Why Is Discrimination A Barrier In The Working Environment? Essay College Application Essay Help

Summary This document discusses reasons as to why discrimination is a barrier in the work environment. It is apparent that discrimination in the work place involves some practices that depict a form of favoritism towards groups or individuals from a certain tribe, sex or even a religion. This document explains how this practice has adversely affected the entire working environment. Therefore, the practice eventually has resulted to low production, since workers do not devote themselves to work fully.

Moreover, activities geared to limiting discrimination cases waste much time for the management team, thus the company end up recording losses. A different point illustrated by this essay is how employment discrimination for women has resulted to a barrier in accessing some life necessities. Finally, the essay indicates cases of companies that have failed to comply with some legislative acts on the issue of discrimination.

In plain terms, discrimination in the workplace refers to the act of treating an employee differently from the rest. This discrimination involves acts that either favors or disfavors a category of employees.

The majority of the discrimination cases in the work place have a strong basis for one’s race, gender, nationality, just to mention a few of them (Dipboye


Beneficiaries of U.S. welfare programs Report (Assessment) best essay help

The U.S. federal government has put in place various welfare programs to cater for the needs of certain vulnerable groups within the society. There are distinctive qualities that define an individual’s eligibility to a welfare program. These programs target different groups of people in society. This paper explores the available U.S. welfare programs in respect to their beneficiaries.

First, social security programs majorly provide benefits for military veterans. Military veterans constitute almost a quarter of the social security programs beneficiaries; 9.4 million military veterans received survivors, disability, or old age benefits from the Social Security program (Olsen, 2005/2006, p. 3). This population has exceeded its prime age and does not have the strength to support itself adequately.

It is pertinent to note how policymakers determine income credit for beneficiaries of the Social Security programs. In this light, the veteran population predominantly influences the economic well-being of the beneficiaries of the Social Security.

Importantly, the characteristic of the military veteran recipients of the Social Security benefits differs from the overall beneficiaries of the Social Security (Olsen, 2005/2006, p. 3). Most of the veteran beneficiaries are males relative to the overall beneficiaries. Other striking differences project the military veterans from other beneficiaries include marital status, and level of education among others.

The Social Security program benefits the eligible population through offering financial support. Since 1957, the Social Security programs have covered military personnel, and particularly those who served in 2001 or prior, obtained notable credits that increased their income for the aim of calculating the Social Security benefits.

According to Olsen, between 1957 and 1977, these credits totaled $300 per quarter of active-duty reimbursement (2005/2006, p. 2). Further, between 1978 and 2001, credits equal to an extra $100 in pay for each $300 they get in active-duty reimbursement.

Who funds such social programs? According to Martin (2007), Social Security programs receive funding from payroll taxes (p. 74). Therefore, the economic status of the U.S. at one point in time, strongly determines the ability of the government to sustain the Social Security program. Economic recession may force policy makers to adjust the eligibility criteria for the Social Security benefits to cover fewer people in dire need of the benefit to reduce the burden on government’s budget.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second social program discussed in this paper is the Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The SSI covers disabled and elderly people who have inadequate earnings and assets. The Social Security Administration (SSA) funds the SSI it although distinctly from the Social Security program (Martin, 2007, p. 74). As opposed to Social Security program, the general funds of the United States Treasury support SSI and limit payments to the U.S. nationals and certain groups of eligible aliens.

The eligibility criteria for the SSI are wide. Individuals in the 50 states coupled with the District of Columbia, and some U.S. territories, except Puerto Rico can access the SSI program. Noteworthy, most states provide an addition to the federal benefit.

Policymakers base the eligibility criterion for the SSI on the economic status of individuals. Martin (2007) observes that, the SSI beneficiaries had same high poverty rates, which was above 40 percent (p. 91).

In addition, the education status for the SSI beneficiary was mainly high school diploma, characteristic of 45 percent of the beneficiaries. Like the Social Security, the SSI sustainability is reliant on the U.S. economy. Global economic trends determine the United States’ general funding such that, low revenues may force program benefactor to cut down on its beneficiaries.

The third welfare program is the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program. This program protects the work-age population against the negative financial repercussions of becoming disabled (Rupp, Davies,


Shelby Lee Adams “The True Meaning of Pictures” Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

This paper analyzes the work of photographer Shelby Lee Adams, using the 2002 documentary The True Meaning of Pictures, directed by Jennifer Baichwal, as its principle source.

Shelby Lee Adams was born in Hazard, Kentucky in 1950 and grew up well known to many of the rural Appalachian families that populate his photographs. Familiar though he is with the living conditions of the poorest of the poor in Kentucky, Adams nonetheless did not live in that culture, but alongside it, as an observer from a middle class background (Baichwal 2002).

When considering the question, is Adams an insider or an outsider in his Appalachian project, one must answer outsider. Why? Simply because socio-economically Adams grew up with the awareness of that poverty, but was not directly affected by it, as the subjects of his photographs have been. In Shelby Lee Adams’ work we see the impact of poverty in the lack of access to adequate food, health care, clean water and education (Baichwal 2002).

Adams’ photos chronicle these affects, but he himself cannot speak to their impact from personal experience. In essence his work may give an indirect voice to the socio-economic conditions that the Appalachian residents face, but not from the authority of having lived through that poverty. Rather, Adams’ work exploits and judges his subjects from a classist point of view.

Adams employs visual effects such as portraying the subjects consistently in black and white, utilizing consciously artificial staging, and making use of dramatic lighting effects to create exoticism in his Appalachian subjects. In the words of Variety critic Dennis Harvey, Adams’ work contains “posed shots that are classically composed and feature intricate, often chiaroscurogothic lighting. [The] result makes these “hollar dwellers” look grotesque and pathetic, like backwoods Diane Arbus subjects” (Harvey 18).

The photos essentially turn the viewer into an ethnographer, but one who is neither sympathetic nor ethical, because the heightened exoticism of the photos intensifies the distance between the viewer and the subject, and the lurid lighting especially makes the subjects appear freakish, less than human, and in many cases inspire fear in the viewer.

Documentary photography can be distinguished from other forms of photography via its commitment to the real. Unlike art photography or fashion photography for example which can be outlandishly staged and lit moodily and eerily, the basis of documentary photography is real life. Natural light does not appear to play much of a role in Adams’ work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Often it casts gloomy, heavy weight on the subjects, which may or may have not existed at the time of day when the photo was taken. Adams’ defense for playing with reality in this way sounds less like a documentarian and more like an artist: “By getting in there with the camera, by creating some distortions, I’m hoping to make everyone think…I’m experiencing this environment. I’m trying to share with you, in an intimate way, that experience” (Baichwal 2002).

According to critic Kathleen Cummins, “Adams makes a passionate case for the style and content of his work on the foundation that his photographs are his way of expressing himself artistically” (Cummins 37). However, Adams as the documentary photographer absolutely bears responsibility for the work beyond the making of it, for the simple fact that he is showing this work outside of its context.

The interpretation of the Appalachian subjects leaves their hands and enters Adams’ hands, and how they are perceived is at the mercy of Adams’ composition. Adams functions as editor in these photographs; he has selected certain moments to record and chosen not to shoot others, and with this action he takes charge of representing the people in his photographs, for better or for worse.

As Cummins explains, “Adams reveals more about his problematic role in “documenting” Appalachia [when] he tells of how his father, as a doctor, would visit the most isolated families.”Although my father had prejudiced views, I came to know those people.” Here is revealed the inner conflict in Adams, and within America in general. The distinction between “his people” and “those people” is not about regionalism or even his vocation as a photographer. It’s about class” (Cummins 38).

Baichwal’s film remains fully aware of this, even if Adams does not, and the filmmaker “subtly constructs associations and stark contrasts between what Adams says and what he does” (Cummins 38). Adams the photographer still views his subjects as beneath him; regardless of what he might say, the thinking behind his gaze is derogatory. That sense of judging the subjects as inferior reads loudly and clearly in every photograph.

One way this discrepancy in power between Adams and his subjects might equalize would be if Adams gave his subjects their own cameras, taught them how to use them, allowed them to take their own photos, and decided as a group which photos to include in a show, book or film. The simple fact that the Appalachian peoples found in Adams’ work have no agency – that the usage and application of their own images rest in Adams’ hands and not their own – makes these works exploitative.

Works Cited Baichwal, Jennifer, dir. The True Meaning of Pictures. Mercury Films, 2002. Film.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Shelby Lee Adams “The True Meaning of Pictures” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cummins, Kathleen. “The True Meaning of Pictures: Shelby Lee Adams’ Appalachia.” Take One March-May (2003): 37-40. Web.

Harvey, Dennis. “The True Meaning of Pictures: Shelby Lee Adams’ Appalachia.” Variety 390.2 (2003): 53. Web.


Audience Manufacture in Broadcasting Essay essay help online free

Article Summary This is a concise representation of revolution of media in terms of how audiences are captured, analyzed and sold to the advertisers; particularly understanding the capture of the media and how it has evolved with time to the present internet era.

Audience manufacture calls for concise determination of size and behavior of the audience and by the use of a set of measurement procedures shaped by industry dynamics and technological usage patterns, the audience is manufactured and sold to the advertisers. The need for advertisers to understand the quantity and quality of audience they were paying for led to the evolution of audience manufacture and analysis (Bermejo 2009).

Audience manufacture dates back to the radio era where different methods of advertisement approaches were carried out over the radio. However, the mode of determining or measuring the quantity, behavior and response of the audience receiving began with the invention of advertising rating systems most of which depended on the sampling concept. Such early methods included the famous Nielsen’s metered system.

The growing need for understanding of media audience led to rise of independent third party to carry out the research. With much struggle and improvements, national representative samples were achieved at around 1940 (Bermejo 1).

Initially, the concept of dividing a program into segments which were sold to different sponsors was preferred but this later changed to spot commercials. Different methods of measuring audience exposure time were invented with the most prominent being use of questionnaires, telephone and booklets with each having its advantages and disadvantages.

This was later followed by A.C. Nielsen of audiometers which did not last for a long time due to the increased need for detailed demographics and personal viewing patterns as well as the shift from household to individual unit of audience. Audiometers could not keep up with the diminishing size and increased portability of radio receptors.

People meters provided viewing data at the individual level and thus provided more precise information about the audience. Possible solutions such as satellite, cable and digital television as well as switching channels using remote controls brought yet another complexity in audience measuring techniques (Bermejo 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evolution of the society brought about yet another advertisement platform with the internet technology. Internet technology provided better methods of audience analysis with techniques such as trace Log files, and use of tags both of which could provide the needed information about the interaction of the audience with the internet platform.

However, they could not give details of the number of viewers or their profile for a given page. Search for a standard source of measurement took the center stage. This brought about new methods of advertisement pricing depending on cost-per-action on the platform. Internet is global in nature and thus presents a problem of precise sampling such as home or work based users. Metered panel method when integrated with other methods seems to generate acceptable audience information.

The idea of site visit is a somewhat misleading since there are far too many considerations to be factored in. Google provided part of the solution by clearly separating advertising from search results and distinguishing between organic, algorithmic or editorial search results and sponsored links (Bermejo 1).

New searching methods developed with time and different types of advertising and pricing such as frequency, location and prominence dependent models, page relevance as well as pages pay-per-placement and system AdWords programs. This has brought yet another advertisement model based on the concept of quality scores whereby the price models are based on the performance of the relative sites (Bermejo 1).

Work Cited Bermejo, Fernando. New Media and Society. New York: Sage, 2009. Print.


Communication Theories and Their Usefulness Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of the communication event

Communication theories

Usefulness of the theories


Reference List

Introduction Nowadays, the role of interpersonal communication is huge indeed. People have to be aware of the main components of a successful communication and make use their knowledge on practice. De Janasz, Dowd, and Schneider (2009, p. 131) define communication as the possibility to convey and exchange personal ideas, some information, or knowledge by means of a properly chosen speech or signs.

It is an important process in human life, and it is obligatory to consider personal skills in listening or speaking to succeed in communication. In this paper, the communication between a young girl and a salesperson in the boutique will be analyzed using three different communication theories which are social exchange, politeness, and standpoint; each theory performs its own role and defines the way of how the communication should be developed.

Description of the communication event The communication under analysis takes place in the boutique where visitors are free to observe different clothes, try them on, and buy them in case customers are satisfied with the quality, style, and other issues. The main purpose of salespeople is to demonstrate their production and persuade customers to buy something. In this particular case, the communication begins as soon as the potential customer (a young girl) enters the boutique.

The young girl demonstrates her listening skills properly in order to meet her main purpose and learn more about the dresses she is interested in. It is the case of passive listening that is described by Bentley (1993, p. 17) as the process during which the listener does not have to respond but does focus on hearing the words.

The young girl, Ms. Smith (2011), admits that she wants to find a particular dress in this boutique as her friend recommended this place yesterday. Unfortunately, the chosen dress has been already sold, this is why the salesperson wants to offer another production for the customer, using the most confident attributes. The results of the conversation are rather successful: the salesperson offers quality product and sales it, and the customer is satisfied with the new purchase.

Communication theories To understand the dynamics of the observed event and define the main insights, it is possible to use three communication theories which are social exchange theory, politeness theory, and standpoint theory. Each theory is a unique possibility to comprehend the motives and purposes of the conversation. Each participant has his/her own purposes, and the skills used in the conversation help to achieve the best results.

Social exchange theory is based on the idea that the relations which developed during the communication should be based on the satisfaction of its participants’ self-interests. According to such theory, self-awareness is a crucial factor. De Janasz, Dowd, and Schneider (2009, p. 53) point out that self-awareness is all about the possibility to know personal motivation and interests in order to develop the required interaction. In the communication under analysis, the both participants demonstrate the level of their interests in a proper way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Standpoint theory explains how the social hierarchy may determine the process of communication. Different people are free to view social situations from a variety of perspectives. In this case, the salesperson and the customer of the boutique have different standpoints and occupy different social stages as the salesperson aims at providing certain services, and the customer has to use or refuse them.

Finally, politeness theory aims at explaining why and how people want to promote themselves or their abilities. By means of this theory, the participants of the conversation should introduce their identities and remain to be polite with each other.

In the event at the boutique, understanding of this theory makes its participants rational and more goal-oriented taking into consideration the required respect. Tong Yu (2010) offers a wonderful idea to promote a successful development of any interpersonal communication: people have to be broad-minded in order to expect some outcomes and make conclusions to improve the situation.

Usefulness of the theories The usefulness of social exchange theory lies into the fact that both participants of the conversation should have a purpose to be satisfied at the end of the process. The satisfaction should not always be a bad or good thing only. It is a desire that promotes a person to develop a powerful and smart conversation setting reasonable goals.

The usefulness of politeness theory is all about the necessity to maintain a kind of sense of the necessary image. People should understand their roles in society and talk to each other on the necessary level. Finally, standpoint theory is useful in the event analysis due to the possibility to evaluate the social positions of the conversation’s participants.

Conclusion In fact, it is wrong to identify which theory is more or less useful to comprehend the essence of the chosen conversation. People are free to use different techniques, methods, and ideas to succeed in communication; this is why standpoint, social exchange, and politeness theories described in the paper will become a solid background for the analysis of the event that took place in the boutique.

Reference List Bentley, T 1993, ‘The special skills of listening’, Management Development Review, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 16-18.

We will write a custom Essay on Communication Theories and Their Usefulness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More De Janasz, S, Dowd, K,


Orange case study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction The wireless telecommunications is fast growing, largely triggered by both how the enterprise segment has been integrated as well as positive convergence on the tastes and preferences of consumers. Similarly, the average revenue per user (ARPU) has continually declined with the emergence and general acceptance of conventional voice services. Indeed, several 3G operators are now adopting the new system as part and parcel of mastering market dynamics in mobile telephony.

It is also worth to note that the stiff competition has called for the need for mobile operators to usher new and more viable marketing strategies in order to have a dominant share of consumers. Hence, revenue growth remains top agenda even as advances made in Information Technology continue to pose serious business risks for operators who are less dynamic in their production and marketing skills (Ricketts, 2002).

Thus, commoditizing voice services is one of the competitive advantage most mobile telephony firms are seeking to achieve. This has been found to be especially popular in emerging and developed markets. Nonetheless, spurring growth in revenue demands that operators shift their attention from the commonly used 2G or even 2.5G networks and embrace the more competitive 3G broadband network (Robert, 2008, April).

They have found that this will be the only way through which input costs will be reduced to the minimum while at the same time providing customers with high speed internet connections for optimum efficiency. In nay case, most of these operators have come to the realization that this will be the only long term proven solution to efficiency and cost management.

3G technologies, unlike 2G, have vast abilities that mobile telephony operators are often after. The broadband network enables both operators and consumers to achieve certain goals within a very short time. For instance, their investments will be firmly protected since the 3G networks will ensure that there is a well established roadmap, not just for capital and revenue growth but also efficiency.

Additionally, the performance of 3G networks is deemed to be of high quality and it is the only platform through which cost efficiency can be realized owing to a wider ecosystem in infrastructure. Needless to say, there are myriad of applications and services that are rich in content when using 3G broadband. Thus, the need for ubiquitous coverage is adequately catered for.

The innumerable benefits of this new type of communication technology are being ripped by operators in both industrialized and growing countries. For example, over 400 3G operators were in operation before the close of 2008. This translates to slightly over half a billion 3G subscribers globally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both the High-Speed Packet Access and Evolution Data Optimized are used by those operators who have rolled into 3G broadband network. This paper explores Orange mobile telephony company, one of the outstanding 3G network providers in parts of Europe with other subsidiaries in Africa. Besides, the paper embarks on strategic analysis of the company with the aim of understanding both its internal and external business environment using such tools as SWOT analysis.

Besides, each of the technique used to analyze the company has been described. In the final part of the paper, some of the challenges facing the company and possible corrective measures that can be put in place have been critically evaluated. The paper concludes with wide spectrum of recommendations that the mobile telephony firm can adopt in order to remain competitive in the highly dynamic market.

Brief History of Orange The firm was the fourth entrant in UK mobile telephony market way back in 1994. It had the broad objective of attaining market leadership in the provision of wireless communications. Although the market was apparently saturated by other like-minded operators at that time, Orange was not deterred by this. As part of achieving its targeted economic growth, Orange announced its first Initial Public Offering (IPO) in 1996 with the aim of raising additional capital infrastructure.

Both the Nasqad and London markets listed its shares in spite of the fact it was the most infant firm entering FTSE-100 at that point in time. Three years later, Orange permitted its brand to be licensed in other countries of interest such as Switzerland and Australia among others. hence, it paved way for other operators in the foreign countries to have access to its trading portfolio.

During the same time period (1999), Orange PLC was acquired by Mannesmann AG. The company considered this to be an important step in its expansion strategies. So far, Orange has expanded its network and geographical location with more expansions overseas. Some of the countries where Orange has stamped its presence include Hong Kong, South America and Belgium, just to mention a few.

Although the company has been marred with myriad changes in ownership, it has not relented in providing its customers with the best services. This was evident in May 2001 when it was ranked position 1, four years in a row, by J.D Power and Associates UK, a renowned marketing research company in the region.

Strategic issues Mobile telephony has continually increased in importance in the last few years, forming an integral part of day-to-day activities. Contrary to the earlier perception on the use of mobile telephone, the services provided by this industry has gone beyond mere marketing targeting the business world; it is more of a compelling consumer product than a luxury pursued by few people.

We will write a custom Essay on Orange case study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In UK alone, close to 85 percent of the entire population has either access to mobile phone or owns one. Hence, it has become a mass consumer product. Consequently, operators are now fighting for the available marketing opportunities. An array of strategies are being used; raging from trimming down both data and voice costs, innovating new services to expanding consumer base.

This bandwagon for market superiority does not live Orange out. The profitability of such operators as Orange will hence rely heavily on how competitive they are. By fact, providing better and more innovative services is a must for Orange.

Peripheral Challenges Similar to other mobile operators, Orange also faces myriad of challenges. One such growing challenge is the government regulation that goes towards changing trading policies from time to time. it is sometimes quite impossible to precisely predict any future changes in formal regulations even when the company has heavily invested on infrastructure.

Moreover, the various tariff options available to consumers whether on data or calling services lacks sufficient publicity. For instance, the advent of 3G technologies brought along stiff competition among 3G operators. While consumers have various tastes and preferences, lack of publicity on these options is still eminent. In order to take full advantage of price wars by operators, consumer sought to be knowledgeable enough.

Furthermore, the off-net calls are still relatively high compared to calls within the same network. Besides, the international roaming calls are equally restrictive due to the higher rates. Worse still, number portability is still a pipe dream to the majority of the population. Subscribers seem to have not derived the full benefits of using this service.

This has been aggravated by the tendency of most operators locking handsets so that only simcards from one particular operator can be used. Nonetheless, overcoming these, among other challenges, will imply that Orange telecom will become consistently competitive bearing in mind that rolling out a 3G network by a mobile operator demands huge capital investments in spite of the fact the returns are not always guaranteed.

Change management and Leadership at Orange Adoption and implementation of cultural change within an organisation is an important practice that cannot be ignored at all costs. Hence, it is fundamental for Orange Company to embrace and act appropriately to any form of change that may come its way in the course of operation. In order to carry out cultural change, it is fundamental for Orange to appreciate the fact that transforming its norms might be a necessary ingredient.

In addition, improving performance will equally demand more radical changes to be put in place. The success of Orange Company will largely be determined by how it manages change variable. For example, both the formal and informal working groups ought to be fully integrated when executing change (Kakabadse, Bank


Ethical Dilemmas in Animal Testing Term Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Animal Testing

Animal Rights

Respect for Life

Use of Animals by Man

Research Standards

Subjecting Animals to Pain

Genetically Modified Products




Introduction Using animals for testing, research, and developing new products has brought about tremendous scientific and medical advancements. Animal research continues to help man in his understanding of the nature of diseases thereby aiding in the developing of new vaccines and cures.

People living in the world today enjoy better quality life thanks to the medical breakthroughs facilitated by animal research. Using animals in research and development of products has however, generated heated debate. Those who oppose the use of animals in research are many; they include groups of animal rights activists and anti-vivisectionists. These groups strongly believe that using animals to carry out experiments is not necessary at all; it is simply subjecting animals to cruelty. They therefore call for the abolition of such practices.

However, if such a move succeeds, then it will be a big blow to scientific researches. Scientists, on the other hand, agree that animals should not be subjected to unnecessary harm, but say that it is usually unavoidable. They therefore are of the opinion that animal research should only be used with strict ethical principles. That is why; in this paper we will explore the ethical dilemmas that businesses that use animals in testing, research and development of products encounter.

Animal Testing Animal testing is a practice that has generated debate with some people supporting it and others opposing it. It is usually complex and time consuming to develop medical products. There are some diseases whose drugs involve difficulty researches to get such as in the case of HIV/AIDS.

Ideal, when carrying out these tests, scientists are supposed to test many compounds on humans to ascertain if the compounds can cure treat or vaccinate. But, practically, this will need a lot of time, and it is also very dangerous because it involves too much guess work and therefore can cause harmful side effects or even death. This is why many researchers opt to use animals in place of humans when carrying out these tests. The drugs can then only be used on humans once they are proved to be safe (Animal, 2011).

This does not mean that animal testing has no difficulties. There are many difficulties that come in form of ethical consequences when animals are used to carry out product testing. This has seen many people rise up in opposition of any experiment carried out on animals that has the potential of causing them harm.

This posses the question, is it obligatory to use animals in the development of medical products? As already hinted, animals tests are used to ascertain that drugs and other medical products are safe. Tests on animals are also used to establish the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products in humans. Animal testing is also done to understand the general biological functioning of the animal used in response to the drug or disease in question (Animal, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is a requirement in many countries that all drugs and vaccines be tested for safety using animals before they are released for use by man. For instance:

The 1968 Medicines Act of UK provides that all new pharmaceutical products must be tested on at least two different species of live mammal, one of which must be a large non-rodent. This legislation was introduced shortly after the discovery that the drug (Animal Testing, 2011).

This was prompted by the implications that a certain drug had severe effects on babies of mothers who took it while pregnant. The drug, Thalidomide, had not been thoroughly tested on animals. It is believed that this was the genesis of the many laws that require products to be used by humans to be tested first. Opponents of the use of animals in testing argue that this goes against the rights of animal (Animal, 2011).

Animal Rights Many countries are also concerned about the rights of animals and have therefore come up with legislations that aim at protecting animals. For instance, the United Arab Emirates has a federal law that governs the abuse and negligence of animals.

It stipulates, among other provisions, that any form of mistreatment to animals such as through scientific experiments, is subject to punishment by the law. Under this legislation, any one found guilty of going against the rights of animals can be imprisoned for at most one year or pay a fine of 20,000 dollars. This means that both humans and animals have rights that need to be respected, and that is what brings about the many dilemmas that are experienced in this field (Animal, 2011).

Scientists and researchers are forced by circumstances to test their findings using experiments that involve living matter, either humans or animals. However, in doing this, they are confronted with ethical dilemmas.

For instance, can they undertake physiological experiments with the looming possibility of causing harm to the animals? Or should they abandon these experiments and forfeit the gains that have been achieved in the earlier experiments? In the physiological business, physiologists study life so that they can understand the processes that sustain life. Understanding these helps them in coming up with products that can prevent or cure any anomalies in the functioning of the bodies of living organism.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Ethical Dilemmas in Animal Testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these events are studied through scientific means, which normally start with theories that lead to hypotheses, testing of the hypotheses then follows where by the results are then analyzed to ascertain their effectiveness. People then look at the theories and criticize or support them. This is a common practice in the field of scientific research. However, in the development of products such as drugs, one has to understand the life processes; this involves carrying out experimental tests on living matter (Festing


Employer Spying On Employees Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical implications in employee drug testing

Ethical implications in restricting internet use at work place

Restriction on use emails by the employees- ethical implications

Monitoring the movements of employees through vehicles used


Introduction The kind of relationship that exists between the employers and the employees of a given organization influences the achievements of the company objectives. A kind of good will that is developed is essential in ensuring that the employees perform their best in the delivery of their services to the organization.

Acquiring and retaining potential employees by a given organization is one of the managerial challenges that face most organizations. The process of recruitment and selection of the employees is often expensive and time consuming and needs to be carried out as less frequently as possible.

Getting the new employees to get to the standards of an employee that has left an organization might take some time during which the overall output of the organizations may be lowered. In attempting to develop good relationships with the employees, the employers need to put in certain incentives. The employees should be provided with equal opportunities in all aspects in the organization (Anon, 2011, para.2).

There should be no form of biasness during recruitment or in the promotion of employees as a means of appraisal. The employees should be considered as part of the organization. The employers need to have time and share with the employees the challenges facing the organization and the possible solution procedures that can be adopted. The employers should also develop a spirit of teamwork among the employees.

In order to develop the good relationship, a kind of good organizational culture needs to be put in place. This should be developed based on the ethical principles that outline the correct code of conduct to be practiced by every stakeholder in the organization. This ethics shall govern the relationships among the employees and that between the employees and the employers.

The rights of an employee as an individual should not be violated at the workplace. Poor working conditions, unnecessary restriction of movement, different kinds of discrimination, and harassment at work are some of the unethical behaviors by the employers that lower the performance of their employees.

Ethical implications in employee drug testing The field of ethics is one that has continued to have divided views over various issues. Ethical dilemmas are common scenarios that face very many decision makers like the employer in an organization, which need to be addressed. There have been theories postulated by various philosophers and other scholars on the means of establishing an ethical code of conduct.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What appears to be ethical for one party may be the exact opposite for the other party (Vij, 2011, para.1). Similar arguments and counterarguments are witnessed in the business environment. What an employer might consider ethical may turn out to be a transgression to the employees.

However, there are organizations that have developed cultures that are perceived to be ethical by many employees and job applicants. The ethical organizations will receive greater reputation from the community than the unethical organizations. They would attract more job applicants (Collins, 2009, p.7). The ethical concern has primarily been raised in the issue of drug testing on the employees by the management of an organization.

Employers and their employees are usually divided over this issue of drug testing with the employers stressing on its need as a way of improving the productivity of the organization while the employees considering it as an intrusion or some source of discrimination (Vij, 2011, para.1). The use of drug testing as a mechanism for controlling the behavior of the employees remains to be controversial (Lewis et al, 2006, p.424).

Workplace drug testing refers to drawing of samples of body fluids or tissues of the employees of given organization or the applicants of a given vacant position to be tested for the presence of some drug contents in their body (Shahandeh


Advanced Forensic Psychology Term Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Movies and Television Shows

Roles of a Forensic Psychologist

James Patterson’s Work

Silence of the Lambs



Introduction Forensic psychology is one of the areas in the medical field that has experienced tremendous growth over the years. One factor that is said to have contributed immensely to this growth is the sensationalized portrayal of this field in movies and television shows. For some reason, quite a good number of shows in television and movies have their theme line revolving around this field.

This paper seeks to compare the portrayal of the forensic psychology professionals in movies and shows on television with the actual practice and see whether the representations made of these professionals in movies and television shows is accurate. The paper will also focus on some of the shows and movies in which the field of forensic psychology has been used as the theme line.

Background Information Forensic psychology refers to an overlap or a link between psychology and the system that oversees criminal justice. Professionals in this field therefore work to make out or understand the various laws governing a particular state or jurisdiction so that they have a smooth interaction with professionals working in the legal field like judges or lawyers.

One very crucial aspect of professionals in this field include being able to give testimony in a court of law and putting matters related to psychology in a legal perspective for sound understanding by the court. For any professional in the forensic psychology field to be considered a credible witness in court, it is essential that they have proper understanding of the judicial system of a given country in which a particular case is being tried.

Usually, a forensic psychologist undergoes training in any of the branches of psychology. (Gregerson, 2009). A forensic psychologist may be required to appear in court and give evidence as an expert witness. The qualification of a psychologist in the forensic field to qualify as an expert witness is dependent on the reputation as well as the experience that a psychologist has in this field.

Movies and Television Shows It is rather disturbing to observe how much violence is being depicted in most of the shows that are being aired on television and movies. You can almost bet that the next program that is about to premier in your favourite television channel or that movie that you have been wishing so much to watch has got a whole scene of violence if not more.

For this reason, there has been a lot of inclusion of forensic psychologists in these shows and movies who play roles that are not always a true depiction of what a forensic psychologist is supposed to do in the actual field.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roles of a Forensic Psychologist To gain a clear understanding of the roles played by a forensic psychologist, it is important to understand the key words which in this case are forensics and psychology (Costanzo


Nursing Theology Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nature of personhood

Health and illness






Introduction Duties of the nursing profession are inseparable from faith. In fact, according to Christian worldview, nursing professionals should base their roles on faith and care. While non-Christians view nurses as people charged with the responsibility to care and love the suffering, patients in this case, Christians perceive nurses as God’s delegation to humanity.

To non-Christians, the moral and social principles should guide the nursing professionals whereas to Christians the feeling of love should motivate the nurses. Despite these differences, it is unanimous that nurses play a very important role in human life. Through caring for the ill in the society, nurses uphold human health.

Since health extends beyond the physical realm, it implies that nurses, according to Christians, also provide spiritual care to the humanity. Through care, nurses become part of God’s mystery of suffering. Suffering is a subject, which theologians have strived to comprehend since the times of Moses but in vain. Nurses also care for the dying and the dead, with hopes of positive response from God. Death is another component of human thriving which scholars have been unable to unveil its truth.

Is nursing really like any other profession within the society? I believe it is not. In fact, nursing is a component of faith. My personal philosophy in this paper is that ‘nursing is a God’s revelation to humanity’. Based on my personal research and life experience, I will demonstrate how nursing fulfills God’s revelation to humanity through Christian worldview on nature of personhood, health and illness, suffering, death and caring.

Nature of personhood Fear of death and illness characterizes human nature. Although Christians view death as God’s plan to human life, personal experience reveals that people fear death. In fact, many view it as the interruption to their lives. Human beings by nature believe that they are liable for care and protection from nurses.

They believe that nurses should protect them from all the sufferings in their lives. As a result, most patients solely depend on nurses for the survival. Patient’s fear of death brings worry and uncertainties to their lives. In this aspect, God’s revelation is two-fold.

First, although nurses are human beings characterized by the nature of personhood described above, they strive to end fear within their patients. The bible teaches that “people should not fear anything but God” (Attridge, 2006, p. 123). Nurses manifest this teaching to the patients by giving them hope even at times of death. According to Christian’s worldview, nurses should provide love, hope and care to the patients even at their last breaths.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More God’s mission since the time of Moses to the advent of salvation through Jesus Christ has been to provide care, love and hope to humanity. Through Moses, the Israelites felt God’s love and care. Through Jesus Christ, God manifested His unconditional love through salvation for all. Therefore, nursing professionals manifests God’s love, care and hope to humanity, as it was the case for Moses, Jesus and the prophets.

Secondly, by working selflessly to end fear and bring hope to the patients, nurses reveal the will of God to the humanity. As the bible teaches in 1Peter 3:14, God does not want fear among His people. In order to ensure the fear does not prevail in human nature, nurses provide care based on love and faith to the patients (Shelly and Miller, 1999, p.139).

In this case, nurses act as direct God’s delegation for the teaching of eternity and life after death. In biblical context, people should not fear; be it illness or death since there is eternal joy after this life. This ensures that patients are no longer worried for their lives after death. Such hope would not be possible without the nurses. They indeed represent what God wants from humanity in order to achieve eternity. Therefore, nursing is a revelation for God’s will to humanity.

Health and illness In my research, I justified health as the spiritual well-being of a community and illness as the visible outcome of poor spirituality. As per the worldview, health is the physical, social, moral and spiritual well-being of an individual whereas illness is the state caused by the imbalance of these factors. In Biblical context, disharmony between God and the humankind is what results into illness.

According to Christian worldview, human infringement of God’s will culminates into physical, moral and social instability of an individual or illness. Based on personal experience, I concluded that the scholarly and professional definitions of health and illness are just symptoms of the spirituality. Whichever view, nursing plays an important role in health of the society. Through this way, nursing manifests God in several ways including healing, love and caring.

Nursing reveals God as the healer of humanity. As Jeremiah (30:17) notes, God “will restore you to health and heal your wounds” (New International Version). In this passage, Jeremiah describes God as the healer- the healer of wounds. Wounds in this context refer to the weakness of the human spirituality. As per the worldview, however, wounds represent the physical illness of an individual or a society.

Regardless of the view, it is unanimous that wounds destabilize human health and as Jeremiah states, God restores this health. How does God today restore the health yet He is unseen? Throughout the Christian history, God fulfilled His roles through common people. For instance, to save the Israelites from slavery God used Moses, an Egyptian slave.

We will write a custom Essay on Nursing Theology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Taber is justifies when he says, “God uses people through their professions to accomplish His mission on earth” (1998, p. 35). Nursing is a means to healing and through the professionals; God accomplishes His mission of healing. Through this way therefore, nurses manifests God’s power of healing.

Nurses manifest God’s universal love to humanity. According to Christianity, nurses should provide love to the ill. Love is a spiritual component that guides the humanity in comprehension for the need of ill free life. It is justifiable that love motivates nurses (Colson


Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Categories of terrorist organizations

Differences in the two categories of terrorist organizations


Reference List

Introduction Terrorism attacks have become very common in today’s world especially with the increasing conflicts of power and the increase in financial difficulties in the globe. Many terrorist groups have been formed whose main agenda is cause violence in order to achieve certain political or religious goals. Loss of lives and destruction of property have been the major effects of the attacks especially with the increasing technology where advanced ways of attacking have been developed especially the use of biological and chemical weapons.

Most of the terrorist attacks happening nowadays are even being supported by the military forces of the countries involved which make the attacks even more coercive since the military that should protect the people is itself involved in the same attacks. The terrorists have the believe that their actions can always be justified by law. This makes them as confident as they plan the attacks very well so that they know exactly where and how to attack (Anderson, 2002, p. 1).

Categories of terrorist organizations Terrorist organizations are the groups that work together in planning and executing terrorist attacks. There are two basic categories of terrorist organizations namely domestic and international also referred to as foreign terrorist organizations.

Domestic terrorism, as the name suggests, involves terrorist activities either by an individual or a group directing the acts of violence to own people especially the government. On the other hand, international terrorism which consists of international terrorist organizations, involves terrorism activities where an individual or a group of people are directed by other countries to carry out violence attacks to other countries beyond their boundaries.

Domestic terrorist organizations are, therefore, based on their local areas. For instance, a terrorist organization that attacks only its own government or local society, but not other countries, is a domestic terrorist organization. Domestic terrorism often occurs in African nations opposed to international terrorism whose focus lies mostly with the Americans.

Due to this fact, the U.S maintains a different understanding and definition of terrorism that is different from that of African nations. International terrorism can be said to cause deaths for many people or result to serious injuries as well as damage of property. On the other hand, domestic terrorism is less violent and results to lower rates of killings and loss of property as terrorist groups, who are mostly civilians, only coerce the government to take a certain action.

Although both types of terrorism are aimed at a certain goals, they both differ in that international terrorists targets the worlds powerful countries as they seek public opinion from the globe. Domestic terrorism is, however, targeted to the local settings within a county’s boundary.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While domestic terrorism, mostly in Africa, is motivated by poverty among state members and the desire to develop their countries economically, international terrorism is not directly linked to these factors evidenced by many terrorist groups coming from well off backgrounds.

Another major difference comes in with the technology used in both types of terrorism where international terrorism involves the use of sophisticated technology to carry out the attacks such as missiles while most domestic terrorism involves use of human efforts to create havoc in a state. Terrorism activities are carried out by terrorist groups which are defined as any movement that uses violence as a weapon to achieve its goals political, ideological or religious (Shinn, 2005, p. 1).

Differences in the two categories of terrorist organizations Despite the fact that all terrorist organizations always have almost similar motives they differ in certain perspectives although they all have the universal objectives of antisocial motives.

Since their activities involve hostility, they have to plan and organize on how to handle security in the areas they are planning to attack. Domestic terrorist groups are not, usually, supported by the government since in most cases; they attack the government in order to attain certain goals. They therefore have strategies that they use to get people or certain social groups to support and sympathize with them.

This support team include both active and inactive members who do not participate directly in the attacking activities but rather offer support in other ways such as financial, security, just to mention a few. The active members, on the other hand, include the active energetic people who participate in the real activities of attacking including fighting and riots. Such support teams may be volunteers if at all they support the pursuit of the goal in question or in other cases, they may be forced into participating by the terrorist members.

International terrorist organizations, on the other hand, are more likely to e supported by their governments since most of them attack, not their home country, but other nations due to disputes on control over land, power or even religious conflicts. These groups are therefore supported financially, in terms of recruitments, weapons as well as means of communication.

When it comes to recruitment and training, the two terrorist groups also differ in that the domestic terrorist organizations usually recruit college and high school leavers but only who are up for the task. In addition, the process has to be sensitive to security since its home based and the groups’ intentions should not be identified because most of the terrorist attacks happen when they are least expected.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, recruitment and training activities should e done so confidentially without involving the public. International terrorist groups, on the other hand, recruit members who are known to be linked to terrorist groups or even people whose family members have been earlier involved in the terrorist attacks. Basically, recruits in international terrorist groups involve people whose backgrounds are known with those who have family ties to the organization getting priority over others (Mfields 2004, p. 1).

The training process basically involves giving instruction on the use of weapons used in the attacks. Domestic terrorist organizations are basic involved in less violent actions such as seizure of occupation in a certain building, hijacking and traditional bombings and assassinations. On the other hand, international terrorist organizations use more violent actions. Most of them include the deadly nuclear weapons, the use of biological and other chemical materials.

These advanced technological weapons are far more destructive than the traditional methods because they are targeted to cause mass destruction. Many of the international terrorists are now using chemicals that are meant to cause deadly diseases such as anthrax. Others use the technology to spread certain spores which cause skin infection which is not treated as soon as possible, results to death.

Due to the differences in availability of support especially from the government, other facilities such as training, advanced weapons and financial factors, the two groups of terrorist organizations have differed greatly in their success of their terrorist attacks.

The domestic groups have not been successful over the years due to lack of advanced technological knowhow of weapons as well as training services. In addition, domestic terrorists are not large enough to counter the security of a country where they are planning to attack because the governments are always stronger than such groups are.

International terrorists have, however, been successful many of their attacks with the use of advanced weapons, the support they get from the government and the use of experienced individuals as members of the group. The government support offers them the opportunity to plan and organize every step of the activities such as communication in case more recruits are required or additional weapons as well giving them financial support which is very crucial in the success of such international attacks (Samuraitom 2007, p. 1).

Conclusion Terrorism has become very common in today’s political and religious arena. There has been both domestic and international terrorism where domestic terrorism involves local attacks that are less violent while the international attacks are more brutal and targets countries beyond borders. Despite the fact terrorists believe that they have the right to attain certain goals, attacking other people causing destruction is not the only way they can do so.

For instance, peaceful demonstrations could be held by a group of people to air their views which does not involve property destruction or loss of lives. Terrorist organizations should therefore be restricted to prevent the harm they cause during attacks. Especially governments that support these groups in attacking other nations should stop this vice and find better ways of solving problems such as negotiating between conflicting nations. All efforts should therefore be done to restrict the movement of such terrorist organizations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Terrorism, Its Groups and Categories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Anderson, W. (2002). Terrorism and the Drug War: More Unforeseen Consequences. Web.

Mfields. (2004). Terrorism. Web.

Samuraitom. (2007). Domestic terrorism essay. Web.

Shinn, D.H. (2005). Panel on Terrorism and Transnational Threats – Causes and Enablers. Web.


Marx’s Capitalism Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bourgeoisie and proletarians

Marx’s Moral Values

Thematic Concerns of Marx Anti-capitalist Critique

Analysis of Marx’s Anti-capitalist Thought


List of References

Introduction Karl Marx (1818-1883) is a revolutionary communist who helped to motivate the establishment of several communist regimes in 20th century. Initially, he was studying to become a philosopher although he later shifted his interest to economics as well as politics although his social and moral work has philosophical aspects.

Marx is an obvious anti-capitalist critique as manifested in his work (Marx ‘Capital’ 2007). In earlier historical periods, the society was sectioned it a number of orders which comprised social ranks. The capitalist system is one such societal arrangement in which the bourgeoisie comprised the higher rank and drafted oppressive orders. Thus, the society was segregated into conflicting and opposing camps, the proletarians


Water Pollution college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A case study



Works Cited

Introduction Undeveloped nations are faced with the challenge of accessing clean drinking water. Lack of understanding in the importance of practicing hygienic standards of living is a major setback to the efforts of preventing diseases that are spread through contaminated water.

In most cases, you will find that many people in these countries use water from rivers, springs, or street vendors for their domestic use. This water may contain harmful substances such as waste materials dumped in water sources, which can easily cause diseases (Hogan 1). Cholera, intestinal parasites, and typhoid are some of the major waterborne diseases. They are infectious and their impact is fatal both economically and on human health.

A case study In 1996, the state of Kano in northern Nigeria was hit by an epidemic of acute diarrhea, which was later confirmed to be an outbreak of cholera (Hutin, Luby and Paquet 1). The Nigerian ministry of health and some non-governmental organizations stepped in to ensure that curative and preventive measures were undertaken. A case study on the patients showed that the highest number of infection was in children less than 5 years.

According to this study, the main exposures were failure to wash hands with soap before meals and drinking water from street vendors (Luby, Agboatwalla, Raza, Sobel, Mint, Baier, Hoekstra, Rahbar, Hassan, Qureshi,


Adapting the Dominican Culture in the Radiology Department Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Radiology is an important field in medicine as it helps to discover illnesses early enough because the equipments that are used can see beyond what the human eyes can see. In Dominican Republic the population is made up of people from two ethnic backgrounds, that is, African and European origins.

The people are organized according to their social classes. Since this is a multicultural environment, a radiographer would have to use radical approaches to get used to the cultures of Dominicans because whether one likes or not these cultures are there in the workplace. The following paragraphs provide insights about the culture of Dominicans and how a radiographer can blend with the people of Dominican Republic.

A radiographer interacts with people from all walks of life and therefore if he/she works in Dominican Republic he/she should get acquainted to the culture of Dominicans. Harberle (2003) explains that interactions should be easy because Dominicans are very social people as well as out going and thus the radiographer should capitalize on their traits to learn more about them.

It is necessary for a radiographer to learn about Dominicans because he/she will be able to understand them. One of best approaches in learning about the cultures of a society is to learn their language. Spanish is the official language in Dominican Republic although it is coupled by other native languages.

The radiographer should make good use of his/her patients by using them to learn Spanish. This can be done through individual visits to the patients in their wards. But before learning Spanish, the radiographer should seek to establish friendship with his/her clients because it would be easier for them to get into conversations. A warm and firm handshake is all that is required to instill among the Dominicans.

After learning the Spanish language the radiographer can then proceed to learn about the history of the Dominicans. The old people are the most knowledgeable people in Dominican society because they have gone through many experiences.

The radiographer should make enquiries from any old patient who is familiar to him/her, but as the radiographer makes the enquiries he/she should also be ready to answer many questions about his/her own life because Dominicans are very inquisitive people. It therefore goes without saying that the radiographer should set limits of what to say and what not to say (Howard, 2001).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In communication, both verbal and non-verbal communication is applied in Dominican Republic. The radiographer should learn how to do it with perfection so that he/she does not feel like he/she is out of place during conversations, especially in social gatherings. Dominicans point with their lips as opposed to other societies where people point with their fingers.

Similarly, when the radiographer wants to stop a cab he/she should learn the gesture that is used to attract the attention of cab drivers. Pichardo (2007) explains that in Dominican Republic you stop the cab by using your fingers to let him know how many people require his services.

For instance, if the radiographer is with three people he/she should wave four fingers in the air to send signal to the cab driver that four people are waiting for taxi. In addition, Greetings are almost compulsory in Dominican Republic, and thus the radiographer should learn to great his/her patients in Spanish before giving them a hearing. In Spanish the phrase for greetings is Buenos Dias, meaning “good day”.

Moreover, the radiographer should maintain cleanliness because Dominicans are very conscious about fashion. But this can be determined by the location of the clinic; if it is based in the urban center he/she can indulge in New York fashion but above all, smartness is the most crucial element.

Likewise, Dominican culture does not allow women to ride on a bike while facing the front because opening their legs wide is associated with immorality. Clothes that reveal a lot of skin are prohibited in government buildings and the church (Pichardo, 2007). This means that the radiographer should consider where he/she is going before choosing the clothes he/she intends to put on.

Therefore, Dominican Republic is a good country to live in because it is one of the cheapest countries in the world. However, most public health facilities are poorly equipped and the demand for healthcare services is high in this country. By understanding the culture of Dominicans the radiographer will enjoy his/her stay in this country.

References Haberle, E.S. (2003). Dominican Republic. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Adapting the Dominican Culture in the Radiology Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Howard, D. (2001). Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. Oxford: Signal Books.

Pichardo, J.C. (2007). Dominican Cultures: The Making of a Caribbean Society. Princeton: N.J: Markus Wiener Publishers


Problem Identification and Formulation Styles in Walmarts Organization Essay argumentative essay help

In the current work environment, it is of essence for leaders of organizations to apply various problem identification and formulation styles as they assist in quick and efficient solving of problems in organizations. At Walmarts organization, the management practices four different decision making styles.

First, is collective participative decision making style in which the manager collects all the relevant information needed and other viewpoints from the members of the company; however, he or she maintains the control of the decision to be made and is responsible for the final course of action taken (Verma, 2009). The advantage of this decision making style is that there is a sense of involvement which can cushion against potential negative impacts and this strategy also enables the manager to be well informed before making a decision.

Further, the most favorable aspect of the collective participative decision style is that it can be used to identity and solve the new reality that is currently facing Walmarts organization: its clients need more than just the lowest price. Thus, the strategy can be used to improve the organization’s services to its clients. Nonetheless, a major weakness of this decision making style is that it can be slow and time intensive process, especially when the organization is large.

Second, is the autocratic decision making style in which the manager is held accountable for the final course taken and his or her own inclinations and knowledge are used to make the final decision (Lussier, 2008). In this case, the manager does not seek for viewpoints from the members of the organization since the responsibility is wholly endowed upon him or her. A major strength of this style is that it is important in emergencies since it is a quick way of reaching at conclusions.

On the other hand, its major weakness is that the members are not incorporated and they can be offended by the choice made if they are negatively impacted; consequently, this can make the manager to lose support and credibility. A problem that can be identified and described using this style is a situation in which a manager at Walmart decides to give back a client his money after complaining bitterly about a product he bought at the store.

Third, is the democratic decision making style in which the manager transfers the responsibility of making a decision to the group and votes are cast to determine the course of action to be taken judging from the choice with the highest votes. The main advantage of this style is that the decision is made fast and all the members are included in the process.

However, there may be no responsibility taken for the course of action preferred since the manager is not accountable and the members can claim that they did not support the choice made. Nonetheless, this style can be useful in describing a decision taken to introduce Walmart’s new advertising motto, “Save Money Live Better,” to replace the previous motto.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, consensus decision making style incorporates the participation of every member of the organization and the manager is no longer responsible for the course of action taken and its impacts since he or she transfers control to the members of the group.

In favor of this style is that it allows for group dedication, team spirit, and varied ideas to be shared that increases the chances of a good decision to be made. A major inhibitory factor here is that the vast amount of information collected and input involved may make the process to be tiresome and time consuming. A problem that can be addressed favorably by this style is a situation in which some employees at Walmart are to be moved to one of its new stores in a low-income area.

Reference List Lussier, R. N. (2008). Management fundamentals: concepts, applications, skill development. Mason, OH : South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Verma, D. (2009). Decision-making style: social and creative dimension. New Delhi: Global India Publications.


Professional Development and Contemporary Issues Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Impact of Globalization

Key Influences driving Globalization in the Hotel Industry

Barriers of Operating Across Borders



Introduction The purpose of conducting this study will be to examine the impact of globalization with particular focus on the international hotel industry. Globalization is defined as the process of integrating the economies, financial markets, cultures and societies of various countries through the use of global communication and trade networks that exist around the world.

Globalization is also defined as the integration of local, regional or national economies into the international economy used by the rest of the world to conduct activities such as foreign investment, trade and money transfers (Sharma and Morrissey 2007).

The driving forces of globalization around the world include technological factors where the introduction of new technological innovations within the international market drives globalization, economic factors where the economic growth of various countries around the world affects the rate of globalization and also political, socio-cultural factors where government and societal systems determine how the process of globalization will occur within various industries. In recent times however, the term has also come to include various factors such as language or communication barriers and the circulation of national ideas, (Bhagwati 2004).

In general, globalization affects the world in various ways one of which is the industrialization of countries where the introduction of global markets that are able to foster worldwide production have been able to ensure that consumers are able to access various products and services within the international market. The emergence of international trade across borders has also been a strong indicator of globalization as well as the emergence of global financial markets.

Financial markets have contributed significantly to consumers being able to access borrowing facilities across international borders without necessarily having to revert to the home market. Another aspect that signifies the impact of globalization is the economic market where a common market that allows traders and sellers to buy or sell goods has enhances the interconnectedness of trade thereby increasing growth of international trade around the world (Pan and Donato 2007).

The job market is also a strong indicator of globalization in the world as increased levels of competition within the labour market signify the strength of both national and international economies. Increased levels of competition ensure that workers are able to gain competitive salaries and wages which are now less dependent on the success or failure of national economies in the world.

Other aspects that are used to provide an indication of globalization around the world include the political context where government policies are developed to foster globalization activities as well as competition amongst countries when it comes to the production of goods and services. Ecological factors are also important indicators of globalization especially when they are used to explain the global environmental challenges that are taking place around the world as a result of global warming (Croucher 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impact of Globalization In the past few years, the international hotel and hospitality industry has been impacted by globalization and the various effects of globalization that exist in the various faucets of international industries around the world.

Some of these effects have been notable from the fields of technology where the revolution of information technology and the introduction of various innovations have contributed in a significant way to globalization while the growth of economic integration has played a major role in the integration of suppliers within the international trade networks.

The intensified competition especially within the hospitality industry has also contributed to the effects of globalization where the emergence of newer and innovative hotels creates a complex business landscape that is mostly influenced by the goings on of the global market. According to Brotherton (2003), many hotel managers are faced with the challenge of maintaining a competitive advantage against their rivals within the same industry to ensure for their profitability and survival.

The impact of globalization in the international hotel industry has been both positive and negative where hospitality managers have been forced to invest in knowledge economies to balance their exploration and exploitation activities.

The positive side of globalization is that hotel managers are forced to engage alternative modes of coordinating their production and transaction activities for the benefit of their employees and clients while at the same time ensuring that they make strategic decisions which will be beneficial for the survival of the company in the dynamic hospitality market (Gross 2008).

The negative side of globalization is that managers and marketers working within the hospitality industry have to keep on changing their tactics to ensure their products and services remain relevant to the changing consumer markets. In the event re-branding or re-stratification efforts fail, the hotel might lose its identity and image amongst its clients and also loss its position in the industry as a provider of various hospitality services and products (Brotherton 2003).

One of the impacts or effects of globalization on the hospitality includes the aspect of asset evolution where hotels and companies operating within the international hospitality industry are able to liquidate their assets so that they can be able to meet the expectations of their shareholders and investors.

We will write a custom Essay on Professional Development and Contemporary Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Asset evolution impacts on the hospitality industry where hotels and companies are forced to maintain a bottom line-growth thereby sustaining the level of competition that exists within the industry. As mentioned earlier, the technological environment has played a major role in globalization and it therefore affects the activities and functions of the hospitality industry where hotels are forced to turn their assets and properties into more flexible hotel operations.

This is meant to improve efficiency and effectiveness in many international hotels especially in the field of customer service that deals with room bookings, hotel reservations and cash payments. The labour market which is one of the strongest indicators of globalization has also impacted on the international hotel industry where the supply and demand of skilled and professional labourers determines the general growth of the industry (Pan and Donato 2007).

The international hospitality industry requires professional hospitality managers who possess the necessary skills and knowledge that will be used to capitalize on opportunities within the industry for the hotel’s advantage.

The labour market ensures that a company is able to gain professionals who will adapt business operations to the changing economic realties in the global context. Government regulations have played a major role in the globalization of local, regional and national economies around the world where the liberalization of world markets determines the amount of international trade that will be conducted in various countries.

Government regulations impact on the international hospitality industry where hotels are allowed some freedom when it comes to selecting the forces that will reduce business transaction costs as well as production costs that have continued to increase with fluctuating global economies (Kumar 2008).

Key Influences driving Globalization in the Hotel Industry One of the major driving forces of globalization in the hospitality industry is cost effective methods of doing business where competitors are driven to operate across borders in search of cost effective and efficient methods of conducting hotel operations. Hotels that operate within the international industry have began to realize that the larger they grow in size, the fewer costs they will incur when it comes to producing goods and services for their customers.

Many managers have also began to realize that operating within the international hospitality market increases their profit margins which means that the company is able to attract more investors and shareholders willing to invest in the company. Diversifying operations into the international markets allows many business managers to tap into tourist markets that have not been explored by the local and national hotel industries (Brotherton 2003).

Another key influencing factor that drives globalization within the hospitality industry is global competition which has continued to increase over the past decade as more and more tourism and entertainment consumers become internationally oriented rather than national, local or regional consumers of hotel products/services.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Professional Development and Contemporary Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A continent that has exploited fully the globalization process taking place across the world is Europe where many of the countries that fall under the European Union have created tourism industries that are focused on the needs of both the international and local consumer.

Hotels in countries such as France, Spain, Germany, Italy and Holland offer products that would meet the needs of both the local consumer and also the international tourist, language barriers side. The growth of the European Union has also played a significant role in the growth of the international hospitality industry in Europe where various hotels based in primal locations are able to compete on a level playing field for international customers.

While this increase in competition has been good for the industry overall, it has created a situation of critical mass where many hotels and tourism firms operate in Europe. Competition has forced many of the international hotels and firms operating within the continent to look for other areas to invest their businesses in so as to counter the effects of critical mass (Gu et al 2007).

Global brands also drive globalization within the international hospitality industry where hotels are forced to design products and services that will meet the cultural, societal, ethnic, political and technological needs of the international customer (Gu et al 2007).

Global brands differ from local brands in that they meet consumer expectations in a more diversified context while local brands meet the needs of local consumer. Globalised brands ensure that hotels operating within the international hospitality industry are able to market their services to customers who are already agents of the globalization process since they are constantly moving from one country to another.

International hotels that develop multicultural brands are able to appeal to a large number of customers who are heavily influenced by their ethnic beliefs and practices. Incorporating hints of multiculturalism also enables international tourists to experience some of the cultural offerings in existence within the host country (Kumar 2008).

Barriers of Operating Across Borders A major barrier when it comes to establishing hotels in international countries is the organizational structure that the hotel’s management or hospitality company will incorporate in the host country. Hotels usually face an uphill task when it comes to deciding which organizational structures can be used across borders.

Hotel managers are also faced with the challenge of determining whether these structures will ensure that the business is able to operate at maximum efficiency so as to meet customer service requirements set by the industry players. Every globalised country in the world lives by certain standards and values systems so when developing organizational structures, managers have to take into account the cultural, political and social systems that exist in the host country to ensure that their business operations do not interfere with them.

Dubai which is one of the world’s most famed city for having many international hotels has been able to maintain its cultural practices where foreign countries interested in establishing hotels within the country have been forced to adapt organizational structures that take into account the predominant culture of the society in Dubai which is Islam. Employers who engage both international and local employees have to take into account their cultural differences when developing pyramid structures for management (Pan and Donato 2007).

Access to global capital presents a major barrier to hotels operating across their own borders where hotels and industry firms interested in investment options within other countries experience difficulties because of the limited investment capital allocated to hotels and the hospitality industry in general.

This can be attributed to the fact that the industry has not been fully accepted in many financial markets around the world and therefore hotel managers have to strive to demonstrate to investors and shareholders that they can be able to yield substantial gains on investment. Such a prerequisite presents a major challenge especially for hotels that wish to diversify their operations to the international market.

These hotels have to demonstrate their ability to achieve positive returns on investor and shareholder contributions on an international scale rather than on a local or regional scale. Hotels that have been able to operate within the three major financial markets in the world; New York (NYSE), the London Stock Exchange market and the Tokyo financial market have been considered to be globalised businesses within the international hospitality industry (Deresky 2008).

As a result of multiculturalism, the work ethic in the host country where the hotel intends to operate in might be different from that of the parent country where for example employees who work for a cultural country such as Saudi Arabia might have to go to the mosque for prayers during midday. Because of the high level of customers most international hotels deal with, the manager might have to develop work duties that will ensure that the Muslim or Islamic employees are not inconvenienced in any way when attending to their prayers.

Work ethics also becomes a significant factor when determining the optimum effectiveness and performance of employees within the hotel. As international hotels might deal with high multitudes of tourists especially during the peak seasons, managers have to determine the ethics and values of employees in the host country they are operating in so that they can be able to utilise these values for optimum results (Herrman and Lipsey 2003).

Recommendations The most suitable solution that can be used by hotel managers who have decided to operate across borders will be to strike a balance between the cultural, social and political systems of both the parent and host company and also take into account the various global considerations of working in an international market.

Decentralised organizational structures will ensure that the company is able to take into account all the work aspects of the host country without compromising on the overall goals and objectives of the hotel. The access to global capital can only be remedied by business plans that have taken into consideration the international customer’s changing needs and expectations. Managers who want to establish their businesses across the border have to develop sound business plans that will draw the necessary amount of investors into the plan.

With regards to the barrier of work ethics, managers need to develop policies that will govern the operations of the international hotel in foreign countries to ensure the work values and ethics of employees have not been compromised. The study and discussion has been able to ascertain therefore that globalization has a significant impact on the operations of the international hotel industry.

References Bhagwati, J., (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press

Brotherton, B., (2003) The international hospitality industry: structure, characteristics and issues. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science

Croucher, S.L., (2004) Globalization and belonging: the politics of identity in a changing world. New York: Rowman and Littlefield

Deresky, H., (2008) International management: managing across borders and cultures. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall

Gross, M., (2008) Tourism management. New York: Free Press

Gu, J., Humphrey, J., and Messner, D., (2007) Global governance and developing countries: the implications of the rise of China. World Development, Vol.13, No.2, pp 274-292

Herrman, H., and Lipsey, R.E., (2003) Foreign direct investment in the real and financial sector of industrial countries. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Heidelberg

Kumar, P., (2008) Globalization: challenges for the developing world in the new millennium. New Jersey: McGraw Hill Publishers

Pan, Y., and Donato, R., (2007) The asymmetries of globalization. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers

Sharma, K., and Morrissey, O., (2007) Trade, inequality and growth in the era of globalization. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers


Renewable Energy Co. Report cheap essay help

Table of Contents Summary of the case study

Issues presented in the case study

Analysis of the case study



Reference List


Summary of the case study The increase in dependency on fossil fuel and other non renewable energy sources is facing challenges because of environmental concerns and economic reasons. Fossil fuel releases green house gases and is prone to price fluctuations while hydroelectric power is dependent on environmental conditions.

Many countries are looking for alternative energy sources that are renewable cleaner and independent from price fluctuations. Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy are the main renewable sources of energy. This paper gives a summary of the renewable energy sources that two students contemplated and researched after finishing their graduate school.

Issues presented in the case study The issues presented in this case were mainly concerned with the energy demands in Ontario. The need for the electricity supply mix to be replaced was the main issues that brought about the aspect of alternative energy sources. Large and Berkeley found out that renewable energy source was the way to go since other energy sources presented economic problems, environmental problems and scarcity.

They did an analysis of the different renewable energy sources and discovered that they could only venture into the renewable energy source that used the technology which they were best suited to capitalize on. A renewable energy source such as geothermal is pretty cheap but requires a lot of capital in order to establish its economic viability. Solar photovoltaic energy also requires a relatively large amount of capital although the standard offer price is pretty cheaper than some of the other sources.

Analysis of the case study Large and Berkeley provides several different analysis of their research. They tabulate their data to compare between all the renewable energy that they researched on. There is also an analysis of the different energy sources that supply energy in Ontario. In an analysis of 2005 energy sources, it is evident that nuclear energy was the dominant energy source followed by renewable and coal in that order. Conservation was the least energy source that came behind gas and cogen.

Another analysis done for the future supply of energy in Ontario in the year 2025 indicates that renewables will take over from nuclear to become the dominant energy supplier. Nuclear takes the second position followed by gas and cogen, conservation and gasification in that order.

The graph below shows the general trend of the energy sources from the year 2005 to the year 2025.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.

Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation

Series 1 represents the energy fractions in the year 2025 while series two shows the fractions in the year 2005.

In addition, Ontario’s standard offer program payment schedule tabulated in the file shows that solar photovoltaic energy is valued at $0.11 per Kilowatt hour. This price is way above the other energy sources that are offered the same value of $ 0.11 per kilowatt hour. All the prices are at base price.

The photovoltaic potential of Canadian cities is also compared to that of other cities. From the table, it can be deduced that Canadian cities have relatively high photovoltaic potential compared to many other world cities. The city of Regina is the sixth city with the most solar photovoltaic potential. It is followed by Calgary, Toronto, Vancouver, and St. John.

Another comparison was done on some quick facts for the renewable energies researched. The standard offer program price for solar voltaic energy potential is 42 cent per kW installed while that of other renewable energy sources like wind, hydropower and biogas is 11.08 cent per kW.

While there is an inflation index of 20 percent of the price increases by the consumer price index for all other renewable sources, the solar photovoltaic energy project has no inflation index. When the capital cost of the renewable energy sources are compared, solar photovoltaic energy leads with an estimated capital cost of $10, 000 to $14, 000, per kW installed. The table below summarizes the above analysis.

We will write a custom Report on Renewable Energy Co. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed

Solar photovoltaic wind hydro biogas Standard offer time 42 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh Inflation index None 20% of the contract price increases by the consumer price index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index On-peak rate Not legible Not eligible 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) Capital cost (estimated) $10,000-$14,000 $2,000-$2,750 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed Average lead time 1-6 months 3-4 years 4 to 7 years 2 years Environmental permits None None for 2 MW

All projects require an environmental screening process None for 5 MW

Other permits Building permit zoning

Municipal permit Navigation Canada

Transport Canada possible official plan and zoning amendments

Possible bylaw changes

Building permits

Property tax reclassification

Ministry of Natural Resources Water supply issues


Building permits

Municipal permits Official plans and zoning bylaws

Connection Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement

Electrical safety authority certification

Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement

Electrical safety authority certification

Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement

Electrical Safety Authority Certification

Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement

Electrical Safety Authority Certification

Resource South-facing, inclining approximately 45 degrees Shores of the Great Lakes Areas with high elevations

Exposure to prevailing wind directions

Steep rivers, streams, creeks or springs Flowing year-round

Hilly areas with high year-round rainfall

Proximity to renewable biomass Industry association Canadian solar industry association Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) www.canwea.ca

Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA)


Ontario Waterpower Association (OWA) www.owa.ca

Ministry of Natural Resources


Canadian Bioenergy Association (CANBIO) www.canbio.ca

Canadian Biogas Association


Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs



Adapted from Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation

Results From the graph in figure 1, even though the energy output and usage increases, the general trend is that renewable energy is slowly but gradually taking over the energy scene. From the table above, it can be deduced that solar energy is the most expensive in terms of standard offer time. Solar photovoltaic energy also requires the most capital cost. It is also quite expensive in terms of average lead time. However, solar energy needs no environmental permit and has the least number of permits needed.

Recommendations It is beyond doubt that renewable energy is the most appropriate alternative energy source that can be utilize for sustainable economic growth and environment management.

Since fossil fuel prices are always fluctuating, they affect economies and thus contribute to inflation. Fossil fuels also contribute to greenhouse gases because they produce carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Carbon dioxide depletes the ozone layer which is essential for blocking ultraviolet rays that may otherwise cause skin cancer. Sulfur dioxide is known to cause acid rain that corrodes man made structures.

Renewable energy sources are clean, cheaper, and stable for economic development. In my own opinion, since wind, solar, hydroelectricity and biogas, all depend on environmental conditions, I would recommend geothermal energy to be sourced in tectonically active areas. This renewable energy source does not depend on climatic conditions. It is available throughout the years and the earth’s interior is not going to cool soon.

Reference List Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation.

Appendix Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Renewable Energy Co. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 1: graph of the trend of energy sources between the years 2005 and 2025.

Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed.

Table 1: Table of comparison of all the renewables discussed.

Solar photovoltaic wind hydro biogas Standard offer time 42 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh 11.08 cent/kWh Inflation index None 20% of the contract price increases by the consumer price index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index 20% of the price increases by the Consumer Price Index On-peak rate Not legible Not eligible 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) 3.52 cent/kWh (must be 80%) Capital cost (estimated) $10,000-$14,000 $2,000-$2,750 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed $4,000 to $7,000 per kW installed Average lead time 1-6 months 3-4 years 4 to 7 years 2 years Environmental permits None None for 2 MW

All projects require an environmental screening process None for 5 MW

Other permits Building permit zoning

Municipal permit Navigation Canada

Transport Canada possible official plan and zoning amendments

Possible bylaw changes

Building permits

Property tax reclassification

Ministry of Natural Resources Water supply issues


Building permits

Municipal permits Official plans and zoning bylaws

Connection Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement

Electrical safety authority certification

Ontario energy board license Local distribution company connection agreement

Electrical safety authority certification

Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement

Electrical Safety Authority Certification

Ontario Energy Board License Local Distribution Company Connection Agreement

Electrical Safety Authority Certification

Resource South-facing, inclining approximately 45 degrees Shores of the Great Lakes Areas with high elevations

Exposure to prevailing wind directions

Steep rivers, streams, creeks or springs Flowing year-round

Hilly areas with high year-round rainfall

Proximity to renewable biomass Industry association Canadian solar industry association Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) www.canwea.ca

Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA)


Ontario Waterpower Association (OWA) www.owa.ca

Ministry of Natural Resources


Canadian Bioenergy Association (CANBIO) www.canbio.ca

Canadian Biogas Association


Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs



Adapted from Reeds, A. (2010). Renewable Energy Co. Richard Ivy School of Business Foundation