Why Don’t Class Politics Predominate In Advanced Industrial Societies? Essay Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Classes and Social Action

Status and Social differentiation

Power and Politics

Social Space and Symbolic Space

Interests and Goals of Classes



Introduction A class can be defined in different ways according to the sociological theories of Marx Weber, Pierre Bourdieu and Karl Marx. Marx defines a class in terms of capitalistic differentiation while Weber defines it on the basis of social stratification. The Marxian theory defines a class in terms of owners of labor, capital, and land in a capitalistic society (Calhoun and Gerteis, 2007). These three owners receive profit, wages and rent correspondingly.

Therefore, class is fixed by the owners of capital and the relationship individuals have to production resources. This theory brings out two types of social classes. Marx refers to them as the bourgeoisie and the proletariat to mean the owners of production resources and the working class respectively (Calhoun and Gerteis, 2007). Bourgeoisie can also be classified into owners of capital or land. On the contrary, Weber asserts that class, party and status are aspects of all communal structure.

These aspects present economic, social and political order in that order (Calhoun, Gerteis and Moody, 2007). For that reason, it is not appropriate to fix class without considering the other two aspects. Essentially, Weber defines a class as a group of individuals united by social action. Bourdieu defines classes based on social space. His definition tends to explain how classes are formed (Calhoun and Gerteis, 2007). His classification is derived from the division of different types of capital.

Over the years, the situations under which class politics were effective have taken a tremendous shift. This is because the societies have transformed from communal or societal regimes to industrialized economies. An advanced industrial society is characterized by a rise in the standard of living. This extends to previously deprived parts of the society. It is also notable that manufacturers focus on production of luxury goods.

Likewise, there is an increased focus on financial and political hegemony. More resources are allocated to scientific research and experimentation. Industrialization has promoted a stable economy that meets the needs of the classes. Therefore, the antagonism between classes has reduced significantly as social mobility increases. Furthermore, the gap between the owners of capital and labor cease to be decisive because economic factors are less prominent.

This paper examines the reasons why class politics is no longer popular in advanced industrial societies by focusing on the changes in classes, status and politics. It also discusses social space and symbolic space in relation to class politics.

Classes and Social Action Weber asserts that class does not necessary refer to a group of individuals with similar skin color, gender or nationality (Calhoun and Gertais, 2007). If the term class is used to describe this group, then it would lead to several distortions. Essentially, classes emerge as a result of social action (Calhoun and Gerteis, 2007). It is imperative to note that these types of action do not reinstate individuals of the same gender or nationality together.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the contrary, social action brings people of diverse classes together. An outstanding example is that of workers coming together to demand better pay or better working environment. However, the existence of advanced capitalism attracts a distinctive social action that seeks to protect property especially the rights of production. Class politics change when the social actions that exist over production resources change.

Status and Social differentiation Unlike classes in Weber’s theory, Status refers to a group of people whose characteristics are determined by societal differentiation. Social differentiation describes the line drawn between individuals on the basis of physical and societal aspects such as gender, race, age and ethnicity, among other factors.

Individuals who share the same position in the society because of their wealth, duties, lifestyle or honor, are said to be of the same social status. Weber claims that a status group is determined by social honor (Calhoun et al, 2007); to remain in such a group, individuals are required to maintain a unique lifestyle. Status groups characterize social order. Social order in turn, influences the actions of individuals. Most people will tend to disassociate themselves from class politics in order to maintain their status in the society.

Power and Politics According to Weber in his article, the distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party, the organization of the political system controls the distribution of power in a society (Calhoun et al, 2007). Weber defines power as the ability of an individual to accomplish his purpose under unfavorable circumstance.

Advanced industrial societies demand a powerful administration that can render ethical decisions on behalf of the society. This means that before a society can achieve the industrial state, government in charge exercises exemplary leadership skills. The power behind the leadership is critical for status groups and parties. The politics of classes is, therefore, minimized by legal order.

Social Space and Symbolic Space Social space refers to the grouping of individuals in a society. According to Pierre Bourdieu, social space is a distinct space based on the distribution of capital and the quality of goods or services in a social world (Calhoun et al, 2007). His theory is anchored on the basis that social space has multiple dimensions.

The dimensions are based on power and they include level of education, economic power, and sociocultural advantage. In addition, the quality and quantity of capital determines the basis of differentiation. Lastly, the value or capital must be considered relevant in the social world. The definition of Bourdieu reflects on specificity. For example, in a financial market money is a specific medium of exchange. Social space is not a static field; it changes depending on the forces at work.

We will write a custom Essay on Why don’t class politics predominate in advanced industrial societies? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on this definition, education can be considered as the basis of social space in industrial societies. The relationship that exists between people of the same level of education can constitute a social space.

This kind of social space alters the structure of the labor force and reduces the power of class politics. For Bourdieu, Symbolic space describes the characteristics that distinguish different economic actors (Calhoun et al, 2007). For example, fashion, sports, prestige, talent, and music. These factors embody the social similarities or disparities between individuals.

In other words, the decisions made by people are a symbol that can be used to classify them in different groups. Symbols such as prestige can be considered as a source of power. Sources of capital and power that are social in nature are classified as symbolic capital (Calhoun et al, 2007). Symbolic space in advanced industrial societies dominates class politics.

Interests and Goals of Classes With the development of industrial societies, the interests and goals of classes have changed. The proletariat class becomes smaller as the technological progress gives rise to a new class of workers with expertise. In this era, universities and colleges are essential institutions in the society because of their intellectual capacity.

According to Marxian theory, class interests have to exist before a class is formed. As the society advances to an industrialized state, the class interests that were previously disparate become more and more united (Calhoun and Gerteis, 2007). Unlike the classes of capitalism, technology is not based on economic laws. This means that, in an economic revolution, capitalist classes cease to be significant while technology continues to grow.

For example, the members of a labor union can now unite with entrepreneurs of a weapons manufacturing factory to ensure that the factory receives a contract for the production of the weapon. A merger which lobbies for contracts together with the corporation does not have the moral authority to fight for the workers when the company disregards their welfare.

Conclusion The theories of Marx, Weber and Bourdieu remain relevant and credible in explaining why class politics do not prevail in advanced industrial societies. During the pre-industrial era, it was common for people with limited power to come together as class in order to gain control over capitalistic resources. However, in economic advanced industrial societies such actions are no longer necessary. This is because industrial societies have gained economic strength. As a result, the needs of the different classes are met.

Members of different classes now come together to achieve a common goal instead of fighting; for example, classes uniting to ensure environmental sustainability. Additionally, the economic factors that favored the existence of classes is less dominant in industrial societies. Instead, the economic development cushions the lower and middle class. The society is no longer analyzed in terms of ownership of labor, capital or rent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why don’t class politics predominate in advanced industrial societies? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Calhoun, J.C., and Gerteis, J. (2007). Classical Sociological Theory. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishers

Calhoun, J.C., Gerteis, J., and Moody, J. (2007). Contemporary Sociological Theory. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishers


The World of Money Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The book “The American way of death” revisited was produced in the mid nineties before Jessica Mitford died in 1996. The book was later published in 1998 with new chapters that focused on the increased funeral conglomerates. She was later discriminated for her content because she destroyed an entire industry neglecting the few who could be honest.

She tackled the death sector in America and its weaknesses without considering how it got there. However Mitford was determined to expose all the terrible secrets that were involved in “The American way of death.” This later on paved way for other journalists to write boldly on controversial topics.

Rebecca Mead who is the author of the book “One Perfect Day” portrayed the American wedding as a Rosetta stone. The author gave a series of questions that challenged people’s national identity. She asked why weddings in America have become so extravagant and demanding in production.

Moreover she asked why most grooms and brides pretend to consider their tradition yet they use weddings to express their expensive level of living. Most weddings reveal how people live, relate and consume. The book brings out investigative journalism that brings out activities involved in wedding industry today. She claims that the wedding industry has helped improve America’s economy because the wedding business gets complex and lavish everyday.

Weddings have taken a cultural shift and have become marketing opportunities where religion beliefs are neglected and expectations are increased. In the past weddings were a transition from childhood to adulthood, and they were a rite of passage to take people into a more intimate relationship. They would give value to the various American cultures by considering marriage a crucial stage in life.

Rebecca does a research on the wedding business and shows measures taken to grow it such as trade shows, conventions and factories. She also researched the available data produced from the industry for the advantage of advertisers on the patterns followed by grooms and brides in terms of consuming money towards the wedding (Fagan 22-44).

Compare and contrast the two books and use short quotes for each point

Most themes found in the two books are similar; these are some of those themes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 1- Exploitation– In the book “One Perfect Day”: The selling of the American Dream, Rebecca Mead looks into the extreme levels that most brides go to in order to have the best weddings ever. She stated that in the past, weddings were considered as simple events where people only wanted to get married. Today, people have found an arena for making money by being wedding planners.

This is a field that has thrived with time because the wedding market is growing expansively. Most brides turn to wedding planners to help them run errands and do most of the planning for them. This has become so common that some have branded themselves, celebrity wedding planners. These planners exploit brides by giving them wrong advice on how to manage their finances. They quote higher prices than what would commonly be found in the market. Brides end up using a lot of money than expected.

Jessica Mitford in her book “The American way of death” revisited also discusses this issue of exploitation. She claims that most funeral homes take advantage of the bereaved by charging high prices that are unaffordable. Funerals according to her have become business opportunities to most people and they perceive them as ground for making more money.

Florists who would help make flowers for the funerals would give high prices as well as those who sell caskets. Some families are simple and would opt to burry their loved ones in a simple event, but it has turned out to be a field of financial exploitation.

2- Ignorance– The first book clearly describes some brides as being ignorant and lacking knowledge of what is important. The author claims that if most of them would take personal responsibility to go round and check the market as they ask about the prices, then this high level of exploitation would hardly be encountered. Wedding planners are also insignificant especially if one has a fixed budget. This would help these brides organize their own weddings and have nobody to blame. However their ignorance leaves them at a terrible state where most wedding planners intervene and take advantage.

Jessica Mitford’s book also focuses on people who have no idea what it takes to hold a burial. As a result, they can be given high prices and the wrong financial advice that would cost them more than they can afford. She advises people to reach out for information and knowledge that could be of great help for them. With this kind of information, one can hardly be deceived.

She also advises that people question the decisions made by planners of these events and refuse to accept everything they are told. Bargaining was another option; she states that if people learn to negotiate the original price, they can end up saving more. This form of ignorance that is taken advantage of is quoted by Jessica Mitford as “Graveside solicitations”.

We will write a custom Essay on The World of Money specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 3- Societal pressure– Both writers bring out the pressure and negative force that comes from the society which leaves people feeling compelled to please everyone. In Rebecca Mead’s book, brides are under so much pressure to do a wedding that is beyond their budget to make an impression to people. She says that most brides are competing to have the best and most unique weddings so that the society perceives them differently.

They would go to lengths of buying expensive gowns instead of hiring one which would be cheaper. This is why she claimed that the wedding field has really changed from how it was in the past. Brides would have to borrow money or go to banks to loan money for their wedding to be possible. These were awful financial decisions because long after the wedding they would remain in debt.

She stated that it was a bad choice to make, because one loses focus on life after the wedding. Some brides would end up in poverty because the debt was too big to be completed in a short amount of time. Rebecca later gives advice to brides to do weddings they can afford and remain in proper financial states. She advised that the society will never be fully content no matter how hard one wants to please them.

Rebecca quoted, “After a few hours, I was overcome by a condition known among retailers as “white blindness,” a reeling, dumbfounded state in which it becomes impossible to distinguish between an Empire-waist gown with alencon lace appliqués and a bias-cut spaghetti strap shift with crystal detail, and in the exhausted grip of which I wanted only to lie down and be quietly smothered by the fluffy weight of it all, like Scott of the Antarctic.”

In Jessica Mitford’s book, burials have also become arenas for showing off. Instead of showing respect to the dead, people go to inappropriate lengths to please the society for them to be perceived as wealthy. Such measures are discouraged because people get into debt over a simple event that should be about mourning and giving a proper send off. She advises that people reject pressure from the society which would force them to live at a level they have hardly reached.

She also advises those involved in burial costs like florists, cemeteries and carpenters to lower their production charges because most people holding burials are in a somber mood and ought not to be exploited. They should reason well and give prices that all can afford. They should stop viewing funerals as opportunities to make money because it only exposes their level of being selfish (Salmond 85-139).

Draw attention between the two books about the similar fact that both events are promoted and generated by money

It is quite transparent that both a wedding and a funeral require financial funding to take place. At most times, weddings use more money than funerals. However the significance of money in both events is clearly brought out and due to this there is a lot of controversy. People want to make false impressions to the society at large that they are wealthy and can afford anything. It is an improper choice to make because chances of being in debt are increased. With regard to funerals, Jessica Mitford quotes people asking “Can I afford to die?”

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World of Money by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, both books reflect the kind of behavior that is in the current world showing how times have changed. In the past life was simple and people had no pressure of impressing others. Today things have changed and people are making wrong financial choices that cost them so long to compensate. Nobody wants to be perceived as lacking money so the live their lives for people so that they become people of influence. However both writers bring out the disadvantages of such decisions and hope that people will make wise decisions.

Works Cited Fagan, Andrew. Making Sense of Dying and Death. New York: Cambridge publishers, 1998. Print.

Salmond, John. The Conscience of a lawyer: Clifford Durr and American Civil Liberties. Alabama: University of Alabama, 1990. Print.


Call center practice cases Essay best essay help

To implement effective practice cases for the call centers, the manager should employ classroom-like activities whereby trainees will undertake real lessons as done in a classroom.

This method is regarded as the best in achieving of employee ability in handling new products in the call center. Secondly, Johnson (2008) argues that “observing calls as made by trainees” will be an effective method of achieving effective training (p.8). Common mistakes are usually observed. Hence, appropriate corrections are made instantly. Thirdly, employment of one-on-one observation is also another effective training method.

This helps in identification of trainee weaknesses and appropriate actions are taken to create more strength. Another method is product knowledge tests which seek to establish how much a probable call center personnel knows a product. Lastly, use of online tutorials would be imperative since they contain required training information in expected detail. These methods are preferable given immediate challenging organizational environment.

Due to the growing demand in improving customer service quality, there has been demand for creation of more effective call centers. Implementing a successful call center is entirely dependent on efficiency of call center personnel which in turn depends on their training.

In the process of training call center employees, practice cases must be given utmost priority in importance since they reflect successes of new call centers. In this regard, while designing a practice case, managers should consider the five most important aspects of practice cases.

These include new product profile, challenges encountered at the call centers, vendor technological resources available at the centers, appropriate technologies to be used and the benefits associated with the call center (Giere, 2009). These are some of the contents expected to be included in practice cases of an organization.

New products come with great expectations especially in versatile business environments. Among these expectations are delivery conveniences. Changing trends in current technologies coupled with fast delivery courier services have raised expectation of deliveries services to convenience levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With release of new products, there are great expectations of inclusive delivery of new practice cases. In this organization, it is most likely to make an impact if delivery were to be included at company online points, physical presence employed to deliver content in classroom-like setting, over-the-phone delivery method employed in delivering product information tests (Giere, 2009) and face-book in sending lesson progresses.

Technology has made it possible for planning and delivery information to be done conveniently. Designing and delivering practice cases will ultimately employ technology. Issuance of URL to trainees will enable accessibility of online tutorials.

Application of email technology will enhance communication during training and thus keep track of trainee progress in the duration. Use of Skype video calling or conferencing technology is preferable in administration of classroom-like lessons when distance becomes a barrier due to sudden inconveniences (Dawson, 2011).

Trainee education is a major step towards achievement of organizational goals. In addition, trainee knowledge transfer is significant in making this a practical achievement (Johnson, 2008). In order to ensure trainee knowledge transfer, immediate call center set up is imperative. Secondly, instant duty allocation ensures that the gained skills are put to work.

Lastly, when terminating a training program and implementing feasibility check, hands on experience is highly encouraged. This process makes it easier for the learnt content to undergo distribution to required channels. Encouraging regular exercises in making outcalls and enhance knowledge transfer to desired destinations. These steps would ensure that trainees will effectively transfer acquired knowledge.

References Dawson, M. (2011). Call center: Design and implementation. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Giere, N.M. (2009). Call center training. Chicago, CH: Wiley


Sales representative training Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Most companies across the globe spend a lot of money on employee development. This shows the importance companies place on sales training. However, not every sales training is effective. New sales representative training should enhance achievement of certain objectives.

It should focus on improving company knowledge. It should allocate ample time and the appropriate amount of information, to improve new sales representatives, knowledge of the company (Rosen, 2008). This should include the company history, mission, core values, vision, policies and procedures.

Another objective is to clarify responsibilities and expectations. Sales training should leave the new sales representatives with a clear understanding of their daily duties. It should also aim at improving product knowledge. One of the key objectives of sales training is to make a salesperson understand the products or services that he or she will sell in the market. Sales training should also enhance sales skills (Magee, 2002).

New sales representatives should know how to tackle different customers and they should understand the techniques of persuading them to buy a product or a service. Sales training should also lift the morale of the new sales representatives. The new sales representatives are supposed to acquire a lot of knowledge after the completion of the training. They are supposed to acquire product and service knowledge.

During sales training, the sales representatives should be informed about the products and services they will be selling to customers. They should also learn about the background of the company, mission, core values and the company policies (McClain, 2006). They will also understanding their daily activities and duties. They also learn how to sell products and services, and how to deal with clients. Upon completion of the training, they should be fully confident in their ability to handle different types of customers.

They should also be able to create a solid business relationship with clients, as well as convincing and persuading them to purchase the product (Rosen, 2008). The new sales representatives should be informed about quality performance expected from him or her in the selling process. They should understand the importance of quality performance towards dealing with respective clients.

Mr. Munoz should understand that the new sale representatives are supposed to be equipped with the selling skills. Sales representative should be taught on how to enhance sales skills in order to become good salespersons. Since these are new sales representative, they should be taught the art of selling.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They should also be equipped with customer relationship skills and communication skills (Magee, 2002). The work of a sales representative is to sell the company’s products and services to customers. The sales representatives should also have interests and passion of selling. Sales need a passionate person as it deals with persuading customers and prospective customers to buy a product or a service.

The best way to carry out the new sales representative training is to put him or her together with the customer service team. This is because the customer service employees are aware of the company’s products. The company should allow the new staff to listen to customer service calls and service calls, and allow him or her to go through the documentation about the products and services offered by the company.

This documentation may include brochures, manuals, user guides, and websites. After the new staff becomes informed about the products and services offered by the company, pair them up with a salesperson that has been in the company for a long time. Allowing the new employee to listen to a customer phone call will help him or her understand the sales process (McClain, 2006). Finally, give the new employee permission to make calls and appointments under the supervision of a senior experienced salesperson.

Reference List Magee, J. (2002). Sales training hand book. New York: Prentice Hall.

McClain, R. (2006). Sales training solutions. Chicago: Kaplan Publishing.

Rosen, K. (2008). Coaching sales people into sales champions. New York: Wiley


The History of the Agency Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Its functions and capabilities

Hiring process/requirements

Laws the agency enforces

Reference List

The history of ATF is rather short, however, it has managed to cope with a number of purposes it sets. The agency is effective since January 24, 2003 based on the Homeland Security bill. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) performs its functions under the supervision of the Department of Justice and is accountant to the Treasury Department with the new Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (ATF, n.d.). ATF acting director is B. Todd Jones and its deputy director is Thomas E. Brandon.

Its functions and capabilities ATF is aimed at protecting human “our communities from violent criminals, criminal organizations, the illegal use and trafficking of firearms, the illegal use and storage of explosives, acts of arson and bombings, acts of terrorism, and the illegal diversion of alcohol and tobacco product” (ATF, n.d.).

Hiring process/requirements To become a special agent in the ATF one should be highly trained and correspond to a number of specific requirements. Some of the requirements are as follows, one should be a US citizen with driving license. A person should take and pass several exams and tests, correspond to the number of age restrictions and fit the requirements based on the law account the US forces.

Laws the agency enforces ATF has to follow some particular laws and base its government on those laws. The US constitutional articles are the main laws ATF bases it operations on. Gun Control Act, National Firearms Act, Arms Export Control Act, Importation, Manufacture, Distribution and Storage of Explosive Materials, Contraband Cigarette Trafficking Act, and Interstate Transport in Aid of Racketeering are the articles which are referred to by the agency (Laws, n.p.).

Reference List ATF. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.atf.gov/

Laws. (n.d.). ATF. Retrieved from https://www.atf.gov/rules-and-regulations/laws-alcohol-tobacco-firearms-and-explosives