity in the management of quality at ADNOC is the frequent surveys that the organization undertakes. According to Ayish, organizations should participate in feedback activities that allow them improve on their service provision or quality of goods and services (33). ADNOC participates in the provision of feedback to promote the provision of better products and services.
Surveys are sent to the other companies that interact with the organization. Individuals and organizations that are affiliated to the origination add to the employee feedback, which is used to improve the quality of goods and services in the organization.
Gitlow states that employees are important in quality assurance and that organizations should ensure that they participate in the process (29). Some of the ways that organizations may improve the quality of their goods and services is through the promotion of better terms for their employees in terms of providing motivational activities and/or offering the best financial terms.
ADNOC has thousands of employees in the many subsidiaries and groups of companies that it operates. These workers are guaranteed good employment terms. This plan has led to the high quality of output.
The reduction of flaring on the organization is another achievement that adequate quality control has implemented. Flaring is a big contributor to environmental pollution. Initially, the organization had a significant flaring, which led to significant pollution.
Measures to reduce pollution that is related to flaring have been effective for this business and its affiliated organizations. Gitlow states that environmental protection for major organizations is an important part in the assessment of their quality control measures (29). Therefore, ADNOC is well placed to achieve quality control and management targets that make it an international company.
Human Resources and Job Design Human resource management is an important part of organizations. Many institutions are dedicated to the provision of adequate human resource management practices. According to Mentzer, an organization is as good as the human resource that it recruits and manages (19).
The job design for any organization should correspond to the needs of the employees. Job design management in an organization consists of a team of employees and managers who are dedicated to the fulfillment of organizational goals in terms of production.
Human resource management entails the recruitment, training, motivation remuneration, and other services that are related to employees. Organizations that recognize their employees as the most important stakeholders often have significant levels of success.
These organizations also have significant levels of competitiveness. Organizations that wish to succeed in their respective industries should have a human resource department that has human resource managers who are charged with the assurance of employee needs and rights.
ADNOC has a human resource sector in place that takes charge of employee needs in this organization. The department plays the role of recruitment of employees, training, motivation, and promotion of employee rights. The organization recruits employees that are highly trained and experienced.
These workers proceed with training while still at the organization. ADNOC offers training for internship students who wish to join the organization in pursuit of employment. Some of these students are absorbed into the organization where they get a chance to bring their experience and training to the organization.
Experienced individuals who include human resource managers should run human resource management. ADNOC is one of the organizations with an experienced team of human resource managers who serve different functions in this department. The senior human resource manager is involved in policy formulation, including the determination of individuals who the organization can recruit and employ.
Employee remuneration is a significant part of human resource management. It ensures motivation within an organization (Mentzer 17). ADNOC offers competitive remuneration for its employees, with this strategies being one of the reasons for its success in the respective industry.
The human resource department within the organization or its subsidiaries is charged with the promotion of employee rights and the provision of services. The department ensures that the employees constantly get their remuneration, which has been reviewed in their favor.
An organization with the desire to succeed in its respective industry should respect the rights of its employees whilst ensuring that their salaries are competitive in the industry (Ermida 271). The organization with the best employee policies usually enjoys success in the industry and market within which it is located.
ADNOC is located in an industry that is considered risky for any employee. Job design in this organization ensures employee safety. The company considers fatality of one of its employees an urgent matter that needs attention. The company has previously had accidents at its places of work, with seven employees dying in 2009 because of work-related accidents.
The company investigated these incidents as a way of assuring its employees of future safety at the organization and its affiliate companies. The measures put in place at the organization have ensured that no accident is reported since the death of these employees.
ADNOC considers its employees one of their important stakeholders alongside its customers, government organizations, suppliers, and the public. These stakeholders enjoy a variety of engagements with the organization.
Employees get team meetings where they contribute to the development of the organization. As a result, they feel motivated. According to Mentzer, these team meetings are important in communicating the organization’s goals and objectives whilst motivating employees towards the achievement of these goals and targets (19).
The other way that ADNOC engages its employees is in employee appraisals. The organization carries out frequent employee appraisals that are aimed at improving the performance of these employees in the various areas of work.
Employee appraisal is important in the determination of employee output. It works through the improvement of their terms and services. The company also has a suggestion scheme in place for its employees, with this plan helping them attain organizational goals. The scheme is run in all affiliate companies of the organization. The intention is to improve the services of the employees and their total output.
An organization that embraces technology in its human resource management is often successful in its venture (Mentzer 12). ADNOC is one of the organizations with extensive use of technology in its human resource management. The organization runs online surveys for its employees.
It has personalized e-mail accounts for workers (Mentzer 13). Aside from the personalized email services, this organization has an intranet that ensures that the digital platform is fully utilized and exploited in the organization.
Employees have access to newsletters and company magazines that it produces. These resources contain the description of the job design of the organization. The newsletters provide information to employees on how they should run different parts of the organization.
According to Mentzer, organizations should provide continuous education and training for their employees to ensure that they give their best to the business (14). ADNOC has training programs in place for its employees. The human resource department in the organization coordinates these programs. The training is carried out in the form of seminars and workshops alongside other training activities.
The other aspect of human resource management that is prominent in ADNOC is the promotion of social and environmental activities. The organization is located in an industry that interacts heavily with the environment in the process of mining. Industries in the mining industry particularly have their employees participate in the environmental sustainability and protection.
Job design in this organization entails ensuring the most output with the least destruction of the environment. The promotion of social and environmental activities in the workforce ensures that they maintain a safe operating environment and protection of the environment in general.
ADNOC is a key player in environmental protection, which leads to its prevention of environmental degradation. Some of the risks include the spillage of oil, which may lead to destruction of marine life.
Job design management in the organization is a function of the executive management. It entails a description of the various jobs and slots in the organization. The human resource department also plays part in the job design management, which determines employee numbers and their respective areas.
Mentzer states that the job design determines the success that organizations enjoy in their respective industries (17). Organizations that have effective job design management have a better output. ADNOC is a leader in its respective industry, with the products and services in their output being the best in its class.
Supply Chain Supply chain management is another vital part of an organization. Companies are currently recognizing the need for this new aspect of competitive advantage (Mentzer 72). Supply chain management consists of processes and activities that contribute towards the provision of the products to the end users (Mentzer 72).
The most vital area in supply chain management includes purchasing, manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and warehousing (Mentzer 78). Supply chain is an aggregate of all these functions that lead to the provision of products and services to the end user. The management of all processes in the supply chain is what encompasses supply chain management.
Supply chain management at ADNOC is carried out in a professional manner, with the main method used being the fragmentation of the different functions. The different organizations that constitute ADNOC operate at different levels in the supply chain of the organization.
The organization is involved in mining oil and gas in the many oil and gas fields in Abu Dhabi while these products are transported to the refineries by a different section of the organization. The company is involved in the management of processes that occur upstream and downstream in the industry.
ADNOC has separate groups of companies within it in addition to a host of independent operators that run different parts of its supply chain. This form of supply chain management has worked towards the organization’s advantage, thus ensuring that it distributes petroleum and gas to the readily available markets.
Companies that are mainly involved in the exploration and production include the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Development Company Ltd, Abu Dhabi Gas Liquefaction Company Ltd. (ADGAS), Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO), and ELIXIER.
The other constituent companies that are involved in mining and exploration include the National Drilling Company (NDC) and the Zakum Development Company (ZADCO).
The other part of ADNOC’s supply chain that is also managed by constituent companies and affiliates is the marketing and refining part.
Companies that are involved in the marketing and refining of petroleum products for ADNOC include ADNOC Distribution, Distribution, the Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (TAKREER), and the Abu Dhabi National Tanker Company and National Gas Shipping Company (ADNATCO-NGSCO) (Mezher, Dawelbait, and Abbas 319). These companies are involved in the refining of oil from the oil fields.
Companies in the UAE and other parts of the world run the petrochemical directorate at ADNOC. They include companies such as Borouge whose affiliate businesses include Petrochemicals Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Ltd and Borouge PTE Ltd.
The other company in the petrochemical directorate is the Ruwais Fertilizer Industry (FERTIL). Apart from the mining and distribution of petrochemicals, other companies such as ESNAAD and the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Operating Company (IRSHAD) are involved in the shared services directorate.
Some companies have teamed up with ADNOC in its supply chain. These companies are found at different areas in the supply chain. Examples of these independent operators that are affiliated to ADNOC include Abu Dhabi Oil Company (Japan) Ltd. (ADOC), BUNDUQ, and Total Abu Al Bukhoosh (TOTAL ABK).
The above institutions are involved in the supply chain for ADNOC. The organization also runs training services through the numerous academic institutions that it has established or is involved in their support.
The presence of different companies along ADNOC’s supply chain ensures that the company’s functions are carried out in an effective manner. According to Mentzer, diversification of the supply chain may be achieved through the involvement of many companies in the process (72). The supply chain with different players often requires efficient management to ensure that they interact in a positive manner.
The existence of many organizations as intermediaries in the supply chain often results in reduced efficiency. If unchecked, it may lead to a reduction in the organization’s output (Morsi and Key 23). There is a loss of time and resources in the increased number of intermediaries.
Hence, organizations should target to reduce the number of intermediaries. ADNOC is successful in its supply chain management because all organizations within this supply chain are affiliates or part of the larger organization.
Automation is another part of the supply chain that contributes to the evident success in organizations. Organizations that apply technology in their supply chain often end up being successful (Abdelal 31). ADNOC has extensively applied technology in its supply chain, with transportation of petroleum products and crude oil being carried out through advanced methods.
The company has extensive use of modernized fleets in the transportation of its products to their markets, especially in the shipping of oil to the international markets. The management of any supply chain requires a dedicated workforce and the utilization of all cadres of employees. These measures are practiced in the ADNOC’s supply chain management.
The other aspect of the supply chain management in relation to ADNOC is the cost of managing this supply chain. ADNOC is one of the global organizations that invest significantly in their supply chain management.
According to Mentzer, supply chain management should be an integral part of any organization, with adequate funding to ensure a swift flow of goods and services from suppliers to the end consumers (72). ADNOC has a board in place to manage the supply chain. This committee is charged with the investment into the right measures for the maintenance of an intact supply chain.
The global market for ADNOC’s products has a number of competitors, with branches in different parts of the world including Abu Dhabi and the UAE. To ensure that the company is competitive enough, the supply chain management practices include control of pricing and amount of the produced petroleum products. ADNOC is an example of an organization that has effective supply chain management.
Employees in the organization and its affiliate companies are trained on how to manage the supply chain whilst maintaining a constant flow of products produced by this organization. A fully-fledged department is charged with the management of ADNOC’s supply chain. The manager does reporting to the board of the organization.
Conclusion In conclusion, the success of any organization is determined by factors such as the management of human resource, supply chain, and the quality of their output. The paper has confirmed that these areas are crucial in terms of determining whether an organization achieves its goals and objectives. This paper has also looked at one of the most successful companies in the UAE and on the global front.
It has highlighted how it has managed its human resource, quality, and supply chain. ADNOC is one of the most successful energy companies in the world. It has recorded profits in the range of billions of dollars each year. The company has efficient quality control methods in use. Examples include the use of technology and recruitment of experienced and highly trained employees.
The human resource management at ADNOC is run by the human resource department, which ensures that the right employees are selected for the right work. The supply chain is run in a fragmented manner, with a variety of organizations being involved in different parts of the chain. The organization has effective management practices in all areas as discussed in the paper.
Works Cited Abdelal, Rawi. “Sovereign Wealth In Abu Dhabi.” Geopolitics 14.2(2009): 317-327. Print.
Ayish, Muhammad. “Virtual Public Relations In The United Arab Emirates: A Case Study Of 20 UAE Organizations’ Use Of The Internet.” Public Relations Review 31.3(2005): 381-388. Print.
Ermida, Graça. “Analysis: Strategic Decisions Of International Oil Companies: Arctic Versus Other Regions.” Energy Strategy Reviews 2.Sustainable Energy System Changes 1.1(2014): 265-272. Print.
Gitlow, Howard. Quality management. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005. Print.
Mentzer, John. Supply chain management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. Print.
Mezher, Toufic, Gihan Dawelbait, and Zeina Abbas. “Renewable Energy Policy Options For Abu Dhabi: Drivers And Barriers.” Energy Policy 42.2(2012): 315-328. Print.
Morsi, Mozzart, and Antonio Key. “Rehabilitation Of Gas Pipelines: The Experience Of ADNOC In Abu Dhabi.” Corros. Prev. Control 1.1(1994): 5. Print.
Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The common law canon of land law known as the principle of Aboriginal title is what is referred to as the doctrine of native title in Australia.1 Under this doctrine, the land law of Australia appreciates the fact that there does exist indigenous people in the country who have rights, as well as interests to the country’s land that emanates from history, traditions, and customs.
The concept provides that the indigenous Australians are the original owners of the land because they are the natives of Australia. Consequently, they should benefit from the land and any interest accruing from the land. In addition, the titles issued by the Crown when Australia was granted independence did not take away the Aboriginals rights to the land.2
There has been a protracted struggle for the recognition of these rights and the respect for these interests on land in the legal front since the inception of independence in 1788. The struggle has subsisted up to this day, in spite of the fact that there has been a lasting period exceeding two hundred years of deprivation and displacement.
This shows how the issue of land rights in Australia is of importance, more so to the Aborigines. Over the years, the indigenous citizens of Australia have been at the forefront calling upon successful governments, as well as the wider Australian community to come to terms with their unique status as the native, bonafide, historical, and rightful owners of land in Australia.3
However, this issue has taken different angels over the years, cutting across political divide and the justice system. This essay focuses on the land rights of this indigenous group of people, as well as its effect on the non-indigenous peoples’ land rights.
The Mabo case This is a case that acted as the basis for acknowledging the natives of Australia as the rightful land owners. The case was termed as the Mabo v Queensland case.4
This case saw the plaintiff, Eddie Mabo gain an unexpected level of popularity, especially from persons who believed that they enjoyed native rights over land, when he decided to take initiative to claim the ownership of the native title of Meriam, amongst a couple of other individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case was essentially seeking for recognition of the scattered homelands in the Torres Strait region of the country as native land that enabled the locals enjoy unlimited rights over the land as the bonafide landowners. The main reason for this was that the residents of Torres Strait had been annexed from Queensland in 1879. Consequently, they sued the governing authority of Queensland as the defendant to the suit.
The annexation had created a state of uncertainty in terms of the required proper system of land ownership by the plaintiffs and necessitated the suit. The suit against the state of Queensland was to last a total of ten years in the courts before the determining factors were settled. In delivery of the ruling to support the native land rights, Chief Justice Brennan said:
“The fiction by which the rights and interests of indigenous inhabitants of land were treated as non-existent was justified by a policy which has no place in the contemporary law of this country” Mabo v Queensland.5
This effectively settled the matter that had been through a long court battle period. The case overturned the earlier principle of terra nullius that had been set in the case of Milirrpum v Nabalco6, also known as the “Gove land rights case”.
In the Milirrpum case matter that had been brought before the Supreme Court, Justice Richard Blackburn unambiguously rejected the idea of the existence of native title, pronouncing against the plaintiffs on various issues on law and fact. Nonetheless, he rejected the principle of aboriginal title in place of terra nullius, which propounded that land was not owned by anyone at the time of British settlement.
The instant case of Mabo, thus, came to recognize the people of Meriam in the Murray Island in Torres as the native title owners in regard to a section of their traditionally owned land.7
The court ruled that the Crown had no right to the land as earlier granted to the colonialists of European origin when they migrated to Australia. The ruling was based on the fact that the principle of terra nullius lost its significance and could not exist parallel with the right of the Crown to hold title deeds.
We will write a custom Essay on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the fact that the instant case of Mabo granted inherent rights of land ownership to the natives consequently meant that the terra nullius principle in the case of Milirrpum8 could not stand, as the land rights that were ruled to be rightly possessed by the natives could not simultaneously be possessed by the Crown.9
It is to be well understood that the declaration of the presence of native land rights in the land in Australia in no way acted to oust the proprietary rights of the non-indigenous groups.10 The court pronouncement was never a suggestion that title to land was to henceforth shift from the non-indigenous groups to the indigenous ones.
As a matter of fact, this would create anarchy and unending conflict as the non-indigenous groups resist being chased from their proprietary owned land. Rather, the court ruling merely meant to provide guidance with respect to the search for truth and justice on a historical perspective.
The court’s declaration in this case was meant in a way to “settle the scores” in as far as discourse concerning the rightful owners of land was concerned.11 Additionally, the judgment meant to be a mere declaration of the place that the native communities of Australia have in regard to ownership of the country, in effect destroying the argument that colonizers were the rightful owners of the nation at the time of colonization.
In effect, the recognition of the rights of these native groups on the land was meant to have no effect on the land rights of non-indigenous groups.
Enactment of the Native Title Act, 1993 A year after the court recognized the native title in the above discussed case, the Keating led government in 1993 acted to formalize the new legal principle by enactment of a piece of legislation that would codify the native entitlement to land, the Native Title Act, 1993.
The Act gave recognition, respect, and protection to the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander inhabitants and their land because the statute set it straight as to the particular rights that the natives were to enjoy, including the possessed interests and the manner of appropriation.12
This, therefore, meant that the residents of Torres Strait whose interests in the land was shaky before the enactment of this law could now be assured of their interests and use the land to grow themselves economically through the acquisition of credit.13
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Act further attempted to bring a clarification on the legitimate position of the process required to bring land under the native ownership under the national land laws, thereby allowing for their claim of title, protection, and recognition through the national courts. By doing this, the court aimed at bringing about precision on the required procedures to acquire title for the land.
Pursuant to this, the Act created the National Native Title Tribunal. The tribunal was tasked with the huge responsibility of deciphering claims to title on native land by finding out the historical ownership of the land, parties that hold interests to the land, the opinion of the elders and neighbours, amongst other things, to decide the allocations of title to the proper owners of the land.14
It is to be well observed that the land that was affected by the new process of acquiring title was land that had been declared as native land and affected the natives and indigenous land owners, rather than the non-indigenous landowners.15
In other words, the enactment of this piece of legislation further proves and points to the fact that the recognition of indigenous land in Australia basically had nothing to do with the non-indigenous land owners, as the laws on the native land, such as the instant statute, did not affect the operations of the non-indigenous land in any way.16
All institutions created by the statute concern, solely, the indigenous land, rather than the non-indigenous one, thereby further proving the point that the recognition of indigenous land rights was totally disassociated from non-indigenous proprietary rights over land.
The landmark case In 1996, there arose a new form of uncertainty over native claims on pastoral areas. In clarification of the issue, the case of Wik Peoples v Queensland17 provided a better understanding. In this case, the High Court, by a slim majority, ruled that native title would not necessarily be extinguished by reason of the pre-existing leases on the pastoral areas.
The leases over these pastoral areas had been granted by the Crown and consequently ran for a long period of time. As a result, the court established that it was possible to have the Aborigines and the lease holders possess rights to the land without conflict.
This case further proved that indigenous land rights from the natives did not affect the rights of the proprietary non-indigenous land holders because of the possibility of co-existence of the separate rights to the land.18
For instance, there is a possibility that land owned under a sub-lease by a non-indigenous holder of such land could consequently be owned by a different person under a native ownership with the sharing of interests and rights thereto. Essentially, this demonstrates the lack of conflict between indigenous ownership of land and non-indigenous ownership.
In line with the above case, the Native Title Amendment, 1998 was passed with the objective of resolving all claims of the native land. The government of Howard also sought to provide security of tenure to the non-Aboriginals for any land that they claimed as provided by the Native Title Act, 1993.
This amendment was basically aimed at bringing statutory law in consonance with case law that had been passed, which allowed contemporaneous possession of interests on land.19
A “bundle of rights” The native rights to land were declared as a “bundle of rights” during a 2002 ruling in the case of Western Australia v Ward20. It was further ruled that the native rights did not violate any other rights.
Although this decision came under major criticism not only from the native owners of land in various parts of Australia, but also from civil society, as well as the legal practitioners, the case clearly identified the place of native land rights in relation to the other existent rights, such as those of non-indigenous Australians.
The case places the rights of native land rights owners juxtaposed with the rights enjoyed by the non-indigenous owners of land, albeit placed at a lower level.
This explains that the rights of indigenous land owners do not affect the rights enjoyed by non-indigenous owners, such as the lessees of land.21 The fact that it was possible for the claimants to walk around the land owned by the native owners showed that the native rights were not entirely exclusive of possession.
In the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia22, a precedent was set in the matter of the existence of native rights over land in a capital city. Justice Wilcox J was of the opinion that native title was still effective in the Perth region, even if it was an urban area.
Urban settings are characteristically owned by a myriad of regimes of land ownership, such as leases, freehold, and so on. Capital cities are strictly managed by local and national authorities, more so in the area of land ownership to reap taxes as benefits.23 Nevertheless, this authority appears to allow native rights to land to be enjoyed in such situations.
This, therefore, points to the contention that native title subsists in various situations that do not act to limit the rights enjoyed in land. Indigenous land rights in Australia, thus, have nothing to do with non-indigenous land rights.24
Conclusion Native land rights exist independent of the other land rights on any land. It is a special form of land ownership as it appears to dig into the facts of the past and establish the proper and bonafide ownership of land, rather than looking at the possession of title to the land.25 The system recognizes past injustices on land and seeks to avert them by creating a better and equitable system of ownership.
In this essay, the focus has been on the effect of indigenous land rights over the non-indigenous ones. As seen in the text, the case of Mabo gave the recognition of indigenous rights to land as the basic formation. The clarity has, however, provided that the intention of this was never meant to oust the rights of others, but to share the interests.
The enactment of the Native Act of 1993 closely followed the delivering of the judgment and the new growth of jurisprudence to codify the principles set thereto. Subsequent amendments since then have helped develop the understanding, working, and implementation of the provisions of the Act to enable a smoother and easier operation.
Therefore, it may generally be said that indigenous rights over land do not clash, nor have any effect over the non-indigenous rights, as the demarcation between the two is clear. As a matter of fact, the law creates a co-existence of the rights shared between the two set of rights.
Hughes Helen, and Warin Jenness, A New Deal for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in Remote Communities (Centre for Independent Studies, 2005).
Hughes Helen, Lands of Shame: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander” Homelands” in Transition (Centre for Independent Studies, 2007).
Jackson Sue, Michael Storrs, and Joe Morrison, ‘Recognition of Aboriginal rights, interests and values in river research and management: Perspectives from northern Australia’ (2005) 6 Ecological Management
Strategic Development of Apple Corporation Term Paper essay help: essay help
Executive Summary This paper dwells upon strategic development of Apple and contains certain recommendation on implementation of the most appropriate strategy. The company is famous for its innovative approach and high quality of products and services provided.
However, the corporation holds quite a small market share and some researchers note that the company should expand. Researchers refer to growth of such markets as South America and Asia. It is stressed that Apple could benefit from producing products for millions of potential customers at lower prices to make Apple products more available.
Nonetheless, this approach is unlikely to be effective as it may lead to loss of the market share Apple has now. Appearance of Apple in the market of low-priced consumer electronics will make it develop new strategies to remain competitive in the market where Asian (Chinese and Indian) companies produce very cheap products. Therefore, the company has to focus on innovations.
The present evaluation is based on secondary research. Works on Apple’s strategic development are analyzed and certain recommendations on how to improve the strategy used are provided. The present research may lack for data on the company’s expenditures but available information on Apple’s revenues illustrates effectiveness of the strategy employed..
Recommendations provided include the following. The new strategy should be comprehensive and involve research, innovation, quality and social responsibility. The company has to produce really innovative products which would shape and redefine the market. The use of green technology and contributing to development of communities will enable the company maintain its favorable image among its customers.
Introduction Apple is one of the most successful companies and it is famous for its effective strategic development. The corporation managed to remain one of the leading producers of consumer electronics and software even after the recession and financial crisis of 2008. It is necessary to note that the company has to operate in one of the most competitive markets, the market of consumer electronics.
This industry is booming and companies all over the world are trying to enter it and occupy certain niche. It is noteworthy that Apple is facing hard competition on the part of Asian companies that produce cheaper devices with similar options. At present, Apple again has to choose an appropriate strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, before going into detail on the strategic development, it is important to mention major peculiarities of the company, its history and market. Apple announced that its revenue for second quarter of 2014 (ended in March) was $45.6 billion (Apple reports, 2014). The company is growing and its profits are increasing accordingly.
Apple is famous for its “impressive” products: iPad, iPod nano, iPhone, Apple TV, iPod touch, MacBook, MacMini and so on (Hitt, Ireland
The Theory of Connectivism Dissertation college application essay help
Educational theory Learning is a crucial activity in the lives of humans and its forms the basis of the educational process (Isman (2011). Consequently, a lot of attention has been paid to the understanding of how learning takes place, leading to the formulation of numerous theories of learning and instruction. These theories have evolved over the years as developments in other areas of education continue to happen.
There is no one theory that can be described as the perfect theory that fits in all learning situations. This means that different theories are applied to different learning situations. The various theories of education and learning describe how learning occurs, the factors that shape learning, the importance of memory in learning, and how knowledge is transferred (Ravenscroft (2011).
Behaviorism is one of well known learning theories. The theory posits that human beings receive a stimulus in the process of learning, which they respond to. According to Isman (2011), this mode of learning is best promoted by task-based learning. Learning under behaviorism is also influenced by the rewards that are obtained from learning, as well as punishment.
Repeated experiences end up establishing memory. Cognitivism is the other theory of learning, which posits that learning occurs in a structured way. Yilmaz (2011) argues that knowledge is transferred by duplicating the knowledge of the instructor in cognitive learning. Consequently, problem solving type of learning highly promotes this mode of learning.
The third most common learning theory is constructivism, which is a theory that proposes that knowledge is passed through socialization. Social and cultural factors seem to influence learning under this theory.
A more recent theory of learning is the connectivism theory, which posits that knowledge is transferred by connecting to the source if knowledge. According to Ravenscroft (2011), connectivism is a complex learning mode where learning is distributed in a web and it is enhanced by technological advancement.
Connectivism According to Thomas (2010), the emergence and development of diverse communication tools and the subsequent deployment of these tools in the discharge of education has resulted in the alteration of the learning environment. What is meant here is that there is a lot of change in the way education is discharged.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This comes from the fact that education is changing from the traditional perspective where it was delivered in specific learning environments that were largely confined in nature to the development of a virtual learning environment where content is not only guided by the teachers, but is also discharged by students who use technology to advance learning between and among themselves.
This literature review contains the discussion of how the theory of connectivism has been applied in the field of education. Siemens (2011) argues that information technology has transformed the traditional learning environment in a significant way that necessitates a new learning theory.
One rationale for the creation of a new theory of learning is that in the digital age, most learning environments are intertwined, technological, and social in nature (Kaufman
Social Media and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introductory Essay
Criminal Impacts of Social Media
Social Impacts of the Social Media
Effects of Social Media on Economies
Introductory Essay Social media is a communication medium, through which people in different geographical locations can interact freely via the Internet. In the contemporary world, communication technology has grown tremendously with the fast development of the high-speed Internet, high quality mobile phones, and computers that enable people to access the Internet from various parts of the world.
In 2010, the Google search engine registered over one trillion different URLs, which is an indication of the tremendous growth of the global Internet community. By December 2013, Facebook had over 1.11 billion users with active accounts and the number has increased ever since.
People carry out different forms of communications ranging from social interactions to business transactions over the social media. Social media has provided all necessary forms of communication including video conferencing for distance learning and corporate meetings. This development has emerged from the fast growth of communication technology, which transverses different economic levels across the world.
The rise of social media has been facilitated by the emergence of the Internet, which came into existence with the development of the first electronic computer in the 1950s. However, the first computers were designed to serve large corporations, governments, and the military.
Remarkable growth of the Internet was achieved in the early 1970s when email was invented coupled with a social network that linked the Duke University and the University of North Carolina in 1979. However, the growth of social media heightened in the early 21st century with the invention of Facebook, YouTube, Google, and other social media platforms (Boyd
Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management Report argumentative essay help
Executive Summary The Institute for Information Management has been committed to achieving its vision of becoming the leading provider of information to various companies within Australia. However, its system is falling apart because of its inability to address some of the strategic issues affecting various industries.
Not only is it losing the companies that were formerly its members, but also the volunteers who now consider it ineffective in addressing their career development needs. In order to address this problem, the institute will need to apply the concept of knowledge management system.
Introduction Knowledge management system has become very important for organisations in an environment where information is an important tool in achieving success. Both profitable and non-profitable organisations experience some form of challenges that force them to improve their service delivery in order to remain efficient in their operations.
To achieve the desired success, they need to have a proper knowledge management system that will allow all the departments to share relevant information within the shortest period possible. Lambe (2011, p. 185) defines knowledge management system as “A system that helps the organisations in creation, capture, processing, storage, and dissemination of information.”
The system enables organisations to improve their efficiency in processing relevant information and transmitting it to the relevant departments and individuals so that it may define their decisions as a way of improving their efficiency.
Wilson (2002, p. 86) says, “The idea of a knowledge management system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organisation’s documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions.” This way, they will always make informed choices based on the information in the system. It also eliminates bureaucracy that exists in some organisations that limits information sharing.
The Institute for Information Management has remained committed to its aim of becoming the leading source of information management for companies in Australia. However, it has been faced with numerous challenges which make this vision to be elusive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research seeks to find ways though which this institute can use the knowledge management system to promote engagement and collaboration among its members in order to improve its service delivery and attract more volunteers.
The Case Study The Institute for Information Management has worked tirelessly to gain relevance as one of the leading organisations that brings together users of information management systems and the providers of the enabling technologies in a forum where they can share relevant information in this field.
It has massively contributed to the effective development of information management system in this country by disseminating information management industry trends, opportunities, and accomplishments. However, this organisation is currently facing a problem in an industry that it expected to achieve success.
The number of volunteers to the organisation is drastically dropping, and so is the number of those who are regularly using its services. It means that something is wrong with this organisation in terms of the approach it takes in managing its processes.
It must have failed to appeal to the volunteers, and this explains why their number at this organisation has been declining over the years.
This has largely been blamed on its fundamental model of membership. This organisation needs a model that will enable it to engage its members with the view of promoting collaboration when addressing various tasks. It is necessary to find the best ways of applying knowledge management system in order to address this problem.
Knowledge System behind Micro-Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management According to Serenko and Bontis (2013, p. 310), over 6 million Australians always volunteer to work in different sectors as a way of making a difference in this country. Some people offer to volunteer as a way of meeting new people or trying something new, while others do it as way of improving their careers. Irrespective of the reasons why people volunteer to work in various organisations, the fact is that they always want something new.
We will write a custom Report on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They want a working environment that would add a difference to their life. This is what is lacking at this institute, making its membership to decline. The Institute for Information Management must realise that its members need a system that will make them aware of the changing industry trends, and other relevant issues that may make them be informed about their respective industries.
The first step that it should take in addressing its current process is to develop a model that will improve its efficiency in collecting data about the changing trends in the relevant industries it has chosen. This will enable it to become a superior platform through which users of information management systems and the providers of the assistive technologies can interact and achieve their respective goals.
According to Dalkir (2011, p. 59), this can be done by developing a knowledge management model that will be beneficial to all the stakeholders. The knowledge management cycle below is one of the most appropriate models that this firm should consider using.
Knowledge Management Cycle
Source: (Walsham 2001, p. 610).
The model will be able to capture, organise and make accessible all the relevant information about various fields for the benefit of the stakeholders. It will also enable the stakeholders use the information to learn through creation and sharing of the relevant data on various fields.
This institute must realise that most of the volunteers’ aim is to improve their capacity to understand the changing trends in various fields so that they can make a positive difference in their companies at a later date. They must feel that this institution is offering them the opportunity to be well informed.
Interventions designed to improve the situation It is clear that the Institute for Information Management needs to find ways of improving its system, especially its capacity to capture the changing trends in various fields in order to attract volunteers and other stakeholders. The users of information need an organisation that has the right information about different industries in which they operate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also need to know about various knowledge management products, their superiority over the other existing systems, and the most reliable vendors. The vendors are interested in institutions that can sell them to the information users and give the right knowledge about the products they offer.
The volunteers need to be assured that for the time they will be with the organisation, they will always have the first hand information about the changing trends in the market in their respective industries.
This means that the management at this institution needs to have a top notch system that can enable it to collect, synthesises, and disseminate information to its members within the shortest period possible. The following knowledge management pyramid shows the steps that should be followed.
Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Insurance Marketing Group [IMG] is a private limited company that specializes in marketing health and life insurance policies. The company mainly targets independent agents distributed in different parts of the United States. The firm’s strategic management practices are undertaken by a qualified management team, which has experience of over 60 years with regard to life and health insurance.
IMG has managed to foster strong and influential relationships over the years, as evidenced by its past success and steady growth. The firm provides agents within the senior and individual health market segments with high quality and competitive products (Insurance Marketing Group, 2014).
The firm’s success and growth are associated with the implementation of effective strategic management practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the organization’s performance with specific reference to organizational behavior.
The paper assesses how the organization’s behavior has been influenced by different components, which include the organization’s culture, internal communication, motivational techniques, nature of authority, areas of emotional quotient embraced by the organization, and the virtual elements adopted by the firm.
Analysis Type of organizational culture; salad bowl culture
IMG has established its operations in different parts of the United States. The firm recognizes the importance of employees in achieving long-term success. Therefore, the firm has integrated the concept of diversity in its operations (Magala, 2006). The organization’s culture can be defined as being a ‘salad bowl’ culture. This status has been achieved by employing workers from different cultural backgrounds.
The firm does not discriminate employees based on their gender, age, race, nationality, and sexual orientation amongst other demographic variables. The development of this culture has arisen from the recognition of diversity as a source of additional knowledge and experience.
Subsequently, the firm’s employees share diverse information based on their cultural backgrounds, which has led to the development of cross-cultural competence. Its adoption of cultural diversity has improved IMG’s attractiveness in the labor market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has also succeeded in developing good working relationships amongst its employees. The firm’s employees share a small office space with no conflicts, which has led to the development of a friendly working environment. In an effort to foster strong working relationship, IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has been motivated by the need to promote communication amongst employees.
Consequently, the firm’s employees in different levels of management are provided with an opportunity to participate in the firm’s decision-making process. Therefore, the firm has been effective in promoting a collaborative working environment, thus minimizing the rate of employee turnover.
Collaboration amongst employees has led to the development of teamwork culture. This aspect has led to the elimination of negative competition amongst employees. On the contrary, employees support each other in executing their duties, which has led to the development of effective organizational norms and shared values.
The incorporation of cultural diversity has played an essential role in promoting the effectiveness with which IMG markets its health and insurance products to different customer groups in diverse parts of the US considering the country’s multicultural characteristics.
Moreover, the adoption of the ‘salad bowl’ culture has significantly increased the firm’s ability to operate ethically. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2009) are of the opinion that organizational culture is the foundation of ethical business operations.
Mode of communication
Effective internal communication is a critical element in an organization’s efforts to achieve business excellence. The various departments in an organization are supposed to operate as a unit in order to achieve synergy. However, the desired synergy can only be achieved if effective coordination is promoted. Internal communication influences the level of coordination amongst employees in different departments.
IMG appreciates the importance of effective communication. Subsequently, the organization has implemented an open internal communication system. The firm utilizes both verbal and written channels of communication. Written communication is undertaken through digital mediums such as emails, the company’s website, and social media.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Using digital mediums has improved significantly the effectiveness and efficiency with which the firm communicates to employees because they can easily access information on their wireless devices. Moreover, IMG has also established an intra-net system that provides employees with an opportunity to share information.
On the other hand, the firm also undertakes internal communication through print mediums such as internal memos. The memos are strategically located in the company’s notice board in order to ensure that all employees access the intended message.
Considering the small size of the organization, IMG also utilizes verbal communication. The effectiveness of verbal communication is enhanced by the short chain of command within the organization. Consequently, the intended information is not distorted.
In its quest to promote collaboration between IMG’s management team and the lower level employees, the organization has incorporated both top-bottom and bottom-top communication strategies. One of the ways through which this goal is achieved is by conducting regular internal informal meetings and events. This aspect has led to the development of an organizational culture that advocates constant meetings.
During the informal meetings, the lower level employees are in a position to interact with the top management and communicate any issue with ease. This scenario has played a vital role in eliminating bureaucracy in the organization’s communication process. Verbal communication also provides the top management team with an opportunity to assess the firm’s performance.
The effective interaction between the top and lower levels of management has improved learning quotient greatly within the firm. Additionally, the firm’s top management team is in a position to gain intelligence that can be utilized in the strategic management practices.
Employee motivation is a fundamental element in an organization’s pursuit for business excellence. Motivated employees are productive and focused in undertaking their roles and responsibilities. IMG is committed to ensuring that its employees are motivated continuously in executing their duties.
The firm’s commitment to promoting a high degree of employee motivation arises from the need to nurture a high degree of organizational identification. Furthermore, the firm recognizes that motivated employees are less likely to leave it. Despite the cultural diversity in the firm, IMG has managed to sustain the employees’ level of satisfaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More IMG has incorporated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational techniques. The extrinsic techniques entail providing employees with monetary benefits. The firm ensures that employees are compensated equitably and fairly. IMG has formulated a comprehensive employees’ remuneration package.
The firm has adopted job description as the basis of the employees’ remuneration. Subsequently, employees are remunerated based on their skills, level of education, and experience. The employees are awarded bonus compensation for their efforts.
In addition to monetary compensation, IMG has also integrated intrinsic motivational techniques by incorporating non-monetary forms of compensation. Some of the intrinsic methods of compensation adopted include recognizing employees who depict exemplary performance. Recognition is a vital component in ensuring that employees are motivated psychologically.
Furthermore, the firm has adopted the concept of teamwork, which provides the top management team with an opportunity to delegate certain tasks to the lower level employees. Therefore, employees have an opportunity to undertake challenging job tasks, hence providing them with the chance to progress through their career path.
Nature of authority
IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has reduced bureaucracy significantly within the organization. Furthermore, the chain of command amongst employees has been reduced remarkably. IMG is focused at achieving business excellence in its operation. In order to achieve this goal, IMG has integrated teamwork as one of its operational practices.
The top management team delegates tasks to employees in different operational levels. This aspect provides employees with the freedom to make decisions on how the assigned tasks will be executed. Therefore, employees gain an opportunity to explore new dimensions on how to complete the task assigned, which improves their skills.
Subsequently, task delegation has empowered the firm’s employees, and thus they have become highly productive in executing their duties.
Furthermore, delegating tasks to the lower level employees has enabled the firm to reduce task monotony amongst workers. However, the top’s management team has developed a culture whereby the lower level employees are required to be accountable for the assigned tasks (Lussier
Bob Knowlton Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Key Issue or the Major Problem
Sub-Issues and Problems
Bases of Power
Knowlton’s Leadership Style
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton
Effective leadership is an important aspect to speak about the progress of modern organisations. However, there are often cases when weak leaders lose their opportunities to contribute to the organisational development in order to create the effective workplace environment and achieve set goals and objectives. Bob Knowlton was appointed to be the project head in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
Knowlton demonstrated the perfect understanding of the principles of the project development, he could work with the team to achieve the high results, and he was oriented to using the traditional methods in order to reach the set goals. From this perspective, the introduction of Jack Remington as a new leader to work in the project team made Knowlton fear about his position and leadership.
Remington demonstrated the unique approach to solving the project problems in contrast to Knowlton’s traditional approach. Being unable to compete with Remington, Knowlton chose to leave the project and his position in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
As a result, the situation revealed such a problem experienced by Knowlton as the inability to accept his weaknesses and fears and transform the leadership strategy in order to achieve the higher results while leading the team.
Key Issue or the Major Problem Thus, the key issue associated with Knowlton’s case is his ineffective leadership which can be discussed as the leader’s inability to accept the undesirable situation, to face challenges, to work at overcoming the problem and improving the leadership style.
Knowlton did not accept the drawbacks of his leadership style which were revealed to him with references to Remington’s approach. Instead, the leader chose to hide his real attitude to Remington and his concerns associated with the newcomer’s approaches and the whole work of the team.
Sub-Issues and Problems Knowlton chose the ineffective strategy of hiding his real concerns and fears associated with Remington’s introduction to the team. As a result, Knowlton’s behaviour resulted in revealing such additional problems as the following ones:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knowlton failed to communicate openly to Dr. Jerrold about the leader’s concerns because of the fear to demonstrate his incertitude;
Knowlton focused on his fear to be discussed as a weak leader in comparison with Remington instead of addressing the issue directly;
The leader was not able to set the strict rules on the behaviour at meetings, on the order of presenting the ideas, and on the procedure of discussing the changes in the project as the rules could help him to avoid night calls and ineffective discussions during the meetings;
Knowlton became afraid of opposing Remington and admitted his leadership in spite of the team’s attitude and without any discussions of the issue;
Knowlton chose to leave his leadership position to Remington instead of reforming work in the team and stating his leadership as the project head;
The leader became involved in thinking about his fears and his leadership status in spite of communicating to the team.
Ego-Defence Mechanism Knowlton could not cope with the challenges he faced because the leader chose to focus on such an ego-defence mechanism as regression.
Having understood that Remington demonstrates another style of leadership and this approach can seem to be effective for the team, Knowlton chose to hide his ineffectiveness as a leader and leave the position of the project head instead of facing the possible challenge openly or organising the work in order to use Remington’s potential for the benefits of the team.
Bases of Power In spite of the fact that Knowlton could use the legitimate base of power because of his project head position and the expert power because of promoting the development of the photon correlator, the leader failed to draw upon on the referent and reward powers when Remington was introduced to the team.
Knowlton admitted that he cannot be respected in spite of the fact that he is the legitimate leader and failed to use the referent power. Furthermore, Knowlton rejected his expert power while focusing on Remington’s innovative approach to solving problems. The leader also ignored the advantages of the reward power important while working with the team.
Knowlton’s Leadership Style Knowlton’s leadership style can be discussed as democratic at the first stages of working with the team because of the necessity to build and stabilize an effective team. Furthermore, Knowlton has the features of a supporting and delegating leader who can not only support the team members’ positions but also delegate a range of responsibilities to them.
In addition, Knowlton can be discussed as the traditional leader instead of being a transformational leader. That is why, it was rather difficult for Knowlton to accept Remington’s unique approach to discussing the problems of the project.
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton Knowlton’s strengths are the focus on the team members’ opinions and the focus on collaboration. Furthermore, Knowlton can build the effective team which can work to achieve the long-term goals. As a manager, Knowlton is interested in seeking the approval of the team members and Dr. Jerrold.
We will write a custom Case Study on Bob Knowlton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why, Knowlton can be oriented to achieving the results which address the whole team’s expectations. From this point, Knowlton’s leadership style and approach are effective to work at the long-term projects.
However, there are also weaknesses in Knowlton’s approach which led him to losing his status of the leader. Knowlton is characterised by the low self-esteem which makes him seek the approval of all the co-workers in spite of their status. Furthermore, Knowlton’s self-confidence is also low because the leader became to doubt about his potential after Remington had joined the team.
Knowlton depends on the opinion and respect of other persons. In addition, the leader cannot communicate openly to the team members.
To address the weaknesses, it is important to help Knowlton to understand that his appointment as the project head is not a chance, but the real appreciation of the leader’s skills and competency. Knowlton should be trained to accept the situation and its consequences without focusing on the ineffective ego-defence mechanism.
Knowlton can be discussed as a good leader to work in a small team who respects his potential and perceives him as an expert. However, Knowlton failed to use the opportunity to demonstrate his leadership potential while facing the challenge of introducing a new leadership style into the team.
Thus, Knowlton did not state his leadership position. Bing characterised by the low self-esteem, Knowlton chose to accept the development of events which was not beneficial for him. Furthermore, understanding the team’s dissatisfaction associated with Remington’s leadership style, Knowlton ignored the opportunities to change the situation for better and to state his position of the leader.
Marketing Management: Building Brand Equity Report college essay help
Introduction Male Coffee Shop is one of the many coffee shops in the city of Male that has been in the market for the last eight years. This firm, just like many other coffee shops in this city, has been largely depending on the booming tourism industry in this city to support its operations.
With a total of twenty permanent employees, Male Coffee Shop is one of the leading coffee outlets that have successfully attracted a pool of customers who visit this city regularly. It is worrying that this firm, just like its market rivals, is operating without any a clear brand that can make it stand out as a unique firm.
Other than the name, this firm has made no effort to build a strong brand equity that may help it increase its competitiveness in the market. Brand equity is important for any firm that is operating in a competitive market environment (Keller 2003, p. 28).
Fisher and Vallaster (2008, p. 57) defines brand equity as “A brand’s power derived from the goodwill and name recognition that it has earned over time, which translates into higher sales volume and higher profit margins against competing brands.”
According to this definition, it is clear that brand equity is earned over a period of time, and it gives a firm power to earn higher profit margins over its competitors in case the brand is stronger in the market. In this report, the researcher seeks to develop an appropriate way through which Male Coffee Shop can develop strong brand equity.
Analysis According to Kotler and Keller (2012), it is important to understand the relevance of a brand in the market in order to realize the importance of building one within a particular industry. Male is one of the tourists’ destination cities in this region. Coffee is very popular among the tourists, and for this reason, several coffee shops have sprung up.
The problem that most of these shops face when it comes to attracting and retaining customers is lack of strong brands that can distinguish their products from one another. At the coffee shop where the researcher works, this problem has been persistent, and has limited the ability of the firm to outsmart its competitors despite its superior products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The only solution for this problem will be the development of a superior brand that will make the products of this firm distinguishable from those of other market rivals. The following are some of the general steps that can be followed when developing brand equity.
Choosing brand elements Brand elements refer to trademark devises which are used for the purpose of identification and differentiation of a brand in the market. These elements serve vital role in identifying a given brand in the market in a way that would enable customers to differentiate the existing brands in the market. Brand name is the first element of a brand (Parameswaran, 2006).
It is one of the most important elements of a brand because customers will rely on it when talking about superior brands in the market. The current name used by this firm can appropriately support its branding efforts. This name would help the marketing team of this firm to emphasize to the customers their unique capacity to prepare high quality coffee.
The brand symbol is another important element of brand that should be used to differentiate a firm’s brand from those of competing firms (Bergh
Primark’s Entry into the Brazilian Market Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Brief Synopsis of the Issue This proposal is informed by the expressed need for Primark, a British-owned, Irish clothing retailer, to enter into the Brazilian market as part of the firm’s internalisation orientation.
The strategic proactive decision to compete in the Brazilian market arises out of the firm’s deliberate policy to exploit foreign market potential and growth, diversify markets through opportunistic global market development, and follow customers abroad to entrench customer satisfaction (Agergaard 2010).
Primark stands to gain competitively and strategically through the application of this market entry proposal to market its products in Brazil.
Recommendations Primark should develop and implement a strong brand image to successfully compete with other established apparel stores operating in Brazil, such as Zara and Mango;
Primark should use the vast knowledge and experience gained in expanding its operations into markets considered as physically close (European markets) to successfully internationalise its operations in Brazil;
Primark should consider establishing an apparel factory in Brazil to cut down on logistics costs involved in transporting products from far-away Asian countries into the Brazilian market; and
Primark should enter into the Brazilian market by establishing a wholly owned subsidiary through the acquisition of already existing firms.
Background Although Primark’s main headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland, it is evident that the firm’s entry into other European markets (e.g., Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) has successfully positioned it as a reputable seller of fashionable clothes at the low cost end of the market.
In all these markets, the entry mode has always been through acquisitions or direct foreign investments. However, the Brazilian market presents new challenges that warrant comprehensive analysis, particularly in light of the market’s geographic proximity, cultural and social issues in Brazil, as well as political and regulatory frameworks.
Extant literature demonstrates that although Brazil has one of the largest commodity stocks and a high population with a quickly mounting purchasing power for consumer products and services, it nevertheless has a high tax regime and a bureaucracy that necessitates much patience on the part of firms wishing to enter the country’s markets (Agergaard 2010).
It is important to note that this is Primark’s second attempt to enter international markets outside of the confines of the European Union after successfully entering the United States market, hence the need for careful analysis and evaluation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The remainder of this market entry proposal is organised as follows: first, a concise analysis of market opportunities (country-level analysis) is provided. An analysis of Brazil’s attractiveness (risks, costs, benefits) is then provided, followed by a concise situation analysis of Primark using the SWOT analysis framework. In the following section, an analysis of the firm’s readiness to enter the Brazilian market is undertaken.
Afterwards, issues of global sourcing, production and logistics are assessed, followed by a critical analysis of the firm’s market entry strategy, along with a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed entry mode.
In the final section, a step-by-step approach to the implementation of the proposed strategy is discussed, followed by an analysis of the benefits and potential barriers to successful implementation and evaluation of the market entry strategy.
Analysis of Market Opportunities in Brazil (Country-Level Analysis) The choice of which country to enter is of immense importance to the internalising firm, and requires considerable deliberation and analysis on the market opportunities existing in the country and if such opportunities will lead to a firm’s competitive advantage (Douglas
Tourism in Shanghai Dissertation writing essay help: writing essay help
Abstract Tourism is one of the largest and major industries in the world. The sector has become a major source of income for numerous economies. Its significance is growing by the day. China, as the most populous country in the world, is projected to become a major market for both inbound and outbound tourists.
Consequently, Chinese authorities in the various provinces are promoting tourism in their regimes to attract both local and foreign visitors. Recently, the number of European tourists travelling to China has increased. The proposed study is an exploration of Shanghai to create a tourism experience for the European traveller.
Various factors leading to this experience are analysed in the study. In addition, the factors that can facilitate more European tourists visiting Shanghai are explored.
Introduction Background Information
One of the major industries in the world today, and which is exhibiting considerable growth in importance, is that of tourism. The industry is a substantial source of income and employment in numerous economies worldwide. In addition, it is of social importance to many people. China currently boasts of the world’s largest population.
It is predicted that the country is going to become a major source of global tourists in the 21st century. On the other hand, the country is also becoming a major tourist attraction. China’s opening up to the world in the last few decades has greatly enhanced its image as a popular tourist destination.
Various Chinese cities are competing to become number one foreign tourist destinations. To this end, these cities are coming up with measures to woo more tourists. Some of these popular destinations include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Chengdu.
In the recent past, diplomatic relations between the European states (EU) and China have improved. For instance, more than 50 dialogues are currently taking place between the two sides through annual summits (Pantucci 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dialogues focus on three major pillars. The three are economic and sectoral, strategic, and people-to-people relations between the two economies (Pantucci 2012). Tourism between the two regions falls under the people-to-people diplomatic concerns. China is undertaking considerable measures to make its cities major tourist destinations for the Europeans.
Shanghai, as one of the large metropolitans in China, is a very popular tourist destination for both locals and foreigners. The various sites of attraction in the city create a unique tourism experience, giving the metropolis a major ranking globally. The authorities are putting in place measures to woo large numbers of tourists from Europe.
According to Bayes (2004), Shanghai is a Chinese city with an allure of its own. It is characterised by a combination of western and local cultures. The city is sophisticated and cultured. In addition, it is emerging as a major economic powerhouse in China. Western visitors are usually amazed by its air of mystery.
Some recent developments, however, threaten to jeopardise the standing of this region on the global tourist market. For example, in the recent past, China had not been very open to the world, and especially to the western countries.
According to Lew and Yu (1995), before the 1970’s economic reforms, the country shunned external relations with other countries. Instead, the country focused on domestic industries, suppressing major economic relations with foreigners, including tourism engagements.
The post 1978 economic reforms in China led to an open door policy, which has been a significant driver to the rapid development in the country. For instance, China has made considerable progress in foreign investments. The country has invested in more than 5973 enterprises outside its territories, with tourism being one of them (Lew 2001; Zhang 1995).
Prior to the reforms, the country had very restrictive policies determining who entered as a tourist (Gareth
“Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons Analytical Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection
Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance
Introduction The article “Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons, the author writes about her perception regarding the training regimen associated with Crossfit (a popular fitness craze in the U.S.) and how it is supposedly a bad form of exercise to do.
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization One of the first indicators that this is a bad argument is the hasty generalization the author makes regarding Crossfit. She states that the high rates of injury along with bad form and flawed exercise routines are a constant throughout all Crossfit gyms. This is a hasty generalization since the author herself has not attended every single Crossfit gym and underwent their various training regimens.
Thus, attributing the problems associated with some of the gyms to all of the gyms is a fallacy since there is no direct evidence to support that all Crossfit gyms have the same negligent practices.
This is not to say though that Crossfit is not to blame due to the lack of sufficient oversight regarding the training practices its various gyms employ, however, when taking into consideration the fact some gyms actually have competent trainers shows how what applies to a few gyms does not necessarily apply to all of them.
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection The second indicator of the argument showcasing a flawed position is its analysis of the injury rate of Crossfit and how it immediately equates into the activity being bad for you. Utilizing logical thinking to analyze such a position, it initially seems that the author does have a good point. Getting injured does not contribute towards a person’s well being, as such, Crossfit must be bad then.
However, when delving deeper into logical reasoning, you must take into consideration the fact that there are other forms of physical activity that people enjoy that also cause them to be injured. Sports such as football, soccer, basketball, skateboarding and bike riding also have prodigious amounts of injuries associated with them.
Do note though that even if these activities do have their share of injuries, people do not immediately stop doing them. The same logical conclusion can also be applied to Crossfit wherein just because people are getting injured does not mean that this form of physical activity is detrimental or dangerous when other physical activities have similar or even higher rates of injury.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance The third indicator of why this is a bad argument is how the author is guilty of a second fallacy (appealing to ignorance) wherein they connote their personal experience as applying to what other people must also be experiencing. In the article, the author states that as an athlete, they have experienced a plethora of training regimens that focused on developing them into a better, stronger and faster competitor.
The intensely vetted and scientific process behind each and every single range of motion exercise she went through was done in order to limit injury and maximize strength. She then concludes that based on her own personal experience and her observations regarding the differences in the Crossfit routines from what she did; Crossfit from her own perspective must be bad.
The main issue with this type of argument is that it ignores the fact that what applies to one person may not necessarily apply to another.
While her training regimen was effective for her, it may not apply to someone who is not as athletically gifted as her or on the other end of the spectrum would be insufficient for a person that is more athletically gifted. Not only that, the training regimen she underwent when she tested Crossfit could be far different than what is given to other people at different Crossfit affiliates.
Conclusion Overall, while the author does present a good case as to why a person should not join a Crossfit gym, there are numerous problems with her given argument that detract from the viability of her statements.
Organisational Change at HBSC Report best essay help: best essay help
Abstract HSBC recognises the capacity of an organisation to achieve the needs of its owners and other interest groups depending on their ability to maintain a competitive advantage. Human resource comprises one of the important resources at the disposal of the organisation, which while utilised appropriately, help in terms of maintaining and increasing the organisation’s competitive advantage.
The organisation faced a situation, which prompted the adoption of change to enhance its effectiveness in executing its HR functions. It implemented an organisational change plan that led to moving all HR-related employee queries into online web-based systems.
Previously all employees addressed their queries directly to the HR department. The current paper analyses this change situation and its implementation in the context of literature in organisational change management.
Introduction Organisations that endeavour to acquire long-term success keep on changing their ways of executing business. The most appropriate changes ensure that organisations become more profitable. Geopolitical, demographic, and technological changes in conjunction with the intense pressure on physical environments pose the need for organisational change.
Such changes also need to be combined with various security concerns and governance issues that help generate pressures that drive organisational change (Burke 2014).
Development of consciousness for scientific, opinionated, sociological, and financial characteristics of the exterior operational atmosphere of an organisation is crucial in the effort to drive strategic initiatives for its success. Change may involve proactive and reactive approaches.
While change in most cases is adopted when a new way of serving clients or a need in the market arises, it may also be adopted when a crisis occurs. Indeed, organisations, which have the capacity to identify the need for change before factors that prompt its necessity interfere negatively with their operations, stand better competitive advantage compared to those that adopt reactive approaches to implement change (Burke 2014).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change that is implemented upon the occurrence of crisis translates to high organisational costs and a lower probability recovery from the lost competitive advantage. As revealed in the paper, this situation was avoided in case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited.
Background to the Case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited HSBC bank Middle East Limited has its headquarters situated in Jersey. It comprises the biggest bank that operates in the Middle East region and in more than 70 others places across the globe. This stretch makes HSBC a global and regional product that is managed through several networks across the Middle East.
In particular, the bank has operations in Lebanon, Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan (HSBC 2014). The size of an organisation correlates with its ability to employ a large number of people from diverse backgrounds, and hence the higher the number of employees that the HR arm has to handle.
In the effort to create a culture that encourages work-life balance for employees, the speed and efficiency in the expedition of strategies for addressing employee human resource-related issues became an important problem that HSBC Bank Middle East Limited needed to address.
Corporations across different industries are interested in maintaining their levels of competitiveness for continued delivery of value to their owners or shareholders. In fact, Van de and Poole (2005, p.395) reckon, ‘any organisation in today’s fast moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed’.
This claim suggests that organisations must welcome and embrace change that will increase their performance. Zhou and Tse (2006) support this line of argument by claiming that organisations, which reluctantly embrace change risk losing their competitive edge. Therefore, they suffer the capacity to realise the need of their clients.
HSBC Bank Middle East Limited understood that while operating in an environment of technological change, increasing its speed of expedition of the employee human resource-related issue was the key to resolving challenges, which may result in with employee conflict.
We will write a custom Report on Organisational Change at HBSC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of waiting for crisis to occur, the management resolved to implement online web-based system to resolve employee HR-related queries. The next sections analyse this situation from the paradigm of organisational theories of change.
Diagnosing and Planning Change HSBC Bank Middle East Limited sought to implement HRIS (Human Resource Information System) to facilitate the execution of its HR activities electronically. The system provided several applications, including payroll management application, recruitment management application, and leave attendance and performance management application among others.
Via the system, employees could also have access to any information on their employment status, including changes in rewards system among other information of individual interest.
Web 2.0 technologies were utilised to provide employee accessibility to the system through internet at all times. It had a capability of producing customised information. This flexibility solved many of the problems as it made it easy for employees to acquire individualised responses from the HR.
The organisation’s move to adopt the change was to boost the ability of resolution of employee issues via two-way online-based communication mechanisms. This change was to enable the organisation raise its interactive capability with a large number of employees to minimise the probability of occurrence of organisational conflicts. HSBC Bank Middle East implemented the system before any conflicts were registered.
In this extent, the change that was implemented at the organisation was passive in nature. Change management theory suggests that organisations incredibly benefit by implementing a change that leads to the creation of new mechanisms of addressing customer needs (Oxtoby, McGuiness
Role of Organizational Culture Research Paper college essay help near me
Role of Organizational Culture in Change management The role of organizational culture as a factor influencing successful change in organization becomes apparent when two organizations with different culture or organizations from two different national cultures are merged together. Organizational culture influences various phases of change and most importantly the implementation process of change.
Culture becomes an important factor that influences change when organizational, rather than individual, change is brought into effect. However, in the 1980s emphasis was laid on the importance of culture as a change management agent, but recently researchers have branded culture as an obsolete tool for change management.
This paper will discuss literature that demonstrates the role of organizational or corporate culture on the change management. The literature review is divided into sections dealing with theories of organizational culture, the impact of culture on change management, how culture can be an impediment to change, and the recent literatures that shows the effect culture has on change management.
Organizational culture and Adaptability Culture has been a strong influence in the functioning of the social organization. Social scientists have often produced annals of work relating the relative effectiveness of culture on the functioning of organization. Denison and Mishra (1995) studied organizational culture and demonstrated the organizational effectiveness of culture.
Organizational culture is defined as a “clan” that can effectively motivate the functioning of the organization (Denison