Table of Contents Introduction
Women in the 19th Century
Introduction Female inferiority to male gender is a fact that has been on the minds of women for many years. To date, most women still believe that certain roles in society are men’s responsibility, and they do not bother themselves with such. The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the Awakening by Kate Chopin, and the Revolt of Mother by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman are three books whose publication took place at the time when the role of women in the society was almost insignificant.
The stories in these publications portray the voices of women as trivial and show that they do not deserve how men handle them. These women take it upon themselves to overcome the culture of discrimination to the level of being in control of certain situations in their lives (Perkins, Perkins 205-6).
Women in the 19th Century In the 19th century, women believed that they are bound to listen to their husbands and do whatever is required of them without complaint. In “The Revolt of Mother,” Sarah initially gives in to Adoniram’s initiative to construct a burn at the same place he promised to build a house for her. She does this because she believes that she must respect her husband without protest. She decides to communicate what she feels to her husband, who is not interested in talking about the matter.
More about The Yellow Wallpaper What Does Creeping Mean in The Yellow Wallpaper? 5 267 In The Yellow Wallpaper, How Does the Changing Description of the Wallpaper Reflect the Narrator’s Changing Character? 5 34 What Was Gilman’s Most Likely Reason for Sending a Copy of Her Story to Her Former Physician? 5 41 Which Gothic Element in the Yellow Wallpaper Reflects a Social Attitude of Gilman’s Time? 5 52 Sarah then decides to drop the matter because she knows that it is not her place to go against the wishes of her husband. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper, John assumes overall authority over his wife and strongly believes that he understands what is good for her. She, on the other hand, goes ahead to respect the wishes of her husband.
He knows that the decisions he is making are right and does not give thought to her opinion. This inferiority complex portrayed in Kate Chopin’s “The Awakening.” Even though Edna had desires of her own, she initially did not give much thought to leaving her comfortable life with her caring family to explore them.
These wives explored the need to be independent, control their desires, and express their opinion without fear. These three stories bring out the new strength that the women in the 19thcentury found in themselves to break away from oppression and speak their voice. In “The Awakening,” Edna finds liberation in confronting her sexuality and feelings. She tackles her emotions without being afraid like she used to be.
In “The Yellow Wallpaper,” the narrator takes control by ignoring her fainted husband, refers to her as “that man,” and even finds it annoying to “creep over him” as she moves on the wall. “The Revolt of Mother” also emphasizes on the need of the woman to stand out from being the man’s household slave. Sarah Penn rebels her husband’s authority over the farm for the first time after forty years. Her actions to rebel are not taken well by their neighbors, who think that she is insane (Perkins, Perkins 222).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Towards the end of the 19th century, the man had authority over all the proceeds of the home and his family. The woman’s role was to do all household chores and respect her husband. Employers discriminated against women. Employers hired them for domestic jobs only and in some situations paid less money doing the same work as men. By the time the century ended, women still could not vote in elections throughout the country.
More about The Yellow Wallpaper What Is the Theme of The Yellow Wallpaper? 5 27 Who is Jane in the Yellow Wallpaper? 5 29 What Time Period is The Yellow Wallpaper Set in? 5 82 Which Excerpt from The Yellow Wallpaper Contradicts the Narrator’s Belief that She Is Improving? 5 44 This is the period in American history that saw the rise of activists for women’s rights. The women achieved their goal, as evident in America today. They comfortably express their feelings and are allowed to vote in national elections. The will that the female gender had to overcome these challenges came out long after they are married. The boredom in their married lives and the need for independence and free will gave them the strength to break free (Newcomer 138).
Works Cited Newcomer, Alphonso G. American literature. New York: General book, 2009.
Perkins, George, and Perkins, Barbara. The American Tradition in Literature, Volume II, 12th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.
Post incarceration syndrome Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Operational definition
This is has been confirmed to be a problem that causes relapse in former inmates who might be mentally ill and addicted. Research has proven that, at the moment, 60% of inmates have been in jail before and post incarceration syndrome is evident to be the cause of this behavior. The concept of this syndrome has been developed by clinical consultation work together with other related programs. These programs include those dealing with currently incarcerated prisoners and released prisoners (grassian 1451).
Operational definition Set of symptoms present in existing incarcerated inmates and recently released inmates caused by prolonged confinement in areas of castigation with scares opportunities for occupation training, therapy and tutoring.
However, the symptoms have been evident to be severe in inmates who have served long sentences and those that have undergone stern abuse while in prison. There are number factors that determine the severity of symptoms; one is the duration an inmate is imprisoned. Similarly, the number of times an inmate is abused also contributes a lot.
It is noteworthy that coping skills prior to the imprisonment of the inmate is also a factor that determines the severity of the syndrome in an inmate. Another factor that contributes towards this cause is the number of times the inmate has been jailed. In addition, the degree in participation in therapy, tutoring and vocational programs also determine the severity of the symptoms (Gal, 750).
Symptoms One symptom is the institutionalized personality traits caused by residing in a tyrannical surrounding that dictates on compliance to the authority, acceptance to the forbidden deeds in life, the abolition of individuals autonomy to make decisions and forceful alteration of an individual’s lifestyle.
Another symptom of post incarceration syndrome is post traumatic stress disorder caused by the horrific experiences before imprisonment and the abuses undergone during confinement. There is also a symptom is antisocial personality traits caused by the behavior developed during imprisonment as a mental defense mechanism.
Furthermore, the individual might develop the social-sensory deprivation syndrome as a result of the protracted confinement; thus, isolation and memory loss. In some cases reactive substance use disorders is also developed as most of the inmates were drug addicts before imprisonment and did not undergo treatment, some develop their addiction while in prison. These inmates continue their addiction through illegal acquirement of the drugs while in prison (Grassian, 1450).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reducing incidences This syndrome has been evident to be caused by the programs in the correctional department. Where as these programs are directed at stopping crime and correct the inmates behavioral at times they end up making the individual worse. Hence, this can be reduces and eliminated in future by changing the policies that govern the correction departments (grassian, 1453).
References Grassian, Stuart, Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement, American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1450 – 1454 (1983)
Historical US Relationships with Native American Cause and Effect Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors that led to bay area diverse Native American community
Objectives of activists during Alcatraz occupation in 1969
Impact of Alcatraz occupation
Introduction Bay Area is the region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in North California in the United States (Curtis 10). It is mostly urbanized and well known for high cost of living.
The Bay Area is well known for its rich cultural history and heritage. Majority of the population in the Bay Area consist of mainly the Native Americans consisting of distinct tribes and ethnic communities mostly of Asian Origin. The Native American community can be said to be the native people that were living in North America long before the Europeans came in that land, with their offspring (Curtis 34).
The Native Americans come in many groups, each varying in their traditions, religious beliefs as well as the communication comes in diverse language. The Native Americans mostly reside on western states (48%), south (29%), and the mid West (6%); this distribution reveals the outcomes of the historical pattern of settlement and relocation of the American Indians to the western and southern regions of the country (Curtis 67).
Factors that led to bay area diverse Native American community The diversity of the Native American community in the Bay Area is due to many factors which are historic, political, economic and social (Margolin 20). The history and heritage of indigenous people who inhabited the American continent forms a significant part in the American and Native American history.
The Bay Area’s Diverse Native American Community is due to the fact that the people who discovered the Bay Area were early Christian Indians presently known as the” Ohlone”, and Spanish explorers and missionaries (Margolin 24). The Indians primarily practiced hunting and gathering.
The availability of extensive land and its proximity to the ocean compelled them to begin farming as their way of life thus resulting to their permanent settlement in the Bay Area. The outcome of their agricultural endowment was that it facilitated their spread and diversification into many distinct cultural tribes (Margolin 34).
Another factor that led to the development of Bay Area’s diverse Native American community is urbanization; the urbanization of the American Indians has been taking place for a long period of time, this has led to a large number of Indians moving into the Bay Area metropolitan regions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early urbanization of the Native American was as a result of the US pursuing a policy of domestic colonialism, this helped to transform them from rural farming to urban industrial farming which in turn accelerated their urbanization process. Urbanization helped to diversify the Bay Area’s Native American community (Margolin 45).
The assimilation of the Native Americans in the late 18th century contributed to their diversity. Assimilation was an effort by the US government aimed at transforming the Native American way of life to the European-American culture. This transformation enhanced civilization among the Native Americans which in turn facilitated their diversity in the US particularly in the Bay Area (Margolin 45).
They were integrated into the larger American community. This involved relocating the Indians from reserved area to more urbanized regions. The Bay Area was well known as a trade destination for many, and this offered an opportunity for the Native Americans to carry out business in the area.
Another reason for diversity of native community in the Bay Area was that the Bay Areas Indians continually maintained their cultures despite the persuasion by US government for Indians to abandon their culture; they formed social and political organizations through which they could express their rights. This resulted in the San Francisco Bay Area’s Native American community as being one of the most organized American Indian communities in the United States (Margolin 57).
Objectives of activists during Alcatraz occupation in 1969 The relationship between America and Native Americans was not good during the first half of the 19th century. This was after a series of failed policies by the US government, which resulted in Native Americans organizing a movement that protected the rights of the Indian people.
In 1969, Indians publicly protested against violation of their rights through occupation of the Alcatraz Island which was a federal land by then (Troy 30). The take over of Alcatraz Island was one of the most successful American Indian protests and activist movements of the 19th century which facilitated the modern Native American activism
One of the key objectives of the Alcatraz occupation was to have the island under their ownership so that they could establish a study center for the Native Americans, an American Indian religious center and cultural center and a Museum which was to be based on Indian cultural value.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical US Relationships with Native American specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The building of the cultural centers was aimed at maintaining Indians cultural values, traditions, spirituality, and identity amidst calls by the US government to transform the Indian way of life to the predominant European-American culture (Troy 49). It also aimed at making sure that the Indians religious freedom was not impaired by the United States and ensuring that Indians cultural values remained observed.
Another objective of the occupation was to bring the Indians rights to the attention of United States government and to the public. They demanded fairness and justice towards the Indian population living in the United States because the laws by then oppressed the Native Americans, and were willing to fight for the course.
The activism was aimed at restoring of rights and civil liberties of the Native American community in the United States. It sought recognition of Indians rights and freedom. Restoring the pride of the Indians in the United States was amongst the activists’ objectives (Troy 56).
The occupation served the major purpose of turning attention of Indians towards a reversal of bad policies of the United States. It was a fight against the bad United States government policies that oppressed Indians.
Some of the bad policies that were being fought against by the activists included the termination policy which was aimed at eliminating all the rights and freedom of the American Indian tribes (Troy 68). The policy was also aimed at relocating thousands of Indian people to cities so as to make them loose touch with their Indian culture, which was very devastating to the natives.
Another objective of the occupation of Alcatraz Island was alerting the US government to honor treaty obligations; by providing education, housing, and health care and elimination of poverty (Troy 35). It was aimed at fighting for reviewing of treaties and treaty violations and they demanded that all Indians be governed by treaties that bounded them to the United States.
The activism was an effort aimed at restoration of Indians cultures, the Indian tribe sovereignty, and political treaty amongst the tribes. The organizers and activists also demanded Indians inclusion in the educational institution while retaining their Indian culture (Troy 36).
The occupation was more than just resettlement of the American Indians; it was a matter of human rights, it was more than just a political movement. The occupation was used to spotlight issues affecting the Native American community (Troy 38).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical US Relationships with Native American by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact of Alcatraz occupation The occupation had an impact on the lives of Indians living in the United States, it served as the foundation for the restoration of Indian culture, identity, tradition, and spirituality (Stuart 26). Through the occupation the rights of the Indians were put into considerations. New policies were adopted that brought justice and fairness to the Indian community.
During 1970 to 1971 the US congress sitting passed 52 legislative proposals to support the policy of tribal self rule aimed at achieving Indians cultural survival as a distinct tribe and help protect the rights of Indians living in the United States. Funds for Indian health care were doubled and an office for Indian rights was established (Stuart 28). The occupation laid the foundation for the next stage in regaining the Indian sovereignty and self-determination.
Conclusion Generally, underlying objective behind the Alcatraz island occupation was to awaken the American public to the suffering caused by the US government’s failure to observe treaties and promises and the need for Indian self determination. Based on this, the occupiers were successful (Curtis 78).
Though the occupation was short term, it was successful for the American Indians eventually. Indians lost the official ownership for the island later; the Alcatraz occupation helped them to independent and gave them the hope for the future and facilitated later occupations up to date. In as much as the occupation appeared a success, it came with many challenges, the inhabitants of the island experienced hardship such as lack of water and electricity (Curtis 80).
Works Cited Curtis, Edward. The North American Indian: Johnson Reprint Corporation. 2006. Print
Margolin, Malcolm.The Ohlone way: Indian life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area: Book Services inc. Salt Lake City, 2003. Print
Stuart, James. Historical dictionary of the 1960s: green wood publishing group Inc. Westport, 1999. Print
Troy, Johnson. The Occtwation of Alcatraz Island: University of Illinois Press, 1996. Print
Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem’ Essay essay help: essay help
‘Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem’ forms part of the Moroccan feminist Fatema Mernissi’s works, published in 2001. Size 6 is a sarcastic article Fatema employs in explaining how she wanted to purchase a size 6 skirt from a U.S saleslady, contrary to the veils their culture restricts. It does not fit her, though she knows what their Muslim men cannot allow them to wear such skirts. Fatema’s childhood is not as she wishes it be because she grows enclosed in a Harem where she hardly gets a chance to even walk outside the house.
She can only get out of the place once a week to the bathrooms, escorted and covered not to be seen by other people. In her article, Fatema wants to show how the mid-East and Western cultures perceive the beauty of women. She wants to depict the difference between the appearance of a beautiful woman in her culture’s point of view and that the western.
The writer is a Muslim woman in a veil, as accepted by their beliefs, but is demanding to purchase a skirt from a girl who holds a different culture, that size is a factor worth considering when a woman is buying a garment. Following their conversation, it stands out that the two differ when the saleslady unfolds the reason behind size 6 as on women in jobs.
The writer realizes that it can be more of trouble wearing the skirt compared to her veil. It becomes clear that western men demand that their women should wear particular sizes of clothes to appear beautiful before their eyes, a case that makes them secure higher job positions, not based on performance or experience, but dressing. They also differ when it comes to the issue of women weight and diet. It is not a matter to the Muslim women as it is to those from the west.
The origin, intention, and the impact of dressing mode, as portrayed by women, form the major purpose behind Mernissi’s article. She wants the reader to know the significance of the dressing style used by the present women. Although it’s now everywhere, it was started by the western people. It is their culture that women ought to dress in a particular manner to please their men. It has been imitated by many non-U.S. people, both married and unmarried.
She wants to show how dressing can turn out as a disaster, a case that is evident today. It is the style that prostates have acquired to capture the attention of men into sexual affairs. On the other hand, she purposes to show how women can also avoid this. She illustrates the Muslim culture as conservative when she opts not to purchase the skirt owing to the intended purpose and results. She shows how Muslim attire ought to be adopted rather than the westerns’.
Muslim culture holds that a woman ought to stay strictly in the house not to be seen and abused by other men. This is more of torture that their western counterparts cannot tolerate because they view people as social beings holding that both male and female ought to interact with one another freely.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, muslin culture asserts that their women ought to wear veils throughout, whether hot or cold. They are forced to remain this way under all circumstances, unlike the western women who exercise freedom of dressing as they wish. This is the freedom that the Muslim culture needs to welcome rather than enslaving their women in the name of love.
Dizzy Gillespie and Louis Armstrong: Jazz Music Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Louis’s Contribution to Jazz and the Society
Gillespie’s New Ideas on Jazz Music and Contribution to Society
Comparison and Contrast
Introduction Jazz music has its origin dating back to as far as the beginning of the 20th century with an African American origin. Louis Armstrong is described to be the man best known around the would as the founding father of Jazz (Louis Armstrong house museum, 2008) while on the other hand, Dizzy Gillespie is reputed to have music that is a major contributing factor to the development of a modern jazz known as “bebop”.
Louis Armstrong Lois Armstrong was born in the American poverty stricken neighborhoods called “Battlefield” on the 4th of August 1904 in New Orleans, Louisiana. At age 12, Louis fired a borrowed pistol while celebrating the New Year (1913) that saw him arrested and taken to the Colored Waifs’ home for boys. He eventually got influenced by Peter Davis, the musical instructor of the home, who taught him singing, percussion and ultimately the trumpet.
On his release at age 14, he sought for bars in the Storyville district to listen for jazz bands that were at the time just arising. On developing interest on Joe “King” Oliver’s music, Joe become Louis’s mentor, as Peter Davis had been before and by age 17, Louis was already playing in numerous bands with his horn, of which he had bought at the age of 7.
Louis joined King Oliver’s band in 1922 in Chicago, and that is where he me his wife, Lillian Hardin who was the group’s pianist. He played the second cornet in the band for two years where he gained much popularity to surpass Oliver’s within few months. His style displayed improvisation, making him to be a major influencer on the initiation and progress of melody in jazz during the 20s.
Louis went on to organize several bands, with the most eminent being “The original hot five” and “The hot seven” (St. George, 2009).1n 1964, Louis recorded “Hello Dolly”, a song which was his biggest hit to gain the number one spot in the USA. In addition the songs “Mark the knife”, “All of me” and “On the sunny side of the street” remind his fans about him. His dedication saw him make at least 300 gigs around the world every year, consequently gaining international popularity and fame and nickname “Ambassador Satch”.
Louis’s Contribution to Jazz and the Society According to, many musicians and Historians have confirmed that he was the most influential personality in the birth of jazz. Additionally, he appeared in a total of 28 full length movies with a couple of short features from 1931 to 1961. This escapade contributed a great deal in popularizing jazz to an international level.
Furthermore, his acting career in movies struggled to win respect to jazz against classical music with its corollary themes. His movies were shot at the time when racism was eminent in the USA. They therefore went a long way in stating up the African American History in the cinema.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Louis being born August 4th always insisted that his birthday was in July 4th. Jazz, was latter termed as music that eventually contributed to the American culture. Thanks to these two facts, in April 2001, US governors decided to officially declare April as a jazz recognition month in their states. St. George (2009) quoted President George W. Bush (2003) who said that educational institutions, media houses and musicians should develop programs that will explore, promote and honor jazz as a national world treasure.
He endured humiliating racial discrimination thought his career and derived dignity by an ethic of self- help and accommodation. He every now and then “Popped off” about current affairs on the TV, thus making a foremost contribution to the ladder of racial justice that was even more eminent than Martin Luther Kings.
Dizzy Gillespie Dizzy Gillespie was born on the 21st of October1917, in Cheraw South Carolina. He was the last of children born to John and Lottie Gillespie.
He grew up hard and strong due to his father’s strictness and abusiveness. Gillespie got introduced to music at the age of 10 by his English teacher, just after his father had died leaving his family in hard financial trouble. He primarily played the trombone, latter on switching to the trumpet, after trying out and training himself using his father’s instruments then latter on playing to audiences under local bands.
Gillespie received a music scholarship in 1913 at the Laurinburg institute in North Carolina. He studied harmony and theory for two years until when his family moved to Philadelphia in 1935. He continued playing with local bands, where he eventually picked his nickname “Dizzy” due to his vigorous style of music.
By age 18, Gillespie had moved to New York and his talent had already been noticed by several bands. Gillespie tried to play his trumpet with more youthful energy than ever before. He would play each trumpet solo faster than he did with additional notes from the previous . Further more, on trying out the piano, he sounded good too without doubt. Gillespie would sit with bands, where he eventually met with Mario Bauza, a Cuban trumpeter who latter introduced him to Latin tunes and rhythms.
Gillespie’s New Ideas on Jazz Music and Contribution to Society By age 19, Gillespie had already become famous among the New York musicians who couldn’t help but notice his new vigorous take on the jazz music: He made use of the upper register of notes above C, playing with a super- fast speed using new rhythms and chord changes. Dizzy, is termed as one of the greatest trumpeters of the 20th century.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Dizzy Gillespie and Louis Armstrong: Jazz Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He is known for his vigorous on- stage movements that brought innovativeness to the trumpet players that were characterized by “jolting rhythmic shifts and ceaseless harmonic explorations” while playing the instrument. These explores saw the gradual and initial change of the American jazz from “swing” to “bebop”. The bebop tunes gained a vast recognition of being “modern jazz.”
Dizzy’s music survived the times of strong racial discrimination. He was personally involved in world tours in 1956 to inspire public diplomacy (Rice, 2006 as quoted by the USC center on public diplomacy). Dizzy’s creativity was able to reach out to people of different races, classes and culture. His involvement in the creation of music that spoke freedom to thin, innovate and speak. His famous tour, created a land mark event in the founding of a tradition of cultural diplomacy.
Comparison and Contrast Louis Armstrong is recognized by many as being the founder father of Jazz music. He channeled his interest to become innovative and create something new in the musical; realm, On the other hand, Dizzy Gillespie was a pioneer as well. He brought a new feel in Jazz music that saw it shift in to a more vigorous style (bebop).
Both Louis and Dizzy used their careers to reach out to the society and denounce racial discrimination. Today in the United States, Jazz is recognized as the major contributing factor to the attaining of public and cultural diplomacy. The only contrast between the two jazz legends is their style of music. While Louis loved to make smooth Jazz music (swing), Dizzy was more jubilant and vigorous in his music style (bebop).
Reference List Galupo, Scott (2010, April). King Louis and all that Jazz. Web.
Gentry Tony (1993). Dizzy Gillespie: Performer, Bandleader and Composer. New York: Melrose Square pub. Co.
Krakow Airc (2006). Louis Armstrong
Albert Fish – the Serial Killer Essay cheap essay help
Albert Fish was born as Hamilton Howard Fish in Washington, D.C. on 19 May 1870. Most of his family members had a standing history of mental instability; for example, his uncle suffered from religious obsession, a brother was admitted in a mental hospital, another brother had suffered from hydrocephalus, which had made him to pass on.
More so, his sister had a mental affliction, three “other close relatives suffered from chronic mental illnesses, and his mother was believed to suffer frequent aural and/or visual hallucinations” (Chamblee, 2004).
Fish’s mother, forced to look for another source of livelihood due to her inability to take care of her son following the death of his father, took him to Saint John’s orphanage in Washington. While here, Albert together with other boys could be frequently battered and whipped in front of one another by their teachers. He eventually came to relish physical pain from the communal beatings and related sadistic acts of brutality.
By 1880, his mother got a fairly better government job and was able to take care of him; however, his behavior started to take a negative twist more so due to the kind of relationships he established, for instance, he adopted weird practices like taking human urine and “visiting public baths where he could watch other boys undress” (Wilson (1988).
By 1890, Fish had arrived in New York City, where he became a male prostitute; and at the same time began defiling and murdering young boys, a crime he kept committing not necessarily seeking sexual gratification, but because he enjoyed feeding on flesh of children (Hopkins, 2003, p. 3).
First incarceration Even after starting his professional life as a house painter, Fish’s ‘appetite’ for assaulting young children especially boys continued to grow; moreover his attention turned to mentally ill men, with a case in point being the relationship he had with a mentally impaired man, who at a given time he attempted to castrate. As if this was not enough, Fish started visiting brothels frequently where he could be whipped and flogged; and in 1903, “he was arrested for embezzlement and was sentenced to incarceration in Sing Sing” (Kray, 2007).
In 1917, Fish’s wife left him for John Straube, a rejection that caused him to start indulging in self-harm; for instance, he would always insert pins in his groin and removing them, a behavior that persisted until he could no longer remove the pins he had inserted (Newton, 2006, p. 78). Moreover, his psychological problems that involved elusions and hallucinations grew so much that he began to abduct, castrate, and torture young boys, a practice he claimed to have been directed by spiritual voices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early attacks and attempted abductions Fish happened to commit his first attack on a child, Thomas Bedden in the years 1910, and nine years later, he stabbed a mentally retarded boy in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. However, the most astonishing case was witnessed in the 1920 when Fish turned cannibal by kidnapping, killing and subsequently feeding on flesh of a ten-year girl (Philbin and philbin, 2009, p. 7).
Apparently, many of his intended victims would be either mentally disturbed or black Americans. However, his efforts to murder Beatrice Kiel were futile when the latter’s parents noticed his ill intentions and kept him off.
Second incarceration, arrest and trial Fish remarried in 1930, in New York; however, this marriage could not as well last for long as he eventually divorced his wife within seven days of marriage. In addition, Fish was later arrested in May 1930 for “sending an obscene letter to a woman who answered an advertisement for a maid” (Wilson, 1988). This was after a psychiatric observation Bellevue psychiatric hospital in 1930 and 1931 for observation, following his arrests; but two years before this, Ford had kidnapped Grace Budd, which led him to be arrested six years later.
Fish’s trial started in 1935 during which he defended himself alleging that he was insane. After much examination and trial, he was found both guilty and sane by the jury after which he was sentenced to death, followed by an execution a year later (Wilson, 1988).
Underlying cause for the evidence for the cause of Albert Fish’s behavior An analysis of Alvin Ford serial killer’s case is very closely related to that of Albert Fish. In 1986, the “United States Supreme Court used Florida’s procedure for determining mental competency for execution as a test case for banning execution of the mentally ill;” indeed, under Ford v. Wainwright “the eighth amendment prohibits the state from inflicting a penalty of death upon a prisoner who is insane” (Miller, and Radelet, 1993).
Although Florida’s procedure may now be constitutional on its face, in practice, Florida continues to execute the mentally ill. In 1974, Florida charged Alvin Ford with murder, after which he was sentenced to death. At the trial level, Ford raised no competency issues but after imprisonment, he showed symptoms of delusion, confusion, and psychosis.
A fourteen months examination by a defense psychiatrist revealed that Ford was suffering from paranoid Schizophrenia with suicide potential that hindered him the potential to defend his life. Other three governor- appointed psychiatrists examined him for only thirty minutes and discovered that although he exhibited mental disorder, he understood his total situation including his death penalty and the implications thereof (Wilson, 1988).
We will write a custom Essay on Albert Fish – the Serial Killer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the defense psychiatrist examined Ford, he concluded that Ford suffered from paranoid schizophrenia; however, although the examination of other three governor-appointed psychiatrists revealed that Ford suffered from mental disorder, they concluded that he understood his total situation, including his penalty and its implications.
When the case reached the Supreme Court, the Court’s plurality observed that no states allowed the execution of mentally retarded persons. The Justice in concurrence with Ford suggested a procedure used by Florida today that does not require full sanity prior to execution and an individual’s need to assist the counsel in his or her defense.
Even though the court left the standard and procedures open-ended, it clearly indicated that Florida’s procedure totally violated the eighth Amendment in three ways. (1) by denying the prisoner a mechanism to challenge the findings and impeach the findings of the governor appointed psychiatrists, (2) by placing the entire competency determination in the hands of the governor and (3) by preventing the condemned from playing any relevant role in the quest for truth (Chamblee, 2004).
Conclusion In comparison to Albert Fish’s case, Dempsey termed Fish as ‘a psychological phenomenon’. Psychiatrist Wertham also examined and found Fish to be obsessed with religion, cannibalism, and communion.
Fish himself pleaded insanity; however, although the jury found him sane and guilty, the reports, and examinations from other psychiatrists, rendering him insane should have been put into accurate consideration (Wilson and Seaman, 2004, p. 176). Fish’s activities totally reveal that he was mentally retarded, and if this is true, then the jury totally violated the United States Supreme Court’s eighth amendment.
References Chamblee, L. E. (2004). Time for a legislative change: Florida’s stagnant standard governing competency for execution. Web.
Hopkins, A. (2003). This Cannibal loved Kids – Literally. Weekly World News, Vol. 24, No. 19. Web.
Kray, K. (2007). The world’s worst crimes of 20 killers and their 1000 victims. Brooklyn, John Blake.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Albert Fish – the Serial Killer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, K. S. and Radelet, M. L. (1993). Executing the mentally ill: Criminal Justice System and the case of Alvin Ford. Michigan, Sage Publications. Web.
Newton, M. (2006). The encyclopedia of serial killers. Edition2. NY, Infobase Publishing. Web.
Philbin, T. and Philbin, M. (2009). The Killer Book of Serial Killers: Incredible Stories, Facts and Trivia from the World of Serial Killers. Texas, Sourcebooks, Inc. Web.
Wilson, C. and Seaman, D. (2004). The Serial Killers. London, Virgin Publishing Ltd.
Wilson, P. (1988). ‘Stranger’ child-murder: Issues relating to causes and controls. Forensic Science International, Volume 36, Issues 3.
“The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Deceptiveness of appearance
Introduction Written by Guy de Maupassant in 1881, The Necklace is a captivating short story that ends in a surprise. It is the most eye-catching work of Maupassant with all words contributing to the events that the narrative unfolds. It has garnered him a lot of acknowledgment.
The tale is set in Paris, France specifically covering Loisel’s home and the neighborhoods, ministry of education inclusive. Employing the elements of literature, Maupassant has used characters like monsieur Loisel, a clerk in the ministry of education, Mathilde, Loisel’s wife, Madame Jeanne Forestier, Mathilde’s neighbor and friend, Housemaid, Mathilde’s house servant, among others.
The writer takes the reader through the life of these characters and in particular, the poor family of Loisel and the rich family of Forestier. It unfolds that the kind of life depicted by these two categories of people is far from the reality. This illustration builds up the prevailing theme of the narrative ‘the deceptiveness of appearance’, which the writer employs to show how people are deceived by the appearance of others.
Deceptiveness of appearance Mathilde is a reasonably attractive girl regardless of her unfortunate family backgrounds. She regrets much owing to this poverty because she always compares herself with the other girls from well up homes. For instance, Forestier’s family is rich. She gets married to a mere government clerk. The ministry of education organizes a party for all its staff members, giving them a chance to invite their wives or husbands.
Ironically, thinking that this would thrill his wife, Loisel on delivering the invitation, realizes that it is more of a stress than joy to her. “Instead of being delighted, she threw the invitation on the table with disdain murmuring…” (Maupassant 39). The reason behind this is that she lacks elegant dresses and necklaces like other women, a case that makes her imagine how odd she can be if she attends the occasion.
They end up borrowing these from Forestier, but unfortunately the necklace gets lost after the event, an incidence that costs Loisel’s family virtually everything as they toil for ten years looking the money to purchase another one. They finally buy 36000 francs worthy necklace but on returning it to Forestier; she reveals its cost as just 500 francs. They are now in a severe financial crisis, though had they realized the truth, this would not be the case.
A major problem that the writer fails to clarify is whether Forestier resells the necklace to refund the extra money in order to reduce the debt incurred or not. This paves way to criticisms of his story, though he has managed to develop the dominant theme of the story. Mathilde stands out in the party as a rich and a high class wife owing to the diamond-appearing necklace that the people fail to realize that it was borrowed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Still on this theme, Forestier’s family is depicted as financially stable. It can afford some of the expensive things that poor families imagine of. Forestier has, not only one but many of them, unlike her counterpart Mathilde.
She wears them when attending great occasions, a case that earns her a good deal of recognition from other people. This is what Mathilde is yearning for. She wants to appear like her friend. She wants people to view her as rich. The writer shows how she longs for a recognized family name as well as an expensive dowry. By this she feels that she will appear like other rich families.
She is pictured as one, who is ever working towards achieving this reality, though what she publicizes is not what is on the ground. For instance, in the party, she appears the most elegant, a situation that makes all people want to chat with her, owing to what they are seeing, an expensive looking dress and a diamond necklace, but little do they know about the truth of the matter.
Following the issue behind Forestier’s necklace, it stands out that it is not made of diamond as people perceive. Though what appears in their eyes is the diamond look on the necklace, the story ends when Forestier reveals that it is just a mere coating. To strengthen his theme, the writer wants to show how the rich end up deceiving other people through their possessions.
Most of them appear costly before the eyes of people but rarely are they in their real senses. The value attached to some items, owing to their appearance, turns out to be many times different from their real values. For instance, the necklace appears 72 times expensive. The writer succeeds in showing how people mistake the rich people.
They have been portrayed as just appearing as if they are rich, which is not the case. Worthy noting is that the writer does not clarify about the child who appears to walk with Forestier. It is not clear whether he is intending to elaborate his theme further by introducing images of people who are not real characters, or not. This again welcomes criticisms to his works.
Conclusion Though dead and forgotten, Maupassant works speak volumes of his existence. The ideas behind his Necklace narrative stands out clear today. The issue of appearance is now everywhere with people struggling to hide their real selves in order to mislead others. Items have been manufactured bearing a false identity of others only to trick people. This is the kind of life that the writer was prophesying through the use of his major theme ‘the deceptiveness of appearance’ that he develops through the different characters.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Maupassant, Guy. “The Necklace” France: Word Press, 1881. P. 38-44.
History of the Finger Printing Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents History of Finger Prints Since 1950
Scientific Changes and Methodologies
Advances in Technology and Limitations of Evidence
Predictions and Importance in Forensic Science
History of Finger Prints Since 1950 Prior to and after 1950 fingerprinting as a biometric method of identifying criminals in the field of forensic science had been settled upon as one of the most reliable methods of identifying criminals in the criminal justice system. One striking case where fingerprinting vindicated itself was when two men who looked exactly alike could not be differentiated until fingerprints were used to identify them.
They were later known to be Will and Willam West. When Willam West was sent to jail at U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth it was discovered that another look alike and with similar names had been imprisoned instead of the real Willam (Volokh, 1997).
The Bertillon system had been used to erroneously identify the victim. However, upon a thorough investigation and use of the fingerprinting system to distinguish between the persons, it was established that the wrong person had been sentenced in place of the actual criminal. That event caused the Bertillon system a serious blow as to its reliability. Apparently, the two men were discovered to have been identical twin brothers.
Though finger printing had been developed as a technique for the purpose of criminal record keeping, later centuries saw this technique being used as a tool for conducting forensic investigations. According to Volokh (1997), later fingerprinting led to the establishment of a database to facilitate their access and retrieval for criminal investigations.
Sir Francis Galton, described as one whose acuteness of understanding was unequaled in the field of statistics in his time, outstandingly pioneered fingerprinting, a technique that saw wide acceptance into the twentieth century. This was after the eugenic movement he had founded for criminal identification. Galton’s classification of fingerprint patterns was into three categories of loops, arches, and whorls. This approach was based on manual searches of identifying identical fingerprints.
Though Galton’s work continued to receive improvements and wide usage in the criminal justice systems in various countries, it was not until other agencies such as the FBI adopted the use of fingerprints in identifying suspects for criminal records. Computerization added impetus to fingerprinting with the establishment of fingerprint database systems.
In the early 1940’s and 1960’s, data processing technologies for fingerprint imaging were developed. This technology was the foundation upon which FBI processed several million fingerprints in 1946. Using the automated fingerprint identification system (AFCS), the FBI is said to have computerized fingerprints into two categories. One category was for criminal files and the other for civilian purposes. This was based on the newly acquired knowledge on data processing techniques.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Subsequent years saw other countries adapting this system and creating systems like the 1977 fingerprint society.The Finger Print Society had an international scope. The 1977 world’s certified fingerprint system by the Latent Print Society Certification Board was established with an overwhelming vote from delegates who attended a fingerprint conference at Louisiana on 1st August 1977.
At this conference, it was generally agreed that practitioners do make mistakes, concerns that could be addressed by the Latent Print Certification Board. Other later establishments included the 2005 Interpol’s Automated Fingerprint Identification System, and the 2010 advanced fingerprint database operated by the Department of Homeland Security (Volokh, 1997).
Scientific Changes and Methodologies Warden (2003) asserts that in the scientific mind of the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries, fingerprints were known to posses the unique attribute of remaining the same with time in addition to being known to be unique to each individual. Scientist had settled on fingerprinting as a system for identifying and categorizing fingerprints for identification purposes. Methods developed for this purpose included fingerprint identification, classification, capture, and detection as discussed below.
Fingerprints are classified into exemplar, plastic, patent, latent, and electronic prints. In the criminal justice system, exemplar fingerprints are taken by rolling them from one edge of the finger to the other of a criminal suspect. The most frequently used finger collection method is live scans or paper cards in this case.
On the other hand latent fingerprints can be made visible through chemical, electronic, or physical processing methods. These techniques exploit contaminations in the form of a stain, sweat, ink, or any kind of dirt. Latent finger prints had the disadvantage of being distorted during the collection and analysis phases.
The plastic print category had the critical attribute of making such friction ridge impressions on a body. This makes fingerprints easy to collect using a camera without any enhancements. However, possibilities of criminal accomplices’ fingerprints getting collected when investigating the principle criminal’s finger prints on surfaces that have clear impressions can be done by employing other techniques.
Such other methods include the electronic print. This approach is where someone sending electronic data also sends parts of his or her finger prints in the process, an impeccable source to capture and reproduce the finger prints for purposes of criminal investigations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of the Finger Printing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the methods developed that have been developed in the early twentieth century and twenty first century include the ones discussed below. This method of capturing finger print images through the fingerprint capture and detection methods involved the use of Livescan devices.
This is a more modern method that provides a good quality fingerprint image when measuring the difference between the physical ridges and valleys of a finger. A sensor captures these differences from a suspect’s finger when a finger is exposed to a sensing area.
The latent fingerprint detection uses enhancers which can be powder or other chemical agents. These chemical reagents produce such degree of contrast as to render a clear definition of fingerprint ridges.
Among the most frequently used methods in criminal justice systems in the world today are laboratory techniques. This uses the vacuum metal deposition technique. The item under investigation is evaporated in a vacuum which is used in micro-fabrications. The principle processes involved here are substrate evaporation and condensation of substances. Though the resulting vapors are fuzzy, reliable results can be established from these tests. Complex equipments are used in the process.
Critical Analysis An analysis and criticism of the fingerprint classification method clearly shows the system to be prone to a high percentage of error when conducting comparisons between fingerprints. This method demonstrates a low degree of clarity, less details and content when compared to the actual ridge and groves.
Other methods could produce inconsistencies due to varied applications of pressure by a suspect this varying the actual outcome. The outcome depends on the pressure, physical orientation of the suspect, and variations in the shape of the elastic skin when a finger rolls on a surface, thus leading to inconsistencies in images captured from a suspect, a view held by (Ward, 1998).
An analysis of the latent fingerprint detection method indicates the method to be dependent on organic deposits such as water and inorganic salts to enhance its effectiveness. However, contaminations are bound to interfere with fingerprint findings. These contaminations result from the execration of sebaceous glands from the forehead.
These contaminations are further accelerated by man’s common behavior of touching the head or the forehead. This method can further be used to identify fingerprints in laboratories from items removed from a scene of crime. In the recent past and up to 2010, this method had registered a 50% success when used with other sophisticated techniques in investigating advanced crime scenes in laboratory environments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Finger Printing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, laboratory methods suffer from the element of unreliability. Some chemicals used in the process increase the unreliability of the results. Among the chemicals include the use of zinc and gold. The results are not specific when analyzing items from a scene of crime.
This has been due to a thin layer of up to one molecule thick formed for in the analysis for detection. Further still, the method suffers from the disadvantage of the greater percentage of a fingerprint evaporating in the process and leaving only 10% of its weight.
However, more advanced and complicated laboratory techniques have been developed with more reliable results. These include the fluorescent detection technique that is widely used all over the world today. This method has a further advantage in that inherent finger prints can be detected from an item collected from a scene of crime in the process of analyzing fingerprints from a principle criminal.
Advances in Technology and Limitations of Evidence The adequacy criteria to convict or not to convict a suspect criminal based on the use of no-intimate methods also referred to as fingerprinting relies on the probability of the significance of matches. A study by Collins and Jarvis (2008) on the wrongful convictions of forensic science reveals the free ride this field has enjoyed for over 50 years.
Systematic failures have been noted with these techniques due to either fraud or malpractice. One case study is that one of Professor Garrett. A research by Professor Garrett had led him to fail to give credit to the findings of forensic science. A suspect who was thought to have been involved in a carjacking incident in 2005, James Ochoa, who was later acquitted due to faults with forensic evidence presented during his trial later proved erroneous.
Another instance of the miscarriage of justice was witnessed when Ray Krone suspected of having a hand in a crime was prosecuted on evidence based on fingerprints. Krone is said to have maintained his innocence despite glaring forensic evidence. This case continued in the face of incompetent forensic evidence until an Attorney uncovered inherent problems with the forensic evidence adduced in court at the time.
In more modern times, the validity and reliability of fingerprinting has been questioned. The paradigms to evaluate, validate, and verify the degree of consistence and authenticity of fingerprints to assure validity of results is a question. That was what happened to Krone before other examinations were done to acquit him of the judges facing him.
In addition to that, tests done to verify the validity of forensic science as a reliable and flawless method of identifying criminals has been thrown into doubt. Objectively focused investigations have revealed glaring faults with this system.
Examinations and presentation of results in different lights have thrown the justice system into a quagmire of doubt regarding the incomplete and faulty outcomes. However, notwithstanding the few events of misconstrued and poorly analyzed fingerprints, success and reliability have been asserted by this science (Warden, 2005).
With the impetus gained in the use of fingerprints in identifying criminals, it has become evident that governments of the world have emphasized on the use of this method to identify criminals. Fingerprinting has found its way to being the most fundamental tool for identifying criminals and the civilian population within policy agencies and the criminal justice systems.
Fingerprinting has also in modern times been identified to be more reliable compared with other methods such as DNA analysis. The extent to which this method could be relied upon facilitated the formation of international organizations such as the International Association for Identification. This facilitated the birth of other forensic disciplines with different certification programs.
Several instances have discredited and reduced the confidence and reliability of forensic methods for criminal convictions and acquittals. One of these was a case involving Brandon Mayfield. During the Madrid bombing, Mayfield the lawyer was identified to be one of the criminal perpetrators.
This error was based on a finger print match by the FBI. To assert his involvement, matches were shown to be completely positive. The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) had been used to analyze the fingerprints. However, the Spanish National Police’s identification system found Mayfield to be the wrong suspect. Mayfield had already spent two weeks in police custody.
Wasby (1983) presents a case that involved René Ramón Sánchez. On July 1995, the immigrant was charged with driving while under the influence of intoxicants. At the same time, a man known as Leo Rosario convicted of trafficking in cocaine had his fingerprints being processed concurrently with those of Sánchez which had been placed on a card with the name social security number.
Then, on 11th October, 2010 while returning from Jamaica, Sánchez whose physical descriptions were not anywhere near those of Rosario was mistakenly apprehended by policy who were satisfied they had held Rosario. However, Sánchez was later released after having spent time in police custody.
Zalman (2005) asserts that several other cases such as that of Stephan Cowans who was mistakenly convicted of attempted murder in 1997 had been identified. The conviction was based on the testimony of a witness, a fingerprint on a glass the purported criminal had drunk from. It was until DNA evidence was adduced in court that Cowan was released from prison after six years in jail. Sadly, Cowan died a few years later.
Predictions and Importance in Forensic Science Forensic science plays a key role in the criminal justice system. Certain cases require minute details that can only be made available through the advanced use of forensic science. The field has over the centuries grown in importance with more advanced techniques being developed to enable investigators pin point actual criminals from scanty evidence for all law enforcement agencies.
However, forensic science suffers from severe limitations. Among them is the reliability and validity of findings. In addition to that, some individuals mutilate their fingerprints when under investigations to destroy evidence. Investigators are prone to make errors as evidenced in the above case studies, an error that can lead one to erroneously serve a jail sentence.
References Collins, J
Middle classes in America Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Expectation of the American middle class
The reality of the American middle class
Introduction The American middle class is not comprehensibly defined in the social classes of the US. Splitting this social class into two makes it easy for one to understand it better. There is the high middle class and the lower middle class Americans. The high or professional middle class comprises of educated professionals who hold high positions in the organizations.
The lower middle class also comprise of skilled professionals but those that hold lower managerial positions in organizations. In other words the lower middle class people can be termed as semi professionals.
Expectation of the American middle class The middle class persons are commonly expected and known to live in comfortable standards of living. Considering they have what can be termed as stable ways of earning income they are significantly economically secure. The American middle class individuals rely on their expertise to sustain themselves hence they can be able to have a progressive sustainable lifestyle.
They are people of substantial work autonomy which helps them to venture in sustainable businesses in their areas of expertise which gives them outlets to advance their living standards immensely. According to the majorities expectation the middle class people are supposed to live in spotlessly clean houses have at least two cars and one of the individuals should have a job in a corporation. The advanced in prosperity mighty are in possession of luxurious items like televisions etc.
The lower middle live in places next to the working class people and they live relatively comfortable lives. According to the salary range, American middle class individuals are people who build up great strong pillars in the economy therefore they should be able to build stable and strong lifestyles. The expectation is well feed and economically stable individuals offering a hand in nation building.
The reality of the American middle class Though the above is what many people would look for in identifying the middle class, a lot has changed in terms of expectation. The American lifestyle has changed and many people live together yet they are not married. Divorced people end up getting married again. These have contributed to high burdens of keeping up these big families.
These families have become common among the American middle class and hence they are progressively been accepted. Comparing the past and today, women today are employed and work as professionals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In reality most American middle class calls double income or two incomes for upkeep. To maintain the living lifestyle they are accustomed to. Keeping up their families especially those with children from other marriages which is a common occurrence in the American middle class needs two income to maintain the standards of living and the lifestyles they are used to.
Conclusion In conclusion the expected lifestyle for the American middle and what is happening on the ground are two different worlds. The American middle class are going through hard challenges trying to keep up with their lifestyles which are due to high standards of living and hard economic situation in the world. They should therefore learn to keep up with what they can handle and encourage two income to maintain their standards.
Up from Slavery Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The historical issues often are rather controversial. Any historical fact can give rise to doubts of the historians and become a subject for scientific debates. An autobiographical work Up from Slavery by Washington Booker describes the relationships between the black and white people in the United States before the Civil War from a new unexpected perspective of the actual participant of the events.
Bookers’ memoirs do not contradict the descriptions of 1890s in The Awakening by Kate Chopin or The Strenuous Life by Theodore Roosevelt but add new significant information to them.
Instead of criticizing the opposition between the black and the white, Booker emphasizes the interpersonal relationships between the masters and their slaves, emphasizing the devotion of the latter to the white population.
Anyone attempting to harm ‘young Mistress’ or ‘old Mistress’ during the night would have to cross the dead body of the slave to do so… there are few instances, either in slavery or freedom, in which a member of my race has been known to betray a specific trust (Washington 28).
In this point Booker’s perspective is opposed to the widely spread bias concerning the hatred of Afro-Americans towards their odious masters. In a number of situations the relations were rather warm and some of the slaves got accustomed to their position and did not want to change their life style.
Giving rise to readers’ doubts concerning the generally accepted view on the confrontation between Afro-Americans and white population, Booker motivates them to get rid of their stereotypes. Pointing at another shift in public consciousness of Americans in 1890s, Kate Chopin sheds light upon the first signs of feminism in the society, choosing a woman struggling for her rights as the main protagonist of her book The Awakening.
“The years that are gone seem like dreams… Perhaps it is better to wake up after all, even to suffer, rather than to remain a dupe to illusions all one’s life.” (Chopin 292). The idea of awakening is rather broad and can be used to define various changes in the country of the period under analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Up from Slavery by Washington Booker can be regarded as a part of the 1890s America explored by Roosevelt emphasizing the same ideas of universal values which preceded the decline of slavery.
The outside world does not know the struggle that is constantly going on in the hearts of both the Southern white people and their former slaves to free themselves from racial prejudice; and while both races are thus struggling they should have the sympathy, the support, and the forbearance of the rest of the world (Washington 220).
A similar idea is proclaimed by Roosevelt who points at the significance of ensuring equal rights for all the citizens for demonstrating the level of development of the state and entering the world community as a civilized country. “In the end the slave was freed, the Union restored, and the mighty American republic placed one more as a helmeted queen among nations” (Roosevelt 5).
Thus, describing the phenomenon, both authors point at its devastating effects for further progress of the United States, while the decision to get rid of it was similar to getting rid of a burden that prevented the development.
Up from Slavery by Washington Booker views the situation in America of 1890s through the eyes of an Afro-American, adding a new perspective to the descriptions of the situation in the country in The Awakening by Kate Chopin or The Strenuous Life by Theodore Roosevelt, without contradicting or opposing to them.
Works Cited Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York: Bibliobazaar, 2008. Print.
Roosevelt, Theodore. The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2006. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Up from Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Washington, Booker. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: Bibliobazaar, 2008. Print.
Necessary Target: Theatre Essay a level english language essay help
The Necessary Targets is a play that had been written by Eve Ensler. The highlight of the play is about the role of women in the society. The play had remarkably convinced readers to think about the women when it comes to warfare. The author had claimed that the first idea that one gets when we talk about war is man and the weapons but no one had ever tried to understand what happened to the women in the wars had affected humanity since the beginning of human’s life time.
The play Necessary Targets could be a very interesting play for the students to perform and equally experience it as an audience. It is being proposed that the projection of the play for school Theatre Company would be a great source of joy and legendary salute on the upcoming Women’s History Month.
Characters The published play tells the stories of many Bosnian women who had to go through the aftermaths of the war. The use author had mentioned that even though there were a lot of destructions in the era and many women had lost their brothers, sons, fathers and husbands, those Bosnian women did not want to take revenge. A number of female students can take part in the play and tell the stories of different women as mentioned in the published play (Ensler).
The first character that could be projected in the theater could be of Azra who according to the author’s writing was the oldest woman. The character of Azra needs to be very sophisticated. The dialogue delivery will automatically take the grasp of audience’s attention. The character of Azra is more of a woman who does not have any reason in life to live. Azra had been shown to complain a lot in the course of the play. Azra would be the first character to be shown on the stage as she is most experienced about what happened in the war (Ensler).
Saeeda is the next important character of the play as she is portrays the character of a very helpless mother. The character of Saeeda is more of a psychology imbalanced woman who had lost her only child while she was running from the men during the war. The person who would be playing the character of Saeeda must wear a bag made up of bundle of clothes where she tried to hide her baby daughter Doona.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Character III:
The third character would display a stronger woman named Jelena who is one woman who tries to calm the women in the group (Bovard). The character of Jelena would ultimately help the audiences to understand the emotional capacity of women.
Nuna is the fourth character of the play who is a young girl in the group. She does not have the idea how crucial the situations for girls would be because in the course of the play her attention is diverted towards the American women who had come to rehabilitate them. Nuna must be portrayed as a character that is greatly influenced from the American ladies and tires to ask questions from people to gain knowledge (Ensler).
The set should be set as the real scenarios of Bosnia. The set must be floored with soil and stones. Two camps would surely compliment the story as the author had written some scenes where the women told their stories while starring outside the camps. The camps are required to be khaki in color. It would be best if the camps are stitched with different pieces of clothes as the women are poor and had no one to provide them with basic needs (Morgon).
The set would also include a bathroom that would show the filthy condition in which women after the war had to live. A room must also be set up on the stage as it would be shown that the American women who came for women rehabilitation lived comfortably.
The costumes for the play are suggested to be very traditionally Bosnian. In Bosnian traditions, women are supposed to wear one long veil like robe. The fabric that will be used for the robe must be worn out. The clothes must be torn from the bottoms that will show the poor conditions of the women as they had no homes. The costume for the American women for rehabilitation services must be trousers and dark colored shirts with caps to wear on heads.
We will write a custom Essay on Necessary Target: Theatre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lights and Sounds
The sounds and the background music should be selected from the genre of mellow music as it will compliment the overall scenario of the play. Moreover, lights will be dim but it could be make brighter at the end of the play as it will enhance and the visibility of the characters while delivering the desired message to the audiences.
The portrayal of the play in the school theatre would be very interesting for the local audiences. Through the usage of proposed sets and theme, it would be easy for the audiences to understand the living conditions of the women during the war. In this way, the audiences shall also be able to understand the tradition of Bosnian women. The play will overall be a very excellent projection specifically for the women history month.
Works Cited Bovard, K. “Necessary Targets Review.” Theatre Journal 54.4 (2002): 642-643.
Ensler, E. Necessary Targets. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 2003.
Morgon, R. Sisterhood is Forever: The Women’s Anthology for a New Millennium. Washington DC.: Washington Square Press, 2003.
China: The next hegemonic power? Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
IR theoretical framework
Reasons for Selecting the Above Methodology
Introduction Global hegemony is a term mainly used to refer to a state in world affairs in which one nation exercises authority over the others because of a concentration of various powers in the former (Atasoy, 2009). The take-over of global dominance by the United States from Britain after the end of the World War I has revealed that there is one main reason as to why a country can cede supremacy over other nations. This reason is mainly overspending by the nations in power; a phenomenon sometimes known as imperial overstretch.
The United States has for a while now been the single most powerful nation in the world. However, as time progresses, other contenders are gradually emerging for the same title with China leading the pack.
This paper seeks to analyze the strengths that China has which could well be used to place it in a position of global politico-economic supremacy as well as point out the weaknesses that are pulling back the country in this regard. Aside from this, a brief detailing of an International Relations theoretical framework that can be used to explain China’s ascent into global supremacy shall be provided.
China’s Strengths The Chinese economy has been confirmed to have grown ten-fold in the last thirty years and that in the past decade its gross domestic product per capita has doubled. Between 50 and 60 percent of the country’s GDP is taken by the nation’s manufacturing sector and one notable example of this is the steel industry (Vogelmann, 2008). Between 1995 and 2005, China’s production of steel had grown by over 290 tones; a figure which translates to a yearly growth of 39%.
Such figures genuinely show that China is well on its way to a complete industrial overhaul. However, for China to rise to the level of making a mark as far as global hegemony is concerned, the impact of its growth has to be substantially appreciated by other nations across the globe. This growth will only make an impact if it is sustainable without sparking conflict between China and other superpowers.
China commands a great portion of the world marketplace meaning that it has a substantial say in most monetary issues (Vogelmann, 2008). For instance China recently declined to let its currency appreciate claiming that it wanted to keep its trade balance away from world knowledge.
This clearly illustrates that China is not willing to have other nations influence the decisions it makes on financial policies. As the country grows wealthier and in a sense becoming a key player in global economics and politics, its leaders will have to find ways of fostering peaceful relations with other nations, an aspect that will force them to downplay their nationalistic sentiments (Vogelmann, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor that could contribute to China upsetting the United States from global dominance is the sheer size of its military capabilities (Scobell, 2007). China is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and it therefore has unchallenged power over any issues that go through the organization’s chamber (Scobell, 2007). The country is also known to invest heavily in its military with its budget for this increasing by 15% last year.
IR theoretical framework One theoretical framework of international relations that can be used to explain the concept of hegemonic power is Neorealism sometimes known as structured realism (May, Rosecrance and Steiner, 2010). This is theory was fronted by Kenneth Waltz and it is basically an advancement to ideas engulfed in traditional realism schools of thought. This theory holds it that in order to explain how a state conducts itself, the structure of the society in which particular states operate must be taken into account.
According to this framework, structure is explained in two basic descriptions. The first is anarchy which is organization of global political and economic systems in alignment with one supreme power (May, Rosecrance and Steiner, 2010). The second is the emphasis on the military supremacy of nations that command worldwide authority in classifying the powers of countries as opposed to a combination of all state strengths.
This theoretical framework can definitely be used to explain China’s rise in the 21st century particularly because it holds that for a country to grow to such a position that it commands great authority in the world it must have a strong military base and even greater financial supremacy, aspects which are well present in China.
China’s weaknesses The greatest issue at the moment that would make China not get to the point of global dominance that it desires is that the country is basically viewed as a security risk (Vogelmann, 2008). It is generally acceptable that as a country’s economic supremacy grows, so does its tendency to want to meddle into the affairs of other nations by trying to maintain order world wide.
Chinese leaders are known to be prone to surrendering to nationalistic interests and if this submission is to occur with the country as the hegemonic leader, it could spark conflict, the size of the last world war. As a matter of fact China has a below par record when it comes to the issue of human rights and the country’s oppressive policies on the media rights have contributed to the country fairing badly in this issue (Scobell, 2007).
Methodology The research will be based on secondary data collection. Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be the relevance to the research topic as well as the year of publication. Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries will be visited in order to access the data.
We will write a custom Research Paper on China: The next hegemonic power? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field. Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay. The possibility of China rising to global hegemony cannot be effectively analysed without obtaining information on the various strengths and spheres of influence of the country as far as world issues are concerned.
These strengths have to be compared with those of the United States which currently exercises global supremacy and Britain, from which the United States took over. This will definitely make for some interesting research and in as much most of the information will only be used for reference purposes, it will effectively came round to form the back-born of the paper.
Information from the books will serve to provide explanation as regards the internal machinations of global hegemonies. This will be very crucial information that will make the research report appeal to both professionals and the general public. For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the past and present manifestations of single-nation global dominance.
Empirical data will be collected from recent studies with numbers and figures used to show the costs and economical impact of a Chinese global hegemony and how it could effectively be used to serve as a guide for other nations that would like to rise to such levels of influence. Like with any other professional field of study, International Relations researches have to be conducted in such a way that the offer credibility to the practitioner.
In such a scientific field, the strength lies in the figures and particularly the numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by proper citation.
Reasons for Selecting the Above Methodology For any professional topic, chances are that extensive research has been carried out by professionals in the field before. Consequently, in order to establish the backbone of a given research project, it is only necessary that extensive review of literature be carried before identifying seeking first hand information from the field.
The latter, i.e. information collected from the field is also necessary since it helps give professional credibility to the project. Combining results from both sources would serve to foster their symbiotic relationship with one offering background information and the other presenting up-to-date information on the topic.
Reference List Atasoy, Y. (2009). Hegemonic transitions, the state and crisis in neoliberal capitalism. United Kingdom: Taylor
Drug and Alcohol Testing Report essay help free
Drug Test A drug test is a scientific examination of a biological sample like urine, hair, blood, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva to establish the existence or absence of particular parent drugs or their metabolites. Deborah et al, (1998)stated that “one of the significance of drug test is testing for the presence of substance and detecting that encourages steroids in sports or drugs prohibited by laws, like heroin, cocaine and cannabis”(p. 32).
Urine Drug Screen
When an employer demands for a drug test from a worker the employee is characteristically informed to go to a gathering site. The employee’s urine is taken at an isolated position in a particularly designed protected cup, conserved with a tamper opposed to tape, and sent by means of express liberation service to a laboratory that is used in testing to monitored drugs.
The first stage at the testing site is to divide the urine into two separate aliquots. The first is used to test for drugs with the use of an analyzer that performs immunoassay for preliminary screening.
If the urine screen indicate positive, then a different portion of the sample is used to verify the presence of drugs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology (Lennart, 1991). All the test results are transferred to an MRO for extra and appropriate medical reviews on the collected results. If the result of the screen indicates negative, the MRO reveals that the worker has no plain drug to detect the presence of urine.
Thomas and Ulrike (2008) also explained that “the test result of the immunoassay and GC-MS are non-negative and confirm a concentration level of parent drug or metabolite above the well-known boundary, the MRO contacts the worker and to decide if there is any genuine reason for medical treatment or recommendation” (p. 6).
On-site direct drug testing is getting more extensively used in states permitting it as a more cost-efficient technique of efficiently identifying drug abuse that exist among employees, as well as in treatment programs to scrutinize patient evolution. Deborah and Joseph (1998) explained that these instantaneous tests can be used for both urine and saliva testing (p. 19).
Though the exactness of such tests depends on the manufacturer, some kits possess enormously high rates of correctness, associating directly with laboratory test results. Jim (2006) explained “about 5% of all the pre-employment urine samples tested positive for drugs”(p. 14). The effects are much higher for post-accident and logical suspicion test.
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Analysis of hair samples has numerous rewards as an introductory screening method to test for the existence of drugs. The significance of hair testing include the non-invasiveness, reduced cost as well as ability to resolve a great number of possibly interrelated, toxic and physically essential elements. Particularly in the United States hair testing is becoming more and more useful for employers to test employees for possible prohibited drug use (Cathryn and John, 1989, p. 49).
Testing for the presence of both FAEE and ETG levels have been used in UK courts and hair testing for alcohol makers is now conventional in both the UK and US legal systems. There are strategies for hair testing that have been made available by the Society of Hair Testing that identifies the markers to be tested for and the cut-off concentrations that require testing.
Effective differentiating between other drugs consumed and alcohol, alcohol is not set down directly in the hair. The method used in this test ensures that the test procedure directs and generates products of ethanol metabolism. The most important part of alcohol is oxidized in the human body and it is given out as water and carbon dioxide, and this reacts with fatty acids to generate esters. Mireille (2003) explained that the amounts of the reflection of four of these fatty acid ethyl esters are useful in the indication of the alcohol use (p. 19).
Hatala (2003) stated that “the quantity found in hair is calculated and measured in nanograms though with the advantage of modern technology, it is likely to detect even very small amounts” (p. 43). In the testing of Ethyl Glucuronide, or EtG, testing can detect amounts in picograms.
Conversely, a significant difference exists between most drugs and alcohol metabolites as explained by Jim (2006) “in the way that they go through the hair, also, other drugs like FAEEs go straight into the hair through the keratinocytes, and this is the cell that is responsible for hair growth”(p. 43).
Mireille (2003) also explained that, “these cells structure the hair in the root and then grow through the skin exterior taking any essential materials along with them” (p. 22). As a result, the sebaceous glands secrete a substance in the scalp and then flow together with the sebum along the hair shaft (Jim, 2006, p. 14).
Drug Testing Methodologies Various kinds of drug tests come in different ways. Before a sample is tested, the tamper-evident seal is tested for consistency. If it emerges to have been interfered with or was injured during transportation, the laboratory will reject the sample and will not test it. Johnathan (2008) explained that, “one of the first steps for all drug testing is to make the sample to attain a testable state” (p. 45). Urine and oral liquid can be used for some tests, but other tests necessitate the drugs to be removed from urine earlier.
We will write a custom Report on Drug and Alcohol Testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threads of hair, scraps as well as blood must be organized before testing. Jim (2006) said that “the purpose of washing hair and keeping it clean is to get rid of second-hand sources of drugs on the external surface of the hair, after which the keratin is broken down with the use of enzymes”(p. 3). Sweat scraps are opened up and the sweat compilation element is drenched in a flush to break up any drugs available.
Laboratory-based drug testing is performed in such a way that it makes use of two different types of testing methods. The first is identified as the screening test, and this is functional to all illustration that passes through the laboratory.
The second is known as the confirmation test, which is only useful to samples that test positive throughout the screening test. Johnathan (2008) asserts that “screening tests are naturally executed by immunoassay (EMIT, ELISA, and RIA are the most common)” (p. 16). A measuring stick drug testing method that could at some prospective point provide screening test potential to field investigators has been developed.
After testing the positive sample, the sample is made standard and tested again by the confirmation test. Negative samples are screened, thrown away and described as negative.
The confirmation test in most laboratories is conducted via a mass spectrometry, and is enormously accurate but also moderately costly to run (Mireille, 2003, p. 35). False positive samples gotten from the screening test will be harmful on the verification test. Samples testing positive throughout both screening and confirmation tests are described as positive to the body that regimented the test.
A lot of laboratories save positive samples for some period of months or years in the occurrence of a doubtful result or court proceedings. During testing in a work environment, a positive result is usually not recognized without a reassessing the product by a Medical Review Officer that will question the subject of the drug test.
Drug Testing Methods Urine Drug Testing
Urine drug test kits are accessible as on-sight tests, or laboratory analysis. Mireille (2003) asserts that “urinalysis is the most common test type and it is used by federally authorized drug testing programs that are considered as gold standard of drug testing” (p. 43).
Urine based tests have been maintained in most courts for over 30 years, though, urinalysis conducted by the department of defence has been questioned for consistency of testing the metabolic nature of cocaine. However, Johnathan (2008) explains that “there exist two connected metabolites of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZ) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), the first (BZ) is produced by the existence of cocaine in an aqeous solution with a pH greater than 7.0, while the second (EME) is generated the actual human metabolic process” (p. 47).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug and Alcohol Testing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The existence of EME verifies genuine intake of cocaine by a human being, while the existence of BZ is suggestive only. Oral fluid is not measured as a bio-hazard except there is observable blood, though; it should be handled with extreme care (Thomas and Ulrike, 2008, p. 46).
Spray (Sweat) Drug Testing
Spray (sweat) drug test outfits are non-insidious. It is very simple to collect the specimen that no bathroom will be required for collecting the specimen. The detection window is extended and can typically detect drug use up for a number of late. These drug tests are comparatively tamper proof since they are very difficult to influence and it usually does not require a laboratory for analysis.
Mireille (2003) stated that huge differences of sweat assembly rates of potential donors make some results questionable. There is not much assortment in the drug tests since they are not as well-liked as urine or saliva drug testing kits (p. 42). Their prices are normally higher for every test performed. One major drawback of this testing method is the inadequate amount of drugs that can be distinguished, and the capability to create instant results.
Hair Drug Testing
Hair drug testing is capable of detecting drug use over a very long period of time and it is often used for highly safety significant positions where there is zero acceptance of drug usage. Standard hair follicle screen extends to a period of 30-90 days. The growth of hair is typically at the rate of 0.5 inches per month. If the hair on the head is not available, body hair can be used as a suitable alternative (Miller et al., 2009, p. 34).
Even if the person being tested has a bald head, hair can also be collected from roughly any other part of the body like facial hair, the underarms, arms, and legs. However, it is always claimed that hair test cannot be interfered with, it has been made known that this is basically incorrect. For instance, THC does not voluntarily put down inside epithelial cells so it is likely for superficial and other forms of defilement to lessen the amount of testable cannabinoids that exists in a hair sample.
Legal, Ethics and politics of Mandatory Drug Testing
Drug testing is likely to detect cannabis users, since THC metabolites are fat dissolvers and have the ability to stay longer in the body than those other drugs that are broadly measured as very dangerous like cocaine and heroin. Thomas and Ulrike (2008) explained that this can help direct possible cannabis users to switch to drugs that are less harder, most of which normally have considerably shorter detection period or are less expected to be tested for (p. 24).
It has also been observed that regular medical tests are prone to errors of the same type that intimidate the correctness of drug tests, but medical tests are neither accidental nor obligatory, and are typically performed in test boards that provide the physician with a number of results to infer together, with abnormal combinations normally resulting in retesting and a hunt for other supporting verification. Also, drug tests are not parts of such panes, and other verification is often not obtainable.
Conclusion Drugs and alcohol testing are forms of medical testing that can be used to detect the presence of drugs or alcohol in one form or the other in the body. Therefore, it is very important that that drug testing is carefully performed so as to arrive at the exact or correct test.
References Cathryn, J.