Wolof Culture And Crisis Of Masculinity In It Exploratory Essay Essay Help Site:edu

Crisis of masculinity and factors that led to masculinity crisis in rural Wolof communities The rural Wolof community is in a crisis of authority because of several interlinked processes. The conflict and concession do not signal to end soon as men due to their conservative nature want to maintain their dominance.

Nevertheless, global factors that draw women to engage in commercial activities currently leaves Wolof men powerless, and this might transform the crisis from masculinity to that of femininity. One of the factors that have led to masculinity crisis is lack of benefits derived from Programme Agricole where men infringed upon women’s control of their own-account farms. When the Programme Agricole ended, male financial dominance also ended, leaving a vacuum in the provision of basic commodities in the house (Perry 213).

The fear of moral discourses and patriarchal wrath is another factor that has led to masculinity crises. In this era of neoliberal reform, men have diminishing control over women mobility. Women now attend louma at their own will, where they interact with people against most men’s wish. Men claim that this is against Islamic teaching. Old men, particularly the polygamous one fear that adultery between their wives and young men (Perry 215). This has pressed on men to deride the female petty trade.

Household setup of separable, often competing, interests, rights, and responsibility is another factor that has contributed to the crisis. Money rules Senegal in that economic power minimizes male opposition to women petty trade. The shift from women’s labor as unpaid family workers to a liberal and independent trader has not been taken lightly in this dominant patriarchal society.

Women have contributed much of these by exhibiting purpose and agency in a society where men have failed to provide food for the family as well as land and equipment for cultivation (Perry 220). This is in the quest to uphold family values, where men fear the humiliation and mockery of the society for their failures.

The reality in African culture is clearly demonstrated in the three films reality entails injustices and inequality between men and women in the society. Nevertheless, the films demonstrate how struggle, persistence, and goodwill in women can change their status from the traditional society to the modern society where women are respected and appreciated.

They show the real roles played by African women as mothers, sisters, providers, supporters, educators, and talent nurtures. This is a clear indication that African society is gradually shifting from a male-dominant patriarchal society to accommodate and appreciate the role played by both ganders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developmental schema of women’ status in Senegalese society based on the three movies In the film “Faat Kine”, the main character Faat represent a typical African woman who has straggled in life due to cultural expectation but later succeeded because of her vigor and will. She represents modern women who are financially independent. Her early life demonstrates the traditional African woman, whose role is to please men.

However, her present life reveals how the society has changed and changed the perception toward women and their roles. Her children on the other hand represent the future and show women independence in decision-making (Newman).

The film “Tableau Ferraille” on the other hand indicates how women are the pillars of the society to an extent of making or breaking a man. Although Daam is handsome, eager, ambitious, and westernized, he opts to marry a second wife because his first wife, Gagnesiri was unable to have children.

Ironically, Gagnesiri uphold family values. Upon realizing that her husband married another wife for own selfish end, she leave him and set to another land (Dembrow). This is an indication of societal shift to modernity, as well as how women are able to make independent decisions. Lastly, “Moolaade” demonstrate the struggle in modern African society in budging from the culture of gender stereotyping (Ebert). It shows how strong and focused women can unite and defeat the evil in the patriarchal society.

Works Cited Dembrow, Michael. “Tableau Ferraille.” 14 February 1999. Web.

Ebert, Roger. “Moolaade.” 01 July 2007. Web.

Newman, Talibah. “A Review of the Film “Faat Kine”.” 24 September 2006. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Wolof Culture and Crisis of Masculinity in It specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perry, Donna L. “Wolof Women, economic liberalization, and the crisis of masculinity in rural Senegal.” Ethnology (2003): 207-226. Print.

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Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

In the sermon Intellect, the Instrument of Religious Training, John Henry Newman persuades his congregation that intellectual knowledge and religion should not be alienated (Newman 85). Newman is an icon in the history of the Church of England. He was a priest and an intellect. He wrote several religious articles in the 19th century (Hasson 1). Newman was a key founder of the Catholic University of Ireland.

The above-mentioned sermon was delivered at the University Church, Dublin in 1856 (Guiley 65). In the sermon, Newman explores the risk of self-sufficiency, which is the notion that an individual can exist without God. Academic tone, analogy, comparison, and similes are the techniques employed by Newman to deliver a strong and persuasive sermon. This rhetorical analysis paper focuses on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856.

Based on the sermon’s delivery location, the sermon was conveyed to university students and staff. The sermon was delivered to individuals who shared different views with the preacher. In his sermon, Newman believes that a number of intellects separate intellectual knowledge from religion.

He persuades them that the two fields should not be separated, and that they have coexisted peacefully from time immemorial (Ker 67). Newman was very knowledgeable with his subject. This gave him the adequate credibility to convince his congregation that religion and intellect should not be separated.

As such, he notifies the congregation that his sermon do not dispute the common doctrines held by intellects. According to his arguments, the differences between religion and intellect have resulted in controversies. His main wish is for the two fields to unite and coexist in harmony (Ker 67). He is successful at convincing undergraduates about the importance of religion in their lives. His opinions were well organized and they were made more appealing with the use of logos and pathos.

Newman commences his sermon using an analogy to aid the audience understanding of the character of St. Monica. He asserts that St. Monica was not a teacher, evangelist, or a bishop and did not own an office, but was a widow who spent sleepless nights praying and wandering for her son to be brought back to life.

Similarly, Newman asserts that after her son was brought back to life, he did not only become a saint but also a physician. Through this stylistic device, the preacher is able to put across the character of St. Monica by using the blueprint of teacher, evangelist, bishop, and administrator as a starting point for understanding her identity. Similarly, Newman conveys the son’s identity by using the blueprint of a saint and a doctor as a way of revealing his personality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this, the preacher is able to create a psychological link between the different personalities in the minds of the congregation to help them come up with an understanding between the two saints in an easy and concise manner. Analogies such as those used by the preacher are enjoyable and are likely to cheer up the mood of the sermon. Similarly, it enables the congregation to relate the characters of the two saints with their personal experiences.

Soon after attracting the congregation’s interest with the use of analogies, Newman begins to use similes. He asserts that Christians, in their preference of a gospel for the Feast of St. Monica, have associated the woman with the depressed widow whom Jesus encountered at the entrance to the city. Similarly, in the subsequent paragraphs the preacher likens the widow with the Holy Church that is always mourning over its misplaced siblings.

The preacher uses similes to make his illustrations about the modern church and the widow more emphatic. Several examples of similes in the sermon illustrate how the Holy Church and the Widow are similar, especially in the manner in which they mourn over their lost children. The sermon asserts that age after age St. Monica’s son is born with ambition making him a victim of sin. Similarly, age after age St. Monica laments over his child.

The child she has grown up with, wandered with her, and kept his name in her lips. In the same way the widow is lamenting, the preacher asserts that the church is lamenting over intellectuals who have been lost and are hurrying towards the path of destruction. Like the widow, the Holy Church has not lost hope over these individuals, as it is always praying for them.

Nearly halfway to the sermon, the preacher tells his congregation that he is excited that the Academic Worship Day falls on the Feast of Saint Monica. He further asserts that the chief purpose of the university and religion is to supply what Saint Monica wanted and always yearned to achieve through her prayers.

Through this, he manages to appeal to those who are against the mixture of academics and religion and informs them of the chief purpose of the sermon. He achieves trust from the congregation by informing them of the achievements science could accomplish in the modern age. He asserts that science could invalidate knowledge against itself; make a fact to contradict another fact, and influence humanity that to be spiritual an individual ought to be uninformed and to be scholar one ought to be unspiritual.

He wins their trust by emphasizing on their potentials. Thereafter, he employs pathos to appeal to the feelings of his audience that humans are intellectual and moral. He asserts that humans are intellectual to the extent that they safeguard the truth, and safeguard the morality to the extent that they defend duty. He refers to the excellence of the intellect as skill and talent, and refers to the excellence of moral nature as a virtue.

We will write a custom Essay on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thereafter, he asserts that the human being’s mind is made up of several faculties. According to him, these faculties and their powers have been separated for a very long period that most people believe it cannot be united (Lorimer 68). Through this, he aims at appealing to his congregation that the above powers and faculties can be combined peacefully. At this instance, the congregation sees how philosophers have continually lied to them that science and religion should be separated.

At the beginning of the eighth paragraph, the preacher poses a question to his audience. He asks them if they confess to the truth of his words and if not their curiosity has let them to the path of sin. He establishes his ethos or credibility of setting up higher institutions by stating that his sole purpose is to unite things that had been earlier joined by God and later alienated by human beings.

Newman informs his audience that he was not after refuting the common doctrines held by intellects. He informs them that he wants intellect and religion to enjoy an equal freedom without compromising on the others existence. According to his arguments, the differences between the fields have resulted in confusions. His main wish is for the two fields to unite and coexist in harmony.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the sermon effectively persuades his congregation that intellectual knowledge and religion should not be alienated. Newman was able to achieve this because he was very knowledgeable with his subject. This gave him the adequate credibility to convince his congregation that religion and intellect should coexist as one.

He is successful at convincing undergraduates about the importance of religion in their lives. Equally, He asserts that the chief purpose of the university and religion is to supply what Saint Monica always yearned to achieve through her prayers. Through this, he manages to appeal to those who are against the mixture of academics and religion and informs them of the chief purpose of the sermon.

He achieves trust from the congregation by informing them of the achievements science could accomplish in the modern age. His opinions were well organized and they were made more appealing with the use of logos and pathos. He establishes his ethos or credibility of setting up higher institutions by stating that his sole purpose is to unite things that had been earlier joined by God and later alienated by human beings. However, his arguments might not be appealing to the modern scholars as it did during its time (Cassidy 112).

Works Cited Cassidy, Peter. The development and use in a study of an instrument to measure teacher’s perceptions of their effectiveness in teaching Catholic moral principles to middle and upper secondary students. New York: Oxford University, 1994. Print.

Guiley, Rosemary. The encyclopedia of saints. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2001. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Newman’s sermon on the feast of St. Monica in the year 1856 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hasson, Thomas. “Sermons Preached on Various Occasions – Sermon 1.” Newman Reader. N.p., 4 Jan. 2007. Web. .

Ker, I. T.. John Henry Newman: a biography. New York : Oxford University Press: Oxford ;, 2009. Print.

Lorimer, George C.. Christianity in the nineteenth century. Philadelphia: Griffith

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The Efforts and Activities of the Paparazzi are Protected by the Freedom of the Press Clause of the Constitution Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Argument for

Argument against

Reference List

Abstract Paparazzi is a term used to describe photographers whose area of interest is taking pictures and videos of key figures in the public including entertainers, celebrities, politicians, athletes, and religious leaders among others. One of the most obvious characteristics of paparazzi is that unlike most other photographers in the media industry, paparazzi lack affiliation to any mainstream media organizations.

As a way to differentiate themselves from other freelance photographer, paparazzi focus on both the professional and personal undertakings of important figures in society and pride themselves in taking pictures and videos of such people doing things that most other photographers would not consider taking. This aspect has generated much controversy over the years with paparazzi claiming protection of their activities by the freedom of the press clause of the constitution.

However, some people disagree with this notion by stating that some of paparazzi’s activities infringe on the rights and freedoms of other members of society, and thus warrant no protection by the constitution. Others argue that lack of affiliation with any mainstream media negates the paparazzi’s claim for protection by the constitution. This paper presents an objective analysis of both sides of the argument.

Argument for The First Amendment of the American constitution protects the paparazzi individually as American citizens through the protection of their freedom of speech and expression and professionally through the freedom of the press clause. Although some people often present the argument that paparazzi activities amount to harassment and that their protection by the law goes against basic rights, it is noteworthy that the law protects every person in equal measure.

The law considers paparazzi activities legal as long as they do not infringe on any individual’s rights and freedoms. For instance, in the case of the New York Times v United States in 1971, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protects against restraints that prevent distribution of information prior to publication.

This aspect means that the law protects that content that the paparazzi gather for publication before they publish the same, regardless of their method of collection. However, in most cases, people focus so much on the ‘how’ regarding paparazzi activity and ignore the ‘why’. Additionally, although society benefits from paparazzi activities indirectly, subjects of paparazzi activities divert attention to the methods that paparazzi use, thus making them seem like villains and a nuisance to society even when they are not.

One of the arguments that people have presented over the years in support of the law’s protection of paparazzi activities is that the paparazzi indirectly protect the society’s moral fiber. The paparazzi, in their own way, serve the society’s interest by reporting matters that require key individuals in society to re-evaluate their activities with regard to their overall effect to society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The argument is that if certain people put themselves in the limelight and present themselves as role models to the society’s younger individuals, society has the right to criticize their actions as part of the process of determining whether they deserve to be role models. It is possible for such individuals to present an act in public and behave differently away from the public eye.

Paparazzi make the private behavior of such individuals a matter of public notice and present society with an opportunity to make objective judgments (Fareed, 2009). For instance, in 2006, Daniella Cicarelli Lemos was the subject of a scandal involving the paparazzi.

The thirty five year old former television show presenter for MTV Brazil and fashion model was twenty-eight years old at the time. A paparazzo recorded video footage of Cicarelli sharing some intimacy moments on a beach and posted the same on YouTube. Cicarelli sought legal redress and the court held in her favor, thus blocking YouTube in Brazil.

The block caused a public uproar in Brazil and threats of boycotting MTV. Later, the court lifted the block on YouTube. In essence, this argument posits that protection of the society’s version of morality is an important element in any society and that every member of society should strive to protect the same for the sake of the younger generation, whether in public or in private.

The paparazzi thus act as guardians of society’s moral code by exposing immoral behavior by members of the society that younger generations look up to as role models. The courts strike a balance between every individual’s rights through individual analysis of each case. Unlike most members of society, courts are impartial and do not apply stereotypes as the basis for their decisions.

Another plausible argument is that paparazzi enjoy the same protections as every other American individual by the Bill of Rights. Therefore, they have the right to exercise freedom of expression. Every American has the right to express his or her opinion regarding any issue of his or her choice. Most paparazzi just ensure that they present evidence to back up their opinions, regardless of the people they choose to target as their area of interest.

The main reason that most people who form the subject of paparazzi activities are unable to get legal redress is because paparazzi reports are usually factual and devoid of libel. It is thus difficult to establish solid cases in their own defense. However, some paparazzi prefer to remain anonymous, thus making it difficult to establish the right party for the suit in cases where their images end up in tabloids.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Efforts and Activities of the Paparazzi are Protected by the Freedom of the Press Clause of the Constitution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The increased use of social media has also made it harder to establish the source of information and subsequent person to blame, even in instances where such reports lack truth. Sometimes, the paparazzi become the subject of victimization by people who regard themselves as victims.

For example, in the case of Galella v Onassis in 1973 (2nd Cir. 1973), paparazzo, Ron Galella, sued Jacquline Kennedy Onassis after she ordered her secret service agents to destroy Galella’s camera and film. Kennedy, a former first lady, ordered the destruction of the camera claiming harassment by Galella at the incident at Central Park in New York City. Such incidents exhibit double standards that most societies subscribe to, with most people regarding their actions as just while vulcanizing those of others in the same situation.

It is arguable that the paparazzi form part of the media fraternity considering the fact that most of the material from paparazzi ends up in the mainstream media. Secondly, paparazzi activities bear a striking resemblance to those of media representatives in the field, except that paparazzi utilize every opportunity they get. For instance, the TMZ Company is a media house that uses material by paparazzi as its main area of interest.

Overall, several factors warrant consideration before the vilification of paparazzi activities. It is also important to remember that the Bill of Rights is impartial in its protection of society. In the light of the above arguments, there is no need to malign and condemn paparazzi activities as paparazzos are protected by the constitution just like any other American citizen.

Moreover, paparazzo only exposes the truth, which the mainstream media would rather not expose due to fear of consequences such as tarnishing the name of the media houses they work for; however, paparazzo has nothing to lose in terms of business and reputation.

Human impact statement

The constitution’s protection of the paparazzi activities indirectly benefits the society in a way that most people would not care to admit. The society’s stereotype of the paparazzi prevents most people from realizing their positive effect on society by choosing to focus on the negatives. Although the methods through which some paparazzi obtain their information are sometimes questionable, the results of their activities benefit the society by providing information that people in the limelight would prefer to hide.

In most cases, arguments that form the basis of lawsuits revolve around the methods through which paparazzi get their material, although the truth of their information sometimes comes into question. Information presented by the paparazzi enables the public make informed decisions on people they choose to allocate control in society or encourage as role models.

It is also important that people remember that paparazzi enjoy the same protection by the first ten amendments that make up the bill of rights as every other American citizen (Frederickson, 2005). Therefore, every person is prone to suffer the same fate his or her wish on the paparazzi in case his or her opinion hinges on unsubstantiated information. Society thus has to respect the rights that the constitution warrants paparazzi as members of society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Efforts and Activities of the Paparazzi are Protected by the Freedom of the Press Clause of the Constitution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, every individual has the right to take advantage of constitutional rights and apply them to the furtherance of his/her professional endeavors. Apart from the constitution, the courts also enforce rights of the paparazzi. They ensure that their activities remain legal and comply with the legal requirements of the bill of rights. Courts have the mandate to ensure that individual rights and freedoms of individuals do not overlap or cause distress to other people.

Argument against Some scholars argue that the constitution protects paparazzi activities; however, it is important to note that the constitution only protects their lawful activities in the furtherance of professional endeavors. Additionally, the constitution does not discriminate in terms of protection of basic rights and freedoms. It affords equal protection to the paparazzi and their ‘victims’.

The constitution limits freedom of the press in much the same way it does for freedom of speech. Courts also reinforce this position by evaluating situations and enforcing the rights of victims through restraining orders, although some states have laws that restrict activities by paparazzi to some of their laws, thus allowing courts to take full action and provide legal avenues for victims.

For instance, California state laws include trespass and harassment to crimes protected against by tort law. The laws thus make it possible for subjects of paparazzi activities to seek legal help from courts when they feel harassed (Frederickson, 2005).

Some states also restrict paparazzi activities by placing curfews and licensing events that do not allow paparazzi activities such as taking photographs and recording video footage or spinning information at such events to discredit the dignity of the apparent subjects. Such laws work well in preventing the nuisance, which paparazzi activities can sometimes present, and allow people to conduct their business without fear of scrutiny by unauthorized individuals.

Secondly, scholars argue that the freedom of the press clause only covers media organizations and their affiliates and does not apply to independent contractors. According to this argument, the freedom of the press clause does not cover paparazzi or their activities. Proponents of this argument suggest that business laws such as contract laws, rules of agency, and employment laws govern most of the paparazzi activities.

As such, paparazzi should comply with all other laws individually instead of suggesting a veil by the freedom of the press clause. In order to claim such a veil, it is possible for paparazzi to form a media organization, in which case, the organization would be liable for the activities that each conduct. It would also mean that the paparazzi would have to comply with boundaries regarding their methods of obtaining information.

Looking at the entire argument from this perspective presents the notion that the law does not support paparazzi activities that break the law, but rather it protects their professional interests and their rights as Americans. For instance, the TMZ is a media organization whose area of interest is mainly celebrity gossip and entertainment news and thus it enjoys protection by the freedom of the press clause owing to its presentation as a media organization.

In most cases, lawsuits against the paparazzi involve violation of privacy. The courts endeavor to correct any misgivings on protection by the freedom of the press clause through decisions that protect victims. For instance, in September 2012, a case ensued in which the Duchess of Cambridge sought redress from the courts against the French magazine, Closure, for taking pictures of her sunbathing naked at her cousin’s residence in France.

The Duchess argued that the pictures infringed her right to privacy as she was at a private residence when the paparazzi took the said pictures for use in the magazine. The court decided in the Duchess’s favor, thus blocking the pictures from circulation.

Sometimes, paparazzi activities present more serious problems than a mere nuisance through violation of privacy. For instance, on August 31, 1997, a road accident occurred in France that led to the death of the late Princess Diana and Dodi Fayed.

An inquest jury looking into the matter investigated the involvement of the paparazzi in the incident and deduced that the incident was the result of high-speed chance as the two tried to get away from paparazzi. The case was a clear indication of how some seemingly harmless activities by paparazzi in the pursuit of information can lead to life threatening situations.

Another argument that critics present against the paparazzi is that they have no sense of morality. They explain that paparazzi prey on vulnerable members of society such as minors. Unlike adults, minors lack the legal capacity to pursue justice from the courts for actions against them by paparazzi.

They also lack sufficient knowledge of the law to recognize activities that violate their rights (Kozol, 1996). Paparazzi also prey on individuals of legal age at their most vulnerable moments such as after the deaths of loved ones and during moments they least expect it. Such people argue that if paparazzi have society’s best interest at heart, they would present the whole picture surrounding the desired information.

The fourth argument presents paparazzi as opportunists who take advantage of situations and use the law as grounds to conduct the distribution of malicious information, regardless of the factual content behind such information.

One example of incidents in which paparazzi take advantage of their stereotype and the status of key individuals in society is one that occurred in 2008 involving actor Keanu Reeves and a paparazzo.

The paparazzo sued Reeves claiming that the actor had attacked him as he left his friend’s house. The paparazzo claimed that the actor hit him with a car, thus causing permanent injury to one of his hands, but Reeves objected these allegations.

Further investigations into the matter revealed that the photographer went on his activities using the same hand he claimed was no longer functional. Sometimes paparazzi exceed their legal restrictions and infringe on the rights of others without due consideration to the consequences. For instance, in 1999, an incident involving Oriental Daily News led the court to hold the newspaper guilty of scandalizing the court, which is a criminal charge rare to media houses.

The court explained that the newspaper was guilty of conduct that would undermine the court’s integrity and confidence in the administration of justice. The newspaper had contracted paparazzi to follow the judge and take photographs as he went on with his daily activities in order to let him experience what the paparazzi do.

An overall analysis of all these arguments reveals that the freedom of the press clause does not protect paparazzi unless they form part of a media organization, as is the case with TMZ. Furthermore, even in instances where the law seemingly protects activities by paparazzi, it restricts activities that infringe on the rights and freedoms of other individuals as part of the requirements of the Bill of Rights.

The courts enforce such laws through curfews, provision of restraining orders, and injunctions against publication and in extreme cases, conviction. In this light, the law’s main purpose is to protect American citizens and visitors against activities by paparazzi that constitute infringement on personal liberties.

Human impact statement

Protection of paparazzi activities and efforts by the constitution is likely to lead to increased victimization of key figures in society. It makes such members of society vulnerable to attacks on their privacy by paparazzi as they strive to obtain photographs and other information through any means necessary. Secondly, protecting paparazzi activity creates impediments for courts in their endeavor to ensure equal distribution of justice for all individuals regardless of their choice of profession.

This aspect makes it hard for victims to protect their individual rights and freedoms including the right to privacy. Although celebrities choose to share their professional lives with the society, most prefer to keep their personal lives private. It is possible that sometimes they intentionally make information of their private lives public, in instances such as weddings. However, this aspect does not give leeway for paparazzi to follow them and take photographs that may lead to scandals for financial gain.

Another possible outcome of paparazzi protection under the freedom of the press clause is that it may increase the number of opportunistic paparazzi in existence, thus increasing incidents involving celebrity figures who take matters into their own hands in self-defense.

Lastly, the support of protection for paparazzi activities that infringe basic rights and freedoms creates a likelihood of nullification of present laws on the matter. In most cases, courts rely on precedents in the determination of future decisions. Therefore, present decisions are likely to overturn past decisions and affect future decisions as well. Therefore, as Rhodes (2002) notes, it is crucial for courts to practice diligence in interpretation of laws including the freedom of the press clause in the first amendment.

Reference List Fareed, Z. (2009).The Post-American World. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Co.

Frederickson, G. (2005). Public Administration with an Attitude. Washington, DC: American Society of Public Administration.

Kozol, J. (1996). Amazing Grace: The Lives of Children and the Conscience of a Nation. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.

Rhodes, L. (2002). The Public Manager Case Book: Making Decisions in a Complex World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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The Masculinity Crisis in the Wolof Communities and Changes in the Women’s Status Exploratory Essay college essay help: college essay help

During the recent decades, it is possible to observe the signs of the masculinity crisis in the rural Wolof communities, which are associated with changes in the women’s social status. This masculinity crisis is noticed with references to the male frustration and even aggression revealed in men’s attempts to preserve the domination positions and to control women in relation to such aspects as domestic labor, social activities, participation in the trade relations, open sexuality, and financial independence.

Trying to prevent the development of the crisis in the form of decreasing the male authority in the society, the male representatives of the Wolof communities continue to condemn women, ignore women’s complaints and the female rights for expressing individualism. Declaring the principles of the male authority in the society, men intend to prevent the further corruption of the previously patriarchal society.

To understand the observed tendencies, it is necessary to refer to the factors which affected the development of the masculinity crisis within the communities. Thus, the implementation of the post-colonial period’s policies and social principles led to liberalization of the society in relation to expanding the possibilities for active trade and performance within the rural markets.

The society was transformed regarding the changes in the economic relations because women received the right to participate in the social and economic life of the community with references to the petty trade when men started to lose their positions not only as the authorities in the society’s activities but also as the authorities responsible for the agricultural and trade sectors in the rural Wolof communities.

Following the political and social changes in the Senegalese society which are associated with the end of the colonial era, it is possible to refer to the changes in the women’s status basing on the examples provided in such films as Faat Kine, Tableau Ferraille and Moolaade.

The possible developmental schema related to the women’s status in the Senegalese society can be based on the opposition between the principles of the patriarchal society and the modern principles typical for the liberalized society. Thus, the Senegalese were responsible only for the domestic labor and were dominated by men decades ago, and today the female population in the country tries to receive the social privileges traditionally typical only for men.

From this point, although only patriarchal principles worked within the society several decades ago, today two paradigms are followed in the society because patriarchal principles are followed, but women also referred to the aspects of liberalization and freedom in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This idea is reflected in Tableau Ferraille with references to the opposite behavioral patterns followed by the female characters of Gagnesiri and Kine, who have the opposite visions in relation to the role of a woman in the society. Furthermore, the reflections on this idea are also observed in Faat Kine because Faat Kine who is oriented to freedom in actions and thoughts and to economic independence is depicted in opposition to many Senegalese women who have to follow the traditional patriarchal norms and roles.

The problem of controversial opposition is also presented in Moolaade because in spite of Colle’s attempts to protect young women with the help of the moolaade ritual, many women brought up in the patriarchal society are inclined to reject Colle’s vision of the issue because men condemn the idea of moolaade as the protective ritual to avoid genital cutting.

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“Thinking outside the Building” by Kanter Report (Assessment) custom essay help

The fluctuating market often demands changes in a company, so that it stays successful. Some businesses are world known organizations that have seen rough times but managed to adjust to the world and the economy. Some changes took place several years ago but the major one was accomplished through innovation and is rather recent.

An article “Thinking outside the Building” by Kanter talks about specific adjustments that took place, increasing the role of innovation and a more customer oriented work technique. The employers have also changed some of the management that would provide a shift from hardware to software focus.

The technologies were upgraded that made work more efficient and much faster. A great part of the need to change came with the culture and the public demands. The new technology that gets improved very often dictates how the company will work within its own culture, as well as with the public. The studies have shown that there is a deep relationship between a business and the customer.

The more satisfied a person is, the better their response leading to higher input. As such, communication between people providing a specific service plays a key role in loyalty and recommendations. The solution is for businesses to get involved with the customers, think further by adjusting to the needs and giving specifically what is being wanted.

A lot rests on the way a business is done and any change in the products will influence the sensitive and fragile relationship between the production company and the consumer. There has to be a steady management of the materials that are used in the company, constant making sure that all the required products and materials that are needed for the business are in place and the monitoring of the quality of the production (Kanter, 2010).

“The Must-Haves for Growth: Entrepreneurial Spirit and Focus on Core Competencies” by Chaifez talks about core competencies in business. The first important point is they must be defined correctly while the second one deals will staying down to earth and keeping “an entrepreneurial value”, even after large development.

The sustainability in operations management is the making sure that the products and services are properly delivered to the customers. There also has to be a constant development and bettering of products and services, as to best adjust to the changing market and economy, as well as the demands. It is very important because the success and future of the business depend on it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The efficiency and quality of the products and services of the company is what determines their position on the market and the future outcomes. For operations management, economical sustainability is one of the key components, as they have to calculate the future matters of the company and find ways to increase their prosperity. They have to work on the assignment of duties, distribution of roles and responsibilities and the resource and capacity management.

When looking at economics, there are few things to have in mind. Different cities and regions have unique and specific economies. The system of trade and relations between businesses are guided by the public, their beliefs and understanding of the government and the market. By staying entrepreneurial, the connection will not be lost (Chaifetz, 2010).

It is clear that innovation and the involvement of employees will keep the company connected to the public. An interest in personal and public success will reflect in the business and increase profits.

References Chaifetz, R. (2010). The Must-Haves for Growth: Entrepreneurial Spirit and Focus on Core Competencies. American journal of Business. Web.

Kanter, R. (2010). Thinking Outside the Buidling. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2010/03/column-think-outside-the-building

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Communication of Organizational Vision and Strategy in a Team Report college essay help near me

Communication of Organizational Vision and Strategy Importance of Common Purpose

A team must share a purpose to attain success in its endeavours for various unexceptional reasons. First, it cannot be disputed that team members have diverse attitudes, beliefs, and capabilities that influence their preferences and priorities. As a result, each member possesses personal goals that are distinct from those targeted by other colleagues.

Therefore, a common purpose harmonizes members’ personal objectives and mentalities towards a common course that establishes a sense of direction (Green, 1999). In addition, it forms the basis of creating a legal framework since the team leaders can evaluate the members’ decisions and actions in accordance to the team’s purpose. Actions that are inconsistent to the common purpose are considered inappropriate while the consistent ones are right.

This legitimacy enables a team to set the standards of performance so that the common purpose is used as a reference point. The performance of each individual and the entire team can be evaluated according to members’ ability of satisfying a common goal (Green, 1999).

In case a team does not have a common purpose, it does not exist because members could be acting according to individual preferences that cause confusion. This could be equivalent to a situation where members invalidate the essence of creating a group by conducting their activities individually. Furthermore, the team could run without a legal framework because missing of a common purpose legalizes all decisions and actions.

Roles of Communication in Establishing a Common Purpose

In a team, the establishment of a common purpose involves conception of the objective, embracement of the purpose, and development of strategies that help in achieving the objective to validate its existence. Communication is applied during implementation of these three aspects that assist to establish a common purpose.

When the team is conceiving the common purpose, all members must provide ideas on what they consider as the primary objective. This triggers the team leader to communicate with the members in order to call for their contributions and correct feedbacks. In the second step, the team must discuss all individual contributions and embrace one of them to define their common purpose. This ensures that all members of the team agree unanimously with the decision to show their conversance with the purpose.

Lastly, communication purports the third step by ensuring that members discuss the strategies applicable in achieving their common purpose. In this light, continuous communication and listening help the team leaders to coordinate the members during implementation of those strategies and inform them about changes that occur. This implies that poor communication could lead to partial agreement during conception of a common purpose, lack of coordinated performance of duties, and partial embracement of the objectives that disenfranchise some members to cause resistance and adverse failure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motivating and Developing a Team Motivational Factors

There are various motivational theories that articulate the factors of motivation. These theories are exemplified by Herzberg’s theory, McGregor’s theory and Maslow’s theory. Herzberg argued that there are hygiene needs misconceived to be the factors of motivation such as salary, security, working conditions, and good rapport with administrators among others.

He contended that the needs result to temporary motivation which dies after a short period (Beck, 1978). Furthermore, he argued that the real factors of motivation in a team include achievement, advancement, recognition, work, and responsibility among others. For instance, increasing the salaries of team members does not offer permanent motivation because they will seek for more salary. On the other hand, a team member who has passion for his work will always be motivated to contribute compassionately.

In his theory, McGregor (1960) splat people into two groups incorporating people who are reluctant to work and those who are enthusiastic. Then, he suggested that the team members who are lazy can only be motivated by putting up measures to punish them after ignoring their duties. On the contrary, ambitious people are motivated by giving them rewards after performing their duties well (McGregor, 1960).

For example, an employee who performs better than his colleagues can be promoted from the current level into a higher one. Alternatively, the employer can increase the employees’ salaries to acknowledge their extra efforts. These rewards motivate other team members to work hard and achieve the same rewards. In this case, the main factors of motivation include legal measures, rewards and loyalty programs.

Maslow theory suggests that people are motivated by a progressive advancement comprising of various stages which offer distinct satisfaction (Beck, 1978). In this light, people are motivated to move from one stage to another in order to pass through various stages that include attainment of physiological safety as well as social and self-actualization needs. In this case, team members are always inspired and motivated to advance from one stage to another (Beck, 1978).

Importance of Motivational Leaders

Leaders with the capability to motivate the team members are important according John Adair’s theory of leadership. This theory involves identifying a task, building a team and satisfying individual needs. In this light, a leader motivates members to identify the task by satisfying the needs of the individuals participating in the team’s activities (Beck, 1978).

When their individual needs are satisfied, John argued that the team becomes cohesive and united enabling members to adopt a common purpose for their team. Additionally, this unity helps them to pull their talents and capabilities in order to make a collective approach towards their challenges.

We will write a custom Report on Communication of Organizational Vision and Strategy in a Team specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this light, I balance the three aspects by ensuring consideration of individual needs, unity of the team, and right definition of their task for realization of the achievements. Additionally, motivational leaders set the pace for other team members since they lead by example rather than giving orders and authority. Lastly, they connect the team members to the critical long lasting ideologies rather than temporary needs. For example, a motivational leader seeks to show the importance of completing a task rather than working for money.

Leaders’ Role in Supporting and Developing a Team

In his theory, Ken Blanchard articulates adaptive style as one of the most crucial styles that can be used to support and develop a team. This case argues that the style enables the leaders to embrace flexibility which allow them to tolerate flaws of their colleagues in a team.

This enables them to study and improve the members’ weaknesses and strengths that can be tapped to achieve a common purpose. Consequently, the style enables leaders to form a strong foundation for the team since they do not rush into making conclusions and dismissing members rather than improving their behaviours.

On the other hand, Bruce Tuckman described four stages of developing a group which were forming, storming, normalcy and performing stage. Bruce showed the contribution of the leaders at each stage of development (Beck, 1978). During formation, the group relies entirely on the leader for directions because it is not yet coordinated. The second stage and third part the leader facilitate the establishment of a purpose and formation of consensus in a respective manner.

During the performing stage, leaders’ involvement is minimal because the team is aware of the objective and the organizational autonomy is established. Personally, my team is at the normalcy stage that approaches the performing stage. This stage has been developed mainly through adapting the flaws and afflictions envisaged by the team members until the attainment of a mutual understanding.

References Beck, R 1978, Motivation theories and principles, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Green, P 1999, Building robust competencies by linking human resource systems to organizational strategies, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Hargie, O 1997, The handbook of communication skills (2nd ed.), Routledge, London.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Communication of Organizational Vision and Strategy in a Team by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McGregor, D 1960, The human side of enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New York.

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Protection of Minorities within the Context of International Law Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction A critical analysis of international legal instruments reveals that the laws do make reference to ‘minorities’. However, there is lack of a universally acceptable, legally binding definition of the term ‘minority’. The reason for this is that there are numerous minority groups that possibly exist and no proposed definition can accommodate all of them (Forsythe 2012). Moreover, many states provide a restrictive definition to prevent large swathes of their population from falling within the boundaries of the group.

The innumerable and diverse groups claiming to be minorities also make it difficult to formulate a universally acceptable definition. Consequently, there are no firm guidelines informing the definition of the concept ‘minority’ in international law. However, considerable efforts have been made through different forums by international lawyers to provide guidelines as to factors to consider in defining the concept (Allen

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Emirates and ADNOC Report essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Emirates

ADNOC

References

Introduction The business world has become an environment where responsibility to the society competes with personal gain and morality. Often, corporations face an important decision that sets the course for honesty or deceit and unjust manipulation. It has been known for some time that business will often choose own gain over everything else, but only recently, it has received the needed attention.

The concept very much reflects the views and values of society and looks at the greater context of all corporate institutions and practices. Emirates and ADNOC review will look at specific details about the CSR, what role it plays in people’s lives and more specifically, in the matters of business and corporate worlds. The work is meant to refresh the knowledge people have about investments, participation of stakeholders and ethical or moral considerations that are involved in proper market environment.

The topic is rather informative in what is expected from the corporations and businesses and it sets apart those with a duty and moral obligation to morality, and those who search for other ways to gain resources. The society and morals are always fluctuating and so, it would be difficult to adjust to what is needed and demanded by the population.

An in-depth look is taken at the specific methods and mediums where social responsibility will be applied. Publicity is an important part of the process and thus, will have to deal with alignment to proper intentions and responsibility. The decisions that will be taken now have to be adjusted to the theoretical issues and perspectives revolving around environment, as the modern day policies are getting stricter and enforcement more organized.

Emirates CSR was and is developing in Emirates but was also, previously known to be one of the ethical topics in the culture. The details consider the environment and how other corporations or organizations act in keeping the balance between the two. It is interesting that ethics and morality in business are becoming predominant.

Corporate social responsibility looks at everything from environmental pollution, to conditions that are made available for employees and the consumers. It is divided into three categories where one is related to the threat management, in relation to morality and norms. The second one is about the responsibility regarding morality. And third deals with the affected people, especially those who are indirectly influenced.

The recent changes have become a major goal of Emirates in establishing morally correct conditions for all parties involved. The present and future consideration is the condition of businesses towards ethics, in order to set the proper course of action. Emirates uses marketing techniques that must be aligned with reasonable behavior and outlook, so that the best qualities are supported and those that need improvement are fixed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An important part of the process is to look at the strategy and how it can be implemented into the changes taking place. Primarily, the businesses were meant to provide to the society but in the process, maximization of profits became the most important goal which led to corners being cut and unethical behavior emergence.

Ethics and morality are a part of a code of Emirates that is not necessarily reflected in the law but in fair expectations of people and cooperating organizations. CSR has become a trend which resonates with the social ethics and morality in pursuing a strategy that is both effective for corporations and responsive to the business and natural environment.

The recent changes have become a major goal of the Emirates in establishing morally correct conditions for all parties involved. The present and future consideration is the condition of businesses towards ethics, in order to set the proper course of action. Marketing techniques must be aligned with reasonable behavior and outlook, so that the best qualities are supported and those that need improvement are fixed.

Further studies must be conducted in order to set up specific and widely accepted criteria that are easy to follow and are an international standard. The connection between stakeholders, corporations and market are tightened for a better management of resources and interests. The Emirates’ schemata identifies the bottom part as most basic, as economic responsibility leads to profits and this is from where all other aspects flow out.

The second division is to obey the law, third is ethical implications and responsibilities and fourth is the responsibility of being a part of society and bettering the world around. Also, the relationship with stakeholders becomes a valued and much needed asset because it is the bridge between private and public relations of businesses and corporations. The three types of moral, amoral and immoral must be analyzed to determine the major criteria of each one.

Immorality refers to actions that are unethical and go against rules and social values and beliefs. Amorality is a sort of indifference where businesses do not care about society but do not necessarily have damaging influence. And moral is the most desired and ethical way to conduct business and establish proper and beneficial cooperation with society (Emirates, 2013). Emirates has proven to be highly moral.

ADNOC ADNOC looks rather sustainable, as it covers several layers of population. The manufacturing plays one of the key market roles in the global business industry. Since it has made use of many employees from different social walks, ADNOC’s success is obvious. It is not uncommon when a country of lower economic development produces goods for a nation that is well established and the economy is high, so this should be made the case with this company, which will allow taking business to even more countries.

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Social Responsibility: Emirates and ADNOC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because the industry is particularly a developing field that has seen a great demand in the past decades, ADNOC has a lot of room to develop and innovate. It is understandable that the economics, market value and differences between products and services all play a role in who gets employment and what sort of company becomes the partner. When looking at economics, there are few things to have in mind, as ADNOC is directly related to different locals and economies.

The system of trade and relations between businesses are guided by culture and society. Some places have better economies, so in order to stay successful, ADNOC must adjust to the locality and people’s economical conditions. The market is also different. There are certain things that people need, so the demand on the market is special for every country.

Globalization has majorly impacted the company and the differences can be seen as well. Some are becoming over developed with abundant supply and thus, competition is one of the major determinants of direction. Familiarization with other companies will allow for the adjustment of own production. One of the keys for business development is making sure that the demand is high. Both employees and the population must be upheld to the highest standards.

The intertwined relationship between the suppliers in a country, the working conditions and the superpowers or other well developed regions of the world show that the mutual dependence of the company’s internal structure and business environment determines success. ADNOC is aware that sometimes the pressures for local responsiveness are low, and taking the business to other regions will guarantee stable income and product or service flow.

It is obvious that with such global organization, countries that are more developed will continue receiving their products, as the need is always present, while the conditions oversees might be very poor. It is important to consider the reality of economies and conditions in the country and adjust to the society.

ADNOC is an organization that has unique features, as it gives an opportunity to do something special, which no one has done before. An aggressive approach makes the company stand out in a market filled with ideas. An important part of the process is to look at the strategy and how it can be implemented into the changes taking place. Some of the problems in implementation are analyzed as well. Because it is such a significant part of the matter, there is no specific plan of action that is concrete and clearly outlined.

ADNOC also takes great care of the surrounding natural and social environment (ADNOC, 2011). Attention to details and industrial influences are always kept in mind, making the organization very moral and ethical. The mutual cooperation between management and employees is instrumental to the established success.

References ADNOC. (2011). Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility: Emirates and ADNOC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Emirates. (2013). Web.

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The Tales of the Medieval Knights: Courage, Chivalry and Convictions Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Fighting a dragon, saving the princess and going for another quest – this is how most people, who have only heard about knights from the tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, imagine a Medieval knight. However, the reality was far more complicated than that. With an impeccably virtuous lifestyle imposed on them by the Christian Church, Medieval knights were the representation of the qualities that would later on be turned into a cult, with the image of a knight becoming a role model for the entire male population.

As history says, the origin of knighthood was far too ancient to be jeopardized by the morals and principles of the Dark Ages. Created at the dawn of the Roman and Byzantine Empires reign and known as Bucellarii (Abels, n. d., para. 6), knighthood seemed a very fortunate substitute for a regular army for the kings of Britain in XIII–XIV centuries, which is why it was supported by all means possible.

Thus, the premises for the evolution of a unique culture that was fully independent from the influence of the Middle Ages morals and standards were being born. In many senses, knighthood shaped the moral standards of the Middle Ages.

The principles that Medieval knights considered their code of conduct were quite simple and could, probably, even fit the modern idea of a courageous and chivalrous person. The following character traits were traditionally considered essential for the Medieval knights; anyone who acted otherwise was to be shunned till the end of his days.

Chivalry presupposed a gentleman-like attitude towards women, without the least bit of chauvinist condescendence, which would become a norm several centuries later and, thus, set the progress backwards, throwing the relationships between the two genders several centuries back).

Courage meant the absolute recklessness, i.e., going beyond one’s instincts of self-preservation. A rather doubtful concept in the present-day world, in the Medieval Era, the given idea correlated with the principle of devotion and, therefore, was rather legitimate.

Mercy involved sympathy towards the enemy, who was defeated, and sparing his life. Even after disarming his arch nemesis, a knight would never kill him as long as the former remained defenseless. The principles of fair fight were coined by none other than Medieval knights.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Piety was encouraged by the Church, since knighthood was based on Christian virtues and, therefore, ruled by the Christian principles.

Devotion should also be named among the key qualities; knights were expected not only to serve, but also to trust their lord completely.

Nobility made knights protected the weak and fought for the defenseless.

Faith presupposed that knights could not allow giving up on their convictions even when facing death.

Respecting and honoring of women was the duty of every knight.

In addition, knights were to adhere to the principles of justice. Eschewing unfairness was the ultimate goal of knights.

Finally, unselfishness was another prominent feature of a Medieval knight – no knight would ever accept a monetary reward.

We will write a custom Essay on The Tales of the Medieval Knights: Courage, Chivalry and Convictions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leaving a major cultural heritage, knights became a staple of noble and chivalrous men with impeccable behavior and devotion that could withstand the threats of an enemy, tempting yet dubious rewards and the test of time. No matter how flawed and violent the Medieval society was, knights, guided by the church, managed to contribute to making this society a little more humane. Much to their credit, they seem to have succeeded.

Reference List Abels, R. (n. d.). Feudalism. 28 Oct. 2013. Retrieved from https://www.usna.edu/homepage.php

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The effect of cellphones and internet on teenagers Essay essay help: essay help

Even though technology has helped people in a lot of ways, a person must realize its drawbacks and balance the use of technology with the physical interaction with others. It is important to keep in mind that technology is not always error proof, thus reliability is a relative concept.

There are many examples that show how technology has proven to be a negative influence on society, but people still continue its use. From one point of view, it is possible to see that texting and using other features of a cell phone have become detrimental, but at the same time, there are some advantages to the communication that come out of texting.

An article titled “Generation Text” by Mark Bauerlein talks about the number of text messages that are sent everyday by the younger population. It amounts to such quantities that it has become consuming of lives and time. A cell phone and its features have become a form of social status, and peer pressure plays a role in keeping up the standard.

As Bauerlein fairly notes, “Everyone passes through this phase, but this generation’s experience marks a crucial change in the process” (Wilhoit 34). The private information and the communication itself have become a public occurrence where people put their lives out on social viewing without any concern for security or privacy.

Texting in particular, leads to a lack of emotion in the communication. The only way to express emotion is to put pre-set “smiles” beside words, phrases or to use the capital letters and exclamation marks. When people interact face-to-face, they see each other’s facial expressions.

They can hear the tone of voice and maybe hidden emotions that a person does not want others to know but nonetheless has them. All of this is impossible to see and feel through texting. This makes people similar to robots, where the real emotions are not important anymore. Even if a person is sad, they will put a “smile” beside the word and the other person will not even realize that maybe they must offer a helping hand or console their friend. People are slowly becoming emotionally isolated.

Nowadays, individuals focus on the way their facebook page looks, they pay great attention to the amount of pictures they post, number of responses that they receive to certain posts and comments about their status.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need to go out and do things became not needed. The interaction between people has come down to words on web pages and comments in relation to behavior of others. It is also cheaper and more practical to live in the word of computers, where there is no need to go out, spend money in cafes, different attractions and games that involve physical participation of the person and others.

Also, it is very time consuming, so people simply have no time to go out and enjoy nature and the company of others. The constant checking for the replies and posts of others, especially if there is an extreme amount of friends, takes up a lot of time. Mark Bauerlein’s research confirms that “…the bedroom is not a private space. It’s a social hub” (Wilhoit 35).

The development of technology has drastically changed the world. As people are unable to calculate the rates of progress, it is impossible to determine what changes will be brought about with an even greater increase in technological advancements.

Works Cited Wilhoit, Stephen. A Brief Guide to Writing from Readings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2012. Print.

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E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool Case Study essay help

Web-Based Compensation versus Stand-Alone P-Based Compensation Tool Human Resource Management is one of the most important functions in an organization, mainly because it involves handling issues related to the most important asset – people. The HR department performs various functions, one of them being compensation.

Over the years, the compensation role of HR has undergone improvements and upgrades, from the paper-based system to the current digital systems. Moreover, there are two main electronic systems used – web-based system and stand-alone PC-based system – both of which have advantages and disadvantages as discussed in the subsequent section.

Web-based compensation tool has various advantages, the first one being the fact that the system does not need installation in the organization; rather, it is hosted by an external service provider. This helps the organization to avoid set-up and staffing related costs.

Secondly, since the system is hosted by outsiders, and the firm just needs subscription for system usage, there is no involvement of the firm in upgrading the system or database; these roles are performed by the Application Service Providers. Moreover, the company does not have to worry about storage space, as this is handled by the ASP.

Thirdly, the system can be accessed from anywhere and at any time as long as there is internet connection. Fourthly, since the system is based on subscription, the firm can control its operation costs by subscribing for only the rights or user seats required at any given time. Lastly, there are minimal chances of error, as the system has a tool for automatic update and thorough-check of information (Walker and Perrin, 2001).

Despite these advantages, the web-based system has various disadvantages. First, since the system is based on subscription, it tends to be expensive in the long-run, as subscription fees will have to be paid as long as the firm uses the system. Secondly, the overreliance on internet may be a challenge, especially when connections are interrupted or slow, and to some extent, the firm may lag behind as data cannot not be updated off-line; indeed, internet is never available everywhere.

In addition, since computing environment is shared among many users, there are possibilities of the system being overcrowded or overloaded when traffic is heavy. Moreover, the firm loses control of the whole system, as management of the system is left exclusively to the ASP (Kavanagh, Thite, and Johnson, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the case of PC-based system, the following advantages are available. First, the firm has total control of the system and it may decide to switch from one software to another, based on updates and support. Secondly, the firm can make IT decisions at will, since it controls the whole process. Thirdly, there are minimal or no chances of the system being overloaded, and it can run faster when dedicated to a single user.

The main disadvantage of PC-based system is the fact that set-up cost may be high due to the cost of software and installations. Secondly, the system can only be accessed from local areas, unless special remote applications are provided. In addition, operational costs are high, as the firm has to spend on system upgrade, while user seats have to be paid for regardless of whether they are used or not (Gueutal and Stone, 2005).

From the above discussion, it is important for every firm to analyze its options carefully before making a choice on the best system to employ. However, for a small organization, the web-based tool is preferable, as it requires minimal costs outlay and it requires no system administrator. Nevertheless, all merits and demerits of each system have to be weighed in order to avoid chances of choosing the wrong system.

Benefits from the Use of E-Compensation in Job-Evaluation E-compensation is a vital tool in job-evaluation and it provides benefits to all parties involved including the HR team, management and employees. Generally, the HR derives benefits from the use of e-compensation in job-evaluation, as the system helps the HR to differentiate various jobs based on their descriptions and relationship (Gueutal and Stone, 2005).

In addition, the HR is able to peg salaries and benefits on the jobs based on their ratings, thus ensuring uniformity in compensation. Moreover, with e-compensation, it is easier to compare data from the industry for related jobs and then make informed decisions on compensation package that is most suitable for the job. In addition, e-compensation helps both the HR and management to use automated base salary increments, which are automatically routed for approval during review periods.

Employees also benefit from the use of e-compensation in job-evaluation, as total compensation reporting is provided. In addition, e-compensation ensures equity in employee compensation, as human errors and biases are eliminated through automated and programmed job-evaluation process.

Moreover, information for making decisions affecting employees is available throughout, thus making job-evaluation easy; indeed, the system allows information to be accessed at any time as long as one is connected to the system, thus saving on time and cost (Gueutal and Stone, 2005).

We will write a custom Case Study on E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits and Drawbacks of Centralized Approach to Managing Merit Pay System Merit pay system is a compensation system where employees are paid based on their performance. Basically, there are two main approaches used to manage this system – centralized approach and decentralized approach – both of which have benefits and drawbacks. Centralized approach allows the HR specialists, the discretion to control pay increments based on various factors such as budget constraint, turnover, market pressure and so on (Gueutal and Stone, 2005).

Secondly, it is easy to transfer employees from one department to another with a view of increasing performance. Thirdly, decision-making is easy and fast, as it does not involve many departments or personnel; rather, the HR uses merit increase grids as guidelines. One drawback of centralized approach is that, “the compensation program may suit general corporate needs, but not individual department’s needs” (Gasbarre, N.d).

Secondly, line managers are excluded from merit pay administration despite their direct interaction with the employees; as such, there is a possibility of incorrect data being used in compensation. Lastly, centralized approach has limitations in motivating employees, as HR managers do not have direct contact with employees in their workstations; as such, they may not provide other incentives except money to motivate them.

Types of Integrated Analytical Features in Compensation Planning With the changing HR environment, managers need to embrace the use of technology that will enhance the whole compensation process to remain competitive. One type of integrated analytical feature of an e-compensation planning is presence of a compensation planner data sheet, which helps managers to make informed decisions as well as to enhance efficiency in compensation process.

This feature provides solutions based on available salary budget and allocation procedures, as well as historical reward data; in the process, it helps in minimizing costs and controlling budget. Therefore, this feature helps managers to make compensation based on performance index, and motivate employees without having to spend beyond their budget limit.

Another feature is enterprise resource planning feature that enables integration of various HR data, including employee’s profiles, job title/description, grade and salary range, and performance appraisal in order to be used effectively in compensation planning. This saves valuable time for the HR; it also helps the HR to avoid hassles of collating and transferring data for decision making. Moreover, this feature allows HR to create rules and to filter employee groups through an automatically updating support tool.

The third feature is the integrated manager self-service tool that enhances planning and allocation of various compensation components through enhanced decision making capability. Here, managers can easily update any aspect arising in the organization related to employee compensation including employee change in status, pay increment, bonus recommendation, and interdepartmental transfer among others.

Obstacles to achieving Potential of Web-Based Internal Equity Tools Web-based internal equity tool is an important compensation tool used by organizations in the contemporary HR environment. Normally, it involves online job evaluation, pay grading and performance analysis to ensure employees are equitably compensated within the organization (Information Resources Management Association, 2011). However, there are various challenges that HR faces in the use of this tool, thus failing to gain from its potential benefits.

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the barriers is the fact that most of the web-based internal equity tools “are not generally integrated across software packages” (Gueutal and Stone, 2005, p. 173). Software programs that support this tool may be available in the market, but their availability in the web may be a problem.

Secondly, many organizations still believe in external equity, thus they are not motivated to embrace internal equity; as a result, they fail to invest in web-based internal equity tools. Thirdly, the organizations may lack skilled employees on the use of web-based compensation tools, while at the same time the organization may fail to invest in this tool.

Strategies Used By HR to Evaluate the Quality of Market Data The quality of market data used in HR decision is very important because any compromise in quality of data will definitely lead to improper decisions. It is also important that all data received by the HR must be accurate in order to avoid incurring unnecessary costs due to inaccurate compensation.

Generally, HR’s initial role is to review data received from the market to establish its credibility, completeness, and reasonableness. One of the strategies used by HR to evaluate the data is the use of Data Quality Matrix (DQM). Here, data from different sources is classified into a “set of standard, simple, useful categories of quality” (Hanson, N.d). This strategy uses data calibration records, accuracy checks, duplicate samples and split sample to assign data to quality levels, which may be bias or precision.

Another strategy for evaluation of the quality of data is the use of data quality scorecard. This strategy “allows aggregated analysis and drill-downs” (Maydanchik, 2007, p.294), and provides scores to data, based on its quality rating.

The other data evaluation strategy is the recurrent data quality assessment, which involves initiation of data quality improvement program to determine the credibility of data collection process. This strategy normally focuses on assessment of data trend by setting benchmarks and identifying any potential sources of data quality compromise.

References Gasbarre, D. (N.d). Compensation Administration. Encyclopaedia of Business. 2nd ed. Web.

Gueutal, H. and Stone, D. (2005).The Brave New World of eHR: Human Resources Management in the Digital Age. SA: Jossey-Bass.

Hanson, S. (N.d). Evaluating Data for Data Quality. Web.

Information Resources Management Association. (2011).Enterprise Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. NY: Idea Group Inc. (IGI).

Kavanagh, M. J., Thite, M. and Johnson, R. D. (2012).Human Resource Information Systems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Maydanchik, A. (2007). Data Quality Assessment.NY: Technics Publications.

Walker, A. and Perrin, T. (2001).Web-Based Human Resources. NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

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Swine Flu Vaccination Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Swine flu is a virus-caused ailment of the respiratory system of pigs depicted by nasal discharge, chesty cough, loss of appetite, and restlessness. The production of swine flu vaccine is a costly undertaking. It takes over one billion chicken eggs to manufacture the three billion doses of the vaccine required globally. The entire production process takes over six months.

The production, overseen by the World Health Organization, starts with detection of the virus and its isolation. A blend consisting of the virus and a standard virus from the laboratory is made to form a hybrid that is later planted in chicken eggs. The hybrid is tested to ensure its safety, efficacy and proper development in the egg. It is then taken by pharmaceutical corporations for mass production. Ultraviolet light treatment inactivates the virus making the disease causing antigens inactive.

The H1N1 virus mutates in a way that makes is easily transmitted among human beings. For instance in 2009 the virus that was discovered as the cause of swine flu was influenza A. In 2011, another virus was discovered and labeled influenza A (H3N2)v (Bloom, Canning, and Weston, 28).

New vaccines are produced regularly to prevent infections from new strains caused by mutations in the flu virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regularly modify and revise their vaccines and information about flu breakouts (“Vaccine against 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus” para. 1). Health care practitioners must verify the information contained in the inserts and packages of the vaccines before administering the vaccines.

In many ways, prevention is always better than cure. Immunization not only protects against contracting preventable diseases, but also prevents the diseases from spreading. Every year, young children die from diseases that could have been prevented by a simple shot or oral dose (Nieburg and McLaren 7).

Moreover, most vaccines are safe and efficient and are only administered after they have passed rigorous tests. The side effects associated with vaccines such as pain and soreness are insignificant compared to the risk posed by the actual disease. Vaccination is very important, and measures should be set up to ensure that all children are vaccinated against preventable diseases. Therefore, compulsory vaccination of children before admittance into kindergarten is a good starting point.

All approved vaccines (H1N1 vaccine included) contain an insignificant amount of risk. For instance, for every one million people vaccinated about two are likely to contract a life-threatening neurological consequence known as the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). However, the risks posed by flu (including GBS) to the wider population outweigh any such complications and incidences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Responses The first posting stands out in the way it clearly outlines the procedures followed during the manufacture of flu vaccine. I like the way the author dedicates a large portion of the material to the importance of the vaccine to the individual’s immune system.

However, as much as I agree that the work of the vaccine is centered on the immune system, its main benefits are reflected beyond the individual’s body. These benefits can be social (such as reducing the number of deaths) or economic. Vaccination is very important when taken in the broader context of preventing the spread of infections.

The second posting is very informative and contains information about several other diseases that can be prevented through immunization. It is also similar to my posting in several ways. For example, we agree on the production process as well as the need to have the vaccine administered to as many people as possible. However, I find the last sentence hard to comprehend and cannot decipher its meaning. After reading this posting, I would like to know the position of the author on compulsory pre-kindergarten vaccination.

Works Cited Bloom, David, David Canning and Mark Weston. “The Value of Vaccination.” World Economics 6.3 (2005): 15-39. Print.

Nieburg Phillip, Nancy M. McLaren 2011, Role(s) Of Vaccines and Immunization Programs in Global Disease Control: Mind The Nitty-Gritty Details. PDF file. 27 Oct. 2013.

Vaccine against 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus. n.d. Web.

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Predation on Zebra Mussels by Freshwater Drum and Yellow Perch in Western Lake Erie Essay (Article) college essay help near me

The main aim of the ecological research study, “Predation on Zebra by Freshwater Drum and Yellow Perch in Western Lake Erie” by Morrison, Lynch, and Dabrowski, was to identify the fish species that prey in zebra mussels. The zebra mussels population was increasing rapidly and it was thought to cause some ecosystem effects. Thus, methods for controlling their population increase were the key quest of the study (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 177).

In studying the population of the zebra mussels, diverse objectives were set for achievement. Some of them include determining if the consumption of zebra mussels by freshwater drum and yellow perch was influenced by zebra mussels’ population and determining whether North American fish species selectively consumed zebra mussels.

Additionally, examining how morphological adaptation such as mouth and throat formation of freshwater drum and yellow perch influenced their predation was also a considered objective in the study (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 178).

Methods used

To augment the studies effectiveness, diverse methods were employed in fish collection. For instance, freshwater drum and yellow perch were collected randomly from selected survey sites by use of grid squares. Semi-balloon bottom trawl that was made up of 10.7mm head rope and mesh of approximately 6.4mm at one end of the cod was also used in the collection of fish study.

The captured fish were enclosed according to their sizes to ensure their survival. SCUBA method was also used in the random collection of zebra mussels. Unlike other methods, SCUBA method collected zebra mussels together with marble and rocks. However, zebra mussels were separated from the marble and rocks manually (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 179).

Laboratory analysis

In order to determine the morphology of the fish species that coexisted in the selected water, diverse laboratory analyses were observed. For instance, the pharyngeal gapes of yellow perch and freshwater drum were measured using the Wainwright method. Wainwright is a process that involves the use of plastic dowels after thawing fish. Dowels of diverse diameters were used in determining the diameters of pharyngeal gapes of fish being studied (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 179).

Diverse parts of zebra mussels were also measured in order to determine their growth and development. For instance, the septa and shell length of zebra mussels of between 3 and 35mm were measured easily with dissecting microscope of 40X magnification power. The length, height and width of the zebra mussels under study were made by use of calipers. To calculate the dimensions of zebra mussels’ fish consumed by yellow perch and freshwater drum fishes, regression equations were employed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gastrointestinal tracts of diverse fish that were caught were also examined in order to determine the fish species that predated on zebra mussels. This was made possible by removing gastrointestinal tracts of the caught fish and preserving them in the concentrated alcohol. The stomach contents of the preserved gastrointestinal tracts were removed, observed and isolated under dissecting microscope of 40X magnification power.

To develop the study of zebra mussels, measurements were made by use of ocular micrometer. Additionally, the TL of the prey was also calculated by aid of the provided appendix in order to enhance the calculation of the weight of the each individual species that was consumed by the predators. Wet weight of each fish species was also calculated through the aid of the calculated TL (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 179).

Analytical methods

In order to compare the population of zebra mussels in the two selected areas of study, Kolomogorov-Smirnov’s two-sample test was employed. Production of similar frequencies by the method used enhanced the combination of different sites as the predation points. Additionally, the diets of freshwater drum and yellow perch were also used in identifying the size of the zebra mussels that were consumed by the predators in the study area.

Comparison and identification of the consumed zebra mussels was effected by use of Chesson’s alpha method, in which pi is the average size of zebra mussel from the provided sizes of zebra mussels, and ri the average size of zebra mussels in the fish diet.

Alpha= ri/pi/

Results

From the study carried out on freshwater drum, yellow perch and zebra mussels, it is evident that the outcome had significant relationship with the expected values. For instance, the food contents in the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater drum differed with time. In the dry month, May, the estimated dry weight of fish species was greater than that of July.

Additionally, it was observed that freshwater drum fed on zebra mussels in specific months. Thus, from the study it is evident that the predator consumed some zebra mussels. It was also observed that the rate of zebra mussels’ predation increased with the increase in the size of the predator.

We will write a custom Article on Predation on Zebra Mussels by Freshwater Drum and Yellow Perch in Western Lake Erie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater drum of approximately 250mm TL was found to contain large number of zebra mussels. From the study, it was further evident that freshwater drum alternated its diet with time because of variation in availability of food. For instance, the study showed that its gastrointestinal tract showed some traces of zooplanktons in some months when zebra mussels’ population was inadequate (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 180).

Similarly, zebra mussels were found to have been consumed by yellow perch. Although they were found in all sizes of yellow perch, it is evident that predator size contributed immensely towards an increase in predation.

For instance, yellow perch greater than 200mm TL were found to include lots of zebra mussels in their diet. Additionally, it is evident that yellow perch also consumed zebra mussels as well zooplanktons during specific periods. Thus, from the study it is evident that yellow perch were not fully dependent on zebra mussels as their source of food.

Relationship of size and predation

From the study it is also evident that there was a strong relationship between the size of pharyngeal gape and the predated zebra mussels. In most occasions, the size of the consumed zebra mussels was smaller than the size of the pharyngeal gapes of their predators.

The widths and heights of the zebra mussels were also small compared to the size of the pharyngeal gapes of the respective predators. However, it was also found out that some zebra mussels were larger than the estimated pharyngeal gape. It was also evident that the increase in size of the predators had high relationship with the size of the predators (Morrison, Lynch and Dabrowski 182).

The study also showed that the number of zebra mussels differed with age; their number decreased in the gastrointestinal tract of the predators with increase in age, because very few predators fed on very large zebra mussels.

Works Cited Morrison, Todd, William Lynch, and Konrad Dabrowski. “Predation of Zebra Mussels by Freshwater Drum and Yellow Perch in Western Lake Erie”. Journal of Great Lakes Research 23.2 (1997): 177-189. Print.

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A Dysfunctional Behavior Involving a Drunkard Parent Essay online essay help

The following behavioral therapy plan has been designed to deal with a dysfunctional behavior involving a drunkard parent. The parent is a father of three who is a habitual drunkard and this habit is adversely affecting the finances of the family. He spends most of his free time, especially after work, at drinking joints.

The habit is also affecting the fatherly responsibility and expectations of the parent. However, no one among the family members is willing to talk about the habit which has seen family ties subsequently threatened and deteriorate due to fatherly negligence and irresponsibility.

As a therapist, I would opt for conditioning and learning to help the father overcome this behavior. The most immediate response to the behavior will be a positive reinforcement of classical conditioning which refers to a method of learning where the conditioned response is supposed to initiate the occurrence of an unconditioned response. A person is thought to associate the occurrence of one signal with the automatic response of a second signal that will always follow the first one.

In behavioral therapy, classical conditioning is used to change the unconditioned stimulus by successfully substituting it with another desired stimulus in order to overcome the dysfunctional habit. Initially, the person would have a certain dysfunctional habit that he or she has always associated with a certain uncontrolled stimulus. The desired unconditioned stimulus is gradually introduced while reducing the undesired one.

In this case, the conditioned stimulus will be an alarm clock that goes on at exactly 4 pm signifying the end of working time. Thus, the father relates the alarm signal to free time and every time the alarm goes on, he knows he is free from duty and drives to his usual drinking joints. Hence, drinking is the unconditioned stimulus that should be done away with, while the big task is to identify another activity that will substitute visiting the drinking places.

More so, the father has to be trained to always associate free time with the identified behavior. Through classical conditioning, he is introduced to golf as a game and subsequently as the unconditioned stimulus. He is gradually trained to associate the alarm clock with golf. Once it goes on, he is reminded of an appointment with the golf course and thus leaves the office to go and play golf. It is expected that with time, he will start to associate the alarm with the game and in the process he will shun drinking.

Once done with classical conditioning, operant conditioning should follow. In operant or instrumental conditioning, a person is left to choose on the right action against the dysfunctional behavior according to its consequences. A person is made fully aware of the behavior they are engaging in, and the probable consequences. It is then left upon them to voluntarily make a decision over the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Operant conditioning may lead to punishment or reinforcement. Punishment occurs when the affected person takes up the new behavior less frequently while reinforcement occurs when the affected person goes on with the new behavior more frequently than before. Conditioning may be said to be extinct if the affected person shows no change following the introduction of a new trait.

The case of a drunk and irresponsible father demands that he is reminded of the societal expectations. Effort should also be made to make him realize the negligence he has subjected the family to and the mismanagement of family finances.

The father should also be briefed on the current consequences of his behavior as well as what might befall the family in the future as a result of his drinking habit and then the idea of engaging in golf as a game to help utilize free time should be introduced. This should be made to sound like the best option compared to drinking.

A few merits of engaging in sports over drinking should convince the father. The father should also be explained to that that playing golf will not only help him manage free time but also slowly quit drinking. The father is then left to decide on his own on the best action to take with playing golf having been put as the best alternative. During this time, it is expected that he will evaluate the consequences of daily drinking on the family and compare the consequences should he opt to spend his free time doing something else.

Observational learning should closely follow operant conditioning. Here, the affected person is left to act on his behavior through observing others. In behavioral therapy, the therapist identifies various personalities with outstanding character in society who act as role models.

Some might be those who were once faced with a similar condition. The client is then allowed to observe their lifestyle, character, personality as well as the generalized behavior of such persons. He/she is most likely to be tempted to ape certain positive traits from such models. Hence, through observation and copying, the affected person may eventually drop the bad trait in an attempt to be like the role model.

Once again, observational learning does not call for reinforcement but learning through observation just like little children do in the course of their behavioral development. Thus, the therapist will only be entitled to identifying the models and the whole task of observation is left to the client.

We will write a custom Essay on A Dysfunctional Behavior Involving a Drunkard Parent specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Referring to the client in this scenario, I need to identify a few examples of people who were once irresponsible drinkers who will serve as models. I will also sample out some parents with exemplary family set ups that I will use to persuade and encourage my client to keenly observe how such parents manage and raise their families. I will then allow my client to keep observing the families as I asses his progress.

The client is advised to only watch out for positive traits that might help him quit drinking and not trying to copy the whole social lifestyle of the model. Having properly gone through classical conditioning and operant conditioning, I am convinced the client will eventually opt for golf after work over drinking. He might eventually quit drinking.

In conclusion, behavioral therapy majorly depends on the client’s willingness to drop a certain behavior as well as the methods employed by the therapist. The three approaches explained above are however the best methods used to encourage behavioral change. Once somebody has an alternative for a certain behavior, he is given time to ponder on the consequences and make a decision.

The same person is then encouraged to uphold the same decision by observing those who have excelled through the same way. In this manner, one is able to successfully go through dysfunctional behavior therapy and achieve behavioral transformation.

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The Concept and Effects of Evolution of Electronic Health Record System Software Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The FreeMed software

The challenge of the plan

Precaution taken by other firms using the system

The proposed plan

References

Introduction The discussion with a physician in the State hospital waiting room revealed the challenge facing the hospital that had an undeserved health record system. This was more profound in the department at the Critical care Unit of the hospital. “Sometimes we have been forced to reschedule our programs due to the last minute realization that other patients have been waiting for follow up activities more than two days” said the doctor.

This has been due to an insufficient health record system that is suppressed by the increased number of patients who visit the facility each day. The recent evolution of electronic health record system software is a perfect solution for this problem at the State Hospital (Catherine, 2005). Many lives have been lost due to delay for treatments while other patients have resorted to search for other services elsewhere due to this problem.

As a strategy to improve the quality of its services, the hospital has decided to introduce a new electronic health record system (FreeMed) to digitize the record system. However, this system faces a challenge of whether this method would be effective in case of power outage or failure of a mobile device. This paper presents a response to this question and gives how the facility can deal with this situation.

The FreeMed software This is a computer based electronic medical record system that stores a patient’s information from admission to discharge. It can be used with any web browser in the best desired language by the user (Nyheim

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Illness of the Mind Essay essay help online

“Bartleby the Scrivener” by Herman Melville and “Torquemada at the Stake” by Benito Pérez Galdós are two stories that might seem different at first, but have a common theme beyond the obvious context. The way people live their lives and excuses they make, often rely on the problems in their personal lives, more particularly their health. They use it as an excuse to do or not do things, and this can be either personal health problems or someone else’s.

In “Bartleby the Scrivener”, the theme is that the majority of characters have some sort of deficiency in them. Mostly, it is related to their personality and health issues that stem from individual characteristics. But in reality, an individual feels morally unhealthy, as he is not sure what will come next in life (McCall 6). As a result, a person starts making excuses and think up deficiencies that are not there. This is a clear cut case of a person being emotionally unhappy, so they have to make up for it in a physical way.

Bartleby is the most intriguing character. At one point, the narrator says: “I might give alms to his body, but his body did not pain him — it was his soul that suffered and his soul I could not reach” (Melville 26). This shows that even though Bartleby seemed like a good worker at first, he was unhealthy inside.

A moral sickness can be just as destructive as a physical one, which this story clearly illustrates. The character that Bartleby has set up for himself leaves others in awe, as they do not want to argue. Even the Lawyer cannot find it in him to argue when Bartleby refuses to take on some task. This also comes from the fact that Bartleby think very highly of himself, and being the person that he is, others must understand him and love him as he is.

“Torquemada at the Stake” is also a story that highly connects the physical world of health with that of mental one. Torquemada seems healthy when everything is fine. Even though he has lost his wife, it has not taught him anything, and he continues to be “sick” in the mind. When his son Valentin falls ill, he cannot believe it. Torquemada’s daughter, Rufina, tells him: ”It seems he has a dizzy spell. It was the professor who brought him home, in his arms” (Galdos 19).

This is such a shock to the father that he cannot move. It seems his eyes have been opened, as he wants his son to be well so much. He was proud of his intelligence, and now, the world was crumbling down. Right away, Torquemada becomes mentally ill. He believes that by giving away charity, his son will get better. He does not realize that he is doing the same thing, as he did with his wife, as “he spared no medical or pharmaceutical expense to save the poor lady’s life” (Appelbaum 7).

The two stories might seem different, but in reality, have a common theme of sickness in the body and mind. Both authors wanted to show that it is impossible for a person to be healthy if their thoughts are ill willed. It is described in a humorously sarcastic way, and this gives the two stories originality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, it is understandable that socially some people want to take the easy way out. It comes from their personal unfulfillment. A person in the modern world will understand that strong character will lead to higher output towards society and themselves.

Works Cited Appelbaum, Stanley. Torquemada at the Stake (Torquemada en la Hoguera): A Dual-Language Book. Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Publications, 2004. Print.

Galdós, Benito. Torquemada at the Stake. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1986. Print.

McCall, Dan. The Silence of Bartleby. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1989. Print.

Melville, Herman. Bartleby the Scrivener. ReadHowYouWant.com, 2006. Google Books. Web.

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Climate Change: The Complex Issue of Global Warming Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Global warming has emerged as one of the most important and complex global issues facing the international community. This phenomenon has led to climate change that has caused many negative impacts to the environment. The international community has come to a realization that it must pay greater attention to this problem. This paper will examine the complex issue of global warming by reviewing some important questions on the topic including the greenhouse effect, atmospheric carbon dioxide and the significant environment damages of increased carbon emissions.

Greenhouse Effect and CO2

Global warming has been largely attributed to the greenhouse effect. By definition, the greenhouse effect is the process through which the atmosphere absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the Earth’s surface once it is heated directly by the sun during the day. This heat energy is then used to warm the planet.

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) play an important role in controlling temperatures on the Earth. These gases fulfill this role by preventing all the sun’s radiation from escaping from the earth through convection (Jacobson 316). The GHGs selectively absorb radiation in the infrared region and then release this heat energy in all directions. By trapping some of the Sun’s heat energy, the greenhouse effect ensures that the temperatures remain high even when the sun is not shinning directly on the Earth’s surface.

The natural greenhouse effect ensures that the Earth’s average near-surface air temperature is 150 (Jacobson 316). Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature would be -150 and this is too cold to support most life. In addition to the natural greenhouse effect, human activities have also increased this effect. The greenhouse effect attributed to activities by human beings is referred to as the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and it has led to undesirable increases of global temperature on the Earth.

There are a number of main GHGs responsible for the greenhouse effect. Water vapor is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect on the planet due to its ability to absorb infrared radiation. The second major contributor is carbon dioxide and this gas contributes between 10 and 25% of the greenhouse effect depending on the region (Jacobson 317).

Methane gas, which occurs naturally or though the fermentation of organic matter, is the third major contributor of the greenhouse effect. The Ozone layer, which is a naturally occurring gas that is mostly concentrated in the stratosphere, is the fourth major naturally occurring greenhouse gas. Nitrous oxide, primarily produced from agricultural activities, is also an important greenhouse gas.

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has experienced significant increase from the 280 parts per million (ppm) levels of 1860. The IPCC reports that the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been steadily increasing over the past few decades (1). The concentration in ppm in 1998 was 365 while in 2007 it had risen to 379ppm. Readings from the Mauna Loa Observatory indicate that the current rate is 393ppm (IPCC 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While natural atmospheric changes have contributed to an increase in the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere, scientists agree that human activities have caused the greater increase (Dimitrov 801). Fossil fuel use has been the major cause of the increase in carbon dioxide levels.

Fossil fuels have been used as the primary energy source for the industrialization process carried out from the last century. Cement production is also noted as a significant contributor to the carbon dioxide in the environment. Carbon dioxide concentration has also risen due to the extensive deforestation that has taken place since 1860 (Dimitrov 802).

Trees act as carbon sinks and reduce the level of CO2 in the atmosphere. Extensive deforestation has meant that the only a small amount of CO2 is absorbed by trees leading to the rise in atmospheric CO2.

Environmental Damages of CO2 Emissions

A number of major adverse effects to the environment are predicted if the CO2 emissions are not significantly reduced. The rise in CO2 will lead to increased temperatures on the Earth and this will increase the frequency of heat waves. Heat waves are devastating since they might lead to major fires that destroy natural habitats and even populated areas.

Heat waves will also increase the demand on the available water resources (Fung and Lopez 119). The global warming attributed to carbon emissions will also increase flooding as the frequency of storms increases and sea levels rise due to the melting of ice at the Polar Regions.

Fung and Lopez assert that climate change caused by CO2 will affect the quality of surface water. Some areas will experience increased flushing of nutrients and the increased storm intensity might lead to additional pollution of water (Fung and Lopez 119). The biodiversity on the Earth will also be negatively impacted by climate change. Some species will not be able to adapt the changing climate leading to their extinction.

Analysis

In my opinion, we do not need to wait for more evidence about the future of climate change before acting. The available evidence already strongly suggests that climate change is occurring due to the increase in greenhouse gases all over the world. Human activities are responsible for the extra CO2 emissions that have led to global warming.

We will write a custom Assessment on Climate Change: The Complex Issue of Global Warming specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The frequency of the adverse environmental effects attributed to global warming has already increased. Failure to take action to mitigate climate change over the last few decades has led to an increase in the detrimental effects of global warming. While there is no single solution to fix the problem, reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the environment is an effective method. The global community should start acting now in order to reduce carbon emissions and therefore mitigate the problems caused by climate change.

Works Cited Dimitrov, Radoslav. “Inside UN Climate Change Negotiations: The Copenhagen Conference.” Review of Policy Research 27.6 (2010): 795-821. Web.

Fung, Fai and Lopez Ana. Modelling the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources. NY: John Wiley

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Company Analysis: Sears Holdings Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Description

Business objectives

Sears Holdings’ Strategy

Recommendation

Works Cited

Description Sears Holdings is a corporation that based in the United States. The multinational corporation has over 4,000 retail stores across the globe. Sears Holdings started in 2005 following the merger between Kmart and Sears. The company operates its stores under the names Kmart and Sears (“Sears Holdings Corporate Website”, para 1).

It also has a number of subsidiaries that it operates under their own names. Sears is ranked number ten among the largest retail stores in the United States in terms of revenue. The company’s main business is the sale of home appliances, mobile devices and accessories, fruits and vegetables (grocery), as well as food products, drinks, and beverages. In addition, the company also offers fitness equipment, as well as lawn and garden tools. It also offers a number of home services such as installations.

An organization has to adopt a business model that is viable and likely to give it a competitive advantage to succeed in the business world. The business model adopted by Sears Holdings is aimed at maximizing consumer satisfaction. It is imperative to note that a business model is developed to create, deliver, as well as capture value for the organization. The value of an organization gives it a competitive edge. The company aims at attracting more customers and increasing its sales.

In line with this, Sears has a business model called, “Shop Your Way”. Under this model, the customers are given the privilege to buy whatever they want and shop in the style that they feel comfortable with. Shoppers earn points as they buy. They are also rewarded with benefits that are in both digital and physical formats. Rewarding is done through ShopYourWay.com (“Sears Holdings Corporate Website”, para 1).

It is important to note that “Shop Your Way” is aimed at encouraging people to shop online. Every item that one buys online earns points. This reduces the operating costs of the organization and increases its profitability. Online sales save the organization the cost incurred in holding stock, as well as other costs related to warehousing.

The customers are able to chat with the organization’s staff through the online services. Customers are able to ask for assistance any time they are stuck. In addition, they are able to get real time feedback on any issue they would like to inquire about. This business model is in line with the increasing use of technology in business. It is a model that has the ability to facilitate innovation, efficiency, and effectiveness.

Business objectives Organizations need to be guided by objectives to achieve their goals. The set objectives should be in line with the business strategy and in a capacity to help the organization in achieving a competitive advantage. Sears Holdings has a set of objectives that it aims to achieve through applying the “Shop Your Way” business model.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the objectives is to drive repeat visits. Under this objective, the organization aims at encouraging those who will shop in its premises to come back in the future. The company has a strategy whereby it targets to create a long-term relationship with its customers.

Sears, therefore, offers services and products that maximize customer satisfaction and persuade customers to come back. The other objective of Sears Holdings is to improve its productivity and efficiency. Organizations need to continually increase their productivity and efficiency considering the increasing competition in the business world today. This encourages the use and adoption of technology, as well as innovation.

Organizations are able to improve their productivity and efficiency significantly through the use of technology. In connection with this, Sears Holdings also has an objective of continually reinventing itself through the use of technology and innovation (“Work For Sears Holdings Corporation”, para 7). The world is now turning to technology for most services and activities, thus an organization ought to be at par with the changes; otherwise, it is likely to lose its competitive advantage.

Brand building is the other objective that is pursued by Sears Holdings. A strong brand is a source of competitive advantage for the organization. Sears Holdings aims at making its brand strong and highly reputable to attract more customers into buying its products and services, leading to an increase in sales and profitability respectively.

Finally, the objective of Sear Holdings is to continually reinforce its “Shop Your Way” business model. This is a business model that has been a major factor in the company’s success, thus Sears has decided to continually reinforce the model as an objective (“Work For Sears Holdings Corporation”, para 1).

It is notable that the objectives of Sears Holdings are aimed at increasing and adding value for its customers. The value proposition is the bottom-line for all its objectives. The company recognizes that customers are very important for its success. Sears recognizes that it is only through the customers that it can make sales that can make profits (COLLOQUY Loyalty Awards 2).

Consequently, Sears Holdings’ objectives are divided into business and design objectives. The business objectives are those objectives that are aimed at bringing new customers and maintaining the existing ones at the same time. This is done through increasing the level of satisfaction that the customers get from the products and services offered by the company.

We will write a custom Essay on Company Analysis: Sears Holdings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, design objectives are those objectives that are aimed at continually improving the products and services in terms of quality. The design objectives are also aimed at providing differential treatment for customers. For instance, the company focuses on increasing the dialogue between the customers and employees through the “Shop Your Way” policy since it provides online chatting options.

Sears Holdings’ Strategy The business strategy of any organization is aimed at helping the organization achieve its business model. The objectives that an organization has set are only achieved if the organization has a workable business model. Therefore, it is correct to say that the business strategy facilitates the achievement of the organization’s objectives.

One of Sears’ major strategies is to focus on customers. The company values its customers so much that it is always ready to listen to them and respond to their reactions at any given time. Consumers are very important to any organization. No organization can achieve its financial objectives without the consumers. Sears Holdings recognize this. In turn, the company has adopted a strategy that will enable it to keep the customers close and satisfied. The company has done well in the strategy of focusing on its customers so far.

The other strategy that the company has adopted is the strategy of building teams and aligning them with the objectives of the company (“Work For Sears Holdings Corporation”, para 9). Workers are likely to achieve more when they work collectively compared to when they work as individuals. It is possible to share ideas and come up with more comprehensive decisions through teamwork.

Teamwork facilitates innovation and the achievement of the organization’s competitive advantage. One of the objectives of Sears Holdings is to continually re-invent the company through technology and innovation. Building teams and aligning them is a strategy that is meant to facilitate innovation and technological development in the organization. This helps the company to offer better services to its customers and become effective in establishing long-term relationships with them.

It is also effective in the brand building objective. Finally, Sears Holdings has adopted the money making strategy. This is a strategy that helps the company maximize its profitability. Increasing the level of sales and minimizing the operating costs at the same time are two major strategies that can help Sears maximize profits. The company encourages online shopping to reduce its operating costs. Points and rewards, on the other hand, attract customers into buying its products and increasing its sales.

Recommendation The CEO of Sears Holdings should focus on prices and quality to increase the level of sales. The CEO should offer goods that are of high quality at prices that are affordable to many. Customers are always willing to pay less and get maximum satisfaction. The CEO should also focus on reducing the operating costs.

This can be done by establishing an effective supply chain that will ensure goods are available in all outlets at the right time. Innovation will also facilitate cost reduction. The company should also enhance its online sales. Sears should get more people to buy online to reduce the operating costs by a significant margin.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Analysis: Sears Holdings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited “Sears Holdings Corporate Website.” Sears Holdings Corporation 2013. Web.

“Work For Sears Holdings Corporation.” Sears Holdings Corporation 2013. Web.

COLLOQUY Loyalty Awards. Sears Holdings Corporation 2011. Web.

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Wealth, Class and Power in the 19th century Essay online essay help

It is possible to say that economic, industrial, and intellectual trends, which emerged in the nineteenth century, contributed to the growing inequalities in many European societies. Moreover, one should speak about the growing class division which can be explained by the fact that a growing number of people became dissatisfied with the lack of opportunities for climbing social ladder. This argument can be best illustrated by examining the primary sources that can throw light on the experiences of people who lived during that period.

To some degree, this confrontation can be explained by extremely poor working conditions that could destroy the health of an individual. For instance, it is possible to mention Sadler Commission Report on Child labor. This document shows that children could be beaten and humiliated by foremen[1].

Moreover, these people did not have many opportunities to improve their living conditions even though they could be working since the age of eight. This is one of the issues that can be singled out. The hostility between various classes could be intensified because workers could believe that they were dehumanized by their employers.

In order to understand the causes of this hostility one can look at the extremely rigid rules that regulated workers’ behavior. According to these rules, workers could be fined for every deviation from the procedures established by the management [2]. To some degree, this situation can be explained by rapid development of technologies during the nineteenth century. This trend reduced the bargaining power of workers whose services were of lesser importance to manufacturers.

Admittedly, there were people, who attempted to show that there had been no need to speak about injustice. For instance, one can mention Samuel Smiles and his book Self-Help and Thrift. He wanted to emphasize the idea that the social inequalities could be explained by the individual qualities of a person. For instance, he said that poverty could be explained by “individual idleness, selfishness, and vice”[3].

This rhetoric could not fully explain the origins of inequalities. However, it could intensify the hostility toward more prosperous people. In turn, the arguments put forward by Samuel Smiles were less popular in comparison with the ideas of Karl Marx[4].

These examples show that the nineteenth century was marked by the growing class division. To some degree, this process can be attributed to the declining bargaining power of workers. Moreover, one should speak about the ethical critique of capitalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Dooday, Graeme. The Morals of Measurement: Accuracy, Irony, and Trust in Late

Victorian Electrical Practice, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Perry, Marvin. Sources of the Western Tradition: Volume II: From the Renaissance to the Present, New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Footnotes Marvin Perry. Sources of the Western Tradition: Volume II: From the Renaissance to the Present (New York: Cengage Learning, 2008) 143.

Perry 148.

Smiles, as cited in Perry 150.

Dooday, Graeme. The Morals of Measurement: Accuracy, Irony, and Trust in Late Victorian Electrical Practice (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004) 66.

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Shingles and Its Treatment Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Appearing on one side

Is Shingles Contagious?

Treatment methods

What is post herpetic neuralgia?

Shingles Vaccine

Reference List

Appearing on one side Since Herpes zoster (i.e. Shingles) lays dormant in the nerve tissue of the body, it usually travels from a person’s ganglia to the various axons and then reaches only a particular portion of the skin (Is that rash shingles?, 2013). While it is still unknown why it is isolated to particular areas, it often occurs on the chest, back or in some areas of the face in a belt like pattern.

Is Shingles Contagious? Shingles (varicella zoster) is not contagious in the conventional sense due to its nature as the virus that causes chicken pox. What you have to understand is that once a person gets chicken pox and gets better, the virus goes into a dormant state wherein it can either “sleep” throughout that person’s life and never resurge or it can “awaken”.

This can occur as a result of a weakening in the immune system, stress or the normal aging process that occurs in the body, however, this “awakening” does not occur in most individuals (Calianno

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Comparison the Poems Blackberries by Ellen Hunnicutt and August by Mary Oliver Essay college essay help

Blackberries is one of the masterpieces by Ellen Hunnicutt. The poem narrates the story of a woman and her husband on their camping trip. August, on the other hand, by Mary Oliver narrates the story of a woman who speaks about picking blackberries. She compares the practice of picking berries with the act of reaching for her freedom (Pike 359). She describes herself as a bear reaching for honey. These two poems portray the position of women in the society and their specific gender roles.

The first similarity between these two poems is in the use of poetic devices. The first poetic device used in the poem is metaphor. In the poem August, the author writes ‘the thick paw of my life’. This is a metaphor because it does not refer to a physical body (Pike 359). This refers to the moment, like of an animal. This is also notable in the poem by Ellen.

The poet writes ‘smoothed the blanket’. This is figurative because the poet uses imagery to portray the role of women in the society. Assonance is common in these two poems. For instance, similar vowel sounds are evident in the line ‘it has a funny taste’. In the poem August, the line ‘black honey of summer’ also has assonance (Pike 359).

As well, blackberries in the two poems represent the duties and nature of women lives in the wider society. The poets rely on blackberries to portray different gender roles and position of women in the society. While describing the positions of women and their roles, the poems go further to present new ideas whereby women’s roles appear to change in the society (Pike 359).

Ellen Hennicutt’s poem informs the reader of a wife and husband on their camping trip. The husband appears happy after venturing off to pick blackberries. While the husband is comfortable in the woods, the wife is uncomfortable because she believes that her role is in the house.

Furthermore, while talking with her husband, she appears to sooth the sheet she is sitting on. This indicates her role of making a bed as a woman. Later, the wife appears to eat the berries. In the poem by Ellen, it appears that women might want to pick blackberries but it is not entirely their duty. However, it becomes clear that gender roles are beginning to change whereby women are undertaking some of the duties specifically designed for men (Pike 361).

The main difference is that the poem by Oliver has five stanzas but does not follow a strict pattern. The poet uses fourteen lines for the poem, like a sonnet (Pike 359). This means that the poem does not rhyme and divides into three-line stanzas and one two-line stanza. On the other hand, Ellen Hennicutt’s poem is a free verse thus making it different from that of Mary Oliver. The poem by Ellen views women as individuals who are unable to work in the woods while Oliver’s poem presents a different position of women in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this discussion, it is notable that these two poems examine the plight of women in the society. With the changing gender roles, Ellen’s poem shows how women work as housewives while the poem by Oliver presents a new sense of freedom to women (Pike 362). The use of imagery, assonance and themes make the poems similar thus examining the major issues affecting women in the society today.

Works Cited Pike, David. Literature: A World of Writing. New York: Pearson Longman, 2011. Print.

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Huntington’s disease: Etiology and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Essay essay help site:edu

According to Knowles (2007), Huntington’s disease can be described as a disorder that results in continuous degeneration of the nerve cells found in the human brain. The disease has several effects on an individual’s functional capacities including reasoning, psychiatric and movement impairments. Both men and women can get affected by the disease. Generally, the symptoms of Huntington’s disease become noticeable in an infected person in middle age.

According to reports, the symptoms can show up in different ways amongst patients. However, most of the symptoms are normally predictable. During the initial stages of the disease, an infected person can show minor intellectual complications or slight mood changes. As the disease progresses, unsynchronized, irregular movements of the body become more noticeable. In addition, the conceptual thinking of an individual deteriorates.

Huntington’s disease develops when an individual has a defective gene found in the fourth chromosome. A protein molecule called huntingtin is generated by both the defective gene and a regular copy of the gene. However, the defective gene, due to its larger size, generates bigger forms of the protein. Large forms of huntingtin weaken the functioning of some brain cells. Finally, these cells get destroyed by the proteins. Consequently, both psychological and physical impairments develop in the infected people.

Huntington’s disease can be passed to children. Actually, an infected person generally inherits a replica of the genetic factor with an extended trinucleotide recurrence from an infected parent. The gene modification is so high that an individual with the altered replica will certainly get infected. According to the research, every child of an infected person has a 50 per cent probability of getting the mutated gene and thus being infected by the disease (Lawrence, 2009).

A child can inherit Huntington’s disease independent of the gender. There are also rare instances when both parents of the child possess the mutated gene. In such cases, the risk of infection of the child rises to 75 per cent. Again, when both parents have two mutated genes, the chances of infection become 100%. However, such cases are very rare.

Huntington’s disease is incurable. There are medicines that are helpful in the management of the disease symptoms. However, these treatments cannot avert the physical, psychological and interactive degeneration related to the disease. Even though there are lots of researches still being carried out, there is no treatment that can stop the development of Huntington’s disease (Visser, 2010).

Little research has been conducted to find out the benefits of exercises and psychotherapies that assist in restoring some symptoms of Huntington’s disease. Nevertheless, there are some indications that these therapies are actually effective. Some of the most common types of therapies are physical, occupational and speech therapy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mostly, life expectancy of an individual with Huntington’s disease is approximately 20 years from the onset of noticeable signs. However, the most fatal problems are caused by poor muscular co-ordination and social changes brought by a deteriorating mental function. Therefore, chances of survival depend on these factors.

One of the major life-threatening complications is pneumonia. Since the ability to co-ordinate body movements decreases, the patient may have complications in clearing of the lungs. This can increase the chances of pneumonia infection. Heart disease and different kinds of injuries, as well as pneumonia, reduce the life expectancy of an infected person.

References Knowles, J. (2007). Huntington’s disease. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Lawrence, D. M. (2009). Huntington’s disease. New York: Chelsea House.

Visser, T. J. (2010). Huntington’s disease: Etiology and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

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Teenagers’ Psychology Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Main Points of the Article

Conclusion

References

Introduction The teenagers’ psychology is one of the mostly discussed problems nowadays. There are plenty of research papers which present the different views on the reasons and consequences of the adolescents’ behavior.

Hongling Xie of Temple University and Yan Li of Duke University initiated their own research aimed at determination of the key characteristics of adolescents’ understanding of popularity in social peer groups. The results of their work are presented in the article What Makes a Girl (or a Boy) Popular (or Unpopular)? African American Children’s Perceptions and Developmental Differences.

The Main Points of the Article In order to characterize the attitude of youths to the concept of popularity and to determine the dependence of their attitude on such factors as age or social status, the authors used a survey method. They asked a number of the Afro American students living in the socially disadvantaged neighborhoods of the city of answering some questions.

The survey method has a number of essential advantages. In particular, it allows researchers to collect a significant volume of data in a short period of time (Cherry n.d.). The survey undertaken by Xie and Li covered the population of 489 students of different school grades (Xie

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From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old Analytical Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The explication of the poem

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old is the poem by Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi who expresses in her work the horrors of the military conflicts and the sufferings of the civilians. The poem touches your feelings as the author describes the thoughts of the small girl who is only four years old but who has already gone through a lot in her life.

The aim of this essay is analyze the poem From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old by Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi.

The explication of the poem The main idea of the poem is the sufferings of the innocent civilians and children during the war. The plot of the poem represents the expression of the world perception and the feelings of the child who has been injured by the soldier and has lost one eye.

From the first stanza, we get to know that her medical treatment will come to an end and it will be her last bandage. She asks herself about what it likes to see with one eye. “I wonder will I see half an orange, half an apple, half my mother’s face with my one remaining eye?” (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.). The following poetic techniques can be noticed in these lines: the rhetoric question, exposition which provides the background to the poem’s plot, and the comparison.

The second stanza is emotionally intense. We get to know about the feelings of this girl. “I did not see the bullet but felt its pain” (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.). She also tells us about the soldier who has made her an invalid. She says that she will never forget his image but she has not understood the look in his eyes (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.).

In these lines, we can notice such literature technique as hyberbole as she said that she “felt the pain exploding in her head” (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.). The author used a hyperbole because the bullet did not actually explode in her head but she felt like that.

In the third stanza, she says that she imagines him in her mind. That is how she knows that she has another set of eyes, the ones which she has in her mind. In this stanza, the following techniques have been indentified: allegory and metaphor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The forth stanza tells us about her thoughts of what the surrounding world will look like when she will receive a new glasses as a gift on her birthday. The dramatic irony can be noticed in her words. She says “maybe thing will look round and fat in the middle – I’ve gazed through all my marbles, they made the world look strange”.

In the last stanza, she says about her thoughts when she has heard about a nine-month-old baby who has also lost an eye (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.). She asks herself a question whether the same soldier has injured both of them. Finally, she expresses a pity for this child as she is old enough and she has seen a lot of life, although she is only four (Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi n.pag.). The following poetic techniques can be noticed: the rhetoric question and hyperbole.

Conclusion In order to summarize all above mentioned, it should be said that From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old is a poem by Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi who expresses the sufferings of children during the war. Such literature techniques as rhetoric questions, allegories, metaphors, irony, and hyperboles have been identified in the poem.

Works Cited Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi, Hanan. From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old. Ralphmag.org, n.d. Web. http://www.ralphmag.org/spacepoemsI.html

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your choice Essay essay help: essay help

Analyze these primary sources together, and consider what they tell us about the military/ies or about another related aspect of American life. One key skill we’re working on here is engaging with evidence: that means quoting it and explaining what those quotations mean or reveal; the phrase “this suggests” might be useful to you. Another skill is that of putting evidence together into a wider argument. So . . . do that!

Use these sources

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6519/

https://web.archive.org/web/20100602000908/http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/962.htm

https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_War_of_the_Rebellion/yCQta4Z78DwC?hl=en

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Population Growth and the Distribution of Human Populations to Effects on the Environment Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The world population is growing at a rapid rate. Pundits estimate the world population as over six billion people (Livi-Bacci 8). With such a growth trend, a variety of impacts on resources is evidenced. An uncontrolled growth in human population significantly develops constraints on natural resources and food production (Miller and Scott 5).

There is also a tendency of a large human population exploiting resources and causing an environmental damage. The same negative impact can also be traced in the increased demand on energy. Therefore, exploitation of energy resources causes an energy crisis.

A growing population impact on natural resources focuses on resources such as water, forests and mineral reserves. It is natural that a growing population causes an increased demand on fresh water resources. This has sometimes led to water ownership conflicts. People, communities and countries have engaged on conflicts based on water ownership. This signifies that demand for fresh water is critical to human survival.

The increased demand for water, leads to shortage of water in lakes, dams, wells and rivers. The same impact on natural resources can be traced on deforestation. Demand for land to cultivate, and timber for construction increases with population growth. The use and economic value of minerals increases as the demand from the increasing and available market grows with time. This has seen a lot of mineral reserves depleted by human population over the years.

The survival of humanity has been dependent on energy availability for many years. Industrial civilization has significantly seen increased demand of energy. Although human race has been creative in maintaining the levels and variety of energy resources constant to ensure steady energy supply, there remains a threat of energy availability in the future.

Availability of energy sources like petroleum is not certain in the future considering that oil reserves may soon get depleted. However, the demand for energy has already sparked a need to use non-depleted energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The current growing population is supported by electricity as an artificial energy source.

A large human population offers enough labor to produce enough food. However, there still remains a large population that cannot afford to feed on a balanced diet. With a large population, poverty becomes a critical issue that contributes to world hunger. The increasing world population has prompted the creation of food production mechanisms such as the genetically modified food products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, distribution of food among the world’s population is dependent on a population’s food demand, economic status and available food production resources. Overpopulation in a region with less food production resources leads to a hunger crisis. It also becomes difficult to distribute food among the people.

An increasing human population puts pressure on the environment. In most cases, negative impacts on the environment are associated with an increasing human population (Livi-Bacci 23). The consumption rates on environmental factors rises due to an increasing demand on natural resources.

Land degradation as a result of increased demand on land for food production and construction also heightens as time progresses. Aspects such as environmental pollution cannot be ignored when population increases. This can be evidenced when industrial civilization by humans leads to disposal of pollutants on the environment. Factors such as global warming have become the current global and environmental threats in recent years. Global warming is predicted to continue in the future if effective measures are not established.

Works Cited Livi-Bacci, Massimo. A concise history of world population. New Jersey: John Wiley

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your choice Essay college essay help near me

Analyze these primary sources together, and consider what they tell us about the military/ies or about another related aspect of American life. One key skill we’re working on here is engaging with evidence: that means quoting it and explaining what those quotations mean or reveal; the phrase “this suggests” might be useful to you. Another skill is that of putting evidence together into a wider argument. So . . . do that!

Use these sources

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6519/

https://web.archive.org/web/20100602000908/http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/962.htm

https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_War_of_the_Rebellion/yCQta4Z78DwC?hl=en

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Maternal Depressive Symptoms Timing: Child Cognitive Development Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

The Enumeration of the Article

Research Results

Personal Opinion on the Research

Conclusion

Reference

Abstract The development of cognitive capacity in a child is often influenced by maternal depression. The early environment, a child is exposed to, especially the maternal care environment influences the brain and affects the cognitive functioning of the child. Depriving a child of maternal care at an early stage limits improvement even at a later stage, thus highlighting how sensitive an offspring can be when it comes to exposure during a particular stage in development. This paper is a summary of the study on this subject and its findings.

The Enumeration of the Article The study sets out to establish and identify the linkage between the environment and brain development. The article borrows from early studies that the related rodents and their brain development are connected to the postnatal environment they live in (Evans et al., 2012).

Although the findings from the study of rodents indicate a positive outcome, this particular study determines whether the same can be said of human beings. It is not advisable to generalize the findings of this study to human beings. Instead, a complete study should be performed to be sure that the human brain, just like that of rodents, is susceptible to the external surroundings as it grows.

Before drawing a general conclusion, the researchers notice that brain development in primates begins even before the birth, unlike in rodents. Additionally, ethical and practical restraints limit the early manipulation of the environment in humans. A study closely relates to the manipulation of the environment in the case of rodents, but this time relating to humans is picked to determine the extent of the implications (Evans et al., 2012).

The article referes to the study conducted in the Romanian orphanages where comparisons are made between the children looked after in the local families and those fostered in the institutional care. The findings of the Romanian study identify the fact that children brought up in the foster care at an early age of four-and-a-half years already show significantly higher IQ scores. This is in contrast to their counterparts who grow up in the poor environment often provided by the institutional care (Evans et al., 2012).

There is a positive indication that fostering between 0 and 2 years of age is critical in as far as the IQ score is involved. However, the initial 2 years are not considered as part of the study’s truly sensitive period with regard to the cognitive development because the age of fostering remaines confounded by the duration spent during the institutional care (Evans et al., 2012).

The article outlines that depression in women occurs commonly during the period when they bear children (Evans et al., 2012). According to several longitudinal research studies quoted in the article, the children born of mothers who suffer postnatal depression (PND), register a poor cognitive measure score during the early stages of their development. In particular, this effect is more pronounced among the male offspring. The studies, however, fail to confirm whether these early effects on development continue unabated as the child matures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A different study conducted in Cambridge concludes that the direct effects cannot be traced in children aged 5 years. Nevertheless, the scenario changed at the age of 16 when it is actually concluded that PND affects the boys’ school performance. The greatest influence comes about with regard to the mother-child interaction and effects of the early development.

Another study conducted in South London, which entails a comparatively more disadvantaged sample in terms of socioeconomic standing, discovers variations in IQ based on the maternal PND. The related findings show apparent positive relations at the ages of 11 and 16 (Evans et al., 2012).

Generally, the linkage between a child’s lower IQ and PND are more evident when considering the high risk samples as opposed to the low risk ones. These findings highlight the fact that social disadvantage plays a critical role in moderating the relationship involving postpartum depression, on one hand, and the child’s cognitive advancement, on the other hand. Adverse effects are depicted in children who grow up in the backgrounds that are disadvantaged socioeconomically.

With this general position adopted in the article, however, the authors are quick to note that depression patterns at the pregnancy time, as well as the initial postnatal years, differ noticeably among women. While some pregnant women may only encounter single episodes, others may face recurrent episodes, including the chronic depression.

Over half of the women, who register high scores in depression symptoms postnatally, will have registered high scores in the early or late pregnancy. Depression risk remains high after the initial postnatal year, resulting in many women experiencing chronic depression patterns. In return, the pregnancy depression extends to the child’s initial years of development (Evans et al., 2012).

Research Results Maternal PND that occurs during the first year of a child’s birth shows no independent influence on a child’s cognitive function, particularly at the age of 8. The authors note that postnatal period shows no sensitivity in as far as maternal depression exposure is concerned. PND does not cause long lasting effects on the severity noted in the community samples used in the studies.

It is not true that PND suffered by children immediately after their birth dates would show the effects on cognitive power later at the age of 16. While an earlier study established these characteristic as part of its finding, the small sample size affects the result.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maternal Depressive Symptoms Timing: Child Cognitive Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both maternal socioeconomic circumstances and the child’s gender do not matter in the outcome of the results on cognitive power and PND (Evans et al., 2012). Additionally, there is no specific age, at which a child’s IQ power is noticeably affected by PND. Instead, all children who suffer PND exhibit virtually the same low IQ uniformly and throughout their lifetime.

Continued depression experienced by mothers after birth involves other risks that are not part of this study. This is why the children involved equally suffer from poor IQ stance. Among the other risk factors not involved in this study, one should consider common genetic vulnerability, as well as maternal antisocial lifestyle. These two factors have a significant potential of influencing a child’s cognitive development (Evans et al., 2012).

The presence of depression after birth is more critical in affecting a child’s IQ than the same condition occurring at some other time. Children who have suffered the most severe conditions of depression equally exhibit stronger effect on their overall IQ power. The happenings that occur during the pregnancy period affect postnatal development and the general health as well.

Personal Opinion on the Research The findings of this research, which indicate that the environment in which a baby is brought up, affects its IQ power, are correct. Several of the findings covered in this article point to the same result that a poor environment of the mother and the baby in the initial years of birth often affects brain development. The direct proportionality of the depression period and extent of a child’s brainpower further highlights the significance of the research findings.

However, there are other factors, apart from mere postnatal depression, that affect brain development and brainpower of a child. While this research appears to indicate that PND is more critical in determining a child’s IQ, this fact is disputable and requires further research.

The article identifies other risk factors, including genetic issues and antisocial character on the part of the mother. However, the authors appear to consider the factors only as less sensitive ones. It is important to carry out more research in this area to verify the extent, to which PND influences brain development in children.

Conclusion The development of a child’s brainpower is directly related to the pregnancy conditions of the mother and the postnatal depression that the child undergoes after birth. Children who brought up in comfortable life conditions show a more developed IQ comparing to those who grow up in a highly depressing environment. The same conditions are also notable in other animals, including rodents.

It is critical to point out that the human brain development begins in pregnancy, thus even depression suffered by a pregnant woman is likely to extend to the IQ of her offspring. These effects, however, do not manifest themselves in children with specific genders, or at some specific ages. Both male and female children will exhibit the same level of low IQ power as long as they encountered depression in their initial years of development. However, the poor IQ level is directly proportional to the extent to which a child is subjected to depression.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maternal Depressive Symptoms Timing: Child Cognitive Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference Evans, J., Melotti, R., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P., Wiles, N., Murray, L.,

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Peter Singer in the solution to world hunger Essay college essay help online

Introduction Hunger is the craving for food that causes uneasy sensations. A person who lacks food for a prolonged period becomes exhausted and malnourished in the end (De Onis, Frongillo, and Blossner 1128). Reports indicate that 13.1% of the population in the world is hungry. In 2010, an approximated 7.6 million children died due to hunger. African countries such as Somalia, Niger, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Kenya face food scarcities form one time to another.

The earth has the capability to produce enough food for the entire population, but the soils are not fully utilized. People in the developing nations have little potentiality to employ modernized agricultural practices and thus, they rely on lowly productive traditional methods. At the end of the day, people in developing countries are unwillingly struck by hunger.

Peter Singer position in the solution to world hunger Peter Singer is one of the most influential philosophers who encourage people to have a sense of compassion for the staving Africans. Singer has a strong belief that we collectively have significant duties to alleviate world hunger. It is ethical to have sympathy to those suffering from hunger, and according to Singer, we ought to strive to enhance the happiness of the human race by eradicating poverty.

This paper analyses the topic on world hunger, why the topic is important in the study of ethics, and Peter Singer’s position on what we ought to do to alleviate world hunger.

Why the topic is important to our study of ethics The hunger calamity that hits African countries from time to time has no direct distress to the people of the United States. However, the moral principles of the American people drive them to donate some of their income to help the starving nations. Peter Singer installs the moral obligation of valuing human life.

According to Singer, all lives are homogenously equivalent. Every individual’s life is highly valued, and the value cannot be stripped away whatsoever the case (Singer 366). Peter Singer’s perception of life plays a critical role in upgrading our moral ethics. Therefore, regardless of the difficult life situations, or the demanding need for extra cash, compassionate people will find it ethical to donate some of their income to the less privileged individuals.

Generally, the topic on world hunger touches our inner soul, and though sacrifice and donations are not compulsory, we feel obligated to sacrifice for the sake of those starving individuals. Though we may not know the starving individuals at a personal level, compassionate love forms, and we do all the doable to save their lives. Peter Singer’s solution to world hunger that states that we all have significant duties to alleviate world hunger is a very important topic in our study of ethics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Peter Singer’s perception of what we ought to do to alleviate world hunger Peter Singer is so stringent on the issue of world hunger. Singer cannot withstand the fact that Americans are living luxurious lives whereas some people in Africa are dying of hunger. According to Singer, it is ethical for every person to work towards ensuring there is mutual happiness of the human kingdom.

To alleviate world hunger, people ought to donate all monies spent on the luxurious lifestyles to charities that reach the starving individuals. According to Singer, whenever people spend unnecessarily, they enhance the death of innocent children (Singer 370). Recent reports indicate that Peter spares at least one-fifth of his earning for the sake of the less privileged.

The money is given to famine relief agencies located across the globe to reach the starving individuals. Peter Singer could not bear up with the fact that he lives comfortably while some innocent children crave for food somewhere in the world. Singer holds that the Americans have the obligation to help the world’s poor and hungered individuals. In fact, Singer feels that his 20% donation is not enough, and that he needs to increase his donations.

Arguments and reasons that Peter Singer gives in support of his position People have often criticized Peter Singer’s position in alleviating world hunger. They cannot find it logical to sacrifice all their luxuries and donate the monies to alleviate world hunger.

Singer’s unwavering ethics causes divisive controversies wherever he goes. However, to drive the point home, Singer uses various illustrations from books and films. The most insinuating illustration involves Bob, a man who has invested a lot in a valuable Bugatti car. Bob loves his car to the extent that he opts to sacrifice the life of an innocent child to save his car from being crashed by a runaway train.

This sad incident portrays selfishness for luxury at the expense of a life. Peter Singer describes Bob as a fellow who does not know the value of life. Many audiences would feel that Bob’s deeds were gravely wrong. He could just let his Bugatti be smashed and save the life of the child. From the illustration, Singer likens the American’s who feel pinched in sacrificing their luxurious spending to save starving individuals. According to Peter Singer, people should judge their actions and determine if they are ethically worthy (Singer 373).

People should ensure that the consequences of their actions are unbiased. There is the utilitarian stance of Singer that states that a person can sacrifice one life to save many. Though not practical, Singer points out that we can sacrifice the $9,000 spent annually on a child in the American families to save 45 African children. However, letting a child die in the name of sacrificing for a stranger is not only scandalous, but also ethically unacceptable.

We will write a custom Essay on Peter Singer in the solution to world hunger specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the discussions, it is noteworthy that Peter Singer insists on people to become selfless to alleviate world hunger. Singer stands strong to support his perception that people have to surrender their superfluous income to alleviate poverty. While Peter Singer’s utilitarianism is too much for people to handle, I would propose that people should donate the much they can.

The famine relief agencies should then invest in projects that render long-lasting solutions to world hunger. Sustainability projects to alleviate poverty will work towards alleviating world hunger (Shaohua and Ravallion 3341). As stated before, the soils of the earth have the potentiality to produce enough food for every individual. However, the sad part of it is that those people in the developing nations do not have the capacity to invest in modernized and improvised agricultural practices.

It is also noteworthy that a great percentage of the people in the developing nations do not have the financial potentiality to afford a balanced diet. Therefore, upgrading agriculture though investing in environmentally sustainable agricultural innovations, and investing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the hunger stricken countries is the only way to alleviate hunger in the end.

Works Cited De Onis, Mercedes, Edward Frongillo, and Monika Blossner. “Is Malnutrition Declining? An Analysis of Changes in Levels of Child Malnutrition since 1980.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 98.5 (2000): 1222–1233. Print.

Shaohua, Chen, and Martin Ravallion. “How Have the World’s Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s?” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 15.7 (2004): 3341. Print.

Singer, Peter. “The Singer Solution to World Poverty.” In Best American Essays. Fourth Fourth College Edition Ed. Robert Atwan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (2004): 366-373. Print.

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The Role and Influence of Women in Western Culture Research Paper cheap essay help

Introduction Women empowerment was an unknown topic at the start of the medieval period. Men dominated all economic activities, and thus they could not allow women work in places beyond their home areas; hence, only men could work in distant places. In other words, the medieval period was a male-dominated era where women had no right to intervene in matters believed to be ‘men affairs’. Women in the medieval period could only be occupied in social activities.

According to the European history, the medieval period is defined as the period between the 5th century and 15th century. However, this period is believed to have been the starting point of women empowerment across the world due to religious and political influences. This paper explores the role of women in the medieval period and determines the impact of the medieval period on the feminism of the nineteenth century.

Women in the Eyes of Men Before and in Early Medieval Period Women in the medieval period held social positions, which included being good wives, mothers, and nurses. Conventionally, women fitted well in these roles, as mostly they were required to remain at home. The most prestigious leadership roles, which women held, included being princesses and queens courtesy of their relationship with the rulers and even so, the queens and princesses could not play an active role in leadership.

Men viewed women as weak human beings who could not withstand the hard menial jobs, and thus they could not be allowed to participate in those jobs. In addition, men believed that women were always supposed to be submissive, and thus allowing them to carry out economic activities would have made them defiant to men orders (Cosman 70).

In addition, women also viewed themselves as subjects of men and thus they always tried to meet the demands of their counterparts. Men lived with the ideology that women were their helpers, hence women had the obligation of helping men without questioning or excusing themselves to meet their needs before men’s needs. Historically, it is believed that during the ages when women were total subjects to the men’s world, they were often abused and they got little help from the society.

During the medieval period, it was normal for a man to marry many wives and nobody could question him. Assaulting women for being disobedient and defiant was normal cases and such victims could not get justice from the society.

Women too were viewed as sexual objects and in some communities, raping an unmarried woman was equal to proposing for marriage to her as marrying her was one of the penalties to the culprit. However, the roles of women during the medieval period improved gradually as women were allowed to carry out economic activities such as brewing and selling brew among other activities (Lewis and Mills 90).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Role of Roman Catholic Church in Improving the Role of Women in the Medieval Period The Roman Catholic Church is believed to be one of the major unifying factors that brought cultural changes during the medieval ages. The Roman Catholic Church is the oldest religious domination that played major roles in the development of civilization in the western world. The major factors believed to have enabled the church influence world cultures were its centralization of administration and strong network of bishops in different parts of the world.

The Roman Catholic Church played a major role in improving the role of women in the western world during the medieval period. Initially, the church activities were male-dominated and it is the only church in the Christian faith that does not have women acting like bishops. However, the church established the Christian Monasticism in the fifth century whereby some roles of the women in the church came into being.

Historically, the Christian convents that were developed later after the establishment of the monasteries marked a great milestone in developing the role of women in the society.

Young ladies had an opportunity to carryout church work as their lifetime vocations as nuns whereby they lived an alternative life to getting married and child-rearing work that was normal for women. Some women became powerful after working in the monasteries as abbesses and one renowned influential woman is Hilda of Whitby who was an influential figure internationally.

Common Activities for Women in Medieval Period There were many common crafts for women in the medieval period, but hand spinning was the most common in the fifth century. They initially used the spindle and distaff, which is believed to have been tiring, but later developments were made by the introduction of the spinning wheel later in the middle ages.

Later in the period, brewing business came up whereby women were engaged in the business where they brewed beer by using hops and most of the work was done at home. However, in many traditional communities, only the married women were supposed to participate in the brewing and selling of beer as their husbands were in full control of the business (Schaus 61).

Women also carried out other important activities such as nursing the ageing and the sick coupled with midwifery. Women were believed to be good caregivers and thus they took the role of nursing the aged people in the society as well as the sick. Midwifery was a women’s affair and men stayed at a distance during the childbearing process. Some renowned women performed the duty of midwifery in the community; hence, they would be called upon to assist women in labor.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role and Influence of Women in Western Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Midwives came out as special professionals and thus members of their community treated them in a special manner, due to the escalation of mortality rate amongst infants and mothers since there were no improved care facilities until the Middle Ages. In addition, infant, child, and mother mortality rates were high during the medieval period due to poor nutrition, but the scenario improved during the Late Middle Ages due to improved nutrition.

Women also played a major role in farming activities. They were mostly engaged in family land activities, but in some cases, large-scale farmers hired them as casual laborers for seasonal farm activities like planting, weeding, and harvesting.

They also played a major role in art activities where they worked on portraits while still at home. Other common activities that they were engaged in include dancing and singing as part of entertainment. They also made clothes for selling and family use for cloth making was not physically engaging, hence they did it mostly from their homes.

Factors that Contributed to Low Strength of Women Other factors that contributed to low strength of women in the society during the medieval period included unavailability of decent working conditions, slavery, and unequal distribution of resources.

During the medieval period, there were no labor unions to fight for the good working conditions of workers, hence the workers were often discriminated by their employers and subjected to poor working conditions. In addition, the available job opportunities comprised menial jobs like mining, manual mineral processing, large-scale farming activities, and building and constructions among others that were physically engaging.

However, the employers did not bother to provide decent working conditions for employees; hence, it could not have possible for women to be economically engaged by the society. Additionally, workers were also supposed to work overnight or during late hours when it could have been hard for women to leave their domestic chores at the expense of working late. Poor pay also contributed to women not engaging in economic activities due to discrimination from employers.

Secondly, there was slavery trade during the medieval period; therefore, slave traders did not engage women in the slave trade due to low demand. Traders opted to take men due to the physical strength that was suitable for the nature of slave jobs. Hence, women were spared on the grounds of not being suitable for these jobs.

In the case where women were engaged in slavery, traders were penalized for taking away women was referred to as ‘exterminating communities’, which implies that women were taken as child-bearers and hence they could not be subjected to economic activities on such grounds (Schulenburg 78). Thirdly, unequal distribution of resources also played a major role in the discrimination of women in the society, and hence their low economic strength.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role and Influence of Women in Western Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There were very few rich people in the society, but the majority of them were poor people who earned their living from menial jobs that the rich provided. The rich were often the trade merchants who dealt with mineral business, agricultural trade, and textiles. Medieval period comprised people who were good in trade and production of goods in agriculture, mining, and textile sector.

However, developed industries were missing due to low literacy levels and the few that were privately owned paid peanuts to the employees due to cheep labor.

If industries were developed with better literacy levels, women would have been economically engaged. If that was the case, there could have been simpler jobs for women. In addition, the few rich people assumed the responsibility of controlling the economy and they owned large tracts of lands, and thus they pushed communities to small tracts of land, which were often sparsely populated.

Consequently, the rich employed the community as laborers in their lands where they subjected them to poor working conditions and paid low wages. Even in the contemporary times, some of those large tracts of lands are still in existence in some parts of Europe and North America. They are evidence of the intensity of unequal distribution of resources that communities experienced during the medieval and the middle age periods.

Women Empowerment Women empowerment has its roots in the medieval period. The historical events of the middle ages until the twentieth century in which women fought for their rights through social movements have their roots on the events of the medieval period. Education for women was not common in the medieval period, but the concept that the Roman Catholic Church empowered women is believed to have been the beginning of female education (Leyser 282).

The church, through the establishment of monasteries during the medieval period, offered job opportunities to females and those who volunteered to serve in the church became nuns. In order to become nuns, young women had to go through education. Through the biography of St. Ita of Ireland who died in 570 AD, it is evident that female education in the medieval period was initiated by the church and she was the founder of a school where young boys and girls were taught at the monastery of Cell Ide (Leyser 114).

Looking into the catholic tradition, the catechetical school of Alexandria, which is the oldest church school dating back to 200AD, is believed to have offered catechetical lessons to both males and females. Early doctors and writers of the Catholic Church such as St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, and St. Jerome wrote letters to women in convents, which they had either founded or supported in their service for the church (Cosman 182).

Other crucial evidence is the foundation of learning institutions, which looked more into female education across Europe and other parts of the world that the Catholic Church had reached during the medieval period.

The development of education, which opened its doors to females, gave rise to innovations that involved both men and women in the economic sector. The education facilities continued to increase and demand for teachers and administrators rose, hence offering job opportunities to both men and women. Educated women encouraged communities to uphold education for females and their efforts were paid by an increase in the number of female enrolment in education facilities (Schulenburg 79).

Education resulted in the empowerment of communities and motivated them to demand better working conditions from their employers as well as reasonable payments. Educated women were not left behind as they advocated for the rights of women to be given job opportunities, as they too were capable of working, which was influenced by western culture where women were more educated than in other regions.

Consequently, early economic developments that ensued education development gave opportunities for both men and women. The only major difference between early female workers and today’s female workers is that the former were subjected to discrimination and inequality. Men were paid higher salaries than women and women were employed in smaller numbers than their counterparts. The trend changed during the middle ages with the rise of feminism.

Conclusion Women empowerment started in the medieval period due to the influence of the western culture among other factors. However, the Roman Catholic Church played a major role in the empowering of women during the medieval period as its establishment of monasteries gave rise to female job opportunities. In addition, females who became nuns went into convents where they were required to go through a series of studies before qualifying as fully pledged nuns.

The church also initiated female education across Europe, and thus educated women got job opportunities in areas where men had hitherto dominated. The process of female empowerment is sequential, but it is evident that its roots run back to the medieval period and the western culture though the Roman Catholic Church and economic activities played a major role.

Works Cited Cosman, Madeleine. Women at Work in Medieval Europe, New York: Checkmark Books Publishing, 2001. Print.

Lewis, Reina, and Sara Mills. Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader, London: Routledge Press, 2003. Print.

Leyser, Henrietta. Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England, 450-1500, Oxford: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Print.

Schaus, Margaret. Women and gender in medieval Europe: an encyclopedia, London: Routledge Press, 2006. Print.

Schulenburg, Jane. Forgetful of their Sex: Female Sanctity and Society, ca. 500-1100, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Print.

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Analyzing Depictions of Family Life Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The main characters and film background

The Analysis

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The family is one of the major subjects of study in sociology. In sociological terms, it represents the integral part of the social system. Each family is a cell which supports the society. Media, which is also the important part of the society functioning, touches upon the urgent social themes. The family relationships represent one of them.

The aim of this essay is to describe the family relationships in one of the families portrayed by the media. With this purpose in mind, I am going to analyze the family of Luke Harrison, one of the main characters of the fiction drama Stepmom by Chris Columbus.

The main characters and film background Luke Harrison is a successful legal expert. However, he has faced rather difficult problems in his life. He and Jackie, a mother of his children, have divorced recently. They have two children: Anna who is 12 years old and Ben who is 7 years old.

Luke has met another woman and tries to build the family with her. Isabel, his girlfriend and later the bride, is a photograph dedicated to her work. She does not have her own children and she recognizes the fact that the children of Luke and Jackie will become a part of her family. Isabel tries to make friends with Anna and Ben. However, it turns difficult to her because the children do not want to see another woman with their father. The relationships with elder child Anna seem to be the biggest problem for Isabel.

The situation is sharpened by the jealousy of Jackie who feels that Isabel wants to “steel” her children. Two women are very different personalities. Jackie is elder than Isabel. She has devoted herself to her family but her relationships with her husband have been broken. Isabel is a career-minded and ambitious person. She lacks the experience in children upbringing. She is hardly to be the competitor to Jackie. Jackie is a perfect mother and it is natural that she fears to lose the affection of Anna and Ben towards her.

Probably, the conflict reached its peak when Ben had been lost in the park while being on Isabel’s watch. Fortunately, the boy was found. However, the relationships of Isabel with Jackie spoiled much more.

Isabel realizes that she will always be a stepmom for the children. Eventually, she finds the common language with them and Jackie. The episode when Isabel approaches Anna represents one of the turning points in the conflict. A girl has fallen in love for the first time but her boyfriend has offended her. Isabel gives advice to Anna how to teach him a lesson and to stand for herself. Anna follows her advice and feels herself a winner in the situation with her boyfriend. Jackie admits that Isabel has really helped her daughter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflict has been solved because Jackie has known that she has a cancer. The characters have realized that it is vital for the happiness of the children not to break the family ties but to be strong and to do their best to solve the conflict. The last scene depicts the situation when Isabel takes a picture of Luke, Jackie and their children with the intention to make a family portrait and Jackie offers Isabel to join them.

The Analysis The marriage is one of the central themes of the film. Besides, the theme of divorce is addressed parallel in the film. Unarguably, these themes are closely connected with the study of the institute of family. In addition, the problems of marriage and divorce are important for the understanding of people attitude towards family.

The attitude of people to marriage depends on the social and historic events as well. It reflects the moods in the society. “Modern marriages might provide companionship in the form of a spouse, but it deters companionship with relatives other than the spouse” (Gerstel

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New Global Branding Initiative Case Study custom essay help

Global branding has been gaining popularity over the years as firms struggle to improve their competitiveness in the market. Firms have come to realize the benefits of strong brands in the market as a way of remaining competitive.

However, it is important to note that global branding has its merits and demerits. Before making the decision to go global, it is important to understand the benefits and challenges that may be encountered by implementing the strategy. The decision to go global can only be approved if it is confirmed that the benefits outweigh demerits.

Espoir has managed to develop a strong brand locally. The management of this firm must determine if there is a need to go global with this brand as a way of expanding the scope of its market. The chief executive, Mr. Ed Jonson must have a deep understanding of the benefits that this firm will gain by this move, and the challenges that it may face by doing this.

As Kahn (2013) observes, it is important to analyze some of the benefits that Espoir may face when it decides to take its new branding initiatives global. One of the main benefits of going global with the brand is the localized needs that the brand will be able to address. As Kahn (2013) notes, different cultural groups are attracted to different brand messages. A brand message that is pleasant in the United States can be considered as irritating in Saudi Arabia.

By going global, the marketing manager of this firm in Saudi Arabia will be able to determine the appropriate message to the locals. He or she will determine how the original brand message can be twisted to suit local needs. This will increase the strength of the brand in different regions around the world. Taking the brand initiative global will also help this firm design its products to suit different markets.

This is because the firm will need to conduct market research in different global markets to understand the local needs. When fine-tuning the band message, the firm will also understand what the local population need, and this will make them develop products that deliver on the needs of the locals. This will increase the brand’s popularity. Another benefit of going global with the brand initiative is that it will allow this firm to take competition from the local level to global level.

When this firm makes its brand attractive to different local regions around the world, it will be increasing the level of its acceptance in the global market. This means that the firm will be able to compete favorably in this market. The initiative will also make it easy for the marketing research team to understand the changing dynamics in the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, many global markets are being influenced by the western culture. In an attempt to understand the best message for different global markets, the research team will be able to understand the changing global trends. This will enable the firm to understand the best products for the market. Finally, this initiative will enable this firm to gain a global image. It will be able to gain global recognition, a fact that will make it easy to penetrate the global market.

It is important to note that despite these benefits, taking the new branding initiative global comes with some challenges that this firm must be ready to tackle. The first challenge is the associated cost of this initiative. This initiative will demand for more research to be done at all the selected markets. This is a costly venture. There will also be the conflicting interest of whether to manage the brand centrally in a standardized manner or to delocalize brand management.

This initiative will also mean that at times Espoir will be forced to change the message on its brand in some markets, especially in cases where it realizes that the original brand message is completely unacceptable in a given local market. Firms are struggling to find a common way of communicating to their customers in a similar way across the globe, as a way of creating a common image in all the markets globally.

This new strategy goes against this effort. In some cases, the marketing team may find it very challenging to change the message of the brand. Gelder (2005) says that there are cases where the firm may be forced to change the message to reflect the opposite of the original message. This means that some of its core values may need to change.

Mr. Ed Johnson, and his entire management team, must find a way of mitigating the above challenges because Espoir will need to take its brand initiative to the global market. This is the only way it can survive the current market competition. The challenges of this initiative may be great at the beginning. However, if this team will be committed to this initiative, then the firm would soon start reaping the benefits.

References Gelder, S. V. (2005). Global brand strategy: Unlocking brand potential across countries, cultures

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Physical Geography of Tristan da Cunha Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Overview of the Tristan da Cunha Tristan da Cunha belongs to a collection of islands that is located in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current population of the Island is approximately 310. The main settlement is made up of the Edinburg of the Seven Seas. The terrain of Tristan da Cunha is a rugged.

However, the northern side of the island contains a flat area. It is the location where the residents settle. Further, the main religion in the settlement is Christianity (RedOrbit.com 1). The religion comprises of the Anglican and Catholics. Also, the descendants of the population originated from Scotland, England.

The residents of the Island speak English. Also, it can be pointed out that the Island is a British territory. The British government claimed it in 1653. The Island is considered as part of Saint Helena (Christophersen 27). Tristan is located about 2100 kilometers from St Helena. St Helena is located on the northern side of Tristan. Since the island falls under the British territory, it uses the same leadership style as Britain.

Thus, the island uses the Monarchy system just like the British government. In this system, exclusive powers are bestowed in the Queen. In addition, the Island is managed by a governor. The governor is based in St Helena and it created the need to have a channel of communication with the residents of the Island (Encyclopedia Britannica 1). This resulted in the selection of an administrator. Each of the five islands has an administrator. Finally, the Island trades in Sterling Pounds.

Location of the island The islands that neighbor Tristan are Stoltenhoff Island with an area of 0.1 square kilometers, Middle Island with an area of 0.1 square kilometers, Nightingale Island with an area of 3.4 square kilometers, and Inaccessible Island with an area of 14 square kilometers. Out of the five islands in that group, Tristan da Cunha is the largest and it covers an area of 113 square kilometers. In most cases, Gough is not considered as part of the chain of island because it is located several kilometers away from the group (Encyclopedia Britannica 1).

The location of Tristan da Cunha is almost equidistant from Cape Town (South Africa) in the continent of Africa, and Rio De Janeiro (Brazil) and Buenos Aires, Argentina in the continent of South America (Strahler 29). The Island is approximately 1,800 miles from South Africa and approximately 2,150 miles from Brazil. Further, the Tristan island is circular in shape with a diameter of 10 kilometers. Further, it has a coastline that is about 21 miles long (Bharatdwaj 28).

Latitude and longitude

The location of the Tristan da Cunha is roughly 37o15’ South and 12o30’ West.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weather patterns The climate of Tristan Island ranges between marine cool and temperate. Further, it can be observed that the island experiences a slight variation in temperature especially between day and night temperatures. Also, the Island also experiences a small variation in temperature between summer and winter seasons.

The average high annual temperature is approximately 63oF and the annual recorded high temperature is about 75.9oF. On the other hand, average low annual temperature is approximately 55oF and the annual recorded low temperature is about 40.3oF. Therefore, it can be observed that the temperature is favorable (Encyclopedia Britannica 1). The rainfall received on the Island ranges between reasonable and substantial rainfall. The annual rainfall received on the Island is approximately 1681mm.

Also, the average rainy days in a year are approximately 252 days. The rainy days can be likened to the Aleutian Islands. Further, the Island receives a restricted amount of sunshine. The average number of sunshine hours in a year is approximately 1498 hours. This can be compared to the Juneau, Alaska. Finally, the combination of rainfall and temperature yield a humidity that is approximately 78.3%. The island is quite humid (National Geographic Society 1).

Effects of the weather on the islands flora and fauna, biogeographic processes and vegetation The climate described above has a significant impact on the flora and fauna on the island. The weather is favorable and thus prevalent species of flora and fauna are found on the island.

The island has a substantial plant cover. The Tristan da Cunha is mainly covered with the moss and fern species. The vegetation cover on the Island is made up of a number of widespread species (Irene Schaffer’s Website 1). These species had a wide distribution and they have also been found in other regions such as the southern areas of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

Also, there are a number of species that were first discovered in Tristan da Cunha. Some of these species have recently been discovered in certain part of the world such as New Zealand. An example of such specie is the Nertera depressa. Further, the residents rely on potatoes as their key produce. It can be noted that the plant cover on the island can only flourish in humid areas (Encyclopedia Britannica 1).

Studies show that Tristan island has a of wildlife. Specifically, the Island has a variety of species of birds. The most common specie is the seabirds. Tristan da Cunha has a variety of seabirds.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Physical Geography of Tristan da Cunha specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These varieties are about sixteen. The species of the seabirds include “Northern Rockhopper Penguins, Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatrosses, Sooty Albatrosses, Atlantic Petrels, Great-winged Petrels, Soft-plumaged Petrels, Broad-billed Prions, Grey Petrels, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters, Tristan Skuas, Antarctic Terns, and Brown Noddies” (RedOrbit.com 1).

The other species are local and terrestrial birds. Besides, the island is the only discovered breeding location for Atlantic Petrel. Tristan has a number of species of whales and dolphins. Thus, it can be drawn that the weather permits only certain species of flora and fauna to flourish on the island.

Some of these species of birds have only been discovered in Tristan. The neighboring islands of Gough and Inaccessible “constitute a wildlife reserve, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1955” (Encyclopedia Britannica 1). The residents of the island rely on angling of crawfish. Research shows that angling is the main economic activity in the region. Finally, no indigenous species of certain class of animals such as reptiles and freshwater fish exist on Tristan (National Geographic Society 1).

Ocean circulations and processes The warming sea temperatures have resulted in changes in the oceanic circulations. Temperature and humidity observed in Tristan are a representation of the open sea while the wind and rainfall are determined by the topography of the island. Studies show that the meridional movement type is observed on the island. Also, the island experiences west-east movement (Christophersen 89).

The volcanic activities in the island Tristan da Cunha and the entire Mid – Atlantic Ridge played a significant role in the cracking of the borders of South Atlantic Ocean (National Geographic Society 1). The activities led to the creation of the classical plume theory. The volcanic activities gave rise to the Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise.

The Walvis Ridge moved towards the northeast to the African border from the island of Tristan. On the other hand, the Rio Grande Rise moved towards approximately southeast from the border of South America to the Mid – Atlantic Ridge. Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise began forming from the center of the volcanic activities that occurred in the Mid – Atlantic Ridge (Encyclopedia Britannica 1).

The Walvis Ridge formed after the Rio Grande Rise. In fact, it was considered as an extension of the Rio Grande Rise. Since the volcanic activities diminished, the construction of the Walvis Ridge stalled thus making it smaller than the Rio Grande Rise (Raina 139). The classical plume theory has attracted a number of research studies. Specifically, researchers are interested in determining the role played by Tristan da Cunha Island in the creation of the fissure (National Geographic Society 1).

Volcanic processes Tristan Island is described as a volcanic island. This can be attributed to the knowledge that the island is located on the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. The Ridge was formed as a result of volcanic activities. Tristan experienced the last active volcanic explosion in 1961. The eruption resulted in the creation of a volcanic cone known as Queen Mary’s Peak.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Physical Geography of Tristan da Cunha by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The peak is approximately 2060 meters tall. This eruption was massive and it led to the removal of the inhabitants from Tristan. The volcanic activities have resulted in a rugged terrain. Thus, Tristan is moderately hilly (National Geographic Society 1).

Works Cited Bharatdwaj, Sanjay. Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciations, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House, 2009. Print.

Christophersen, Erling. “Tristan da Cunha the Lonely Isle”. Geographical Review. 31.4 (1941): 697. Print.

Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2013, Tristan da Cunha. Web.

Irene Schaffer’s Website 2008, Tristan da Cunha. Web.

National Geographic Society 2013, Tristan da Cunha. Web.

Raina Nater. Contemporary Physical Geography, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 2012. Print.

RedOrbit.com 2013, Geography of Tristan da Cunha. Web.

Strahler Alan. Introducing Physical Geography, New York: Wiley

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Gun Control: Impact on Crime and Gun Availability Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Guns and Crime

Federal Regulations

Effect of Gun Control and Violence

Effect of Gun Control on the Number of Firearms

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The right to own and use guns is considered one of the most important rights by many American citizens. The significance of this right can be seen from the fact that it is included in the Second Amendment and successive governments have continued to protect the right. However, this right has become controversial in recent decades due to the many incidents of gun related violence observed all over the United States. In response to the increase in gun related violence, the government has enacted a number of gun regulations.

These gun control regulations are meant to reduce the ease with which civilians can obtain guns. Gun control policies are based on the premise that tighter control will reduce the prevalence of weapons. In turn, this reduction will result in the decline in the violent crime carried out using firearms. This paper will set out to ascertain the impact that gun control laws have on violent crime prevalence and the number of guns available to civilians in the US.

Guns and Crime Crime is one of the most important problems affecting modern society and governments and policy makers are constantly looking for ways to reduce crime. Among the various types of crimes, violent crime is considered the most serious and its prevalence has a negative impact on the entire society.

Guns are associated with violence since they are lethal weapons that can inflict deadly damage. Gun availability might encourage a weaker attacker to confront stronger victims. Guns also make it possible for an attacker, who would not have the courage to attack at close proximity to engage his victim from a distance.

Due to their effectiveness, guns are the weapon of choice for most criminals. Research indicates that more than 60% of the homicides in the US are carried out using firearms (Moorhouse and Brent 106). Guns are also used to carry out non-lethal crimes such as sexual assault, robbery and simple assault. Reports by the Bureau of Justice Statistics reveal that in the non-lethal crimes where weapons were used, 40% of the offenders used firearms (Walter 5).

Federal Regulations Due to the significant negative impacts of firearms, the federal government has implemented some major statutes to regulate firearms. The first major Federal statute is the National Firearms Act of 1934.

This regulation was designed to limit the ability of individuals to obtain guns that were perceived to be especially lethal. The regulation controlled the types of firearms that civilians might purchase making it impossible for high caliber assault weapons to be freely traded. Walter documents that since 1934, the US government has imposed strict control on fully automatic firearms and shotguns (3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These restrictions were tightened even further when fully automatic firearms were banned from private possession since 1986. This ensures that the law enforcement officials have a monopoly on powerful automatic weapons that can be used to cause significant damage.

The second major Federal statute implemented to regulate guns was the Gun Control Act of 1968. This regulation was meant to assist law enforcement agencies in their efforts to reduce the crime and violence attributed to firearms. The regulations imposed restrictions on the trade in small arms and imposed age restrictions on gun sales.

A major change in the GCA was made through the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993. This amendment required thorough background checks to be carried out before a person could purchase a firearm. Intensive background checks are carried out to ensure that the individual who wants to purchase a firearm does not have a criminal record.

There is a waiting period that a person must endure before the gun sale is complete for the background check to be complete. Gun control laws also specify the minimum age requirement for gun possession. To further limit the number of guns available, a person is not allowed to purchase more than one firearm per month.

Effect of Gun Control and Violence Comparisons between crime rates in areas with strict gun laws and those with more relaxed gun control laws undermine the effectiveness of gun laws. For example, there are stricter regulations of guns in urban areas than in the rural areas. As a result, there is a prevalence of guns in rural America with rural residents being more likely to own firearms than urban dwellers.

However, violent gun crime is heavily concentrated in cities while there is minimal gun violence in the rural areas despite the overrepresentation of firearms in these regions (Blocher 85). This suggests that there are other factors responsible for crime prevalence other than the presence of guns.

Decades of research have failed to provide convincing findings that gun control measures lead to a reduction in crime rates. The US stands out as the industrialized country with the highest rate of gunfire related violent crime and the largest number of guns in civilian hands. These facts have led to the wrong conclusion that gun ownership leads to crime and as such, a stricter control of gun ownership will reduce the rates of violence (Tomislav, Kovandzic and Kleck 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gun Control: Impact on Crime and Gun Availability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the evidence offered to show that gun control laws and regulations reduce the crime rate is rather weak. In one study, it was found that when gun controls were utilized, only 3 deaths per 100,000 were avoided (Moorhouse and Brent 108). This marginal benefit was not guaranteed since the studies did not consider socioeconomic factors that might affect the crime rate in a region

The supposed correlation between crime and gun availability continues to provide the greatest impetus for implementing even more restrictive gun laws in the country (Moorhouse and Brent 119). More stringent gun control measures are always demanded for following tragic incidents where the attacker uses firearms to kill many people. However, Domenech asserts that gun control policies will not prevent violent individuals from engaging in their destructive actions (25).

While guns are the most common weapon used in homicides, the rate of firearms related murder has decreased significantly since 1993 A report by the FBI states that the number of firearms-related murders and non-negligent manslaughter rate per 100,000 of the population decreased from 6.6 for 1993 to 3.2 for 2011 (4). These statistics suggest that an increase in gun availability does not necessarily contribute to gun related homicides since the number of guns in the US has increased by over 100million between 1993 and 2011.

The focus on firearms as the major cause of violence ignores the other variables that contribute to the prevalence of crime in the society. Various social and economic variables influence the prevalence of crime in a place. To increase the accuracy of the findings, any study of the relationship between firearms per capital and violent crime must consider these variables.

Crime rates are influenced by the effectiveness and efficiency of the police force in the region. Regions with similar gun control laws will have differing crime statistics depending on the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies and the judicial system in the particular region.

Some studies indicate that relaxation of certain gun control policies reduces violent crime rates. The right-to-carry laws can offer greater protection to civilians who are given the opportunity to defend themselves. These laws afford relatively greater protection to minority groups and women who are more vulnerable to criminal attacks (Trotter 26).

Reports by the Bureau of Justice Statistics reveal that firearms are used for self-defense purposes by a significant number of civilians (Walter 5). However, precise statistics on the number of times civilians use firearms in self-defense are not available since law enforcement officials do not collect this information.

When right-to-carry laws are implemented, there is a higher probability that a criminal will encounter an armed civilian. This increases the risk that the criminal might be injured or killed as he attempts to perpetrate a violent crime against the armed victim. This generates a significant deterrent effect, as criminals are likely to substitute confrontational crimes for non-confrontational crimes (Tomislav 2).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gun Control: Impact on Crime and Gun Availability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effect of Gun Control on the Number of Firearms Gun control laws have failed in their attempt to decrease the private civilian gunstock in the US. Some gun control laws effectively limit the ability of individuals to access firearms. Due to the strict background checks and age restrictions, the policies lead to differing rates of access to firearms. However, this has not led to an overall decrease in the number of guns possessed by the civilian population over the years.

The number of guns in the US has been steadily increasing over the past three decades in spite of the stringent gun control measures implemented by state and local governments. A national survey carried out by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in 1994 revealed that there were 192 million firearms owned by 44 million people (Walter 4). This meant that 35% of households in the US owned one or more firearms.

By 2000, the number of firearms had increased substantially with more households reporting to own one or more firearm. Walter documents that there were approximately 259 million guns in the US in 2000 (4). This figure increased even further with approximately 294 million firearms being possessed by civilians in the US by 2007. It is estimated that the number of guns in civilian possession is 310 million. This implies that the number of civilian gunstock in the US has almost doubled in the US since 1968.

The gun regulation policies used by many States control the number of guns released to the public by imposing strict rules during the purchase process. Only licensed dealers are allowed to trade in firearms and the eligibility of a customer must be ascertained before a purchase is made.

However, these measures fail to cause a significant decrease in the total number of guns available to Americans. To begin with, firearms are long-lived capital assets that can last for decades. Guns purchased by civilians many years ago are still functional today. Moorhouse and Brent declare, “The stock of privately owned firearms in the US is large relative to annual sales” (122).

Discussion High crime rates have often been used as the justification for more and stricter gun control laws in the country. Moorhouse and Brent reveal that there are literally hundreds of state and local gun control statutes meant to control the availability and ownership of firearms by the general population (104).

However, research evidence does not support this causal effect between gun control and crime rates. From the research findings presented herein, it appears that gun control in its current implementation is ineffective. There is little evidence supporting the positive impact of gun control on the crime rate or the number of guns possessed by the public.

Conclusion In spite of the charged debates on gun control, little is known about the effect of gun policy. This paper set out to highlight the effect that gun policies have on the prevalence of guns in the country and the level of crime and violence. The paper began by highlighting the relationship between guns and crime. It then highlighted some of the Federal regulations imposed to control guns.

The paper has shown that there is no support for the presumption that gun control reduces crime rates in the country. When socioeconomic and law enforcement agency efficiency factors are controlled for, there is little evidence of gun control implementations in their current form reduce violent crime rates.

While it is possible that gun control laws can have a positive effect on crime reduction, it is clear that the currently employed laws are ineffective. It would therefore be of use to determine the gun control laws that can be effective in reducing crime rates. Such laws should then be implemented in order to achieve the desirable outcome of crime reduction in the country.

Works Cited Blocher, Joseph. “Firearm Localism.” Yale Law Journal 123.1 (2013): 82-146. Web.

Domenech, Benjamin. “The Truth about Mass Shootings and Gun Control”. Commentary 135.2 (2013): 25-29. Web.

Moorhouse, John and Brent Wanner. “Does Gun Control Reduce Crime or Does Crime Increase Gun Control?” Cato Journal 26.1 (2006): 103-124. Web.

Tomislav, Kovandzic, Schaffer Mark and Kleck Gary. Estimating the Causal Effect of Gun Prevalence on Homicide Rates: A Local Average Treatment Effect Approach. Berlin: Institute for the Study of Labour, 2008. Print.

Trotter, Gayle. “Should Congress Pass Stronger Gun Laws?” Congressional Digest 92.3 (2013): 25-31. Web.

Walter, Brown. “Gun Control Overview.” Congressional Digest 92.3 (2013): 3-7. Web.

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Market research and a feasibility study report Research Paper essay help online free

Introduction The Eden Land Company has developed a new business idea. It plans to combine water with slices of fruits and serve them to customers. The water will be packed in uniquely designed and eco-friendly bottles. This paper provides a market research and feasibility study report for the Healthy Drink.

“SMART” objectives Eden Land has set objectives and their feasibility tests. For instance, one of its objectives is to satisfy the needs of customers within the first week after the product is introduced into the market by meeting their needs. The Customers tastes differ in many ways, and the company understands that creativity is one of the ways it can use to influence the purchase of its products (Burns 111).

The company has noted that many young people suffer from blood pressure and water retention problems. It has developed a remedy to this problem by offering the Healthy Drink product. This objective will be measured by the outcomes, testimonies, and reactions of customers to the product (Burns 221).

Healthy Drink (Product) TheEden Land Company will offer the Healthy Drink product to its customers. The Healthy Drink is a type of water with minimum quantities of sodium and is ideal for people suffering from high blood pressure. It is also ideal for people suffering from water retention.

The Healthy Drink product is packed in unique bottles different from those of their competitors in order for customers to easily recognize them in the market. The company will also ensure that the Healthy Drink stands out consistently by ensuring that it is treated in accordance with the required specifications. It will provide customers with a high quality Healthy Drink to influence post-purchase of the product, and hence maximize on sales, profits, and revenues.

Market Research The market for the Healthy Drink product is readily available. Market research plays a significant role in successful business development (Carson 52). The product is targeted at the youths (generation Y) with water retention problems and high blood pressure.

To avoid these problems, they should take the Healthy Drink product, which is a type of water with minimum sodium quantities. The company will add slices of fruits to this water to make it appealing to the target audience. The demand for pure healthy water is on the increase. This is an added advantage for the Eden Land Company because it meets the customers’ specifications.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pricing and Promotion The Eden Land Company will set affordable prices for its Healthy Drink mineral water immediately after launching the product. There is stiff competition from other products such as Masafi, Panna, Aquafina and Pellegrik among others. The company will ensure that it employs the price leadership strategy to gain competitive advantage over its competitors (Marn, Eric

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Morgan Spurlock’s “POM Wonderful: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold” Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

One of the key factors of the success of Morgan Spurlock’s “POM Wonderful: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold” was the implementation process. It had a specific goal and it was focused on all audiences, being universal and accepted worldwide.

The slogan that “He’s not selling out, he’s buying in”, simply means that there is nothing being offered, the advertisement campaign is so great that businesses themselves will come running, wanting to participate in such a unique and productive commercialization. The key feature is the universal nature of the advertisements, but more importantly movies, it’s the appeal to all audiences and the use of both originality and humor.

Visual appeal is a target area that the documentary has used to better the response from the public. In implementing the advertisement world in the movie, it is critical to make sure that the advertisement does not use any negativity towards social aspects and does not predispose the campaign to any unwanted judgment. There are several factors that went into the making of such a documentary, linking advertisement and entertainment.

The movie wanted people to know that the world is well aware of the needs of consumers and needs of organizations to sell, and presented new ideas that people would be impressed by. The general style of commercials and advertisements gives people new perspectives on everyday things. It is to provide a specific style to the consumers, as it represents individuality, as well as the knowledge of the current market. Appeal to people’s wants and needs is united with humor and wit.

“POM Wonderful: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold” demonstrates several techniques of promotion, they are: personal selling, sales promotion, advertising and public relations and direct marketing. In movies, personal selling is rather obvious. Morgan Spurlock has become a well known figure in both the social world and the movie industry. He has shown the ability to get into people’s thoughts and illustrate what is really wanted. The reality is made to be humorous but, at the same time, true.

He goes from one business representative to another, has meetings in most strange places and gives people a chance to see that what he is doing is not trying to sell, but to offer a chance for others to participate in this enormous project he has thought of, which will give both himself and the participating businesses a lot of success. Sales promotion is also accomplished in a flashy and interesting way. Morgan Spurlock is able to capture the attention of the viewer and allow for closer and more personal connection with the products.

He promotes with such originality that people want to try out something new, thus becoming the proof of the pitches that are done on each take. Public relations and advertising are strengthened by the open nature of the context and the advertisement industry. People are presented with the structure of the businesses that are leaders in the field of advertising.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The “hands-on” approach has shown to be very effective in engaging people and imitating the real behavior that everyone has come in contact with before. Direct marketing is the communication that can be seen throughout the movie, as the businesses and Morgan Spurlock address the viewers directly. People appreciate and respect the fact that they are included in the advertisement and find it a must to respond positively.

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Maxfli and golf ball survey Case Study essay help online

Maxfli’s exploratory research began by conducting focus groups to find out the motives of why people were buying the golf balls. Also, the focus groups were used to determine what people needed and what sort of image the equipment had. As such, telephone surveys were carried out.

People were divided into different types of golfers and the results were adjusted accordingly. From one perspective it was appropriate, as the company needed a fresh start and increase in the profits. Qualitative research is one of the key ways in uncovering the true reasons why people buy specific products (Maxfli).

Their motivations and inner emotions must be closely studied in order to figure out attitudes and behaviors that lead out of thinking. The focus groups are a good resource, but there are some limitations. One of them is that there is too much attention to be paid to certain things, without having the direct and necessary focus on the needs of consumers. Also, because a focus group is an internal structure, it would be difficult to create circumstances that answer to the needed criteria of the real life.

Calling people on the phone is sometimes bothersome, so many probably thought that it was not the best choice. The preference of balls is mostly performance based. But, as the case study mentions, a lot of golfers are also looking for fashion, not only function. By having a telephone survey, people will not be able to see the ball and decide which one is better. It is impossible to test the ball over the phone and give people a feel of the equipment.

Another problem is that not all people will be reached by the phone, as they might be out or simply do not want to be disturbed. For this purpose, a TV commercial with a phone number to dial in order to make the selections could be made. There would need to be a close demonstration of the balls’ visual characteristics, but more importantly, the balls would have to be tested and put into play. A door to door survey would be another possible solution, as people could be presented with the product and get “a feel” for it themselves.

An observation method would be a good way to see what the customers really want. Direct observation with no or limited participation could be used. Golf is a game where a person must feel relaxed and confident in their strength (Seltzer, 2007). Also, the fact that it is an observation “in action” allows for real life situations to take place. Structural observation and field experiments could be used as well since people respond well to the environment and would enjoy being the participants of such a study.

In the twenty-first century, the use of technology has become an everyday occurrence. People are dependent on it in almost all aspects of life. It has made the daily functions easier and more practical, as the software programs, internet and stored memory have extended the use of information and understanding.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, internet would play a major role in the future research methods. It could make the survey part easier, as well as advertise and contribute to people’s awareness of the product and market demands. The speed in the spread of information is enormously increased.

References Maxfli. (n.d.). Web.

Seltzer, L. (2007). Golf: The Science and the Art. Mustang, OK: Tate Publishing.

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