Elie Wiesel was a devout Jew during his childhood, just before the Holocaust wounded his soul. He survived the events of the Holocaust, but in his waiting for the Lord’s intervention, just like it was in the bible, his doubts in God and his mercy began to develop. The book ‘Night’ tells us of the journey that Wiesel took in his dilemma whether to forgive God’s cruelty towards his people or to define his own fate.
He finds it difficult to understand the role of God in the world, and poses many questions to try and understand why God would stand by and watch the horrors of the Holocaust. When the Jews of Sighet first heard of the crimes of the Nazis, they strengthened their faith in God, and believed that God would provide them with security from such horrifying things, as Wiesel stated, “And we, the Jews of Sighet, were waiting for better days, which would not be long in coming now” (5).
The Jews, Wiesel included, believed that God had greater plans for everyone, and everything that happened was for their benefit, since God was both their defender and righter of wrongs. The faith that Wiesel had in God was enormous, in spite of the increasing abuse and hatred that the Nazis had for the Jews (Wiesel 5).
Just like the other believers, he believed that their suffering was a punishment from god for their evil deeds, and therefore they did not resist or fight back. God was supposed to present himself at the last moment and show his glory for their perseverance, but this did not happen. “God is testing us. He wants to find out whether we can dominate our base instincts and kill the (Wiesel 42) within us. We have no right to despair. And if he punishes us relentlessly, it’s a sign that he loves us all the more” (Wiesel 42).
Eventually, Wiesel got to a point where he did not want to praise and thank God anymore. His fellow men were suffering and dying, yet God was still not manifesting his power. `For the first time I felt revolt rise in me. Why should I bless His name? The Eternal, Lord of the Universe, the All-Powerful and Terrible, was silent.
What had I to thank Him for?” (Wiesel 31). The Jews had lost faith in God, and despair crept in, since they wondered who would save them. By this point, Wiesel was already feeling betrayed, and at the hanging of the angel-faced pipel, he declared that God was dead to him, bringing an end to his long lived faith in God (Wiesel 62).
The events of the Holocaust brought a lot of anger to Wiesel, which he directed to both God and men, for their cruelty. He could not understand the numerous killings, and it appeared that the lack of intervention from God implied that he approved the killings. Many believers had died, but Wiesel was alive and hurting.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He therefore redirected his energy to accusing God and asking for him to explain his ignorance of the cries of his people (Douglas 5). In addition to the Jews doubting the love that God had for his people, and amidst all the questions, Wiesel and other Jews decided to become God (Douglas 7).
This meant taking charge of their lives and doing things that they had never done before, and the most significant one was to hate. The Jews had been humiliated and killed while believing that God has a greater plan for them. They believed that hate would lead them to fight back, as they no longer believed in suffering and persevering for a God who failed to answer the cries of his people (Douglas 7).
The questions raised by Wiesel bear no answers. What comforted him were the words that he had received from Moshe during his childhood, telling him that the relationship between man and God was based on question and answer, where the answers for the questions that people asked God came from the depths of the soul, where they stayed till death (Wiesel 2-3).
The variety of questions came from his childhood observations, whereby the people initially shared their possessions but eventually became violent towards each other, killing for food, and not caring for others.
Wiesel’s lack of faith led him to stop fasting when Jews were required to, and he no longer observed the Sabbath day. He believes that the many questions that he has will be answered one day, by God himself, and hopes that no other Holocaust will happen, as he continues to wonder why the first one was, in the first place. One thing that Wiesel advices is that faith alone is not enough to stop tragedy, but the decisions and active participation of people.
Works Cited Douglas, Robert. “Elie Wiesel’s Relationship with God.” 1995. Web.
Wiesel, Elie. Night. United States: Bantam Books, 1982.
We will write a custom Essay on Wiesel’s Changing Understanding of God specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Childhood Development and Sexual Behavior Essay essay help site:edu
In as much as every infant is naturally endowed with physical, cognitive, linguistic and social faculties at and even before birth, even so is it endowed with inherent sexual dispositions which of necessity are bound to develop as the infant grows to adulthood.
It is crucial; therefore, that parents and caregivers should not turn a blind eye towards childhood sexuality, rather they need to ensure a supportive and thriving environment in which these innate sexual endowments would be nurtured for the child’s healthy sexual development. Irrespective of individual differences in children, some common sexual behaviors are exhibited in each of the distinct childhood stages of development.
The infantile sexual stage of a child is marked by tender curiosity and inquisitiveness about the uniqueness of their bodily physique, the wonder of noticing the sexual difference between males and females in the social world around the infant.
Generally, after birth, the infant explores its body parts through touch and fondle, best observed when baby is being nursed (McHenry, 2009). Such genital reactions as erections as it is case with a boy child and vaginal lubrication as evident for a girl child are the key features in this stage- it is arguable that the inception of these responses occurs even before birth.
At the early childhood stage, the baby’s curiosity is heightened; he/she is sensitized about sexual stimulation and thus establishes his/her gender identity (Rich, 2002).
This phase is marked by an increased awareness of gender differences as evident in varied spontaneous childhood games as playing mother-daddy, doctor-patient and teacher-pupil games. The child at this stage begins asking objective sexually oriented and self-searching queries as ‘Where did I come from?’ resulting to a greater appreciation of his/her sexual endowments.
The preadolescence stage is characterized by active sex play with a progressive awareness about sexually related issues as pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and the like. It is also evident in this stage that same-sex social group associations are developed and children assume respective gender roles. At the very threshold of puberty, children maintain a reserved but objective personal privacy coupled with heightened autonomy poses the delicate challenge of steering the child’s sexual life to its desired haven.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The child at this stage is exposed to the reality of the sexual world through the use of media and interaction with both the community and peers, thus his/her sexual inclination takes the form of identifying and courteously dating a opposite sex child of the same age (Guy, 2006). Although, parent involvement should be maintained throughout the child’s sexual life, it should take the center stage at this delicate and fragile phase of the child’s sexual development by engaging the child in open discussions on healthy sexual matters.
At the adolescence stage, the child’s sexual faculties are fully developed and there is an increased desire to date and fall in love. This is primarily triggered by increased peer pressure, inherent sexual drive with a fully fledged sexual system and the reserved societal controversies of the ideal sexual expectation/outlook (McHenry, 2009).
Physical and emotional maturity, coupled with a deepened intimacy usher the adolescent child to the characteristic sexual romance of dating, kissing and in some situations sexual intercourse as evident in this stage. Of necessity, therefore, parents would need to accord social support and accommodation in honoring adolescent privacy and nurture the development of the child’s assertive and decision-making proficiency.
Reference List Guy, J. (2006). What is normal childhood sexual development? Web.
McHenry, D. (2009). Sexual Development and Behavior in Children. Web.
Rich, P. (2002). Child Sexual Behaviours: What is Considered “Normal” Sexual Development and Behavior? Web.
Ashoka Pillars: the Mystery of the Ancient Civilization Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
One of the most incredible creations of the ancient civilizations, the Ashoka Pillar is the reminiscence of the bygone times and the most incredible specimen of the ancient art. Its magnificence is amazing, and hardly anyone can explain how the people belonging to that era could create something of the kind. One of the greatest mysteries of the modern times, Ashoka Pillar can be compared to the Egyptian pyramids.
One of several columns, the Pillar of Sarnath is about fourteen feet tall, of cylinder shape, with four lions seated with their backs to each other at the top. Made of polished sandstone, the column is of yellowish sandy color with a slight tint of brown and gray. Regarding the durability of sandstone, it is miraculous that several columns have stood through centuries and are now the part of our modern world.
Although many columns have not survived the time test and crashed, the Ashoka Pillar of Sarnath is still as good as new, with just a few pieces of sandstone missing. One more thing which is well worth mentioning is the shape of the column. The rounded outline, the soft contour and the clear lines are something to admire.
The ancient sculptors reached perfection, creating the symbol of Ashoka! The column depicting the four lions looks somewhat fragile, but this is the case of deceptive appearances. The smooth and milky surface makes one think of the most exquisite marble in the palaces of the ancient kings.
One of the things which come into the open as one casts a look at the sculpture is the smoothness of the lines. They curve like the waves of the sea, and there is not a single sharp broken line in the sculpture. Breathing with harmony, the curving lines create a specific pattern for the entire sculpture to follow. Because of the smoothness of the lines in each part of the sculpture, it looks in the most harmonic way.
The column itself is shaped rather weirdly, with lots of curves and protruding parts. The platform where the four lions are seated has carvings which depict various animals and figures. It must be noted that the animals whose images are carved in the column are mostly domestic ones: a goat, a horse, etc.
The lions themselves resemble their living prototypes a lot. With their mouths open, it seems that they are going to jump off the column and run for some prey. It is quite peculiar that none of the lions’ mouths is shaped in the same way; one of them is barely open, while another bares teeth completely. One can see the tongue of one of the lions clearly – perhaps, the animal is yawning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another feature of the lions in the sculpture is their eyes. They are all wide open, which makes the animals look less realistic and more fairy-tale. Perhaps, designed to mean that these lions are always on the guard, the haunting eyes of these animals in the sculpture provide the strongest impression on the visitors.
Despite the fact that lions are one of the fiercest animals in the world, the ones in the Ashoka pillars cannot be defined as the blood-thirsty cannibals. These are rather the loyal guards of the city and its dwellers, the warriors that are always on the watch. It seems that these “watchlions” are supposed to be fair and just, and maybe even wise. Indeed, it takes much wisdom to decide whether the man entering the city deserves being trusted.
Speaking of the entire artwork, one should say that it looks solid and somewhat chic. It breathes with richness and with the splendor of the ancient kings with their amazing palaces and thousands of servants. A perfect reminiscence of the bygone times, this is a piece worth taking a look at.
Because of the ancient history which accompanies the sculpture, its beauty, interwoven with the ancient legends, produces even more stunning effect. Since the mystery about the column is still unraveled, it still attracts hundreds of people. The secrets which the lions conceal within are something to ponder over.
Perhaps, one of the explanations of the mystery which the place is breathing with is the fact that the great Ashoka himself chose this place for his meditations. This is one of the reasons for the Indians to cherish the sculptures so much. Embodying the symbol of the city, these columns are the part of the history which is so easily merging with legends in India, and in a couple of moments you will not be able to tell the real from the fable yourself.
Bearing the piece of the Indian history, this column has a secret which the Indians themselves do not dare to unlock. Some scientists suppose and all the locals believe that Ashoka’s edicts have been carved in the column as well. Although this is merely guesswork, a single suggestion about such possibility makes the Indians tremble in owe for Ashoka and the mysterious column. As Kulke put it,
References of this kind have often been used to show that Ashoka was running a highly centralized direct administration of this whole empire. But the pillar inscriptions which contain these latter references have so far been found only in central Gangetic region and the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Ashoka Pillars: the Mystery of the Ancient Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cultural meaning of the column cannot be doubted. Worshipping the legendary ruler of India, the people associate the column with this historic personality. Embodying the very spirit of Buddhism, the pillar with the four lions at the top is filled with the sacral meaning for the Indian people; this might be one of those things which the people of the other cultures will never be able to conceive.
Even without knowing the background story of the column, one will feel that it takes their breath away. Combined with the bright imagination work, the perfectly shaped sculpture makes various images appear in one’s mind.
Although the use of the sandy palette looks quite justified, since it is natural for a lion to be of sandy-yellowish color, there is more than meets the eye in this color cast. Such choice can also be explained by the fact that the yellow color is the key color of Buddhism. Thus, the column and the lions embody not only the image of the city and its ancient ruler, but also the philosophy of the people living here. Such niceties are quite natural for the Indians, with their culture which considers aesthetic the beginning and the end of the world. Recognized even by the modern architects, the pillar is pure perfection:
John Marshal and V. Smith have praised the engineering, design, fine decorative carving, polish of Ashoka stambha, the pillar. People from all lifestyles are drawn towards the symbol of lotus, the dharma chakra and the four lions. The Ashoka pillar at Sarnath is the finest among all the pillars.
One of the most magnificent pieces of legendary ancient India, the Ashoka pillar is really worth seeing. Breathing with the secrets of the Indian gods, this place is like a sanctuary for the Indians. The four lions keep their guard well.
Reference List Gupta, Om. Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2006.
Joshi, Dinkar and Yogesh Patel. Glimpses of Indian Culture. New Delhi: Star Publications 2005.
Kulke, Hermann, and Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India. New York, NY: Routledge, 2004.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ashoka Pillars: the Mystery of the Ancient Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone
Age to the 12th Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2008.
Footnotes Om Gupta, Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2000), 162
Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century.(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2008), 358
Kulke, Hermann, and Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (New York, NY: Routledge), 2004, 68
Joshi, Dinkar and Yogesh Patel. Glimpses of Indian Culture (New Delhi: Star Publications), 2005, 60
Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia Research Paper college application essay help
Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia is a senior US Senator. Rockefeller was first elected in 1984 and for over 40 years he “has proudly served the people of West Virginia” (About Jay n. p.). He is a chairman of the Senate Committee on Science, Commerce and Transportation. As a chairman for the Intelligence committee, he was a critique about the President’s Bush politics in Iraq, provided the ideas of controlling the television violence by the FFC and granting the “retroactive immunity to telecommunications companies”.
He also provided the Cybersecurity Act of 2009 – S.773 and supported Barack Obama’s health reform. In this paper, we are going to provide the information on Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia, his biography and political activities, such as explore the committees on which he sits and his position on major issues confronting Congress this section.
Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia was born on June 18, 1937 in New York several days after his great-grand father death. He graduated from Harvard University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Far Eastern Languages and History. He came to Virginia in 1964 as a volunteer at the community of Emmons.
In 1966 he began his political career at the he West Virginia House of Delegates and office of West Virginia Secretary of State. In 1976, he was elected Governor of West Virginia and later, in 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate (About Jay n. p.). He is known for his health care reforms and his national security letters of credence:
“The five-term senator from West Virginia has long been a leading advocate for health-care reform. He is chairman of the Senate Finance subcommittee on Health Care, and played a pivotal role in the debate over health-care reform in the Obama administration” (Why He Matters n. p.)
Apart from being a chairman for the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, he also a chairman for the Subcommittee on Health Care, Subcommittee on International Trade, and Global Competitiveness, Subcommittee on Social Security, Pensions, and Family Policy, Committee on Finance, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Joint Committee on Taxation.
The committee he leads holds such affairs as, communications, highways, aviation, rail, shipping, transportation security, merchant marine, the Coast Guard, oceans, fisheries, climate change, disasters, science, space, interstate commerce, tourism, consumer issues, economic development, technology, competitiveness, product safety, and insurance (Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee n. p.)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the 111th United State Congress Rockefeller held a strong position on such issues as Health Care, National Security and Cybersecurity. He supported Barack Obama’s Health Care Reform, He said, “I represent a state that really needs health care reform, and I want it to be good” (Calmes n. p.).
He fights to increase the access to the health care for small business, rural population and children. Speaking about National Security, senator “has focused his efforts on improving and reforming the nation’s intelligence capabilities while providing aggressive oversight of the nation’s intelligence and counterterrorism programs” (Why He Matters n. p.).
He confronted the Bush’s politics in Iraq and claimed that involvement into the war with this country was a mistake that increased the threat of terrorism. In April 2009, he offered the Cybersecurity Act of 2009 – S.773 in which he emphasized the possibility of cyber-attack and suggested creation of the “cyber-emergency” that would be allowed to “shut” any suspicious traffic in spite of any law.
Thus, the Senator of West Virginia is one of the most active members of Senate. He has a strong position with respect to Health Care, Cyber and National Security. He supports the reforms of the current president Barack Obama and currently focuses on such issues as jobs and retention, deficit reduction and mine safety (“About Jay” n. p.)
Works Cited About Jay. United States Senator Jay Rockefeller for West Virginia. Web.
Calmes, Jackie. Rockefeller Stands Up for Liberals on Health Care. New York Times. 17 Sept. 2009. Web.
Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. Who Runs Gov from The Washington Post. Web.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why He Matters. Who Runs Gov from The Washington Post. Web.
The Concept of Generation Gap Bridging in the Workplace Exploratory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Generations at the Workplace
Bridging the Generational Gap
Introduction A workplace makes it possible for people from various backgrounds to interact and work together towards achieving a common goal. In the course of such interaction there is bound to be some confusion arising from the workers. Organized workplaces, whether small or large, have an administrative structure to ensure smooth running of their activities.
An example of such structured system is a public institution. Public institutions unlike private institutions follow strict laid down policies in the dissemination of their mandate to the public. This paper will discuss the concept of bridging the generation gap in the workplace in relation to a public institution that has all the present generations working in it.
The paper will discuss the various generations in such a workplace, their characteristics, how they view other generations and the source of conflict among the generations. Understanding of the characteristics of the various generations is vital for creation of generation bridges. The paper will also look into ways in which the different generations can be brought together to appreciate and harmoniously work with each other effectively for the realization of the organization’s objectives.
Generation A generation is a group of people who are born in a given time period. The time is an undefined range that varies from a given society to another. In some societies, a generation difference is estimated in terms of the life span from when one is born to the time he/she has a family.
It is taken as the time period between when a female conceives her first child to the moment when the woman’s daughter gets her first born. This is however not a formal definition but a cultural opinion that has been overtaken by time, even though its aspect of time is still relevant. The human race has divided itself into groups based on the age factors (Dictionary 1).
Classification of the currently existing people according to age classifies four generations. The oldest generation is the baby boomers. This is the set born in the 1950’s. Another generation is the “generation X” which is a group of people who were born in the period averaging from 1965 to 1980.
The generation X grew up in a period of selfishness, an aspect that they never liked. The term generation “X” as used originated from Douglas’s book of an imaginary story of three people who isolated themselves from people in order to search for their identities. He visualized this group of people as underemployed, possessing excess education, self concealed and unstable (Jochim 1). Another generation is the generation “Y”, also referred as the Millennials.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This group consists of people born after the mid 1980’s. They are seen as the dominant workforce in workplaces at the present time. This young group is seen to be result oriented team workers who seek attention for their work and are well informed in technology. The group prefers flexible working conditions and environments a fact that is not well received by older generations (Kane 1).
The generation “Z”, is the group that follows generation “Y”. It consists of teenagers born as from the year 1994 to the year 2004. They are on the other hand seen as to have poor communication skills and are not good listeners. The group is perceived to be, in future, non team players in work places due to poor interpersonal skills. They are also referred to as the silent generation (Babyboomers 1).
The Generations at the Workplace Hammil claimed that the current problems at the workplaces are not due to stiff competition or selfishness among people in senior positions but the bombardment of the four generations as they come together in the workplace. The generations pose different approaches to elements of “values, ideas, communication” (Hammil 1) and operation. The differences are also evident in “attitude, behavior, expectations, habits and motivational buttons” (Hammil 1).
The tension witnessed among the different generations is just a consequence of their age difference that has seen them develop different views and approach to problem and conflict resolution. The groups have different mentalities. While the “Y” generation wants instant appreciation for what they are doing, the baby boomer is interested in the productivity of a worker.
A “Y” generation worker will therefore be easily demoralized when he or she fails to get an instant motivation yet the baby boomer generation manager was just waiting for an appropriate time or the organization’s requirements and time for rewarding the performance. The “Y” generation for this case can see the older generations as being inconsiderate as well as being authoritative and ungrateful. The younger generation is also seen by the older generation as being self centered and lacking commitment (Hammil 1).
Bridging the Generational Gap The four generations are different in many aspects, a fact that often bring conflicts in a workplace though they must all exist in the system. The need for continuity in the management and functions of an organization will require all the groups to gradually take senior positions in the management team. Any firm will require the baby boomer to provide experience and leadership just as it needs the “Y” generation to be prepared and shaped to a future leader in the organization.
Blair explained that understanding the behavior of people as well as the approach given to them is a key factor in managing them. A worker who feels that his position is understood and that he or she is respected will much easily respect the management’s directive than a worker who feels intimidated and unappreciated.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Generation Gap Bridging in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management should put up measures to ensure that everyone is at peace with one another. This involves a series of measures undertaken by the management as well as the practices promoted among employees both within a generation as well as across generations. The top leadership should set policies that will regulate every worker’s behavior as per the way they relate to other workers.
Promotion of responsibility of an individual worker towards a mutual understanding is also significant. The administration on the other hand should motivate and reorganize every worker according to his or her psychological needs. The aim of the leadership must be to create an understanding among all workers (Blair 1).
Arbitration is also necessary when the gap brings a conflict. A top leader or even just a responsible party can bring together the conflicting individuals to explain why the misunderstanding is bound to occur and the importance of understanding and appreciating one another. Conflict management policies must be clearly instituted as well as developing interactive forums to bring the generations together in a more social way (Gravett and Throckmorton 274).
Familiarizing each of the generations with the aspects of the other generations is another step to bridging the gap. This could involve exposing the old generation to current technology and promoting the young generation to managerial positions (Rasmus and Salkowitz 159).
In my opinion, the generation gap disputes are a normal occurrence in a workplace. Every individual must reorganize the diversity of human nature, whether in the generational group or across the group. Every worker should respect each other’s opinion and under no circumstance should issues arising from work be personalized.
The administration should come up with policies to eliminate discrimination based on age and penalties on offences based on generation gaps. Bridging the gaps will enhance cooperation in the workplace, a fact that will enhance effectiveness of the workers hence productivity of the entity.
Conclusion A generation defines people born in a given time period. There currently exist four generations namely the baby boomers, the X generation, the Y generation and the Z generation. Each of the generations has its features that are quite different from the other generations. This difference is normally a source of conflict among the generations especially due to misconceptions among members of a group over other generations.
The event of conflict among the generations in a workplace has a negative effect on the workers reducing their effectiveness. It can at times be spilt over to customers, a matter that will undermine the entity’s existence. Measures should be taken to ensure that these gaps are bridged to avoid such conflicts do not take place. The steps can be administrative in terms of setting up policies or individuals being urged and encouraged to have the responsibility to ensure peaceful working environment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Generation Gap Bridging in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Babyboomers. Age group of generation Z. Babyboomers, 2011. Web..
Blair, Gerard. The Human Factor. University of Edinburg, n.d. Web.
Dictionary. Generation. Dictionary References, 2011. Web..
Gravett, Linda and Throckmorton, Robin. Bridging the generation gap. New York: Career Press, 2007. Print.
Hammil, Greg. (2011).Mixing and managing four generation of employees. FDU Magazine Online. Web.
Jochim, Jennifer. Generation X defies definition. University of Nevada, 1997. Web.
Kane, Sally. Generation Y. Web. Legal Careers, 2011. 20 February 2011
Rasmus, Daniel and Salkowitz, Rob. Listening to the Future: Why it’s Everybody’s Business. New York,NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2008.
A Hint of Things to Come: Summary and Analysis of Chapter 25 of Jane Eyre Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Each chapter in Jane Eyre, the novel written by Charlotte Bronte, performs the function of a significant brick the collection of which introduces the path that leads to the new old world of gender inequalities, duties, and feelings which could not be neglected.
The peculiar feature of the 25th chapter of the novel chosen for the analysis is the author’s intention to make it as emotional as possible. In a variety of the events which happen to Jane within a short period of time, Jane cannot focus on the true facts and perceive the reality as it is.
This is why it is necessary to provide the character with the hints which will show her the right way and allow to enjoy her existence. Jane Eyre’s 25th chapter is one of the most emotional periods in Jane’s life due to the necessity to interpret several symbols in her dreams and to realize which changes are approaching because of the marriage with such a person as Mr. Rochester.
At the beginning of the article, the reader gets to know that several days are left until the wedding between Jane and Mr. Rochester takes place. Jane is all about to see her future husband who had to leave the house recently. In order to occupy herself, Jane makes a decision to go for a walk and observe the chestnut tree.
With the help of such walk, the author underlines that something mysterious and unknown to Jane is waiting for her and she has to find more powers to discover the truth. Still, the arrival of Mr. Rochester deprives her of the possibility to plunge into the details of the house as well as the events happened before Jane’s arrival.
The night before Rochester’s arrival, Jane sees two strange dreams about her wedding, Mr. Rochester, and the baby. It seems like the author wants to warn the character as well as the reader that something important should happen soon, still, not all characters are ready to understand the events, this is why such warnings and symbols come while Jane’s is sleeping.
The image of a child crying in Jane’s arms becomes of crucial importance for Jane. She has to carry a baby and go far from Mr. Rochester as the baby wants it, still, the child is too heavy that makes Jane drops him. Such outcome of the dream makes Jane awake and be scared.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to find some explanations, Jane asks questions to Mr. Rochester, still, he continues keeping secrets admitting that these dreams may be connected to woman, Grace Poole. The point is that Mr. Rochester is not eager to give more names. It is clear that he has more to tell, still, something prevents him against doing this.
Such attitude to the dreams as well as to Jane’s interests is considered to be the main shift in the story. The characters have been already warned that something had to happen, and the result of such inabilities to talk directly was the conclusion of Mr. Rochester to tell Jane the truth after 1 year and 1 day will pass after their wedding. The deadlines prove that time is what Mr. Rochester actually needs and what Jane cannot understand.
In general, the main function of the chapter is to inform the reader as well as the characters about the mystery connected to Mr. Rochester. The time to disclose the truth is coming, and the characters are not able to hide secrets any more. Jane should understand that her life is not as safe as she thinks to be, and Mr. Rochester may become a person whom it will be hard to trust.
Emotion as a Performance of the Brain Definition Essay best college essay help
Over the past few years, scientists have been carrying out research in an aim to explain the various functions of the brain. Nevertheless, this has not been an easy task. Perhaps in an attempt to explore the various functions of the brain, these scientists have limited their research into two performances of the brain: cognitive and volitional.
Additionally, these scientists have divided the brain into two empirical centers, that is, sensorial and motor. Ironically, this division has dealt blow to empirical psychology by stating the exact opposite. However, the main concern in this paper is to explain the meaning of emotion and use one theory of emotion to explain its meaning.
To begin with, emotion is a multifarious psychophysiological experience in a person’s mind as influenced by the exterior and interior factors, popularly known as biochemical and environmental factors respectively. Emotion consists of an assortment of visible conducts, expressed feelings, and some alterations in the body state. It is important to note that emotions exist at personal states thus, making it very hard to characterize or classify unless in the most common and palpable instances (Myers 500).
Interestingly, many features of emotion appear comatose to human beings hence, difficult to explain. Since emotion is a complex term that involves many concepts, it is important to define emotion in terms of its concepts. So far, three definitions of emotion enable us to define and comprehend the meaning of emotion.
Firstly, some scientists define emotion as a confidential and prejudiced feeling. Under normal circumstances, human beings experience or feel extraordinary array of states. For some, it is enjoyment and happiness while to others it is distress and pain. Explicitly, this explains the different states of emotions as experienced or felt by individuals.
Secondly, we can define emotions as a state of psychological stimulation normally accompanied by expressions or a show of unique somatic and habitual retorts. This means that emotional states become explainable when an individual undergoes various body responses, as one can observe them. In other words, these retorts engross separately innervated intuitive body organs for example, the stomach and the heart (et. Al. 501-502).
Undoubtedly, by using this second definition, individuals can examine the emotion of other people and even that of animals. Lastly, we can define emotion as actions that people take when they are responding towards something for example, calamities or threats. This definition concurs with Darwin’s analogy on the practical tasks of emotion, which asserts that emotion play a significant role in the survival of human beings since they generate actions into perilous state of affairs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the three definitions of emotion, it is imperative to note that emotion primarily rivets three concepts: animated actions, conscious incident and physiological stimulation. Research shows that research correlates to feelings such as character, individuality, disposition, inspiration and the doldrums.
All human beings irrespective of their age, color, sex and ethnic background experience various emotions. However, it is important to note that an individual cannot experience all emotions at one particular time. It all depends on one’s state of affairs and the circumstances. For instance, a person facing threats will have different emotions from another person who is experiencing contentment.
The most common faculties of emotions include love, annoyance, self-assurance, contentment and stress. Depending on one’s condition, a person can experience one or a mixture of these emotions (Freitas-Magalhães 12-18).
Conceivably, in an attempt to define emotion, several scientists came up with theories in order to explain the implicit meaning of emotion. As we have seen, the brain is a complex structure that performs an assortment of functions.
These various function of the brain that influence emotions prompted scientist to come up with different theories of emotion that falls into three categories: cognitive, physiological and neurological. To start with, neurological theories tend to explain how the body responds emotionally due to actions on it. On the other hand, neurological theories examines how various activities directed to the brain influence an emotional rejoinder hence, expressive feelings.
Lastly, the cognitive theories tend to explain how individual thoughts and psychological bustles play a significant role in the configuration of emotions. The three categories of emotional theories have so far been a success story of trying to explain the meaning of emotion. In fact, the theories of emotions as crafted by psychologists and ancient philosophers enjoy an assortment of ideas- ideas fundamentally originating from diverse sources (Dalgleish 582-589).
Starting from the ancient Greeks to Sartre to contemporary scholars, these theories of emotion continue to explain the meaning of emotion. Interestingly, even experts from fields not related to biology and psychology for example, creative art, anthropology and sociology have come up with theories to explain the meaning and impact of emotion.
We will write a custom Essay on Emotion as a Performance of the Brain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, in trying to explain the meaning of emotion, creative scientists have developed various works of art that range from sculpture to paintings, which show various expressive feelings.
On the other hand, psychologists and animal behaviorists have mastered the art of emotions, and even conjectured the basis, progression, and roles of emotion. In addition, these natural scientists have gone ahead to proliferate the theories of emotion and their impacts to the individual and society.
In overall, these theories examine the genesis and evolution of emotion and facial expression. Thus, the study and analysis of the theories of emotion will not only assist us in knowing the meaning of emotion, but also, it will enlighten us on the precepts of emotional expression and bring them into perspective (James 188-189).
Some theories tend to emphasize emotional expression as the fundamental facet of the entire emotion process. In fact, some architects of these theories of emotion believe that emotional expression brings about the familiarity of emotion, which comprises the felt eminence of emotion. For instance, during the 19th century, William James and Lange were among the first persons to propose a theory to explain emotional expression.
Known as the James-Lange theory, this theory of emotion examines the genesis, development and functional roles of emotion. James and Lange observed that emotional perceptions trigger body changes, which results into emotional experience. He went further to explain that in the absence of perception, it would be hard to explain emotion any attempt will appear insipid and colorless.
According to James, the brain does not house emotion, which can cause body actions. Instead, James argued that the mind contains body activity that precipitates into emotion. In addition, James believed that the body is like a sounding board. Once smacked by neural impulses, there will be a generation of waves all over the body.
The brain has the capacity to sense the generated neural impulses and consequently produce an eminence of emotional feeling. Therefore, the multiplicities and shade of emotion becomes inestimable just like bodily patterns whose origin is neural actions. James also failed to recognize the various categories of emotion, that is, neurological, physiological and cognitive, and instead, branded them as subjective and academic (James 188-194).
Later on, James proposed that the best way to explain emotion is to set up an experiment, and not just gripping to hypothetical statements. He therefore proposed a myriad of nature experiments of destroying the entire neural system and observing whether the body will experience changes-precisely, without any generated nerve impulse.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Emotion as a Performance of the Brain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, although the experiments attracted diverse scholarly analysis and literature, the interpretations seems parallel, and eventually goes against the hypothesis proposed by James William. Largely, the experiments fail to meet the expected results.
However, these experiments ignited research and deliberations aimed at explaining the real meaning of emotion. Leaving that aside, the James-Lange theory also explains the meaning of emotion from another perspective. This theory explains that the nervous system through its travelling nerve impulses causes bodily changes through a multifaceted process superior than a reflex or instinctual response.
In fact, some recent research into the emotional process shows that it takes quite long time for emotional changes to transpire. According to James, every instinctual reaction commences an emotion, although there are many very many sources of emotional rejoinder, which appear too ire just like gross, and others appear subtle just like an artistic admiration of exquisiteness. In addition, James believed that the brain does not have specific regions responsible for emotion.
However, some researchers have criticized this proposition terming it unfounded. According to James, individual abilities differ to the extent that each person recalls and preserves emotional experiences differently, and that the degree of emotional experience varies from one individual to another. The theory goes further to explain that recurring emotion results into the most common feeling other than the hidden.
James-Lange theory, a theory developed by Carl Lange and William James is a hypothesis that traces the origin of emotion. The theory starts by explaining that in the world we live in, people have to respond to experiences. The routine nervous system is the foundation of proceeding psychological episodes for example, perspiration, parchedness of the maw, and strapping nervousness.
Thus, emotions are general feelings that precede a psychological change. That is, experiences and not psychological changes cause emotion. In many times, the theory has been successful in explaining the origin of emotion notwithstanding the bedeviling criticisms. Captivatingly, the two architects of this theory, James and Lange, worked under different platforms but came up with similar findings (James 195-205).
According to Lange, there is no difference between vasomotor changes and emotions. This means that if an individual is laughing, then that person is happy.
On the other hand, James justifies the theory by stating words that echo the sentiments of Lange. He stated, “My theory … is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion. Common sense says we lose our fortune, are sorry and weep; we meet a bear, are frightened and run; we receive insults from a rival, are angry and strike.
The hypothesis here to be defended says that this order of sequence is incorrect … and that the more rational statement is that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble … Without the bodily states following on the perception, the latter would be purely cognitive in form, pale, colorless, destitute of emotional warmth. We might then see the bear, and judge it best to run, receive the insult and deem it right to strike, but we should not actually feel afraid or angry (Ellsworth 222-229).”
Nevertheless, even with the explanations given by these two scholars of the 19th century, the contemporary scholars have found various weaknesses with this theory. All the same, it is also important to note that some scholars have found some evidences that support the authenticity of this theory. For instance, persons suffering from panic disorders normally undergo psychoemotional ordeal probably due to physiological responses within the body. On the other hand, some scholars feel that the theory does not provide enough information that brings out the real meaning of emotion.
For instance, in the above example of persons experiencing panic disorder, the theory assumes that the responses correlate with a scrupulous emotional state resulting into a psychoemotional ordeal. However, during therapy, experts have found out that there is no association of any kind between the responses and particular emotional states. This means that although the theory has been a success story in explaining the origin of emotion, the experimental aspect of it remains a dark spot especially to modern research.
In some circumstances, some scientists have chosen to advance the James-Lange theory in order to explain the meaning of emotion. Among the very many scientists who chose to advance this theory, include 20th century psychologist, Silvan Tomkins.
Tomkins proposed that emotional experiences or expressions results into sensations, vascular changes and other behavioral changes. Such changes exhibit on the victim’s face and qualitatively display diverse an assortment of emotions. For example, depending on the source of the emotional experience faces can turn sad from happy, or fury to fright.
Tomkins further explained that perceptions about other bodily changes do not provide more information concerning the explicit feelings of emotion. Contrary to the explanation given out by James, Tomkins asserts that other than the three categories of emotions, more categories have evolved each with a definite functional and adaptive role. These functional and adaptive roles exhibit in neural organization and revolve around facial expressions (Ellsworth 224-227).
For instance, some people do not take certain foods because they believe that they are not only dangerous, but also deleterious. This results into emotions of disgust, and in many occasions, whenever these people hear or see these kinds of foods, they open their mouth and push the tongue in and out as an expression of disgust.
Research shows that the response to this disgust has caused a myriad of rejection scenarios, for example, emotion of condescension, where the object is a different individual, and the sentiment of indignity, wherever the object is the one experiencing the response.
Tomkins did a lot of work in itemizing both existing and emerging categories of emotion, and further denoted the resultant facial expression of each category. In addition, the expanded theory describes each emotion comprehensively aimed at explaining the meaning of emotion. Today, many researchers and scholars have found the multi-volume work done by Tomkins of great significance in the study of emotion (Laird 8-36).
In conclusion, the concept of emotion is vast and involves a comprehensive study of various disciplines. This is the reason why various scientists have come up with theories to explain the meaning of emotion. The James-Lange theory is among the very many theories of emotion that explain the origin, evolution and functional roles of emotion. This theory has so far been a success story in the field of psychology, as it explains the meaning of emotion both in literature and in experiment.
Works Cited Dalgleish, Tim. The emotional brain. Nature Perspectives, 5, 2004, 582–589.
Ellsworth, Phoebe. William James and Emotion: Is a Century of Fame worth a Century of Misunderstanding? Psychological Review, (101)2, 1994, 222-229.
Freitas-Magalhães, Armindo. The Psychology of Emotions: The Allure of Human Face. Oporto: University of Fernando Pessoa Press. 2007. Print.
James, William. What is an Emotion? Mind, 9, 1884, 188–205.
Laird, James, Feelings: the Perception of Self, Oxford University Press. 2007. Print.
Myers, David. Theories of Emotion: Psychology. Seventh Edition, New York, NY: Worth Publishers. 2004. Print.
Technology Management Strategy Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Any organization has various resources to use in achieving its objectives, technology is one of them and others include financial and human resources. Therefore the organization must consider managing technology to be one of its basic functions, whereby it develops technology strategy just as it does for other functions of marketing, finance and human resources.
s a result the organization will be able to determine; the unique technological competences as well as capabilities that it needs to attain and maintain competitive advantage. It will also be able to determine the technologies it can use to put in to operation the core design concepts and the levels of investment to put in technology.
Analyzing the evolution
Importance of the Marketing in Business Report (Assessment) cheap essay help
Marketing can be defined simply as a process of doing market evaluation, selling either goods or services to clients, customers or others who need them. These will also involve doing promotion through such means as advertisement to promote or enhance the amount of goods or services sold.Further,marketing will incorporate various strategies such as sales techniques, business development or even communication.
Through marketing a business will be able to build a good customer rapport and in so doing create better value for the clientele and the business itself. On the other hand, marketing assessment is synonymous with marketing analysis. It can therefore be defined as the analysis of a market for a particular product or service. These include the evaluation of the market trends, doing market studies and also evaluating the competition.
As a local community based organization we have concerns that few young people are involving themselves in exercise, a situation which is a cause for worries.In the process, I was tasked with providing a plan on how best the group which involves itself in the welfare of the young people would go about to establish whether there is any truth in such concerns. This paper outlines the plan on how I would recommend for purposes of assessing the situation (Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
To establish the truth in the matter involves gathering as much information as basically possible from the community around where the group activities reach. The information gathered will touch on infrastructure such as training facilities like courts.
Lack of or even poor infrastructure will lead to few young people involving themselves in exercise since they have no where to train. The data will also touch on man power which is the availability of skilled personnel to train the young people if they decide to go for exercise. The data will also give the demographic details such as age, the geography of the area and also income level.
What the data on demography will do is to provide insight as to why the young people are not involved in exercise which is crucial in their development. The age is to be determined so as to establish the specific age of the ones who are not involved or are partially involved in exercises. If determined, the community group will be able to know the best exercises for the different groups of young people.
By and large, through the data collection the community group will be in a position to establish the truth behind the concerns on involvement in exercise by the young people. The climatic conditions of the area might also be a hindrance to exercise. Income level too can turn young people away especially if they are required to part with money for training in the process of doing the exercise (Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The plan also identifies the problems that are facing the young people in the community. There might be a number of problems facing young people in the target area by the community organization which they also may need to solve. So to establish the truth behind the matter then they need to identify those problems that might not have been known to them before the concerns arose.
These problems might be related to the health situation of the young people since some of them may not be in good health to engage in exercises which require body fitness to sustain the pressure of doing it (Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
The existing awareness by the young people that they should involve themselves in exercises ought to be established too. So it’s crucial to recommend a thorough search on the knowledge they have on the importance of participating in exercise and how they value it in their lifes.These way, the group will be able to know whether the young people angage in exercise.
If they have knowledge on how important exercise is, they should be involved in it and if they lack the knowledge then it becomes hard for them to attach any value to doing exercise. Any shortcomings that the young people associate with doing exercise should also be noted.
These can be lack of efficiency in exercise type or even exorbitant prices that the community group charges in offering the services to the young people for doing the exercise using the facilities that they may have. All these will therefore go along way in establishing the truth behind the concerns raised and in so doing the community group will take the appropriate action deemed fit(Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
The importance of assessing and analyzing the focus of the young people cannot be over-emphasised.It is possible to find young people are involving themselves in activities that are not beneficial to them and therefore lacking time to do exercises. If the group finds that the young people are spending most of their time in clubs or in market centers then they will be able to establish the truth.
Young people may also be involved in income generating activities to support themselves or support their families thus being unable to involve themselves in exercise. The plan for recommendation stresses on the need to look on the activities the young people are involving themselves in and therefore the group will be able to know the truth behind the raised concerns (Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
We will write a custom Assessment on Importance of the Marketing in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s also important to establish the expectations of the young people in the exercises and be in a position to know whether they involve themselves or not. Conduct a market search and also research for reviews on what could probably be their ultimate goal if they angage themselves in such activities.
The methods that have been used before to encourage the young people to get into exercise are also to be noted. Methodology is very important in any activity and if the one used before had shortcomings then the possibility of it not having worked is high and so is the failure by young people participation in exercise. The strategies currently being used to compel the young people into exercise is also very instrumental and is good that it be noted in looking to the truth behind the concerns.
Identification of the unique proposition of the group is fundamental so as to discover whether that specific goal of ensuring that young people participate in exercise has been implemented. An answer affirming that it has been undertaken or not will also establish whether its true few young people are participating in exercise (Solomon,Stuart and Marshall 2009).
Reference Solomon, M, Stuart, E and Marshall,G,. 2009. Marketing:Real choices,Real people. 6th Edition. Monmouth Junction, MJ: Prentice hall.
Constitutional Amendment Proposal Term Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Consideration of the Current Documents
Good Outcomes of the Amendment
Bad Outcomes When Amendment is adopted
Introduction It is certain that constitutional amendments are crucial when eliminating problems in the original document. Amendment 14, especially section three, outlines that nobody would occupy the lawmaking, executive, or legal office if he or she engages in a revolt The section further elaborates that no member of the state legislature, administrative or judicial should engage in a rebellion against the state. Consequently, such a person should leave the office.
However, the constitution only allows a proportion of congress to remove such a person from the office. It is factual that all the officers in the three arms of the administration come into being when citizens vote. The populace of New Jersey enacted such a constitution for their own good (NJL, n.d). Citizens, who are the voters, should also participate in the recall of such officers before the expiry of their terms.
Consideration of the Current Documents Normally, politicians and other public officials pledge what they would deliver when elected to their preferred positions. Citizens should always be able to evict such personalities from the offices when they discover that they are not delivering what they ought to. Citizens should always have a midterm evaluation of the officials in the divisions of the government. Such evaluations ought to gauge what the officers pledged and what the office demands of them as stipulated in the law.
If the populace who elected them to the office deems that they perform below the standards, then they should undertake an election that verifies the recall of such officers. Such moves will eventually clear out unreliable activities, as well as incompetent officers who do not deliver what the office demands (VOP, 2009). On the other hand, the move would eventually lead to the retaining of honest and performing officers in the three branches of the government.
The origin fathers were philosophical about the constitution of the US. They did not desire that a person who behaves rebelliously to the constitution or the country would not be fit to occupy any office. Moreover, they considered any abuse treacherous to the country, as well as the citizens. In a bid to contain such shortcomings, they stipulated some amendments about the modalities of representation and exclusion of such individuals.
Fourteenth amendment forms a basis when considering the proposal of eliminating an officer from any branch of the government (Patterson, 2009). Section two of this amendment outlines the appointment procedures. Furthermore, it elaborates on the number of representatives allocated for an area. Section 3, on the other hand, shuns any person who has been involved in any mischievous activity from becoming prominent in the government.
The two sections; therefore, outlines the allocation of representatives, as well as bearing an office in any branch. Although the sections stipulate a prohibition of misconduct in the executive, judicial, or legislative branches, it does not concentrate on the eviction of the voted officers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Good Outcomes of the Amendment Adoption of such an amendment has a positive impact on the overall administration of the state. The amendment will enable the officials in the branches of the government to execute their duties in harmony with the constitution and state decrees (Smith, 2007). The legislative branch would make laws without impunity, but upholding the rights of the citizens. The executive would enforce the decrees in accordance with the demands of the citizens.
Consequently, the judicial branch would judge the laws while respecting the needs of the electorates. In general, the amendment would do away with the laxity among the officers. Another positive outcome of the amendment is that citizens would be proactive in the government affairs, thus keeping watch on it. Having the power to recall an officer would prompt people to be keen on the officers’ actions (Patterson, 2009).
Bad Outcomes When Amendment is adopted Proposal and subsequent ratification of such amendment have some setbacks on various individuals. Since priorities change over time in the running of the state, the officers would have different limits to achieve. This amendment is; therefore, not universal for the officers in the branches of the government.
Secondly, it has a severe impact on the House of Representatives since members would be overcautious on their undertakings. This is factual especially on the decisions they make (Patterson, 2009). Moreover, several politicians would be extra scheming and alarmed in special interest clusters. Consequently, avenues for corruption will erupt since some officers would be interested in money.
The legislative division would be extra democratic thus causing the officials to let down civic trust. The amendment would have several loopholes since some citizens would not be honest with the evaluation process on the performance of the officers. This is factual since some would just vote against the officers due to other factors other than the performance of the officer.
Enactment of such amendment requires several modalities thus thwarting the effort. This would only lead to brainwash since efforts go in vain without considerable impacts. Another bad outcome is the over concentration of people on the executive they voted. This would lead to officers serving the interests of the electorates, thus prompting them to overstep the constitution or the terms of office (Patterson, 2009).
Adoption of such amendment would create uneven execution of duties since each state would have a benchmark for evaluating its officials. The incumbent in any of the three branches would fight at preserving his or her seat instead of tackling the needs of the populace. This would lead to divergent views towards the progress of the state. This is factual since the officer would always like to hold his or her political life.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Constitutional Amendment Proposal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Voters, on the other hand, nationals would be deliberating on whether the incumbent retains the position or another officer takes over. In a bid to retain the position or the office, the officer would try other mischievous means of convincing the voters. This is particularly factual when the officer did not meet the demands of the citizens. This will eventually lead to issues of corruption and other related behaviors.
Conclusion It is realistic that such a proposal and successive ratification of the amendment present thorny issues. The officers would be extra hesitant to ratify the proposal. Some officers have acted treacherously in the past, and some have faced the law while others have escaped the long arms of the law.
This owes to the weakness in the constitution, which does not empower citizens to recall such officers. Even though, the amendment may present some setbacks, it has strong pros that it would be positive in the end. The constitution that only empowers a small section of the society, the congress, to recall disloyal officers infringes on people’s rights. Citizens should thus be empowered to recall untrustworthy officials serving in any branch of the government.
References New Jersey Legislature (NJL). (n.d). Laws and Constitution. Retrieved from: https://www.njleg.state.nj.us/lawsconstitution/consearch.asp
Patterson, T. E. (2009). The American Democracy, 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Smith, R. (2007). The Bill of Rights: Defining Our Freedoms. Minnesota, MN: ABDO.
Voice of the people (VOP). (2009). Non-Partisan Petition to Recall Federal Elected Officials. Web.
The Formation of Social Policy Based on Theoretical Assumptions Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Criminal Justice System and Society
Introduction Criminal justice system derives its policies from the assumptions of varied criminological theories. There are many criminological theories and their differences lie in the assumptions that give explanations or predictions of crime. Since crime is a social issue that affects everyone in the society, formation of social policies based on the same theoretical assumptions applied in the criminal justice system would enhance public understanding and the control of crime.
Cullen and Agnew assert that,”social policy touches all our lives improving the welfare of all citizens and in particular meeting the needs of those who cannot provide for themselves by addressing social issues such as immigration control, prostitution, drug abuse, domestic violence and poverty” (1999, p. 23).
Concerted efforts of the criminal justice system and social policies offer structural approach of combating crime in the society. This essay examines criminological theories and the development of social policies that are necessary for effective crime control.
Criminal Justice System and Society The development of the social policies has encouraged active participation of the public in combating crime and creation of a safe society. The realization by the criminal justice system that members of the public can participate cooperatively in prevention of crime has led to the formulation of social policies to guide them in their participation.
Blakemore and Griggs argue that, “…connection between crime and social conditions can be altered by forms of social interventions that provide the connection between criminal justice and social policy in terms of the concept of the social control” (2007, p. 60). Incorporation of the members of the public in the criminal justice system through formulation of policies will have significant augmentation in fighting against crime.
Strain theory supports that crime occurs in the society due to the inequalities rather than poverty. For example, the United States of America is a wealthy country thus free from poverty yet she has the highest rates of crime. Knepper argues that, “the strain traditions insists that crime is not brought by poverty so much as inequality because an economic system that prevents participation by some individuals is a relative deprivations that pressurizes them into criminal activity” (2007, p. 25).
Due to economical strains in the society, the less privileged members of the society struggle very hard to meet their needs but since they have no available means of achieving them, they resort to crime as an alternative means of survival. Therefore, criminal justice system and the society should consider the economic inequality as the possible cause of crimes in the society and formulate social policies that will give every member in the society an opportunity to access livelihood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current state of unemployment all over the world strains the lives of helpless youths who are potential human resources. The unemployed youths are struggling to make fortune by using all legitimate means; nevertheless, when these means are no longer available, they opt for criminal activities.
According to the opportunistic theory of crime, “…a young person who has decided to pursue an illegitimate route to success could only choose from those illegal activities available within the community … that adults in the neighborhood had already organized” (Knepper, 2007, p. 26).
Since the youths take opportunity of the available criminal activities in a certain community setting, the criminal justice system and the society should identify those criminal activities or gangs set up by adults and eliminate them in the society. If the society becomes free from any criminal gangs and criminal activities, the youths will not seize the opportunity and utilize them in conducting crimes.
Criminological Theories There are several criminological theories including routine activities theory, deterrence theory, rational choice theory, conflict theory, and techniques of neutralization.
The routine activities theory postulates that lack of guardians, presence of a motivated offender and availability of target, are the three elements that prompt occurrence of crime. According to the deterrence theory, “…crime can be controlled through the use of punishment that combines the proper degrees of certainty, severity, and celerity” (Akers
Conflicting Views on Abortion Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Conservative perspective on Abortion
The Liberal Perspective on Abortion
Feminist perspective on Abortion
Religious Perspective on Abortion
Introduction Although abortion may be legally permissible in many countries, it is nevertheless a debatable issue regarding its moral permissibility. Different ethical theories have been put forward to provide the moral guidance with regard to abortion most notably, the liberal and conservative perspectives.
The difference that divides the two perspectives concerns the moral status of the fetus and the degree to which the fetus has right to life. However, both of the two perspectives do not regard the role played by the pregnant woman during gestation and the relationships involved during pregnancy between the woman and the fetus. The feminist perspective on the other hand, emphasizes that the woman has a pivotal role in abortion as the fetus occupies her body during the gestation period.
All these perspectives base their arguments on values rather than facts and the fact that the beginning of human life is not clearly defined. However, the scientific perspective answers the question as to when life begins and provides meaningful insights, as at what point human life deserves protection just like any other human individual and for what reasons for protecting its rights.
The Conservative perspective on Abortion The conservative perspective on abortion also called the pro-life perspective proposes that the human fetus is human with a unique set of genetic material (DNA) and therefore has full rights just like any other human being (Sumner 347). The conservatives believe the uniqueness of the DNA is what confers an embryo moral status.
The conservative perspective further states that abortion is homicide and as such not morally permissible. The conservatives believe that the fetus is of the same moral standing as the mother and thus both have equal rights. However, science holds that during the early stages of embryo development the zygote, with its unique set of DNA, can subdivide, and develop into two identical embryos.
This then begs the question as whether identical twins with much similar DNA have moral status. In addition, conservative proponents neglect the rights of the pregnant woman over her body but claim that the woman has no right to terminate the life of another human, based on her interests.
The Liberal Perspective on Abortion The liberal perspective on abortion also called pro-choice view places the decision whether or not to terminate the pregnancy on the woman based on personal health and future. The liberals argue that while the fetus may be human, it lacks the qualities to grant it rights like other human beings (Noonan 98). Liberal perspective thus does not consider the fetus worthy of any rights and protection making abortion morally permissible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The liberals place more emphasis on the rights of the woman instead of the fetus. They claim that it is the right of the woman to protect her health, happiness, freedom and therefore, to terminate a pregnancy is justifiable. They oppose the claim from a conservative perspective that fetus has rights by arguing that the fetus resemblance to a person or its potential of becoming a person in future does not warrant it any significant right to life.
The liberal perspective, however, does not provide a proper moral guidance to the woman faced with a decision of whether or not to procure an abortion. It does not consider the moral conflict faced by the woman in making this decision, instead; it allows the woman to exercise autonomy over her body giving her the freedom of choice (Sherwin 96).
The liberals’ view that the fetus has no rights as the sole basis for the choice to abort or not, does not provide moral justification for abortion, because it neglects the relationships involved in the pregnancy by merely giving the liberty to terminate pregnancy.
Feminist perspective on Abortion The feminist view on abortion acknowledges the deep relationship developed between the woman and the fetus during pregnancy. It further argues that the woman has moral responsibility over the fetus founded on the relationship developed during gestation (Sherwin 199).
This accounts for the concerns that women have when faced with the decision whether to procure an abortion or not. The feminist perspective considers other factors such as the women’s feelings about the fetus, the relationship of the woman and her partner and her obligations in the family as a basis for making a decision to or not to terminate a pregnancy.
Both the feminists and liberals hold the opinion that a woman has the right of choice during a pregnancy. However, they differ in the sense that the feminists focus on the woman while the liberals focus on the fetus. The liberals also do not consider the mother-fetus relationships during pregnancy.
Sherwin contradicts the liberal perspective by arguing that from a feminist point of view the fetus is morally significant but not absolutely (101). On the other hand, the liberal view disregards social factors that are also important during a pregnancy like personal health or the plans of the woman. Both the liberal and the conservative perspectives do not consider the relationship of the mother and the fetus nor the social factors involved.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Conflicting Views on Abortion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Religious Perspective on Abortion The religious views on abortion oscillate between extreme views where abortion is an act of murder to moderate views where abortion is a necessary act depending on the circumstances. The religious perspective covers wide issues taking into account not only the rights of the fetus but also the status and rights of the mother.
All the major religions provide moral guidance regarding abortion based on religious texts and human reasoning. Most religions consider abortion a sin and therefore, not morally permissible. However, some religions place more significance on the status and rights of the woman more than on the fetus and therefore, suggest that abortion is permissible under some circumstances.
Scientific Perspective Science attempts to answer the question as to when human life begins, which is important in determining the moral permissibility of abortion. The abortion debate is on moral values rather than on facts, (Keith and Tony 33).The scientific perspective provides clear evidence as to when human life begins in an attempt to end the abortion debate.
According to a universally accepted scientific criteria, the sperm-egg fusion leads to the formation of a zygote approximately 24 hours after fertilization. The Zygote soon after its formation begins a sequence of events that facilitate further embryo development. This is uncharacteristic of the either the sperm cell or the egg separately therefore making the zygote characteristic of a human organism.
However, the point at which fertilization (sperm-egg fusion) ends and zygote becomes human otherwise known, as syngamy, is debatable. After the binding of the sperm and the egg during fertilization, the membranes of the two cells fuse forming a hybrid cell, the zygote that contains two different genetic materials.
In the zygote the DNA contributed by the sperm and the egg undergo modification to enable it to participate in further embryonic development. This is unique to the zygote making it different from the sperm or the egg. The events point to the evidence that the fusion process creates a new cell, a human cell (Keith and Tony 34).
The question that remains unanswered is whether this human cell is an individual human organism and therefore deserves recognition. An organism possesses many complex organs that are interdependent to allow an organism to carry out the activities of life. A human cell in contrast, contains the genetic material but has no complex organization.
Syngamy refers to the process that marks the onset of a new cell; the zygote, that to some extent is different from the sperm and egg. However, it does not provide sufficient scientific evidence to show that the new cell so formed is a new human being and such accorded special rights and protection. This leaves the question as to when do human life begin and when is it appropriate to procure an abortion; a matter for the ethicists.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflicting Views on Abortion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The issue of moral permissibility of abortion is controversial and consequently, arouses much debate. Different perspectives base their arguments on flawed views that cannot entirely justify abortion. The scientific perspective provides explanation as to when the fetus becomes human and therefore deserves rights as any human being.
From the evidence adduced through scientific research, the ethicists and other concerned parties can make informed decisions regarding abortion without infringement on the rights of the mother or of the unborn child.
Works Cited Keith, Moore and Tony, Persaud. The Developing Human. Philadelphia: Saunders-Elsevier, 2003: 31-35.
Noonan, John. An Almost Absolute Value in History. Toronto: Wadsworth Publishing.2005: 98-103
Sherwin, Susan. Abortion Through A Feminist Ethics. Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.2005: 95-108
Climate Change, Severe Weather, and Human Health As theeffects of climate change are observed, it is important tocontinue gathering information in order to determine risks and plan appropriate interve best essay help: best essay help
On the Home Page of the CDC http://www.cdc.gov selectNatural Disasters and Severe Weather. There are separate sections for: Earthquakes, Extreme Heat, Floods, Hurricanes, Landslides and Mudslides, Lightning, Tornadoes, Tsunamis,Volcanoes, Wildfires, Winter Weather
Other relevant sites: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) http://www.noaa.gov Also through NOAA there is access to The National Hurricane Center http://www.nhc.noaa.gov and The National Weather Service http://www.weather.gov Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) http://www.fema.gov
1. (a) What is the typical length of the Hurricane Season each year i.e. the start and end dates?
(b) Briefly describe the role of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
(c) Why might people not evacuate prior to an extreme weather event? What is the potential impact of social factors on evacuation for a hurricane?
2. Please see CDC Natural Disasters and Severe Weather then read the section on Extreme Heat.
(a) What has happened in Louisiana in the aftermath ofHurricane Ida?
(b) Briefly describe one general approach to protecting people from extreme heat. How can government and other agencies plan for, and provide appropriate services and interventions?
(c) In 2-3 sentences describe one example of a population group which may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat, and the reason(s) for the vulnerability.
(d) How does the mortality due to extreme heat compare with other examples of weather-related hazards?
Kathleen McNamara’s “Constructing Authority in the European Union” Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Governance is a process where a government effectively exercises its constitutional authority and utilizes its resources adequately. The problems and affairs are collectively overseen by international organizations, government of countries and World organizations like; United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), African Union (AU) and European Union (EU) respectively.
In the course of governing the globe, all the super powers that participate in this process make and implement policies that are beneficial to its citizens, government or corporate organizations. These benefits are either political or financial.
This essay will constructively criticize Kathleen McNamara’s article “constructing authority in the European Union” which tries to portray the EU as illegitimate and a taken for granted political entity.
Furthermore, the essay will analyze the importance of the EU as a global governor and the dividends which Europeans enjoy through this respected and important organization. This article critique is intended to acquaint the reader with the writer’s perspective regarding globalization and the management of the globe in a globalized age. (McNamara, 154)
The European Union as a Global Governor The European Union has by every legitimate means contributed immensely to the growth of both member states of the union and the entire globe. The EU is regarded as one of the most powerful and successful political innovations in the world. It has 27 member states with its powerful presence recognized in a lot of political spheres. (McNamara, 153)
Despite the EU’s reputation, writer Kathleen McNamara thinks otherwise. This brings to mind the question; what is McNamara’s perimeter for measuring success? Also important, one begins to wonder about McNamara’s source of information and how reliable or authentic these sources are.
It is important to note that, there is no reliable and scholarly authority that supports McNamara’s argument and this implies that, the article “constructing authority in the European Union” is merely a personal opinion of McNamara. Regardless of the fact that every individual is entitled to his/her own opinion about any issue, McNamara’s argument about the EU could be termed as dogmatic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A literal example of this could be seen in the argument about the EU’s passport. The ability of the EU to successfully establish a standardized passport is a milestone achievement and a bold step in the right direction. This step is already emulated by the African Union and this clearly shows that, the EU regardless of McNamara’s argument had done something useful and worth emulating. (McNamara, 171)
The EU has its significant presence in the world trade organization (WTO) and other formal international forums like the G-8. The world trade organization and the G-8 are reputable and formal international forums that have contributed a lot to the growth of the entire world through policy making. These forums consist of scholars, reputable politicians and intelligent policy makers from different nations around the world.
If the EU was a taken for granted political entity as McNamara tries to describe it, serious minded international forums like the G-8 which has world powers like United States of America (USA), China and a host of other countries as members would not have recognized the EU presence in its forum. These examples show that the EU has clearly been a significant and seriously taken political entity not only in Europe but the entire world at large. (McNamara, 156)
Criticizing Kathleen McNamara’s argument about the European Union (EU) Kathleen McNamara’s arguments, opinions and interpretations of EU’s policies are definitely misplaced. The EU as an entity, does not function alone and policies of the EU are widely recognized and respected throughout the world which is an indication that the EU is not a taken for granted political entity. This renders all the arguments and sources of McNamara null and void.
In McNamara’s article “constructing authority in the European Union”; the writer tries to describe the EU as an illegitimate political entity since its legitimacy is contested by certain people. McNamara feels legitimate authority means achieving a significant level of acceptance without coercion. (McNamara, 153) But it is important for the reader to note at this point that, there is no single policy, law or decision, be it legitimate or not that is unanimously accepted by people.
This means that, it is literally impossible for any organization to make decisions or policies that will be unanimously accepted by everybody involved. A lot of policies made in the past by other international organizations were also challenged or contested; the power and transparency of the United Nations has consistently been challenged too. But never in history has contesting the position of an organization been used as a yardstick to measure such an organization’s legitimacy.
Therefore, using a group of people’s opinion as a yardstick to contest the EU’s legality is totally absurd. More so, since the inception of the EU, it has only experienced an increment in the number of its member states which stands currently at 27. If the EU was coercive as McNamara tries to describe it, its membership would have decreased instead of steadily increasing. It is expected that McNamara would have taken into cognizance all this facts before concluding that the EU is illegitimate and coercive. (McNamara, 157)
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Kathleen McNamara’s “Constructing Authority in the European Union” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another argument by McNamara which lacks substantial evidence to support the writer’s thesis is referring to the EU as an elite project without mass participation in decision making. McNamara ought to have known better but the writer prefers to lurk in the dark about the EU, obviously blinded by personal opinions. With 27 member states and making decisions and policies that affect over 200 million Europeans, the reference to the European Union an elite project is totally absurd and terrible. (McNamara, 172)
Conclusion Writer Kathleen McNamara obviously used unreliable sources with distorted facts and half truths to write the article “constructing authority in the European union”. The writer’s argument is dogmatic as aforementioned with no substantial evidence to support the argument. The article was more or less written from McNamara’s personal opinion and the article can therefore, be classified as a mere expression of the writer’s opinion.
Issues like the EU passport had been embedded with the words “European Union” on it are trivial besides the AU also has its passport embedded with the words “African Union”. Furthermore, if the European Union decides to depart from the modern age model of political authority been tied closely to sovereign or territorial states and a new model works effectively for the EU, then McNamara has no reason to criticize such a decision. (McNamara, 174)
Considering the number of years that the EU has been in existence and it’s ever increasing membership; it can be logically concluded that the EU has solid significant cultural foundations that are important and significant to Europeans no matter what McNamara thinks.
Works Cited McNamara, Kathleen. Constructing authority in European Union: Chicago: Regency, 2007. Print
Steroids Position Paper Essay custom essay help
Introduction By definition, steroids are artificial or natural composites that assist in controlling definite body functions. They are categorized in two groups namely anabolic steroids and androgenic steroids.Anabolic steroids are the most common one, which is utilized by sportspersons to enhance their performance in sporting.
In light of exploration and subjective reports regarding whether to use steroids or not for bodybuilding reasons, it appears there are unquestionably two distinct groups and every camp with primarily divergent viewpoints concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using steroids.
Each group has come out strongly to defend their positions with yes group arguing that enhancing performance benefits that steroid brings outweighs the side effects while the anti-group have stated numerous reasons to discourage sportspersons from using them.
When you think critically as an athlete, can your health be compared with merely winning a race? Of course, not health is more important that is why I am against using steroids to enhance performance. All athletes should think about the harm they are doing to their body and their general health before using steroids
Steroids are harmful and should only be used when a medical doctor recommends instances such as treatment of osteoporosis, impotence, anemia, and breast cancer regulation and enhance weight loss when patient losses too much weight (Lewis 2).We also have steroid creams, which come in handy in dealing with specific skin and irritating situations. Much as there numerous medical applications of steroids, their use in medicinal applications has been limited, as a result of possible side effects that come with their use.
Therefore, generally speaking, steroids are not good for use as it leads to the numerous adverse effects. According to Lewis, people who use steroids have higher chances of developing heart diseases, stokes, interior body bleeding, virus-related infections, liver tumor and general weakening of immune systems(3). With such health complications, risk factor is increased, life expectancy is decreased the users may die earlier than non-users.
Another dark side of steroids is that they lead to hormone imbalances, particularly in teenagers who may already be having issues with hormones. With use of anabolic steroids, it may result in contracting of testicles,breasts, and low semen count. For girls, it may lead to small breast, being more of a man like deeper voice and disproportionately growth of body hair for instance growing beards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additional, with abuse of steroids, it affects individual growth and may result into an individual remaining short for the rest of theirlife (Robinson 3). Such issues affect ones’ self-esteem and affect their performance even in class.
Steroids are addictive. There use will force users to continue a costly drug custom and should they stop using them abruptly, they will have to face withdrawal symptoms such as sleeplessness, tiredness, anxiety, mood swings, appetite loss, and steroid cravings (Lewis 4).
Most of people who stop using similarly undergo depression mostly years after stopping to an extent committing suicide becomes their only better option. Sometime as they try to control side effects associated with use of steroids, they try out other drugs or medicines, which in many cases can simply leading to use of hard-core drug making the situation worse.
Continued use of steroids leads to false impression and mania and in the end; they transform a humble and mild mannered individual into a violent murderous fanatic or mania commonly referred to as ‘roid rage’. Another factor about anabolic steroids that people have continued to ignore is the fact that they are illegal under the penal code. They are categorized as controlled material and registered pharmacists under doctor’s recommendation can only retail them. Therefore, if anyone gets them via other means, they risk being jailed.
The misconception about bodybuilding and steroid could be the reason why people abuse steroid. People are made to believe that by simply taking steroids, it will enhance their muscles and make them ‘muscular’ and built. The truth is that even after taking them, one need to do bodybuilding workouts and lift weights before attaining desired physique.
Steroids alone will never to do that but instead waste peoples’ general fitness. Even though to some extent, steroid may assist in improving physical appearance, if correctly executed, bodybuilding aerobics will give similar outcomes without any harmful side effect (Lynn 2).
We have anothergroup, which has argued that steroids use is not bad provided they are taken under a medical doctor’s management. There justification is based on the fact that steroids improve individuals’ healthiness and well-being and, certainly, be the leaders as far as bodybuilding accomplishment is concerned.
We will write a custom Essay on Steroids Position Paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those who support use of steroid do not seem to understand moral quandaries that come with use of steroids and in their opinion, bodybuilding success is an indication of advancement and they should continue using so as to excel in sports or bodybuilding. Furthermore, they argue that “given steroids are synthetically derived versions of the natural male sex-hormone testosterone, it is thought they could actually assist the male who, for whatever reason, experiences declining levels of this hormone” (Lynn3).
In myview steroid should only be used for limited medical applications under doctor’s direction and if an alternative can found, it should be used instead of using steroid. This is because even when used for medicinal purposes and in small quantities, steroids might lead to permanent harm to the patient, even if the patient discontinues using them.In addition, for those who abuse steroid for bodybuilding and performance enhancement purposes face severe consequences and they must stop using them.
Just to mention a few, the use of steroid leads to negative effects such heart diseases, liver cancer, low sperm count, interior body bleeding, strokes and general weakening of the body immune system. Moreover, steroids lead hormone imbalances leading to shrunken testicles and breasts for boys while girls it may lead to small breast, being more of a man like deeper voice and disproportionately growth of body hair for instance growing beards.
Finally, it leads to addiction, which is an expensive habit to maintain,and this is coupled with high chances of being jailed is caught. It is better to avoid using steroids and try doing physical exercise to enhance physical appearance since it reality steroids alone will not give you that muscular appearance you are dreaming out but properly executed bodybuilding aerobics does.
There is noteworthy reason as to why someone should use steroid since the side effects are more and therefore people should abstain from using steroid. The secret is exercises consistently and correctly, eat a well balanced diet and you will a health physical appearance. Steroids will offer a momentary solution, but you may death is not something you can tradeoff with just enhancing physical appearance.
Works Cited Lewis, Liz.5 reasons not to take anabolic steroids. Bliss Tress,15 Dec. 2007. Web.
Lynn,Michy.Steroid use and abuse: The good, bad, and ugly of steroid abuse. Yahoo Inc., 16 October 2006. Web.
Robinson,David. The Anthony Catanzaro approach to natural bodybuilding: The pros
Hopi Education Theories and Practices Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Pedagogical Theories Identified in Hopi Life The early education of Hopi culture was to encourage a worldview integrity without which knowledge could indeed become dangerous and dreadful. The educational theories which can be identified in Hopi life include behavioral learning, cognitive learning, and social learning theories. Each theory enabled the youth to learn more about the world and concepts typical of their own culture and related issues. Experience was an integral apet of the Hopi culture as young people learnt different concepts as soon as they encountered those.
Theories: Behavioral Learning Theory
This theory has its focus on stimuli and responses that can be readily observed. This process was used by older individuals within the surroundings of children, so that as soon as Hopi children reached maturity kinship reactions were embedded in their thinking, feeling and everyday life and were part of him just as sleeping and eating.
The Hopi were not merely informed that rules of behavior were wise but rather they lived with them as they grew up and became a part of their environment which is very different from the American separation of teaching at home at school and during Sunday school. “But I am still a child. A lost child. I cannot find my way. Where is the pathway of peace? Where can I find the harmony of the true Hopi?” (Qoyawayma 3).
Theories: Cognitive Learning Theory
The process of acquisition is combined with remembering facts and related information, and application of this information in practice is usually referred to as a cognitive learning theory. What is learned and internalized in infancy and early childhood can resist any contact situations.
The Young Hopi children are taught cultural values through the use of stories. One of the first stories which were told to Hopi youth by their elders was that of the blue corn or sakwapqa’ö. The most important aspect to consider in the traditional education system of the Hopi people is the emotional commitment involved in this particular type of process which enabled them to resist cultural change (Eggan 1956: 347).
This theory was used for teaching young people of the Hopi society to cognate the world. From birth, the young of the household were attended to and disciplined mildly for the first several years by their relatives in addition to their mother and visitors whom were in the home (Egan 1956: 349).
Theories: Social Learning Theory
Social context presupposes acquisition and application of knowledge. The Hopi people received education from their families where adult members had the responsibility of educating young. Stories which were told in Hopi culture pointed to improper behavior as the source of crop failure or sickness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This effects were clearly seen and understood by all the children of the village. It was the belief of Hopi people that each person in the group is responsible for what happens to all. If one child disobeys and does something bad, every child of the clan may receive a punishment (Eggan 356)
Cultural Values or Ideas Being Supported Clan Identity
In addition to extended families, Hopi people belonged to one tribe in which they were born. A Hopi was a child of his father’s clan and this group took a lively interest in him (Eggan 354). Identity is an important part of Hopi culture, especially with regard to clan membership. The relationships similar to the ones between family members are binding forces for the members of the clan which is also the center of the tribe.
The clans hold the Hopi villages together and provides a singular Hopi identity (Ancestral.com). Women are treated differently than in western countries because children become the members of a wife’s rather than a husband’s clan. Children are named by the women who belong to the father’s clan (Apache tracker.com) “A baby never depended on only his physical mother. “Many arms gave him comfort” (Eggan 353)
Hopi wisdom encourages a hopi to speak truth and warns them against looking outside themselves for a leader as they all have leadership qualities within them. The Hopi people are encouraged to be courageous. As reported by Eloise, Hopi elders consider the counsciousness of an individual as something that is not posessesd by this person until he/she comprehends and acknowledges spiritual responsibility.
Corn Relationships and Human Being
Corn has a great significance among the Hopi people because it sustains them both physically and spiritually given that they lived in an area where food was often scarce. Corn was a great source of nutrition with all important minerals and elements and was available when other products were scarce. Members of the Hopi society learned to make other products like piki and cake-like food using corn. People of hopi tribes believed that corn was given to them by deity of flora and spirits of different natural phenomena (Ancestral.com).
Corn plays a major role in the everyday life of the Hopi as well as in ceremonial life. According to the tradition related to corn, a nice-shaped ear of corn was placed into a medicinal bowl located on the alter for ceremonial purposes; preceding this, this ear was decorated with jewels and feathers. The ritual included purification of people who took part in the ceremony by sprinkling them and ceremony-related objects with meals made of corn.
Additionally, to prevent enemies and undesirable guests from enetering the territory of the tribe, corn could be placed across the road (Ancestral.com). The Hopi people believed that corn was an indication that life is a planting, a growing, and harvesting and that prayers are physical things when appropriately conceived capable of coming to plentiful fulfillment and seedtime (Qoyawayma 8).
We will write a custom Essay on Hopi Education Theories and Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Child Naming
Names are important among the Hopi people as they help in identification of the members of this tribe. During the birth of a Hopi baby, the Hopi culture provides that the infant and the mother should be isolated inside a dark house for a period of 20 days. The mother is required to place two ears of corn next to the cradle and remain close to the infant until the day of the naming ceremony takes.
The paternal grandmother was required by the Hopi culture to give a blessing to the child before the other family members on the morning of the child naming ceremony. The blessing was given using sacred ears. The child was given a hand made quilt by the grandmother before the other members are allowed to offer the baby their quilts.
In case of a large family, the baby could end up with several names and quilts. The parents of the new born child then make a selection of the name to be used from among the suggested names. After becoming a member of another religious society such as the Kachina society, the Hopi people made provisions to change the names of newly-initiated people (Ancestral.com).
Responsibilities in Hopi Clan
Men and women had in Hopi society were assigned different responsibilities. Hopi men were expected to hunt deers in order to obtain meat as well as hides and bones for clothing and tools. Women in this society baked cornbread and gathered fruit and herbs. Most of the agricultural field work with the exception of corn planting which is a community event in which both men and women participate was carried out by men. In contrast to other societies, the arts of weaving and leatherwork were not only done by women, but men as well.
Religion: Kachina Dolls
Education of children was performed by parents who used Kachina dolls to explain diffent concepts of life. The Kachina dolls enabled the children in Hopi society to understand the importance of Kachinas in tribal ceremonies (SR Publications 2008: n.p.).
The Hopi believe that the dark-hearted people will be eliminated and the good hearted ones walking with the One will continue this world. The religion teaches that all distress from crop failure to illnesses is as a result of bad hearts.
A good heart is a positive thing which should never go out of a Hopi’s mind (Eggan 1956: 360) only those people who have good hearts are effective in prayer resulting in constant probing of the heart. Oh, for a heart as pure as pollen on corn blossom, and for life as sweet as honey gathered from the flowers” (Qoyawayma 5)
Art as a Medium of Instruction
The Hopi have expressed their artistic skills in form of jewelry, pottery, painting, textiles, and basket making. The Hopi people were able to communicate their dreams, visions, and beliefs through their artistic skills. The artistic skills on pots told a stories which taught the young members of the society (Faulstich 2008: n.p.).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hopi Education Theories and Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Ancestral.com. Information on Hopi Culture. Web.
Apache Tracker. Hopi Culture. February 23, 2011. Accessed http://apachetracker.blogspot.com/
Eggan, Dorothy. Instruction and affect in Hopi cultural continuity. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 12 (4)(1956): 347-370.
Eloise, Hart. Wisdom teachings of the Hopi. Sunrise Magazine, October/November 1990.
Faulstich, Paul. Ethnocology. Environmental Studies,148, 2008. Web.
Hopi-Songs of the Forth World [Film]. 58 min. Dir. Ferrero Pat. Distributed by New Day Films.
Qoyawayma, Polingaysi. No turning back: A Hopi woman’s struggle to live in two worlds Squidoo.com. Quilting and the Hopi. February 23, 2011. Accessed https://hubpages.com/art/Hopi-Quilting
SR Publications. Hopi: Songs of the Forthworld. 2008. Web.
Military Draft: Arguments for and Against Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Arguments In Favor of Military Draft
Arguments Against Military Draft
Introduction While the all-volunteer military force established in 1973 by the US has been adequate up to the end of the last century, recent events have resulted in the over stretching of the military forces of the country.
These events have been in the form of the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan; both of which have resulted in the deployment of thousands of US troops. This has resulted in some policy makers giving consideration to reinstating a military draft to increase the military forces numbers therefore relieving the armed forces of the pressures that they currently face.
These propositions have been met by mostly negative reactions by the American public who deem a military draft as a violation of their civil liberties. However, the US faces multiple wars and increasing threats from hostile nations leading to a high demand for a bigger army. These realities seem to dictate that a reinstatement of a military draft may be in the best interest of the US. This paper shall set out to argue that a military draft should be reinstated since it holds numerous merits for the country.
Arguments In Favor of Military Draft A military draft will result in a situation whereby all citizens will be required to serve the country in an equitable manner. This will result in a sense of patriotism and loyalty by the army personnel. As it currently stands, military service is viewed as a way to make a living. It can therefore be alluded that most of the people enlist to the army as a means of employment rather than from a sense of duty to the country.
Asher reveals that in 18th century France, the army was made up mainly of enlisted personnel who joined the army to avoid poverty, unemployment or the law (3). In effect, this army had a severe desertion problem and there was lack of loyalty since the soldiers were little more than mercenaries. However, when conscription was introduced where all French men and women were eligible for mandatory military service, the draft was regarded as a republican duty and hence loyalty increased and desertion decreased.
Defending the country should be the civic responsibility of every citizen of the country. As it currently stands, the United State’s army is mostly composed of minorities and the working class. Dickinson reveals that African-Americans who make up approximately 13% of the population form about 22% of the armed forces (49).
The author goes on to note that recruits mostly hail from the “middle and lower-middle socioeconomic strata” (49). This clearly points out that the military does not have an equal representation from all levels of the society but rather is made up mostly of minorities and the working class.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rangel Charles, a politician in favor of the draft quips that the current all-volunteer system is unjust and immoral since “it shouldn’t be just the poor and the working poor who find their way into harm’s way” (Dickinson 49).By reintroducing the military draft, this situation would be changed since all members of the society would be forced to participate in military service in an equal manner.
A military draft would result in more public involvement in the activities of the military. As it currently stands, most citizens are apathetic to the military and their only concern is how military activities affect their taxation. As a result of this non-committal nature, politicians do not have to seek popular approval before committing troops to battle.
Weisberg best illustrates this by noting that in 2006, 3 years after the Iraq war had began, the US did not feel like a nation at war even though American troops had been killed and maimed in battle up to the date. Dickinson states that a society wide draft would result in more families and politicians having their children or kin in the military (49). This would result in greater deliberations before sending the soldiers into battle since the human sacrifice being made in war would be greater felt (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt 516).
In addition to this, military draft would result in greater political fallout from unpopular wars since people would be more willing to take onto the streets to demonstrate against the war. The huge anti-war sentiments expressed by American’s following the Vietnam War in 1965 were as a direct result of the military draft that was in place at the time.
Arguments Against Military Draft A major argument advanced by opponents to military draft is that this system results in forcing of people to serve in an army against their wills. For these opponents, “the draft is a form of slavery and individuals surrender part of life when called to serve” (Asher 21).
While military drafts evoke negative images of being forced to fight for one’s country against your will, Asher notes that the concept of conscription can trace its roots back to ancient Greece where “all citizens enjoyed the benefits of freedom in exchange for their obligation to defend the sate” (3). From this, it can be seen that a military draft is in reality a system where the citizens are afforded the chance to fight for their country.
Another argument against military draft is that it would degrade the military’s performance greatly therefore making it less effective. Bandow states that conscription would lower the level of the US military since it would require the induction of less qualified personnel who are rejected in the all-volunteer system of present time (1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Military Draft: Arguments for and Against specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This ideal is corroborated by a retired general, Sullivan, who declares that “the army prefers high quality volunteers to mixed quality draftees” This argument is faulty since as it currently stands, the US military does not necessarily get the “best” applications for service. As it currently stands, there is a shortage of young men and women willing to serve despite the increase in need for service men in the military (Kagan and O’Hanlon, 11).
Dickinson reveals that Pentagon is having problems attracting enough recruits to maintain current troop levels and in desperation, the army has lowered standards leading to 25% more high school dropouts being let into the army (50). The argument that conscription will lower the standards of the army therefore fails to hold true in light of this revelations.
Conclusion This paper set out to argue that a military draft is needed to ensure in the US. To reinforce this assertion, this paper has discussed the merits that military draft would have to the military as well as the society as a whole. Reinstating the military draft would result in equal representation from all levels of the society therefore leading to more citizen involvement in military affairs and hence accountability by politicians.
A military draft would also strengthen the US military in numbers which would be desirable since the US is facing a much dangerous world today and the all-volunteer military is simply too small to meet the global demands that the US military faces.
Works Cited Asher, Robbie. Draft or volunteer army: our nation’s best interest. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, 2008.
Bandow, Doug. “Fighting the war against terrorism: Elite forces, yes; conscripts, no”. Policy Analysis, No. 430, April 2002.
Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack and Schmidt, Steffen. American Government and Politics Today. Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Dickinson, Tim. “The return of the draft”. Rolling Stone, New York, Is. 967: Feb 10, 2005.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Draft: Arguments for and Against by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kagan, Fredrick and O’Hanlon, Michael. Increasing the Size and power of the U.S. Military. The Brookings Institution, 2008.
Sullivan, Gordo. “Washington Tightwads Are Creating a Hollow Military,” Wall Street Journal, 22 September 1998.
Weisberg, Jacob. “The Gross Unfairness of an All Volunteer Army.” Slate Magazine, 22 March 2006.