Table of Contents Introduction
Conflicts and war in Yugoslavia
Introduction The essay is a critically analysis of the reason why conflict in Yugoslavia led to war in the 1990s. According to Welch, 1993 conflict has been defined in various ways but one definition adopted for the sake of the paper is a scenario in which there exist or thought resistance to main beliefs, opinion, dreams, needs and aspiration, norms due to differences in views between individuals and can be instigated by political, economical, environmental or societal aspects (Cohen, 1993).
On the other hand, war has been defined as armed conflict that is open in nature that takes place between two or more groups of parties that are organized. This usually continues in phases termed as clashes and mainly entails dispute concerning power as well as governance and territorial supremacy. It is worth mentioning that war can be between and among nation or even individuals of a given country usually based on drawn ethnic and or religious lines.
The term coined to refer to the war is Yugoslav war which refers to a sequence of campaigns carried out by military between the years 1991 and 1995 in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The war just like any other kind of war was very complex and linked with bitter ethnic conflict among Yugoslavians. Those involved in the conflict included in one side Serbs and some Montenegrins and Bosnia’s and Coats as well as some Slovenes. It is important to have in mind that in Bosnia conflict between Bosnia’s and Croats was also experienced.
The war did take place in three major phases that are deemed separate but closely linked. War in Slovenia that took place in 1991, Bosnian War experienced between 1992 and 1995 and Croatian War of Independence that took place between 1991 and 1995. All the war ended in different times bringing with it full independence as well as sovereignty but at the same time huge losses in economic terms.
According to Glenny, 1999 it is estimated that between 130, 000 to 140,000 individuals died as a result of the Yugoslav War instigated by conflict between individuals living in the former the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Conflicts and war in Yugoslavia It is true that conflict if not resolved at an earlier stage, do lead to very serious issues that are characterized by massive loss of human lives, destruction of wealth and property, environmental degradation as well as huge economic losses (Gowan, 1999).
Tension among individuals living in Yugoslavia begun to mount back in 1980. It is only in 1990s that it was very evident and more likely that war will erupt. This is attributed to the fact that t the time, there was hard time in economic terms coupled with mounting desire of nationalism clearly depicted by the various ethnic inhabitants of Yugoslavia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Broadly speaking there are four major reasons why conflict in Yugoslavia led to the 1991 to 1995 war; these are not adequately or completely failing to address underlying causes of conflicts between and among worrying groups, internal as well as external disagreement as well as fragmentation within and without the parties involved in a conflicts, simple acts of insincerity by the parties in loggerheads and finally disappointment on the parts of one or the groups involved in conflicts.
Historians, ethnographers as well as other scholars do agree that War in Yugoslavia was a complex issue but coin conflict based on dominance to power as the major cause (Horowitz, 1985). It is worth noting that the monarchist of Yugoslavia made up of various ethnic grouping as well as Serbs being politically and demographically dominant over the rest of ethnic grouping laid ground of insurgence of major tension.
Various ethnic groups were of varied opinion of how the state will be. The Croats had in back of their mind that they will enjoy a greater degree of self-governance compared to when they were under Austria-Hungary. On the other hand, the Serbs held the view that being indpenent will be their reward for immensly supporting allies in the First World War (Lampe, 2000).
This tension in most cases did erupt into what has been termed as “open conflict”. Since the security portfolio was made up of most Serbs, they used the influence they had to oppress the rest especially during election as well as killing leaders from the other ethnic groups that strongly opposed monarchy system of governance.
As stated previously, various acts of insincerity contributed to more tension that resulted to conflict and later instigated war in Yugoslavia. This usually takes various forms ranging from failing to keep an agreement arrived at or taking actions that are aimed at annoying the other party.
For instance, although the dominant Serbs party was ready to do away with one party system which was agreed upon in 1990 at Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the voting was blocked by party leader. The act lead to delegates from Slovene and Croatian to walk out which resulted to breaking of the party-thus the termination of “brotherhood unity” among them.
Another act of insincerity emerged when the Axis Forces took control of a puppet state belonging to Croats. Ustasha was put to be in charge of that state. The Serbians who were at the time the minority ethnic group were to be persecuted. Similarly, recruiting Croats and those who professed Islamic faith by SS constituted an hidden agenda.
We will write a custom Essay on Why did conflicts in Yugoslavia lead to war in the 1990s? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand recruitment of Serbs into Gestapo as well as a volunteer group of Serbian Soldiers are act of insincerity (Judah, 1997). Failure of one or both of agreement signatories did instigate war in Yugoslavia. A typical example of an agreement that was not honored is the Karadordevo agreement between Tudman and Slobodan. Although a new Yugoslavia federal governance structure was in place, members especially from Slovenes, Serbs and Croats side reputedly argued to have autonomy and unitarist.
The previous reasons discussed did lead to one or more of the involved parties to be disappointed. As suggested by Lampe, 2000 the disappointment automatically resulted to a number of ethnic groups to officially cut ties with the other-secession. A clear and well documented war that erupted as a result of Secession is the Croatian war of independence. The war, begun after the Serbs living in Croatia were opposing the independence of Croatian. They immediately declared their secession from that state.
Additionally, the legal cutting of links between Slovenia from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the cause of what has been widely known as the Ten Day War. During this time, the government gave an order to the Yugoslav People’s Army to fully control borders leading to Slovenia. As a counter attack police together with Slovenian Territorial Defence blocked roads (Keegan, 1994). This led to a number of people losing their lives. Negotiation held resulted to stoppage of the conflict.
There has been growing undisputed evidence that most of the wars experienced in early 19th throughout 20th centaury are as a result of not adequately addressing the actual underlying issues that bring about conflicts between groups (Judah, 1997) .
The failure of the relevant parties to come on a round table and exhaustively tackle mostly the long-term causes of conflict such as unequal power distribution as well as national resources means that whatever efforts are made to reconstruct what has been damaged will be doomed (Little
Website Launch and Rebrand Essay college essay help near me
This proposal will address the need for rejuvenation of our company’s communication materials, namely, our website. The current website, launched in 2009, contains outdated content, a user panel that confuses site visitors, and as of yet has added relatively little value to the organization as a whole.
It is also text heavy and contains images which do not relate directly to the goals of the company, nor do they foster the mission of the company. The company’s “key offering” is not clearly apparent to the site visitor with no prior knowledge of our organization and its products (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1; Brand, 2009; Burson, 1987). Site visitors must comprehend our organization’s key offerings within the first few seconds of arriving at our web portal, and at the present time, this is not the case (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 1).
The current site does not leverage the organization’s assets and gifts, and as a result, potential high profile, highly desirable web traffic from prospective customers remains down. More troubling is the fact that our site has developed a reputation amongst other public relations professionals and communication specialists of being disorganized, bewildering, and difficult, which spreads through the network of desirable customers and potential clients and affects our bottom line.
The fact that peers view our website as unprofessional and ineffective reflects badly on our whole organization, namely, because it feeds two negative assumptions: first, that our company is technologically backward, and secondly, that our company does not respect the changed landscape the internet brings to public relations at large. (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21). The importance of a website as a communications tool has long been understood (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).
A decade ago, public relations theorists recognized that “web sites are used to keep stakeholders up-to-date, provide information to the media, gather information about publics, strengthen corporate identity, and a host of other public relations functions. Most Fortune 500 companies use Web sites for external communication, focusing on promoting the company image and enhancing public relations rather than for direct sales or other revenue generating activities” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 32).
However since that time the web has evolved to become the front line of public relations, and how a company looks online now significantly affects its appeal to potential clients, and hence its revenue generating capabilities. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state, “web sites, for better or worse, are the windows through which organizations are viewed” (p. 14).
As public relations professionals it is our job to communicate the face of the organization to the world. Increasingly, the first line of intersection between the face of our company and the public occurs online. Public relations professionals must present a technologically sound face; failure to do so actually results in lost traffic, and the inadequacy of our current communication tools spreads virally through the network of peers and customers alike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Senior management has given us the mandate to rebuild and relaunch the website and has asked us to focus on income generation, profile building, and to provide a forum for senior management to communicate with the world. Under the authority of the CEO, the public relations department henceforth contributes not only to the company’s bottom line but will help set and implement our company’s mission, goals, and sales targets via the rejuvenated website (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).
As Dozier (1995) logically deduced, the power of any public relations department “is seen in their contributions to strategic planning. Communicators cannot influence the strategic decisions of dominant coalitions unless the membership of that coalition values and supports communication. Influence, then, is circular. (Dozier, 1995: p. 88).
Public relations professionals in general now understand how vital a functional website is to the positive reflection of the company overall. “Practitioners believe a Web site symbolizes an organization’s competitiveness, enhances an organization’s image, and increases the practitioner’s personal sense of professionalism” (Hill and White, 2000: p. 31).
It is imperative that our organization present an attractive user friendly and inviting site that highlights our corporate philosophy and corporate responsibility. The bulk of our potential customer base is technology literate and as such, we need to become “technologically savvy in monitoring as well as using such media” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21).
Senior management understands that the internet cultivates a “participatory culture,” wherein potential clients are members of the “wide consume classes around the world…which pursue vast selections of content that race from one media system to another all over the world in different media economies – content that is available in nearly endless combinations and permutations of media channels and sources…Not only can consumers obtain information, they can reshape content created by organizations and they can create their own intellectual property….they are able to respond to subtle shifts in culture” (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).
These shifts occur quickly and turn on a dime, and create “dramatic shifts in consumer tastes and trends that are hard to monitor, let alone shape, by large organizations” such as ours (Johnston and Zawawi, 2009: p. 21; Jenkins, 2006).
According to Botan and Hazelton (2006) “businesses are expanding their marketing and sales strategies to the Internet [and] companies world wide are moving from a physical presence location to a virtual presence location. All together, this means that the interaction between an organization and its audience will increasingly be carried out through the use of Web sites” (p. 422). Competition is fierce and the pace of change is blistering, therefore we must move now lest the company be left behind.
We will write a custom Essay on Website Launch and Rebrand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plan to develop the new website’s content and structure will involve several steps, as outlined here. Firstly, the public relations department will liaise with a group of technologically minded stakeholders within the company from the IT department, senior management, and sales. Our goal will be to develop a practical website relaunch plan for the company.
The public relations manager will take on the responsibility of content manager, under the auspices and direction set forth by the CEO and senior management. Our group will work to illustrate the company’s major offerings as well as highlight our product strengths and mission visually with the larger goal of raising the online presence of the company and becoming more attractive to potential customers.
Top of the agenda is to create a site that generates buzz while promoting our company’s corporate philosophy, highlighting the strengths of our senior management team, especially the CEO, and promoting “two way communication” between our company and our consumer web audience (Mackey, 2009: p. 51).
Our website partnering strategy group will collect the necessary information from the company’s leaders to allow us to competently convey information about the company, its senior management, its professional expertise, and its formal strategic marketing directives.
The website partnering strategy group will also conduct an informal survey of competitor websites to ascertain the level of strategic transparency that our competitors convey in their online presence.
The website partnering strategy group will assess what content needs to be developed to champion the company’s marketing proposals. Emphasis will be on coalescing content on the website with other strategic corporate communications and external public relations tools.
The website partnering strategy group will liaise with the IT department for input on the any existing security concerns. The IT department will be on board to consult with the viability of the projected website rejuvenation plan and to help structure our implementation plan. The website rejuvenation plan will cover an 18 month window, unless otherwise directed by senior management and the CEO.
Once the proper content has been identified, the website partnering strategy group will formally compose the website rejuvenation plan document, with goals, growth projections, sales targets, and profile raising objectives in place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Website Launch and Rebrand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The website partnering strategy group will seek input from external parties such as trusted vendors to garner feedback on the website rejuvenation plan document and polish the plan if need be. At this time the website partnering strategy group will also delineate the time frames for the conclusion and launch, as well as and establish projected costs.
The website partnering strategy group will then formally meet once again with senior management to gain approval on the direction and strategy of the website rejuvenation and establish a set calendar of completion dates. The company’s senior leadership and the CEO have expressed a sense of urgency and their backing of the plan is expected to “grease the wheels”.
As Tice-Wallner (2010) states “website overhauls can cost up to a $100,000 in technical, graphic design and marketing support, [therefore] any disconnect between the work of the group and the direction set by firm leadership can be costly and scuttle success (p. 2).
Once senior management has approved budget and strategy, the website partnering strategy group will then officially kick off the website rejuvenation plan.
The website partnering strategy group will create information collection protocols to facilitate easy tracking of the success of the website rejuvenation plan. This entail sustained communications between all stakeholders – senior management, the CEO, sales, marketing, and the IT department.
Along the way the plan will be continually assessed in relation to senior management goals and priorities, and the website partnering strategy group will produce all required alterations to the plan as they occur. Senior management and the CEO will be kept aware of the plan’s advancement through weekly meetings with the public relations manager.
The website partnering strategy group promotional plan involves primarily working to make the site attractive to media, who will indirectly promote the site through viral networking. Once a prototype of the new site has been created, the website partnering strategy group’s first priority will be to ensure that the site is technically sound. As Kent and Taylor (2003) state:
The speed at which your site loads, and the quality of the homepage are also important. How long does your Web site take to load? From a networked computer, most Web sites load in a matter of seconds. However, more than half of all Americans access the Web from home. And a majority of those connections will still be through slow modems.
Given this dynamic, organizations that want to attract media professionals and encourage them to devote some time to exploring their site need to employ a few simple principles. First, put all important information (or links to this information) on the first page (links to how to contact the organization, how to order products, how to invest, etc.) Second, create lean pages that load fast and are easy to navigate (p. 15).
As intimated at the outset of this document, the public relations department has received feedback that our visitors to our present site do not immediately understand what our company markets or what or offering is. We require an immediately recognizable “saleable message” that site visitors can absorb within the first few seconds of arriving at our site (Tice-Wallner, 2010: p. 2).
A major focus of the website partnering strategy group’s promotional plan will be to include a specific section of the first page for the media, one that contains clear directives for media visitors, given that a successful relaunch depends heavily on a positive response from journalists who cover the business beat (Kent and Taylor, 2003: p. 16).
The public relations department’s existing relations with the members of the business media provide us with insight that some media find our existing site overly complex – “byzantine” in the words of one journalist – and that some have essentially stopped visiting our site as a result.
Others have admitted that they are not immediately aware of the media relations link when they arrive at the present site. As Kent and Taylor (2003) have shown, “one of the first icons to load on your site should be the link that tells the media folks where to go for information specific to their needs; don’t hide media links behind other links or in tiny text at the bottom of the page.
You should create a specific section of your Web site for the media. Some organizations call this space the “Press Room,” or “Journalists.” It is important that this link be prominent, perhaps on the upper left side of the homepage…so that media representatives do not have to hunt around to find it” (p. 16).
The website partnering strategy group also will place special attention on maintaining the freshness and viability of the site. As Tice-Wallner (2010) points out, companies often “make big investments in their websites, and then fail to update them or utilize the many enhancements created by the developer to ensure that messages get out to clients and potential clients on a timely basis” (p. 2). This was the mistake we made in our earlier site when we did not craft an action to suit our message.
Also, the website partnering strategy group will pay extra mind to base all of our decisions on our marketing strategy, less so than on the ideas put forth by the web developer. As public relations professionals, it is our job to tell the world about our company and ensure that our key messages are received. The website partnering strategy group remains confident that with the help of senior management and our many talented stakeholders we will be able to launch a website that does our company proud.
References Botan, C.H. and Hazelton, V. (2006) Public relations theory II. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Brand, J. (2009) Public relations: an overview. In: J. Johnston and C. Zawawi (eds) Public Relations Theory and Practice. Crows Nest, Australia, Allen
Incident Command System on Katrina Disaster Research Paper essay help: essay help
Source and Background of the problem The occurrence of hurricane Katrina came one year after the Department of Homeland Defense (DHS) had already created an emergency response plan following a series of national disasters that had caused havoc in United States. For instance, one unfortunate incidence that left the country in a state of desperation was the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the twin towers, the Pentagon building and the World Trade Center.
In fact, the creation of the National Response plan was aimed at setting the right platform for dealing with emergency disasters in future, whether artificial or natural catastrophes. Nonetheless, the response level of hurricane Katrina was deemed as a big failure as documented in myriad of Congressional reports released later.
For example, a report by the House Select Committee in 2006 summarized the response to the hurricane as having lacked initiative right from the state to federal government level. Hurricane Katrina is one of the worst natural disasters ever witnessed in the history of United States owing to heavy loss in life and property.
A White House report on the response to the hurricane pointed a blaming finger on all levels of the government since there was lack of coordination. Another report by the Senate noted that the victims suffered for a longer period than necessary due to delay. The report confirmed that “these failures were not just conspicuous; they were pervasive” (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, 2006).
Similar to all the prior natural calamities that have ever struck US, early warning signs were released as part of the initial plans to tackle the natural disaster. Unfortunately, the warnings were not heeded by government officials. These officials failed to take sufficient action on the forthcoming disaster.
In addition, Levees had already been built in New Orleans as part of protecting the area against such disasters. However, these structures were not strong enough to wither the strong storm. Moreover, the government had already put in place critical elements of the National Response Plan although the execution of the very elements delayed.
On the other hand, the military are usually ready to deal with natural disasters by assisting in the evacuation process. Further, there were voluntary agencies as well as non-governmental organisations that offered invaluable help in responding to the disaster and recovery process (Brunsma, Overfelt
Managing Innovation Essay essay help free
Innovation can be referred to as the “incorporation of new ideas or new methods used in business with the intention of winning customer loyalty” (Klein). Innovation is an important process in any company since it helps in evaluating the performance the firm (Ettlie 74). For any company to survive in a competitive market, it must have effective strategic management policies. This can be achieved by focusing on innovation within the firm.
Managing innovation enables managers to gain the knowledge that will enable them to manage their businesses in a given business environment. The knowledge gained through effective management of innovation facilitates the development of products that meet the expectations of the clients. The level of competition in the modern market is very high (Adam 73). Thus firms should be in a position to identify and take advantage of the weaknesses of their competitors.
One of the most important factors to consider when analyzing the level of competition in the market is the level of innovation. All firms need to incorporate new ideas in their operations in order to survive in the competitive market. This is because the level of technology changes everyday and new products are brought into the market on a daily basis. Companies that intend to have the best reputation in the market must upgrade their level of innovation (Adam 82).
Innovation is a process of “thought change since its main intention is to come up with new ideas” (Adam 87) that can be implemented in the market. There are several types of innovation. However, they all focus on the development of the organization through new ideas and strategies (Adam 91). Innovation can be disruptive or sustaining (Adam 97). When analyzing the types of innovation, much emphasis is usually put on disruptive innovation since it is the most important as far as business is concerned.
Innovation is a long process that occurs in stages or phases within the organization. For example, the development of a new product begins with the thought process. This is followed by the manufacture of the product and ends with the marketing of the product. The process of innovation thus begins with the thought process. This involves developing a vision of what is to be achieved.
Innovation is therefore considered to be “the incremental or radical changes that take place in an organization” (Bessant 67). The changes relate to the manner in which decisions are made, the production of goods and services and the distribution process. The advancement in technology focuses on improving all aspects of a business in the modern economy through innovation (Klein 101). According to Pixar seminars, managing innovation is a very important process since it facilitates growth and resilience.
The second stage of managing innovation is more advanced and involves the implementation of the new ideas (Harvey 65). Thus at this stage the new ideas are “transformed into actions that are important for the survival of a firm in the competitive market” (Ranchhod 87). At the implementation stage, the management must provide the necessary resources. This is because lack of adequate resources can undermine the firm’s ability to realize its innovation objectives (Ettlie 89).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the financial resources, the firm must invest in appropriate technology that will help in the implementation of the innovation plan (Ettlie 90). This can be achieved through an assessment program that aims at identifying the technical weaknesses in the organization. Outdated technologies should therefore be replaced with new ones. Besides, there should be on-the-job training programs that aim at improving the competence of the employees.
Entrepreneurs who focus on innovation in their businesses are able to increase their rate of production in their respective industries. The increase in production is attributed to the high level of efficiency, cost saving and creativity that is associated with innovation within an organization (Bessant 103).
Managing innovation might only be possible if the managers in a given firm have the skills and knowledge that enables them to inspire their employees to be initiative. This means that the process of managing innovation is not only the responsibility of the management team. The process must bring together all members of the organization and the potential clients (Harvey 78). The perspectives of all the concerned parties should be considered.
Due to the large number of employees within an organization, the suggestions concerning the expected changes will definitely vary or even contradict each other. Thus the organization must develop an evaluation mechanism that will be used to vet the ideas presented by all individuals who are involved in the innovation process. Only the best ideas should be chosen and implemented by the organization (Bessant 114). It is not possible to implement all ideas due to lack of sufficient resources.
A company is considered to be the pioneer of innovation if it succeeds in overhauling its production and distribution processes ahead of other firms in the industry. This will enable the firm to improve its competitiveness in the industry (Ranchhod 99). Consequently, the firm’s revenue will increase as it increases its productivity and market share.
However, with time other firms in the industry will begin to restructure their operations in order to remain competitive. As firms reposition themselves in the industry, the competition in the market becomes more intense. Thus, firms will begin to focus on product differentiation with the aim of positioning themselves as the best in the market.
The most important tool in managing innovation is research and development. The decisions made at each and every stage of managing innovation must be supported by adequate and relevant research. Engaging in research at every stage of managing innovation will help in making the right decisions that will help the organization to achieve its objectives (Ettlie 100).
We will write a custom Essay on Managing Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reviewing research findings on particular issues concerning innovation can help in solving a dilemma. Decisions that are based on facts are likely to be more effective and will help the organization to achieve its objectives.
Works Cited Adam, Jolly. Innovation: harnessing creativity for business growth. New York: Kogan Page, 2003. Print.
Bessant, John. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Print.
Ettlie, John. Managing Innovation: new technology, new products, and new services in a global economy. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.Print.
Harvey, Dershin. “A framework for managing innovation.” International Journal of Business Innovation and Research 4 (2010): 598-613.
Klein, Stefan. Managing dynamic networks: organizational perspectives of technology enabled inter-firm. Frankfourt: Birkhauser Publication, 2006. Print.
Ranchhod, Ashok. Marketing Strategies: A Contemporary Approach. New York: Prince Hall, 2007.Print.
Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach
Abstract Arab music and cinema have gone through shifts of rapid progressional changes particularly because of the influence of modernity. Stemming from a purely religious framework, the two art forms have made radical turns in their development in order to compete effectively with other musical and film developers.
With most of the Western artistes tending to portray the Arabic culture, the Arab musicians and film makers have in recent days come out strongly to challenge such opinions through their works. This project seeks to analyze the development in both Arabic music and cinema. To this end the research shall cover all elements of progress covered in both the historical development of the two art forms as well as highlight on the modern day challenges being faced by the artistes in the field.
Historical background Music has played a fundamental role in the development of the Arabic culture since time immemorial. The works of anthropologists in various Arabic regions have unearthed different music instruments collected from both religious and secular environments, revealing that music has definitely been part of many Arabic rituals (Barakat 206-238).
Unfortunately, from research conducted by various scholars in the field it has been revealed that most of the traditional forms of Arabic music did not have a well laid down system of notation. As such, most of the musical transference only happened through a generational inheritance in which children learn from their parents. Arab music can easily be traced back to the 3rd Century
With the entry of modernity and civilization, Arabic music has had to borrow some elements from other cultures, a factor which has led to the development of such genres as Arab pop and Arab rock. The commercial prospects of the music industry have seen various individuals such as Ilham Al Madfai, Fairouz, and Magda El Roum develop music that appeals to the younger generation.
They have learnt to package their products professionally including going the extra mile of producing music videos to further attract more audiences. However, even with all the developments going on in the trade, modern day musicians still play allegiance to the masters of Arabic music including Umm Kulthum and Mohamed Al- Qasabji.
Even though some musicians have chosen to stick with traditional Arabic melodies, the influence of Western conventions has necessitated the development of pop cultures which are indicated by the development of competitive forms of ranking popular hip and urban music (Lughod 135-161).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, these changes have not been without controversy as some of the developing younger-generations musicians have from time to time been accused of being negative influences to their peers. Syrian musician Abu Khalil Al-Qabani, for instance had to go on self imposed exile to Egypt to avoid falling victim to extremists. In Cairo, he established the first genuine Arabic music orchestra with his work receiving acclaim from all sectors of the music society.
Like music, Arab cinema has gone through intense evolution (Boyd 3-11). Since the production of the first Arabic film in the 1930s, various genres and aesthetic elements of production have been developed which weave into the elements of literacy, story telling and the development of music.
Most of the Arabic films have been developed in Egypt though some of the other Arabic states have greatly contributed to the development of the art form. Hollywood has had its influence in Arabic cinema particularly touching on the writing and production methods. Like with all other modern day forms of art, cinema has been heavily influenced by Western politics particularly when it comes to censorship and the usage of cinema as agent of resistance.
However, unlike Hollywood, Arabic cinema tries to portray the culture in positive light, by covering some of the broad aspects of social issues plaguing the people. In this regard, the films do not portray Arabs as nothing more than terrorists but as human beings who undergo normal everyday strife (Wild 200-209).
Theoretical thesis work/ Technical approach The role of images to mould people’s thought processes through alteration of their states of mind will be analyzed based on secondary data. Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be relevance to the research topic and the year of publication.
Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries were visited to access the data. Some of the online databases that were accessed include Ebsco, Questia, Emerald and Science Direct among others. This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field.
Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay. Information from the books will serve to provide explanation as regards to the psychiatric effects of images and graphical representations. This is very vital information that will make the research appeal to both professionals and the general public.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Arab Music and Arab Cinema: Historical Development and the Role of Western Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the commonly applied functionalities of the stock market. Empirical data will also be collected from various cultural and scientific studies, with numbers and figures used to illustrate the evolutionary process of Arabic music and cinema.
In such a practical-based field, the strength lies in the figures and numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by adequate exemplification.
Works Cited Barakat, Halim. “Creative Expression” in The Arab World: society, culture, and state. Ed. Halim Barakat. Berkeley: University of California press, 1993. 206-238. Print.
Boyd, Douglas. “Developments, trends, constraints” from Broadcasting in The Arab world: a survey of the electronic media in the middle east. Ed. Douglas Boyd. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1999, 3-11. Print.
Lughod, abu Lila. Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt. Cairo: The American University of Cairo press
Management Tools and Technique Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Decisions form a critical part of management in an organization. Both individuals and organizations often make decisions on particular issues. Each decision that is taken by an individual or an organization is associated with some consequences. The impacts of a decision can be positive or negative.
Consequently, it is important to evaluate the various available options in order to arrive at the best decision. This calls for an effective and efficient decision-making tool or technique. The use of a reliable decision-making tool enables policy makers to avoid failures and conserve scares resources (Haan
“The little store” Essay college admissions essay help
“The little store” is a short story written by Eudora Welty who was born and brought up in Jackson, Mississippi. This is a small town where Eudora finds materials to include in her stories through observation and imagination (Welty 1). She lived with her family and enjoyed living in this small town because it seemed exciting to her since she was a child. All the activities going on in the little store amuses her and she would give anything to visit the store as many times as possible.
Eudora grew up in state capitol of Mississippi where her mother kept a little pasture for their only cow, which produced their daily milk. Her mother was a homemaker and did all her home chores but never visited the grocery. Most of their groceries were delivered to the doorstep upon making an order and in case of emergencies, Eudora would always ran the errand to the little store. The store was owned by Mr. Sessions who together with his family managed it (Welty 2).
It was one of the groceries in the area that recorded high sales revenue on a daily basis due to the frequent visits made by children to get groceries for their families. Most children along that street knew the store as they knew their homes because it provided a good site for them to skip, play jacks, cycle, and even skate. It was more than a grocery; though it was small, there were a lot of activities that were taking place.
Eudora remembers the little store as a place where she spent most of her time during her childhood. She had played with her friends and brothers in the street near the store until darkness came. She even thought that the little store was made for children because she had never seen a grown up near it and would not have imagined that the owner’s family lived in the same building.
She was actually surprised the moment she saw Mr. Season’s family in the building because according to her, they did not look like a family because they never did things together nor did they eat from the same table. Near the little store, there were other houses, some with single occupants while in others lived family members, for instance Eudora’s family. In one house lived the principle of Eudora’s grade school even during the vocation, which got Eudora scared.
Near the down corner lived a little boy by the name Lindsey where a big chinaberry tree titled forward and backward. Eudora was a frequent visitor to the chinaberry with her skates waiting for the berries to fall and roll so as she could collect as many berries as possible before Lindsey caught up with her. However, she was not that fortunate because she and the little boy suffered from a flu epidemic at the same time that might have been caused by the berries.
The little store was in a world that made any child feel ineradicable. Every child dreamt of being in that area, which formed part of their daily lives. Although it was in the midst of family houses, “it alone hadn’t any yard in front, any tree or flowerbed. It was a plain frame building covered over with brick” (Welty 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its inside was incomprehensible with all lots of smells coming out of it. This may be one of the reasons why the Eudora’s mother preferred to make orders outside the street and only sent her daughter to the store when she run out of stock. Apart from the smells, dust was all over; on the floor, shelves, and on most of the products.
To make it worse, the shelves were not properly arranged, Eudora notes that, “shelves climbed to high reach all the way around, set out not too much of any one thing but a lot of things” (Welty 4). It was easy to forget what one had gone to buy because he had to search from all the shelves.
To make sure that the children came back to the store, Mr. Sessions kept standing scales by the door where the children could check their weight at every visit to the store. He could even memorize what each weighed last time and tell them how much they had gained.
In this essay, I have attempted to give a general overview of the activities and the condition of the little store which contracts with the way of life of many families in Jackson. The little store is an example of what really goes on in many streets in which there live different kinds of people with different perceptions about life.
Even though the store was small and disorganized, it still served the purpose it had been set for although many adults preferred to send children to the store rather than go to it because of its condition. Even the family that lived in the store’s premises seemed to live their own life and they were never seen together.
Work Cited Welty, Eudora. Modern Nonfiction; “The little store”.
Writing on women Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The Revolt of “Mother” by Mary E. Wilkins tells the story of a woman who defies tradition and rebels against her husband. The protagonist Sarah Penn decides to take action and provide a new house for her family after waiting for forty years for her husband to do so without success. She does this by moving her family into the new barn her husband had made for his cows and a new horse. When he returns home and finds his family in the new barn, he complies and agrees to make it a proper house.
The author of the story, Mary E.Wilkins lived during a time in history when patriarchy was so strong and the women submitted to their domineering husbands silently. The author seems to have been highlighting the struggles of women in a male dominated society. Through her works, she shows that women could overcome the dominance if only they took decisive action.
Thus, Wilkinson and the female protagonists in her stories fight against patriarchy. For instance, Elrod (1997) urges that Wilkinson’s story reveal the odds that women had to contend with in New England’s religion and the possibilities of emancipation.
The women being patient bring about the possibility of freedom and Sarah Penn had to wait for forty years before she got a new house (Tritt, 2004). The woman in her story goes against the tradition of the time and triumphs by challenging it and gaining a new self-identity. Thus, Wilkins was a domestic writer who was willing to critic the tradition in her society that clearly oppressed the women.
Wilkins lived in an era, which considered religion very important. She underwent many teachings in religion and thus she uses her knowledge of religion to speak to her audience using biblical illusions. In the story, Sara Penn alludes to the biblical Sara, the wife of Abraham. Sara was a woman to reckon with because she spoke her mind out to her husband for instance telling him to lie with her maid Hagai to bear him a son, as she was barren at that time.
Later she tells him to send Hagai and her son away after God and been merciful to her and she gave birth to Isaac. These actions changed the lives of the next generations just as Sarah Penn’s did. Sarah Penn changed her family’s living conditions as well as her son’s view of women. For example when Adoniram her husband returned from his trip, his son Sammy tells him that they had moved into the barn to live there.
His attitude seems to have changed from the Sammy we met earlier who was so similar to his father that he could not tell his mother or sister about the plan to build a new barn yet he had known for three months. Therefore, through Sarah Penn, Wilkins shows us a woman who confronts male dominance head on and through an unorthodox behavior and achieves independence (Westbrook, 1988).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author uses this story to address the issue of women oppression that was rife at her time (Brand, 1977). The men oppressed the women by silencing them or failing to communicate with them like Adoniram did with his wife whenever he was asked a question he would not speak.
Adoniram’s behavior of putting animals before the welfare of his family was a wanting behavior that had to be confronted because a man is supposed to put his family before all else. Therefore, Wilkins using her story The Revolt of “Mother” addressed the issues facing women in the nineteenth century and showed that there was hope for the women just as Adoniram had been defeated so would patriarchy.
Reference List Brand, A.G. (1977). Mary Wilkins Freeman: Misanthropy as Propaganda. The New England Quarterly, 50, 83-100.
Elrod, E. R. (1997). Rebellion, Restraint, and New England Religion: The Ambivalent Feminism of Mary Wilkins Freeman:’ Literary Calvinism and Nineteenth-Century American Woman Authors. Michael Schuldiner (E.d). Lewiston, NY: Mellen.
Tritt, M. (2004). Freeman’s The Revolt of Mother. The Explicator, 62, 209-12.
Westbrook, P.D. (1988). Mary Wilkins Freeman. Boston: Twayne.
United Nations Peacekeeping operation in Northern Africa Essay cheap essay help
Proposed action: Any course of action taken to tackle the developments in this war torn Northern Africa country have to be based on the United Nation’s security mandate in peacekeeping operation within the country.
Every so often, these Security Council’s mandates are created within a general attitude that is usually neutral, consequently making a contradiction that has the possibility of destabilizing UN operations en bloc. In the case of this scenario presented, where the situation is volatile and deteriorating very fast, the only action left to take is to comply with the military faction leader’s orders to evacuate in the next 48 hours.
Despite the huge population of refuges, very few personnel to carry out the evacuation, and no sign of help coming from other sources, the UN peacekeeping force commander is left with no choice but to evacuate since the faction leader is known for his brutality in addition, buying of time through negotiations cannot provide for a solution to the issue. (Klinger, 2005)
This new turn of events will now change the initial mandate of the peacekeeping force, which was to protect displaced persons and assist in the safe return to their homes; support in demobilization of combatants after a peace treaty is agreed upon and signed by all warring parties.
The start of this war ten years ago has seen more displaced persons increasing such that the peacekeeping force cannot handle. As the commander, try to seek for help since the resources at hand are not able to handle the huge operation and the UN force’s mandate is not to engage in war but promote peace.
However, at the same time it is important to try and start of the evacuation so as to protect the people as their safety is vital, and avoid provoking the faction leader (Pushkina, 2006). Also as an added measure, reopen negotiation channels and try to buy some time to fully evacuate everyone to safety (Goulding, 2001; Bellamy