Thesis Statement: Women in Hollywood have always been grossly misrepresented and whether the movie, like The Fast and The Furious targets a male audience or, like The Devil Wears Prada, targets a female audience, they do not show women as they really are but as men see them or would like to see them.
Female Portrayal in Hollywood: A Male Fantasy Hollywood has always been a men’s club where movies are made by men and for men. There is little wonder that throughout Hollywood’s history women were relegated to the role of sex objects who were present only for the viewing pleasure of the male audience. Portrayal of women in Hollywood can be broadly divided into two main categories.
First category is of women in movies that are made for the male audience and the second category is of women’s movies that are made for the female audience. The Fast and The Furious is an example of a movie made for men that shows macho men driving fast cars. The Devil Wears Prada is women’s movie that shows successful career women and their problems. Both these movies are typical examples of how Hollywood trivializes women and their role in society.
Women in Hollywood have always been grossly misrepresented and whether the movie, like The Fast and The Furious, targets a male audience or, like The Devil Wears Prada, targets a female audience, they do not show women as they really are but as men see them or would like to see them.
The Devil Wears Prada suggest that in order to be successful, women must mould themselves in to the male ideal of femininity. Hollywood movies, have never presented a very flattering image of women. As Herbert Buchsbaum and Karen Peart point out movies do not show women as they really are but rather they show them how men see women and wish them to behave (14).
These stereotypes have become even more prominent in the twenty first century with women wearing sexier clothes and sporting thinner figures than ever before in the history. The movie sends the “message that in order to be desirable woman must remain young, beautiful and thin. And if they don’t fit that stereotypical prototype, they will be doomed to a life of unhappiness” (Buchsbaum and Peart 14).
We see this message loud and clear in The Devil Wears Prada where Anne Hathaway’s character, Andy is not taken seriously until she starts wearing sexy, designer clothes and loses weight to become a size 4. The Devil Wears Prada is a women’s movie, with women in the lead role and women as the target audience. But it defines female desirability to reflect male ideals and the way men would like to see women. Even in a women’s movie, the ideal female form is decided by the male film makers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Laura Mulvey points out, “the determining male gaze projects its fantasy on to the female figure which is styled accordingly” (837). In modern times, movies have become the harbinger of acceptable social norms and these movies are telling us that the acceptable female form is the one that reflects male fantasy.
The Fast and The Furious is a fast paced male bonding movie that uses the female characters to cater to predominantly male fantasies and to keeping the male gaze occupied. According to Rose Weitz, “modern film-making is largely characterized by the male gaze: a lingering look that sexualizes the female body and provides sexual pleasure to the male gazer” (Weitz 24).
This male gaze was first defined by the Mulvey, back in 1973. “In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness” (Mulvey 837).
In movies, these male gaze is brought out by the way the camera focuses on the female form. In the movie, The Fast and the Furious, film makers used the female body to fill in the lull moments that showed the passage of time, thus ensuring that the movie did not lose its momentum.
The film makers could have used any number of ways to show the passage of time. But by focusing on the female form, they kept the male audience occupied by appealing to the male gaze. The two women do not really have any role in the movie other than to provide visual pleasure to fill in the lull moments in the movie’s flow.
In The Fast and the Furious, the main function of the female characters is to provide glamour. Films is a visual medium and most people going to watch a movie are as interested in its glamour quotient as anything else. Hence, it is no crime to depict glamorous women on screen. The problem arises when the only reason for female presence is to provide this glamour.
According to a survey of over 100 Hollywood films, “female characters were more likely to wear sexy, provocative clothing than men (26% vs. 5%) or to appear partially naked (24% vs. 8%)” (Nanci Hellmich and USA Today). In The Fast and the Furious Letty, played by Michelle Rodriguez, is Vin Diesel’s love interest in the movie while Mia (Jordana Brewster) is attracted to Paul Walker.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Women in Hollywood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More But other than providing the romantic and visual relief, they do not have any other role in the movie. A movie about fast cars and smart thieves does not need a woman.
The movie would still be the same if Rodriguez’s character was replaced by a male actor and Brewster’s character was completely removed. Removing the two female characters would not have affected the movie in any way. Yet, they are present for the sole purpose of providing glamour through the sexualization of their female form. Such a portrayal of sexualized female images in a successful franchise only glorifies the objectification of women.
The Fast and The Furious is predominantly made for the male audience and so serves to satisfy nostalgic male fantasy of a world where women are subordinate to men and are only seen but never heard. According to “an analysis of the 100 top-grossing movies of 2008… men had 67% of the speaking roles; women had about half that, 33%” (Hellmich and USA Today). In The Fast and The Furious while Letty barely has any dialogues, Mia’s role is that of a second fiddle to her brother who never goes against her brother’s wishes.
When it is discovered that Brian is an undercover cop, Dominic walks away even though Brian had just helped save them. Mia wants to be with Brian but defers to her brother’s wishes. In doing so, she comes across as the typical dutiful sister, daughter, wife, who would never dream of going against the wishes of the male member of the family and for whom her own wishes and dreams do not matter.
According to Stuart Fischoff, movies “pander to and promote a classically conditioned association between femaleness and sexual feelings” (Fischoff). Men want their women to be sexy but not openly express their sexual feelings and remain submissive . Both Mia and Letty and fit this classical concept of what constitutes female sexiness.
Although Letty is sexy and beautiful, she does not speak much an does not challenge Dominic and his leadership. She supports Dominic even when she knows that he is wrong. Similarly, Mia remains loyal to Dominic and even when she supposedly betrays her brother by telling Brian, a cop, Dominic’s whereabouts, she is still being submissive to the other male character in the movie. Such unquestioned submissiveness of the female characters appeals to male nostalgic fantasy.
In The Devil Wears Prada, the successful career women is not only intelligent and smart but also sexy and glamorous because that is how men like to see them. According to Fischoff, “Narrow, monotonic, sexualized portrayals of women, of all ages, lowers expectations of and for women showing talent and aptitude in other arenas of accomplishment”. Women must limit themselves to their houses and if they venture out, they must dress sexily enough to attract the male gaze.
Men, it would seem looking at Hollywood, just want to look at the female form, whether it is in the bedroom or the boardroom. As more and more women have left the confines of their homes to seek employment in the male world, the male gaze no longer needs to go into the bedroom to see the female form.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Women in Hollywood by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They can now see her in the next cubicle. However, in order to appeal to the male gaze, and be noticed, she must be sexily dressed. And Hollywood, through its portrayal of women as sexualized objects makes sure that they are indeed available for that penetrating male gaze. Even these modern working women must work within the limitation s of acceptable female behavior. So in order to have a successful career, Andy must look sexy.
The sexy Andy, not only satisfies the male gaze of the audience sitting in the theatre, but also tells the female audience that being sexy and well groomed is the only way to be taken seriously at work. So when these women leave the theatre, they want to look sexy and the next time they go to work, they try to look glamorous and sexy in an attempt to emulate Anne Hathaway. In the process, they satisfy the typical female fantasy of their male coworkers.
In The Fast and The Furious a woman’s actions, her interests and how she dresses are almost always dictated by her wish to find a husband . As The Daily Mail points out that “The modern Hollywood portrayal of women is increasingly a heroine who is hysterical, weight-obsessed and only thinks of men” (Daily Mail Reporter).
So in The Fast and the Furious, Letty’s interest in car could be attributed the fact that Dominic was interested in cars and since Letty was interested in Dominic since a very young age, she gets into cars to attract Dominic’s attention.
So, the seemingly male interest in cars was directly the result of a woman’s female desire to find a husband. According to Frank Manchel, Hollywood has always shown woman to be “unfulfilled without a man” (79). Hollywood movies have been largely responsible for women wanting to spend such huge amounts on their looks and grooming.
Not because they feel any inner need to be beautiful but because, if Hollywood is to be believed, a woman cannot find a husband unless she looks beautiful and finding a husband is the main objective of female existence (Manchel 79). Over the years, movies are becoming more and more regressive with female interest becoming more and more male centric in movies after movies.
Miranda Priestly’s failed marriage sends out the message that if a woman does deviate from the well trodden paths and has bigger ambitions than getting married, than she is doomed to have a depressing personal life. Miranda Priestly, is a successful women who practically reigns over the fashion world.
But despite trying her best to balance her personal life with her professional life and despite using her assistants to help her out with her personal life, her marriage suffers even as she gains new heights professionally. According to the movie, a woman can be successful either in her professional life or in her personal life but cannot get both. These movies send out a very clear message to the female audience: a woman can do anything she wants as long as she is willing to settle for setbacks in her personal life.
If a female character in a movie has any layers in its characterization, it is usually because she is not happy. “The only way for a woman to have a complex character on screen is to be depressing, tormented and self-sacrificing” (Daily Mail Reporter). And unfortunately, such a depressing character appeals to both the male and female viewers. As Manchel points out, “men might like smart, glamorous companions, but not as wives.
In reality, marriage mean(s) babies and housework, not fun and good times” (Manchel 43). Since these complex female characters with depressing and tormented lives reflect the real life of women, they are able to identify with them and patronize these movies. Men like these movies because they feed into male fantasy of having a subordinate wife. These movies make it very clear that if a women wants to have a successful career, she can only get it at the expense of her family life.
Miranda Priestly is willing to go to any length to get what is wants and portrays the typical femme fatale who does not run after men or is depressed but is a woman of questionable morals. Successful women must be shown to have some gray shades in their character to justify their success.
The bad women may or may not have substantial roles in the movies but they eventually cater to the male fantasy. These movies give the message that if women aspire for more than a family, they are essentially bad. So a woman in a negative character only reassures the male audience of their masculinity.
In The Devil Wears Prada Miranda Priestly is an aggressive woman who is willing to go to any extend to get what she wants. While her character is not completely negative, there are enough shades of gray to make her look bad. But while she is able to step over the “gay” Nigel, she loses at the hands of her husband and suffers from a failed marriage. Hollywood movies sketch a “society defined by brutal masculine authority, the pathology of which infects the family, the economy and the state” (A.O. Scott and Manohla Dargis).
So Miranda Priestly can rule the fashion world but she cannot overcome this “masculine authority”. As mentioned above, Hollywood rarely makes movies about woman, unless it is show them as depressed suffering people or in romantic comedies also known as chick flicks.
Men avoid watching these movies since it is considered “gay” to watch a chick flick. But if woman is in a negative role, it is totally acceptable to watch a woman’s movie (Scott and Dargis). In other words, the only acceptable female characters in Hollywood are those that are negative since they reassure men of their masculinity.
Women in Hollywood are either dumb and sexy like in The Fast and The Furious or ambitious with depressing personal lives like the lead characters of The Devil Wears Prada.
A dumb woman once again reassures man that he rules the world while the main function of women in the world is to remain submissive and play arm candy to man. Such dumb women do not challenge the male dominant worldview. When we put together the dumb and sexy image of women portrayed in our movies, we get the perfect role model to appeal to male senses.
The sexy and dumb woman who looks good standing next to him and can bring a feeling of jealousy in other men and yet who keeps her mouth shut and does not offer her opinion. Such a woman is the ideal male fantasy and Hollywood movies cater to this fantasy and propagate it, much to the detriment of the female cause. So in The Fast and the Furious, female characters do not have any dialogues and are present only as arm candies to the two main male leads of the film, besides providing sexual relief and glamour.
Even when women are shown to have substantial characters, the script makes sure that such women suffer in some way to reassure the male audience. In The Devil Wears Prada, both Miranda Priestly and Andy suffer in personal life when they decide to put their careers ahead of their personal lives. Hollywood never allows women to have successful and meaningful lives, since such successful women are a direct threat to the masculinity of the male viewers.
Thus we see, that the portrayal of women in Hollywood movies is such that the male audience is reassured, his male gaze is satisfied and his fantasy of an ideal world in which women are only seen and not heard comes to life. All these female images appeal to the male audience. When movies are made for female audience, they show women who are preoccupied with finding a husband.
As Weitz points out, “Cultural messages are ‘encoded’ into films by their producers and then ‘decoded’ by viewers” (Weitz 18). The encoded cultural message in both these movies is that the sole purpose of female existence is to get married and have children. Since such “chick flicks” are preferred by the female audience, they get the message that being too ambitious is not feminine, and in order to become more feminine, they should focus on their looks so that they can get a suitable husband.
Thus, movies, whether they target men or women, seem to work towards satisfying the male need, both within the darkened theatre, where they cater to the male fantasy, as well as outside the theater by convincing women to give up their ambitions and become docile housewives.
Whether the target audience of a movie is men or women, there seems to be a conspiracy to keep women in a place where they are of little consequence. In the process, Hollywood caters to the ultimate male fantasy of total control over woman.
Works Cited Buchsbaum, Herbert, and Karen N. Peart. “Do Movies Exploit Women?.” Scholastic Update 127.14 (1995): 14. Academic Search Premier. Web.
Daily Mail Reporter. “Hollywood portrays women as image-obsessed, man-mad idiots, say British Academic.” Mail Online. Daily Mail. 8 February 2009. Web.
Fischoff, Stuart. “The Sexualized Position of American Women in Movies.” Psychology Today. 29 April 2009. Web..
Hellmich, Nanci and USA TODAY. “Film study: Men talk and women show skin.” USA Today. Web.
Manchel, Frank. Women on the Hollywood Screen. New York: Franklin Watts, 1977. Print.
Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. Eds. Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen. New York: Oxford, 1999. 833-844. Print.
Scott, A.O. and Manohla Dargis. “Gosh, Sweetie, That’s a Big Gun.” The New York Times. 27 April 2011. Web.
The Devil Wears Prada. Dir. David Frankel. Perf. Anne Hathaway, Meryl Streep. Fox Pictures, 2006. DVD.
The Fast and The Furious. Dir. Rob Cohen. Perf. Vin Diesel, Paul Walker. Universal Pictures. 2001. DVD.
Weitz, Rose. “Changing The Scripts: Midlife Women’s Sexuality In Contemporary U.S. Film.” Sexuality
President and congress Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
The past years has seen a gradual increase in presidential powers leading to an imperial presidency. This increase can be attributed to a number of historical events in the country. During national crises like Civil War and the Great Depression it is important that the president show good leadership; a leadership that keeps the country united despite the crisis while at the same time ensuring that the crisis is successfully resolved.
If the president succeeds in dealing with the crisis effectively, he will command a great respect among the citizens hence increasing his presidential powers. Secondly, many people would respect leaders who initiate sound policies. During tenure as the occupant of the House on the Hill, President Franklin Roosevelt commanded a great respect among the Americans when he showed leadership in legislation as the New Deal policy originated from the executive branch under his direction.
This was also the case in the presidency of Johnson who initiated the Great Society policy. Such show of leadership in formulation of major legislation led to the increase in the presidential powers. One of the reasons why President Clinton was powerful presidents is because of the many executive orders he issued during his reign. Such executive order as the Emancipation Proclamation was popular with the people thereby increasing the president’s powers.
The ability of the president to run a country with sound trade policies that ensure economic growth is a major factor in boosting the image of the president. Good public image comes with increased powers thus the conclusion of such trade agreements as the Reciprocal Trade Agreements and reduction of tariff on foreign goods saw an upsurge in presidential powers.
This led to creation of an imperial president. Moreover, being the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the president must show good leadership especially during war. Successful execution of this duty will without doubt lead to an increase of powers of the president. Many presidents of the United States of America earned local and international respect and thus an increase in their powers by their activism both at the local and international stage.
Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt saw an upsurge in their presidential powers due to their presidential activism in national and world affairs. Presidents who are seen by the public as strong and able usually command a popular admiration and consequently increased powers. This was the case for presidents such as Clinton and Franklin Roosevelt who became powerful due to popular admiration for being strong and able.
Many presidents also saw their powers as president increase due to their strong and popular foreign policies. This is because these foreign policies affect the lives of the American people both directly and indirectly. Thus the successful of such policies would lead to admiration both locally and internationally. The resulting good reputation leads to presidential powers increase.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The budget of any country is a very sensitive issue since it has a direct bearing on the living standards of the citizens. Thus any president who sets the right agenda as the budget maker would definitely command great respect and as such, become very powerful (Dye 96).
These factors may lead to an imperial president however there are checks and balances that ensure the president only enjoy the constitutional powers only. Such checks and balances exercised by the Judiciary, the Congress, media and public, friends and family and self control. The Congress being the predominant branch of the government always reasserts its powers over the president ensuring that imperialism does not set in due to the increasing presidential powers.
Through congressional hearings, the Congress is able to increase public awareness and opposition to various national and international issues. This may force the president to review its policies and stand concerning such issues as seen during the congressional hearings on the Vietnam War which put pressure on President Johnson and Nixon to withdraw from the war through negotiations. As the Congress reasserts its powers, imperialism in the presidency is checked.
This it does by conducting investigations such as the Watergate investigation against President Nixon, the Iran-Contra investigation against President Reagan and the White Water investigation against President Clinton (Smith, Jason and Ryan 50 – 111). Moreover, it also reasserts its powers by making their stand known to the president on any matter through Congressional debates. The Congress may also propose constitutional amendments and thus redefine presidential powers such as limiting the terms of office of the president.
The Congress can also limit the presidential powers by passing a resolution not to commit American troops into combat abroad. In addition, the Congress may also declare war thereby allowing the president to exercise emergency powers such as prohibiting strikes and lockouts. The Congress has the power to tax and to spend and thus controls the president spending too (Dye 97 – 98).
The Congress also accompanies the president and participates in international conferences as American delegates thereby shaping the outcomes of such conferences. Moreover the Congress also, by repassing the bill in the same session by a two-thirds majority vote in each house, override presidential veto. The presidential powers are also limited by the Congress since it must approve all the judicial appointments as the president must consult the Congress.
The Congress also has the power to impeach the president as seen in the case of presidents Nixon and Clinton (Smith, Jason and Ryan 120 – 191). The media and public opinion also prevent imperialism. The president should also have control and also listen to the counsel of family and friends. If these groups fail in any case, the Judiciary then takes up the matter and limit presidential powers to prevent imperialism.
We will write a custom Assessment on President and congress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Dye, Thomas. Politics In America, (8th ed.). New York: Pearson/Ph, 2009.
Smith, Steven, Jason, Roberts and Ryan, Vander Wielen. The American Congress (5th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction An earthquake is a dangerous tremor that is caused by sudden release of energy in the crust of the earth leading to seismic waves that cause movements of the ground thus causing deaths and damages. These movements only last for a few minutes during which many deaths and a lot of damage is caused. This damaging process begins with violent shaking of the earth after which the ground ruptures leading to permanent displacement along the earth’s fault lines.
Earthquakes have also been known to cause landslides and even damaging volcanic activity. While earthquakes can come as naturally occurring events, they are also triggered by man’s activities. Some of the human activities that can cause earthquakes include mine blasts and nuclear tests. The naturally occurring earthquakes are the most common (US Geological Survey para 2). Seismometers are the instruments used for measuring earthquakes.
Earthquakes are measured using a local magnitude scale called the Richter scale or the moment magnitude where the latter is more common in reporting earthquakes that measure higher than 5 in magnitude. The earthquakes that are below magnitude 4.5 are considered as minor earthquakes.
Those that fall below the magnitude of 3 do not cause much damage and may even not be suspected in some areas. However, those that measure magnitude 7 and above have been known to be catastrophic depending on their depth. The recent largest earthquake in the world is the one that occurred in Japan on March 2011. This particular earthquake measured magnitude 9.0.
The effect an earthquake has depends on the location where it occurs and its strength and the shallow it gets. The earthquakes that are known to be shallower lead to more damage as they destroy even the structures that are designed to handle such catastrophes.
On the other hand, an earthquake of a certain magnitude will have less impact on an area where the ground that underlies it is a solid rock than if the same earthquake occurred in an area with sediment as the underlying ground. However, the surface waves which are both shallow and of high magnitude cause great damage irrespective of where they occur. This is because they cause the ground to shake in the region that they occur and any rapid ground shaking leads to damaging of structures and buildings.
The shakes caused by these waves often buckle roads and even rail tracks (Scientific American 230). Basically, ground shaking is often viewed as the major and most common earthquake damage where it results to deaths and a lot of damage. The other damages that an earthquake can cause but not always are landslides and avalanches. These too can be equally damaging, like the one that occurred in Peru in 1970 killing about 80,000 people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brief history of earthquakes Earthquakes are not new phenomena since both high rated in magnitude and those that have not made huge impacts after they have occurred have been experienced on the globe.
In the last few decades, seismologists have been keen where they have noted an increase in number of earthquakes that are of high-magnitude and those that have had great impacts. Some theorists have proposed that the energy that these earthquakes have released on a global scale in the last decade alone measures more than that which have been released in the last two or three decades before.
However, the earthquakes that occurred between 1952 and 1965 had a lot of energy just like the ones being experienced in this decade. During the period before 1950s, there was no accurate seismological equipment that would have been used to record the earthquakes that occurred during this period.
There have been large magnitude earthquakes in the world’s history ranging from 8.5 to 9.5 and causing different damages depending on where they have occurred.
For instance, in May 1960, an earthquake occurred in Valdivia, Chile killing 1665 people and injuring about 3000 others while those that were displaced amounted to more than 2 million people. This earthquake has been the highest recorded in magnitude in the world history since it was rated magnitude 9.5. The damage was so great to this nation that it caused the country around US$550 million.
The earthquake also caused a tsunami that caused deaths in Hawaii, Japan and even the Philippines with a rupture zone of more than 1000km. The earthquake also led to a volcanic eruption in Puyehue that caused steam to spread to a region of about 6km from where the eruption took place. There have been other more damaging earthquakes though rated lower than this in magnitude. The level of damage an earthquake causes depends on the location and its magnitude.
Types of earthquakes Since earthquakes are viewed as the ground shaking, the different classifications of earthquakes depend on what causes the shaking. Basically, there are four common types of earthquakes. To begin with is a type that is known as tectonic earthquakes. The crust of the earth is composed of broken fragments of land normally referred to as tectonic plates (U.S. Department of the Interior para 4-6).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tectonic plates loose, thus can move towards each other sometimes bumping into each other or even slide past each other (Kious and Tilling 44). A tectonic earthquake, therefore, occurs when the tectonic plates slide over each other causing great earth tremor. They are the most common types of earthquakes ranging from low to high level magnitude. Tectonic earthquakes also cause the most dangerous tremors which cause massive damage within a very short time.
Volcanic earthquakes are another type though less common than tectonic earthquakes. They are known to occur prior to or after a volcanic eruption. When classifying volcanic earthquakes by type, the first type is known as “volcanic tectonic earthquakes” while the second one is known as “long period volcanic” earthquakes.
The volcanic tectonic earthquakes usually occur after a volcanic activity where the magma that erupts leaves a space. As a result, the rocks move to cover the space causing an earthquake. In most cases the lava that an eruption causes falls on its vent thus causing blockage in pressure release. Since the blocked pressure cannot be contained for long, it erupts with a great explosion.
As a result an earthquake that occurs more often than not is of great magnitude (Simkin et al 14). The long period volcanic earthquakes occur before a volcanic eruption where the change in heat of magma below the surface of the earth forms seismic waves just before the eruption. This leads to an earthquake that may either be of high or low magnitude.
Collapse earthquakes are another type and are also referred to as mine bursts. Normally, these earthquakes are of small magnitude and often occur around underground mines. They are usually caused by the pressure that is found within the rocks leading to the collapse of the mine roof. This collapse leads to earth tremors that may cause damage in the nearby areas.
The other types of earthquakes are known as explosion earthquakes. They normally result from nuclear explosions. They are an example of earthquakes caused by human activity especially the numerous modern nuclear activities. The earthquakes of this type that have occurred in the past have been caused by testing of nuclear substances, causing tremors in the region where these activities are carried out. These tremors often cause great damage to land and the people of these regions are often affected.
General effects of earthquakes Earthquakes do not occur in all areas but are concentrated on specific areas where tectonic plates which make up the earth’s surface meet. The people who are located in these areas are the ones who are at the greatest risk of deaths and even other effects that an earthquake causes.
These are areas which lie along the Pacific Rim, island chains and even those that are along continents’ boundaries. Some of the nations that lie on these regions include Japan and Aleutians among others. It is estimated that more than 500,000 earthquakes are reported every year where those that are of too small magnitude to cause any damage form the majority.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Of those that are susceptible by humans and are about 3000, seven to eleven of them cause destruction and loss of lives. Earthquakes cause various problems in various regions in the world. The most common problem that earthquakes are associated with is urban fires. These fires are normally caused by the ground shaking that occurs during this time (Seligson and Shoaf 903). This shaking and displacement of the ground leads to destruction of electrical and gas lines.
As a result, fire break ups are common during earthquakes. Handling this effect may be a problem as the means to respond to it like water may also be affected by the water pipes rupturing. Normally, the highest damage even to the buildings is caused by theses fires which are hard to deal with during the time of this crisis. In regions that are mountainous, earthquakes often cause landslides. These landslides are equally damaging.
Earthquakes have always been known to cause a lot of damage and destruction. Depending on where the earthquake occurs, it may cause destruction by damaging structures and buildings, fires, generation of tsunamis and even lead to loss of lives. The level of damage that an earthquake causes depends on several factors.
The region that it occurs There are earthquakes that occur in remote regions of a country where there are few structures and are sparsely populated. The effects of such earthquakes are less damaging than those that occur in densely populated and more developed areas.
This is because in remote regions fewer lives are lost and fewer structures damaged. In addition, the time of the day when an earthquake occurs can determine the number of lives lost in an earthquake occurrence. This is where earthquakes that are known to cause the highest number of loss of lives or those that occur during weekdays especially between office hours which are 9.00 in the morning to 4.00 in the evening.
This is because during this time there are many people in large buildings in their offices and others in schools. Earthquakes have more effect on large structures and buildings than small homes which have no storey. The construction type also determines the damage caused. The modern buildings are designed to be less susceptible to the damage caused by earthquakes. Buildings that are well built can easily withstand ground shocks, thus limiting the damage caused.
Prediction Another factor is earthquake prediction. This is where a prior warning is given of a potential earthquake. When a warning is given early enough, the right measures to respond to it are put in place enabling less damage to occur and fewer lives to be lost. Prediction is done by estimating that an earthquake will happen in a region during a specific year.
Scientists who possess wide knowledge on earthquakes are made to determine the location that an earthquake will occur and the magnitude that it has. This is because earthquakes mainly occur in specific geographic zones where they may even recur along a specific fault line at different times. Using this awareness, prediction can be made thus creating the appropriate awareness.
Earthquake in Japan Japan is situated on the eastern edge of the Eurasian Plate. On Friday, March in 2011, a catastrophic earthquake hit Japan. This earthquake occurred near the Pacific coast of Japan which is about 400 km away from Tokyo. The US Geological Survey rated the earthquake to be of a magnitude of 8.9 while the USGS Japan Meteorological Agency (para 5) later updated it to magnitude 9.0 and a depth of 20 miles.
This, therefore, made this particular earthquake the fourth largest in the world history and the largest in Japan as the last one that had occurred with such a high magnitude in this nation was of 8.3 magnitude. The earthquake began near Sendai, in the north east of Japan.
Due to the risky region of Japan location, the Pacific oceanic plate sunk under the Eurasian continental plate (U.S. Department of the Interior para 7). This led to a type of plate margin that is known to be very destructive. This is because during the process of sinking friction caused the Pacific Plate to stick thus building up pressure.
During the release of this pressure, an earthquake occurred due to the massive pressure that had already accumulated. The result was that the earthquake. Though the earthquake was at a shallow depth of 20 miles under the Pacific Ocean surface, it combined with the high magnitude to lead to a tsunami. This caused a dangerous tsunami at the northeastern coast of Honshu.
The earthquake triggered aftershocks and a tsunami that measured 23-feet. Besides huge loss of lives amounting to more than 10,000 people, the economic impacts were huge especially considering that the crisis also caused the shutting down of the nuclear reactors which provided power to many industries.
Effects of the earthquake on Japan The Japan earthquake had both short-term and long-term impacts; the immediate impacts being on how the nation was going to provide humanitarian aid to those who had been affected and do it in time to prevent increase in the number of fatalities.
The earthquake caused a lot of damage that caused billions of dollars wastage with a death toll of more than 10,000 people. The National Police Agency confirmed more than 15,000 deaths and more than 6,000 injured individuals. Among those who died, 92.5 percent died from drowning where the aged who were 60 years and above composed the largest number.
This is where they rated 65.2 percent of all the deaths with 24 percent of them being those who were 70 years and above. The earthquake hit during a weekday making it even worse especially to the school going children. About 100,000 children were displaced from their homes especially those who were away attending school. The earthquake also orphaned about 300 children and killed 378 school going children.
The earthquake caused a lot of damage too besides the high numbers of casualties. Most of the damage that occurred was caused by the tsunami. Though Japan had constructed a seawall that was 39 ft high along 40 percent of the country’s coastline to prevent the effect of a tsunami, this particular one was so strong that it went past the seawall and even washed away some parts of it.
Reports given by the police indicated that while 144,330 structures were destroyed due to the tsunami, a significant 45,700 resulted from the earthquake. Among the buildings that were damaged by this crisis included 44,000 prefectures and three hundred hospitals, some of which were destroyed completely.
The earthquake had long-term impacts on the nation of Japan. Being an industrial nation, this crisis caused massive effects especially due to its destruction of the nation’s main power supplies to these industries.
This forced some industries to slow down their production processes or close temporally in order to enable the restoration of essential economy. For instance, Japan being the largest China’s customer for earth metals and alloys, the industries that deal with the processing of these products had to reduce their imports or reduce their processing capacity.
Earthquakes in China China has been a victim of several catastrophic earthquakes in the recent history; the most recent being the one that occurred in Sichuan on May 2008 with a 7.9 magnitude and killing about 70,000 people and leaving 18,000 others missing (The New York Times para 2).
There have been others that have been equally devastating in the history of this nation. A particular one is the one that occurred in Tangshan in 1976 killing more than 240,000 people after which China acquired a new policy that required structures to build with an ability to withstand strong earthquakes.
The central point where the earthquake began is said to be the county of Wenchuan, making the earthquake be labeled as the Sichuan earthquake. The earthquake had a depth of 19 kilometers making it endanger as far as Beijing and Shaghai which are 1500 and 1700 kilometers away respectively. The earthquake became the worst to hit China since the Tangshan one. Approximately 15 million individuals were victims of the earthquake in one way or the other.
The earthquake triggered very strong aftershocks which were above magnitude 6 and these aftershocks progressed one month after the main earthquake leading to more deaths and damage. It is reported that a movement in the northeast with an impact on Sichuan Basin which is located in the northwestern region occurred. Tectonic pressure that accumulated during these events culminated into the earthquake.
Effects of the Earthquake on China The Sichuan earthquake caused a lot of damage due to both the high number of casualties and the damage of property and other structures. The number of those who died was about 70,000 people while those who were injured were about 375,000.
Other damages included destruction of buildings including schools, hospitals and factories among others. Since this earthquake occurred in an area that had not developed like the other urban centers, the damage was even more massive on its structures due to poor constructions that had not followed the policy placed for the strength to withstand earthquakes.
Most of these buildings were old and were built without being passed by the appropriate earthquake and seismic regulations bodies. As a result, the collapse of schools alone killed around 5,500 students while around 600 were left disabled. The parents who lost their only children in this earthquake had to reverse their sterilization with the assistance from the government medical teams who advised them and gave them fertility medication in order to get more children.
The earthquake also damaged a lot of property where it left more than 5 million individuals without housing. In addition, massive agricultural products and livestock were destroyed leading to more losses. The total economic loss that the earthquake caused was estimated to be more than US$75 billion dollars. This meant that this was the most costly earthquake that the country experienced in its history.
Earthquake in US The United States has not been spared by the phenomenon of earthquakes either. A particular one is the one that occurred in San Francisco on April 18, 1906. The earthquake was estimated to have measured magnitude 7.9 but others have given a value of magnitude 8.25. The earthquake caused a rupture of 477 kilometers of the San Andreas Fault which stretched from northwest of San Juan Bautista to Cape Mendocino.
A strong aftershock which was so strong that it was felt in the whole of San Francisco Bay occurred after which the earthquake with an epicenter near San Francisco hit. Violent shocks and very strong ground shakings that lasted a minute or less were felt. One unique feature of this earthquake is the numerous fires that it triggered making it one of the worst natural disasters in the country’s history. The total death toll that the earthquake caused was about 3,000 people in addition to the huge economic impact it had on this nation.
Effects of the Earthquake on US The earthquake caused deaths that were estimated to be 3,000 people though the government only reported a few deaths of about 400 people with an aim of preventing negative impacts on the rebuilding efforts. Most deaths were experienced in San Francisco but deaths also occurred in other neighboring cities like Santa Rosa (US Geological Survey, para 4-7).
The earthquake also left about 300,000 people homeless since at the time of its occurrence, San Francisco was the largest city on the West Coast. The effect was so massive that it destroyed 80 percent of this city where most of the damage was caused by the fires.
his is because more than 30 fires from ruptured gas mains led to destruction of more than 25,000 buildings and around 500 city blocks where they burned four days continuously. About USD 9.5 billion was the cost incurred as damage. San Francisco lost some important treasures like the Palace hotel which was the city’s landmark. In addition, scientific libraries and their rich discoveries were also destroyed by the fire. The monumental “Bear Flag Revolt” was also destroyed thus denying California its original flag.
Earthquakes prediction There has been need for the prediction of earthquakes in the recent past due to the damaging effect that this phenomenon has been causing. Although studies have indicated the areas that are at risk, predicting the specific time that any earthquake may occur is still a challenge. However, using past statistics, geologists have been able to identify that most large earthquakes normally occur on far stretching fault zones especially around Pacific Ocean margin.
This has been caused by the consistent enlargement of the Indian Ocean while on the other hand the Pacific Ocean is shrinking. This shrinking effect pushes the ocean floor under the Pacific Rim making it vulnerable to earthquakes. In addition, the Pacific is characterized by long fault zones that cause geologic irregularities that lead to minor fault segments that crack separately (Ludwin para 2).
During such situations, the magnitude and timing of the earthquake is determined by the size of this fault, the stress that has accumulated below the surface and the type of rock of underneath. In the areas where the fault line and the movement of the earth plate have been established, there is a high possibility of an earthquake occurrence. This is particularly if these areas have had a history of breaking in history. However, this can only be possible when the fault zone is well established.
Earthquake prevention There are various ways that earthquakes can be prevented in order to prevent their damaging effects. This is possible especially with those that are caused by human activities. Scientists have been trying to come up with ways of reducing the friction that is caused by colliding plates during the occurrence of an earthquake. This is through pouring water on areas where the two plates glide acting as a lubricant to the fault.
This releases one plate making it reduce the effect caused by the earthquake. The other solution that has been suggested is preventing the tidal waves. This is where sea tides are discontinued by obstructing the sea passage that is around the South Pole. This can be done in the area that borders Antarctica and South America. Matter can be brought closer to the earth using material from Andes Mountains thus help to come up with a long term solution to the problem of earthquakes (Earthquakes para 1-3).
Conclusion Earthquakes are phenomena that will continue having their impacts on the human population especially having in mind that each earthquake is unique. This is besides there being new technological innovations which enable individuals to come up with new building designs and other structures that are complex in nature.
Since most earthquakes are a natural phenomenon, there is therefore the need for individual nations to come up with methods that are efficient to enable the processes of prevention and handling of these crises possible (Winchester 126). This will require the field of epidemiology to invent new methods of doing this. This will enable the nations to be better prepared when earthquakes happen in order to reduce the damage that they cause and reduce the deaths that these catastrophic events cause.
In order to effectively reduce this loss, there also need to be an increased efficiency in the way information is collected and distributed across agencies both in the local and international levels. This is where epidemiologists, seismologists and even designs engineers need to diversify their information sharing through linking their information databases with an aim of reducing the impacts of these crises.
This is because the information from these fields will provide timely details concerning the occurrence of an earthquake, thus enabling people and the whole nation to remain alert and well prepared. In addition, the population will be enlightened on the measures to take to prevent greater impacts through improving their construction methods and also remain informed on how to react when such a crisis occurs.
Disaster managers will also need to have easy access to important information after the research methods are improved in order to come up with better prevention methods and also better ways of handling the occurrence of an earthquake.
Through comparisons of various earthquakes that have occurred and their impacts on the human population, important lessons can be learnt where the nations will avoid repeating mistakes that were done in the past. In addition, new methods of carrying out the rescue processes can be invented. This is through coming up with better methods of delivering medical services and evacuating the individuals who are injured during such occurrences.
Works Cited Earthquakes: Earthquakes prevention. Web.
Kious, W. Jacquelyne and Tilling, Robert I. This dynamic earth: the story of plate tectonics. Denver, CO: Geological Survey, 1996. Web.
Ludwin, Ruth. Earthquake prediction. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. 2004. Web.
Scientific American. Continents adrift and continents aground – Reading from Scientific American. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1976. Print.
Seligson, Hope A and Shoaf, Kimberley I. “Human impacts of earthquakes”, Chapter. 28. In Chen WF, Scawthorn C, eds. Earthquake engineering handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 2003. Print.
Simkin, Tom, Unger John D. and Tilling Robert I. et al. The dynamic planet: world map of volcanoes, earthquakes, impact craters, and plate tectonics. Denver, CO: US Geological Survey. Web.
The New York Times. “Sichuan earthquake.” 2009. The New York Times, Web.
U.S. Department of the Interior. Earthquakes and plate tectonics. 2009. Web.
US Geological Survey. Preferred magnitudes of selected significant earthquakes. 2011. Web.
US Geological Survey. The great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. 2011. Web.
USGS, Japan Meteorological Agency. Earthquakes: the 10 biggest in history. 2011. Web.
Winchester, Simon. A crack in the edge of the world: America and the Great California earthquake of 1906. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005. Print.
«Things Fall Apart» by Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe Essay essay help
Achebe’s Things Fall Apart is an enthralling must-read chef-d’oeuvre starring Okonkwo, the protagonist who, despite his hatred towards his father, ends up taking after him. From the first line, the author begins by presenting Okonkwo as a well-known man even beyond the nine neighboring villages.
The tall, muscular, and fearful character that had unkempt eyebrows and broad nose resented his father for being lazy and irresponsible. Okonkwo is hard working and successful because he tries hard not to be like his father. However, as the paper unveils, Okonkwo’s life is full of contentious situations ranging from failing his people, being a dependant rather than a provider, and being hopeless amongst others, that perhaps make him resemble his father whom he never wanted to emulate.
Okonkwo resented his father’s failure even when he was merely a boy. Even at the helm of his success, he still remembered how he suffered when his playmate said his father was an agbala. From that moment, he learnt that Agbala, not only meant a woman, but also a name for any man with no title, like his father (Achebe 9).
In some sense, these titles did not mean anything to foreigners. Therefore, by the time Okonkwo came to die, he was more or less like his father. He had titles that could not help him, as there was a new system of law. He had titles, which were useless just like those of his father. When Okonkwo and other people of Umuofia decide to take a substantive measure of burning the church, the District commissioner invites them to his office for what he calls palavers. The six leaders agree to attend because meetings like that were normal.
The court messenger even mocks them because of their titles. ”Who is chief among you?’…These anklets are worn even by any pauper now; does it even cost ten cowries?” (Achebe 152). At this point, Okonkwo who was extremely scared of failure, had failed to defend his honor. He slept in the cells and he could do nothing about it. He feared feeling weak as his father. However, at this time, he was literally weak. The new system did not recognize titles and many titled men were through to prisons despite their social statuses.
Unlike Unoka, Okonkwo wanted to feel powerful in the community. He hence worked tremendously hard to exceed the worthless status of his father. In this endeavor, he hurt people close to him. They eventually resented him just as he had resented his father. It is hence sensible to say that, in the end, Okonkwo failed the people who depended on him, who trusted him and those who wanted to follow his example.
The saddest episode was the Killing of Ikemefuna. The council of elders entrusted this ill-feted boy to Okonkwo. He was one of the two people Umuofia got from Mbaino clan in exchange for their daughter who had died. Mbaino compensated Umuofia giving them a virgin girl and a boy, Ikemefuna (Achebe 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was to stay at Okonkwo’s place for only a little while as the community decided what to do with him. He ended up living there for three years (Achebe 40). He became a mentor to Nwoye, Okonkwo’s eldest son. Ikemefuna, in fact, became like family and called Okonkwo father. Nwoye became more responsible with Ikemefuna around. Nwoye felt like a grown-up (Achebe 40). Something that excited his father clandestinely and he knew it was because of Ikemefuna.
The Oracle of fate finally decided that the boy worth sacrificing to Agbala. Okonkwo and other villagers under the pretext of returning him back home took the boy to the forest to kill him. “While in the forest, a man cleared his throat, this scared Ikemefuna who turned back, the man growled to let him keep moving” (Achebe 47). The boy trembled. His body began to shake. The ma drew his machete, as he raised it Okonkwo looked away but he heard the blow.
The pot the boy was carrying fell and broke. The Boy screamed to Okonkwo, “My father, they have killed me! While running towards him. Because of fear of being thought weak, Okonkwo drew his machete and slew the boy down” (Achebe 47). This was despite his peers warning him of having a hand in the boy’s death. At this moment, Okonkwo was more like his father because the boy depended on him for protection and love. However, he could not provide for him. He was so concerned about his reputation.
He overlooked the sanctity of the life of an innocent boy who, in fact, called him ‘father’. Unoka failed to provide food for his family, which starved, he never paid his debtors and he was a failure for failing to be responsible for his family, his children. Okonkwo did not protect Ikemefuna, under his custody, a boy who looked up to him as a father figure, a boy who wanted emulate him. Nwoye is scared of him. He, in fact, sneaks out of the hut as soon as Okonkwo dozes off.
Okonkwo was strong, hardworking, determined and ambitious, Contrary to his father who was hopeless, lazy and desperate. Okonkwo was a brave worrier while his father Unoka feared bloodshed and a coward who was only happy when he played his flute.
Whenever he would get a little money, he would call his neighbors to celebrate and make merry, drinking palm wine (Achebe 4). Although, he was a man who worked as if possessed, “Okonkwo worked from cock crow until dusk when chicken went to roost” (Achebe 9). With these contrasts, Okonkwo ended up like his father – hopeless.
Okonkwo obeyed the Umuofia norms at the expense of his family. Just like his father who only thought about his happiness, playing the flute and celebrating with palm wine whenever he earned little money. Okonkwo on his part was obsessed about obtaining tittles and growing his social status. In this course, he made silly sacrifices like slaying a boy who called him father.
We will write a custom Essay on «Things Fall Apart» by Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even his friend Obierika criticizes him. “If the oracle pronounces death sentence to my son, I would not be the one to kill him” (Achebe 52). That statement disturbed Okonkwo who defended himself that the earth would not punish him for obeying the oracle. However, that was brutal, barbaric and supremely primitive.
During Ezeudu’s funeral, something unexpected happened. Okonkwo accidently blew-up his gun whose bullet inadvertently killed a sixteen-year-old boy, Ezeudu’s son. He quickly flew away. However, as the community laws dictated, he had to atone for his sins by shedding the blood of a clansman. The villagers are aggrieved.
They set fire on his houses, destroying his red walls, killing the animals, and demolishing his barn. The earth goddess wanted this justice upon Okonkwo as it were. The villagers were merely messengers. They did not hate Okonkwo. Even his greatest friend, Obierika was among the destroyers. Their duty was simply to cleanse the land, already contaminated by Okonkwo: killing a fallow clansman (Achebe 125).
He was to live in exile for seven years. At this moment, Okonkwo has nothing. The whole fortune he had accumulated and worked hard for is nowhere following the destruction. He was as poor as his father was. The man who thought on issues, Obierika was thinking more that ever (Achebe 125), but he did not find answers. Obierika only remembers that, sometimes in life, a man needs to reevaluate his relationship with the society, and God (Achebe 125).
This introspection was a sign that the society in which Okonkwo lived was ready to make changes. It was as if a curse was following Okonkwo. His father once went to an agbala to consult why his farming was not delightful. The priestess of the Agbala answered Unoka that he had nobody to blame but himself – for his laziness. In the same fashion, Okonkwo could only blame himself.
After his exile, many things in the clan had changed. There were no more rituals, no more titles, and no more tribal land traditions. The Ugwugwu had been unmasked. The oracle was no more but a modern court of law for justice. He just realized he lost all things he grew up knowing that they defined a man. He could not go up against the system. He was weak and a terrible failure, as he could not save his clan. He ended up emulating his father.
Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday. 1959. Print.
Analysis of Miss Representation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Miss Representation is an inspirational documentary that offers an inventive and fresh standpoint on the subject of sexism. The documentary also demonstrates the manner in which gender parity can be realized to enable more women assume leadership roles in the society.
It also depicts how the United State’s mainstream media undermine the representation of women in influential positions. Jennifer S. Newsom is the producer of the documentary Miss Representation. The film criticizes the media’s role in creating a negative impression about women in the society (Walsh 1).
The documentary features provocative dialogues with members of the press, politicians, activists, scholars and artists. They include Lisa Ling, Condoleezza Rice, Rosario Dawson, Nancy Pelosi, Gloria Steinem, Paul Haggis and Katie Couric. The film provides astounding statistics and facts that leave viewers stunned and armed with a new perception.
The screening of the film was launched at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival (a documentary competition event). Miss Representation was also featured at the 2011 AAUW National Convention where it was eulogized for its dynamic tone and constructive message.
The documentary offered AAUW convention a chance to mingle with community members as well as convey an empowering message. There is no doubt that the media’s representations of women (in magazines, television programs, internet or billboards) are discouraging. The manner in which women are depicted by the media stands out as one of the causes of gender disparity in the society.
This is the main thesis of the documentary Miss Representation. Jennifer Newsom (a wife and actress) was inspired to produce this documentary on the basis of her earlier struggles in life. Her inspiration to undertake this project also stemmed partly from her concern about the nature of the society her little girl was expected to live in (Walsh 3).
The central theme of Miss Representation is based on the fact that the sexual portrayal of women by the media results to disempowerment and trivialization of women in the political and cultural engagements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film depicts footages of Britney Spears, Paris Hilton and Heidi Montag along pictures of notable women in history such as Hillary Clinton, Rosa Parks, Nancy Simpson and Eleanor Roosevelt. The entire thesis of the documentary is communicated by footage of Sandra O’Connor (wearing judges’ robes) which is placed next to an image of Jessica Simpson in Daisy Dukes.
The rest of the documentary is composed of several professionals who lay out awe-inspiring information concerning the roles of women and the manner in which the media depict them in the political, economical and cultural settings. The central thesis of the documentary is also enhanced by animated statistics that glide on the screen to illustrate the prevalence of gender disparity in the United States (Walsh 5).
The documentary provides important lessons to us in terms of the need to promote media literacy in our society (particularly now) given that we are regularly barraged with onscreen advertisings and images everywhere we go. There is an urgent need to understand the role of media in the society.
On one hand, media serves as a mirror of the society. On the other hand, it is subject to manipulations by powerful individuals in the society who may dictate what should be displayed. Miss Representation provides an entry point through which the society can address the glaring gender disparities and the misrepresentation of women in the media (Walsh 6).
Works Cited Walsh, Kathleen. Review: Miss Representation Exposes An Ugly Truth That Needs To Be Seen. Oct 18, 2011. Web.
Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? Research Paper essay help: essay help
Issues regarding nuclear energy production have been intensively debated since the inception of nuclear power. People who support the production of nuclear energy feel that it is a more efficient, safe and cheap method of producing power for use. However, in reality there is more to worry about production of nuclear energy through its dangers in the event of an accident.
Also, nuclear power production is expensive contrary to what the people who are in support of the technology portray. Some believe the use of nuclear power technology should be stopped because of the high costs and risks that the technology poses. Therefore, should the production of nuclear energy be stopped?
Firstly, one of the disadvantages of nuclear power production is that it is very costly to produce. Nuclear power is derived from uranium which is a natural ore. Uranium ore is currently depleting therefore this tends to raise the prices of electricity up in the world. Considering that it is non renewable, the ore will be worn out with time.
The utilities used to construct a nuclear reactor are very expensive. “The price tag for creating a large nuclear plant was between six billion and eight billion US dollars in 2010” (Beaver 399). Clearly, it is very expensive to put up a nuclear plant and maintain it too. Large tracks of land are required to build a reactor and a large proximity is required to where people live.
Secondly, nuclear power plants pose great risk on the environment. Nuclear powered plants emit thermal energy to the environment; this thermal energy contributes to the current predicament of global warming. Power plants normally dispose heated water to the rivers or other water bodies hence causing devastating effects to aquatic life and subsequently cause climatic changes.
“There are fears from the community that the disposal of hot water that might be contaminated to rivers may also pose a risk to human beings since most of their water comes from rivers and lakes” (William 161). Accidents can be catastrophic if radiation material is emitted to the environment. Although people who sympathize with nuclear power production argue that accidents are very rare, any accident that occurs causes extensive disastrous effects.
A good example of a disaster caused by nuclear power accident is the accident in Chernobyl in April 1986, the accident was the worst in history and it led to mass displacement of people and long-term deaths in the hundred of thousands according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Victims of Chernobyl disaster experienced illnesses such as cancer, stress and depression. “To date people in Ukraine cannot drink water or locally produced foods” (Miller and Spoolman 313).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another example is Three Mile Island in March 1987 which had also emitted radioactive materials due to an accident caused by human error and component failure. Recently in Fukushima in Japan in March 2011, a massive tsunami overwhelmed the plant that caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine. “Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima” (Coren, YouTube).
A few weeks later tiny amounts of iodine were discovered in countries as far as Iceland as well as the United States. These radiations pose a great public health risk and on the environment in general.
Natural disasters such as floods, tsunamis and earthquakes normally trigger the release of radioactive material from the reactors. Even with initiatives for safety by nuclear energy plants, these natural disasters are unavoidable. Despite the safety measures used by the plant, Fukushima failed to prevent emission of radioactive materials. Therefore, an increase in the number of nuclear plants increases the probability for the plants’ exposure to natural catastrophes.
Thirdly, materials used in the production of nuclear energy produce waste materials which are still radioactive and takes more than a thousand years for the waste to be decomposed. This leads to more costs in disposal of the waste materials from the plants. Wastes are normally disposed deep in the ground and this does not prevent it from being exposed to the environment due to natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes.
Controversies revolving around how radioactive waste can be disposed in a safe way still stand out. In France recycling of radioactive material is done, but there is only a small amount of material that will be reused; in fact recycling of these materials to produce other fuel energy is more expensive.
Lastly, nuclear plants provide a platform for terrorists attack. Terrorists might easily get access to nuclear waste materials and are likely to expose them to the environment. Imagining a situation where terrorists attack a nuclear plant, it will expose the world to immense radiation levels. Despite security beef up, we can never be too sure of terrorist attacks not occurring. Radioactive wastes also provide materials for nuclear bomb creation by terrorists and some governments.
Nuclear energy has great advantages too despite its demerits. Nuclear power is not dependent on fossil fuels such as natural gas or coal which emit a lot of carbon dioxide in the environment. Nuclear power emits a lot lesser carbon dioxide gas to the environment, hence less pollution to the environment. A group of thinkers argue that nuclear power has less responsibility for global warming than fossil fuels. Statistics also show that many deaths in the United States are attributed to illnesses caused by burning coal.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is also argued that nuclear energy production costs are almost the same as coal, therefore it is better to use nuclear power and reduce emission of carbon dioxide and consequently the number of deaths related to illnesses caused by coal burning. Fossils fuels are expensive raw materials than uranium, hence leads to lower electricity costs for consumers.
Another advantage of nuclear power is that it produces a lot of power; this enhances efficiency in power production. Huge amounts of nuclear energy are produced using small amounts of fuel compared to other methods of energy production. In terms of reliability, nuclear power is the most efficient and reliable type of energy production.
“Currently in the world, nuclear energy caters for eleven percent of the total population’s energy needs” (Energy Resources para 3). In the United States of America twenty percent of the energy is produced from nuclear energy and currently the government is planning on putting up more plants to meet the rising needs of electricity.
Nuclear power also provides competition which drives the costs of electricity low to the consumer. The ready availability of uranium ore also reduces the cost of transporting fuel from distant places where they are found. With depletion of fossil fuels, nuclear energy will be the most appropriate method of avoiding shortages in the future-“due to nuclear energy reliability” (Energy Resources para 3).
Currently nuclear reactors are built with precision and are computerized; computerization has enhanced fewer accidents due to human error and component failure. Supporters of nuclear energy production argue that today’s technology guarantees safety through computers that automatically shuts down the reactor in cases of faults.
Therefore, the production of nuclear power should be stopped. In spite of nuclear energy being very attractive, it has more disadvantages than advantages therefore there is more reasons to abolish the nuclear energy production.
The disasters evident from the nuclear reactors have led to increased levels of radiation and even deaths-in Germany studies have shown that many people living near nuclear power plants are likely to be suffering from leukemia. Nuclear power might be seen as a solution for electricity shortage today and in the future by some people but their effects are more disastrous and could lead to human extinction in our planet.
The claims of recycling nuclear wastes to new fuel elements accounts for a very small percentage energy capability which is not worth justifying the use of nuclear energy. The threat of terrorist attacks can be avoided through abolishing nuclear related practices, meaning there would be less probability of nuclear attacks, a few countries which are not politically stable bear great risk of terrorists acquiring weapons grade plutonium.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the existence of other energy options which are safer such as hydro electric energy, solar energy and wind energy. These energies are safe and environmental friendly than nuclear energy. Harnessing these energies can supplement the use of nuclear energy considering that they are cheap and renewable.
Annotated Bibliography Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.
The book discusses about the history of nuclear power plants accidents such as the Chernobyl and the Three Mile Island accident. It describes the causes of the accident and how human error and component failure were the major reasons for the accident. It also gives evidence on the health implications of the radiations victims in the USSR. It also gives the statistics on the deaths and displacement of victims and long-term effects of nuclear emissions.
William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.
In William’s book, he argues on the effects of radiation on the environment as a result of nuclear plants. He discusses on issues of thermal release by nuclear plants through rivers and lakes and how it affects the communities using the water. He also argues on the effect of emissions to the environment in general and the concerns of the communities living around nuclear power plants
Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3 ;( 2011): 399-441.
In this journal article, the author discusses issues regarding the construction of the reactor and how it is expensive to put up a nuclear power plant. He further gives an estimate of the amount of money required to put up a plant by the year 2010. He also discusses on the difficulties experienced in putting up a nuclear power plant. He also talks about the failure by the government to meet its vision of the nuclear technology.
Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.
In this website, there is a comparison of the different energy resources. It also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of power production. It further talks about the non renewable nature of Uranium and the facts about nuclear power production.
Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.
In the video, a Tsunami that caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine in Japan occurred due to an earthquake. Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima.
Works Cited Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3 (2011): 399-441.
Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.
Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.
Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.
William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York, NY: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.
Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3; (2011): 399-441.
“Farrow stated that the White House announced plans to triple the amount currently allocated for loan guarantees available to utilities for construction of new reactors. Indeed, loan guarantees are seen as crucial, considering that the current price tag for a large nuclear plant is estimated to be between $6 billion and $8 billion” (Beaver 399).
“The 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, which resulted in a partial meltdown of the reactor’s core, certainly comes to mind. In addition, the government’s failure to open a long-promised nuclear waste repository in Nevada for which the utilities have contributed billions of dollars certainly did nothing to restore interest in the technology” (Beaver 400).
Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.
“A Tsunami caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine in Japan occurred due to an earthquake” (Coren YouTube).
“Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima” (Coren YouTube).
Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.
With reactors in the UK, the computers will shut the reactor down automatically if things get out of hand (unless engineers intervene within a set time). At Chernobyl, in Ukraine, they did not have such a sophisticated system, indeed they over-rode the automatic systems they did have.
When they got it wrong, the reactor overheated, melted and the excessive pressure blew out the containment system before they could stop it. Then, with the coolant gone, there was a serious fire. Many people lost their lives trying to sort out the mess. A quick web search will tell you more about this, including companies who operate tours of the site (Energy Resources para 3).
“Although not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. For all that time it must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult” (Energy Resources para 3).
William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York, NY: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.
“Routine discharge of radiation discharge from nuclear reactors has become an issue of considerable concern and debate. The possibility that, with the growing proliferation of such reactors, radiation will have a substantial, and substantially adverse, impacts on human health of present and future generations” (William 161).
“Since many, if not most of these lakes and streams act as a source of community drinking water; many have become aroused by the possibility of radioactive contamination” (William 161).
Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.
“The Chernobyl in April 1986, the accident was the worst in history and it led to mass displacement of people and long-term deaths in the hundreds of thousands according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Victims of Chernobyl disaster experienced illnesses such as cancer, stress, and depression” (Miller and Spoolman 313).
“In Ukraine water or locally produced foods are not consumed because they are contaminated due to previous radiations in Chernobyl in 1986” (Miller and Spoolman 313).
Global Consumer Economy Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Similarities between Potter’s concept and Sheehan ideas
Extent of compatibility
Introduction Potter (1954) asserts that America, being a nation of abundance, has institutionalised the culture of advertisement. This is true for many other developed and developing countries where a plethora of billboards, posters, TV commercials, radio ads and print ads are a common feature of people’s lives. It came in the wake of industrial revolution that paved the way for modernisation, which in turn led to mass production of goods and services.
Therefore, sellers have to find a way of persuading people to buy their products; hence, the inevitable need for advertisement. Potter is able to draw a relationship between economic abundance and the national character of the Americans. He posits that the economic abundance in America has resulted into a materialistic lifestyle for the citizens. He attributes this fact to the effect of advertisements, which mostly glorify material wealth.
On the other hand, there is the institution of marketing as developed by Sheehan (2010). In the institution of marketing, it is generally accepted that people must be persuaded to buy products. It is also characterised by flexibility, variety, originality and competitive rivalry. Its base objective is to churn out commercial messages meant to persuade people to buy by spending more in terms of value and volume.
With that brief introduction, this paper draws comparison and contrast between the two critical business institutions. It will also highlight the extent of the compatibility that exists between the institution of advertising and the institution of marketing. This paper will focus mainly on the works of Potter (1954) and Sheehan (2010).
Similarities between Potter’s concept and Sheehan ideas Potter and Sheehan seem to converge on the understanding that the institutions of advertising and marketing are the focal point in business operations especially in the societies of abundance. According to Potter (1954), the language of commerce has been elevated to the status enjoyed only by religion.
This view is shared by Sheehan who states that people have to learn the language of advertisements. This indicates that the two institutions play a key role in modern economics. Indeed, a lot of resources today are channelled into advertisement and marketing. People all over the world are constantly being inundated by a myriad adverts and marketing fads.
The two institutions are aimed at increasing people’s spending. The purpose of advertising is to create awareness about the existence of a given product or service and with the view of encouraging customers to buy them. Marketing, on its part, persuades buyers to purchase goods and services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, both institutions cultivate the culture of spending among the population experiencing abundance since such populations have sufficient purchasing power. In many countries today, advertising and marketing are almost synonymous, or rather, they go hand in hand. Business enterprises take the extra mile to market their products and mostly this is achieved through extensive advertising.
Advertising and marketing have shaped the national character of some countries, particularly in the developed world. Needless to say, people’s lifestyles are being influenced by various specifically designed adverts and marketing activities. The countries of sufficiency and abundance are experiencing this uniquely interesting phenomenon.
A good illustration can be found in the area of alcohol. Today, many alcoholics are people who have been drawn into drinking through certain adverts and elaborate marketing activities. When a new alcoholic drink is manufactured, it is introduced to the market with a lot of pomp and fanfare.
This is accomplished through exciting road shows, adverts that depict sophistication as related to drinking and in some cases bombarding the public with leaflets and brochures that extol the supposedly superior qualities of the new drink. In some cases, individuals considered as celebrities are used to lure the unsuspecting members of the public, particularly the youth.
Another point of convergence between the institution of advertising and the institution of marketing is the exploitation of culture in an attempt to convince people to buy given products. The two scholars agree on the fact that many companies, particularly multinationals, devise and format their adverts and marketing strategies around the target people’s cultural background. This may include use of some terms in the local languages or depicting members of the local communities in the adverts.
In some cases, companies may introduce some products by sneaking them into people’s culture. For example, in order to create market for diamond, jewellery companies cleverly presented diamond as a symbol of love. Thus, today, the most precious wedding rings or gifts of love are those made from diamond. This drove the demand for diamond through the roof even though it is less worthy compared to gold.
The two institutions also share a common axiom; they encourage consumption. Increased consumption reflects on increased demand for a given product and hence will drive up sales. This is especially the case in states of abundance where people are endowed with sufficient wherewithal.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Consumer Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Sheehan (2010), this can be accomplished through the creation of a managed market-place. A managed market-place is designed to launch powerful commercial messages that strongly appeal to the potential and existing consumers in order to increase their volume of consumption spending (Sheehan, 2010).
The two institutions also share a common media. Advertising is done through TV, radio, newspapers, the internet among others. The same applies to the institution of marketing. They both need instruments of mass communication to pass their messages across to mass audience and ultimately, their intended target groups.
Advertising and marketing are also key indicators of the growth of the economy. A heightened activity in these two areas indicates that there is increased production of goods and services and which need to be consumed. They may make the economy to grow too fast, in which case the government might need to take measures to normalise it since it is likely to lead to inflation.
On the other hand, reduced activity in the two institutions is a sure warning sign that the country’s economy is on the decline. This will call for concerted effort by the government and other stakeholders to take appropriate measures in order to remedy the situation.
Contrast Despite the many similarities, the two institutions diverge at various points. First, whereas advertising deals with creation of awareness about the existence of a given product or a service, marketing aims at brand-making. In advertising, awareness is created about the availability of a given product on the market through various means such as the print and electronic media.
Marketing involves the modelling and presentation of the commodity to customers in a manner that would persuade them to acquire it. One illustration to this concerns the Coca cola Company. It advertises Coke as a soft drink that should be had “always”. As for the marketing, the drink is packaged in bottles of certain shapes that appeal to people’s fantasies.
Second, while the process of advertising may require just an individual to design a moving advert, marketing needs a collective effort. According to Sheehan (2010), marketing requires teamwork to manage and coordinate different corporate functions and priorities. This is because the institution of marketing is multi-disciplinary. This is known as brand management. Advertisement, on the other hand, may not require teamwork since it is not multi-disciplinary. A company may even hire or contract advertising agencies to do the job for them. This is mostly an expensive affair.
Third, marketing is usually conducted at the point of sale while advertisement may not. This implies that marketing encourages direct consumption of a given good or a service. It may require the customer to make instant decision, which may make them buy the product immediately rather than put it into consideration.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Consumer Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advertisement, on the other hand, may be done away from the point of sale. In this case, the advertiser hopes to imprint the commercial message into the psyche of the potential customer so that they may buy the commodity later. Advertisement may employ slogans that impede themselves into the subconscious of an individual, and sometime even without the knowledge of the said individual.
Extent of compatibility It is also important to establish if the two institutions are compatible with each other. In this regard, it is crucial to note that the two enjoy a symbiotic relationship with each other. Advertising alerts the populace about the existence of a good or service with a view to encouraging them to buy. The institution of marketing brands the advertised commodity and makes it more appealing to consumers. Thus, the two critical institutions combine forces to persuade and convince people to buy given products.
There is no clear-cut line between advertising and marketing. It can be argued that advertising is part of marketing or even vice versa. This is because the two may share the same resources in the course of their implementation. TVs, radios, the internet, magazines and journals are some of the media shared by the two institutions. Consequently, they can be said to complement each other.
Marketing creates the phenomenon known as the consumer culture (Sheehan, 2010). Sustaining the consumer culture requires constant transformation of the shared ways of thinking and acting in the arena of consumption. The culture can only be maintained through constant advertisement.
In particular, goods and services experiencing low demand have to be remodelled and repackaged in order to preserve their appeal to consumers. The institution of advertisement keeps the consumers posted on the existence of the brand created by marketers. This ensures a constant consumption of goods and services.
In order to ensure continued spending on a given commodity or service, the institution of marketing usually creates fashions. The same product is repackaged as a new fashion in the hope of persuading those who already have it to get another one. This is especially the case in the clothing and jewellery industry.
The fashions are released at intervals; thus ensuring that people keep spending on them in the name of keeping up with the current fashion. Mostly, it is the younger members of the community that are usually sucked into this trend. For this strategy to be successful there is need for constant advertising. The masses have to be informed on the latest releases in fashion through the mass media. The adverts are usually designed to make consumers believe that there is something new or special in the new repackaged commodity.
Conclusion The institutions of advertising and marketing are very important in the corporate world today. This is particularly the case in developed economies where people are experiencing abundance as Potter (1954) puts it. These economies are characterised by people who have great purchasing power and consequently can engage in free spending.
Marketing and advertising strategies are effectives in such states because people have the necessary resources to even afford to be extravagant. However, this may not be applicable to poor economies of the third world countries, which are characterised by widespread poverty and unemployment. Sheehan (2010) refers to them as the economic systems of scarcity characterized by low purchasing power.
It has also been noted by Potter and Sheehan that the two institutions may have some negative influence on the population. Potter draws attention to the fact that due to advertisements, the American society could have become materialistic as people of plenty are induced to keep spending in order to keep the economy healthy. Other challenges faced include irresponsible alcoholism and smoking which is usually glorified in most advertisements and marketing ventures.
It is important that appropriate checks and balances be instituted to guard against moral erosion that may be brought about by incessant advertising and marketing of critical products such as drugs and alcohol.
References Potter, D.M., 1954. People of plenty: Economic abundance and the American character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sheehan, B., 2010. The Economics of abundance: Affluent consumption and the global economy. Northampton, MA: Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.
Do horror movies make people aggressive? Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
Movies influence people differently. This varies with their age, sex and cultural background, among others. Exposure to horrific movies has raised concern over its influence on behavior. Some theorists suggest such exposures induce aggression on people although this is still arguable.
Clearly, children should react more to violence and aggression in horror movies than adults. Research conducted by psychologists suggests that violent music in horror movies may affect neurological and emotional stability of human brain. However, it has also been established that people have the capability of controlling their emotions.
Aggression comes in various forms namely, mental, physical or verbal. Horror movies present situations that induce or aggravate violence in people. Nonetheless, it is important to not that humans have the capacity to adapt to such situations. In fact, it enables them to understand violence. In essence, horror movies do not make people aggressive (Crawford 1).
Causes of aggression in people have had its debate over the years with some researchers pointing to external factors, while others pointing to internal causes. Moreover, others attribute it to both set of factors. Horror movies contain scenes that scare people. In fact, it has been suggested that violent music along with other scary scenes like extreme killings induces aggression in people, especially teenagers.
For instance, a section of theorists argue that boys who identify with violent heroes tend to experience aggression in their attempts to fulfill aggressive fantasies. In addition, they postulate that continued exposure to horrific scenes induces fear in people. In the process, they are said to develop adaptive symptoms, which may result in aggression.
However, the cases under this are quite few. In fact, research conducted in schools show that very few students imitate characters in movies. Moreover, this practice deteriorates as one grows. It is also important to note that people who come from violent families tend to be aggressive when they watch movies that relate to their respective lives. In this regard, the real cause of aggression becomes experience at home and not movies (Crawford 1).
Horror movies do not make people aggressive. This is mainly because aggression is caused in many ways namely intrinsic and or extrinsic factors. For instance, aggression can be caused by fatigue, anger, attitude and environmental factors like frequent experience of violence at home or in the neighborhood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, people have capabilities of controlling aggression even after watching scary movies. Moreover, one’s ability to be affected by movies depends on mental involvement. Consequently, they are less involved mentally in such movies. This results in ability to control emotions (Vidican 1).
Adolescents who are usually in high or middle schools have greater abstract reasoning than younger ones. This makes them less vulnerable to imitating particular scenes of crime, violence or obscene behaviors in horror movies. Moreover, as children grow, they uncover the truths about horror movies, which are merely fiction.
Finally, horror movies do not make people aggressive because they know and realize that such actions are unrealistic and extreme. In fact, very little, has been recorded as real events of horror in humankind. (Grant 1).
Entertainment offers a variety of content to its audience. This ranges from music to movies, among others. Movies and music are seen to have direct or indirect influence on people. This is mainly because they contain scenes that affect them physically, verbally or emotionally. For instance, horror movies captivate audience with thrilling and especially scary activities.
However, should not overcome their emotions because they know it is merely fiction, which is designed for entertainment. Moreover, events in horror movies are so extreme that it scares children, who are the only category of people that can be influenced. In essence, horror movies do not make people aggressive (Josephson 1).
Works Cited Crawford, Tom. “Halloween Horror Movies May Cause Emotional Problems in Young Children”. Nyp.org. New York-Presbyterian, 2006. Web.
Grant, Barry. “Critical Debates: Horror Films”. filmreference.com. Film Reference, 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Do horror movies make people aggressive? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Josephson, Wendy. “Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different ages”. media-awareness.ca. Media Awareness, 2011. Web.
Vidican, Sergiu. “Why do we like horror movies?” metrolic.com. Metrolic, 2010. Web.
The Role of Social Media in Recruitment Report college essay help
Introduction Human resource management is the practice within organizations that deals with people, that is, the work force within an organization. It is responsible for such tasks involving recruitment of employees, ensuring employee welfare, promotion criteria, employee sanctioning and rewarding, communication among employees, among other functions that revolve around employees.
All these functions are geared towards providing a conducive environment for maximum employee performance. The human resource department policies, if well and effectively applied, will lead to effective and productive contribution of the employees to the overall mandate and goals of the organization.
Social Networking This is an online site, whose primary purpose is to build social relationships and networks of people from all walks of life. Some are general sites where people can express varied opinions over varied issues like politics, finance, social life, over about anything. Some are more specific and cover narrower topics like issues to do with love and romance. Most of these sites are web-based and the users need the access of theinternet in order to access them. Users are able to share ideas, activities and interests within their networks.
Examples of social networks include: Facebook, twitter, Google , badoo, blogster, buzznet, cafemom, classmates.com, diaspora*, Flickr, Friendster, hi5, to name just a few.
The Dilemma of Social Networks in the Work Place The 21st century has seen an aggressive use of the internet, with the streaming line of social networks. Face book for instance boasts over 400 million users in the world and twitter over 60 million. These networks can be quite interesting and entertaining to many users as they allow one to make friends, view their profiles, establish relationships and above all, share gossip.
This rise in the popularity of social networks has jeopardized the human resource department in most organizations, with the managers caught between punishing the employees who use office resources for these networks, and the danger of interfering with employee privacy motivation.
Huczynski and Buchanan (2010) say that another dilemma that the managers face is employee motivation. Studies have shown that when employees are left to work freely with minimum supervision, given the freedom to vent their inner emotions and feelings, their morale is boosted and productivity is raised. Such networks are seen to be points of releasing this tension among the employees and breaking monotony in the work place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If they get sanctioned therefore, for accessing these networks, there is high probability that they will harbor resentment towards theirsupervisors and the management in general, and are likely to engage in more anti-social activities as a way of breaking boredom, and this may negatively affect the operation of the organization.
At the same time, these networks are addictive. Some people cannot just get out once they are in, most cannot concentrate on other issues, and they waste resources. How for instance can an accountant concentrate on doing the math if his mind is on more interesting gossip, or a customer care worker handle clients when his mind is elsewhere.
Following these, it is therefore necessary that organizations develop sound and practical policies regarding the use of social networks among employees, which balance these two extremes to ensure that the organization productivity improves, at the same time that employees are well motivated to do their work.
The Role of Social Media in Recruitment More and more employers log in to social networks in an effort to secretly study the personality and lifestyle of potential employees. This information isused by the employers to analyze the potential employer, and deduce how the potential candidate can impact on the organization, positively or negatively.
Some employers deny the candidate work if they feel that his profile individual is wanting, for instance if he posts derogatory comments orobscene pictures.Some go to the extent of discriminating against religion and marital status.
Questions on whether this isethically correct or not, are neutralized by the fact that the users create profiles that are free for anyone to view, so the managers argue that they are not actually breaking any privacy law, as access is not denied or restricted anyway.
The disclaimer however, is that employers should bear in mind that most stories on these sites are not entirely true. Most people take advantage of the cover of anonymity to make create a personality that is not necessarily reflective of their true identity.Therefore, they should not entirely rely on these profiles forassessment of the employee. However, they can help give a limelight of the employee’s personality.
We will write a custom Report on The Role of Social Media in Recruitment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advantages of Using Social Networks at the Work Place Social networks such as Facebook and LinkedIn can be used professionally, like to connect with others in your field of work and share experience or solve a problem related to work. Employees in the same industry could be friends or former classmates, and through these sites, they could share a lot including encouraging each other to further their studies.
At the same time, these sites contain news on various industries that once you “like” the page, you can receive recent news and updates on the goings-on in the industry. This way, the employee is able to follow on relevant news of what is going on in line with his work. Employers should take note of these positive effects and put measures in place that can tolerate the employee access to this information
These sites can be used to polish one’s image.For instance, if one posts positive and constructive comments, he/she is able to gain respect from among the network. If the comments are work related, they can also polish the company’s image as well. This way, the employee sells the company name to the public, and his polished image boosts his business transactions, as many from the network will be willing to listen to his advice, for instance, on product and services as a marketing strategy.This can help one advance his career.
If one can strictly monitor oneself on the amount of time spent on these sites in line with the company policy, it can only work to enhance their performance by acting as a morale booster. Positive comments from friends in these networks can lighten up damp moods, consolation as well over some loss or disappointment, birth day wishes and even simple greetings or a “like” on your comment can go a long way to put a smile on your face. This can push one through the pressure at work, so long as work does not get compromised.
It is a natural desire for one to want to know what is happening around them, in one’s town, country and even the world at large. This can inform an employee’s decisions, and give them something to think or talk about apart from work.
Social networks can provide this necessary information, instead of one having to tune on the radio or TV at the end of the day to get updated.This way, theemployee stays connected with the rest of the world, and understands his environment more and is informed of any precautionary measures he may need to take, to make him feel secure and relaxed to work
Tyson (2006) says that the fact that your employer trusts you as the employee with the freedom to access the social sites at any time at the same time trusting that you will do and accomplish your work effectively goes a long way to boost the employee’s confidence in the employer, and leaves you with the responsibility of not failing this trust and wanting to make the employer trust you more.
It creates a more cordial relationship between the two, a key ingredient in employer-employee cooperation leading to better performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Social Media in Recruitment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through these sites, companies can chat with their customers and clients. This can improve the relationships between the two, bringing it down from an overly casual attitude to a more friendly and flexible relationship.They can discuss about their products and services and positive feedback will help the companies improve. The customers also become freer with the companies, encouraging business transactions. This can therefore be a good medium for marketing and building Public Relations.
Disadvantages of Using Social Networks in the Work Place Chatting, especially, on personal non-work related issues only serves to waste the employee’s work time. Studies show that average users of sites like face book spend up to 56 minutes of their work time on social sites, and this number can go up for users using mobile internet like mobile phones. This therefore wastes time as a resource for the company.
Employees accessing these sites during work time are often stealing the time; therefore, their attention is divided between chatting and work. This is a big risk as they are likely to make errors and mistakes that can cost them or the company a great deal. This compromises the productivity of the employee and the company’s goals are not met.
Sinrod (2007) says that another problem of using these networks in the work place in the risk that the company software is exposed to. The company software gets exposed to viruses and spyware, this can lead to loss or corruption of important data, and recovery can be an unnecessary added cost. Productivity levels go down.
The Impact of Negative Comments Kiser (2011) says that employee posts can negatively impact on the image of the company. Such comments as badmouthing the supervisors, fellow employees, commenting negatively on the company products, will reduce consumer confidence towards the company, loss of clients and scare away potential clients.
Comments that reveal the company’s secrets to the public can make the company lose on competition with other companies as they are able to sabotage this information and use it to their advantage. If for instance an employee reveals who their major clients are, other competing companies can use incentives to lure these clients to their companies. The same with a company’s plans like expansion, new products and enumeration. If this information falls on the hands of competing companies, they are likely to use it to their advantage.
Some comments posted on these sites can pose legal risks and can destroy the reputation of a company, however jokingly the intention might have been.For instance a post that the employees have gone two months without pay can raise legal questions, industrial actions. The company may be regarded as insensitive to its employees, and many might not want to work in the company.
Dealing With Negative Comments In dealing with the problem of negative comment and its impact in employees, most companies are coming up with policies to curb this. This is one of the best ways for a company to protect itself from the effects of social network; having a clearly defined online social media policy.
The policy should give clear specifications on who is allowed to speak for the company, so that any other employee who comments anything about the company is outlawed and does it illegally and is subject to sanctions. This will also safeguard confidential information from leaking to undesirable environment.
Depending on specific policies in various companies regarding the use of social networks, some employers fire the offending employees while some take upon them disciplinary actions, like paying damages to the company, demotion or suspension.
The policies can outline which social sites employees can access, probably those with the least potential harm to the company like LinkedIn than Facebook. This way, they give the employees access to the sites but in a controlled way, to limit potential harm.
The policies should be clearly communicated to the employees, make them understand what is and is not permitted regarding the access of the sites, and explain your reasons for the restrictions and spell out the penalties in cases of breach.
Conclusion The issue of social networks in the work place is a complicated one that needs careful address by both the human resource managers and the employees. Neither party can solely tackle the issue; it needs the effort of the two parties.
The managers need to come up with policies that offer a balanced approach, one that will ensure that the workers enjoy their privacy and some form of out-of-work attention/recreation, at the same time, ensuring that work gets done, and done efficiently.
The employee on the other hand is tasked with the responsibility of living up to the company goals and objectives, and should ensure that his personal needs are well regulated so as not to interfere with his work.
Whichever policy chosen, the management should as much as possible avoid coercive measures. These kill employee morale, and sneaking on the manager to steal time for chatting will increase, worsening employee-employer relationship and productivity.
Reference List Huczynski, A and Buchanan, D., 2010. Organizational Behavior. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd, FT Prentice Hall.
Kiser, P., 2011. 5 Reasons Why Ignoring Negative Social Media is a Career Ender: Social Media Today. Web.
Sinrod, E.J., 2007. Can Social Networking Co-exist With the Work Place? CNET NEWS Corporate and Legal. Web.
Tyson, S., 2006. Essentials of Human Resource Management. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann.
Problem Solving Process and Methods Report custom essay help
Problem solving is a process that is mentally inclined and forms part of a bigger problem solving process that incorporates finding the problem and shaping it to required solutions. Problem solving methods are techniques or skills used to solve life problems. They refer to an individual’s ability to reason both inductively and deductively, as well as be able to apply logic, which can help that individual to infer the problems, analyze and think critically, among others.
The problem is an analysis of the operations of a small sporting goods retail shop. Several approaches we used in problem solving include use of interviews, SWOT analysis and PEST analysis, brainstorming, research in books and journals and review of industry publications.
In solving the problem, we used interviews as one method. This involved engaging several store managers in a conversation, which involved asking them questions concerning the types of sporting products they stock. The outcome of the interviews were able to give us data about each store’s product price range, products they carry, services and their targeting customers, their positioning tactics and how they differentiate themselves among others.
Using this method, we were able to evaluate the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in sporting goods retail shop. SWOT analysis lays emphasis on the business entity as a single unit. The data from interviews were used in summarizing similarities and or differences, advantages and or disadvantages among the stores and competitiveness over one another.
Using this analysis, we were able to analyze the macro-environmental framework of the sporting retail shop. PEST analysis measures the business market potential in line with external factors. This was possible since this analysis bases its focus on political, economic, social and technical views of the analysis. We used the internet for identifying external environment such as local trends, social, economic, political; technological that may affect the small sporting retail store.
The other method we used in problem solving is observation. Using this method, we did a study on several sporting retail shops regarding their web appearance, designs and did comparison among the stores. This method enabled us to identify missing contents or links that would further enhance the business’s visibility and its competitive nature.
This process involves the input of a group’s creativity whereby the group tries to find solutions to problems by getting idea from each member of the group. Through this process, we were able to engage the input of the instructor when we encountered problems. Through this process, we were able to create a range of new ideas and easily solve the problems and it helped in motivating the group members since everyone had his/her input taken into consideration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research in books and journals
Using this method of problem solving, we were able to learn how the industry’s financial statement looks like, such as, revenue, profit margin, return on asset, inventory turnover, and asset turn over, advantage and Interest burden. This we did by using library database, which includes books and journals. When analyzing the financial statement of the sporting goods retail shop, we used marketing, accounting and finance books.
Review of industry publications
Using this method in problem solving, we were able to gather information of the sporting retail shop concerning its market share. Particularly, we used the publication of national sporting business for collecting the general data and overview of the sporting retail shop industry in the market.
Iran and Nuclear Weapon Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Many people have claimed that the most destructive war in the history of mankind is almost ready (Macdonald 1). Further, it is claimed that the war will not be confined to one region or small sets of countries, but rather, it will have an effect on all everyone. There several events happening today that point towards this direction and the power that is behind them is vastly gaining nuclear weapons. This power is none other than Iran, which has declared its ambition to wipe the Israel nation out of the world map.
In one of his many meetings on the Middle East peace process, the former United States President George Bush is quoted as saying that Iran was a threat, and there was, therefore, a need for the international community to act swiftly, and prevent the country from developing the abilities to build a nuclear weapon.
5 years down the line, the international community, seems to have a lacklustre approach when dealing with Iran. However, whether world leaders take action or not, Iran is about to get the nukes, and the first target will be Israel followed by American and the rest of the world.
In the recent past, Iran has shown that it can start and sustain a war. Iran is the world’s leading sponsor of terrorism. Indeed, it is clear that both the U.S. and Israel are at war with Iran at the moment. This is something that most people do not see. Iran is the sponsor of terrorist activities across the world, while America and Israel lead in the fight against terrorism. The only way that the country can be stopped is through confrontation and not by negotiations.
In spite of condemnation by world leaders, the nuclear program of Iran continues without much opposition. In October 2010, Iran revealed that already had the capability to produce between 100 and 200 kilograms of enriched uranium, which is enough to build three to five nuclear war heads. Yet, the U.S has not taken any decisive action to tame Iran’s nuclear ambitions (Macdonald 2).
This is exactly the same situation that confronted world leaders prior to the Second World War. Hitler and his battalion of religious cronies rose to pre-eminence under the watchful eye of powerful leaders who took no notice of his ambitions in the early 1930s.
Hitler told everyone what he was going to do in Mein Kampf; however, only Winston Churchill believed him. Winston Churchill saw the impending danger and sounded an alarm for years. Many called Hitler a warmonger, while others did not take him seriously. They said that it was not Hitler till Churchill’s prophecy came to pass and there was the Second World War started by Hitler (Macdonald 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Iran has enormous resources especially from oil, and the leaders believe that they can accelerate the return of the 12th Imam by bringing chaos on the world.
The twelfth Imam, Mohammad al Mahdi, disappeared at the age of five and is expected to return supernaturally before the Day of Judgement according to a section of Muslims who subscribe to Shiite interpretation of the Holy Koran. However, it is believed that, for him to come back on the Earth, the world must be in chaotic conditions. The leaders in Iran aim at creating chaos so that their own version of Messiah could return and bring in eternal peace.
This is the illusion that is guiding Iranian leaders. To them, nukes are the only way to bring chaos and achieve their aims. To stop Iran from bringing catastrophe America and Israel must target and destroy Iranian nuclear sites. In addition, the UN Security council should impose an embargo on countries that sell technology to Iran. If these actions are not taken, their nuclear disaster is inevitable.
Work Cited Macdonald, Brad. Iran’s Nuclear Ambition. 11.Dec. 2004. Web.
Should Animals be Used in Research Essay college application essay help
All over the world, animal activists and institutions have argued whether or not research should be used on animals or should be outlawed. Philosophers believe that experiments on animals are not morally justified because they cause pain or harm the animals. A group of these philosophers believe that other alternatives are available, thus they claim that because we have other alternatives, the use of animals in research should be outlawed.
The reasons why animals should not be used in research In my opinion, I support the line of argument that animals should not be used in research. Since the discovery of knowing through science (research), the use of animals in research has elicited mixed reactions among different scholars. Philosophers are against the idea citing the availability of other options for toxicological tests on animals and the harsh treatments the scientists have accorded these animals in the medical tests. Unless scientists discover other ways of testing medicines, I think tests on animals are unethical.
Scientists use these creatures to validate a theory and then revise or change their theories depending on the new facts or information gained from every test performed. Animal rights lobby groups believe that animals are used for no reasons in these experiments as the animals endure pain inflicted on them during these tests (Singer 2). They tend to overlook the fact that animals have moral existence, social and religious values. Thousands of animals on this planet contribute largely to the aesthetic appeal of the land.
On the other hand, scientists only see the positive contributions of animal tests to the medical field and ignore the side effects of the tests on the animals’ lives. They overlook the idea that animals are hurt and thus suffer tremendously.
To them the impact of the research on the lives of their families and friends by coming up with vaccines and drugs is the inspiration. Research on animals should be banned because it inflicts pain, harms the culprits and morally it is unjustified. Has man ever wondered whether or not animals feel similar pain that humans feel? (Singer 2).
Human beings know very well that they themselves feel pain. For example, you will know that a metal rod is hot by touching it with bare hands. It is believed that pain is mental; in other words it cannot be seen. We feel pain and we realize that other creatures also feel pain from observations like jerking away from an event or even yelling.
Since the reactions are the same as those of man, philosophers say that animals feel similar pain just like humans. Animal activists reaffirm that the major undoing of tests involving animals is the manner in which the animals are treated arguing that anesthesia for suppressing the pain is never used.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion However, as many people are opposed to the use of animals in research, many lives have been saved every year due to their death. I think that instead of refuting that taking away the life of a rat is unethical, harms the animal; I believe it is a bold step in improving the welfare of millions of people for thousands of years to come. Tests on animals are the most common toxicological tests used by scientists; the findings help to better lives for hundreds of people across the universe (Fox 12).
Works Cited Fox, Michael A. The Case for Animal Experimentation. California: University of California Press, 1986.
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. New York: Random House, 1975.
Strategic Management is a Science Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help
In analyzing strategic management, a number of issues confront us about whether it is a science or not. We could consider strategic management as an art but to do this would be to ignore the fact that scientific methods and technologies are essential in strategic management. Therefore, this paper begins by ascertaining that strategic management is a science. A strong debate, discussion and support then pursue and finally, conclusion and recommendations are stated.
The issue of whether strategic management is a science is controversial. On the one hand, Mulcaster (2010) considers it as an art because managers use their own abilities to determine what action to take. On the other hand, Katsioloudes (2010) believes that it is a science because people are required to think rationally before coming up with the way forward.
For instance, logic reasoning is imperative in determining the course of action to take to achieve objectives (Hambric, 2009). However, in the final analysis, I believe that strategic management is a science because it is objective like logic and it pursues predestined course of action in order to achieve results.
Mulcuster (2010) defines strategic management as an ongoing process that involves strategy analysis, strategy formulation and strategy implementation. Accordingly, it involves monitoring and evaluation of the internal strength and weakness in the presence of the external threats and opportunities (Derek, 2011).
Blumentritt (2009) argues compellingly that strategic management try to align the activities of the organization with external environment through extensive research of both environments. Additionally, strategic planning is the core of this management process that entail decisions and actions that an organization require to earn a great share of the market (Barnat, 2011).
Ryszard (2009) states that market assessment is vital in strategic management. Therefore, managers need to research on the market situation by collecting information and critically analyzing it (Mulcaster, 2010). Moreover, Katsioloudes (2010) emphasizes that strategic management requires a rational approach through environmental analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation.
On the other hand, Hambric (2009) argues that the triumph of an organization requires moves that strengthen its competitive position. While this is undoubtedly true, Hambric (2009) gives the impression that managers need to manipulate the external environment, an impression that suggests that strategic management should be flexible and deliver standard services to the customers. At this point, the stress is that an organization success depends on the management type and leadership style (Derek, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Blumentritt (2009) explains that the success of an organization depends on its ability to fit in the competitive environment and in this case, the organization should vibrantly interact with the environment through logic and scientifically planned actions. Therefore, the organization need to research about its information in the market place and in this situation, the manager together with the employees formulate strategies scientifically by analyzing data and information relevant to the organization (Barnat, 2011).
Moreover, Hambric (2009) states that strategies concern the future and it requires that the organization make definite assumption about the upcoming market, technological inventions and the future trends. In this case, the assumption needs testing and validation and in the event that the employees confirm its validity, strategy formulation becomes a scientific process (Derek, 2011). On the contrary, strategy formulation can also be an art if the employees do not validate the assumption because it will have no essence.
Research reveals that strategic management requires rational thinking so that managers choose actions directed towards the fulfillment of the organization mission (Ryszard, 2009). Nevertheless, people should remember that according to Mulcuster (2010), strategic management is a work in progress.
This means that it depends on the managers trait because each manager has his own way of carrying out plans and they have the flexibility of choosing whatever action provided the organization objectives get accomplished (Mulcuster, 2010). Although strategy implementation involves art, it is vivid that the implemented action needs scientific analysis to determine whether it will achieve the organization vision (Hambric, 2009).
Therefore, strategic management is more of a science because managers need to analyze the organization objectives in order to determine if the organization is on the right track. Additionally, it may involve researches on the best execution practices. For instance, the manager needs to examine qualitative and quantitative data about external and internal environment before making a decision on which action to take (Derek, 2011).
Based on the above discussion of literature, strategic management is both an art and a science. It is an art during the action phase because this phase depends on the management style and leadership traits.
On the other hand, strategic management is a science because it involves rational thinking, planning and systematic evaluation of the action to be implemented. As a result, I am in favor of the statement that strategic management is a science because during the formulation phase, environment examination requires extensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data (Katsioloudes, 2010).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Strategic Management is a Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the organization formulate assumptions and test them and the vital thing is that the organization requires scientific method to study the data before deciding on the best strategy to undertake given the assumption formulated ( Blummentritt, 2009). Finally, in order for the organization to succeed, it needs to understand the market and this understanding expects it to have accurate information and analyze it scientifically.
Despite the fact that research is expensive, time consuming and multifaceted, it does not mean that organization should keep away from it. I recommend that the organizations use simple approaches to obtain data and information required for effective strategic management.
References Barnat, A. (2011). The Art and Science of Strategic Management. Journal of Management , 46 (7), 37-56.
Blumentritt, D. (2009). Strategic Management as an Applied Science but not as we (Academics) Know It. Journal of Business Strategy , 154 (2), 291-356.
Derek, S. (2011). Is Business Strategy a Mixture of Luck and Judgement, Opportunities and Design, or More of an Art than a Science? Journal of Marketing , 42 (9), 21-37.
Hambric, L. (2009). What is Strategic Management, Really? Inductive Derivation of a Consensus definition of the field. Strategic Management Journal , 45 (21), 1000-1023.
Katsioloudes, C. (2010). Strategic Management: Global Cultural Perspective for Profit and Non-Profit Organisations. Journal of Management , 563 (49), 78-95.
Mulcaster, P. (2010). Strategic Management: Three Strategic Frameworks. Business Strategy Series , 10 (1), 43-49.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management is a Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ryszard, F. (2009). The Strategy Field From the Perspective of Management Science: Divergent Strands and Possible Intergration. Journal of Business Strategies , 28 (9), 32-47.
Roles of Property Tax Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Roles assigned to property taxes
Features of economic system to be implemented
Introduction Property tax, an annual tax on the real property, has been in existence for more than three millennia. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. Its base may be the land and buildings or just the land only. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate (Hoff, 1991).
This paper therefore seek to explain how the rate of savings in a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It will also highlight the roles that can be attributed to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Additionally, the paper will recommend other features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.
Roles assigned to property taxes As an economic advisor, I would recommend a property tax that is administratively and technically easy to maintain and implement in all the circumstances. The property tax should be able to aim a cost yield ratio of 2% or even less making it cheap to administer. The property tax implemented should be secure in that it’s almost impossible to evade, the collection success rates should be at a minimum of 95% which is easily attainable. The transparency of the tax system should be evident in the property tax to ensure its affectivity (Hoff, 1991).
The property tax should be in such away that the public understands it since understanding the market value concept is easy whether it is a rental value or capital value making its basis of assessment more appreciated. The property tax should ensure that there is a better correlation between the ability to pay and the assessed value.
The tax should also be marginally progressive and therefore need to be designed correctly. The property taxes should be well suited like a source to the revenue of the local governments generated locally; nevertheless it should be buoyant and predictable (Bahl, 1992).
Economically, I’ll assign some other major roles to the property taxes. These include: acting as a major source of local revenues; the property taxes should be employed as the main source of revenues generated locally since it is geographically defined.
It may be possible to use local sales taxes and local income taxes in generating the revenue for the local government but the two have administrative difficulties. Other sources may be rents from the properties owned by the government. However, property taxes still remain the major source of revenue in such areas since it is easier for the government to modify than it is to adjust the rates of income taxes (Hyman, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a primary source of revenue; property tax should be able to play a vital role in the autonomy and decentralization of the local government.
Where there is full local government decentralization, the power to independently raise revenue is incorporated which allows the government to use such funds as they deem fit: as a support for other functions; the property tax should be able to be used by other bodies and agencies in assessing the value lists attached to properties. Some bodies that may find it relevant include drainage boards, water bodies and electricity which assess the charges imposed on such commodities (Bahl, 1992).
Features of economic system to be implemented A developing nation willing to increase the savings of its citizens and the investments by the foreign investors ought to implement favorable economic systems that suit its objectives. In this case, some of the features of the economic system that I as an economic advisor would recommend for implementation include:
An economic system that facilitates decentralization and gives a basis for local autonomy
A system that ensures an economic use of the available land
An economic system that provides the base of revenue for a particular function authorities
A system that reduces property and land prices hence facilitating land access by the public
An economic system that can be applied to industrial, commercial and residential properties as well as buildings and agricultural land located in the rural areas (Hoff, 1991).
Conclusion In summary, Property tax is an annual tax on the real property. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. The land and buildings or just the land only are its major bases. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate. This paper has highlighted major roles of property tax as; the major source of local revenue, primary source, contributing to functions of other bodies and as a valuation list.
The paper has therefore described how the rate of saving of a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It has also highlighted the roles assigned to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Eventually, the paper has recommended the features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.
References Bahl, R. (1992). Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hoff, K. (1991). Introduction: Agricultural Taxation and Land Rights Systems. The World Bank Economic Review, 5(1): 85-91.
We will write a custom Essay on Roles of Property Tax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hyman, D. N. (2008). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (9th ed.). Mason OH: South-Western Publishing, Cengage
Review of Revenue Estimates in Federal, State, Agency and Local Budgets Essay custom essay help
Introduction Public budgeting can be defined as “the critical exercise of allocating revenues and borrowed funds so as to attain the economic and social goals of a given country” such as the United States (Chantrill, 2011). It also includes the management of public expenditures in a way that the most effective economic impact will be realized from the production and delivery of goods and services (Huddleston, 2005).
The budgeting process is vital in the sense that it allows governments, states and agencies to implement proper planning and management of financial resources. The prevailing economic condition often acts as a guide to help governments to prioritize and implement programs and policies that will work best for them.
The budgeting process entails four different stages or phases: budget preparation, budget authorization, budget execution and accountability. The United States and many other countries have an annual budgeting process.
Revenue estimation is an important component of the budgeting process for every government, state, local governments and agencies. This is important for ensuring that strategic planning is done to correctly pinpoint how much money should allocated to different programs. It’s also important in determining whether taxes are to be increased or decreased.
This paper seeks to review the revenue estimates in Federal, State and local Budgets. The review will include: Basic description of each budget- federal, state and local budgets; Identification of the differences and similarities between the budgets; identification of the areas that account for the most of the revenue in the different categories; determination of how the budget fits with the mission of each domain; and finally, recommendation of how the budget can be improved and revenue estimation be accurately accessed at each level.
Description of the different budget estimates Local government budget estimates
There are many local governments across the United States. These governments usually fall under the category of general purpose governments that offer several different public goods and services or special purpose governments that provide a specific good or service (Huddleston, 2005).
There are governments for cities, others for rural areas and some representing both cities and rural areas. In some states, municipal governments provide public education while in others pubic education is catered for by special purpose governments (Huddleston, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This diversity in local governments is also reflected in the public budgets as well. However, the underlying factor in all these budgets is raising and spending of public money (Chantrill, 2011).
Budgets of general purpose local governments are usually composed of three distinct parts that operate together: annual operating budget; capital budget; and the enterprise or utilities budget (The PEW Center of the States, 2011).
The annual operating budget outlines the anticipated spending that will be carried out by all agencies under the municipality in the coming year. For instance, this may include expenditure for public safety, planning and development, and social services among others (Huddleston, 2005). The annual operating budget also includes the revenues that the local government expects to receive in the course of the year, particularly the estimated amount of property tax revenue that will be levied in the course of the upcoming financial year.
The capital budget includes the forecasted expenditure on the required infrastructure projects that will be useful for a long time to come (Huddleston, 2005). Capital budgets are formulated following extensive planning process that indicates the precise spending that will be accrued on capital items in the coming year.
General purpose local governments usually identify public services whose beneficiaries can be established. Different local government enterprises finance themselves in the sense that annual revenues cover for the annual costs accrued (Huddleston, 2005).
State budgets estimates
Different states in the United States budget differently. The different budgeting systems reflect differences in the preferences and traditions that have been developed for more than 200 years (Chantrill, 2011).
There are differences in the authority wielded by the governor and the legislature, states relations to local governments, traditions of borrowing and many other aspects of the budgeting process (McNichol, Oliff,
Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Research Design In undertaking this research work, a descriptive research design will be implemented to provide explanation to the criminal trend observed among the young people. In this case, the research will aspire to provide answers to the questions arising from the observed trend in which young people are getting involved in criminal activities. In this regard, the research will try to give reasons to why young people engage in criminal activities.
To realize the intended objectives, the research design will employ various data collection methods which will enable the collection of reliable information for analysis. The descriptive research design will rely on interviews, questionnaire administration and surveys in getting information that is useful for the study (De Vaus, 2001).
Interviews will be conducted in the crime prone areas which will be identified after an analysis of data from criminal agencies in the United States. This will ensure that relevant information is easily gathered from the people who are most affected by the incidences of crime from the young members of the society.
Apart from the interviews, questionnaires will be distributed to a sample population to enable the gathering of more information related to crime committed by the young people. In addition, surveys will be conducted to shed more light on the aspect of crime among the young people. Therefore, this research will have to employ various tools of data collection including interviews, questionnaire and survey (De Vaus, 2001).
Data Analysis Procedures This study will rely on qualitative data analysis in synthesizing the findings of the study. It is worth noting that qualitative data analysis is critical when aspiring to answer the how and why questions (Nolan, 1994). This analysis does not involve statistics which is the case in quantitative analysis.
It has been established that qualitative research is used to study individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, value systems and aspirations among other social aspects (Lewis-Beck, 1995; Nolan, 1994). Since the focus of this study is to elaborate on the aspect of juvenile criminality, qualitative analysis can be identified as the most appropriate method to analyze the collected data in this study.
After data has been collected from the interviews, questionnaires and surveys, analysis of the data will begin. First of all, the data that will have been collected will be sorted out before being made available for analysis. The sorting will ensure that irrelevant data that may have been collected is eliminated in the course of analysis. This also enables the research to achieve its intended objectives (Hardy and Bryman, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results Descriptive Results
After a critical analysis of the data that was collected, it was found out that criminal behavior among the young people was affected by various aspects. First of all, it was revealed that high school dropout rate was closely related to criminal behavior among young people. In this case, most of the young people who did not complete high school education often engage in criminal activities to fend for themselves.
These individuals are not capable of securing decent employment as they do not have the necessary skills required for them to secure good employment. Given that these young people are locked out of the lucrative job market, they easily join the criminal gangs to make their ends meet. Such young people easily fall victims to peer pressure whereby they are attracted to the short-term benefits that accrue from criminal behavior (Rouček, 1970).
Peer pressure has been identified as one of the elements that lures the youths into committing crime. It has been established that delinquent behavior is prone to happen in a social setting. In such social settings social norms that enhance responsible behavior are usually broken.
In this case, most of the rules and regulations preventing individuals from engaging in criminal behavior lose significance. Members of the gangs often engage in criminal activities as a response to the traumatizing and destructive changes that are taking place in the society (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).
Poverty has also emerged as one of the main causes of criminal behavior among the youths. The gap between the haves and have-nots has continued to widen leading to what has been referred to as ‘the unwanted others.’
There has been the emergence of welfare systems to cater for the poor in the society, but this has not addressed the problem related to humble socio-economic status in the society and the ever-rising dependence of the low income earners on social security arrangements. This has led to the emergence of a ‘new poor’ class (Rouček, 1970).
It has reported that in neighborhoods which are home to moderate and low income earners, they are highly associated with criminal behavior. Here, the young people engage in criminal activity due to poor conditions in which they live.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can be argued that the main reason for taking part in criminal activities is to enable the young criminals to have something to eat since their economic condition is regarded to be pathetic. Engaging in criminal activities is seen as the easy way out for these young offenders in making ends meet (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011). As much as this can be despicable, it is the explanation that can be given to the findings of this undertaking.
Another aspect that was revealed is that child neglect and abuse can have an impact on the criminality of young people. From the statistics that were gathered from the criminal justice departments, it was revealed that most of the youths who engaged in criminal activities had a troubled past.
They were subjected to neglect and abuse by their families and care givers, and this pushed them into criminal activities. It is true that when children are growing, they need to be taken care of and nurtured to embrace the established societal norms (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).
Conclusion From the data and analysis provided, it can be established that juvenile delinquency and engagement in criminal activities is determined by various factors. The factors identified as key to the engagement of young people in criminal activities include high school dropout rate; poverty; and child abuse and neglect.
These aspects contribute to increased incidences of violent crimes among young people. Therefore, it can be asserted that addressing elements which have been associated with criminal activities among young people will play a vital role in curbing juvenile delinquency.
It is important to curb the rate of high school dropout to enable the young people gain necessary skills needed in the job market. Also, it is important to ensure that the issue of poverty should be addressed so as to accord the young people at least an average lifestyle. Lastly, the families and caregivers need to be taught about the importance of providing the young people with an appropriate environment for their growth. Child neglect and abuse should be avoided to enable the young people grow in a righteous manner.
References Burfeind, J. W. and Bartusch, D. J, 2011, Juvenile delinquency: an integrated approach, Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
De Vaus, D A, 2001, Research design in social research, London [u.a.]: SAGE.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hardy, M A and Bryman, A, 2009, Handbook of data analysis, London: SAGE.
Lewis-Beck, M S, 1995, Data analysis: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Nolan, B, 1994, Data analysis: an introduction, Cambridge; Oxford; Cambridge (MA): Polity Press.
Rouček, J. S, 1970, Juvenile delinquency, Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press.
Border Security of the United States Annotated Bibliography essay help site:edu
Definition The paper is about border security of the United States. The major concern is whether to have a secure border or to allow free movement of people, goods or services across the border of the United States. This border had been known as the longest undefended border in the world, but after the events of September 11, 2001, things changed.
The U.S government had to review its border laws and restrictions, which led to strict rules on its border. There has been increased time for security checks of shipment, thus increasing shipment costs for Canadian exporters. In addition to this, the US deadline for secure identity cards has affected trade and tourism.
The research shall be based on information from already documented information on U.S security. This includes books, journal articles, primary sources and online sources found in the World Wide Web.
This will provide information that other people have been able to gather about border security, which includes the actual figures of cost implications of border restrictions. The predetermined data of people movement across the border before and after border restrictions together with figures of economic implications shall be very important information for making conclusions.
The main objective is to determine whether the United States should allow a secure or free border to exist with the outside world for movement of goods, people and services, based on the events that took place in September 11, 2001 that killed many people.
Free border may lead to increased economic and social relationship between the United States, Canada and the rest of the hemisphere through unrestricted movement of goods, people and services across its boundaries. This will ultimately improve trade between United States and the rest of the world.
In 1990s, the Canadian- U.S border was known to be the longest secure border that existed until the terrorist attacks in September 11, 2001, due to good policies that existed between the two nations. After the terrorism attacks, the US customs and migration agencies increased security on trade and migration of people across their border.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The costs that come along with these restrictions have been known to have a great impact on both the US and the Canadian economy. This is in the form of taxes that amount to hundreds of millions of dollars that the citizens pay to put adequate security in the borders. US border scrutiny has discouraged potential investors and exports to the US due to time wastage that amounts to a loss of millions of dollars.
Another problem is the increase in shipment costs associated with the security provided during scrutiny. This is due to longer times that are taken during the process and security has to be provided. In 2004, 6.9 million trucks cross the US border from Canada with reported time delays of 32 minutes per shipment costing Canadian exporters an estimated $290 million. To avoid time wastage at borders, exporters have to be accredited in the US risk management programs which is expensive.
The other problem of the introduction of border scrutiny is imposition of passports or some other type of safe travel document. This is with the intent of identification of potential terrorists, but it has negative impacts. This passport is hard to obtain and also expensive, thus, hindering the movement of the people and trade between the US and other parts of the world.
Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.
Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.
The book talks about a wide range of problems facing U.S border security that arose after the September, 11 attacks. According to Warner, the large area that needs to be protected comprises “19,841 miles of land and water boundaries and 95,000 miles of shoreline and air of U.S” – Mexico border.
The number of migrants wanting to reach the U.S, a land of big opportunities, has been increasing with time and has resulted in large number of deaths. Between the years 1995-2008, the number of migrants reported to have died are 5,000 and an estimated number of 9,635 in 2009. Many Mexicans were killed in drug related violence.
We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Border Security of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book also focuses on border security before and after September 11, attacks. The security is said to have been intensified along the U.S. border after then to date. Warner also looks at “illegal migrations, counterterrorism, drug and weapon trafficking, human smuggling, the impact of border security on movement of people and goods and the effect of war on people and goods, and the effect of war on terrorism on civil and human rights”.
Journal articles Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.
Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.
Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.
This article by Boswell argues that political debate and practices in Europe have remained unaffected by the threat of terrorism, which was particularly high after the events of 9/11. The argument is raised to contradict the belief that the events of 9/11 led to increased security of migration control via the implementation of harsh migration policies.
The article expounds on the contents of the migration policies, indicating the various methods of keeping irregular immigrants via restrictions, deportation, detention and border control. The author also compares the security of the US border to that in Europe, and the tactics used to prevent terrorism.
Primary sources GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Border Security of the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.
GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.
Works Cited Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.
Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.
Crawley, Phillip. Legacy of 9/11: the world’s longest undefended border is now defended. 11 September 2011. Web.
GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.
GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.
GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.
Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.
Jo Cureton, Emily. A mission on the border ten years after 9/11. 8 September 2011. Web.
Kephart, Janice. Border Watchlisting a Decade After 9/11. 1 September 2011. Web. .
Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.
Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.
The Design and Limits of Company Website Report college essay help
Introduction Background of the study
Often, emerging businesses demands information flow and dimensional communication systems modeled in websites. Websites are an essential tool for marketing, purchase, recruitment, customer services, and communication.
Across the globe, small, median and large business organizations have embraced the essence of owning a website from which all its activities are centralized. From a website, depending on its design, it is possible for a potential customer, employee, and the general public to have a quick access of services offered by a company and even trade or purchase goods online without necessarily having to appear physically.
Purpose of the study
The design and limits of accompany website depend mainly on the cost of maintenance and design, relevance, and sustainability (Chaffey, 2009). In relation to this, analysis of websites will include tools laid down for support, governance, and paradigm shift as communication technology experience metamorphosis.
Website use depends on the magnitude of information processing, decision faculty, and collocation efficiency, especially in marketing, identity, recruitment, and departmental control (Chaffey, 2009). In retrospect, it is necessary to address interacting facets of information marketing management and efficiency in communication via use of a customized website.
This research treatise examines the various uses and design of company websites for orders, information, storefront, communication, job recruitment, and marketing. Besides, quantifiable website progress and interpretation for successful, efficient, and modern communication system management are addressed as constituents of organization management framework. In addition, the treatise aims at reviewing an efficient, successful, cost-effective and secure website system to ensure competitive service provision.
Overtime, companies are faced with the need to develop an all-round and comprehensive websites which are secure, reliable and relevant to their line of operation. In the process, there is need to align management goals vertically on the operating processors affordable in the value market chain.
Unfortunately, sometimes this is not the case, especially when vertical arrangement is erased by coalitions of competence and structural operations. To achieve the desired outcomes such as comprehensive information efficiency, security, and optimal information presentation, there is an immediate need to establish the most reliable website design for appropriate system administration and functionality within optimal Pareto efficiency.
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Often connected to a network system, examples of websites include simple and complex models depending on the quantity of information available in it. Thus, the hypothesis if this research study is to review design and appropriate use of business websites as a form of information sharing within business environment in the twenty-first century.
Literature Review Theoretical frameworks
According to Swart and Kinnie (2003), websites are essential in processing, retrieving, storing and distribution information about a company’s products, services, human resource, management systems and marketing for competitive existence and relevance (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). The main components of a business website include the company profile, announcements, online trade, blackboard, and information update buttons.
These buttons are designed in a way that can monitor and detect alterations. From a software control system, websites have security systems, operation programs, utility support, and management systems (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). Websites can be customized to perform information processing requirements within a security monitoring range. Website system facilitates information sharing and marketing.
Methodology Data Collection
Business managers often have sole responsibility of managing information systems and marketing. Every year, the management set goals and flexible development plans aimed at facilitating growth in formation sharing and advertising products offered in the company website. For efficient information sharing, it must be viable and fall within the brackets of Pareto efficiency bundles.
Website design is the focal point of its operation and inclusivity. By employing open-ended questionnaires in direct interviews, the research targets information managers of medium business companies. Due to the small sample size, this method suits the goal of this research.
The questions to ask revolves around information, communication, recruitment, advertisement, and storefront management as part of information available in a website. In addition, issues on reliability, efficiency, and security of this form of information sharing system are also asked.
After data collection, simple swot analysis inclusive of quantitative correlation analysis of responses given is included on the inference. The findings revealed that company websites are essential in sharing information, management, and advertisement as a mean for maintaining a competitive edge and relevancy in service provision.
We will write a custom Report on The Design and Limits of Company Website specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion and Analysis Explanations on relevance and use of company websites in information sharing clearly indicate a complete paradigm shift in marketing and information management. Websites have enabled customers to do their shopping online from order, request for delivery, to making payments. In the websites, recruitment has been made easier as potential employees can apply for vacant positions online. Moreover, customers are given an opportunity to air their compliment and complaints for services offered to them.
Besides, dissatisfied customer may type suggestions for future improvement in service provision. As companies make alterations t factor in the comments provided, differentiation and brand growth is likely to improve as communication enhances. As an advertising tool, websites offer opportunity to customers to purchase goods from the comfort of their homes and make the company have a competitive edge above other players
Conclusion and Recommendation As the social media grows, companies have embraced online marketing methodology in the form of social media websites where they can interact with clients and potential customers. Social medias are marketing tools that when well used can give a company a competitive advantage over its competitors.
References Chaffey, A. (2009) “Business Information Management”. Web.
Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Abstract The core objective of this research paper is to examine water scarcity and its effects to the environment. This research paper will lean towards a descriptive approach. Several causes of water scarcity will be reviewed in this research and subsequently suggest solutions to the problems will be discussed.
In conclusion, this research paper will make a number of recommendations to ensure significant strides are achieved in curbing water scarcity. Besides, after reviewing the recommendations applied, this paper will determine ways in which the research results can be dispersed. Introduction
Introduction This report will assess the increased demand for water resources as a result of its unavailability. Besides, the paper will also consider the solutions and recommendations for supplying water to all. Water is a valuable resource to humans and the world as a whole.
If water resources continue to diminish, the environment will continue to experience the struggle of surviving since the environment, and forests particularly depend on water resources. Huge industrial demand for water, increased populations and agricultural demands for water increase the scarcity of water. Australia, for instance, is estimated to maintain its domestic water needs rise to 70 percent in the near future. Water Scarcity
Water scarcity is a problem that is experienced all over the world. It is estimated that over a billion people are annually hit by water scarcity. The U.S. department of state puts a figure of 1.1 billion people who lack safe drinking water while 2.4 billion cannot access basic sanitation. Interestingly, “water scarcity also occurs in regions that contain freshwater and sufficient amounts rainfall” (Postel 85).
This is because sufficiency of water supply depends on water conservation methods, distribution channels available in the community and the quality of water as stated by Postel (192). Besides, meeting the demand for household water use, farms, industry and the environment requires substantial conservation methods and timely distribution methods. It is estimated that one out of every three people on each continent of the globe is affected by water scarcity.
As the world population grows the need for more water also increases. Besides, more urban cities are coming up, and urbanization increases the household and industrial consumption. 1.2 billion people across the globe live in areas where water is not present or is physically not available. This is a fifth of the world’s population.
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Fig. 1.2 (BBC NEWS)
As shown by the above figure, water scarcity is fast becoming a major challenge in developing countries where a quarter of the world population lives. This is due to “lack of proper technique of supplying water from sources such as rivers and aquifers to where it is needed most” (Berk 190). In places where water shortage is experienced, communities are forced to use unsafe drinking water for drinking and washing their clothes.
Unsafe drinking water increases the chances of water borne diseases such as dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever being transmitted to humans. Furthermore, “water scarcity can lead to other diseases including trachoma, which is an eye infection that leads to blindness, plague and typhus” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). When people are faced with water scarcity, they institute measures to store water in their home. These measures can include using water tanks or sinking wells.
This method leads to a breeding ground for mosquitoes – which are known carriers of malaria and dengue fever among others. In the face of all this problems associated with water scarcity, there arises a need to address the issue of water scarcity before it gets out of hand. Better water management policies ensure safety of the communities relying on the water as breeding grounds for insects are eliminated, hence a reduction in water borne diseases like the schistosomiasis which is a devastating illness.
According to Sherbinin (26) the shortage of water and agricultural production in poor urban settings utilizes waste water. More than 10% of the world’s population consumes foods that have been grown using waste water.
These irrigated foods can contain harmful chemicals or disease-causing organisms. It may almost seem ironical to note that the world has enough water for everyone. However, the problem that leads to water shortage is poor distribution. “Water scarcity is a natural occurrence in some areas. However, in others areas it is a man-made phenomenon” (Sherbinin 26).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the world is endowed with sufficient water resource to cater for approximately 6 billion people. According to Pereira and Lacovidae 302) scarcity has contributed to uneven distribution channels, wastage. This is because of poor harvest and utilization strategies. Poor methods of handling the water resource have led to water Pollution. Hence, this has created a big challenge that threatening the ecosystem and human population.
Types of Water Scarcity Physical Scarcity
Physical scarcity of water is prevalent across the world. As the name suggests, access to water sources is physically limited. This happens when the demand for water surpasses the land’s capacity to provide the much-needed water. This form of deficiency is primarily associated with the dry parts of the world, including arid regions of the globe as clearly illustrated by the figure below.
The northern part of Africa and some parts in Asia and Australia are the worst hit by this physical scarcity. However, we have some regions in the world which do not fall in the dry land category but have man-made physical scarcity. For instance, the Colorado River basin has been “over used causing physical water scarcity downstream” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). Thus, scarcity can also be attributed to over management of the river resources.
Below is Figure 1.3 showing water scarcity distribution around the globe (BBC NEWS)
The most problematic type of water scarcity is economic water scarcity. This happens when no concrete measures are taken to ensure water availability. This situation persists largely due to lack of good governance, and lack of good will to change the situation. Therefore, economic scarcity is demonstrating the lack of resources in terms of funds or monetary benefit to utilize available sources of water.
The sub-Saharan Africa falls under this model of economic water scarcity. Unequal water resource distribution is generally experienced in the Sub-Saharan due to several reasons. These reasons are tied to political and ethnic conflicts, which are a common occurrence in this part of the world.
As shown in Fig 1.2 much of sub-Saharan Africa falls under economic water scarcity. However, Odgaard explains that in the presence of good governance mechanisms, this situation is manageable (140). In most cases, access to clean and safe water can be as simple as constructing small dams for communities to harvest rain water. Besides, the principal objective should be to provide relief for the already suffering communities.
To ensure clean water is available to world population, water harvesting techniques should be developed. These need not be complicated as it may mean rain water collection from roof tops and construction of water storage tanks. Without question, this situation can be tackled with the construction effort from the local community, availability of funds and engineering.
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As highlighted earlier in this research paper, water shortage is a global concern that is affecting communities and the environment and threatens to affect many others if substantial measures are not taken to tackle the scarcity.
However, it is difficult to compare the struggle of an African woman walking long distances in search of fresh water with water scarcity as experienced in the United States. The Colorado River is beginning to run dry in some places; this sounds almost impossible considering the size of the river. Huge water bodies like Lake Mead found in Arizona may become obsolete.
These are some of the dramatic changes that are facing the United States with regard to water scarcity. With this realization, more and more people are starting to connect with situations in dry regions of the globe. More so, the effects of water mismanagement are starting to be felt. Research indicates that Lake Mead may run dry by the year 2012. This is a serious issue considering the lake currently supplies up to 22 million people with water.
Figure 1.4 shows Lake Mead’s receding water levels (KTAR).
This is proof enough that water scarcity is not just a problem of people who never had water but rather a problem for all. Demand for more water and problems associated with pollution is contributing factor to water shortages. The daily demand for water means that the availability of the same will be affected in the future. Many people may thirst in the future if the current trend of wasteful toilet flushes and showerheads are not minimized.
Key Causes of Water Scarcity
Water scarcity has been caused by increased demand. These demands can be categorized into five major contributors to water shortage. Firstly, industrial water consumption enhances their production has created a strain on water resources. Most industries require having sufficient water supplies in order to perform optimally and produce goods or services.
Besides, most mining and oil industries use water in their operations. Thus, water scarcity makes these industries to be more susceptible to water shortages. Secondly, agricultural water needs for farms where there is unreliable rainfall create a huge demand for water, thus exerting more pressure on the already strained water resources.
Fig. 1.5 (Links between population and fresh water)
As the world population grows, more demand for water is experienced as illustrated by fig 1.4. The world population recently hit 7 billion, and the figure could only mean that pressure to supply water for all is expected to rise. Consumer demand is closely linked to population growth as more and more households require water to maintain their households.
Economic growth is a positive step towards improving the lives of people in a given community, but calls for the need to supply resources to fuel it. One of it is water; hence as more economic growth is experienced more demand for water is created.
Suggested Solutions to Water Scarcity
Environmentalists maintain that immediate solutions have to be devised. Low cost solutions come in handy. In China for instance, farmers are already making use of these inexpensive water conservation methods with great results (FFTC). However, “low cost solutions, for example, creating still water conservation may harm the population downstream” (Berk 190). Therefore, it is important for the conservation efforts to involve everyone to provide an amicable solution for all.
Fig. 1.6 showing the global water usage (Umwelt Bundes Amt)
Conclusion In order to ensure water scarcity is effectively tackled, total commitment to set targets and solutions is required. Figure 1.5 clearly indicates that the demand for water is rising, and as a matter of urgency, conservation efforts will bear fruit if every one of us realizes that they have a role to play.
Constant assessment of the strategies governing water bodies and their utilization will ensure that positive progress is achieved. Though much effort has been focused on water conservation, its use and proper management should be emphasized as it will ensure clean water service delivery for us and generations to come. Moreover, focus on climate changes and environmental degradation should also be improved, and a positive environmental culture encouraged.
Works Cited BBC NEWS. Map Details, Global Water Stress. 2006. Web.
Berk, Richard. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought. Halifax: Abt Books, 1981. Print.
FFTC. Irrigation Management in Rice-Based Cropping Systems: Issues and Challenges in Southeast Asia.” 1998. Web.
KTAR. As Lake Meads Drops, Water Concerns Rise. 2010. Web.
Links between Population and Fresh Water. Population Growth and Water. 1996. Web.
Odgaard, Rie. Conflicts over land
Super Stamps and Products Inc. Case Study custom essay help
Cause and effect In the assessment of quality, there are various aspects that stand out. The management of quality has become a fundamental part of management. Through the assessment made on quality, mangers and leaders are able to deal effectively plan and strategize on the way forward. Some of the important names in the study of cause and effect and the assessment of quality include Dr. Walter Shewart and Dr. Edwards Deming.
These two names feature in the history of management and the early ways of conducting analysis. In regards to studying cause and effect, these names feature in a lot of references. Dr. Walter Shewart inspired Dr. Edwards in the analysis of quality and other aspects of business, and the two came up with some of the concepts that are applied to management today.
One of the aspects that stand out in the analysis of cause and effect is teamwork. It is one of the important elements in business that define the success. In the analysis, team work is assessed in regards to how the several parts of an organization function. Teamwork is concerned with the ways through which different people in an organization work together to ensure that the processes involved in production are conducted in an effective manner.
Another important aspect that is analyzed is the customer approval of the different manufacturing procedures. For instance, customer approval can be assessed through looking at the processes in production and the resultant outcome in regards to customer preference. The way through which the different departments come together to work on satisfying a customers request is one of the ways through which cause and effect is analyzed.
The supply chain management is important heading in regards to the analysis of cause and effect. Quality control management also posses as one of the important areas through which the cause and effect concept in business is analyzed.
In the analysis of quality control management and the supply chain, it is important to look employ cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, histograms, Pareto diagrams, scatter diagrams, run charts, and control charts. Cause and effect diagrams are important as they enable a tam to focus on the content of a problem as opposed to its history. Through this, team members are also able to evaluate their person interests from those of the team as a unit.
Through cause and effect diagrams, a team is able to use the collective knowledge for the betterment of the team and in achieving a common goal. A team applies this will always focus on the causes as opposed to the symptoms. A check sheet is important in understanding data. Through a check sheet, it becomes east to understand the data being presented in specific contexts. Different events and conditions that are of interest are made to come into agreement with the goals of a team or institution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, a check sheet helps in the formation of patterns through which assessment can be conducted. Histograms are important as they help in the interpretation of data that would have otherwise been hard to understand in tabular form. They also bring in variations, shapes and central data points during the course of analysis. This information is important in business as it is employed in the prediction of future events.
US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the modern world, the US has the capability of utilizing electromagnetic (EMF) devices to harass, terrorize and execute human life. There is an ongoing government funded research to strength the use of such weapons, which raises concerns of human rights and freedom. The project was set up in 1950s by the CIA to influence human cognition, feeling and conduct.
By applying psychological understanding of individuals as social animal, the government of US has been funding studies aiming at controlling human behavior in the best ways possible. Human behavior can be maneuvered through segregation, drugs and hypnosis. The government has been funding researches such as application of wireless controlled electromagnetic energy. Such strategies are termed as information fighting and Non-lethal armaments.
The new technology aims at manipulating human feelings, interrupting thought and presenting agonizing twinge using magnetic fields. The government therefore has at its disposal some of the dangerous weapons that have already been used in suppressing human life. The weapons are usually used in quelling violence that could cause mass destruction, as well as lose life and property.
The issue of human rights is an all-inclusive concept that every person in society must be granted. The use of such weapons violates the rights of some individuals because other means of solving conflicts in society exist. By signing the Military Commission Act of 2006, the US government through the congress aimed at denying people their rights and freedoms.
The 2006 Act elucidates that the state has the authority and power to utilize electromagnetic weapons in torturing an individual perceived by the president to be a terrorist or associated with terrorism. The provision actually violates the constitutional right of an individual provided in the independence constitution. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the policy by looking at its strengths and weaknesses. The paper finally evaluates the rationale behind the use of the new technology in the US.
Human Rights Individual rights are usually incompatible with state sovereignty but the constitution at independence identified that some rights are innate in an individual and that they could not be separated from an individual. Such rights include the right to liberty, life and the right to pursue pleasure.
The state should therefore strive to offer these rights without compromise. In 1948, the United Nations declared the universal rights contained in chapter ten and five. The US government endorsed the rights and further incorporated them into the national laws. The charter provides that human beings have inherent rights that should always be given without concession. Such rights include various fundamental freedoms, justice and worldwide tranquility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws have been in operation for over six decades meaning that the US should respect them or consider them whenever designing national laws. Article ten of the UN constitution on human rights asserts that each individual is entitled to full egalitarianism and reasonable public trial by a sovereign and unbiased court in the deliberation of his/her rights and duties (Ignatieff 34).
Furthermore, article five proscribes torment or unkind, brutal or humiliating treatment or castigation. The 2006 Military Commissions Act goes against all these provisions. The US government allowed the passage of the bill meaning that individual liberty and freedoms are no longer recognized in the state.
On the other hand, the Universal Declaration of Human rights continue to assert that each individual has the right to freedom of thinking and freedom of expression, as well as attitude. This implies that each person has the right of giving his or her views voluntarily that is, without intimidation or being forced.
The introduction and application of EMF weapons endangers this fundamental right. Freedom of thinking or cognitive independence is the natural right of each individual. This implies that an individual should perceive the world in his/her best understanding that is, without external interruption or influence. Each person has his/her own way of reasoning. We all have different orientations and perceptions to the world. The use of EMF weapons is a threat to human life and freedoms according to human rights groups.
Use of EMF in extracting information from an individual is egregious human rights felony. Forceful extraction of information is illegal and in most cases inaccurate. An individual may be forced to give false information just because he/she is in pain. Such information is not useful at all because it does not have any theoretical grounding. Voluntary data is usually accurate and more applicable because it is usually ordered in a logical way.
Human rights activists argue that EMF weapons are not used to fulfill the interests of Americans. Military elites set out to dominate the world after the Second World War without considering the interests and wishes of the majority in the state. The new technology is used to safeguard the interests of the ruling elites in many ways.
Demonstrating workers and other aggrieved parties in the labor market are usually subjected to unnecessary torture only to satisfy the bourgeoisie (Landman 89). Those suspected to have engaged in property crime are also taken through pain in order to make them agree with the rules and regulations set by the ruling class. Furthermore, the activists continue to observe that victims of torture are people from particular races and social classes.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bill serves to deny some people their right to equality. Individuals from the Middle East have no peace in the US because their movements are trailed always. They are usually suspected to be having hidden agendas, which exposes them to torture and unfair treatment. The state must come up with a different way or technique of identifying criminals instead of relying on cultural background of individuals.
State Sovereignty As noted earlier, state sovereignty is incompatible with individual sovereignty. The interests of the state are superior to the desires and wishes of an individual because the state aims at fulfilling the public good. In this way, use of EMF weapons is justified and allowed because of state security and the nature of the international system.
Terrorism and the rise of fundamentalism call for extra ordinary measures in case the state is to maintain its sovereignty (Paleri 115). The existence of the law frustrates the activities of extremist groups because relevant information is easily obtained through torture. All through history, there are times that the only language a man understands is violence. The use of brutal techniques in solving conflicts is valid due to the intrinsic nature of a human being. Man is inherently brutal, anarchic and self-centered.
The existence of the central authority serves to control the individual self-interests. Such interests are always controversial and may pose a threat to life. As noted by early scholars, the society was on fire implying that life was short lived and indecent before the invention of the state. This forced individuals to sign a contract that would guarantee peace and harmony. The contract gave powers to one central authority, referred to as the state.
The central authority or Leviathan as Hobbes could document, would have powers to exercise authority over individuals. Individuals on their part surrendered power to the Leviathan mainly to achieve greatness (Haftendorn 519). The state has a prime role of protecting the interests of the society because it is the custodian of the public welfare.
Therefore, the state is authorized to use techniques such as trickery, negotiation, murder and any other available method, whether good or bad to maintain peace. It is not surprising for the state to use EMF weapons to execute its duties. In other words, it means that the Leviathan cannot share its powers with any other entity in society. Furthermore, it has powers granted to it by the majority to control life and property
Conclusion The use of EMF weapons is justifiable and the state should come up with ways of strengthening its application. The existing international system is anarchic and tension full implying that the state must explore all possibilities and arrive at the best solution.
This would require neglecting individual sovereignty because it is incompatible with state sovereignty in real practice. It is also established that man is intrinsically brutal and full of conflicts hence application of one technique in extracting important information from him would not function.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The state would lose its hegemonic powers in the international system in case human rights considerations are taken seriously. Treating criminals or suspects softly would comprise state security meaning that force is the only viable technique. Strategists in the military borrow from psychology the idea that pain forces the brain to expose everything in it. Overall, much needs to be done to improve the use of EMF weapons in maintaining state security.
Works Cited Haftendorn, Helga. “The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security”. International Studies Quarterly, 35.1, 1991.
Ignatieff, Michael. Human rights as politics and idolatry. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Landman, Todd. Studying Human Rights. London: Routledge, 2006.
Paleri, Prabhakaran. National Security: Imperatives and Challenges. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
The Importance of Human Skills Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The examples illustrating the significance of human skills
Theoretical aspects of human skills
Introduction Human or interpersonal skills are believed to be essential for every effective manager or leader. This component has been discussed by many scholars and researchers. This paper will illustrate the importance of human skills by discussing the examples of successful leaders and managers such as Charlie Bell. In part, this discussion will be based on the ideas of Robert Katz (1955) who identified and examined the attributes of good administrator and executives.
It is also necessary to compare his views with more modern theories of leadership and management. This analysis will enable us to better see the role of human skills in everyday management. Moreover, this discussion will also identify some of important and unresolved questions related to the development of interpersonal competencies of those people who want to make a managerial career.
The examples illustrating the significance of human skills There are several cases which can demonstrate the significance of interpersonal skills. One of such examples is Charlie Bell, the former CEO of McDonald’s Corporation. He began to work in this company at the age of 15 as a regular employee.
In later years, he made a brilliant career in this organization ultimately becoming the chief executive officer of this international corporation. In part, his successes can be explained by the fact that he always worked on his managerial skills. For example, his attentiveness toward employees and excellent memory for faces earned him support of many people in McDonald’s (Robbins et al 2009, p. 16).
It should be borne in mind that in the course of his career Charlie Bell worked in a variety of different teams and he always managed to cooperate effectively with every member of the staff (Boje 2008, p. 136). These qualities enabled him to revitalize this corporation and increase its market share. On the whole, Charlie Bell’s successes can attributed to perseverance, willingness to work in a team, and ability to pass his enthusiasm on other people. His example substantiates many theories of leadership and management.
For instance, one remember Katz’s model of managerial qualities, and particularly his idea that human skills are vital for business administrators.
The case of Charlie Bell is worth attention because it shows that human skills are important for people who work at different levels of managerial hierarchy. He began to work in McDonalds as a crew member and he occupied virtually every position that exists in this corporation (Boje 2008, p. 136). During every stage of his career he was known as a reliable team player, excellent communicator, and motivator.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is possible to cite other cases which prove that excellent human skills are among the attributes of a highly effective manager. Once can certainly mention Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric. Despite the fact that he has often been criticized for his brutality and extremely high performance standards standards, Jack Welch is more famous for his openness to the employees, ability to motivate every member of the staff, and attentiveness to the opinions of his colleagues (Rowe
Nigeria’s Economic Crisis Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction Nigeria has a dual economy and, its population relies on earnings from the energy sector followed by the agricultural sector. In 1960, agriculture became the country’s main source of revenue accounting for nearly half of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
The emergence of oil and other petroleum products has increased the country’s foreign exchange earnings hence the increased revenues. Nigeria is endowed with large quantities of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable. For instance, it is endowed with oil and natural gas reserves with crude oil being estimated at around 35 billion barrels. The country, however, cannot meet the needs of its large population and this is an extraordinary macro-economic phenomenon.
The country’s economic growth is unpredictable and it now depends on imported food though it was once a net exporter. This is quite surprising keeping in mind that Nigeria is rich in natural resources especially energy and is the sixth largest producer of crude oil internationally (Ekpo, 2008). This paper will discuss the causes of Nigeria’s economic crisis, its effects and finally, how the phenomenon can be changed.
Discussion Causes of Nigeria’s Economic Crisis
Consumers, producers, and efficiency of the market
The decline in Nigeria’s economic growth can be attributed to market shortages of its petroleum products especially Kerosene and diesel. The weak political demands exerted by the poor kerosene and diesel customers and the limitations on public financing of imports is what has led to the market shortages. The country has five government owned oil refineries, which are capable of producing about 500 barrels of oil every day. The high oil production capacity with no adequate markets has made the country’s government to get involved in importing large volumes of food to remedy the shortages involved.
Supply and Demand
Nigeria’s economic crisis can be attributed to the interaction of demand and supply in the market. The citizens are over reliant on self-generated electrical energy despite the fact that the nation is rich in energy resources. The country’s electricity market, which on the supply side is controlled by National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), is incapable of providing acceptable electricity standards, which are both reliable and accessible. The poor record in electricity supply has led to high losses hence the nation’s economic crisis.
Price fluctuations in the global oil industry and poor macro- economic organization especially the country’s failure to expand its economy are other key contributors to its economic problems.
The diversity of economic and non-economic goals without proper recognition of tradeoffs has also resulted to the crisis. This is seen in its pricing strategies in the global market. Institutional and administrative failures, which have led to production inefficiencies and increased operating costs, have led to the extraordinary macroeconomic phenomena in Nigeria (Oluyemisi, 2010).
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The constant disequilibrium in the country’s market for petroleum products has negatively affected the living standards of the citizens. Poverty levels have increased with majority of people in the country living on not more than $2 in a day.
Nigeria’s economic crisis has greatly deteriorated its industrialization process and this has significantly decreased its effort to achieve a stabilized economy. Competitiveness of the countries local industries in both regional and international markets has been reduced and many citizens are now unemployed (Iyoha
Statistical Finding on Movie Theater ads Effectiveness Report essay help free: essay help free
Being the owner of a small business, it is important to make a wise and an informed decision on the way to advertise your business. A decision has to be made regarding promoting the business through Movie Theater. To arrive at a rational decision, research has to be conducted on how effective ads using Movie Theater are, in reaching the potential customers.
Research shows that cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 3D technology has created awareness on movie going audiences from the young to the old, owing to its flexibility. Many have been overwhelmed by the technology and get information on new products through advertisements in the movies. 3D commercials have also promoted advertising. Avatar and Monsters vs. Aliens have really transformed the advertising company.
They have been known to promote Samsung’s 3D television sets. “The young man is shown taking a 3D experience home by cutting a cube of action through a screen thus, replicating the experience of her family’s home television” (Knight 1). This has promoted Samsung televisions on many people are purchasing it.
Cinema advertising recorded a growth of 5.8% in 2007, from $539.9 million to $571.4 million. “In 2008 a lot of money, over 90% was spent on on-screen advertising than anywhere else in the theater” (Knight 1). This escalation was attained due to improved technology, which allowed the advertisers to effortlessly update creativity digitally. This made digital advertising very suitable for marketing national brands.
Consumers, who are definitely the buyers of advertised products, like movies and go to cinemas in large numbers because going to cinema is a popular trend. This is a perfect moment to introduce various brands of goods in the market to consumers. The study based on about 2600 consumers showed that moviegoers remembered 60% or more of the cinema ads after leaving, with increased desire to buy; as much as 20% or more (Knight 1).
The young like movie ads compared to television ads. This is supported by the fact that the number one leisure activity for the youths is movies. 62% of those in the age bracket of 18 to 24 years, 58% of those in 25-34 years and 39% of those in 45-54 years preferred cinema ads (Knight 1). Many like movie theater ads compared to internet ads. Sixty-six percent of those interviewed preferred cinema ads compared to 49 percent who were okay with online ads were acceptable.
In media, movies have higher emotional rating (41.5%) than watching other major television programs such as the “Super Bowl (39.7%), Summer Olympics (26.3%), World Series (22.8%) and Oscars (16.1%)” (Fuchs 1). Surveys show that consumers who are emotionally fond of specific brands had similar feelings regarding the experience they get from watching movies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “About 45% of the customers who buy health and beauty products and 44% of those who buy packaged goods are emotionally attached to movies as compared with 30% and 29% for television, 21.1% and 21.1% for radio, and 21.2% and 18.9% for magazines” (Fuchs 1).
This shows the strength and impact of Movie Theater advertising Cinema advertising has also gained public interest owing to its improved quality. The public have been captured by the movie theaters because of good quality of movies, as well as their wide range. When a great creative product is being launched, it is done in cinema. About 70% of ads today are new creative that are used far from us.
Multiplexes increase people turn out in the movie theaters. Bars and restaurants in places where multiplexes are have made movies a place to get entertained in the evening. People therefore, get movie ads that have been considered more memorable than television advertisements. People get to remember the movie ads the same way they remember certain scenes of the movie (Fuchs 1).
Works Cited Fuchs, Andreas. Stronger attachments: Cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 12 May 2010. Web.
Knight, Kristina. Big-Screen ads engage consumer emotions. 22 April 2010. Web. .
Classic Studies in Psychology Case Study college essay help online
Introduction Stanley Milgram has developed a historic psychological study method to analyze human behavior under authority in a systematic and sequential manner. This piece of work has followed a scientific analysis to develop an acceptable and useful classical work. He has adopted well-devised data collection methods, analytical methods and presentation modes. The technique has enabled his work to remain memorable since its application continues in various fields of human life.
Key Terms Destructive Obedience
This is the process of ordering a naive to administer an increasingly more severe punishment to a victim in the context of learning experiment (Milgram 373). Milgram uses “a shock generator, thirty graded switches ranging from slight shock to a more dangerous one” (Milgram 373). Behavioral study of obedience is one that experiments a person’s yield to power beyond his/her capacity, especially, on the authority.
Personnel and Locale
The experiment was conducted at Yale University in an elegant interaction laboratory (Milgram 375). This study was carried out at this location. On this study, the situation was in the Yale university elegant laboratory. It is vital for researchers to give details of their experiments, such as places and time of the experiment. This is important for the analysis and evaluation of the experiment results (Milgram 375).
The primary dependent measure for any subject is the maximum shock one administers before he/she refuses to go any further (Milgram 375). In principle, “this may vary from zero to thirty, that is, for a subject who refuses to administer any shock and, for a subject who administers the highest shock in generator” (Milgram 375).
Dependent measures are the extremes, which are achieved from any subject of the experiment. This varies from one individual to another since some can tolerate the minimum quantity while others take the highest quantities.
At various points of the experiment, the subject may turn to the experimenter for advice on whether he/she should continue to administer the shocks, or he/she may indicate that he/she might not whish to continue (Milgram 372). Notably, feed back is the position or view on the subject and the administration of the experiment.
Signs of Extreme Tension 97
Often, the subjects show “some signs of nervousness during the experiments, especially when administering very powerful shocks” (Milgram 377). In any form of experiment, the subjects might be in situations beyond their control. For the experimenter to note this, there are some specific signs, which they observe before responding appropriately.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the experimenter must be able to identify these signs using the physical changes which take place on the subject. They need to carry out a quick response to manage the situation. The signs might include drowsiness, unconsciousness and withdrawal signs. These are referred to as the signs of extreme tensions in the experiment.
Milgram’s experiment shows the influence of social factors on an individual and generally the people in the society. From his experiment, the influence of social links and pressures on one’s behavior can be clearly drawn. Factors such revelation of true characters, frankness and openness of an individual are some of the most affected by these links. Milgram’s work tries to explain the impact of rule and power in any given society. In addition, this can applied in governance (Milgram 377).
He uses procedural scientific methods of collecting data, tabulating, synthesis and evaluation to come up with the results. The mode applied by Milgram gives classical analysis and ability to create understanding among people. The method taken by Milgram is easy to understand and integrate in learning process (Milgram 374).
The article is a procedural mode of carrying out destructive obedience by Stanley Milgram in a laboratory. Milgram took S naïve as the administrator of this experiment. He carried out his experiment with a shock generator for the study purpose.
The generator was structured with thirty controllable switches, ranging from the lowest with zero voltage to the highest at thirty voltages. He chose the experimental victim, referred to as E confidante. Milgram came up with both the dependent and independent variables for the quantitative analysis of his work (Milgram 372).
He applied observation as well as feed back methods to check on the response of the subject, at varying degree of voltage. He noted the subject’s behaviour from the time of strapping to the time of release. The aim was to see the effect of power on an individual’s psychology.
This happened because subject was helpless, after he got strapped. Milgram intended to bring out vulnerability state, when one is overpowered. He wanted to bring out the effect of conformity as well as obedient in civilization. The relationship between them could then be seen to vary at a close range (Milgram 376).
We will write a custom Case Study on Classic Studies in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relevancy of the Article
Milgram’s article relates to the class studies since it employs several psychological concepts to come up with the findings. Milgram develops a social cognitive by studying his subject’s behaviour in different situations. He applies a research that analyses every aspect of the behavior.
Precisely, he developed quantitative measurement criteria after collecting his data. He came up with a score table for each measurement taken. This is to reduce the chances of observation biasness. Finally, Milgram notes all the possible assumptions in his methodologies and the corrective measures (Milgram 378).
The work of milligram has historically drawn attention in various fields of government. It also captures personal identity under social pressures. This study can be used to evaluate why people in a society behave in a given manner towards the authorities. In addition, Milgram’s work psychologically brings out the concepts of civilization and democracy in a society. This work has been applied by various researchers in studying human behaviours in different settings to the authority (Milgram 375).
It is through this experiment that many researchers have drawn conclusion on the psychology of inmates as well as students and strict rules. The study and its evaluation measures have become vital in some governments, especially, to draw expected outcomes in political environments. Explanations on riots and civil wars have been drawn from Milgram’s experiment. His work has also been used to show the impact of freedom to people in various social life situations.
Education, scientific and innovation fields have benefited a lot from this study since it is used in creating an enabling environment for these aspects to develop fully. In fact, many managers and business proprietors owe a lot of their success to Milgram’s work. However, Milgram’s work is not free from critics since some researchers claim that people react differently according to several underlying factors. Thus, varied results are expected from different people (Milgram 378).
Conclusion Psychology has contributed greatly to the development of many societies. The success in various fields is mainly attributed to great researchers who conduct most of their studies to improve human lifestyle. Among the contributors is Stanley Milgram who has devised a cognitive behaviour study of people under the influence of power. The researcher uses critical analytical aspects to draw his conclusions that has found wide acceptance despite some critics.
Work Cited Milgram, Stanley. “Behavioral Study of Obedience.” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 67.4 (1963): 371-378. Print.
Similarities and Differences between Democracy and Dictatorship Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Description of democracy and dictatorship
Similarities between democracy and dictatorship
Differences between democracy and dictatorship
Introduction The world is home to diverse systems of governance. Different countries are governed differently due to a variety of reasons, mostly depending on their geographical location, political affiliations, and religious background to a lesser extent. Democracy is the most favored system of governance while dictatorship is loathed by many. This paper seeks to compare and contrast democracy and dictatorship as systems of governance.
Description of democracy and dictatorship Democracy is often described as a form of “governance in which all the adult citizens of a given country have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives” (Diamond and Marc 168). This implies that the citizens have a way of participating in the formation of the rules and laws by which they are governed.
Democratic principles may encompass cultural, economic and other social practices that encourage free and fair competition, particularly in the political arena (Diamond and Marc 168). On the other hand, dictatorship can be defined as a form of government that is controlled by an individual or a small collection of individuals. Power is concentrated around the individual or the small group of people and is often obtained through force or inheritance (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 15).
Similarities between democracy and dictatorship There are very few similarities between democracy and dictatorship. Both can be identified as forms of governance. Democratic and dictatorial regimes both vest their authority in one person or a few individuals. Both types of government can be effective or infective depending on several factors that may involve the particular individual holding the executive authority. A dictatorship is generally a poor form or governance.
However, democracy can also be weak if it’s often locked in disagreements. It’s usually believed that there are no true democracies as most of them typically carry some aspects of dictatorship. Both systems are designed to effectively control the people only that in democracies people think that the ruling elite has their consent to rule (Diamond and Marc 168).
Differences between democracy and dictatorship Democracy and dictatorship differ in many ways. The differences mainly pertain to the concept of governance and the methodology applied (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 132). A dictator exercises absolute power and often formulates laws that are meant to suppress competition. On the other hand, the choice to create the rules of governance and other regulations is usually made by the people.
In democracies, people are given a chance to choose what works best for them. Decisions are arrived at through a consultative process where everyone is allowed to provide his/her views. In a dictatorship, an individual or a small group of influential persons make choices on behalf of the people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws that govern the rights of people and the economy are framed for the people in a dictatorship (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 57). On the hand, democracies give people the power to make laws.
The freedoms and rights of citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are often curtailed in dictatorial systems of governance. People are often not allowed to say what they think is right for them. In democracies, citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are usually free to initiate any meaningful change.
Conclusion This paper sought to identify the similarities and differences between democracy and dictatorship. Both have been identified as systems of governance which have very few similarities unless the principles of democracy are compromised to bring in some elements of dictatorship. However, the two are different in several ways that mainly relate to the rights and freedoms of citizens and the concentration of power.
Works Cited Bueno, Mesquita, Smith Alastair and James Morrow. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
Diamond, Larry and Plattner Marc. Electoral Systems and Democracy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006.
Rootlessness in the American Society Essay online essay help: online essay help
Several factors explain the movement of the American society away from the quintessential nature. Such factors as industrialization, changing views of the family and technology have influenced the changes (Kilborn 1). Thus, the American culture, as reflected in the middle class is taking a negative direction.
The spread of global industry has played a significant role in altering the family set-up. Industry has different aspects. Traffic, an industry aspect, contributes to the inability of people to move around. Ms. Link who claims that choking in traffic does not ease things regarding movement reflects this in the assertion.
Job requirements have forced people to adjust their lives. The rookie “relo” asserts that she moved to Alpharetta in order to help her husband get his career on track. Jobs force people to move from one place to another. Consequently, buying permanent homes is unnecessary.
This contributes to rootlessness as people do not find the need to establish close ties with their neighbors. Moving around leaves one vulnerable in regards to the lifestyle. This view holds since one needs to adjust his/her lifestyle in order to fit in the place he/she moves to when transferring from one workstation to another. As the article establishes, people from the upper middle class are trooping across the country away from the working class. Ms. Link and her husband, Jim, belong to this category (Kilborn 1-7).
The “relos” enjoy economic freedom, as their midcareer salaries are reasonably high. As such, most of these people find the jobs rewarding although they complain about anomie and stress.
This emerges based on the idea that they trade homes for jobs anywhere. In addition, “relo” families face various anxieties such as unknown future movements as they cannot establish any meaningful ties with their neighbors. This is contrasting to traditional societies where family relations were held highly. In this case, the place of roots seems to be at cross roads.
The worst thing that relates to work, as the family of Jim reflects, lies in the absence of family members from home. The young ones go to school while parents go to work. Running such a difficult itinerary implies that there is inadequate time to socialize and establish close family ties (Kilborn 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry has also led to the segregation of the society. This is achieved through the grouping of workers based on salaries earned. The high-income and low-income earners belong to different classes. The fact that only the upper class lives the normal American life leads to a disturbing realization that the American dream is dead.
The view held by Mr. Martineau reflects how industry forces the society to discard societal values. Mr. Martineau seems content that he owns property and a luxurious car. Apparently, the car and other property are status symbols. Classes have two main elements, inclusiveness and exclusiveness.
While the latter is a positive attribute, it is evident that exclusivity is undesirable as it alienates some people. Finally, the idea of demolishing village cobblestone streets and erecting sterile superblocks shows how the American society denies the poor people the opportunity to lead normal family lives (Powell 1).
Based on this essay, it is clear that the American society is drifting away from the elements of a quintessential society. Although various factors account for this occurrence, it is discernable that the American society is headed in the wrong direction. This view is held in regards to the statement that the emerging nature of society does not allow for family closeness.
Works Cited Kilborn, Peter T. ”The Five Bedroom, Six Figure Rootless Life”. The New York Times, 13 Sept. 2005. Web.
Powell, Michael. ”A Contrarian’s Lament in a Blitz of Gentrification”. The New York Times, 20 May 2010. Web.
Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo Term Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men
Role of Women in the Igbo society
Introduction In Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo is a wrestling champion who also acts as a leader in Umuofia, a village occupied by the Igbo ethnic entity. He is portrayed as a servant of the tribal dictates who is ready to do everything, even to kill, for the sake of his tribe, its laws, customs and traditions. The book focuses on how Okonkwo treats his children and three wives and how the Christian missionaries impact on the Igbo ethnic community in the late 19th century.
Okonkwo is not a reckless man who cannot show any weakness or reveal his true feelings. He is revered in the entire village for his courage and power. This prompts the village elders to put Ikemefuna, a boy taken as a prisoner for purposes of peace settlement, into his custody. Ikemefuna’s father, who hails from another village, has killed an Umuofian, that is why Ikemefuna is to be given away to the people of Umuofia to make peace between the two tribes.
Ikemefuna grows in Okonkwo’s household, and Okonkwo becomes very fond of him (Achebe, pp. 28). However, when the oracle instructs that Ikemefuna is to be killed, Okonkwo severs his head with a machete even despite the fact that he is warned by the elder that he did not need to deal with this case, the murder of the boy, because it could be hard for him as he should consider Ikemefuna as his son.
Okonkwo does not pay attention to this permission because he thinks that it could make him feminine and weak. Things begin to ‘fall apart’ for Okonkwo after the murder of Ikemefuna when he is exiled for seven years for accidental killing of a man when his gun explodes.
While Okonkwo is in exile, European colonizers come to Umuofia and try to convert the villagers to Christianity. Soon, a new government is introduced. Achebe’s literary work espouses many cultural issues about Igbo’s way of life that are raised in the late 19th century. This essay seeks to highlight the cultural peculiarities that Achebe exhibits carefully in the book.
A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men Many pundits consider the Igbo a patriarchal society because men literally dominate every aspect of the tribal life. Achebe particularly wrote Things Fall Apart to counter Joyce Carry’s Mister Johnson that tried to portray the Africans as people without motives, forethought, and knowledge on other issues apart from environments where they live.
The colonialists have a perception that the African population are uncontrollable, chaotic, unattainable, and evil. Achebe wants to prove the incorrectness of such an image by portraying the Igbo as an ethnic group with definitive and intricate social systems, values, and traditions (Carry, pp. 1). Achebe depicts the Igbo, or better to say, the Umuofians, as an ancient civilization when he reveals some forms of governance and law that exist in that society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okonkwo is shown as a traditional hero who would do anything to achieve his goals. He contributes to his own downfall, thus the white men cannot be blamed. While he is in exile, the Whites’ religion and rule are introduced.
This literary piece is written in English, the language of the white men who came to colonize Umuofia. However, this does not deter Achebe’s work from being authentically African. Achebe expresses his African experience in English while still preserving African authenticity. The actions of the characters in the book represent a culture that undergoes a slow transition.
Cultural practices that can be only perceived to be awful to the foreigners are ordinarily accepted within. This is exemplified when members of the Igbo community, especially women, seek for refuge in a Christian church for being accused in having multiple births and giving birth to albinos. In the Igbo cultural setting, those females are to be punished. Fearing for harsh consequences, they hide within the Christian church premises (Obiechina, pp. 57).
Role of Women in the Igbo society Ekwefi, Okonkwo’s second wife, is a character used by Achebe to portray the role of women in the society where this novel is set. Through her, it is shown that women should be only child bearers and helpmates for their husbands. Women are to produce many male children.
In fact, Ekwefi is considered to be cursed because out of the ten births she gave, only one daughter managed to survive. Ekwefi is a very bitter woman because of the loss many children. As a result, she has hard feelings that oppress her because being Okonkwo’s first wife, she cannot bear a male child.
This implies that Ekwefi cannot be a part of the Okonkwo family lineage because she has not given birth to male children. Menfolk are the reference point of this culture while the womenfolk’s role is reduced to ensuring the survival of tradition. Because Okonkwo is afraid of the survival of his family tree when Ekwefi loses her second child, he takes it upon himself to go and consult Dibia, Dibia is believed to have powers to tell the source about Ekwefi’s misfortunes.
When Ekwefi loses her third child, Okonkwo decides to consult another Dibia because of the frustrations arising from the fact that there will be no one to be the head of the family after his demise (Palmer, pp. 40). He blames Ekwefi for this because it is the women who are supposed to provide their husbands with male progenies too carry on the family name, and specifically the father’s name.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ekwefi has to endure the pain of losing her child as well as watch helplessly as the Dibia mutilates her child, drags him through the streets by his ankles, and finally buries him in the evil forest where obanje children and other outcasts are laid to rest (Palmer, pp. 41). No one bothers to console Ekwefi after all this traumatizing ordeals. Because of cultural intuition, Okonkwo believes that Dibias have the solutions to all the problems that he has.
The Igbo have a tradition of wife beating exemplified by the suffering of Ekwefi who has to endure Okonkwo’s manhandling. When a banana tree is killed, Okonkwo beats his wife, and she makes no complaints regarding this treatment. Later, the attention of the reader is drawn to an instance when Okonkwo threatens his wife with a gun after hearing her murmur under her breath.
Everybody else is quiet about this heinous act (Culler, pp. 45). This is a culture where women are supposed to be submissive and do not show any sign of rebellion. Indeed, Ekwefi has an undying love for Okonkwo because she even left her former husband to be with him. However, the reward she receives for her loyalty to her husband is regular beatings.
The fact that Okonkwo believes that wives are to be beaten is not limited to Ekwefi. This also applies to his youngest wife, Ojiugo, whom he constantly flogs. There is a public outcry not because of what Okonkwo does to her, but because he breaches the dictates of The Week for Peace, which is considered a great evil according to the Igbo.
The Igbo men are portrayed to be only concerned with preserving the patriarchy as opposed to protecting the physical safety of the women. Elders are not particularly concerned about Ojiugo’s woes and are assertive that this is her own fault. The other wives cannot condemn Okonkwo for the flogging that Ojiugo goes through. Ekwefi is beaten one week after the Week of Peace, and this does not raise any concern because to them, this is normal.
The women, especially Ekwefi, is disturbed about the fate that belies the woman who decides that the winner of the next wrestling duel will be her man (Palmer, pp. 42). Okonkwo’s inhuman treatment of his wives, especially Ojiugo, does not even bother the gods of the tribe who only reprimand him to pay a compensation for breaching the requirements of the Week of Peace by battering his wife Ojiugo.
Okonkwo loves his daughter Enzinma, but he is saddened by the fact that she is just a girl. Okonkwo reckons that he would be happier if Enzinma were a boy. This treatment points out a low position held by females extending to the rest of the womenfolk in Umuofia.
Okonkwo’s treatment of his wives and male children are a representation of how the Umuofians treat their female children. However, all this must be stressed that such a treatment of females forms a part of the culture of the Igbo since everyone, including the females themselves, rarely complains for the current way of life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor, 1994. Print.
Carry, Joyce. Mister Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989. Print.
Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Print.
Obiechina, Emmanuel N. Language and Theme: Essays on African Literature. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 1990. Print.
Palmer, Eustace. African Literature Today. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983. Print.
The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Overview
HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda
HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda
Overview Uganda has made tremendous improvements in terms of declining the number of people living with HIV/AIDS. This trend is traceable to the early 1990s when the government launched an initiative campaign aimed at eradicating the scourge. According to the survey conducted by UNICEF, the number of children up to the age of 15 years living with HIV/AIDs dropped to a record 1.1 million.
The report by the Ugandan Ministry of Health, to mother-child infection accounted for about 90% of children living with HIV/AIDS. The increase in the HIV/AIDS infection has been challenging in respect of the inability to track their demographics (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).
HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda A survey conducted in Uganda suggests that sex education in Ugandan schools and through the media has prevailed in encouraging teenagers to engage in protected sex or have delayed the age at which they participate in premarital sex. Since the campaign initiative of the early 1990s, a USAID-sponsored scheme to encourage the use of condoms through community and school education has improved condom use from about 7% to a whopping 50% in the Ugandan rural areas while the urban areas have managed over 85%.
Increased use of condoms among teenagers aged between 13-19 years saw a reduced the rate of infection by about 60%. Additionally, sex education among children organized to salvage the children have recorded an increased number of children who have never engaged in early sex from 20% to about 65% between 1989 and 2005 (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 128).
Although it is arguable that the HIV/AIDS prevalence among children is heavily due to mother-child transmission, studies reveal that the prevalence among them has also been due to unprotected early sex. Generally, the reduced rate of children living with IADS has been mainly because of reduced prevalence among women aged between the ages of 15-24 years. Research suggests that there is a strict correlation between child education and HIV/AIDS prevalence (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).
In a study conducted in Uganda in the early 1990s, results indicated that young men and women who completed secondary education were seven times less likely to contract the disease than those with little or no education (UNFPA, 2011). Women studies confirm that post-primary education among the girl-child provides the greatest pay-off for their empowerment. Additionally, higher education offers more specific knowledge and life skills required to make informed decisions during their later age.
HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda Researches conducted by numerous scholars have suggested that there exist a positive relationship between education and HIV prevalence among children. Studies show that in the absence of awareness about HIV/AIDS, individuals tend to have several sex partners, hence increasing their risk of infection. According to Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008), an increased sex education through prevention messages remains a protective element against the infection of HIV/AIDS.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increasingly, research demonstrates that increased educational campaign among children has been used as a tool in fighting against the pandemic. Reduced education enrollment among children in rural areas has increased the rate of HIV/AIDS infection among children in Uganda (Kalipeni 174). Studies suggest that people with low understanding of the effects of HIV/AIDS are risky compared to children with higher levels of education.
According to a study conducted by Jukes, Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008) on Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA) found that HIV/IADS specific education a positive contribution toward reduced prevalence among children in the Sub-Saharan Africa.
Although the educational efforts to reduce the HIV/AIDS infection has had a far-reaching impact on the reduced levels of prevalence among Ugandan children, declined campaigns in the rural Uganda accounts for the low improvements in HIV/AIDS prevalence among rural children. These results suggest that children who underwent through education stood a better chance of avoiding unprotected and early sex compared to those who had little or no education (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).
Gender studies conducted demonstrate that girls with less than 7 years of study exhibited a higher likelihood of getting married before the age of18, and early marriages have a statistical link to high risks of infection (UNFPA, 2011). Schools provide a mechanism of sourcing for information about the prevention of HIV. Recent studies and analysis by Global campaign for Education (GCE) indicate that if children attained a complete primary education, it can reduce the impact of HIV by about 700, 000 cases among young adults.
Works Cited Dube, Lilian, Tabona Shoko, and Stephen Hayes. African Initiatives in Healing Ministry. University of South Africa: UNISA Press.
Jukes, Matthew, Stephanie Simmons, Mary Fawzi and Donald Bundy. “Educational access and HIV prevention: Making the case for education as a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa.” Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS. (2008): 1-33.
Kalipeni, Ezekiel. HIV and AIDS in Africa: beyond epidemiology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNFPA. Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis. Web.
Southwest Airlines Company Organizational Culture Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions that describes the common interests, beliefs and attitude of an organization that guides it through defining appropriate behavior and values. Defining of organizational culture involves three levels, which include behavior pattern, shared values, and the basic beliefs and assumptions of members. The idea behind organizational culture always revolves around the realization by the employees about the collective responsibility toward the larger good of the company.
Consequently, it is an expectation from the employees that behavior is in a common way hence each employee knows the work output required from him or her. The advantage of organizational culture is that it helps in establishing the required guidelines, output capacity of the organization and organization rules that will help catapult the company toward achieving its goals (Jex
Do we Have Meaning? Essay scholarship essay help
Most people never acquire meaning from the daily tasks of their lives resulting to disappointment, despair as well as aggressiveness at the instance of the slightest adversity. Others are coerced to bear enormous problems that make existence seem agonizing. Yet in the nastiest situations, identifying meaning and significance in one’s affliction gives an individual the might to persevere and track a fulfilling status of existence. That is to say, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life.
Frankl supposed that existing with meaning is vital for physical and psychological health (Break Through Writer n. p.). Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps, and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas, and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences. As a result of his insistence, we are endowed with a chance to gain knowledge from his victory and appreciate that there’s at all times meaning and significance to the existence in spite of how awful it might appear.
The possibility of existing in a Nazi was 3percent. Individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide.
The inmates were famished, misused, whipped, left out to freezing environment for extended durations devoid of appropriate attires, compelled to live in overcrowded houses that were grimy with excretions, and experienced the menace of death daily. Regardless of all of this, the inmates were required to be active and proficient in their work, lest they would be chosen for the gas chamber.
In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments (Break Through Writer n. p.). Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, as well as awful living surroundings.
Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everybody to conquer troubles of the everyday life.
Frankl describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people (Break Through Writer n. p.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Addiction, hostility and depression are all likely to follow. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.
The course of fighting and endeavoring for a meaningful goal makes us to long for life and offers us achievement after the goal is realized. This realization makes valuable memories an earlier phase that can in no way be stolen or withdrawn, and consecutively, these reminiscences, get rid of lament and cultivate the audacity to lack an extreme and detrimental fright of death.
According to Frankl, three elements are responsible for the true meaning. First is the behavior and inventive actions, for instance, coming up with a product, working out a problem or creating an invention. Second is to have something or somebody stimulating, for instance, the affection for a partner or relative, attractiveness of the natural world, or, the significance of a friend. Third is to appreciate the meaning in an inevitable distress.
Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space amid what we anticipate attaining and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.
In order to understand the pleasure that comes from achievement, distress must be evaded when feasible (Break Through Writer n. p.). Nevertheless, when the distress is inevitable, it is essential to understand that it is at all times doable to discover advantage and significance in it and exist with meaning. Frankl accomplished this through valuing his encounters in the camps as a chance to subsist by his viewpoints regarding the meaning and realization instead of merely writing with reference to them.
In conformity with the viewpoints of Frankl, an investigation prepared by Yale University demonstrated that lots of inmates of warfare from the Vietnam combat deemed the torturous states they underwent to be a valuable incident that motivated individual development. Given that inmates of Vietman war and Nazi camps established value in the countenance of torment, hunger, illness and bereavement, then everybody can derive meaning from his/her worst situations.
Most individuals think of the meaning of existence as if it were identical for each one. Such a case would imply that we have slight power over fate and eccentricity, and in logic, would contrast the function of existing with significance. Acquiring achievement from existing for a similar predestined reason as everybody else would be rather hard.
We will write a custom Essay on Do we Have Meaning? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.
Compound meanings in being are easy to recognize, although, these they can vary in due course. Frankl explains that a great deal of meaning that motivates us to subsist is founded on the determination and efforts implicated with realizing an end. After the end is realized, a fresh one is required to maintain the course. Although a number of people will recognize a novel end that is merely an expansion of the preceding one, others may possibly swing ways totally.
Therefore, it can at times be counterproductive to look for significance that will identify the existence as one piece and endure until demise. Although it might not be broadly established, there exists lots of scientific proof demonstrating that sentiments have a significant effect on physical wellbeing. Similarly, positive sentiments are as well linked to the flow of physical materials inside the body and are alleged to uphold superior physical condition.
Existing while short of meaning encourages boredom and hopelessness, as Frankl puts forward. These sentiments can directly or indirectly impact an individual’s wellbeing harmfully, through control ling the existence choices that he/she creates. An individual who is bored or dejected is not expected to formulate the exertion to lead a healthy way of life.
Although incarcerated, Frankl and his colleague inmates constantly observed that the moment an inmate renounced hope and felt like they lacked a motive to exist, they rapidly grew ill and passed on soon after. Conversely, those who adhered powerfully to their intention for existing survived grave sickness. Frankl endured a stern case of typhus, which was a leading source of bereavement in the camp.
In conclusion, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life. Each one has the liberty to revolutionize and too the autonomy to prefer his/her reaction to any circumstance. This liberty can on no account be removed, although its advantage is reliant on an individual’s duty to utilize it prudently.
Regardless of how pathetic existence might appear, Frankl assures to us that there is, at all times significance, to be derived from it, plus there is at all times the likelihood that the prospect will be better than ever anticipated. Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences.
The possibility of existing in a Nazi was only 3percent, since individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide. In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments. Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, and awful living surroundings.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Do we Have Meaning? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Frankl also describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.
Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space between what we expect to achieve and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.
Hence, one deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.
Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everyone to conquer troubles of the everyday life.
Works Cited Break Through Writer. Man’s Search for Meaning Lessons .1. Nov. 2011.Web.13.Nov.2011
Critique of Crucibles of Leadership Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Biography
Critique and summary
Biography Warren Bennis is a renowned author and reputable professor of business administration at the University of South California, Los Angeles. He is the founder and chairman of the Leadership Institute at the same university. His counterpart, Robert J. Thomas is also an author and a senior fellow at the Accenture Institute of Strategic Change. The two have co-authored several books and articles and are working on a book, Crucibles for Leaders to be published soon (Bennis
Coretta Scott King Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Early Age and Education
Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality
Introduction Coretta Scott was born on April 1927 in Perry County, Alabama. Her parents were Obadiah Scott and Bernice McMurry Scott. The family owned a small farm from where they earned their livelihood. Unfortunately, the family was not among the wealthiest families in the region (Academy of Achievement par 1). However, Coretta managed to acquire education up to the university level.
Throughout her life, Coretta had a great thirst for education and music. The development of these interests can be attributed to her mother who played a significant role in her life.
For instance, she learned to play musical instruments at a very young age. She learned how to play music instruments like the trumpet while she was still at school where she sang as a soloist. Coretta’s sister was the first black student to study in Antioch College, Ohio. Coretta met her husband Martin Luther King Jr at Boston University after which they married after sixteen months.
During her lifetime, Coretta spent most of her time fighting and advocating for equality and promotion of un-discriminatory policies across the world. During the Civil Movements of the 1950s and 1960s, Coretta Scott King was among the people who played a pivotal role. During this period, she made a great contribution by encouraging Martin to realize his goals.
She played an important role in consoling and giving advice on the best course of actions. Her encouragement forced Martin to remain focused on his goals. The major contributions made by King’s wife can be clearly seen after the assassination of her husband. This was the time when she took a tough stand in fighting for racial equality and actively being involved in Women’s Movement (Academy of Achievement par 3).
In 1955, Coretta Scott King played a very important role in Montgomery Bus Boycott (McPherson 100). In connection to this, Coretta actively advocated for the civil rights legislation.
In 1962, Coretta made a very important contribution in disbarment efforts when she served as women strike for the peace delegates to the seventeen nations Disbarment Conference held in Geneva. Soon after her husband’s death, Coretta rose to perpetuate the pending work he had already started. She fully devoted her life to King’s work where she continued to help many people until her her death in 2006.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early Age and Education Coretta was born in a family of four siblings where she was a third born. She was born together with her two elder sisters Edith and Eunice and a younger brother Obadiah who was born in 1930 (McPherson 69). As already noted, her family had a small farm but they were not among the wealthy people in the community. During her childhood, Coretta Scott King assisted her parents to pick cotton from their small farm.
Although her parents did not go to school, they were totally determined to ensure that their children received the required level of education. In connection to this, they took Coretta to an elementary school that was located far a way from their home. Later, she joined Lincoln Normal school. The school was located very far from their residence. However, Coretta did not have any alternative because it was the only black school in the region.
Coretta was exposed to the social injustices when she was a very young girl where she was forced to face the wrath of a segregated society, that is, the society where the native and the African Americans were treated as two different entities. The society was characterized by a lot of discrimination ranging from education to economic opportunities.
For instance, she was to walk for a long distance to reach the nearest black school while her fellow white students were riding in buses to schools nearby (Gelfand 87). This was one of the factors that triggered Coretta’s urge to fight for the civil rights later in her life. She was determined to dissolve the existing arrangements.
While in college, Coretta studied music; the field in which she was very interested. She was assisted by Walter Anderson, who was the first African to head a department in the institution.
While at school, Coretta was angered by the racial discrimination that was practiced by the school management. Consequently, she was actively involved in civic rights movements. For instance, she was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as well as the Race Relations and Civil liberties Committees (Academy of Achievement par 5).
As it was required by the curriculum, students were usually supposed to perform their second year teaching practice as a partial fulfillment for the award of a certificate. However, Coretta was denied a chance to teach in Yellow Springs Public schools (McPherson 12). Coretta attempted to convince the college administration but in vain.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Coretta Scott King specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some years later, Coretta was forced to move out of Antioch after winning a scholarship award at New England Conservatory Music that was located in Boston. This presented a very good opportunity for her to exploit her talent in singing and playing musical instruments.
Meanwhile, she met Martin Luther King, Jr who was later to become her husband. Martin Luther King Jr was a theology student in the college. During the time, Coretta had become famous in singing because she was already actively involved in civil rights movements. She took advantage of her talent and integrated her singing with civil rights activities. She used it as a tool to meet her goals to fight for equality for both black and white Americans.
Family Life After meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr, their relationship strengthened and they supported each other in their activities. They shared one interest since they were both interested in civil rights. Both were determined to fight for equality and for the rights of all citizens despite of their color.
In June 1953, Coretta and Martin were married. Their marriage ceremony was led by Martin’s father and it took place at Coretta’s family compound (Academy of Achievement par 4). However, Coretta called for elimination of the vow that required her to promise that she will obey husband. This was a courageous step that was not common by then.
By 1954, Corretta was through with her degree after which together with her husband moved to Alabama (Montgomery). This was where Martin Luther King was going to become a pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Academy of Achievement par 8). Soon after landing there, Coretta and her husband joined the Montgomery bus boycott. Meanwhile, Martin was elected as a leader of the movement. This was a major step in their struggle for the civil rights.
Their activity in the modern civil right movements came soon after the event where one of the passengers in a city bus refused to give a seat to a white passenger. According to the city orders, all the white people were to be given priority in the public conveyances. Therefore, this event led to Rosa’s arrest for going against the city orders. Soon after the arrest, the black Americans led by Martin Luther, Jr rose in defense of the lady.
This led to boycotting of the city buses in the regions. This was one of the major steps that Martin and Coretta took in fighting against the social injustices. This particular event attracted the attention of many people across the world on the issue of racial discrimination that was taking place in United States of America. The pressure from the movement led by Martin forced the court to scrap off all the local orders that drew boundaries between the white and the blacks in the public transport.
Coretta was particularly determined to fight for the civil rights. She was ready to commit her whole life for the society. She was determined to fight for the liberty of the oppressed and the marginalized section of the society. This movement had world wide implications and was not only interested in meeting liberation for the local community. It had significant global implication.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Coretta Scott King by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After their marriage, Coretta and Martin had four children. These include Martin Luther III, Albertine, Scott, and Denise. However, both Coretta and Martin were engaged in a continued conflict because Martin wanted Coretta to refrain from public involvement with the movement whereas Coretta was more determined to take a public leadership role. This was contrary to Martin’s view who wanted Coretta to spend more time taking care of their four children.
However, they both managed the situation and Coretta continued to pursue her goals to realize equality among the people. Coretta was forced to withdraw from music in order to take care of their children. However, she managed to use poetry and perform in freedom concerts where she used her talent to pass the message and the call for equality. She also used music to tell about the Civil Rights Movements. She performed in many concerts that helped in raising funds for the movement which her husband was leading.
Later in April 1968, Martin King Luther, Jr. was assassinated. This was a major strike for the Human Rights Movements since he was like the pillar. However, Coretta was determined to perpetuate the work that her husband had already started. In connection to this, she built The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in memory of her husband and his work.
It represented his dream and life in the struggle for the human rights. After her husbands’ death, Coretta was not intimidated to continue with her struggle through the Human Rights Movements. In fact, she was directly involved in the causes that her husband had started.
Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality From 1960 to 1950s, Coretta made a very significant contribution in the civil rights movements of the time. In fact, Martin Luther King admitted that were it not for the support of her wife, he would not have managed to fulfill his goals in fighting for the liberty of the oppressed fraction of the society.
Corretta was involved in non violent matches and led marches to the city together with her husband. By then, her husband had already become famous in civil rights movement and, therefore, was called to lead marches in different cities (Lohr par 4). In these marches, Coretta played a pivotal role in encouraging both the white and the black to reject the orders that encouraged segregation.
This was not, however, welcomed by the proponents of racism in America. They faced stiff opposition from the leaders who were encouraging racism in the country. As a result, their home was bombed by the white supremacists in 1956 (Academy of Achievement par 9). Coretta and her child narrowly managed to escape from the attack.
Later, Coretta’s fame spread all over the world as the leader of international struggle to break the chains of racial discrimination and other social injustices that takes place in the society. Her contribution had a significant implication throughout the world as a call for human liberation from all forms of oppression including colonialism.
For instance, they travelled to Ghana in 1957 to celebrate the country’s independence (Stanley and Henderson 56). The couple also went to India in honor of Mahatma Gandhi who is widely known for his philosophy of peace. This implies that their interest was not in the national level but across the world. Martin Luther King Jr was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace where he was accompanied by his wife Coretta to receive it. In other words, Coretta played a pivotal role in supporting her husband.
With time, Coretta’s demand as a public speaker increased significantly. She became the first woman to deliver the Class day add tress at Hazard (Academy of Achievement par 10). She was also the first woman to preach at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. She also played a pivotal role in promoting economic equity in America. She was determined in fighting for economic justice in the society. For instance, she formed the Full Employment Action Council whose main agenda was to push for equal economic opportunities.
This council was composed of religious, businesses, labor women and civil rights movements that were committed in promoting equal opportunities and full employment. By then, the white were given privilege in employment opportunities. Some positions were reserved only for the white. For instance, the blacks were not allowed to access top positions even if they had qualified. Coretta used this movement to fight against such discrimination in the society.
During her mission to serve the global human rights, she travelled across different countries including Africa and Latin America. In 1983, she led one of the greatest marches in Washington that included more than 800 human rights organizations (Academy of Achievement par 9). This was the largest demonstration that took place in the city during the time.
Coretta was also actively involved in the campaigns which demanded the establishment of Kings’ birthday as a national holiday. Her campaigns yielded positive results when the January 15 was made a public holiday through the Act of Congress (Academy of Achievement par 6). Since 1986, King’s birthday has been marked as an annual celebration in more than 100 countries.
In 1995, Coretta handed over the leadership of The King Center to her son. However, she remained devoted in the causes of economic and racial justice. She also devoted some effort in AIDS education and preaching against the gun violence.
Coretta also made some significant contribution in promoting LGBT equality. She emphasized that homophobia is like racism and other antisocial forms of discrimination. Her support for gay people was received with a lot of opposition from most of the African-American pastors who were opposed to homosexuality. She argued that such people were not informed and that it was the will of Martin Luther King to promote a world of inclusion and equality.
Coretta’s battle against apartheid intensified in 1980s when she led a series of protests in Washington DC. These efforts were directed against South African racial policies, which were oppressive to the black.
Death At the age of 77, Coretta began to experience health complications. This led her to being hospitalized in 2005 after deterioration in her condition. Medical results revealed that she had a heart condition. She later suffered frequent strokes and minor heart attack. Consequently, Coretta was forced to cancel a number of her travels. She continued undergoing physiotherapy from home.
Coretta Scott died in January, 2006 from cervical cancer and stroke in Oasis Hospital. She died while undergoing a therapy for his ovarian cancer that was already in its advanced stage by then. Soon after her death, the clinic was shut after being discovered that it was not allowed to perform most of the procedures they were taking by then. Her death is attributed to the respiratory failure that came as a result of cancer.
More than 14, 000 people attended her funeral to pay their last tribute to Coretta. Her funeral ceremony took place at New Birth Missionary Baptist Church. This is where her daughter Bernice is a minister. Many former U.S. presidents attended the function including the then President George Bush.
After her death, Coretta was honored as a champion of human rights for dedicating her life to peace and justice (Lohr par 9). Her contribution was recognized since she had opened the way for many. By then, Coretta had managed to dissolve racial discrimination to a greater extent in the United States. Even after her death, Coretta has remained inspirational to many people from all parts of the world.
Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that Coretta was among the people who played a major role in fighting for equality across the world. She was exposed to a humiliating form of racial discrimination at a very young age where she suffered from racial segregation. Throughout her life, Coretta was actively involved in Civil Rights’ Movements.
Since her undergraduate studies, Coretta demonstrated concern with the existing arrangements where there was much racial discrimination and other forms of oppression in the society. She was actively involved in marches where she convinced both white and black to defy against all the laws that encouraged segregation in the society. She used her music career in concerts where she narrated about the story of Civil Human Rights Movement.
She also used poetry to pass her message about the need for equality. Before her death in 2006, Coretta had managed to successfully push for significant changes in the United States where the difference between the whites and blacks has significantly decreased. For instance, both the white and the black students can now attend the same schools. People are more differentiated in terms of income rather than their races.
Works Cited Academy of Achievement. “Coretta Scott King Biography. “achievement.org, 2010. Web.
Gelfand, Dale. Coretta Scott King: Civil Rights Activist. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2006. Print
Lohr, Kathy. “Coretta Scott King Honored As Civil Rights Champion.” Npr, 2006. Web.
McPherson, Stephanie. Coretta Scott King. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2007. Print
Stanley, George, and Henderson Meryl. Coretta Scott King: First Lady of Civil Rights. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008. Print