Who Is Devi, Hindu Goddess? Essay Essay Help

Devi is literally considered to be a great goddess found in Great India and also known to have many guises. She has a feminine divinity. Most people regard her as a gentle mother who is tender and approachable. She is perceived as the mother of the universe. Moreover, she performs cosmic roles such as destroying all evils that might befall among the Indians and specifically those who worship her.

She can also perform the role of dissolving the world. The Goddess is also known as Jaganmata though she is worshipped by several other names. It is imperative to note that such names are meant to reflect on the culture and legends of the Indian societies. In this case, these names are mythical to some extent and people use them to demonstrate their loyalty to the goddess.

Interestingly, Devi is one being and yet many especially in terms of her functions. This gives an implication that the goddess takes different forms in which she manifests herself to be worshipped. The goddess is treated with utmost importance especially among the Hindu, Jainists and Budhists. Nonetheless, different worshippers perceive her uniquely due to differences in religion, beliefs, traditions and functions.

That notwithstanding, it is worth to note that individuals who worship Devi use songs and poems as means of worshipping her. The dissimilar forms which the goddess uses to manifest herself to the people are signs of her divinity. Besides, the reason why she takes numerous forms is mainly to enable her perform numerous functions. Needless to say, this feature is meant to portray her valor, beauty and might.

For instance, most of the times during worship, she manifests herself as benign and gentle. In other instances, she portrays herself as vicious and vibrant. Nevertheless, in all the forms which she manifests herself, they are all vital and useful to the worshippers. Furthermore, all the forms of manifestations have been celebrated through a universal worship in India.

Considering the aspect of function, it is arguable that Devi has about six roles which she plays in different circumstances. For example, she manifests herself as a cosmic force when destroying demonic powers that devour the world. By so doing, she is able to create balance, annihilate and reform the universe again.

She can also take a day in from that is gentle and gracious especially when she wants to provide people with wealth, fortune or success. Moreover, the goddess takes the form of a heroine whenever she wants to inspire women on earth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She is also concerned with local affairs and the welfare of the people and thus manifests herself as a local protector. She has the ability to appear as semi divine in order to portray her fertility. Having been born on earth, she takes the form of woman saint to portray her spirituality.

It is also notable that all these forms have been represented through visual arts such as use of paintings, color and pictures. The visual representations are meant to make the goddess striking and appealing to the worshippers. Moreover, paintings and use of certain colors portrays her beauty, might and heroism.

The most interesting visual representation is the one known as Lakshmi whereby the goddess is depicted standing wearing clothes of different colors that appear very bight such as red and golden yellow. In her hands, she holds two red flowers and the basement of the painting on her feet are decorated with flowers.

The colors and the paintings appear attractive and quite appealing to look at. The choice of colors is a manifestation of the beauty in her feminism character. Moreover, they convey the impression of might to provide for the devotees.

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Poor Interoffice Communication Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Understanding interoffice communication

The problem with interoffice communication

Problems caused by poor interoffice communication

Possible solutions

Recommendation

Conclusion

References

Introduction Communication is one of the key aspects that are of great significance in any organization. It refers to the continuous process through which an individual or group conveys information to a second party-recipient. According to Hargie and Dickson, communication refers to the process of sharing information, feelings and meanings through the exchange of both verbal and non-verbal messages (2004, p. 13).

The information can be an idea, thought, data, instructions or even feelings. It is a rather complex process thus requires utmost attention from all the parties involved. Proper communication acts as a strategic resource that enhances not only the maintenance but also the increment of performance (Barrack, 1988, p. 102).

When an organization lacks proper communication, many problems arise. This paper details the problem with poor interoffice communication; gives the problems caused by the same; provides possible solutions for the problems that arise from the phenomenon and gives recommendations for improving interoffice communication.

Understanding interoffice communication For proper co-ordination and management, most organizations have put in place different offices. Each office has its own responsibility as far as the operation of the organization is concerned. Communication is thus a very important aspect that links the various offices within the organization together.

Developing a community that every employee feels he is part of it enhances the exploitation of the full potential of the employees, which in turn increases their productivity (Berko et al., 2010, p. 54).Therefore, the overall performance of any organization depends on the effectiveness of communication between the various offices.

Interoffice communication can assume different categories. It can be communication between equal status (title) holders within the hierarchy of a given organization. Communication also occurs between employees and their superiors and vice versa.

The communication between superiors and their subordinates may occur in the form of memos, bulletins, as well as direct orders and statements. Other organizations also encourage informal communication between the various offices to enhance a friendly working environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efficient communication is essential to enhance effective co-ordination of the activities within an organization. It requires the transmission of a clear and understandable message from one individual/office to another. The recipient of the message has to listen. According to Bente, listening refers to one’s availability for others as well as what they have to say (2009, p. 592).

Feedback is an important aspect as far as efficient communication is concerned since it ensures a good reception of the message and understanding of the parties involved. This calls for everyone within an organization to be able to transmit a concrete and timely feedback (Mayer, 2010, p. 8). However, research has shown that efficient interoffice communication is yet to be materialized in many organizations.

The problem with interoffice communication Different individuals have different complex communication techniques, which makes interoffice communication a complex process. Each individual has his/her own communication codes, which can be words, movements, facial expressions and feelings among others. Every person relies on a given combination of the codes to pass information that are unique to their personality.

Behavioral scientists argue that nearly three-quarters of the population are distinct in communication mannerisms from any individual (Bolton R.

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Sony’s Evolving Human Resource Challenges Case Study custom essay help

Table of Contents New Orientation in Staffing

Managing Talent in the Company

Sony’s Training Efforts

Labor Relation Problems

Sony’s Corporate Social Responsibility

Works Cited

New Orientation in Staffing Sony relies on an ethnocentric orientation in staffing. The staffing orientation requires that managers from headquarters hold key organizational positions in new marketplaces. By employing individuals to work in places they understand better, Sony will empower the employees accordingly based on the organizational culture practiced in the specific country of doing business.

When recruiting individual for foreign operations, the company should employ competent individuals who understand the region better (Abraham 28). This will make it easier to cope with the culture of the people. Proper training and mentoring programs to the managers will ensure they are prepared for the international assignments.

Managing Talent in the Company The presented analysis shows that Sony is facing challenges in finding the best talent for its organizational operations in Europe and China. If the company is to have an adequate pool of international talent and managers, the first approach is to embrace the issue of diversity.

The company should recruit managers from different backgrounds with knowledge and proper expertise towards management in the business (Abraham 28). The managers should also be familiar with the working environment and region where the business will operate.

This is because different cultures have varied cultural mindsets and organizational behavior. The idea entails promoting productivity and ensuring the greatest gains from the business. The company should also promote diversity in the workplace. This is an important to promote a global mindset thereby improve performance.

Sony’s Training Efforts Sony’s training efforts is effective as applied currently. The company pursues programs to train its recruits and counsels them to do whatever they are passionate about and improve their talent. The company also offers an online training system. However, in light of the company’s multi-country operations, the company can take some steps to improve the training process. The first step is recruiting a diverse workforce.

A training program based on the expected performance and the unique knowledge of the recruits in needed. The other step involves mentoring and leading the employees to improve their talent (Abraham 27). Finally, the company’s 2-year eight-module training program covers all aspects of Sony’s business and operations. The program should train the employees about their specific works and departments they are working in.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Labor Relation Problems In Indonesia, Sony faced some labor unrest thus affecting its output. In Britain and Mexico, similar cases of labor unrest and issues have been faced and the reason there is need to address them. If the management is to improve these labor relations, the first thing is to improve the working conditions of the employees and offer them good working environment.

This will improve the labor relations in the company. A proper human resource team should address the specific problems and issues faced by the workers (Abraham 28). The top management should design a standardized workplace norms catering for the needs and expectations of the employees. There should also be a long-term strategy to employ the required number of workers to avoid future lay-offs.

Sony’s Corporate Social Responsibility The current integrity approach employed by Sony to maintain and retain a universal workplace standard is a good idea. The best thing for the company is to standardize its workplace conditions to create the best working environment internationally. This will result in equal opportunities for all employees and offer them a superior working condition.

While this is something acknowledgeable and effective, the company can consider doing more like promoting environment conservation programs, fighting poverty, and providing essential needs to individuals in the developing nations (Abraham 28).

The company should improve the working conditions in the emerging markets. This will make the company an industrial leader because it will manage its operations properly and achieve the greatest gains.

Works Cited Abraham, Susan. Development of Employee Engagement Programme on the Basis of Employee Satisfaction Survey. Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance and Marketing, 2012; 4(1), 27-37. Print.

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Fast Food Industry in the US Essay best essay help: best essay help

According to studies conducted in the last 30 years, America continues to lead other countries in the consumption of fast food. Indeed, it is no secret that the country has the largest industry in the world offering fast food to people in over 120 countries (Burstein 34). In the U.S., it is estimated that an average person eats more than three meals from a fast food joint in one week.

Most people rely on fast food because of the positive benefits associated with their consumption. However, rarely will people pause to reflect on the negative effects of eating such meals.

Although the fast food industry has numerous benefits to individuals and the economy, it has nonetheless several challenges that need urgent attention. This paper will discuss the fast food industry in the US with an emphasis on the positive as well as the negative impacts it has on American economy.

The fast food industry has placed America on the world map. The talk about burgers, hotdogs has become the iconic chat of the American culture. Indeed, it has made popular the lifestyle of America in the midst of other nations. In addition, the industry has been of immense benefit to the U.S economy.

According to Schlosser, “Americans now spend more money on fast food than on higher education, personal computers, computer software, or new cars” (Schlosser 3). The industry had improved a great deal compared to what it was in 1945, when “cars, education, and farming were the largest sectors of the economy” (Schlosser 4). It is estimated that the fast food sector has created not less than 3.5 million jobs for American citizens.

The fast food industry has transformed towns, from small ones to busy cities. For example, the growth of Anaheim, from a small town to a huge and busy city, has been attributed to the advent of fast food. Another benefit of the industry is that it has rejuvenated competition within itself. Ray Kroc referred top the fast food industry as “the American way of survival of the fittest” (Schlosser 37).

This shows that, at its peak, the industry has created intense rivalry. This spirit of competition has been healthy for the American economy in that it has produced massive employment. In addition, it has helped several businesses to flourish with little risks (Burstein 37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the economic effects of the fast food industry, there are also numerous challenges that are prevalent in this sector. It has pushed the desire for more production of wheat as well as organic food products. The growth of companies such as ConAgra and IBP, have left many farmers jobless. From an historical background, it is well known that farmers play a key role in food security.

However, the growing number of agricultural companies has done away with the habitual notion of the village farmer and his small farm. From this perspective, it is clear that the fast food industry is slowly changing the American way of life (Jakle and Sculle 22).

The American culture has become a lazy one. Currently, many expectations are placed on households. This pushes people to spend long hours in their places of work or in family or other related commitments, all, which require peoples’ attention. Based on such demands of modern-day life, many people consider fast food convenient (Wilk, 12).

As a result, people are now living a lifestyle that can be christened as “a convenience culture” (Mooij and Mooij 324). Indeed, it is a fact that convenience has become the driving force behind many decisions. Therefore, as households spend more time on business or family related activities, fast food becomes an option as it saves time and energy.

However, the idea of convenience is diminished by the lazy culture that has infiltrated the American people. The time one takes to prepare a meal can contribute to exercising ones muscles. Nowadays, some people even purchase their meals from inside their cars (Lankford 8).

Another significant observation on fast food is that it has seen a dramatic increase in obesity cases. Foods such as burgers have high levels of fat. In addition, soft drinks that accompany fast food meals are saturated with sugar. These are taken in abundance in American society, and are the leading causes of obesity. Obesity is the newest killer threat in America, as it comes along with other health complications.

In conclusion, the fast food industry has been growing at a very fast rate in the American society. Many people cite convenience as a reason why they prefer fast food to traditional ones. As highlighted above, the negative effects of these foods are adverse. An obese nation is a lazy nation. Children are becoming obese at a very tender age, increasing chances of contracting diseases such as heat attack and diabetes.

We will write a custom Essay on Fast Food Industry in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economic consequences of treating these diseases cannot be empathized. As discussed above, the industry is a key player in stimulating the economy.

However, it is also important to question the rationale of earning a decent salary, while at the same time sending people to graves at a very young age due to diseases that can be avoided. It is important that people are educated on the need to prepare their meals and take balanced diet. Education is the key to a healthy living, and this can mitigate the negative effects from this industry.

Works Cited Burstein, John. Fast Food: Slowing Us All Down. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2008. Print.

Jakle, John and Sculle Keith. Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2007. Print.

Lankford, Ronnie. Junk Food. Michigan: Gale, 2010. Print.

Mooij, Marieke and Mooij, K. Marieke. Consumer Behavior and Culture: consequences for global marketing. New York: SAGE. Print.

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006. Print.

Wilk, R. Richard. Fast Food/slow Food: the cultural economy of the global food system. New York: Rowman Altamira., 2009. Print.

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Significance of Anti-Federalist Papers Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

The anti-federalist papers of 1787 remain to be some of the most fundamental studies carried out with the sole aim of bringing out the shortcomings of the constitution that was about to be ratified. Though the papers were written by the authors who wanted to hide their identities, they did achieve some fundamental goals that led to the improvement of the constitution that was in the process of development.

Although the authors may have appeared retrogressive as they were opposed to the new constitution, it is important to acknowledge that their criticism led to identification of the major weaknesses in the document that was to be ratified to become the governing bench of the United States of America (Putz, 2009, P. 87).

According to Brutus, the author of anti-federalist paper number eighty four and many others, the constitution lacked the foresight and thus failed to take into account the future generations (Dougherty, 2009, P. 54).

Brutus was of the idea that if the American society were to ratify a constitution that would provide a harmonious living for the generations to come, there would be no need to ensure that the rights of the individuals are protected by the constitution.

The document to be ratified failed to recognize that people in a natural setting were always after their own benefit, thus posing a great danger to the others as one’s pursuit of pleasure may conflict with the other’s intentions.

Brutus envisaged that if there were no other forces in place to govern the men, then the weaker mortals would be disadvantaged by the stronger ones. Thus, according to the anti-federalist paper on human rights, the constitution was to recognize that future generations needed to be protected from the possible abuse due to breaches in the main law.

From the analysis of the assertions contained in the paper number eighty four, it is clear that the constitution that was in the process of being ratification contained some serious flows, and thus, it required attention to be paid to the areas of concern.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it is important to note that the anti-federalist paper served as an alternative voice by helping to pinpoint spheres that needed to be rectified to ensure that the constitution that was in the process of becoming the law had the capacity to protect the interest of all the subjects (Lim, 2011, pp. 76-77).

The papers managed to introduce the new fundamental changes into the constitution even though some of them were instituted after the constitution had been ratified. For example, the institution of the bill of rights which addressed the concerns that were raised by Brutus in his anti-federalist paper number eighty four was approved after the constitution had been adopted.

Apart from the role of acting as the alternative voice for the proponents of the new constitution, the papers represented an independent view that probably was not affected by the euphoria of having a new constitution in place.

According to Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, (2005, P. 152), the anti-federalist papers showed that the constitution that was in the process of development required a serious consideration to make sure that it effectively manages all the affairs of the country and its subjects.

It is clear that the constitution in the process of being ratified failed to recognize what may have happened in the future and heavily relied on the country’s stability of regimes in the past as well as during the period of the proposed enactment.

The anti-federalists through their papers managed to attract attention to many burning issues that although their main assertions seemed to be illogical at the time, needed to ensure that the stability of the unborn generations was guaranteed.

In the anti-federalist paper number eighty four that raises the issues of fundamental rights of the citizens, Brutus reminds Americans that brutal regimes needed a constitutional backing to ensure that the fundamental rights of the citizens are not violated.

We will write a custom Essay on Significance of Anti-Federalist Papers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He helped arouse the sense that even though the people had no immediate problem with a brutal regime, they had no clear ability to determine the nature of the future leaders as they are known to change their behavior and views once they take office.

It is this possibility that made the author of the paper believe that passing a constitution that could infringe the human rights was a dangerous undertaking for Americans (Storing, 1981, P. 7).

Today, the rights of the American citizens are entrenched in the constitution through the elaborate bill of rights. The journey towards the inclusion of this important segment in the constitution can be traced to the anti-federalist paper number eighty four that criticizes the main law due to its lack of a clear stand on human rights.

As stated in the paper, it is important that certain quarters surrender some portions of their natural freedom for effective administration of a balanced society.

The enactment of the bill of rights guarantees that natural freedom is balanced, so those who may benefit from violating the fundamental rights of others would be restricted. Thus, the anti-federalist paper number eighty four was of great significance as it helped shape the future bill of rights adopted in the current constitution.

Reference List Dougherty, KL 2009, ‘An Empirical Test of Federalist and Anti-Federalist Theories of State Contributions, 1775-1783‘, Social Science History, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 47-74.

Hamilton, A, Madison, J,

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Colombian Drug Cartels Research Paper essay help online

Introduction Drug cartels in Columbia refer to organized production and related operations on illegal drugs particularly cocaine. Columbia has been among the leading countries reported to have the most sophisticated and violent organizations dealing with trafficking of drugs worldwide.

The venture started as a small business of trafficking cocaine but now it has turned into an international empire of drug trafficking, not only of cocaine, but of other illegal drugs as well. Additionally, the traffickers have now attained more than adequate capital to invest in the business (Chatsworth 1).

For instance, the traffickers hired experts in engineering from the Unites States of America and from Russia to help build a submarine which has been used to secretly smuggle large volumes of illegal drugs especially cocaine to the U.S.

History of Columbia and the drug problem How the cartels started

Drug trafficking in Columbia began way back in the 1970s where the leaders started off with smuggling of marijuana but in the mid-1970s, the traffickers started engaging in cocaine trafficking through export of small quantities of cocaine to the U.S. using suite cases. At this point, cocaine was sold freely in the American streets.

With the increasing production, trafficking and consumption of the initial drug marijuana, the United States government in conjunction with that of Columbia launched a campaign on trafficking of drugs referred to as “war on drugs” (Prada 1). Following this prohibition, some of the established producers and traffickers of drugs established unified trafficking cartels.

By 1980s, the demand for drugs had increased resulting to expansion and more organization of the cartels into major criminal organizations which were led by specified members of the groups. Some of these cartels included the Cali cartel, the North Coast cartel and the Medellin cartel among others.

To get a better understanding of the development of the cartels, we will look at how the various cartels were established. The Medellin cartel was one of the leading cartels in Columbia which was operated under Pablo Escobar. This was a ruthless organization which kidnapped and killed people who tried to get in the way of their operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a matter of fact, the Medellin cartel was reported to have caused hundreds of deaths of law enforcement officers, politicians, government officials and even innocent citizens who they encountered during their operations (Tate 1). In order to make their operations much easier, the cartels in-cooperated its operations with various criminal groups in the countries involved.

The Medellin cartel began its operations inside Colombia where they imported coca and processed it into cocaine and distributed it to the United States of America. This put great pressure on the U.S. government and that of Colombia to destroy the cartel by countering it using police and military personnel.

The Cali cartel was established in the southern part of Colombia within the city of Cali with its founders as the Rodrigues brothers, Miguel and Gilberto. The initial operation of Cali cartel was based on kidnappings which were used to raise funds for trafficking of marijuana which later progressed to cocaine. With time, the Cartel’s revenue grew substantially to an estimate of over $7 billion a year (Ramsey 1).

This caused a great impact on the country as justice systems as well as political issues began being influenced by the Cali cartel from different levels.

For instance, the Cali cartel participated a great deal in the downfall of the Medellin cartel as it was involved in the manhunt of the leaders of the Medellin cartel which saw the killing of Pablo Escobar, the ring leader of the Medellin cartel. However, the cartel collapsed as well during time which it was discovered that the cartel had been using the leading companies in Columbia to finance its operations.

Consequences and effects of the cartels on Colombia

As the cartels grew and increased, they began using terror activities with the aim of gaining government support by attaining bargaining power from them. Death rates increased through kidnappings and killings of law enforcement officers, political personalities and citizens.

The year 1989 was reported to have been the most brutal year ever with many deaths per capita which resulted from the violence exhibited by the members of drug cartels. As a matter of fact, for several years when the cartels had gained much strength and power in the country, the rate of deaths in Colombia was reported to have been the highest in the world with an estimated 62 deaths in every 100,000 people (Muse 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Colombian Drug Cartels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, with the current prohibition of drug trafficking, this number has deceased greatly to a low of 39 murders, a number that is even lower than that reported in South Africa. Statistics have shown that more than 90% of these murders are on men.

Kidnapping cases were similarly reported to be high as a total of about 5, 181 kidnappings were reported within a period of seven years. Although this report was based on a worldwide scale, the greatest percentage of it was from Colombia.

With the cultivation of coca being the major illegal operation in Colombia, most of the land in the rural regions of the country had been used on production of coca leaving little land for cultivation of basic plants/foods for the rural residents. An estimate of 281, 553 acres of land was used for cultivation of coca with a total of 430, 000 metric tons of cocaine production potential per year.

Response to drug cartels International and U.S. response

The increase in the production and trafficking of drugs in Colombia drew a great deal of attention from various countries including the United States of America, several Latin-American countries and organizations as well as international organizations.

To begin with, the U.S. collaborated with the government of Mexico and several other Central American countries and established the Merida initiative which was aimed at combating drug trafficking as a transnational crime. This initiative appropriated funds for provision of training services to military and law enforcement systems to help in strengthening the national justice operations.

Similarly, the endless violence in Mexico has helped bring into the spotlight the response by the Latin American countries on drug trafficking especially on Colombia. New crime organizations including those dealing with drugs in Colombia are being torn apart in a silent but efficient manner by the Bogota extradition operation (Rempel 1).

This has been the reaction of Latin American countries on Colombia’s drug trafficking crime which has seen the sending of many of the leaders of drug cartels to the United States of America to face crime charges. The Latin American countries were drawn to this response as the major cartels, Medellin and Cali exhibited coercive pressure which prevented such extraditions from taking place.

In addition to the U.S. providing funding for military training services, it had a strong reaction on drug traffickers who continued their businesses while they were still in prison cells back home in Colombia. The response by the U.S. on this matter was the transfer of the traffickers to U.S. prisons which are non-luxurious as opposed to those back at home which paved way for their ease access to business operations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Colombian Drug Cartels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a matter of fact, this strict response by the U.S. resulted to a steady reduction in organized drug trafficking as well as other crimes, a factor that drove Mexico to reassessing its refusal of extraditing its drug traffickers to the U.S.

Since most of the drugs produced were exported to the United States of America evidenced by cocaine being sold all over the streets back in the 1970s and 1980s, it is only natural that the country had a negative response shown, not only through establishment of extraditions to the U.S., but through support of local programs which were designed to eradicate drug production and trafficking.

Similarly, the United Nations and the U.S Agency for International Development (USAID) responded by facilitating production of alternative plants and provided projects for enterprise development, strengthening of institutions, exploitation of natural resources and easy market access for Colombia’s entrepreneurs (Chomsky 1).

Response by Colombian government, citizens and its neighbors

The Colombian government itself was opposed to the then rapidly growing production and trafficking of cocaine especially to the U.S. since the two countries had been allies on economic aspects.

With the futile response by the U.S. government on the production of drugs, the government of Columbia responded to cartels by acting aggressively to them evidenced by the way the government worked hand in hand with the government of the United States of America to curb drug trafficking.

However, since the high demand of cocaine and related drugs was determined to be the major factor contributing to endless drug production, the Colombian government urged the U.S. to take responsibility at home by finding ways to reduce the demand for drugs in the U.S.

This is because consumption of these drugs was high in the U.S. compared to that in Columbia despite the fact that the production itself was done in Columbia. This was an indication that the demand arising from drug abusers in the U.S. was partly a contributing factor to the problem.

This is why one of the Colombia’s responses to drug trafficking was to advice the U.S. to reduce demand of the products, a request that was initially neglected but later the U.S. government saw the sense in it and began working on the same. Additionally, the government deployed National police who tracked down the leaders of drug cartels and destroyed the already produced drugs as well as those in plantations.

As a matter of fact, the operations of the Colombian National Police contributed to the downfall of many of the cartels including the most powerful ones such as the Medellin and Cali cartels (Jung 7).

Due to the poor economic conditions in Colombia, some of its citizens responded well on the production and trafficking of drugs as they saw it as a way of creating more income to community members either directly by getting involved in the operation or indirectly by means such as creation of labor or improved living standards among society members.

Most of these people were uneducated whose population was very high considering the low levels of education in Columbia back then. However, many other citizens were against the vice including the educated elites who understood very well the impacts of such drugs on humans and on the society as a whole. Religious groups were similarly opposed to it and they all pressured the government to speed up ways of combating drug production.

Others responded aggressively to the production as they needed more land to cultivate consumption plants for their families. Different countries neighboring Columbia had different responses to the high levels of drug production in Colombia.

The most notably neighbor was Mexico which began engaging in drug production and trafficking following the amount of cash flow especially in Southern Colombia from drug trafficking.

As a matter of fact, illegal drug trafficking in Mexico grew to the point that Mexico established transit zones which were used to export cocaine and other drugs to the U.S. This was precisely the reason why the U.S.-Mexico border was established in efforts to curb the problem.

The main actors Who they are

Colombia has been historically known for high levels of violence and resultant deaths. The country had various criminal groups which altogether contributed to the incredibly high rates of violence in the country. Drug cartels were among the most powerful of these groups.

However, the main actors who facilitated the formation of cartels were the guerrillas which were superior organizations which supported and strengthened the operations of the cartels. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN) were the two most powerful guerrilla organizations which supported the operations of drug cartels (Romero 62).

Their major role was using the Colombian government to mask the operations of cartels. They did this by running for public offices especially in the police and military agents. The guerillas particularly participated in protecting the fields and other operational fields of cartels especially those of cocaine production. This, they did in exchange for large amounts of money they were paid by the cocaine traffickers.

Cartel leaders and the president

Similarly, some of the paramilitary groups were direct actors in drug cartels as they were also used in guarding and protecting production and operation fields. The government, through the then president Juan Manuel Santos was a major actor in dismantling many of the strong cartels.

Although the government had previously failed in the war against drugs, the new constitution that was implemented in the year 1991 played a big role in ending the drug war (Wilson 7).

This was through its clause of extradition of drug traffickers to the U.S. which led to many of the traffickers to surrendering to the government in exchange for lighter sentences due to the fear of the conditions in which they would be exposed to in the prison cells in the U.S.

However, the guerillas were said to have benefited from the resultant break-up of the cartels as they used their finances to support and establish new producers and traffickers of drugs. The paramilitary groups continued to receive most of their finances from drug funds and therefore they continued to protect the drug production fields.

Additionally, the leaders of the cartels enhanced their efforts of undermining law enforcement through giving of bribes to police and threatening court officials (Meyer 1). This way, the leaders maintained their role of protecting the interests of drug production and trafficking.

Extend of influence of drug cartels Influence on society

The high rates of drug production and trafficking in Colombia had impacts to the society. As the production of cocaine and marijuana continued to increase, more and more small farmers became dependent on the cultivation of these drugs for livelihood.

Besides the cultivators themselves, thousands of Colombian citizens became dependent on income derived from cultivation of these drugs through indirect participation such as transportation, picking of the plants on seasonal terms and guarding the fields among others.

The production and trafficking of drugs through cartels resulted to improved economic stability, increased living standards and income rates as the business turned out to be a very significant source of wealth, not only to Colombia, but to most of the Caribbean coast cities. These countries experienced great economic prosperity which had never been experienced before due to previous poor economic conditions of the countries.

However, at the same time, violence cases related to cultivation and trafficking of drugs increased a great deal and most importantly, these operations led to disintegration of police and military institutions as well as other judicial organizations. This resulted mainly due to the in-cooperation of officials from these institutions into the operations of cartels through corruption and bribery deals with the cartel leaders (Lopez 1).

Since most of the rural land was used in the cultivation of marijuana and coca, the general food production rate of the country declined gradually. Similarly, the few farmers left were faced with the challenge of laborers as they became scarce and quite expensive due to the competition in marijuana cultivation. This stimulated inflation on land markets and many legal businesses were involved in money laundering by the cartels.

These included banks, hotels and especially casinos resulting to lower tax rates to the government. The society’s traditional morals and values were deteriorated as more and more innocent society members engaged in the vice, directly or indirectly due to their desperate need for source of income for their livelihood.

Consequently, violence rates in Colombia and any other country practicing the same business became high even if resulting from other factors due to the history of violence in such countries.

Influence on the government and political system

With the use of trained assassins, cartel leaders planned murder and assassination plots on government officials in their bid to prevent the government’s move to extradite them to the U.S.

As a result, the country’s judicial system was dismantled and a great number of Colombian citizens moved out of the country and settled elsewhere (The Daily beast 1). Life in Colombia was devaluated as assassinations became more and more eminent with murder becoming a usual way to earn money.

Due to their wealth and economic power, many drug loads took control over the country’s economy through construction of cheap rental houses basically to buy votes from the society, became proprietors in big national businesses such as in media houses and they also showed interests in politics as some formed their own political parties which they publicized through their own media houses (Shifter 19).

For instance, Escobar ended up being elected as a congressman in the 1982 elections. The nation was also faced with the problem of addiction to cocaine and marijuana among other drugs as the finest quality drugs were exported leaving the poor quality drugs for consumption by the Colombians.

As a result, hundreds of thousands of Colombian citizens suffered from nervous problems some of which were permanent and the government had the challenge of facing this problem.

Conclusion/recommendations The high rates of drug trafficking in Columbia evoked response from the government as well as other countries especially the U.S. since most of the drugs were exported into the United States. The government, using funding from the U.S. and international organizations such as UN and USAID established police and military training services who were assigned the duty of preventing further progression of the business.

Due to the resultant corruption and bribery techniques used by the cartel leaders to curb the advances of the government, the Colombian government in collaboration with the U.S government established the extradition rule which would see drug traffickers imprisoned in the U.S. rather than in their home country (Miller 1).

May be the real solution to this problem is not eliminating or imprisoning the drug dealers but rather acting on the core factors that led to the growth of the business. For instance, the Colombian government should establish sustainable economy for its people where citizens will have alternative sources of income through provision of job opportunities may be by promoting industrialization and other developmental activities.

This way, the citizens will not lack means of earning livelihood and therefore will be less likely to engage in illegal businesses. However, this is a big step and would require great support from international organizations and other industrialized countries.

Similarly, the U.S. government should curb the factors that cause such a high demand of cocaine in the country. In this case, the drug traffickers will not produce as much drugs as they did because of the lack of demand.

Works Cited Chatsworth, John. “Roots of violence in Colombia”. David Rockefeller Center for Latin.

American studies: Harvard University. (2003). Web.

Chomsky, Noam. “Plan Colombia”. Rogue states. (2000). Web.

Jung, Walter. “Exports, growth and casualty in developing countries”. Journal of development economics. 18.2 (1985): 1 – 12.

Lopez, Andres. “From drug lords to warlords: Twentieth century drug traffickers”. CBS interactive business network resource library. (2003). Web.

Meyer Cordula. “Colombia’s cocaine cartels learn a new trick”. Spiegel online: undersea trafficking. (2012). Web.

Miller Sarah. “Medellin once epicenter of Colombia’s drug war, fights to keep the peace”. The Christian Science monitor. (2010). Web.

Muse, Toby. “New drug gang wars blow Colombian city revival apart”. The guardian: World news, Colombia. (2012). Web.

Prada, Juan. “Latin America breaks rank with U.S. over war on drugs”. Limaohio.com: The Lima news. (2012). Web.

Ramsey, Geoffrey. “Colombia to reassess policy of extraditing drug traffickers to U.S”. The Christian Science monitor: Latin America monitor. (2012). Web.

Rempel, William. “How Colombia is busting drug cartels”. Cable News Network (CNN), Edition: international. (January 19 2012). Web.

Romero, Mauricio. “Changing identities and contested settings: regional elites and the paramilitaries in Colombia”. International journal of politics, culture and society. 14.1 (2000): 51 – 69.

Shifter, Michael. “Colombia on the brink”. Foreign affairs. 78.4 (1999): 14 – 21

Tate, Winfred. “Colombia’s role on international drug industry”. Washington D.C. Foreign policy in focus. (1999). Web.

The Daily beast. “Drug cartels and terrorist organizations vs. the Colombian ministers. HMUN Press corps. (2012). Web.

Wilson, James. “Coffee or poppies? Colombian growers under the spotlight”. Financial Times. (October 25 2001). Print.

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Pre fire plan Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Building identification

NFA fire flow calculations

The fire prevention system in the building

Hazards

Works cited

Building identification The structure in the picture depicts an apartment building, which is type 3 because the materials used in construction are inflammable. One can easily identify this building since bricks constitute its exterior walls. This is one of the oldest buildings, which is evident in old towns.

It is apparent that the building has wood joints since its interior exudes aspects that depict wood tendencies. For this reason, It is apparent that during fire outbreak, the core can burn easily; thus, causing the exterior part to collapse.

NFA fire flow calculations The size of the building is 200sq ft length by 80 sq ft width. The formula for calculating the need fire flow is (CFBT-US LLC):

The need fire flow for 25% involvement will be 1333.33 whilst the need fire flow for 50% involvement will be 2666.67. The need fire flow for 75% involvement will be 4000. Concurrently, the need fire flow for 100% will be 5333.33. Indeed, the formula will be helpful in controlling fire.

The fire prevention system in the building The building has smoke sensors that enable the occupants to detect the smoke before it reaches their residence especially when they are asleep. I think the smoke detectors in the building are essential since they will alert the occupant when there is a fire outbreak.

Indeed, the installation of the detectors should be compulsory in every building. It will be helpful if the smoke detectors are evident in strategic positions so that the occupants are awaken early enough, to give them time to evacuate the building (IBC 165).

The building also has a fire alarm, which can alert the inhabitants. Just like the smoke detectors, the location of fire detectors should be in strategic places especially near sleeping areas to alert the dwellers in time. Fire alarms help the residents to detect fire thus enabling them to evacuate the building before it burns. The building also has a hydrant, which is an essential component of the fire prevention system (IBC 164).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two stairs in the building are also essential especially during fire outbreaks. When there is fire on one side of the building, the occupants can use the stairs on the other side before the whole building catches fire. Standpipes also help in preventing fire since they are different in class. This is apparent in class one, which is applicable by the fire experts.

The class two is a system that is subject to connection to supply water to a building for the residents to use it in the initial response to fire outbreak. Finally, class three supplies water that the occupants can use for domestic purpose.

The water aids the fire departments when the building is on fire. To make the system effective, the occupants have to be informed about standpipes, so that they will know how to use them when the house is on fire (IBC 165).

Hazards The type 3 building has openings on the walls and ceilings. This opening can make fire to spread faster into the hidden places in the building. There are also higher chances of the building collapsing during a fire out break. This is because the interior joints are made of wood. Since the joints support the heavy brick walls they can easily collapse when joints are dissipate to fire.

Works cited CFBT-US LLC. Estimating required Fire flow: The National Fire Academy Formula. Web. http://cfbt-us.com/wordpress/?tag=nfa-fire-flow-formula

IBS. Building Codes. 2006. Web.

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The Landscape Reader Exploratory Essay essay help site:edu

Landscape is the skill or art of organizing horizontal surfaces. It has emerged as a model for urbanization in the past few years. The architect behind this concept of urban model was James Corner. It is worth noting that this concept has greatly benefited from the intellectual and cultural revitalization. It has also become the most pertinent discipline in structural and city designs as well as planning.

The basis of landscape urbanism can be drawn from postmodern critics of modernist architecture and planning. They observed that modernism could not possibly come out with meaningful and livable public realm. Hence, postmodern architectural scenographic’s approach did not tackle the structural settings of developed modernity which seems to focus much on urbanism.

However some designers argue out that landscaping is not just a formal model for urbanism today. However, it is also a model used in the process of urbanization. In this case, landscape is a medium which is capable of reacting in response to temporal change, transformation and any form of adjustment.

Interestingly, the first schemes to disclose the prospective for landscape to function as a model for modern process were not produced in North America but in Europe. The 1982 Competition for parc de la Villette was among the first projects. During the wake of la Villette’s influence, the architectural culture was part and parcel of landscape’s role as a practicable framework for the contemporary city.

Landscape urbanism does not merely present strategies for designs. It also grants a cultural category. This acts as a lens through which designers are able to see and explain the features of a contemporary city.

Some of the advantages of landscape urbanism include conflation, integration and fluid exchange between environmental and infrastructural systems. The discipline of landscape architecture observes its historical and theoretical underpinnings while the general public is concerned with environmental issues.

One can argue from the implication that landscape urbanism is a remediating practice. It brings solutions for the hurts of the industrial age. This fact is evidenced through the work of many contemporary landscape architects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another major strategy of landscape urbanism is incorporation of transportation of infrastructure into public space. It provides public parks and highways. According to West 8 Landscape Architects, one of the multiple roles of landscape urbanism deals with reordering the relationships between ecology and infrastructure.

Some of the international design competitions for industrial sites in North American cities have used landscape as their key medium. Downsview Parks and Fresh Kills are critical examples. These two projects illustrate viable works of landscape urbanism.

They are also remarkable for the company of landscape architects on interdisciplinary panels of consultants while the la Villette competitions named a single lead architect to oversee the whole project.

These projects and the work of their competitors should be taken collectively in order to see the point of transformations that are underway. In addition, these transformations are changing the disciplinary and professional suppositions following the design of built environment.

My thoughts concerning this reading are mainly on the fact that landscape urbanism is indeed an important undertaking which may not have received the much needed recognition in the field of architecture. This reading had laid down some of the most important issues concerning landscape urbanism as a medium to modern cities.

In addition, it is imperative to note that it may not be advisable for architects to ignore thorough consultations from other fields. Secondly, landscape discipline needs to be combined with professionalism in order to come up with trustworthy projects that put environmental issues into consideration. Lastly, it is essential to consider new projects that can transform landscape urbanism for the benefit of the public.

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Bangladesh Police Institution Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Sustainable democracy offers a practical sketch map for intellectual development and political maturity. Besides, sustainable democracy ensures reliable governance and democratic issue base confrontation of challenges affecting the citizens from insecurity, social justice, and respect of human rights.

Reflectively, sustainable democracy, as a concept of institutional approach in reforms, offers a solution based management of government institutions. The government of Bangladesh remains a struggling state in sustainable democracy due to failed institutional approach to offering alternative solutions to its dwindling democratic space, despite having begun as a democratic state in 1971.

Among the key institutions responsible for promoting democracy include the police, political party management, and the media (Przeworski 23). This paper will concentrate on the police institution reform in order to make the police institution free of corruption, compromise, and injustices to the citizens.

Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly identify issues within the policing institution of Bangladesh that directly and indirectly affect sustainable democratization of the administrative and social system of the Bangladesh state.

Besides, the paper explores the current positon of police institution in promoting justice, maintaining law and order and promoting social cohesion through constructive interventionist approach to democratization and freedom of expression, association, and right to justice. In addition, the treatise reveals relevant recommendations on an alternative approach in reform agenda in the policing institution.

The national Bangladesh police have its headquarter in Dhaka and are accountable to the government regime in power. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) oversees and controls appointments, police budget, and transfer of officers.

The police institution is divided into the Special Branch (SB), the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), and the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) mandated with the responsibility of promoting order, detecting, and investigating crimes within the borders of Bangladesh. The police institution in Bangladesh is mandated by the constitution to protect basic human rights through maintaining and enforcing law and order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The police force comprises of about 123,197 trained officers distributed across the state of Bangladesh against the civilian population 153 million. Therefore, every police officer is supposed to serve 1,200 people at any given time. Reflectively, “There is a shortage of police here; it’s an ongoing crisis. How can we be expected to tackle crime when there are more criminals than police?

A criminal can walk freely because he knows that we don’t have the manpower to arrest him” (International Crisis Group 18). This is almost three times higher than the recommended ratio by the United Nations at 1:450. As part of the larger Judicial system, Police institution is at the bottom line in making arrests, organizing prosecution charges, and assisting the judicial panel in justice delivery.

Besides, the Police institution is in the forefront in promoting cohesion through public relations exercise, which promises confidentiality and non-victimization (Przeworski 38). However, this is not the case in Bangladesh’s policing institution.

Historically, the tumultuous occurrences since the independence of Bangladesh indicate that its policing institution has remained a puppet for the political class and wealthy elites in the society. Despite being at the baseline of democratization, due to the fact that the institution directly interacts with the public, series of human rights compromises have been noted, especially in the last one decade.

Instead of promoting freedom of speech and protecting citizens attending rallies across political parties, this institution is often inclined to a particular political activism side. According to the International Crisis Group (2009) report:

After decades of misuse and neglect, Bangladesh’s police are a source of instability and fear rather than a key component of a democratic society. Human rights abuses are endemic and almost all Bangladeshis who interact with the police complain of corruption. With an elected government in place again, there are now opportunities to reform this dysfunctional force. But there are also significant obstacles.

If the government fails to move beyond the current modest reform process, the democratic transition could falter should deteriorating security give the military another chance to intervene, using, as it has in the past, the pretext of upholding law and order to justify derailing democracy. (International Crisis Group 3)

We will write a custom Report on Bangladesh Police Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The policing institution of Bangladesh is known for an excellent reputation on corruption, excessive use of force and brutality in making arrests and displacing peaceful protests, and incompetence. Despite the fact that the previous regimes are aware and have acknowledged the many fundamental flaws, none has put the need for police reforms within their policy and democratic manifesto.

“Whether the necessity has been fighting crime or tackling terrorists, successive administrations have relied on half measures and quick fixes usually involving the military rather than reforming the police as a long-term solution” (“Freedom House: Civil Liabilities in Bangladesh” par. 7). Ironically, it is unfortunate that most international donors who are out to please the political regime of the day.

In some cases, the international donors have been accused of undertaking short-sighted measures that only serve to prolong interests of the regime in power. Despite serious cries for reform in the policing institution, the short-sighted measures often succeed in suppressing the outcry while at the same time promote culture of impunity by increased crime rates.

Due to the inefficiencies in the police unit, military personnel have used the same as excuse to have more influence and control of civilian affairs, as evident in the military coup of January 2007 supposedly inspired by police inefficiency to protect the public.

Though the current Awami League government had incorporated police reforms as one of the immediate agenda in their manifesto, the same government lacks goodwill and interest on the reforming this institution. As a matter of fact, “it has shown no interest in repealing or amending the current police law, the Police Act of 1861, a colonial-era legal hangover designed primarily to keep imperial India’s subjects in line” (Uddin 32).

Actually, the law of Bangladesh gives the government regime of the day full control mandate over the police who are often used by the government of the day to suppress and control the opposition instead of independent service to all citizens.

For instance, Prime Minister Sheik Hasina’s administration adopted the same tactics of her predecessors to pocket the policing institution for her personal disposal on ‘errant’ opposition and protesting civilians.

“Even if the prime minister and her administration were to change tack, any move to insulate the force from politicization and increase accountability would be met with strong opposition from the bureaucracy and the business community, both of which have a history of exploiting weaknesses in the police organization” (Uddin 29).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bangladesh Police Institution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reflectively, the most powerful and those in a position to reform the policing institution are often reluctant due to external forces and personal interests which are placed above the national interests. These powerful political and business actors continue to thrive in impunity and selfishness since the current policing institution lacks structures to function independently in service delivery.

Moreover, the current regime is very reluctant to UNDP sponsored development programs aimed at promoting democracy through the Police Reform Program (PRR). Ironically, the retired and serving senior policemen in Bangladesh policing institution are against the program claiming that it lacks the comprehensiveness in implementation despite the fact that they are aware of underlying issues that have stagnated the police force.

In a surprising move, nearly all the retired senior police officers “suggest that the PRP is not aimed at transforming the police into a modern, disciplined force able to serve and protect citizens, but is rather a costly– and questionably effective – set of administrative modifications” (Uddin 34). The democratization process is often expensive and requires support from all players in order to assert a long-lasting solution.

Despite the support from the neighboring country; India, lack of goodwill from the current regime has almost stalled the reforms agenda in the police institution. Unfortunately, the police force remains unaccountable and incompetent. This has created a comfortable breeding ground for extremist groups to propel their interest of threatening stability with an excuse of liberating the citizens of Bangladesh.

Besides, should this happen, this small state would suffer from a state of resilience characterized by high magnitudes of corruption scandals, insecurity, and complete abandonment of the democratic gains into another undemocratic military rule.

Lack of democracy will in turn result in deterioration of other support institutions mandated with economic planning, globalization, and healthcare since funds meant for these sectors may be swindled and channeled to non-prioritized spending.

At present, a comprehensive reform in the Bangladesh police force seems dim and unrealistic. This is due to the fact that the current laws operate on the oppressive 1967 bill on police responsibility and limits, which merely was developed to protect the royal regime of the era. There is no law to provide legal direction on crucial reforms in government institutions.

Besides, the stopgap and remedial measures proposed by the UNDP are inadequate and non-inclusive in the fight for democratization and reform of the police institution to operate independently and fairly to the citizens of Bangladesh. “Without a law enshrining democratic principles of policing, many of the modest improvements made over the past two years to the police organization are subject to reversal” ( International Crisis Group 3).

Reforms in the policing institution of Bangladesh are crucial for short term and long term social, security, economic, and democratic development. Since the current police force has suffered public distrust due to series of accusations on police extortion, brutality, and participant approach in serving the citizens, the reform agenda should reflect the will of the people and promote democratic space.

The police have dismally failed in their duty as defined by the constitution to maintain law and order. Unfortunately, this situation has made some individuals or communities “to take the law into their own hands and will drive disenfranchised individuals and groups to join anti-government elements” (International Crisis Group 6).

Recommended Reforms In order to promote morale and better working conditions in the police force, it is important to increase their salary and improve their housing. Due to dismal wages paid to them by the public service, most officers have little option apart from engaging in other activities such as corruption to cover financial shortfall.

For instance “the monthly pay and allowances of the IGP, the highest-ranking in the force, amounts to Tk23,000 ($333); at the very bottom of the pay scale, the monthly salary of a police constable is only Tk5,410 ($78.50)” (International Crisis Group 4).

Therefore, most officers have to serve under depressive conditions with minimal financial reward. This paints an abysmal picture and drives down police moral. As a result, they easily become a pray for the rich businessmen and politicians who pay ‘special fees’ for protection of their illegal activities and suppressing opponents.

Bureaucratic and political interference remain the highest efficiency impediment in the police reform agenda. Political interference result into atrocities such as illegal detention, torture, death in custody, and large scale corruption. This results in universal disdain by the public, who may become unresponsive and politicize every unfortunate incident as a reflection of the desire of a social clique who can afford to ‘pocket’ police officers.

According to Transparency International, “96.6 percent of Bangladesh’s households that interacted with law enforcement agencies experienced some form of corruption. Roughly 65 percent of households paid an average of Tk3, 940 ($57) in bribes over a one year period to police officers for various services” (“Freedom House: Civil Liabilities in Bangladesh” par. 5).

Therefore, the parliament should amend the 1967 policing bill to institutionalize payments that are to be made in police stations. Besides, an independent watchdog should be incorporated besides the police institution to monitor and investigate claims of corruption by the public.

Administration capacity and bureaucratic tendencies define success of reform in the police force. It is not only necessary, by very agent to overhaul the current administrative authority in the police institution, which mainly consist of sympathizers of the current regime and those strategically placed in higher offices to defend individual interest.

In a large scale scrutiny of the current police head, the independent police reforms commission will be in a position to eliminate potential status quo supporters and replace them with more qualified, experienced, and better-paid officers. Besides, the police reform agenda should recommend the transformation and rebranding the police force to win confidence of the citizens of Bangladesh.

Besides, the new post reforms police force should organize series of public meeting and interactive forums to help foster unity of purpose and affirm the spirit of secrecy to whistleblowers and those who offer information on corruption cases, abuse of office, and unethical political plans.

Conclusively, sustainable democratization is achievable when issues such as corruption, unaccountability, insecurity, unfairness, and abuse of human rights are controlled. Police force is a very important democratization institution in Bangladesh. This is due to the fact that policemen have daily and direct contact with the citizens.

Incidences of politicization of government institutions such as the police have seriously reverse gains made on democracy in Bangladesh. Since the police force is answerable the government regime of the day, the current policing institution of Bangladesh has become a political tool for suppressing democracy through torture of the opposition adherents, massive corruption, unaccountability, and protection of certain class form prosecution.

The reform agenda to reverse these challenges lie in transforming the current policing institution into an independent entity with better housing, salaries, training, and support from the public.

Works Cited Freedom House: Civil Liabilities in Bangladesh 2012. Web.

International Crisis Group 2009. Bangladesh: Getting Police Reform on Track. Web.

Przeworski, Adam. Sustainable Democracy. London: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.

Uddin, Gias. The Politics of Police Reform in Bangladesh. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011. Print.

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The Most Serious Threats to the State Come from its Citizens Argumentative Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Political Order

Social Order

Authority

Legitimacy

Capacity of the State to Order Lives

Conclusion

Works Cited

Self Reflection

Introduction Human beings are similar to animals in their feeding, reproduction, respiration and sensitivity. However, the fact that human beings have the ability to govern themselves and govern all other living things in their environment makes them become the most complex living beings on the planet.

Human beings have developed various systems through which they derive their rights and responsibilities while undertaking their daily activities (Duerksen 120). They have advanced ways of ensuring their behavior is regulated and that all human beings enjoy their lives without interference from other people.

Therefore, people have established ways through which they are able to demand their rights and seek justice whenever they feel their freedoms are violated. This essay aims at discussing why people present a threat to their states.

A state is defined as a community of people under a given area of international jurisdiction governed by a given set of political establishments. It should be noted that all states have their sovereignty which makes them independent entities that are subject to non interference from other states. A citizen is any individual that belongs to a certain state and is bound by the rules and privileges offered by it (Sachs 23).

A threat is any statement, word or action that is aimed at expressing an intention to do harm or destruction. The state is in charge of ensuring that all citizens are protected from any external and internal attacks that threaten their well being. In some cases, states come together and form rules that act as their guidelines and ensure that all members governed by these rules are respected and assisted in areas they experience problems.

However, citizens have become the greatest threat to their states in the process of demanding their rights. There are various issues that make this claim very controversial in the modern world as it will be discussed below.

Political Order Political order is a continuous process that involves several concepts that act as its principles. The first principle is legitimacy that gives the state the power to exercise its authority over its citizens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This legitimacy is given to the governments of the day through a democratic process that involves voting to elect the citizens’ preferred government. Through these process, citizens exercise their power over legitimacy of any government to run their state and therefore the citizens have higher authority over their governments as far as the state is concerned.

Whenever there are issues that citizens feel the state is ignoring, it becomes their duty to demand them through demonstrations and strikes to ensure the state heeds to their demands. The state has a duty to ensure that all their citizens are protected against any natural disasters regardless of their causes.

The state is mandated to ensure that effective measures are taken during floods, disease outbreaks and drought periods, for example. The state is obligated to listen and act with regard to the needs of their citizens in order to claim their legitimacy. The process through which citizens make claims leads to social conflicts while the ability to make these claims legitimate brings political order in the society.

The states monopoly of violence during riots and strikes in maintaining social and political order is usually a great factor that exposes citizens to various dangers including death and physical damages to human beings and property.

This becomes very challenging given the fact that the same state is entitled to protect lives and properties of its citizens. However, this issue is very debatable due to the fact that these riots stall various activities in the society.

There are also various channels through which citizens may address their grievances apart from causing chaos. In addition, this chaos caused by citizens usually results in great losses forcing the state to make use of its legitimate authority and use force and violence to control demonstrators.

The same criteria are applied whenever communities within a state are at war to ensure that they live in accordance with the democracy and authority that the state struggles to uphold. States face a very big challenge in establishing legitimacy on the use of force and violence within societies on its boundaries as this exposes them to international pressure and ridicule in these processes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Most Serious Threats to the State Come from its Citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is further argued that states does not need excess power to create social and political order among their citizens but rather people should find ways to co exist and due to cooperation, respect and fear they will achieve social order by themselves hence this does not need to be a great threat to the state. However, in some situations there is need to have institutions to prevent cases of social disorders in society.

Whenever these institutions fail to bring order in society they are perceived to be illegitimate and this makes the state to lose the monopoly of using force and violence to bring order.

This causes a situation of anarchy as different forces begin to compete to monopolize authority over others and this is evident in Northern Ireland, Somalia and former Yugoslavia. The result is usually violence and citizens will not be in a position to do their daily activities that constitute a great percentage of factors that promotes social order.

Social Order The society we live in is in constant conflicts as people strive to achieve various objectives in life. These conflicts are not necessarily physical but they involve the forces and tensions that people face in the process of getting their daily needs.

Therefore, the process of maintaining social order by the state becomes very complicated as these tensions are responsible for the smooth running of the society. As discussed in chapter seven, individuals always involve in various duties in the attempt to ensure that all their wants are met.

However, in most cases people do not put into consideration the means through which they used to get what they want. The society is therefore obligated to ensure that these means are legitimate and that they do not interfere with the rights of other citizens.

Authority Authority is defined as any power or ability to influence others to do or follow a certain way of thinking. In this context, it is evident that citizens are the custodians of the authority that governs them. Many countries do not just select individuals to sit in panels and draw up rules and policies that will govern a country’s citizens. It is very important to note that all laws originate from the citizens of any given country.

Any law that citizens view to be oppressive and discriminatory is usually subjected to grievances that eventually makes it possible for the state to change them or drop them all together. This usually starts with petitions being filed at various institutions that are in charge of passing and implementing them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Most Serious Threats to the State Come from its Citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These institutions include the ministries of home affairs, internal security and constitutional affairs. In case these petitions are not addressed in time, it causes a lot of anxiety among citizens (Pelosi 34).

These tensions eventually culminate to movements that threaten the government to take immediate measures to ensure that the demands of its citizens are met. Whenever the state fails to act in accordance with the demands of its citizens more drastic and tragic events are inevitable.

One of the main events that may arise is anarchy. Even though, most of these events are politically motivated; their origin is usually a sincere cry from the common man. Unfortunately, such cries are usually hacked along the way by groups that have always opposed the state in various issues.

Legitimacy This is defined as the degree of acceptance of a certain fact by a group of people. Legitimacy is granted by the existing laws, traditions and practices. In the first place, a state derives its legitimacy through the fact that the rules that govern the behavior and conduct of its citizens are formulated and endorsed by them. This means that the citizens of any given state have the ability to determine the legitimacy of these rules.

In addition, a state is rum by various institutions that ensures its citizens have access to everything they require. These institutions are put in place by these citizens and this means that they have the ability to determine the fate of any institution. The most important factor to note is that these institutions are headed or controlled to a certain degree by the government that is in place (Keynes Audio CD 3).

These governments in turn receive their support from the state’s citizens through a process of voting. This is a very common practice in almost all countries in the world as it reflects the wishes and desires of their citizens.

Voting is usually considered to be free and fair process of selecting political leaders to fill various government leadership positions. Through this process, many states have faced great threats from their citizens a they have a greater authority of determining their next leaders. In addition, some very controversial issues are usually subjected to referendums to decide on whether they should be adopted or not.

A referendum is a voting process which is aimed at establishing whether citizens of a particular country support a given policy, plan, project or law. Most states have changed their constitutions to have a modern approach to issues through this process.

However, a referendum is usually not an appropriate way of assessing whether citizens agree to or reject the subject in question. This is due to the reason that a referendum usually has two options of whether to agree or disagree.

Some issues are very controversial and require minor amendments to make them acceptable by the majority of the citizens. However, referendums do not give many states room to make such changes that are essential to total rejection on the basis of minor changes.

Capacity of the State to Order Lives The state plays a very important role in ensuring that its citizens behave in an orderly manner. This is made possible through various means including the use of force to ensure that the order is maintained. The society is structured in such a way that all individuals conform to a general guideline that reflects the wishes of the whole population (Gecan 21).

It should be noted that the state has a very high ability to direct the behavior of its citizens regardless of their rights and freedoms.

It is very evident that although citizens have the ability and the right to decide their destinies they do not have anonymity over their actions and whenever it threatens state security the state will automatically act in a manner to bring order to society. This includes the prevention and use of force to control rioters and demonstrators.

Conclusion It should be noted that while the state faces great risks from their citizens they are not entirely responsible for the occurrence of most issues that subject them to these risks. The state has a major responsibility of ensuring that all the rights and privileges of its citizens are protected and upheld regardless of the costs incurred.

Therefore, it is the right of all citizens to be provided with the correct services from the government as they have all their hopes in them. However, it should be understood that these rights and freedoms come with responsibilities that should be observed.

Works Cited Duerksen, Christopher. The Citizens Guide to Planning. New York: Planners Press, 2009. Print.

Gecan, Michael. Going Public: An Organizers Guide to Citizen Action. New York: Anchor, 2004. Print.

Keynes, Milton. Citizens and the State. Exploring Social Lives (Audio CD 3). The Open University, 2009. Print.

Pelosi, Alexandria. Citizen U.S.A.: A 50 State Road Trip. New York: N.A.L., 2011. Print.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. The Price of Civilization: Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity. New York: Random House, 2011. Print.

Self Reflection The analysis of the issues that make citizens become a great threat to the states is a very complex subject of discussion due to the fact that most issues discussed seem to base their arguments on each other. It is very difficult to differentiate between the rights of citizens and their boundaries.

It is very difficult to separate citizens’ rights and the states responsibilities. However, this task has been fascinating, especially due to many similarities between the state’s and citizens’ responsibilities.

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Ethics and faith Essay college application essay help

Introduction Education should be a right not a privilege. Woody Allen’s film provides a perfect platform for the discussion of the immoral and ethical. In this motion picture, he seems to support the defeat of the religious as seen through the death of the most religious person in the story – Ben. In order to make a comprehensive discussion, one must incorporate the views of philosophers such as Kierkegaard ad Nietzsche.

Whether faith should play a role in what it means to live an ethical life The events in ‘Crimes and Misdemeanors’ occur at a time when the state of morality in society has declined. Some acts can be permitted by law, but are not necessarily acceptable in religious circles (Crimes and Misdemeanors). In a place where God is not that significant, then certain unthinkable actions, such as murder, are tolerable.

In this case, faith had been suspended from the lives of those involved and one would argue that the main character – Judah – had also discarded morality. Nonetheless in order to know for sure whether ethics was not relevant in Judah’s decisions, then some insights from Friedrich Nietzsche would be in order.

Nietzsche believes that morality can either be understood from the point of view of the slave or a master. The master often preaches morality, especially Christianity to the masses as a means of controlling them. He believes that people who act in accordance to religious moral structures are weak and powerless. Religion causes people to continuously regret or feel guilty over their actions.

However, the master views the world in a totally different light. It is devoid of any moral laws and man can, therefore, curve his own path or define his own identity. The master is some sort of superman because Nietzsche believes that religion is a man-made creation. The master must now create his own set of laws or ethics that will govern his life.

In the film, one would argue that Judah was the ‘superman’. He chose to abandon the religious values that his father taught him, and instead created his own set of rules. Although it was difficult for Judah to get over the guilt that haunted him after his mistress’ death, he finally transcended it. He was able to come to his ‘true nature’ by overcoming the weakness of religion.

Nietzsche would say that Judah was strong enough to get over his guilt-ridden religious structure and find peace with his actions. The philosopher would also argue that Judah created his own set of ethics and thus triumphed in the end. It is only those who stick to their true sense of will who are the most justified (Kaufmann 122).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the flipside, another philosopher –Soren Kierkegaard asserts that man must pass through three phases of life before reaching the highest consciousness. In the aesthetic phase, one is only concerned about one’s desires. Issues such as beauty, comfort and food are all that one thinks about. However, one can move from this stage to the ethical one, in which other people’s concerns become significant.

Nonetheless, the individual is still the main focus in the phase. Lastly, one may opt to move onto the religious phase, where one’s commitment to God takes center stage. One’s dedication to one’s religious teachings takes precedence over all else; hence the mention of Abraham who was willing to suspend ethical believes for his faith.

To Kierkegaard, faith gives purpose and meaning to the other two stages of life, so it should never be suspended for the other. In Woody Allen’s movie, Judah abandons his religious beliefs for his familial responsibilities, and thus rationalizes his actions.

Kierkegaard would state that Judah retrogressed by going back to stage two. He chose not to obey God unconditionally, and thus ruined his chances of eternal happiness. This philosopher would assert that Judah never got to the highest level of consciousness (Kierkegaard 81).

While Nietzsche’s views assist individuals in finding satisfaction in life; these recommendations do not necessarily mean that humans will act ethically. When God is eliminated from the world, then no right or wrong answer exists.

All human beings then come up with their own ethical laws, which reflect the path that they have chosen for themselves. In a world such as this, there would be no mechanism to decide which one of the many ethical laws is more rational or appropriate over the other. This brings out the importance of faith and God in the field of ethics.

Conclusion From the above reflections, it is clear that faith plays an indispensable role in ethics. Kierkegaard argued that one’s soul was not one’s own but the Lord’s. This is what true happiness is about. Although it may seem that Judah triumphed in the film, one still questions the ideal picture portrayed of Judah and his wife.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics and faith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even his mistress, Dolores, observed that he came to life when he was with her and seemed lifeless when he was with his wife. In fact, one should question whether Judah was really happy after eliminating Dolores. In a world devoid of religious laws, individuals are left to choose their own rules. They will rationalize their deeds irrespective of how unethical they are.

Judah believed that he was doing the right thing by murdering the neurotic and indiscriminate Dolores. Human beings have a great capacity to rationalize the most extreme actions. Even Hitler thought that massacring a whole race was the greatest service he was offering to mankind.

Nietzsche’s views endorse moral relativism and this leave a lot room for unethical acts. Faith and religion should be incorporated into ethics because they provide a moral compass for assessing the goodness of others’ actions.

Works Cited Crimes and Misdemeanors. Ex. Prod. Woody Allen film. NY: Metro Goldwyn Meyer. 1989. DVD.

Kaufmann, Walter. On the Genealogy of morals, NY: Vintage books, 1974. Print.

Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and trembling, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. Print.

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Early American need for railroads Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The need

Financing of the railroads

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The need for railroad expansion became absolute owing to a series of economic and developmental changes that took place right around the time when its adoption began.

The need The early nineteenth century was characterized by some primitive transportation methods. Most people relied on water, but even this mode had its dangers. Internal movement took place through the use of stagecoaches and wagons. Since roads were poorly developed, travelers were quite uncomfortable when moving from east to west or vice versa. It took them too long to get to their destinations as these methods were quite slow.

Between 1800 and 1820, the US experienced a boom in the construction of internal roads known as turnpikes. This started in Philadelphia and spread to other areas. A number of highways were prevalent in different parts of the country. However, the turnpikes still had a number of inefficiencies.

They could transport heavy goods across the mainland. Furthermore, they required high levels of maintenance, which were too expensive for federal states (Stover 179). Such flaws necessitated the consideration of other options such as railroad.

The impracticalities of the turnpikes in transportation of bulky goods and their poor maintenance led many businessmen to turn to water transport for a solution to their problem. Steamboats were the chosen tool for movement of people and goods. These were chosen, in 1807, because they were commercially feasible and their speeds exceeded road transportation by far.

The steamboat could cover five miles per hour; the vessels connected the West and South. Their owners even introduced luxury steam boats to increase their attractiveness and marketability. The problem with steam boats was their reliance on furnaces.

Sometimes these would burn flammable cargo and lead to the death of passengers or loss of freight. Boilers were another risk that came with the use of steamboats. These components caused explosions and sometimes death. Clearly, a less dangerous mode of transportation was needed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The introduction of the canal also went hand in hand with further expansion of steam vessels. Canals became prominent in the northeastern part of the country. The first canal reduced the cost of transportation of goods from $100 to approximately $5, in 1825. Furthermore transportation time reduced by about 15 days.

The gainful results from the New York-sponsored canal led to a growth in canal construction in different parts of the country. By 1840, the country could now boast of about 3,000 miles worth of waterways. However, the major problem with these canals was they were quite expensive to construct. Some canals cost approximately $ 25,000 or $80,000 per mile. The 3000 miles of canals built by this year had cost the states about $125 million.

Federal states ran out of funds to continue their development or expansion. The financial crisis of 1830 worsened the situation owing to the frequent need to repair and maintain locks, dikes and other components of the canals. As such, there was a need for a better method of transport; railroads were the easiest option.

Besides these transport-related needs, railroad became an absolute owing to some political and economic developments that occurred a few years prior to its adoption. The first was the Louisiana Purchase which took place in 1803. This purchase increased the size of the United States by 568 million acres, effectively amounting to 100% of the previous range.

The war of 1812 highlighted the need for unity between the states through superior transport and communication between different inland regions. Additional, a migration of people towards the west necessitated better connection of people between the west and the rest of the country.

Trains or rail transport was superior to all the above-mentioned methods because it was the fastest at the time. A steamboat could only cover a quarter of the speeds that trains provided; stagecoaches could only handle half that speed.

Additionally, railroad transport was more reliable than the rest; it did not blow up or freeze during the winter. Aside from that, investors did not have to spend so much time to build it. Businessmen could transport more cargo than they would have achieved through the other methods.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Early American need for railroads specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Financing of the railroads Most railroads were financed by private investors rather than federal state governments. This explains why it took so long to expand them across the nation. Since local capital was a problem, the Americans tapped into the European capital market by offering bonds. European investors preferred bonds over stocks because of the perceived security of that investment.

However, because these investors were in a distant location, the US required middlemen who came in the form of investment banks. Some of them went directly to Europe to look for funds. This was the major trend between the 1820s and 1840s. However, after a recession in 1847, investors turned inward for railroad support. Bankers and brokers used New York–based Wall Street to get funds (Chandler 248).

Conclusion Railroads became an absolute owing to the need for greater connection between internal regions in the US, inefficiencies in previous methods of transport and the superiority of railroad transport over and above canals, turnpikes or steamboats.

Works Cited Chandler, Alfred. “Patterns of American Railroad finance, 1830-1850.” The Business History Review 28.3(1954): 248-263. Print.

Stover, John. American Railroads. Chicago: Chicago University press, 1997. Print.

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Renewable Energy: Geothermal Energy Argumentative Essay online essay help

Generally, there are various forms of renewable energy which mainly accrue from natural sources and they include geothermal heat, tides, rain, wind and sunlight. Of all these forms of renewables, geothermal energy is perceived as one of the renowned forms of renewable energy which is generated from the crust of the earth.

This kind of energy however persists as heat that is deposited within the core of the earth (AusAID 2000, p.3). Thus, just like supplementary energy sources, geothermal energy has both disadvantages and advantages given that no any source of energy is deemed perfect.

One advantages of geothermal energy is that this kind of energy is renewable and clean. Basically, geothermal energy is renewable since it is continually replaced by the decay of the radioactive minerals which occur at the rate of thirty TW.

Geothermal energy is a clean renewable energy source because it emits minimal greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (Fräss-Ehrfeld 2010, p.124). This happens to be the case since geothermal power plants are made of control systems which minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases emanating from the possessed drawn-fluids.

Besides, geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy which may be used directly. In the contemporary society, geothermal energy has unswervingly been drawn on when lighting households and this mainly occurs through geothermal heat pumps. In the olden days, hot springs which were forms of geothermal energy, was used to bath.

This implies that, geothermal energy hardly suffers from the intermittency issues such as those experienced in wind and solar energy sources (Fräss-Ehrfeld 2010, p.125). In fact, geothermal energy is a reliable source of renewable energy given that it is always available and does not need energy stowage solutions to function every moment.

Minimal freshwater and land are required when harnessing the geothermal energy. This cannot be compared to solar energy which needs a lot of water to cool and a large area for harnessing. A geothermal plant just needs 1.4 square mi/gigawatt with only twenty liters of fresh water apiece megawatts per hour for cooling (Vogel

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Approaches to Ethics Case Study argumentative essay help

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory which focuses on the outcome of an action. It weighs the value of an action over its consequences. The rule of utilitarianism focuses on the result regardless of the nature of the action. It points out that, if the outcome is in line with the expected benefits, then the action can be undertaken. It should not only apply to the agent, but also satisfy everyone affected by the action.

The action should put forth maximum happiness to everyone involved. Utilitarianism provides a morally upright approach in making decisions about a certain action. It foresees the possible outcome of the action and calculates the benefits and the costs. From these calculations, the best approach is chosen which ensures that benefits are maximized while costs are minimized.

The major drawback of the utilitarianism is justice. For instance, a situation where a certain act yields more benefits but is still deemed unjust affects decision making. This is because; one has to choose the principle to be used, which is either justice or utilitarianism. The utilitarian standard focuses on the happiness for all those concerned and not oneself.

The kind of decisions we make should not only bring happiness to the agent of the action, but to everyone involved. The spirit and purpose of utilitarianism is ‘the greatest happiness for the majority’. Utilitarianism is being used by business analysts, scientists and legislators to make decisions on; whether to invest certain resources to carry out specific projects, whether to approve a certain drug, or whether to ban a certain chemical.

The most important formal principle studied in formal ethics is the golden rule which involves principles such as; ‘treat others the way you want them to treat you’ ‘be logically consistent in your beliefs’ ‘practice what you preach’ and ‘follow your conscience’.

These principles can be ambiguous if they are taken literally, for instance the principle of treating others the way you want them to treat you, might not be applicable in some situations, for example in a case where a doctor wants to replace your kidney, then you ought not to replace his in order for him to replace yours.

This ambiguity becomes a challenge when establishing these rules since it is hard to come up with situations that satisfy the rule and those that do not.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question of right or wrong is generally dealt with in ethics. If one has a justified claim, then he has a right. For instance, every human being has a right to be educated, and hence entitled to some form of education. Moral rights are then justified by the moral standards that are agreed upon by the majority but not necessarily those coded by the law.

An act is said to be wrong where it does not respect the rights of the persons involved. A right has a major role on ethics, but it should not be the only factor to be considered in ethical decision making.

This is for the reason that, when we consider a right as the sole approach to ethics, then the focus shifts to an individual not to a community. Thus morality calls us to respect one’s dignity and uniqueness, so as to achieve desirable results for the effective living of the community.

According to Aristotle, every individual has his own opinion in what is best for human beings. This brings diverse views raising disagreements. These disagreements need to be resolved so as to achieve a common ground that suits everyone. He states that, the moral value is the greatest way to the effective action.

He points out that if one imagines, desires and thinks of an idea, then works towards achieving it; he is considered beautiful because he has taken a systematic procedure, and the end result thereof must be of importance because it involves critical thinking. To come up with a common ground for every individual involved is challenging, it involves consideration of many factors.

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United States-Egypt relation 1930-1945 Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The United States and Egypt continue to enjoy cordial relations in the modern times. However, these relations were cultivated from the ancient times. At the moment, Egypt is regarded as an important ally to the US especially in respect to the Middle East affairs. This realization is critical considering the interests of the US in the Middle East. Nonetheless, looking at the relationship of these two countries during the past years is critical.

This paper shall focus on the United States-Egypt relations in the period between 1930 and 1945. This is a period that was characterized by various aspects touching on economics and the politics of the word. In particular, there was the Great Depression that begun in the late 1920s all the way to the 1930s (Kindleberger, 1986).

Also, this period was characterized by the advent of the Second World War that plunged the whole world into a state of war. The paper shall give an analysis of the how the two countries related during these years. It is worth pointing out that the two countries did not start relating during this period.

Therefore, this paper shall begin by exploring the relationship between the two countries prior to the period between 1930 and 1945. The paper shall give a detailed analysis of how the United States related to the Egyptians the inter-war period. Although there was no much between the two countries, the little that existed will be discussed.

Relationship between the United States and Egypt in the period before the Second World War has not been widely covered. In this regard, most of the information available on this relationship covers the period after the Second World War. Most researches conducted in the period before the Second World War focused on the American interests, policies, and activities.

When it comes to the role played by Egypt, the works have remained relatively silent. However, it has to be noted that effective understanding of the American-Egypt bilateral relationship should consider the roles played by all nations. Egypt attained its independence during the early 20th century. During the mid-1920s, Egypt was relatively stable and had established relations with the United States.

Though this relationship was quite weak, it is worth mentioning that it was characterized by some tension. The United States was not pragmatic in its foreign relation policy towards Egypt. On the other hand, the Egyptians viewed the Americans with caution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The nationalism spirit meant that the Egyptians were concerned with how to preserve their independence from foreign influence. In this case, they viewed the United States in the same light as foreigners who were determined to dominate various aspects of the Egyptian population (Smith, 1997).

America’s foreign policy in the 1930-45 During the 1930s, American policy was concentrated on building the domestic economy. This is due to the ravages of the Great Depression that was experienced during the formative years of the 1930s. This had far-reaching impacts on the American economy (Kindleberger, 1986). The election of Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 instigated the need for expansion of American influence in world affairs.

Nonetheless, the Great Depression meant that America was to spend most of the time on national economic recovery (Kaufman, 1977; Simmons, 1994). In this case, the United States could only engage in international issues sparingly. Indeed President Roosevelt concentrated his efforts within the Latin American region where he wanted to establish good neighborhood with the adjacent nations.

Apart from the Latin American region, the United States was concerned with other issues on the international front such as its relationship with Russia.

Russia and the United States enjoyed lukewarm relations, but Roosevelt is on record refusing to cut the diplomatic ties even after getting advice from the American representatives in Russia. Roosevelt kept hoping for improved relations that could prove vital in the event of an emergency (Ember, 2011; Brune, 2003).

There is no doubt that economic aspects were central to the American people during the 1930s. The United States actively participated in international forums that discussed economic issues. During the year 1933, London hosted an international economic forum. During the conference, France and Italy suggested that the monetary value of each nation should be linked to the gold price (Kaufman, 1977).

Representatives from the US were not in agreement with these assertions. The American representatives argued that such a move could hurt the recovery process from the Great Depression (Simmons, 1994). The position held by the Americans stalled the London conference.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United States-Egypt relation 1930-1945 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the American delegates’ rejection of the proposals by the other European countries, the United States was not opposed to international trade. In fact, the Roosevelt administration entered into numerous trade agreements with different nations (Ember, 2011; Brune, 2003).

Apart from the economic aspects that the United States concentrated on during the 1930s, there was the looming conflict which drew much attention from the United States. The world political environment seemed volatile towards the end of the 1930s. The political developments in the world were observed with great interest from the Americans. The Americans resented the political developments in Italy and Japan.

Nonetheless, the United States felt that it was not time to be involved in war (Sage, 2011). In deed President Roosevelt petitioned the Congress to pass a resolution that required the United States to remain neutral in any international conflict. Though the Americans wanted to remain neutral, the continued worsening of the situation in Europe was watched keenly (Ember, 2011).

From the developments in the world during the 1930s to the early years of 1940s, it can be asserted that the United States was concerned with domestic affairs and the political developments in Europe and Asia (Sage, 2011). In this case, the relationship between America and Egypt was not given any precedence. Therefore, there was very little going on between these two countries.

Nonetheless, it cannot be assumed that the relationship between these two countries did not exist at all. The relationship between the two countries was not explosive as it is today. Nonetheless, there was some relation that linked the people of the two nations.

Historical background on the relationship between the United States and Egypt The works that have been done on the relationship between Egypt and the United States during the period between 1930s and 1945 has focused on few and non-political landscape of the American interests. Egypt was colonized by Britain, and only gained independence in the year 1922. During the colonial error, the United States was not interested in the Egyptian affairs.

Nonetheless, the United States was regarded as a friendly nation to the British. In this case, the United States recognized the role of the British in Egypt. In Egypt, during the colonial era, the United States played a minor role in respect to the relationship between the two nations.

Nonetheless, the United States had a good relation with the Egyptians (Paterson, 2010). According to Meyer (1980), the relationship between Egypt and the United States was favorable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on United States-Egypt relation 1930-1945 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been noted that the “educational, missionary, and philanthropic endeavors had established an image untarnished by a history of colonial domination and that the United States stood high in the esteem of the average Egyptian citizen” (Manela, 2002, p. 71-2). Notably, this assertion has come under criticism as it does not shade some light on the disappointments and suspicions that were held by the Egyptians during this period.

The relationship between Egypt and the United States had begun way before Egypt gained its independence. It has to be noted that in the Egyptians attained independence from Britain in the year 1922. When this happened, the political authority in the country became a contest between three main groups. These groups included the colonial authorities, the monarchy, and members of the Wafd party (Meyer, 1980).

The Wafd Party was the main force towards Egypt’s independence after the First World War. Notably, even after independence, the British army remained to guard the Suez Canal. Also, there were British officers who served within the Egyptian government.

On the other hand, there was the Egyptian monarchy who made appointments using absolute powers and with support from the British. Nonetheless, the Wafd Party became dominant for a few decades before it faded away to pave the way for the Muslim Brotherhood (Sharp, 2011).

Apart from the historical background of the Egyptian independence, the main focus should be placed on the country’s relations with the United States. This relation is not as simple as many scholars might think. This relationship was complex and interesting.

There are three main themes which characterized the way mutual perceptions and relationships were regarded between these countries. These aspects include the independence gained by Egypt after the First World War, the American archaeological interests in Egypt, and the American missionaries in Egypt (Manela, 2002).

There is a general assumption that the United States did not have a considerable relationship with Egypt immediately after the First World War. Though this may be correct, it does not put into consideration the role that the United States played in Egyptian affairs. It has to be noted that, during the year 1918, President Woodrow Wilson advocated for the Fourteen Points emphasizing on self-determination and freedom.

These principles resonated well among the public all over the world, and Egypt was not left out. The call by President Woodrow greatly influenced the hopes and expectations of the Egyptians. When the First World War ended, the Egyptian nationalists formed the Wafd Party that was aimed at pushing for the independence of their country (Curtis, 1986).

Their plea was presented in Paris during the Peace Conference that was held in November of 1918. The Wafd Party was led by Sad Zaghlul, and in early 1919, he tried to solicit for the American support in pushing for the Egyptian independence. Indeed he wrote numerous telegrams to President Woodrow. In essence, Zaghlul was enthused by the freedom and self-determination advocated for by the American President (Smith, 1997).

The activities of the nationalists led to the arrest of Wafd leaders including Zaghlul. This sparked considerable demonstrations and strikes in what was referred to as the “1919 Revolution.” The revolution turned violent as people protested against the British oppression. The Egyptians also appealed to the American authorities soliciting for help in the fight against the British oppression.

Despite numerous pleas from the Egyptians, the United States did not intervene as it wanted to maintain the warm relations with Britain. It has to be noted that when the Egyptians were protesting against the deportation of Zaghlul, the State Department issued instructions to the Diplomatic Agent in Cairo not to act in any way that would indicate backing for the nationalists.

During the same period, the British solicited for America’s recognition of Egypt as their protectorate. The United States heeded to the British request and recognized Egypt as a British protectorate. This was a decisive blow to the Egyptian nationalists who had banked too much on the American support (Gershoni and Jankowski, 1995).

When the United States recognized the British occupation of Egypt, there was damage that this had on the American prestige among the Egyptians. Nonetheless, this was never appreciated by the American diplomats who served at the time. In fact, most of them noted that most Egyptians were happy by the move taken by the United States.

However, it is clear that the United States was struggling to maintain warm relationships with both the British and the Egyptians. It is on record that some Egyptians continued to write to the American Legation in protest of the move to recognize Egypt as a British Protectorate.

In one of the messages, the United States was required to intervene “as the recognized champion of Right and justice to the weaker members of the great family of the Human race” (Manela, 2002, p. 76). Though the United States had recognized Egypt as a British protectorate, most Egyptians continued to have hope of support from the Americans.

During the 1920s, the people of Egypt came to acknowledge that the Americans had adopted a compliant policy towards the British rule. Following the assassination of a British commander by the Egyptians, the British replied with punitive measures against the Egyptians.

The Egyptians called upon the Americans for interventions, but the State Department was not willing to deviate from its policy towards the British. In deed the Secretary of State at the time, Charles Hughes, noted that there was no need to take action or acknowledge the plea by the Egyptian nationalists. This did not deter the Egyptians nationals from looking upon the Americans for support (Manela, 2002).

The era of Morton Howell as the American Minister to Cairo Morton Howell served as the American minister to Cairo between the years 1921 to 1927. He was appointed by President Harding to serve as the American Minister to Cairo. Howell was not pleased with the manner in which the Egyptians were being treated by the British. Howell was opposed to alcohol and British rule in Egypt. He was ruthless in his criticism against the British rule.

This made him gain popularity among the Egyptians nationalists. In his assertions, Howell claimed that the British administration was aggressive and dishonest in dealing with the Egyptians. He also argued that the British supported child labor and were involved in illegal drugs such as opium and alcohol. His view was that the activities of the British were destined to result into hatred from the Egyptian populace.

He also argued that this was going to affect the relationship of the British and those who support the Egyptians in their quest for independence. Howell was critical of the British High Commission, Lord Lloyd, and asserted that the commissioner was the main source of the Egyptian tribulations.

Howell went on to argue that the Egyptians needed assistance from other friendly and powerful nations so as to exonerate themselves from British colonialism. He was quick to ascertain that the United States was one of the nations to give support to the Egyptians (Manela, 2002).

Though Howell’s view deviated from the norm, the other career diplomats from the State Department did not share his perception. According to Howell, most career diplomats were not suitable to represent the United States. This observation was countered by officials from the State Department who called upon the Americans who were in Egypt to avoid the American Minister to Cairo at all cost.

This did not stop Howell from rebuking the British on how they handled the Egyptians. There are times when Howell could not wait for permission from the State Department, and this nearly landed him in trouble from Washington (Manela, 2002).

One can easily dismiss Howell as not reflecting the position of the United States during his tenure as the American representative in Cairo. However, it should be pointed out that Howell served for about six years representing the United States in Egypt. In this case, the Egyptians regarded Howell as representing the American government. Therefore, his assertions reflected the view of the government that he represented.

The nationalists in Egypt exploited the opportunity presented by Howell to advance their case. The nationalists appreciated Howell’s criticism against the British. When his term came to an end, he got a warm send off from the Egyptians who were glad of his courageous support to them.

Despite some disappointments that were witnessed in the period after the First World War, the role played by Howell in Egypt gave some hope that America was still reliable as a friend in the fight against the British (Manela, 2002).

On their part, the British administration was disappointed in Howell. Howell argued that the British authorities were imperial, and this trend was not to be condoned. This led to the publishing of an editorial by the British who were based in Egypt. In this editorial, Howell was lambasted and accused of mishandling what the British regarded as delicate issues.

In a rejoinder, Howell published a book in the year 1929 in which he criticized the British. His criticism was against the policy framework adopted by the British in Egypt. This did not go down well with the British authority in Cairo, and they attempted to ban the book in Egypt. The actions and the role played by Howell left an indelible mark on how the British and Egyptians perceived the United States.

It has to be noted that Howell had a difficult relationship with the State Department officials in representing the American position towards Egypt. All these serve to portray the contradictions that characterized the United States’ attitudes towards Egypt in the period after the First World War (Manela, 2000).

The principles held by Howell and his perceptions as the United States’ representative in Egypt portrayed the tension that existed among the American political class. Indeed there was the lack of decisiveness in regard to the perception of the British imperialists in Egypt and the need to maintain a good relationship with Britain.

Though the need to maintain warm relations with the British defined the American policy towards Egypt, the need to sentiments against the British imperial tendencies in Egypt did not go unnoticed. This is well reflected by the activities and the role played by Howell during his tenure as the American representative in Cairo.

Cultural Contact During the 1920s, there was no outstanding political relationship between the United States and Egypt. Nonetheless, there was a considerable development in terms of cultural contact. This is because of the archaeological discoveries that were made in Egypt. These discoveries provided a platform in which the Egyptians related with the American people (Manela, 2000).

When the tomb of Pharaoh Tuntankhamon was unearthed by a group of archaeologists, this brought about a lot of fascinations among the people of the United States. The archaeological discoveries dominated the popular press, and the Egyptians drew a lot of pride from it.

The national pride of the Egyptians and the politics surrounding the archaeological discoveries brought about a misunderstanding between the Egyptians and the excavators who were mostly foreigners (Manela, 2002).

The institutions from the United States that were involved in the excavations during the formative years of the 1920s had entered into an agreement on how to share the finds from the excavations. This was guided by the 1912 agreement in which it was agreed that the finds were to be equally split between the authorities in Egypt and the excavators.

However, when the Egyptians gained independence in 1922, this complicated the issue as the new Egyptian administration demanded significant control. There were widespread national sentiments demanding that the Egyptians take control of their heritage. The Egyptians launched a legal tussle in which they demanded full control of the Tutankhamon tomb and its riches from the late Lord Carnarvon.

Lord Carnarvon was a British aristocrat who owned the enterprise that oversaw the excavation of the tomb. James Henry Breasted, who was a renowned University of Chicago Egyptologist, stepped in to resolve the legal tussle between the Egyptian authorities and Lord Carnarvon (Manela, 2002).

The participation of James Henry Breasted in the dispute on ownership of the Tutankhamon was at an individual level. However, the struggle to control the Egyptian heritage soon involved the United States’ State Department. It has to be noted that there were various American institutions that were involved in the archaeological work within Egypt. Among them was the Metropolitan Museum of Art based in New York.

This institution wrote to the State Department in 1923 for assistance, and vowed to stop any financial assistance aimed at supporting archaeological work in Egypt. This was due to lack of respect to the 1912 agreement by the new Egyptian administration. The State Department was cautious in addressing this issue.

This is because it did not want to be involved directly as this could dent the reputation the country enjoyed from Egyptians. The State Department issued instructions to the American representative, Howell, to handle the issue with the Egyptian authorities. However, this was only if the other parties were willing to address the issue.

The State Department adopted an expanded cautious approach arguing that the Tutankhamon controversy was very intense and emotional, and thus the United States could not intervene. Nonetheless, when the nationalist government, which was headed by Zaghlul, came to power, the cautious approach had to change.

The nationalist government asserted that it was time to nationalize the Egyptian treasures. This prompted the United States to take a decisive step in resolving the issue (Manela, 2002).

The American representative to Cairo, Howell, was forced to face the Egyptian administration regarding the issue. The Egyptians argued that their plan was guided by the need to safeguard the scientific interests. It can be noted that both the Egyptian authorities and the foreign excavators cited scientific interests in advancing arguments. There were diplomatic exchanges between the two parties for quite some time.

However, in the year 1926, the foreign institutions agreed to the guarantees by the Egyptian authorities that it was ready to allow these institutions access to the finds that would not be needed for national and local collections. In this settlement, it can be viewed that the Egyptians emerged as the winners. It can be noted that the United States complied with the Egyptian’s quest to control its own heritage (Manela, 2000).

Apart from the controversy that surrounded the foreign excavation in Egypt, archaeology also presented a platform for other aspects to emerge. In essence, there was the emergence of “science, philanthropy, national pride, and imperial interest” that contested for influence (Manela, 2002, p. 82).

It can be pointed out that in 1925; John D. Rockefeller Jr. gave out a $10,000,000 to the Egyptian administration as a gift for the development of an archaeological museum in Cairo. This offer was from individuals of good will, and not directly from the American government.

Nonetheless, Frank Kellogg, the Secretary of State during the time, observed that the gesture by the private individuals would act to enhance the way the two nations related. In this regard, Frank observed that the American government needed to encourage and support such activities by private individuals.

Though the ten million dollars were presented as a gift, this came with some conditions. Rockefeller wanted the Egyptians to accept this “gift” and surrender the control of the museum to foreigners for a period of about 30 years (Manela, 2002).

The Egyptians did not embrace the “gift” wholeheartedly. At first, King Faud dismissed the offer arguing that his country was not in need of gifts from outsiders. Nonetheless, the King added that the executive was better placed to decide on the issue. This offer was discussed in detail within the government circles and finally rejected in 1926.

This is because this offer was perceived as an act of giving out the treasured Egyptian antiquity to foreigners. To the Americans, the gift was viewed as a gesture to support Egypt in advancing the scientific notions. On the other hand, the Egyptians interpreted this to mean that the foreigners were only interested in controlling their treasured heritage.

The missionaries The work of missionaries in Egypt also presented a way in which the Americans related to the Egyptians during the period after the First World War. The arrival of American missionaries from the United States to Egypt occurred during the 19th century. By the 1920s, the American missionaries were already operating schools, hospitals, and orphanages among other educational institutions in Egypt (Murphy, 1987).

The missionaries came to Egypt with the main aim of spreading the gospel (Boles, 2001). In addition, they also aimed at spreading western values and science to integrate the Egyptians into the progressive world order. The missionaries held the belief that their activities promoted America’s polished image among the Egyptians hence enhancing goodwill towards the United States.

This view was also held by various historians who studied the relationship between the two countries. Nonetheless, the reality of the situation was not as depicted by the missionaries and historians.

In deed considering that most Egyptians were subscribed to the Islamic religion, there was a general feeling that the missionaries were out to interfere with their traditions and values. The Egyptians perceived the missionaries as posing as a threat to the traditional social order (Manela, 2000).

The issue presented by the case of the missionaries was delicate and possibly volatile. This was well noted during the event that happened in April of 1928 commonly referred to as the “Zwemer Incident”.

During this incident, Dr. Samuel Zwemer, who was an American missionary, paid a visit to the one of the campuses of the al-Azhar University in Cairo. Dr. Samuel went on to distribute missionary pamphlets to some of the students at the university. This led to an uproar among students and teachers at the university (Manela, 2000).

The same sentiments were seen in the Egyptian press where the actions by Dr. Samuel Zwemer were denounced in the strongest terms possible. The Egyptian Minister in charge of Foreign Affairs demanded the US should apologize regarding the incident.

The American representatives moved fast to issue an apology. This did not stop Dr. Zwemer from continuing with his antics. This is because of the reports that he distributed similar pamphlets in cafes found in Alexandria (Manela, 2002).

The Christian missionaries were subjected to attacks from the local people during the 1930s (Murphy, 1987). In this regard, the United States was regarded as the main target. The activities of American missionaries were not regarded in a good light. The Egyptian press reported that the American educational institutions based in Cairo were centers of the missionary activities in Egypt.

It was alleged that the missionaries were aimed at converting innocent children to join Christianity at the expense of Islam. This made some Muslims adopt a hardline stance in regard to their religion (Boles, 2001). Some Egyptians were open in their resistance against the activities of the missionaries in their country.

Some resorted to writing books to vent out their resentment against the missionaries. One such Egyptian is Haykal who wrote a book that exemplified the life and teachings of Prophet Muhammad. This was meant to counter the advances made by the Christian missionaries (Manela, 2002).

The State Department in the United States was at a loss on how to address the missionary activities in Egypt. The State Department was split between supporting the role of the missionaries and then need to avoid antagonizing the people of Egypt. Nonetheless, the aspirations of the Egyptians seemed to take precedence leading to significant assertiveness among the Egyptians.

The American missionaries in Egypt pressed for the State Department to safeguard their interests within Egypt. In essence, they wanted the American government to push the Egyptian administration to observe religious liberty. However, the United States, having known the delicate nature of this issue, declined to show open backing for the missionaries.

It is well documented that, in 1930, the United States government informed its representative in Cairo to pass a very disturbing message to the missionaries stationed in Egypt. In part, the message noted that the American Government expected the missionaries to avoid actions that could generate anti-American sentiments among the Egyptian populations (Manela, 2002).

During the 1930s, it was realized that the definition of “religious liberty” was differently viewed between the Egyptians and the United States. The concept of religious liberty was enshrined in the Egyptian Constitution; however, it was not regarded in the same light as the Americans did. The Egyptians interpreted this concept to mean freedom to exercise a religion that an individual was born and raised.

This did not involve conversion from Islam to Christianity as the missionaries thought. This presented a great challenge to the State Department, which found it difficult to provide effective assistance. It should be observed that, in early 1940s, the Egyptian authorities banned the activities of the missionaries.

Following this ban, the American government remained mum on the issue. Truly, the American government was keen on preserving the goodwill it enjoyed among the Egyptian populace. This meant that the United States government did not want to take actions that could strain its relationship with Egypt.

Conclusion During the era described as “the interwar years”, the relationship between the United States and Egypt was diverse though not pronounced. From the discussion, it can be asserted that the United States associated with the Egyptians with the aim of cultivating goodwill from the Egyptian populace. However, this was not done in an open way as the United States had other interests at heart.

Despite the Americans appearing to be restrained on the Egyptian affairs, there some incidences which suggested that the Americans were concerned with what was happening in Egypt. Indeed the tenure of Dr. Howell as the American representative in Cairo indicated that the United States cared for the Egyptians.

Also, it is important to note that there are incidences where the United States seemed split on the side to take in the Egyptian affairs. During the early years of the second decade during the 20th century, the United States was torn between showing support to the Egyptians or the British who were colonizing them. The United States wanted to preserve its friendship with Britain, as well as the goodwill among the Egyptians.

The United States continued to maintain good relations with the Egyptians. This is despite when it was clear that the Egyptians were not adhering to the precedents set by the United States. The case in point is the frustrations that the American missionaries encountered in Egypt. The American government did not condemn the activities of the government in frustrating the work of the missionaries.

It can also be noted that the archaeological work in Egypt by the Americans was another area of conflict. In general, the relationship between Egypt and the United States during the inter-war period was aimed at maintaining cordial relations.

References List Brune, L.H. (2003). Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations: 1932-1988. New York: Routledge.

Boles, I. (2001). Egypt – Persecution: Disappearing Christians of the Middle East. Middle East Quarterly, 8(1): 23-29

Curtis, M. (1986). The Middle East reader. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.

Ember, S. (2011). American History: Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy in the 1930s. Web.

Gershoni, I. and Jankowski, J.P. (1995). Redefining the Egyptian Nation, 1930-1945. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.

Kaufman, B.I. (1977). Finance and American Foreign Policy in the 1930s. Reviews in American History, 5(2): 281-2850

Kindleberger, C.P. (1986). The World in Depression, 1929-1939. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Manela, E. (2000). “Friction from the sidelines: Diplomacy, religion, and culture in American-Egyptian Relations, 1919-1939.” In A. Abbas eds. The United States and the Middle East: Diplomatic and Economic Relations in Historical Perspective. New Haven: Yale Center for Area Studies.

Manela, E. (2002). Goodwill and bad: Rethinking US-Egyptian contacts in the interwar years. Middle Eastern Studies, 38(1): 71-78.

Meyer, G.E. (1980). Egypt and the United States: The formative years. Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickson University Press.

Murphy, L.R. (1987). The American University in Cairo, 1919-1987. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.

Paterson, T.G. (2010). American foreign relations: A history. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Sage, H.J. (2011). Background to World War II: American Foreign Policy 1920-1941. Web.

Sharp, J.M. (2011). Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Simmons, B. (1994). Who Adjusts? Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policy During the Interwar Years, 1923-1939. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Smith, C.D. (1997). Imagined Identities; Imagined Nationalisms: Print Culture and Egyptian Nationalism in Light of Recent Scholarship.” A Review Essay of Israel Gershoni and James P. Jankowski, Redefining the Egyptian Nation, 1930-1945, Cambridge Middle East Studies (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995). International Journal of Middle East Studies, 29(4): 607-622.

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Macroeconomic Concepts and Models Application Essay writing essay help

The biofuel has brought a large impact to the economic world based on various sectors. This perhaps could have been due to its broad usage over the recent years. This is especially after the farmers took a step on improved farming skills to come up with significant exploration on biofuels. Some of this impacts brought about by the biofuels are numerous.

The recent rise in corn price has brought massive losses to the processors of the biofuels since they have to incur other expenses as they convert to a finished product. Therefore, this has resulted in increased final price to the consumer. Some of the impacts that have brought about more use of the biofuel in the current world have led to the replacement of the liquid oil from 1-2% recently1.

Secondly, it has reduced price expenses with a range between 2-4%, which is due to its stiff competition with the other oil fuels. Thirdly, it has saved the consumers by approximately $60 billion globally. This is due to its reduced cost which has enabled the consumers to save more than what they have been incurring before the price reduction.

Fourthly, after its magnificent exploration it has brought about its large demand in the market. Essentially, this resulted in price increase of between 16-40%. Lastly, it brought about its use since it was explored unlike beginning before it came into its full use. This has shown that 12% of the corn output was in biofuels2.

The developments in agriculture and conversion technology might influence the demand for biofuels. This is because of the same forces which bring about an increase in demand for fuel and food. The low output by the personnel in charge of production may bring about price escalation.

This is due to high fuel demand with reduced production, which cannot sustain the market demand. Moreover, when there is low stock in the market and there demand is outweighing the supply; it also leads to price increase. This is because of competition by the consumers rushing for the limited stock in the market3.

Some of the effects that have been brought about by the increased competition in the oil market include increased demand for biofuels. This also led to increases demand and price of crops such as corn. This has brought huge impacts on food prices, which have been accumulating over the period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has brought a shortage leading to a decline in supply hence enhancing a push in prices. Slight changes in supply could have led to tremendous effects. Moreover, it is noted that the use of biofuel has increased from 16 % to 40% inception4.

An increase in price of crops and a decrease in the price of fuel on a low income person will force the consumer to forego the fuel and go for food. This will make the consumer substantiate the amount of money used in buying fuel to derive utility on food due to increase in food prices. The consumer will tend to have less demand on fuel, but the demand of the food will shoot up creating an increase in food price.

This will cause a shift in the demand curve of food to a higher level. Also, it will result in movement of supply of food demanded towards the origin point of the X-axis. All this is because the consumer will not bother on biofuels. This is because consumers will have to give the first preference to the food before everything else5.

This will shift the equilibrium upwards due to food demand increase effect. This indicates that the person on a low income level would prefer to invest in food crop rather than the biofuel crops like corn. This is because the person may feel that investing in food crop would reduce the cost. This is because the individual is not in a position to incur much on biofuel which he or she may not need it at all6.

Basing on the same models and concepts relating to a person who spends a relatively small portion of her income on food, the consequences of the changes in the price levels will still vary. This is brought about by the fact that the person has no problem in buying food. This is due to high income level exhibited by the consumer7.

Therefore, this does not limit the consumer in purchasing the good regardless of the price increase. Nonetheless, the consumer will have to cut down the consumption of biofuel so as to compensate the cost incurred due to food price increase. This will bring a slight change in the demand curve of biofuel.

In this case, biofuel demand will decrease, but the demand for food will remain unchanged. The supply of biofuel will decrease in the mean time before the consumer adjusts to the normal equilibrium8.

We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomic Concepts and Models Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is all achieved by the introduction of equivalent variation that will bring the consumer back to the original consumption point in the equilibrium level. On the other hand, the same person who is spending little amount on food will spend most of his or her income in plating fuel crops like corn in return.

This is due to a high rate of return while investing in biofuel rather than planting food crops of limited economic value to the individual. In a general sense, the person of high income will invest on biofuel, and not on food crops9.

The price will change from Po to P1 due to the Quantity change from Q0 to Q1.

The possible government policy response to the raised issues in parts A and B could help solve some of these problems encountered by consumers or the producers. Some of these issues affect all people within the system of biofuel. This includes the farmer and the final consumer without neglecting the processers and the middle distribution personnel.

The farmers may be affected by the climate change or drought hence lowering the production of corn. This will lead to limited supply in the market. In this case, the price of food in the market will go up. This will force the consumers to carry the burden incurred by the processors during the processing stages.10

The cost of producing corn by the farmer, and selling it to the processers will still have to bear a huge cost. This is because during the low production season, the farmer will have to sell them at a high price. In this regard, the middle producers will increase the price of the biofuel in case they were converting it to a fuel.

This is because of the raw materials scarcity in the market, which requires them to assemble their output before they convert to the final output.11 Notably, in each and every organization, profit is given the first preference.

At last, the consumer will have to bear all the burden cost incurred by the farmers and the final producers in between before it reached them. The farmer has to push the cost of production to the next level due to increase in fertilizer and oil used by tractors in preparing the farm12.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomic Concepts and Models Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apart from the production cost, there are also other factors like transport cost in oil to the required places. The transportation of oil from the point of production to the consumers will have to be factored in by sellers. This will also bring about the huge burden to the consumers. This might be due to the country based on does not produce the oil within the country13.

The other factor is due to increased production of ethanol which requires more of corn to be used as the main raw material. This boosted a great competition in food production hence encouraging high income people to venture much on it. This has also brought about limited land to be used in production of food crops14.

The government can intervene to reduce or close the gap so that consumers and the producers are not oppressed. The government should make sure that there is an increase in food availability and biofuels to sustain the whole population basing on the market demand.

This will address the needs of the final consumer. This will enable the farmers to meet the reasonable price in production, and ensure the final consumers pay reasonable price in the market. The last policy is that the government should invest in improving technology to enhance production of food and biofuel crops. This will balance the demand and supply in the market.

Bibliography Bethune, Pete. Earthrace: Futuristic Adventures On The High Seas. North Shore, N.Z.: Hodder Moa/Hachette Livre, 2007.

Brittaine, Richard and NeBambi Lutaladio. Jatropha: a smallholder bioenergy crop. 2010. Accessed from http://www.fao.org/3/i1219e/i1219e.pdf

Buchanan, James M. The Demand and Supply of Public Goods, Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty, 2012.

Bullis, Kelvin. Record Food Prices Linked to Biofuels. 2011. Accessed from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/424329/record-food-prices-linked-to-biofuels/

Cohen, Marc J., Cristina Tirado, Noora-Lisa Aberman and Brian Thompson. Impact of Climate Change on Bioenergy and Nutrition. n.d. Accessed from http://www.ifpri.org/publication/impact-climate-change-and-bioenergy-nutrition

Hawken, Paul, Amory B. Lovins and Hunter Lovins. Natural capitalism: The Next Industrial Revolution. London: Earthscan, 2005.

Heinberg, Richard. The party’s over oil, war and the fate of industrial societies, Gabriola, B.C.: New Society Publisher, 2003.

International Council of Shopping Centers. Retail Space Europe: Year book 2008, [S.l.]: International Council of Shopping Centers, 2008.

Keeley, Brian and Patrick Love. From Crisis to Recovery The Causes, Course and Consequences of the Great Recession. Paris: OECD, 2010.

Kirman, Alan. “The Intrinsic Limits of Modern Economic Theory: The Emperor has No Clothes”, The Economic Journal, V. 99, N. 395, (1989): pp 126-139

Kotler, Philip and Waldemar A. Pförtsch. B2B brand management with 7 tables, Berlin: Springer, 2006

Mitchell, Donald. Biofuels in Africa opportunities, prospects, and challenges, Washington, D.C: World Bank, 2011.

Wrobel, Paulo and Alberto Luiz Pinto Coelho Fonseca. Clean Energy The Brazilian Ethanol Experience. London: Embassy of Brazil, 2006.

Zilberman, David, Deepak Rajagopal, Steven Sexton and Gal Hochman. Biofuel and the New Economics Of Agriculture. 2008. Accessed from https://www.farmfoundation.org/

Footnotes 1 Zilberman, David; Deepak Rajagopal; Steven Sexton and Gal Hochman. Biofuel and the New Economics Of Agriculture. 2008.

2 Alan Kirman. “The Intrinsic Limits of Modern Economic Theory: The Emperor has No Clothes”, The Economic Journal, V. 99, N. 395, (1989), p. 127

3Richard Heinberg. The party’s over oil, war and the fate of industrial societies,(Gabriola, B.C.: New Society Publisher, 2003), p. 40

4 Richard Brittaine and NeBambi Lutaladio. Jatropha: a smallholder bioenergy crop. 2010.

5 Philip Kotler and Waldemar A. Pförtsch. B2B brand management with 7 tables,(Berlin: Springer, 2006), p. 299

6James M Buchanan. The Demand and Supply of Public Goods, (Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty, 2012), p. 14.

7 International Council of Shopping Centers. Retail Space Europe: Year book 2008.([S.l.]: International Council of Shopping Centers, 2008), p. 46

8 Cohen, Marc J., Cristina Tirado, Noora-Lisa Aberman and Brian Thompson. Impact of Climate Change on Bioenergy and Nutrition. n.d.

9 Paulo, Wrobel and Alberto Luiz Pinto Coelho Fonseca. Clean energy the Brazilian ethanol experience, (London: Embassy of Brazil 2006), p. 56

1010 Bullis, Kelvin. Record Food Prices Linked to Biofuels. 2011.

11 Pete Bethune. Earthrace: Futuristic Adventures On The High Seas, (North Shore, N.Z.: Hodder Moa/Hachette Livre, 2007), p. 35

12 Donald Mitchell. Biofuels in Africa opportunities, prospects, and challenges, (Washington, D.C :World Bank, 2011), p. 76

13 Paul, Hawken, Amory B. Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins. Natural capitalism: The Next Industrial Revolution, (London: Earthscan, 2005), p. 84

14 Brian Keeley and Patrick Love. From Crisis to Recovery the Causes, Course and Consequences of the Great Recession. (Paris: OECD, 2010), p. 46

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Fundamentals of Scientific method Exploratory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Scientific method is defined as a process that is used to comprehend phenomena by developing a hypothesis, learning and experimentation in order to be able to forecast the phenomena again.

There are different scientific inquiry processes. All these inquiries are based on three principles. These principles are making observations, forming hypothesis and hypotheses testing. The first step in scientific inquiry is spotting a problem, which are followed by carrying out an experiment.

After this, the next step involves analyzing the data collected from the experiment. Lastly, researcher makes a conclusion depending on the already collected and analyzed data. Every step in the scientific method inquiry process is of paramount importance as it reduces the chances of anyone carrying out research to influence the result due to personal bias (Kumar, 2008).

Research example of the scientific method and identify each step within your example Street families, this becomes the problem identified. A researcher can ask how to alleviate street families in cities. Next researcher examines past studies about street families in the city. After this researcher collects data on the street families in the city after which he analyzes data and lastly makes a decision based on analyzed data.

Quantitative research is defined as systematic empirical inquiry of any social phenomena through mathematical, statistical and computational techniques. The goal of the quantitative research is to come up and use mathematical theories, models and hypotheses relating to a given phenomena. Quantitative research has to use measurement process to show how its findings can be expressed mathematically.

In simple terms, quantitative research does ask straightforward narrow questions. Data is then collected in numerical form such as a percentage and statistical. This is done with a hope that after analyzing data, analyzer will get unbiased results. Unbiased results enables researcher to make informed decisions. This eliminates the chances of making mistakes in decision-making.

Qualitative research is defined as a method of inquiry used in various academic disciplines in social science and market research. The primary reason to carry out qualitative research is to understand people behavior and forces that lead to such behaviors. Qualitative research tries to explain why and how a decision is made. Qualitative research gives information about the cases only studied and not for generalization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research is used to evaluate people’s attitudes, values, motivations, culture or aspirations. It usually uses interviews, surveys, photos, feedback forms and videos. Qualitative research does not entirely depend on numbers and statistical as with the case of quantitative research (Cris, 2008).

How to decide whether to use a quantitative or qualitative research methodology For a researcher to identify, the method to use he is expected to know the result expected. One has to examine the information he need to get and how obtained information will be utilized. Qualitative research answers the question why while quantitative research answers the question how many.

If a researcher aims to find how many people like a certain product, researcher can use quantitative research method. This can be used when carrying out research to know the number of people who attends counseling centers.

Qualitative researches get used when determining the reason that makes individuals behave in a given way. This can be used to analyze why an individual attends a counseling session. What drives someone to behave in a given way. Mixed research method is a research method that combines both the qualitative and quantitative research methods approaches.

It allows the researcher to collect qualitative and quantitative data in the same research. Mixed method research uses different strategies such as development, triangulation, expansion and initiation. The researcher decides the strategies to combine depending on the goal of the study.

There are various strengths of mixed research. Researcher is able to generate and test a grounded theory. In addition, researcher has an opportunity to use pictures and narratives to add meaning to numbers.

In mixed method researcher can use strength of the combined method to counteract the weakness of another combined method. This leads to accurate results. This method adds understanding and insights that might be absent when one method is used. Moreover, this method increases generalizability of the result thus making researcher save research cost.

We will write a custom Essay on Fundamentals of Scientific method specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mixed research method is mostly used when researcher wants to have a broad overview of the study. It is necessary when one want to know the number and the aim or the behavior. In human service field, it can be used to find out the employees attracted to work in a given organization and how many seek employment in that organization.

Scientifically sound research does support the functions of a human service manager in that the information collected through research is based on facts. Through these findings, human service manager makes informed and accurate decisions.

Sound research being evidence based will be a reliable source of reference in making decisions. Any human service problem can only be well known through research thereby making research a must device in human service manager.

References Cris, K. (2008). Research Methodology:Methods and Techniques. Chicago: New Age International.

Kumar, R. (2008). Reserch Methodology. New Delhi: S.B Nangia Publisher.

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Photography’s Impact on Society Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Photography effects on war

Photography and war history

Photography and promoting rights of civilians

Photography in military search and rescue

Photography and war intelligence

Photography and storage of classified military information

Conclusion

References

Photography effects on war Photography in the modern society is important and contributes positively to the life of human beings. This article is about ways through which society has progressed as result of photography. This paper is about the impact of photography on war. Louis Daguerre did not begin photography but his invention of the metal plate, which could produce photos within thirty minutes, had a major contribution in the field of photography.

This ability to capture and store images so that it is possible to view them in future explains what photography is. Photography has transformed the world where it has enabled the storage of memorable events for future reference making it easy for anyone to remember important events.

The society has been able to have perception of reality through what they see in photos. This means that even though someone did not have a real experience in an event or someone on seeing a photo he or she perceived as if that was the reality (Todd, 2009).

Photography and war history Human warfare is one of the oldest aspects of human existence, and many historical narrations have narratives of battles, which have taken place since time immemorial. However, there was no better way of narrating those events except through photos. The photography depicting sceneries of war and massacre have done a lot in reducing human warfare as its effects on people make them fear war and avoid it at all costs.

The pictures taken from scenes of dying soldiers in the American civil war are some of the reasons that evoked strong emotions, which led to the end of the war. The reality brought about by photography is of major effect to everyone. Photos taken from Vietnam War or even the American civil war are evidence of this development.

Photos from the Second World War are some of the stories that have been used to show war photography. Photos of devastated Hiroshima and Fukushima after the United States of America dropped the atomic bombs on the two cities remain engraved in the heart of many concerning the dangers of nuclear and atomic weapons. This was the last time in the world to use atomic bombs and it is still remembered.

The role which photography played to portray those scenarios is important. It is certain that such weapons would still be in use if there were no means of recording the reality of what happened after attack through the two bombs. Photography is therefore critical in shaping the course of war all over the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kyoto protocol is one of the developments that were implemented to take care of the dangers caused by the use of atomic weapons in war (Joel, 1994).

The photos from Vietnam War showing suffering American soldiers changed the public mood about the Vietnam War and this led to the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. It is evident that photos influenced the war in Afghanistan, which has led to withdrawal of American soldiers from the troops. Photos of soldiers harassing the civilians resulted to public outcry against the occupation of American soldiers in Afghanistan.

The image of dead Osama bin Laden made it certain that Bin Laden was no more. Without the evidence of the photos of his capture and death, the information that he was dead could not be true. Likewise, the images and photos of Gaddafi and his capture ascertained that the strong man was already dead. This shows how the photography has shaped the perception of reality.

Without photos, the information on the newspapers would not be credible and they would have a certain degree of doubt. The photos enable people to have certainty that the information provided is real. Although with digital technology, it is possible to alter images and maneuver them, the public are still relying on images as the source of reality and truth (Gustafson, 2011).

Photography and promoting rights of civilians There is a tendency of the conflicting parties to abuse the rights one another. This happens to the innocent young children and vulnerable women. When the young children are denied their right, it becomes difficult to be taken care of because it goes without being noted by the relevant authority. Photography has however changed this aspect in a great way through providing photos of different scenes.

War journalists are capable of predicting the reality and cases of torture and abuse of civilians by the armies in a way, which is real in order to provide information to the public. Photos of young children who were fighting for their rights have been appreciated and respected all over the world. The Congolese warlord Lubanga was jailed after trial by the international criminal court for violating the rights of young children.

The evidence used against him consisted of photos of young children in uniform of the army. The other pictures that were used to show the violation of human rights were in the case of the Darfur in Sudan where genocide occurred and mass slaughter of civilians by the government forces.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Photography’s Impact on Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The depiction of such genocide would be impossible without photography. This has made the President of Sudan Omar al Bashir to be accused for crimes against humanity (Gustafson, 2011).

Photography in military search and rescue The other aspect of war where photography use is common is in search and rescue missions. Modern photography is not based on the white light alone because they have X-ray films that are sensitive to the X- rays from any source.

There are films, which are also sensitive to the infrared and have been used in search and rescue mission helicopters or in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that identify a warm human being who is in a cold background. This has enhanced search and rescue operations during war as the soldiers may use the unmanned aerial vehicles to identify the location of their lost soldiers in the dark as well as in the territory of the enemy.

This aspect of search and rescue has not only been used for war purposes but also in search and rescue of people in calamities such as Hurricane Katrina and Tsunamis (Todd, 2009).

Photography and war intelligence Photography has also changed the scope of war on the aspect of spying the enemy territory. With the advent of digital technology and the creation of films with forty mega pixels or more it is now easy for the country to locate the hiding places of the enemies and take pictures showing the topography and geography for further study.

This has improved the efficiency of spying where spy cameras are mounted on satellites with orbit around the world and they are used to take pictures in different places where a particular country want to study or to spy. Recently, there has been uproar against North Korea launching a satellite, as it may be intending to spy the enemies.

The recent development of micro cameras that are tiny with the capability of storing images has changed intelligence of war. Due to the rise of cases of terrorism in many nations, there has been need for the nations to protect themselves against terrorism. This has made many countries to use the secret micro cameras for monitoring people as well as their activities.

Hotels and supermarkets are some of the places, which have used this surveillance. The supermarkets and homes are secure because with such cameras information is recorded and it is retrievable if need arises or if there is investigation to be done.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Photography’s Impact on Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, not all people have appreciated this development of micro cameras with accusations of invasion of privacy directed toward photography. Cases of crime have significantly reduced because of installation of micro cameras. Security in offices where cameras are used is high and efficient compared to offices, which do not have micro cameras (Waterbuck, 2001).

Photography and storage of classified military information The other area that photography has great influence regards data storage. Many nations after awareness of attacks by their enemies store their security data and classified information in films. The films are part of photography and are used to make work easier. With the advent of digital technology scanning of huge amount of documents nowadays and producing them as new documents is the norm.

This has made it possible for conversion of ancient texts and books found in libraries into digital formats. These digital formats are convenient to store a lot of information in small portions. Many armies have since time immemorial has stored a lot of files and inventories, which consumed a lot of space.

Photography has enabled scanning of these documents in a way that they are typed and stored in digital formats. Medical records involving soldier’s health such as X- ray’s scans are nowadays stored in digital format, which make it possible for easy tracking of the patient’s medical history (Prasad, 2005).

Conclusion Photography has influenced the society in different ways some of which are positive while others are negative. The influence of photography in war is one of the positive ways in which photography has influenced the society. Prevention of many issues with tendencies to escalate into war by solving them using other mechanism such as economic embargo and no fly zones is the norm.

Human beings all over the world have worked to ensure that war is the last option after seeing its devastating effects. Without photography, nuclear weapons would still be in use as it would be difficult to express its effects without the realism which photography brings across.

The intrusion of privacy is questionable in terms of ethics in photography and is one of the major aspects ignored by the modern photographers. Nevertheless, the role played by photography in changing the world receives appreciation from all people. The influence of photography all over the world is evident with photos being part of life and thereby creating a situation where their use and appreciation is for everyone.

References Gustafson, T. (2011). 500 cameras: 170 years of photographic innovation. New York: George Eastman House.

Joel, L. (1994). Bystander: A history of War photography: Boston, Boston Press.

Prasad, S. (2005). Digital photography in War United Kingdom: York Hospitals NHS Trust.

Todd, L. (2009). Role of photography today. New York: Oxford University Press.

Waterbuck, C. (2001). The sidewalk never ends street photography since the 1970s. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago.

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Legalization of the Same Sex Marriage in California Research Paper college admission essay help

Same sex marriage in California has taken a different route as compared to the other states in America. With effect from June 2008, the state allowed and licensed same sex marriages, being the second state to take that step. The rationale behind this as indicated by a ruling made by the Supreme Court was founded on the need for protection and respect to decisions made by the citizens, in this case those who practice homosexuality.

This ban was however declared unconstitutional by the federal court in 2010, a decision that was granted full support by the United States court of appeal in 2012 (University of California, 2010). From this therefore, same sex marriages in California are being governed from three perspectives which are the law, Prop8 and the Supreme Court.

The perspective of the law, according to the federal court in California, indicates that the ban on same sex marriages is unlawful and against the constitution since it violates the human rights dignity of a section of the society. The Californian parliament voted in support of same sex marriages, making it the first state to take such an action.

This was however met with great controversy especially from the religious communities, most of which claimed that this was a defilement to the sanctity of marriage. They alleged that these kinds of marriages created an environment that is not fit for the healthy development of children. This controversy is what led to the development of Proposition 8, an amendment that was taken to the polls in 2008 (Head, 2009).

Proposition 8, which is motion supporting a ban on same sex marriage, was passed in 2008 by way of vote, since the proposition to ban same sex marriage got more than 50 percent of the votes. This was however opposed by the court indicating that it denied the rights of the minority for no reason.

They indicated that the law proposing the ban on same sex marriage had no legal ground but was only aimed at denying the gay couples the rights associated with legal and registered marriages (National Conference of State Legislature, 2008). The argument of the judge who supported this ban was that the society needed children to be raised in heterosexual families for healthy growth.

Five months before passing prop 8, same sex marriages had been legalized by the Supreme Court and this led to the bending of some laws which previously limited the definition of marriage to the union between man and woman (National conference of state legislatures, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prop 8 was the first constitutional amendment of its kind and this explains why it was subject to a lot of controversy. This was opposed by the gay community who alleged that it required an approval of 2/3 of the legislative votes before being brought out in the public for the polls, a condition that was not adhered to.

The Supreme Court of California maintains that the ban on same sex marriages is unethical since every person is at liberty to make their own decisions as long as they do not interfere with other people’s freedom, a ruling made in 2012.

This court denounced the prop 8 ban, comparing this ban to racial or gender discriminations, which were highly condemned. It stated that this ruling failed to provide a reasonable ground for the denial of these so called human rights. (University of California, 2010). Still in the opposition of the ban, the Supreme Court went ahead to claim same sex marriages did not in any way affect the upbringing of children.

Still in this regard the judges of the Supreme Court required that federal state of California to revise rules related to the ban of same sex marriages. In this regard, the California university law publication article Sexuality

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Quantitative Analysis of Sustainable Development Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract Sustainable development is vital in business environment. Reflectively, this concept defines feasibility of a company and its solvency within a specified period of time. In the contemporary society, the term sustainability refers to the ability to survive while at the same time within profitability mode.

In business environment, sustainability is affected by the forces in the market, decision science, corporate structure, and real financial management both in short ah long term. Therefore, a business organization must put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules within feasible levels.

Specifically, this paper dwells on quantitative analysis of the aspect of sustainability as related to Johnson and Johnson Company which has been in active operations for over a century. To begin with, the paper analyses Johnson and Johnson’s mission and goals, Johnson

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Coca-Cola Company: Case Study essay help

Introduction Coca-Cola Company is one of the most global successful multinational corporations headquartered in Atlanta, USA. The corporation has branches in more than 200 countries, which are doing well both in sales and management.

This case study focuses on the research about Coca-Cola Company and analyzes its VALS information, Customer Analysis, Product Market, Segmentation and Targeting, Competition, and Competitive Market Analysis.

VALS Information Regarding VALS information, the corporation recently used psychographic procedures in dividing its market. Based on the available information, the buyers are classified into various categories using psychological traits, depending on the person’s lifestyle (SRI-BI 1).

Here, the person’s lifestyle determines his/her purchasing behavior and helps in determining the consumers’ attitude, aspirations, opinions, hopes, desires, beliefs, fears, prejudice, needs, fears, and desires (SRI-BI 1). Therefore, the company uses the information received using VALS to develop brand personalities and images. As a result, the corporation increases the preference for its product and boosts the overall sales.

Customer Analysis Since the company provides a range of energy and soft drinks, its customers are drawn from all categories of people regardless of age, race, sex, culture, and other social attributes (Perreault 24). The company has numerous brands specifically to satisfy the needs and tastes of its worldwide consumers (Lagos, Schirf and Smith 2). Indeed, the global success of the company products results from the rise in consumer preferences.

Notably, people from all social classes identify with the range of coca-cola soft drinks available in the market. Those from high, medium and low-class purchase coca-cola products because the drinks are of different prices to cater for the financial position of the customers (Lagos, Schirf and Smith 2). As a result of innovation, the company has been able to meet the consumer needs and aspirations

Product Market The company has a range of products, which guarantee the consumers’ health needs. The products are of great taste and low fats. Furthermore, it has fruit juices for adults and children to supplement fruits, which people need for health and refreshment. Other products include energy drinks, mineral water, sport drinks, soft drinks, tea and coffee drinks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the company products, energy drinks include play and rehab among others. Juices include fuze, acueducto, andina fresh and others. Mineral water includes vio, acquamist and others. Soft drinks include Coca cola, Fanta, and Sprite among others. Tea and Coffee include deeppresso and other products.

Segmentation and Targeting Segmentation

The criteria that the company uses to classify its customers are measurable, responsive to marketing mix and reasonable (Perreault 42). Therefore, the segmentation criteria that the company applies include economic, geographic, demographic, behavioral and psychographic.

Under economic segmentation, the market is divided based of the level of income (Perreault 55). Therefore, this classification has people contain people from high-income, medium-income and low-income categories.

Geographic segmentation acknowledges variables climate, population growth, region, and population density (Perreault 56). The company invests more on regions with high population growth and density.

Demographic segmentation relies on human variables including age, ethnicity, gender, occupation, education, family status and others (Perreault 57). These variables are different aspects and the company applies then only on areas deemed essential, in the sense that those factors do not affect the consumer choices and preference.

Behavioral segmentation enables the company to use variables such as price sensitivity rate of usage; benefit sought, and brand loyalty (Perreault 58). In this area, the company uses such attributes to improve on the quality of its products.

Psychographic segmentation helps the company determine the consumers’ lifestyle, attitude toward the product and value he/she attaches to it (Perreault 59). Through this segmentation, the company is able to understand the customers’ preference and desires thus make informed choices during distribution.

We will write a custom Case Study on Coca-Cola Company: specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Targeting

Through enhancing promotion and advertising, the company targets high and middle class people because this category consists of people with enough money to purchase such luxury products (Shimp 37). In addition, the company has innovated economy packs, costing less so that the consumers from low class do not miss these luxurious products.

Such innovation has made the products and the company popular among the public. For instance, coca-cola soft drink is one of the most popular brands that the company has. Furthermore, its cost is reasonable and pocket friendly for all the consumers drawn from all classes because the product is packed in relatively small quantities.

Competition

Since there are other companies manufacturing soft drinks and the non-alcoholic ones, the Coca-Cola Company operates in a very competitive business environment.

Some of the innovative approaches to encounter competition include product’s diversification, price reduction, carrying out targeted advertising and promotions (Lagos, Schirf and Smith 2). Competition is very healthy since it increases innovation while improving the quality of the products (Blythe 78).

Coca-Cola Company competes in a number of industries including soft drink, beverage, juice, non-alcoholic beverage, health

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The Cultural Revolution in China Research Paper college essay help online

The need to address Mao’s interests in the rivalry with his opponents was disguised in the fight for the preservation of socialism in China through the Cultural Revolution. Mao saw this as an opportunity to make a comeback into power after the immense loss he suffered in the Great Leap Forward (Lu, 2004). He had considerably lost in terms of his influence within the Chinese Communist Party leadership.

He exploited the fact that his shortcomings exhibited through this event remained unpublicized to launch the Cultural Revolution. They used the notion of capitalism eroding the socialism upon which China thrived to mollify the people to support their cause. The misdirection of the youth by the Mao faction adversely affected their psychological well being as well as the genuine prospects of socialism.

The youths were considerably disillusioned because of the negative experiences they encountered during the revolution. This underlines the fundamental objective of the revolution as depicted by Mao. The education sector in China suffered considerably during the era of the revolution. Mao factionists paraded and humiliated academic administrators in the streets labeling them as rightists (Lu, 2004).

Mao’s perception that academicians supported his opponents solely fueled the harassment that he bestowed upon them. This in itself illustrates the personal insecurities that drove Mao in his advocacy for the revolution. He did not want his authority questioned, and thus any elements that might have had the audacity to question his policies had to be suppressed.

The use of the public humiliation in this regard, amounted to the suppression of free political discussion. Most of the followers of Mao’s cause in the Revolution never realized that he shared in the undertakings of the Communist Party. At one point, when the students that Mao had mobilized unleash terror on his rivals turned uncontrollable, he compromised with his opponents an illustration that his motives were personally driven.

He further demonstrated his opportunism by entering into a deal with the US imperialism, which he claimed to oppose. Mao used his political resources to secure the dismissal of selected officials within the armed forces, the cultural establishment, Peking municipal government, and the Politburo itself (Lu, 2004).

The revolution, which Mao hoped to be his most significant contribution to China to Marxism-Leninism, instead became the monumental error of his later years. Because of his influence, his tragedy became the tragedy of the whole nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The costs of this revolution were largely the consequences of Mao’s perception that China was on the brink of the restoration of capitalism, and his prescription that the youth mobilization was the best option to prevent it (Jiang, 2007).

The crisis is comparable to a crisis of political modernization in a developing country in the 20th century where there are high levels of protest due to widespread dissatisfaction with a variety of social, economic, and organizational policies. The Chinese Communist party was unable to either suppress the dissidents or accommodate them. The results, just like elsewhere, was chaos and anarchy.

However, what is unique about the Cultural Revolution is that the leader of the regime itself deliberately induced the crisis (Jiang, 2007). Mao called into question the legitimacy of the Chinese Communist Party and mobilized the social forces that would undermine the government. He provided the political and ideological vocabulary for the protest and dissidents.

The fact that the Revolution ended with Mao’s death depicts a revolution whose ideologies were only the making a few individuals. Mao used his influence to attain his objectives by exploiting the ignorant and dissatisfied elements in the society.

The aftermath of Cultural Revolution is best described in terms of the trails of destruction left behind. It was a ruthless power struggle between Mao’s group and his conservative opponents. The Cultural Revolution was a chaotic era that witnessed the victimization of helpless intellectuals, loyal party members, and innocent civilians (MacFarquhar, 1991). During this episode, democracy and the law were disregarded.

The people, whose opinions were the supposed cause for the Revolution, were left with a sense abandonment and isolation. The Cultural Revolution witnessed a lot of bloodshed with anyone perceived as an enemy of the revolution being the target. Institutions of learning literally ceased to function, as the youth were key participants in the revolution since Mao managed convinced them that the school system was oppressive.

The leaders in the Revolution disregarded the freedom of thought and of academic inquiry that they ought to have promoted as genuine Marxists. Nothing illustrates better the Revolution’s impact on China’s education system than the fact that the education ministry was abolished in 1966 and remained that way until 1975 (MacFarquhar, 1991).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Cultural Revolution in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The youth, especially the students who abandoned their formal study to engage in factional fights as Red guards, which was one of Mao’s major instruments in his undertakings, ended up disillusioned and felt betrayed at the end of the war.

Although they sacrificed a lot to the cause of restoring socialism in their country, there were no substantial benefits derived from the Revolution. Furthermore, China’s economy suffered greatly during the era of the Cultural Revolution.

References Jiang, J. (2007). Burden or legacy: from the Chinese Cultural Revolution to contemporary art. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press ;.

Lu, X. (2004). Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: the impact on Chinese thought, culture, and communication. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press.

MacFarquhar, R. (1991). The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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Distinction between spontaneous and designed order Compare and Contrast Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

There are two worldviews dated back to the eighteenth century in institutional economics. These are ‘topdown’ and ‘bottomup’ views (Easterly, 2008: 95). The topdown view sees institutions as dependent on laws designed by political leaders; thus the name, ‘designed order’. Institutions refer to “informal constraints and formal rules” (North, 1991: 97).

The bottomup view sees institutions as originating gradually from the culture and ways of people in society. The written law formalizes the already shaped values ‘spontaneous order’ (Easterly, 2008: 95).

Some of the differences between the two orders are the changes in institutions, functions of the economists, global acceptance and the treats that they encounter from economists. Distinctions and examples of these concepts are explained below.

In the designed order the political leaders disregard the old rules and norms and make new ones. For instance, as it was tried in the French revolution whereby the French would disregard the culture, language and style of their colonists and would impose French culture and habits upon them. One of the rules was that the colonists had to speak in French therefore disregarding the indigenous languages of their colonists.

They would also impose dressing and eating habits on them. The spontaneous theory on the other hand, views the recent institutions as highly tied up with the earlier ones. Such institutions rely on the previous theories and facts in order to come up with their decisions.

Therefore, the change in institutions is gradual in nature (Easterly, 2008: 95). For example, Darwin’s theory of evolution gives an account of evolution of man over time. It relies on climate and change of behaviour to account for development of mankind from the first to the last stages.

Under designed order, economists have a problem in determining the best possible institutions to advocate for the political leaders. This happens because they have to use theory to model the institutions afresh.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the spontaneous order, economists can advise only the desirable additional changes to be made while putting in mind the need for limited institutional change so as not to disrupt the functions of the economy (Easterly, 2008: 95). For instance, when during constitutional amendment, careful changes are made so that the original meaning is not distorted.

The designed order states that there is one worldwide unique and acceptable set of institutions upon which all the societies are thought of being “developing”. This means that a common law can be developed by a nation regarded as a role model and all the other nations are supposed to follow or abide by it. For instance, most of the western countries develop ideologies which are taken up by the developing countries.

On the contrary, the spontaneous view sees the societies as being able to evolve different institutions even over a long time (Easterly, 2008: 96). An example is seen whereby many developing countries can make decisions regarding the political leaders to vote for without having to make consultations from the developed countries.

According to current research, it has been observed that countries that had their colonizers set up strong property rights many years back (spontaneous order) have higher income levels today than the countries with civil law foundations (designed order). For instance, when Korea split in to North and South Korea, the two countries had similar income levels.

The Northerners planned centrally while disregarding any customs while the Southerners depended on property rights with a little help from the state. More than 50 years later, the South has per capita income that is ten times more than the North (Henry

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Causes and Effects of Divorce Cause and Effect Essay essay help site:edu

One of the main reasons why God created human beings was to ensure that all that He had created was taken care of. This was possible through man’s reproduction to fill the world through various generations.

Since creation took place many people have used marriage as a way or reproducing to ensure human beings do not become extinct on earth. However, not all marriages last until death separates the couples as they are intended to. This essay aims at discussing the causes and effects of divorce in most marriages.

Divorce is defined as a permanent separation between a man and a woman who were initially married to each other. This means that when a man and woman divorce they no longer live together and have the right to get married to any other person (Stewart 7). However, divorce can be reversed when couples decide they want to get together.

The most common reason why many marriages do not last for long is infidelity by one or both partners. When a man and woman fall in love they devote all their love and energy to ensure that their relationship lasts for as long as they are alive. However, some people become tempted along the way and start having extramarital affairs with their neighbors, workmates or family friends.

Whenever such acts are uncovered by the other partner divorce becomes inevitable. Infidelity makes many marriages to break due to the fact that the person being cheated on feels that all the commitments and sacrifice made to ensure the marriage lasts are betrayed.

It also makes them feel worthless compared to the other person being courted. Infidelity breeds mistrust and the possibility of contracting sexually transmitted infections and this makes many people to prefer divorce than go through these painful moments.

Drug abuse has also led to many divorce cases as couples addicted to drugs become irresponsible and careless with regard to their personal lives and the welfare of their families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people do not tolerate extreme use of drugs at the expense of their families and whenever such behavior is not changed divorce becomes the next alternative (Stewart 12). Drug addiction leads to financial constraints, domestic violence, health complications and possibility of contracting sexually transmitted infections that many people will not tolerate hence demand for separation or divorce.

Extreme poverty has also led to many marriages to break as means of survival become very limited. Most couples especially those who do not have children prefer divorcing as this offers higher chances of one being able to meet his/her needs compared to when they are together.

Unemployment due to retrenchment, end of contracts, drug abuse or misuse of office can also result to divorce since most people who are dependent on one person for basic needs like clothing and shelter decide to look for someone who has the means to provide these basic needs.

Infertility has also made many people to divorce as they look for partners who are able to give them children or conceive. The desire to have children running around the house making noise while playing motivates many people to make very hasty decisions and abandon their spouses who are not able to conceive or make their women pregnant for those considered fertile.

Any family without a child is normally considered by the society to be heading for a dead end and to avoid this situation they ensure they look for partners who they will raise children with.

Many people rush to marry without having sufficient information regarding who they are marrying. After marriage many couples will discover that their partners are not the way they thought they were before getting married.

Every issue becomes the opposite of what they had anticipated and eventually all their needs, wishes, demands, tastes and preferences become unmatched. They start feeling their partners are giving them a lot of stress and discomfort and their relationship ends up being very shaky as their personalities are totally incompatible resulting to divorce.

We will write a custom Essay on Causes and Effects of Divorce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whenever a couple divorces on grounds of infidelity, drug abuse or infertility the partner who is a victim here develops a negative perception regarding his/her personality (Stewart 34). They feel inferior and less worth compared to their partners and the society.

Therefore, they start to feel that their value in society is too little that no one seems to recognize and appreciate them. The fact that someone has given another all their trust and hope only to be divorced later means that all the sacrifices and commitments made were never appreciated.

Some partners get married and decide to resign from their jobs in order to commit themselves fully to their marriages and families. They decide to be housewives and take care of their husbands and children while they go to work. Some men have also been forced to abandon their jobs and dedicate their lives to their children and wives.

However, when the marriages of such people fail to work and they get divorced it becomes very difficult for them to get access to basic needs. The possibility of them having made some savings during their short lived marriages is almost zero since they were fully dependent on their spouses. The probability of them getting back their previous jobs is zero and making new applications for jobs may take too long before being successful.

Stress and depression is one of the most common effects evident in people who have divorced. It is very difficult to comprehend the fact that someone is no longer living with the person they used to live and sleep with for the past few years. When people get married and stay with each other for several years they begin to become part of their spouses and start living their lives (Stewart 66).

The fact that someone is being separated from his/her long time companion is a bitter truth to live with. After divorce some people experience serious instances of stress and depressions that threaten their health if not checked in time.

Despite the fact that divorce is activated by one or both parties in marriage children suffer most in these families. This is due to the fact that most children do not understand the reason why their parents divorce after bringing them up successfully (Stewart 108). When provision of basic needs is cut due to divorce children will be subjected to malnutrition or poor living standards that compromise their health and education.

When parents go their own ways children are left in the middle of the tussle and are unable to decide whether to follow their mother or father. Children who are brought up with one parent face various challenges as far as discipline, food, shelter and entertainment are concerned.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes and Effects of Divorce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Divorce is very common in the modern society due to the above mentioned reasons. However, if all attempts to save a relationship fail it is better for a person to divorce and get rid of a risky marriage than waste their lives in them.

Works Cited Stewart, Alison. Divorce: Causes and Consequences (Current Perspectives in Psychology). New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Print.

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Pro spanking in schools Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Advocating for pro-spanking in schools

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Pro spanking is a form of punishment that is encouraged by only a few in the 21st century; however this was a common practice in the early years. Those who advocate for corporal punishment, base their arguments on the need to discipline children, as an effective form of child rearing. Needless to say, pro-spanking is a debatable issue, which depends on how parents and teachers define this practice.

For instance, some parents may define pro spanking as a mere slap, while others see the need to hit the child severally. Needless to say, in a society where crime rate is high, suspension alone, is not effective in cases of indiscipline in school; therefore, there is need to advocate for pro spanking as a form of discipline. This paper will discuss the importance of encouraging pro spanking in school.

Advocating for pro-spanking in schools Many countries such as the United States and Sweden have declared that corporal punishment has harmful effects on children; however these countries have suffered the consequences that arise from the ban of spanking. Kettle argues that since the ban of spanking in Sweden, child abuse rates rose over 500%, as a result the Swedish parents resulted to beating up their children, compared to the United States children, (Para 7).

Deprivation of privileges and suspension as forms of punishment for children are not effective compared to pro- spanking. Pro spanking enables the child to understand the power of a teacher and his position. In addition, a child’s fear of pro spanking will act as a mechanism of maintaining discipline.

The use of spanking in schools can only be effective when used appropriately as a disciplinary action; however over-using spanking may create a wrong impression for the student. Inflicting severe pain on a child, which leaves wounds and cuts is unacceptable and affect emotional well being of a child. However the correct use of spanking enables a student to understand his mistakes and avoid indiscipline practices.

Millei, Griffiths and Parkers, emphasize on the need for behavior management, discipline, and management of the learning environment, therefore teachers result to different mechanisms of improving discipline, (2).

As a result, discipline in schools maintains high standards, however it is important for the society to note the difference between pro spanking and physical abuse. Spanking causes pain to the targeted student, which aims at correcting his unethical behavior, whilst physical abuse involves use of force by an adult that can cause injury to the child, (Chang, Pettit, and Katsurada, 282).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A study which involved interviewing college students regarding their attitudes towards spanking, revealed that: the respondents supported physical punishment in cases of indiscipline, (Chang, Pettit, and Katsurada, 282).

Currently spanking is legal in several states of the United States, despite several critics facing pro spanking such as; a form of abuse, negative emotional effects and aggressive behaviors, discipline must be maintained. However pro spanking should not be misused, as it may create confusion among students, this traditional form of discipline should not be banned. Currently, it is the only method that can be successful, once used correctly.

The book of proverbs 23:13 advocates for a child‘s discipline, whereby a guardian is encourage to embrace discipline, by the use of a rod, (Anthony and Canfield, 78). Refusal to embrace a child’s indiscipline practices, but instead administer punishment is a sign of love, once a minor learns that there are consequences for his actions; he will be reluctant to engage in unethical behavior.

When a child’s unethical behaviors are ignored by the school administration, there is a high probability that a child may not learn the importance of ethics; as a result, the possibility of delinquent behavior is high.

Needless to say compared to other forms of discipline such as suspending, expelling or grounding a child, which all have short-term effects, pro-spanking has immediate effects and can be administered both in school and at home. When teachers administer pro spanking, wise students are capable of avoiding certain behaviors, which are likely to elicit punishment; in addition compliance from the child is fostered.

Pro spanking in schools is a cost effective method of discipline, which does not require extra costs to maintain or administer, as compared to rehabilitation which may require high costs. Finally, a child can be disciplined with love at school, through the use of pro-spanking, when a teacher explains to the student the reason behind spanking, the student will avoid any behavior that could lead to the same experience, which inflicts pain.

Conclusion Effective use of pro spanking in schools, fosters discipline, only if administered in non-abusive forms, which are safe and effective. When students learn that pro spanking can only be administered following indsciplinary actions, they will be in a position to accept the consequences of their actions.

We will write a custom Essay on Pro spanking in schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Needless to say, pro- spanking in schools must be handled with care, thereafter, positive character will be achieved in children. In addition, use of pro- spanking as a form of disciplining students in school, influences high grades, this is because the child is likely to devote his time on books, rather than in mischievous behavior.

Works Cited Anthony, M. and Canfield, K. A Theology for Family Ministry: B.

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The 5-Stages of Event Planning Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Knowing the Guest

Type of Event

Location

Date of the Event

Planning a Budget

Importance of These Steps to Event Planner

Works cited

Before starting planning an event, there are essential stages that one should take to ensure that the event is successful. Some of the basic events planning stages are as follows.

Knowing the Guest It is very important to know the number of people who are expected in a certain event. This is important as it plays a significant role on how the event will be designed.

The number and the type of guest invited will determine the type of décor and appropriate entertainment for the event (Wolf et al 1). The number of guests will affect the room size to be prepared for the event and this will directly affect the budget. The type of guest will also affect the type of food that will be served during the event.

Type of Event It is very important to know the kind of the event that is being planned for. The prior knowledge of the type of event that one will be hosting, is very important as it will shape the plan and its design (Wolf et al 8). For example, a gala celebrity will be very different from a corporate anniversary. The type of event affects the location, the entertainment and the materials that will be used during the event.

Location It is very important to know the location where one will hold the event. The importance of knowing and determining locations help one cater for the availability of space, capacity, proximity and services offered (Wolf et al 13). This will ensure convenience of the event and flexibility in case of such problems as weather.

The knowledge of the event location will be very important to the event planner because it will lead to one dealing with rules and regulations required by federal government.

Date of the Event In event planning, it is paramount to decide on the best date. A single factor in event planning can change the date that the event will be take place. The decision that one makes towards picking a date influences the type of event that will be carried out (Wolf et al 25).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, a holiday party is better held at night than a fundraiser. Therefore, this will influence the type of event that in turn affect the time that will be picked. When taking a date, time of the year, time of the day and time of the week are the three main considerations that an event planner should be careful about.

Planning a Budget All the other processes of event planning will rely on the amount of money that is available. It is very important to plan a budget of an event well and work within its limits. The importance of planning having a budget is that, it enables one to meet goals and objectives of the event (Wolf et al p.21). It also avoids strain during event as everything will have been properly arranged.

Importance of These Steps to Event Planner The steps of event planning are very important to an event planner. The reason being, it will help one to achieve the final goal of the event. This is through following a methodical approach and ensuring that there is nothing that has been left out during event planning (Wolf et al 17).

The steps will make an event planner to work within the budget. This is will be very important in the organization of an event as prior preparation will give ample time for consultation incase the budget is not enough. The steps of event planning will also offer consultations making sure that an event planner delivers a successful event at the end of the day.

Finally, the steps will help in acquisition of all the required resources before the event. This will reduce headache to event planner during the event. It will also avoid last time rush that may throw the whole event into jeopardy. It offers event planner good time to make any change in case of any difficulty in the process of planning (Wolf et al 20).

Such unseen circumstances such as rain will be considered before event and proper measures taken to avert such circumstances in good time. Therefore, the five steps for event planning are very important to event planners as they act as blueprint in event planning.

Works cited Wolf, Paulette., Wolf, Jodi.,

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Understanding of Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Relationship between differentiation and positioning

Identifying appropriate price strategy

References

Introduction Every product has to be marketed to help businesses increase their revenue as well as widen their market base. For that reason, researchers have come to a conclusion that there is need for respective departments to have a full understanding of the different stages of product life cycle to develop the right marketing strategies for a product or service (Kotler

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Mineral Resource Rent Tax Policy Cause and Effect Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Mineral Resource Rent Tax Policy (MRRT)

Resource Supper Profit Tax (RSPT)

Benefits of MRRT

Implications of MRRT

Contentious Issues on MTTR

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The global financial predicament affected several governments to search for new approaches of getting revenues. A prosperous nation such as Australia established a Resource Rent Tax in order to replace the Royalty Based Program. It was perceived as a prefect strategy which would enhance effectiveness of Resource Taxation.

The Mineral Resource Rent Tax was an important policy that would enable a fair redistribution of prosperity acquired from mining industry to all Australian citizens.

Nevertheless, political revolution happened due to the fact that the Australian government proclaimed the tax policy as an absolute system rather than negotiating and engaging with investors in order to build a convincing coalition to enable reformation through the resource taxation process.

This caused a media protest against the tax initiative by mining firms that triggered political strife, including the dismissal of former Australian Prime Minister Kelvin Rudd, who was democratically elected.

After removal of the former prime minster, important compromise was conferred between the newly appointed Prime Minister Gillard Julia, and the big mining firms that introduced Mineral Resources Rent Tax (MRRT) as a policy that replaced Resource Supper Profit Tax (RSPT). It was perceived that the Resource Supper Profit Tax (RSPT) was oppressing both local and foreign investors because of high taxation rate imposed on them.

The challenges encountered by Australian government in implementing vital taxation policy emphasize the significant roles which stakeholders could perform for policy making in a democratic society. This paper would analyze impacts of MRRT policy on operation of mining firms; it also evaluate effects prior to and after establishment of the MRRT plan on Austrian economy.

Mineral Resource Rent Tax Policy (MRRT) “On 2011 10th June, the Australian government established the Mineral Resource Rent Tax (MRRT) policy into the parliament” (Daniel, Keen

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Financial Management Report college application essay help

The finance manager has the main goal of increasing the value of the stock of the company. This is what the stakeholders of the company consider to be sound financial management.

The investors are concerned about the returns on their investment. When the value of the stock increases, the market share price also increases. However, as much as the focus is on profit maximization, the manager cannot make unethical or illegal decisions.

The profit-making decisions should be ethical and responsible. There are other goals of the finance manager that enable him to accomplish the main goal and ensure business continuity.

The finance manager should consider the competition in the industry and lay strategies on how the company can survive and thrive. It is about beating the competition and maximizing the shares or the market size.

The manager should ensure that the high share value or market price of the stock is steadily maintained each year. His role also includes the management of costs since with inefficiency the profit margin of the company will be low. There are certain decisions that the finance manager is concerned with.

The manager wants to strategize on the long-term assets that the company should invest in in order for the company to get the highest returns. This involves capital budgeting.

The financial resources are limited therefore the manager needs to analyze the project’s return with the firm’s expected rate of return. The finance manager is also concerned with the financing decisions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How is the firm going to finance its capital projects? The capital structure is mainly made up of debt and equity. There are certain risks in the company using higher levels of debt to finance its projects due to the high interest payments on the liabilities or loans.

The finance manager works to come up with an optimum capital structure or debt/equity ratio. The finance manager has to make decisions concerning the short-term operating cash flows. There is usually a time lag between the timing of the cash inflows and the outflows.

The timing of these transactions may not be known with certainty. It is therefore the responsibility of the finance manager to manage these gaps in cash flows. This short-term management of the cash flows is directly related to the net working capital.

The net working capital refers to the current assets less current liabilities.

There are several responsibilities of the finance manager. He is in charge of maintaining the profitability of the company. The manager gets involved in the budgeting and forecasting processes of the company. The actual and budgeted costs are compared and the variances analyzed and investigated.

The manager analyzes the dynamic and often turbulent market conditions in the industry and uses forecasting tools in the strategic planning of the company.

The finance manager ensures that the books of account and other financial records are maintained. These are the documents required in the preparation of the financial statements. The manager is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the financial statements are accurate.

We will write a custom Report on Financial Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Financial Ratios: Current ratio This is a ratio used to analyze the ability of the company to settle short-term obligations. It is calculated as follows:

2009 Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities =450,000,000/200,000,000 = 2.25

2010 Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities =580,000,000/325,000,000 = 1.785

2011 Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities =725,000,000/500,000,000 = 1.45

The liquidity ratios of the company are low for both 2010 and 2011. It is recommended that the appropriate liquidity ratio be 2:1. The 2011 liquidity ratio is lower than the 2010 ratio showing it has a higher risk than the year before when it comes to settling short-term obligations.

Acid Test Ratio This ratio measures the ability of the firm to settle its short-term liabilities without selling its stocks or inventories. It is a stricter ratio than the current ratio.

2010 Acid Test ratio = current assets- inventory/current liabilities = 450,000,000 – 250,000,000/ 200,000,000 = 1.0

2010 Acid Test ratio = current assets- inventory/current liabilities = 580,000,000 – 285,000,000/ 325,000,000 = 0.91

Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2011 Acid Test ratio = current assets- inventory/current liabilities =725,000,000- 325,000,000/500,000,000 = 0.8

The 2011 acid-test ratio is lower than the 2010 ratio showing the liquidity levels reduced. When it comes to both current and acid test ratios the company should ensure they invest more time in cash management.

This involves someone strategically analyzing the working capital of the company to ensure that the right balance is maintained. It is the comparison of the liquidity of the company and its profitability. The company should not have excess cash so that it cannot invest however at the same time it should not insufficient cash holdings such that it cannot settle its short term obligations.

Accounts receivable turnover The ratio is used to analyze the suitability of the credit policy of the organization.

2010 accounts receivable turnover = sales/average accounts receivable = 1,500,000,000/150,000,000 = 10

2010 accounts receivable turnover = sales/average accounts receivable

Average accounts receivable= opening closing accounts receivable/2 = 150,000,000 230,000,000/2 = 190,000,000

Accounts receivable turnover = 1,800,000,000/190,000,000 = 9.47

2011 Average accounts receivable= opening closing accounts receivable/2 = 230,000,000 330,000,000/2 = 280,000,000

Accounts receivable turnover = 2,160,000,000/280,000,000 = 7.71

The accounts receivable turnover of the company reduced in 2010 and 2011 which is not advisable since it shows low ability to convert debtors into sales. The management should take steps to ensure that the accounts receivable turnover is increased.

The credit policies should be reviewed and aging analysis carried out. The company should not hold a lot of its assets in accounts receivable. This money needs to be used in investment and other profit making activities. However, a ratio that is too high may show that the company has a restrictive credit policy where it may affects the sales and profits of the company.

Average collection period This ratio shows the time it takes for the company to receive its payments from its debtors. It is calculated by multiplying the number of days in a period and the average accounts receivable and dividing by the sales.

2009 ratio = 365* 150,000,000/1,500,000,000= 36.5

2010 ratio = 365* 190,000,000/1,800,000,000= 38.53

2011 ratio= 365* 280,000,000/ 2,160,000,000 = 41.31

A lower ratio is preferred because the company needs money to settle its obligations in terms of interest expenses and operating expenses. In 2011, the ratio increased compared to the 2010 ratio. The average collection period needs to shortened for the debtors and the company to continually carry out an aging analysis.

Solvency These are ratios that analyze the financial stability of a company in terms of the repayment of short-term and long-term debt

Solvency ratio

In most industries, it is considered wise that a company maintains a percentage of 20%. The lower the ratio, the lower the probability of a company is to meet its obligations. It is calculated as a percentage, comparing the after-tax profit of the company less non-cash depreciation expense compared to the short-term and long-term obligations of the company as follows:

Solvency ratio = After-tax profit /short-term Long-term liabilities*100%

2009 ratio = 93,880,000/450,000,000*100 = 20.86%

2010 ratio = 101,280,000 / 656,120,000*100 = 15.43%

2011 ratio = 120,150,000/ 1,050,740,000*100% = 11.434%

The solvency of the company is quite low and has been decreasing over the three years. It is not advisable to maintain at that level.

Debt-equity ratio

This ratio is used by analysts to investigate what portion of the equity has been financed through debt or equity. It is calculated as follows:

Total liabilities/stockholder’s equity

2009 debt/equity ratio = 450,000,000/ 550,000,000 = 0.82

2010 debt/equity ratio = 656,120,000/ 643,880,000 = 1.09

2010 debt/equity ratio = 1,050,740,000/843,260,000 = 1.246

This shows that a higher proportion of the company equity have been financed through debt through the three years. This affects earnings because additional interest payments may be volatile. The management needs to ensure that the company has a better debt equity ratio.

Debt-asset ratio

This ratio is used by analysts to investigate what portion of the assets has been financed through debt or equity. It is calculated as follows:

Total liabilities/total assets

2009 debt/equity ratio = 450,000,000/1,000,000,000 = 0.45

2010 debt/equity ratio = 656,120,000/1,300,000,000 = 0.504

2010 debt/equity ratio = 1,050,740,000/1,894,000,000 = 0.555

This shows that a higher proportion of the company assets have been financed through debt through the three years. This affects earnings because additional interest payments may be volatile. The management needs to ensure that the company has a better debt asset ratio.

Times interest earned

It shows how many times a company can pay its interest obligations with its pre-tax profit.

No. of times interest earned ratio = EBIT/Interest

2009 ratio = 170,000,000/30,000,000 = 5.67

2009 ratio = 190,000,000/40,000,000 = 4.75

2009 ratio = 270,000,000/85,000,000 = 3.18

This shows that the company’s ratio has been decreasing over the three years. The company could cover its interest payments more times in 2009 than in 2011.

Activity Ratios These are the financial ratio used to measure the ability of a company to convert several of its accounts into cash or sales.

Inventory turnover

This shows the frequency that the company converts its inventory into sales. It is calculated by dividing the sales by the inventory.

2009 ratio = 1,500,000,000/ 250,000,000 = 6

2010 ratio = 1,800,000,000/ 285,000,000 = 6.32

2011 ratio = 2,160,000,000/ 325,000,000 = 6.65

A low inventory turnover is not encouraged as it shows that the company is holding excess inventory. It shows that it has poor sales. The increasing company ratios show that the company has been getting stronger sales over the years.

Fixed Asset turnover

This measures the ability of the company to use its fixed assets to generate revenue for the company. It is calculated by dividing the sales with the fixed assets.

2009 ratio = 1,500,000,000/ 550,000,000 = 2.73

2010 ratio = 1,800,000,000/ 720,000,000 = 2.5

2011 ratio = 2,160,000,000/ 1,169,000,000 = 1.85

The ratio has been decreasing over the years showing that the company was more efficient in 2009 when it comes to fixed asset turnover.

Total Asset turnover

This measures the ability of the company to convert its total assets into sales. It is calculated by dividing the sales with the total assets.

2009 ratio = 1,500,000,000/ 1,000,000,000 = 1.5

2010 ratio = 1,800,000,000/ 1,300,000,000 = 1.38

2011 ratio = 2,160,000,000/ 1,894,000,000 = 1.14

The ratio has been decreasing over the years showing that the company was more efficient in 2009 when it comes to total asset turnover.

Profitability Profit margin

This shows the amount or percentage of sales that the company is able to convert into income. It helps the financial analysts in analysis to determine which company is more efficient than another in terms of controlling its costs. It is calculated by dividing net profit by the sales.

2009 ratio = 93,880,000/1,500,000,000= 6.26%

2010 ratio = 101,280,000/1,800,000,000 = 5.63%

2011 ratio = 120,150,000/2,160,000,000 = 5.56%

The company performed poorly in this area as the rate has been decreasing. The company performed better in 2009 as it had a higher profit margin than in 2011.

Return on assets

It is an indication of how efficient the company is in utilizing its assets to generate earnings. It is ratio of net income to total assets.

2009 ratio = 93,880,000/1,000,000,000= 9.388%

2010 ratio = 101,280,000/1,300,000,000 = 7.79%

2011 ratio = 120,150,000/1,894,000,000 = 6.434%

The company performed poorly in this area as the rate has been decreasing. The company performed better in 2009 as it had a higher return on assets than in 2011.

Return on owners’ equity

This is a profitability ratio that shows the returns the company has generated using the shareholder’s funds. It is calculated by dividing the net income with the stock-holder’s equity.

2009 ratio = 93,880,000/550,000,000= 17.07%

2010 ratio = 101,280,000/720,000,000 = 14.07%

2011 ratio = 120,150,000/1,169,000,000 = 10.28%

The company performed poorly in this area as the rate has been decreasing. The company performed better in 2009 as it had a return on equity than in 2011..

Comparison of company’s ratio and industry ratios There are some industry ratios that have been provided that can be used to analyze the profitability, liquidity, solvency and activity ratios of the company. The industry ratios on profit margin have increased over the three years from 5.75% to 5.81%. This shows that the other companies in the industry were able to earn higher margins on average over the years.

The AED Company’s profit margin however decreased over the three years from 6.26% to 5.56%. The company is not able to control its costs well compared to other companies.

The industry return on assets ratio also improved favorably from 8.22% to 8.48%. Companies on average were able to utilize their assets to generate higher sales. The AED return on assets in 2009 was quite high at 9.388% higher than the average at that time at 8.22%.

However as the years have gone by, the ratio has reduced to 6.434%. Return on equity industry ratios also shot up during the three years to stand at 14.16% in 2011. The AED Company’s return on equity ratio had been higher in 2009 at 17.07% while the industry’s was at 13.26%. However as other companies ratios on average improved the AED ratio decreased significantly to 10.28%.

The industry’s receivables turnover ratios decreased in 2010 but however it picked up in 2011. The companies in the industry had generally decided to extend the credit period to their customers in 2010 but in 2011, they again tightened the credit period.

The AED Company similarly in 2010 extended its credit period since the receivable turnover ratio decreased from 10 to 9.47. However in 2011, as companies tightened their credit policies, the AED Company did not take any such action. In fact it extended the credit period even more as the accounts receivable turnover decreased to 7.71.

These credit practices are confirmed by the ratios of the average collection period where the AED average collection period increased from 36.5 days to 41days. The fixed assets turnover in the industry generally declined from 2.75 to 2.20. This shows that there were challenges in the whole industry in terms of the fixed assets utilization. The AED ratio has also decreased from 2.73 to 1.85.

The industry total asset turnover fluctuated during the three years. It first decreased in 2010 then picked up in 2011. In overall though it increased during the three years since in 2009 it was at 1.43 but in 2011 it was at 1.46. The AED company ratio for total assets turnover decreased during the three years from 1.5 to 1.14. It performed poorly compared to other companies in the industry.

In terms of liquidity, the industry current and quick ratios fluctuated in the three years. Both ratios decreased in 2010 but however picked up in 2011 to surpass the 2009 ratios. The current ratio was above 2 which is the recommended measure in most industries.

For the AED Company, both ratios deteriorated. In 2009, the current ratio and quick ratio were at good levels at 2 and 1 respectively. However in later years, they both went down. Finally, there are industry ratios provided on leverage.

Debt asset ratios increased in the industry from 38% to 40.1% showing many companies were financing more and more of their assets from debt which is not a good sign. For the AED Company, the debt asset ratio had the same increasing trend from 0.45 to 0.55.

The times interest earned ratio in the industry had an increasing trend which is a good sign. However the AED ratio decreased over the three years showing that the company needs better debt management policies.

I would not advise any potential investor to take up AED shares until they perform better in the areas of liquidity, solvency and profitability. The inflation rate played a role in affecting the profitability of companies however if on average the industry managed to get good returns then AED should look into strategies to remain competitive.

Operating and financial leverages Operating leverage refers to the ratio between the fixed and variable costs in a company. If the fixed costs are higher than he variable costs, the company is highly leveraged. A company that is highly leveraged has the aim of generating higher returns on its investments or assets.

Another factor that is considered when it comes to the operational leverage is the sales and the margins of the company. Highly leveraged firms usually have high margins but fewer sales.

There is a danger where the company forecasts its sales wrongly. This could lead to high differences between the actual and the forecasted cash flows affecting the company’s liquidity and operating activities. Financial leverage on the other hand refers to the relationship or the ratio between the assets and the debt. It aims to analyze the percentage of assets that the company has financed using debt.

A company usually compares the interest rate and the return on the investments before taking a loan. The risk in being highly financial leveraged is that if the ROA is lower than the interest rates on the loan, the firm will find itself in a tight position. In addition, lenders are usually a bit stricter when it comes to giving loans to highly leveraged companies.

Equity is also a valuable source of financing since it is not mandatory for the company to pay cash dividends to its shareholders. However, this only refers to common shares since financing with preference shares is comparable to debt financing as it is mandatory to pay dividends to these stockholders.

There is the risk that the income will not sufficiently cover the interest obligations. This is especially true during an economic downturn where the company is wound up and the shareholders are entitled to their shares.

Working Capital Management In a company, there are two types of assets. There are fixed assets and current assets. The fixed assets are items such as land and buildings which will take some time to liquidate while current assets refer to assets that are easy to liquidate.

Working capital management refers to the management of the current assets which includes items such as inventory, cash and accounts receivable. These are the assets that are used to settle short-term obligations.

Working capital management is crucial as it plays a role in the company’s profitability and liquidity. The firm should ensure that it maintains a moderate amount of its assets is in the current assets category. A high amount of money tied up in the current assets is not advisable as the firm will get lower returns when it comes to investments.

It will not be able to take advantage of the opportunities that arise to make profit through short-term and other long-term investments. On the other hand, if the company’s current ratio is too low, the company exposes itself to liquidity risk where it will not be able to settle its short-term obligations.

This will lead to a negative reputation as the creditors are not able to get their payments on time. It may affect the ability of the firm to secure credit facilities from its suppliers.

Working capital may also be referred to as the time lag between the purchase or expenditure of the raw material and the sale of the final products to the consumers. The management has to analyze the average collection period. The period may have to be reviewed or shortened where the company has given too much time to the debtors.

It is about analyzing inventory costs such as insurance and storage compared to the costs of stock-outs. The firm also has to take care of the payables. The firm may decide to lengthen the time it takes to settle creditor obligations by negotiating longer periods in order to maintain high liquidity.

Finance managers use the cash conversion cycle to measure whether the working capital management is at an optimal level. The cash conversion cycle refers to the difference between the days of sales outstanding and days of sales in inventory less the days of payables outstanding (Gill, Nahum and Mathur, 2).

The larger the value of the cash conversion cycle, the higher the investments in the working capital. A firm may reason that a higher cash conversion cycle is preferable as it increases profitability through higher sales. However, this practice is detrimental where the costs of holding the inventory and extending trade credit is higher than the profit to be gained.

A firm that has a lower level of current assets as a percentage of the total assets is defined as having aggressive working capital management policies. A firm however that has a high cash conversion cycle is defined as having a conservative working capital policy (Talat, 20).

Works Cited Gill, Amarjit., Biger, Nahum and Neil Mathur. “The Relationship between Working Capital Management and Profitability: Evidence from the United States”. Business and Economics Journal, (2010): 1-9. Print.

Talat Afza. “Impact of Aggressive Working Capital Management Policy on Firms’ Profitability”. The IUP Journal of Applied Finance, 15.8(2009), 19-30. Print.

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Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary Case Study best college essay help

Table of Contents Recommended solutions

Relationship between differentiation and positioning

Effect of the product life cycle on marketing

Results

References List

The simulation situation described exists in three main phases. The first step involves the identification of all the relevant parameters, and presumably, it is the critical phase.

The Thorr Motorcycles, though not viewed as the most advanced and modern company, still has its loyal customers who are willing to run business with it. The main parameter for the products’ success in the market is contemporariness. If the good is old-fashioned and lacks modernity, only a few people will be willing to buy it (Anderson

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The Chinese Qing Dynasty Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The Qing Dynasty lasted between 1644 and 1912. Before the beginning of the Dynasty, there was the Ming Dynasty that had governed the country for years. The end of the Qing Dynasty was a result of an abortive restoration resulting to the development of the Republic of China.

The most astonishing thing is that the dynasty was not founded by the majority Han Chinese, but by the Jurchen, a semi-sedentary tribe that lived in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. This essay will explore the history of the Qing Dynasty by comparing and contrasting the state and the Chinese society during this dynasty to the earlier periods in the history of the country.

The Extent to Which Qing was a Chinese Dynasty At the age of 38, Emperor Shunzhi became the first leader of the dynasty. The Manchus took over 20 years to fight and defeat the forces of the Ming Dynasty who had very strongholds in the country’s south. Very many aspects define the dynasty as purely Chinese. For example, the dynasty embraced a unique culture practiced this day (Bary

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Archives Unique Collections Exploratory Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Archives contain collections of unique materials, whichare records of value. They may be records of an organization or of private individuals. The materials are not oldin the real sense, but are preserved in a variety of formats in which they appear. The difference between the archival materials and the library materials is that in the archives,the materials are arranged in groups on the basis of their information content.

This refers to the institution which selects, preserves, and avails to the public those materials of permanent value(Forde,2007).Archives are vital as resources that promote knowledge and efficient operation of the institutions which they serve. They support and nourish teaching and learning at that institutions and within the wider intellectual community (Forde, 2007).

The archives may collect and preserve the materials, which are not official records to the public or institutions; but which document the history, development and accomplishments of the institutions (Forde,2007).The records in an archive possess some basic features which distinguishes them from any other form of records. These features include;

Inter-relatedness -They come as a result of accomplishments or processes of lifeand therefore, they appear like specific frames of motion picture films, and structures of materials closely knit that they cannot be utilized in absence of each other; if the meaning and integrity is to be preserved.They naturally occur in a contemporary way unlike the personal documents, which are deliberately made for history purposes.

Contextual element -The value of the records is drawn from their contexts and therefore, the archive keepers should identify accurately, the context of use and origin of the respective records.They should also ensure maintenance of the records in ways that preserve their originality.

Evidential -Records are a representation of past occurrences,human experiences and accomplishments and they therefore give objective testimonies ofoccurrences or documented agreements.

The importance of archival materials cannot be overemphasized.The institutions select, preserve and make accessible, the records to the public for legal,financial,and administrative purposes (Forde, 2007).The public records administered by the government agencies, for example are able to maintain evidence of the government operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures accountability to the public, where the citizens are able to closely monitor and evaluate the government’s conduct and performance. Privateinstitutions likechurches, businesses and museums also establish archives for keeping their records.

Preserving records in archives Preservation refers to the process of protecting documents,with an aim of minimizing loss of information and slowing down processes that would lead to physical deterioration of the materials;for the sake of the future generations (Proni, 2007).

It is done through a variety of measures which must involve everyone handling the materials. The documents have to be placed, displayed and handled in ways that reduce the risk of damage, taking into account their shape, size and physical condition (Proni, 2007).

The records preserved in the archives contain sensitive and vital information;thereforethey require proper storage and access strategies. These measures are put in placeto minimize the damages, which may lead to loss of valuable information. Without adequate protection, these materials deteriorate and are rendered useless.

The preservation activities provide a range of solutions,under which the materials are made accessible to the public.The extent of preservation dependson the size,maturity,needs and resources available to facilitate the program (Banks, 2000).Various strategies may be employed to ensure protection of the records. They include;

Holding maintenance program This utilizes a range of preservation procedures, with emphasis on improving the housing and storage surroundings of the records(Banks,2000).The procedures are applied to the entire collection with priorities based on evaluation of the needs of the users(P.56).This offers a great physical protection and enhances chemical stability of the resources(Banks,2000).The procedures include:

Proper housing All the permanent and temporary storage areas must be structurally sound and strong enough, to bear severe weather conditions or malicious attacks. Thematerials maintained in the archives should be those that are able to withstand both the internal and the external surrounding conditions of the building.

We will write a custom Essay on Archives Unique Collections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The situation of the building has to be secure, i.e.distant from military installations or any chemicalindustries (p.2).There should be no vegetation in close proximity.The area around the building should be a clear perimeter.

Shelving The storage areas should utilize shelving, which is a basic methodfor preserving and exhibiting materials in the archive.Wooden shelving is often discouraged since it damages the organic materials and is a brooding site for insects. Metal shelving is therefore preferredsince it provides a standard design and rigidity.

A non-toxic paint can be applied, using the powder coating method to prevent rusting and improve the aesthetic value. The shelves must be well paced between the walls to aid ventilation and the bottom shelves should not be too close to the ground to protect them against flooding (p.4).

Boxing It’s a recommendation that all the materials be boxed,in high quality material boxes, which are not prone to chemical attacks. Boxingprovides a dual advantage for both packaging and protection of the materials from hostile environmental conditions.

The materials are free from insects, fire or water damage. Boxing also provides a means of stabilizing the materials, which are fragile or whose reference has been retained as originals, while their copies are in active use.

Spacing There should be enough space provided for storage of the archive equipment. They should avoid introducing the physically unhealthy records to the already existing records. Those records are likely to infect the others and as a result damage them. Adequate spacing ensures proper isolation of such materials, which are affected by moisture, fungi or infected by insects.

Proper spacing also promotes harmonious working environments under which both the staff and the archive users will not feel under threat or intimidated by overcrowding or interference of their own personal space.

The environment Factors like temperature,humidity,light and pollution are conditions that should be put into consideration in the housing program for archival records. Most of the materials in the archives cannot tolerate severe conditions. This accelerates their damage and deterioration.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Archives Unique Collections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paper made materials can withstand drier conditions compared to those made of vellum or animal skins, therefore the temperature conditions should be varied appropriately depending on, the type of materials stored therein.

The light exposure to the items on exhibit should be measured and controlled.

This would also limit the exhibition duration, where the light sensitive materials would stay on exhibition for shorter lengths of time.

The materials should also be safeguarded against harmful substances like gases and fumes, which would interfere with quality and originality of the materials like fabrics.

Security measures The archives hold vital materials, which include paper records, maps,films,photographs and electronic records; which cannot be replaced once lost.There is need to have tight security programs,to protect both the staff and the records from threats of theft, unauthorized disclosure or sabotage (Ritzenthaler, 2003).

Appropriate measures should be taken to ensure the security of the archival records listings are done in detail, putting tags and marks where appropriate; for proper identificationof the materialsin case they are lost, stolen or damaged. There should be systems for tracking, issuing and returning items borrowed, in order to minimize unknown disappearances.

The storage areas, both permanent and temporary, should be safe and secure to minimize theft risks or other malicious damages. There should be strict and controlled access to the stores, with heavy doors, sufficient locks and regular supervision; where visitors have to pass through a security checkpoint as they get in to the archive.

The staff maintaining the area, including the cleaners should be well supervised within the established procedures to ensure that security is not compromised in their presence. The rooms should also contain cameras or desks where the staffs are able to monitor the users.

Emphasis should also be laid on security measures, which would involve an emergency preparedness component (p.56), like an alarm. Thissystem includes a computerized security control unit,which would monitor intrusion of alarms and the cameras.

More to be put into consideration is the structure,construction, location and the surroundings of the facility together with enough fire detection measures and suppression measures (Banks, 2000).The security measures should be applied on daily routines for effectiveness.

It’s also vital to constantly train the staff and the users on the importance and rationale of ensuring security in the facility. This would involve teaching factors like emergency preparedness, where each archival participant is made aware of fire associated risks and how to deal with them.

Handling of the materials Institutional policies and procedures can also pose a negative contribution to the sound preservation procedures;this occurs especially in the handling of the materials, during transfer and in the storage procedures (Banks, 2000).Proper handling collection procedures should be provided, including:

Providing the users with well stipulated guidelines, on using and handling the archival materials; which would prohibit such vices like eating,drinking,smoking or bringing overcoats and bags in the archive (Ellis, 1993).

Reduce handling of original archival documents; instead utilize their copies whenever appropriate.

Setting up a workspace dedicated for reading and research, which is clean and spacious.

Encouraging the staff and users to handle the materials carefully, with clean hands or wear cotton gloves when handling the sensitive materials like photographs, films and electronic records.

Supporting the documents that are not strong and durable e.g. newspaper cuttings, by binding them with cartons or other more durable materials.

Isolating the contaminated materials from the public reach, in order to avoid mixing and compromising their health.

Open communication and good user relations are a guarantee to proper implementation of the preservation procedures.The staff should be updated on the changes made and be restrained when need arises (p.57).This brings basic understanding and incorporatesthem to be part of the facility.

Conservation treatments Conservation treatments are costly but highly effective for safeguarding against damages. The manager should make treatment selections based on an already established criteria that should be uniformly applied (Banks, 2000).

If it is an in-house treatment program, then a conservation lab should be established on site or alternatively, a conservator contracted (p.58).The latter is more preferred, since there are fears of limitation ofspace, staff and equipment are charged with the responsibility making the whole process cost-effective.

The priority of applying conservation treatments is to protect the documents for current and long-term provision for access in consultations and research. The strategies applied in conservation treatments include;

Mould and pest control The archives traditionally used pesticides and other chemicals to control pestinfestations. There are many hazards however associated with continued use of the pesticides.

The chemicals do not control the damage occurring to the materials but deal with the peststhemselves, which may damage the paper based materials. This also poses health hazards to the users; therefore the best mode of pest control has been approved as monitoring of the pests or using an integrated pest management system.

Integrated pest management The strategies of the integrated pest management present long term control measures. These measures which provide maintenance and housekeeping environment that ensures that pests do not find any hospitable place in the archives (Ellis, 1993).Such activities include inspection,climate control,food restrictions,insect identification,regular cleaning and proper storage conditions (p.28).

Managing mould and control The non-chemical means of dealing with mould in the archive like temperature control, relative humidity and air circulation have been proved to be the best effective methods (Ellis, 1993).

A relativelyhighhumidity is likely to encourage growth of mould, but controlled air circulation can reduce the risk (p.29). In case the materials are already infected, they should be restored in rooms with a controlled ventilation area, to minimize distortion.

Reformatting the materials Preservation of the information is of paramount concern,therefore copying the materials from a paper based medium to a more permanent form, can minimize bulk as it facilitates more access(Banks,2000).

Reformatting can serve dual purposes; preservation of the originals, which can be put aside from active utilization, and preservation of the information in a less intrinsic value record which can be destroyed after certification of the film(p.58).Reformatting of the materials involves digitizing the organizations’ records, which have accrued a lot of benefits. These include;

Disaster recovery – after the occurrence of such disasters, such as fire, floods or earthquakes, it is important to ensure availability. In such a case, scanning the archival important records and storing them in a proper secured and backed up manner might be extremely useful (Podraza, 2012).

The sufficient records, which are extremely important to the archive’s existence are protected, avoiding cost and time wastage, as well as considerable efforts required for reconstruction processes of critical information in case the disaster occures (Podraza, 2012).

Cost saving and effective -there is no need to acquire and maintain more filling equipment in the archive for storage of the paper records. Thisminimizes bulk of the paper documents.

Real estate savings – “The Digital initiatives can actually reduce the amount of office space needed, without having to lose access to records” (Podraza,2012). With the existing competition for the existing office space, the digitized active records which can be easily accessed online are preferable. it is much more comfortable than filling records in cabinets.

This is a way of using the archival space in a more cost-effective manner (Podraza, 2012). Most of archival organizations have shifted to the digital initiatives which minimizes the wide spread accumulation of the records, which makes the facility smarter and economical.

Easy retrieval and access -Archival records can be incorporated into an online content management system, providing the staff with a faster and secure and continuous online centralized access, from any location; which allows simultaneous access to information by multiple users from multiple locations(Podraza,2012).

Minimal labor costs with improved customer service -Digitizing the archival records will not only minimize the labor costs involved in maintaining large documented records, it will also increases staff productivity (Podraza, 2011).

The information is more secure – making the paper records digital and transferring them to a centralized location, with strict access controls and file level permissions, eliminates information insecurity and privacy issues occurring in archival facilities (Podraza, 2012).

Archival preservation -When the archive’s historical records are scanned and stored in a web based content management system, they are preserved and easily accessible to members of a working staff and customers (Podraza, 2012).

Information sharing -The digitalized mode reduces the paper work, which is labor demanding, therefore facilities’ collaboration and information sharing through work-flow that offers more efficient processing and easy gauging of documents to various units in the archive should be encouraged (Podraza,2012).

Preservation measures in the Ireland national archives These are the findings of the measures taken in the preservation of materials in the Ireland national archive:

The holding maintenance

The archive appreciates the limitations posed on the preservation of resources and thereforethe management is keen on the selection of materials. It avoids duplication and in case of such occurrences, preference is given according to the physical formats, with easy and safe storage.The archive building is well spaced, enough for proper storage of the materials avoiding contamination with already infected materials.

The environmental conditions of the archive like temperature and humidity are taken into account; the building is well ventilated with adequate air conditioners and curtains with large curtained windows for light regulation (Ritzenthaler, 2003).

Security measures

The archive has strong doors with heavy locks, which minimizes unwanted intrusion and theft.Materials in the archives are clearly labeled and tagged bearing the institutions’ ownership stamp.

The archive building also contains alarms at the corners of each floor, with emergency doors and other escape routes in case of unexpected dangers like fire.The archive has employed several guards for security measures. It alsohas security checkpoints at the entrance and at the exit of the building.

Handling of the materials

The management has set rules and regulations posted at the entrances, which prohibit the users to eat, smoke or carry clothing and bags into the archive.

Most of the materials in use are duplicates of the originals, therefore preserving the original documents.Inside the building, there is a large spacious room specifically dedicated for research and private reading (Mendez, 2007)

Conservation treatments

The archive has a chemical cabinet in one of the inner rooms which is used for storing chemicals that controlling pests. Moreover, the rooms in the building and the storage sections are smartly maintained to minimize pest invasion.

Reformatting of the materials

All the materials in the paper base medium have been digitalized. This has solved the issue of insecurity and inadequacy of space.

Conclusion Preservation is a core function in every collection of records orarchival materials, which helps ensure continuity and availability of information for the present and future generations.

References Banks, AK 2000, Principles of archive preservation. Books society

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Comparison between Islamic and Conventional Banks Compare and Contrast Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Overview

Differences

The Balance Sheet Comparison

Income Statements

Conclusion

References

Introduction The banking system is very essential for the economy of a country since it offers financial advice to business people besides taking custody of the money which will otherwise be risked at homes. Nevertheless, religion has found its way into the economic well being of the society and to a larger extent determines the financial and other services that people require, because of the difference in belief and teaching of various religious groups.

It is because of this reason that Muslims whose Sharia law is a bit restrictive, and were therefore unable to receive their services from the conventional banks, decided to form the Sharia compliant Islamic banks. However, the Islamic and conventional banks exhibit differences in terms of their operations and disclosure in their financial statements.

Overview Islamic banks observe the Islamic law which prohibits the acceptance or imposition of interests, because according to the sharia law profits should be earned from goods and services only and money does not fall to any of these categories (Kettell 2011). On the same note, not all goods and services are consistent with the Islamic laws and income from those that are not right in the sharia law is forbidden.

The sharia law is put into exercise through the Islamic economics which is the practical application of the sharia and is implemented by many of the nations that observe the Islamic law. Islamic banks are guided by Islamic moral code which restricts the kind of investment that one may undertake and the methods of generating income that the Muslims may be involved in (Greuning

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Banking Risk Management Essay essay help: essay help

Credit Risk Models The Black-Scholes-Merton Model

There are various credit risk models, which have been proposed by researchers in order to reduce the risks associated with future transactions. One of these models is the BSM framework structured models. This model was proposed by Merton in 1974. He derived the value of an option from a company, which could default loan repayment (Merton, 1974).

The Black-Scholes-Merton model assumes that there is a latent firm asset value, which is determined by the company’s future cash flows.

This model is used to determine the firm’s debt and equity value. This model includes components, such as risk free interest rates, asset payment ratio, and asset risk premium. Merton (1974) argues that the asset return rate and the risk free interest rates are the constants which are non-stochastic.

The model also assumes that the company’s capital structure relates to a pure equity and a single zero coupon debt, which matures within a given time. Incase of a default experienced by a company, the stock price of the defaulting firm is expected to go to zero. According to this model, the debtor is assumed to be a seller in the European put option.

On the other hand, the equity holder is assumed to be a buyer of European call option (Merton, 1974). The model uses the Black –Scholes option pricing in order to determine the relationship between the equity market value and the bond market value. Shibita and Yamada (2009) proposed the BSM structural model to a bank, which was just this side of bankruptcy.

This helped the bank in its recovery processes. According to Shibata and Yamada (2009), the bank’s choice to continue operating or be liquidated plays a vital role on the losses of the loan. They assumed that this decision should be made severally at a certain time after the bankruptcy.

Individual-level reduced-form models

This refers to the models which are not of the class of structural models. At the individual level, a reduced form model can also be described as the credit scoring one. This model was developed by Altman (1968). The credit scoring model uses linear and binomial models to regress the defaults among companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It identifies various accounting components, which have statistical explanatory capability, in order to differentiate between the defaulting and non defaulting firms. After estimating the coefficients of the model, the loan applicants are given a Z-score in order to classify them as good or bad. Several decades after its proposal, the credit scoring model got a significant development.

Altaman and Saunders (1998) discussed the wide spread of the individual level model and its major developments over the years. Altman and Narayanan (1997) evaluated the historical accounting variables used in the credit scoring models across the world.

According to them, most of the studies proposed the use of financial ratios, which determine profitability, and liquidity. These financial ratios may include market value equity/debt, (EBIT)/sales as well as working capital/debt. Altman (2005) proposed a scoring system known as Emerging Market Score Model to use to define the emerging corporate bonds.

Portfolio reduced form models

These models were proposed by Jarrow and Turnbull (1992). According to them, the idea of these models is related to the concept of risk neutral. Risk neutral is a common technique used to predict the probability of the future cash flow.

It helps in computing the asset prices by using risk neutral default probabilities. Jarrow and Turnbull (1992) used the idea of risk neutral to develop the credit risk premium which is also known as the credit spread. They decomposed the credit risk premium into two components.

Poisson /Cox process model

This is a subclass of the portfolio reduced form models. It was developed by Jarrow and Turnbull (1995), and it can be described as the simplest model of the portfolio reduced form model. In this approach, the default process is assumed to be a Poisson process with a constant intensity where the default time is exponentially distributed.

Markov chain model

This is a credit risk model, which was originally proposed by Jarrow et al. (1997). This model considers the default event as the absorbing state and the default period as the first period when the Markov chain hits the absorbing state.

We will write a custom Essay on Banking Risk Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factor model

This is a credit risk model, which puts into consideration two vectors of explanation variables. The first vector is a set of macro economic variables, such as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply growth as well as GDP growth. This vector explains the systematic risk, which causes default events.

The second vector involves a set of firm-specific variables, which determine individual risk. According to Pederzoli and Torricelli (2005), the variables are considered simultaneously.

Conclusion The credit risk models have various shortcomings. For instance, the BSM framework structural model consists of several simplified assumption in its derivation. The simplified assumptions restrict the applied value of the model. This has made the subsequent researchers focus on reducing these assumptions.

The individual level reduced form models may not pick up fast moving developments in borrower’s conditions. This is because the model uses explanatory variables, which are based on accounting data. According to Agarwal and Taffler’s (2008), credit scoring models, such as Altman’s Z-score, may not be used to forecast distress as compared to the structural models.

References Altman, E 2005, ‘An emerging market credit scoring system for corporate bonds’, Journal of Emerging Markets Review, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 311-323.

Altman, E,

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“Erin Brockovich” Essay college essay help near me

The movie, “Erin Brockovich”, is based on a real life story and stars Julia Roberts (known as Erin Brockovich) as the main character. Erin has been divorced twice and has three children. She experiences a streak of bad luck.

However, she finally manages to browbeat her lawyer: Ed Masry, who had seen her lose a lawsuit against the doctor who had hit her car in an accident, and he gives her a job at his law firm. She works as a filing clerk until one day she comes across a peculiar file with medical records. This marks the starting point of Erin’s heroic endeavor.

Erin Brockovich is shown as an epitome of the ethical system of deontology due to her vehement desire to get a job so that she could settle her accrued bills and take care of her children. This shows her commitment to her duties because even after she experienced that accident that drained her of her finances, she sought for a means to ensure that those who depended on her, and who she was indebted to would be sorted out.

Later, after she secured a job in Ed’s firm, she was still committed to her duty towards ensuring that the residents of Hinkley (desert town) received justice against a California power company: the Pacific Gas

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Critique Erin Brockovich movie Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Erin Brockovich movie was released on 17th March 2000. The movie involved six actors and became the best movie in the same year, a fact that brought speculations that the movie industry was going to gain more profits in the years that were to follow (Todd, 2000). After Erin Brockovich (Julia Roberts) lost her lawsuit against the driver, she demanded a job from the lawyer who represented her.

Her big mouth and wearing of trashy clothes made people to dislike her, but because of her tenacity and curiosity, she was given a job as a clerk officer. She dedicated much of her time to work hence getting minimal time to be with her family.

She was interested in investigating a real estate file that included medical records and she found out that Hinkley community had been poisoned by chromium chemicals which were leaking into the drinking water from a power plant.

The trust which Erin gained from the community helped Ed Masry to put together a winning case. Through examination of the evidence without a jury by the judge, the company was ordered to pay resettlement fee for the residence.

According to Wehner, (2003), the film was seen in two perspectives. Though there was a clear story in the film, Erin Brockovich does not make the story compelling. When the movie is critically analyzed, one cannot fail to note that it has a poor character development and that it lacks a well-articulated focus.

It is clearly seen that character development was poor and he film lacks compelling power and focus. Ms. Roberts in particular spends usually to show her prowess as a movie star as opposed to her well natured acting capabilities. The movie was seen to be harsh and lacked elements of truth.

The movie has various ethical issues; the paramount of them being effectiveness, most parts of the movie portrays effectiveness as seen from various actors. Erin was seen to be very effective in every part of the movie.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it came to work, she did it well for example keeping files in the law firm and also helping Hinkley community in overcoming environmental problems by looking for information and filling a case which later led to the resettlement of the people. Ed Masry was also effective in helping Erin to fight environmental degradation. Good ethical relationships were also portrayed in the movie.

Erin had a good relationship with all the people she interacted with, she was trusted and supported by Hinkley community at large. In addition, her ability to persuade Hinckley’s’ community trust was through her good relationship skills. Aaron Eckhart used to communicate with Erin’s children and had a good relationship with them (Palma

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Government strategies for addressing inequalities in health Essay essay help

Introduction According to Marmot and Wilkinson, health inequalities are “the systematic, structural differences in health status between and within social groups within the population” (Marmot and Wilkinson, 1999). Health inequalities relate to other socioeconomic factors that determine health status in society.

These factors may include diet, housing, employment, and access to healthcare among others. Thus, the focus of healthcare inequalities concentrates on factors that reduce accessibility to healthcare services for different socioeconomic groups.

Conditions which determine accessibility to healthcare services usually present serious challenges to policymakers in their attempts to address them. This is because most of these causes have relations with other multifaceted factors. Consequently, the solutions must also reflect the nature of these causes.

We should note that policies that can adequately address healthcare issues should be long-term, need multiple inputs and continuous improvements as new socioeconomic challenges emerge. We have also witnessed lack of clear evidence regarding the effectiveness of existing policies that seek to address healthcare inequalities. Thus, the UK government is continuously looking for new approaches for addressing existing healthcare inequalities.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the UK Government strategies in addressing inequalities in health Health Care

The UK government strategies of providing healthcare services have marginally contributed to the effectiveness of addressing disparities that exist in healthcare provisions.

Debates and politics about the portfolio of the department of health in the ministry have negatively affected works of the National Health Services (NHS). The UK government has set targets that aim at reducing main causes of deaths in the UK. These include reducing cancer deaths among the elderly, reducing strokes, accidents, and mental illnesses.

The challenge is that policymakers did not address these targets to reflect healthcare inequalities that exist in the society. It is only under rare circumstances that these targets may indicate a minimal reflection of health disparities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Changes in the structure of the organisation also affect the provision of healthcare services to address inequalities. This has led to the creation of Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) that will address healthcare disparities, and commissioning hospital services among other functions (Department of Health, 1999).

Creating Target and Performance Cultures

Existing inequality in healthcare has prompted the UK government to initiate a culture of targets and performance. Consequently, it has come up with some few strategies. First, we have Public Service Agreements (PSAs). Ministries have developed a department (spending) to ease their works with the finance ministry. PSAs can play a fundamental role in reducing disparities in the provision of health services.

However, this department lacks the structure of fulfilling this role since that was not its primary aim. Deakin and Parry propose the linkage between the PSAs policy, outcomes and accountability because of the social policy this department can address (Deakin and Parry, 2000).

Second, the famous Acheson Report has no provisions for reducing health inequalities. The report notes that causes of health inequalities are complex and involve elements which interact. Therefore, the government did not provide any provision for addressing such inequalities. Consequently, it introduced some targets in 2001 (Acheson, 1998).

These targets focused on children under one year in reducing mortality by at least 10 percent mainly in poor areas. Likewise, health authority targets to reduce the gap that exists in life expectancy in areas with low life expectancy at birth by at least 10 percent and spreads it to the entire population.

In order to ensure the effectiveness of these targets, the government developed some indicators to monitor their progresses on a long-term basis.

Structures and Processes

The UK government has put in places structures and processes that ensure effectiveness in addressing health inequalities. First, there is the Joined-up Government (JUG) process and structure. This structure requires various departments of the government to work together in solving multifaceted problems through the creation of policies.

We will write a custom Essay on Government strategies for addressing inequalities in health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is may not be effective because it is not a system of nationwide approach in tackling health inequalities. The problem is that many ministries and their departments may participate in policies formulation, but the responsibility to implement these policies rests with one of them (Lurie, 2002).

In the UK, public policy reforms have created fragmented departments among various services providers. These fragmentations in policies have hindered the achievement of the main goals set in the policy document. Flinder found out that issues that are not within any coordinating committee do not get any attention; thus, they end up neglected (Flinders, 2002).

There also exists “massive competition for resources among these different branches of JUG” (Flinders, 2002). These factors affect service and resource provisions in various departments such as health, and education among others. In addition, not all ministries related to health take initiative for enhancing change.

Second, there is also Cross-cutting Review. This exists to inform the government spending in areas which are not within the main portfolio of the ministries. In the year 2001, health inequalities became the topic of review. The review revealed that there is a need for long-term agendas for addressing health inequality issues.

They also indicated the need to put health in equalities among the mainstream elements. The review team identified areas of focus, such as improving housing, nutrition improvement programmes, focusing on poverty areas and improving provisions of healthcare services.

Redistribution strategy

The UK government embarked on a modest redistribution of resources to the disadvantaged masses. The government concentrates on providing modest employment to these masses in order to improve their socioeconomic status. However, this approach may not solve health inequalities because it lacks the basic agenda of redistributing wealth in a progressive manner.

The UK government has also introduced some forms of tax credits for adults in employment some benefits. They mainly target single parents and disabled persons in society. These approaches in wealth distribution will have marginal significant in addressing basic socioeconomic and multifaceted factors resulting into health inequalities (Dolowitz, 2003).

Children Agenda

Health inequalities mainly affect the vulnerable majorities in society who are mainly children. Consequently, the UK government has launched strategies to reduce health disparities that affect mostly children. First, the government borrowed the idea of Sure Start from the US government.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Government strategies for addressing inequalities in health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This policy strives to improve the life chances of children from poverty-stricken areas through changing their patterns of living together with their families. The programme targets children in poverty areas, but the area of focus and number of children in poverty remain low. The programme has no clear guidelines on how it will cover the entire country.

Second, there is also a Child Poverty programme. The UK government set targets of reducing children living under poverty by 25 percent by the year 2004. According to Brewer and Gregg “the UK has one of the highest rates of child poverty (measured as households with income below 60 percent of the median income) of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries” (Brewer and Gregg, 2001).

This programme strives to improve the living standards of children from regions stricken with poverty through introducing new benefits, increasing welfare benefits. This is a subsidy programme whose focus is on poor households for the benefits of the children.

Observers have noted some positive improvement as the number of children in poverty reduced below 60 percent. However, critics of these programmes believe that such improvements cannot result from policy implementation because the policy is also responsible for creating residual group whose lives the policy has not touched (Guy, 1997).

Area-focused Strategies

The UK government has “initiated a number of policies targeting certain location so as to address the issue of poverty and poor populations” (Illsley, 1999). Health Action Zones (HAZ) programme has an interagency approach in tackling issues of poverty and deprivation. HAZ targets at least 13 million people. HAZ main focus is to formulate and implement strategies that can eliminate poverty in parts of England.

HAZ has some drawbacks in terms of structural changes that continuously affect its implementation agendas. The government also uses it as it main reference point for creating short-term agendas which are difficult to achieve and implement effectively (Illsley, 1999).

Conclusion The UK has spent quite considerable amount of time and resources in its attempts to address issues of health inequalities. The country views these issues in terms of policy problems.

A number of reports and research works have identified multifaceted factors, which are responsible for the existing state of health inequalities in the UK. These works provide the government with the basic background and foundation on which to lay their approaches for addressing health inequalities.

These policies have helped address some challenges facing the health sector in the UK, but they have also met crucial challenges that we cannot ignore. The major challenge is how the government can effectively address and implement health inequalities policy agendas.

In addition, there have been significant progresses in addressing health inequalities, and the government has realised that incorporating all stakeholders in the policy formulation and implantation may be the best approach in tackling socioeconomic determinants in healthcare provisions.

Challenges are clear indicators that some of the approaches the UK government is using for tackling health inequalities may not be the best approaches. Thus, these poor outcomes call for immediate formulation of new policies for tackling emerging problems. The UK should also borrow from countries like the US that have implemented most of their health care policies successfully.

The UK government must realise that some of its approaches may not be effective. In this regard, the country must reformulate these policies, for instance, the UK agendas’ on tackling healthcare disparities lack clear focus and as a result, they may not yield the desired results.

This is the case of socioeconomic policies that aim at addressing poverty and health care inequalities. Thus, the UK should focus on its long-term agenda for challenges problems in the provision of healthcare services effectively.

Most of the policy initiated to address health inequalities never provided the main issues responsible for health inequalities. At the same time, these reports fail to provide clear guidelines on how the government should implement some of their findings.

Reference List Acheson, D 1998, Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, The Stationery Office, London.

Brewer, M and Gregg, P 2001, Eradicating Child Poverty in Britain: Welfare Reform and Children since 1997, Institute for Fiscal Studies, London.

Deakin N and Parry R, 2000, The Treasury and Social Policy: The Contest for Control of Welfare Strategy, Palgrave, Basingstoke.

Department of Health 1999, Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. White Paper Command 4386, The Stationery Office, London.

Dolowitz, P 2003, ‘A Policy-maker’s Guide to Policy Transfer’, Political Quarterly, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 101–8.

Flinders, A 2002, ‘Governance in Whitehall’, Public Administration, vol.80 no. 1, pp. 51–75.

Guy, K 1997, Our Promise to Our Children, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Illsley, R 1999, ‘Reducing Health Inequalities: Britain’s Latest Attempt’, Health Affairs, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 45–46.

Lurie, N 2002, ‘What the Federal Government Can Do about the Non-medical Determinants of Health’, Health Affair, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 94–106.

Marmot, M and Wilkinson, G 1999, Social Determinants of Health, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Appendix Fig 1: The Health Inequalities Umbrella

Table 1: Life Expectancy by Deprivation Deciles, showing the Slope Index of Inequality, Enfield London Borough, Males, 2005-09

Table 2: Aspects of health where ethnicity and health inequality may be

Linked (Source, The Health of Londoners Project, November, 1999)

Determinants of health Prevalence of ill-health; health behaviours Service use Health/Service Outcomes Age Sex Genetics Income Employment Education Housing Social networks Mobility and migration. Prevalence of specific Diseases e.g. diabetes, renal failure, cardiovascular disease Limiting long-term illness Health behaviour and Lifestyle Health Services: Hospital Primary Care Community Services Social services Voluntary and private sectors Mortality Health status Satisfaction Table 3: The extent of health inequalities

The last ten years have witnessed large improvements in health for everyone.

Life expectancy at birth for men

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Perspectives for explaining racial disparity in the U.S. Report (Assessment) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons for Racial disparity in the U.S. labor market

Future for the impacted groups in the U.S. labor market

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The US labor market is controlled by the demand and supply of knowledge and expertise. This is influenced by the interests and preferences of individuals willing to work. The US economy also attracts foreigners into the country. However, other factors, such as discrimination and racism, exist and control the market.

This practice mostly affects immigrants who relocate to the US to utilize their acquired knowledge and work experience in the U.S. (Waldinger and Lichter, p. 5). This paper analyses the reasons given as to why racism is common in the US labor market. It compares and contrasts various views presented by different authors. Also, the paper projects future solutions that can help reduce this discrimination.

Reasons for Racial disparity in the U.S. labor market It is expected that if demand and supply for labor existed naturally, the market would be well balanced with no hitches. This would only be possible in the absence of interference from unhealthy practices such as ethnic discrimination and racial issues. The white population has been favored over the blacks in many instances. The main reason for this is the stereotype that whites hold against the blacks.

The whites assume that black people are not as reliable as the whites as they do not work hard. This does not only happen for professional jobs that require college training, but also for casual jobs. Another reason for the differences is that the racial segregation that dates back in the 1960s is yet to get out of the minds of the American people.

During the years of segregation, blacks and whites were separated in various aspects including education and work place. Though such segregation may have come to an end, it will always be felt at some point.

An example of such occurrence is when young people graduate to join the same organization only to realize that the majority are whites. Therefore, the ratio at which they will be admitted in the organization depends on the existing population ratio (Royster, p.12).

It has been noted that historical segregation has persisted, and the progress of ending it is very slow. On the other hand, the whites complain that blacks were favored over them. This is because some forms of employment were precisely meant for the blacks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their attempts to acquire these positions have been frustrated because it seemed that to be black was the first qualification for these jobs. Another reason for the equalities is the high demand for certain jobs meant for particular racial groups (Royster, p. 15).

Vallas, Finlay, and Wharton have identified networks as the main source of racism (p. 315). This is because referrals are mainly from the same group of individuals in the work place. If a company has a black manager or owner, the probability of acquiring black workforce is high compared to other races.

Considering that most industries were owned by the dominant whites do before the immigrants came, most organizations are likely to have networks consisting whites. Such networking does not provide the possibility of integrating different racial groups (Vallas, Finlay and Wharton, p. 316).

In the past, majority of the jobs were held by whites. However, with increasing knowledge on employee rights and formation of unions, employment shifted to the blacks and the whites were now being discriminated. Such trends led to black Americans having a great influence on the labor market.

However, this did not have a comprehensive impact on blacks because they were only eligible for inferior jobs. Therefore, knowledge of human rights gave the whites an added advantage in the formal jobs while leaving lower cadre jobs to the blacks (Waldinger and Lichter, p. 168).

Immigration was also a contributing factor to racism. Managers treated foreign workers as “others” and ranked their employees basing on the place of origin.

This was baseless considering that there were no criteria used to measure the ability and eligibility of a given individual to a certain role. It was purely based on stereotypes associated with racial aspects. This led to people with Asian origin being preferred over those with an African descent (Waldinger and Lichter, p. 165).

We will write a custom Assessment on Perspectives for explaining racial disparity in the U.S. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no doubt that individuals have equal capabilities of performing in the job market. However, opportunities of employment are distributed according to racial connotations leading to unemployment of some racial groups.

Also, segregation has strongly contributed to racial discrimination observed in the labor market. For instance, in areas where blacks are dominant, whites develop an “anti-black” attitude. In this case, during recruitment, the whites recruit from their own races and vice versa.

Future for the impacted groups in the U.S. labor market Doing away with geographical isolation is a major step towards curbing racism in the labor market. Equal distribution implies equal chances of attending high schools and colleges. In turn, this leads to uniformity in employment (Royster, p. 21).

The isolation is said to be a result of immigration where immigrants are separated from the natives. If all people have the same chances in life, then segregating them according to their racial status is unfair.

Another solution is anticipating the effects of immigration into another country. The level at which immigrants participate in the new country’s activities should be put into consideration.

Such planning will help in avoiding the admission of a high number of immigrants that the country cannot support. When the immigrants come, they should be integrated into the new country to avoid incidences of discrimination (Waldinger and Lichter, p. 232).

The advent of the concept of globalization is also a critical asset in the fight against racial discrimination. Globalization has broken down all the boundaries and barriers that prevented individuals from associating freely with others around the world.

In this case, all racial groups should be able to work together as one big family. This will go a long way into solving the problem of racism that was inherent in the society in the past (Vallas, Finlay and Wharton, p. 316).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Perspectives for explaining racial disparity in the U.S. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Racial disparity brings imbalance in the job market. This leads to waste of human resources and unutilized potentials in cases where qualified and trained professionals are left out based on their race. Forcing people to deviate from their areas of interest to serve in other uninteresting jobs based on race is not acceptable in the modern society. This should be shunned as it a violation of human rights.

Therefore, for the improvement and enhancement of individuals and the society, it is necessary to observe equality of various racial groups from all over the world. Placing the right candidate for the right job based on ability, education, and professional qualification leads to improved productivity. In this case, race should not be used as a basis for employing an individual.

Works Cited Royster, Deirdre. Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men From Blue Collar Jobs. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Print

Vallas, Steven P, William Finlay, and Amy S. Wharton. The Sociology of Work: Structures and Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Waldinger, Roger and Michael I. Lichter. How The Other Half Works: Immigration and the Social Organization of Labor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. Print.

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Interest Rate Disparity between RBA and Major Australian Banks Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Introduction

Literature Review

Reasons for leaving the cash rate unchanged

Reasons for banks not matching RBA interest cuts

International comparisons

Conclusion/Summary

Recommendations

References

Executive Summary The purpose of this report was to examine interest rate disparity between Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and major Australian banks. The report presents RBA monetary policy decisions since December, 2012 and how major banks have responded to them. Focus was placed on the RBA’s April, 2012 interest rate decision. The report also presents recent monetary policies from China, India and Europe for comparison purposes.

Research for the report involved current literature review of articles covering recent monetary policies and major banks responses. Main findings indicate that there exist interest rate disparities between central banks’ monetary policy and commercial banks.

In all the cases reviewed interest cuts had no effect on banks’ lending rates. While it is clear that major banks interest rates will never match RBA’s interest cuts, this report recommends that RBA continues with interest cuts, but find other means to pressure major banks into matching their interest rates with RBA interest cuts to gain public confidence.

Introduction The RBA lowered cash rates by 25 basis points in December, 2012 to 4.25 and has kept it on hold for now four months in a row. In its April, 2012 decision, the RBA left the cash rate unchanged to the surprise of many. Despite the interest cuts, major Australian banks are hesitant on matching their interest rates with RBA interest cuts.

The purpose of this report was to examine the interest rate disparity between RBA and major Australian Banks. The information gathered was to guide an understanding into monetary policies and the disparities that exist between cash rate cuts and banks’ lending interest rates.

It was assumed that cash rate cuts by central/reserve banks should instantly ease the financial markets. This should compel major banks into lowering their interest rates.

The current financial situation in Australia and world over was considered with a view to understanding the effect of cash rate cuts on banks’ lending interest rates. Information was gathered by way of online review of current literature. Although immense literature existed on the internet on this topic, most of the articles could not meet the required academic threshold for inclusion in this report.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The report is presented in three major parts. The first part is introductory part, which presents the executive summary and introduction to the report. The second part covers a review of literature, which also presents the major findings and discussions. The final part presents summary/conclusion and recommendations of the report.

Literature Review Banks are sometimes forced to borrow money from other banks on a short-term basis to cover liquidity shortfalls resulting from customer withdrawals. Interbank interest rates thus denote interest banks charge on such short-term loans. Most often, interest rates follow the law of demand and supply and to some extent inflation and activities in the financial market.

However, the government, through central bank, has a say on the prevailing interbank interest rates especially as a means to containing inflation or easing credit crunch. Since December 2011, the RBA has kept interbank interest rates on hold at 4.25%. This decision, especially as made in April 2012, came to the surprise of many who thought the RBA would lower the rates further to 4.0%. But what reasons did RBA give for the hold?

Reasons for leaving the cash rate unchanged According to the minutes of RBA board meeting on 3rd April 2012, the decision not to ease interest rates further was guided by the prevailing international and national economic conditions. It was noted during the meeting that the world was expected to experience a below-trend pace economic growth rate in 2012, with Europe weakening while China and Asia easing in growth pace (RBA, 2012).

However, the board noted that the US, Australia’s main trading partner, was in its recovery and growth for the year 2012 is expected to be about average. The board also noted improved sentiments in the financial market following impressive progress in resolving sustainability of the fiscal and debt positions in many European countries (RBA, 2012).

At the domestic level, the board noted a decline in demand compared to the year 2011 as well as easing conditions in the housing sector. Labour market conditions in Australia also showed an increase in unemployment rates. Inflation was, however, reported to be within the target, but the board noted the lack of data on inflation.

The board’s decision was also guided by the fact that Australia’s financial conditions remained unchanged in March, with interest rates on loans remaining close to medium-term averages, while exchange rates remained high and credit growth modest (RBA, 2012).

We will write a custom Report on Interest Rate Disparity between RBA and Major Australian Banks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons for banks not matching RBA interest cuts Even as the RBA maintained the cash rates on hold for four months in a row, only small to medium size banks have lowered their interest rates to match RBA cuts. Major banks are still yet to match their interest rates with RBA interest rate cuts. Some banks have even raised their interest rates.

But what reasons to they give for such responses? It is worth noting that RBA’s monthly interbank interest rate is not the only influence on banks’ lending rates. Most banks in Australia acquire loan from international banks hence their interest rates is greatly influenced by activities in the global financial markets (ANZ, 2012).

Most often, banks blame high funding costs associated with the weakening of the European economy for failure to lower interest rates. Most Australian banks depend on international borrowing especially from European countries to make up for their liquidity shortfalls.

The financial crisis in Europe, which began in late 2011, has meant that Australian banks acquire credit at a high interest rate hence lowering their lending rates to match RBA interest cuts seem unrealistic. For instance, ANZ has been raising its interest rates since February 2012, despite RBA’s decision to keep cash rates on hold (ANZ, 2012).

The bank has blamed funding costs resulting from weakening activity in the global financial market as sufficient reason for raising its interest rates, despite RBA’s interest cuts. At the domestic level, banks have cited reduced borrowing rates and increased competition for deposits as their reasons for not matching with RBA interest cuts (Australian Bankers Association, 2012).

Deposits constitute 60% of banks liquid capital (Australian Bankers Association, 2012). Competition for deposits means that banks may be faced with liquidity shortfalls as banks fight for the few deposits.

Besides, most banks depended on house owners as the main borrowers, but reduced activity in the housing sector has seen many customers avoid bank loans and rather opt to repay previous loans. This only means that the demand for loans has drastically reduced hence banks are only left with the option of keeping interest rates high to be able to make profits.

Nevertheless, the RBA treasurer, Wayne Swan, believes that banks should pass interest cuts to the public. According to him, it is true that banks are operating under difficult global financial environment, but they should also be concerned about their local borrowers and pass on interest cuts to the public (Financial Review, 2011b).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Interest Rate Disparity between RBA and Major Australian Banks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He warns that if banks fail to lower their interest rates to match with RBA interest cuts, then they should be ready to face the wrath of customers who definitely will be angered by such defiance.

Similar pressure on banks to match their interest rates with RBA interest cuts has also been expressed by federal Finance Minister, Penny Wong, who noted that bank’s failure to pass on interest rate cuts to the public could deny households with mortgage worth $300, 000 a monthly saving of up to $49 (Financial Review, 2011a).

As a business analyst, I support the Treasurer’s call for banks to match their interest rates with RBA interest cuts. While banks repeatedly mention the high cost of wholesale credit from international financial market as sufficient reason for them not to match their interest rates with RBA interest cuts, it should be noted that international borrowing only accounts for 20% of the banks’ sources of funding (Colebath, 2012).

The balance is generated domestically from customer deposits (accounting 60%) and short-term bonds (accounting 20%) (Colebath, 2012). While the international cost of funding may have risen, domestic costs have not risen hence it would only be fair for banks to pass on interest cuts to the customers who form a substantial source of their funding.

International comparisons Similar monetary policies on cash rate cuts have been witnessed across Europe, China and India. The European Central Bank raised benchmark rate by 25 basis points in April 2012, but kept interbank interest rates on hold at 1% (Song, 2012). Just like Australian banks, European banks are still yet to match their interest rates.

In China, the People’s Bank of China lowered banks’ reserve requirement ratio (RRR) by 0.5% in December, 2011 in a bid to ease short-term credit crunch (Xin and Yao, 2011).

While this monetary policy, which came into force in February 2012, has eased credit crunch by releasing between 350 billion Yuan to 400 billion Yuan into the banking system, banks in china are still hesitant on lowering interest rates given the high inflation rates in the country (Xin and Yao, 2011).

Indonesia also lowered its interbank interest rates by 25 basis points to ease inflation in a decision that surprised many financial players, but major banks failed to lower their interest rates to match interest cuts. However, inflation in Indonesia has since eased following interest rate cuts.

Conclusion/Summary Cash rates have become important monetary policy through which central/reserve banks ease credit crunch and contain inflation. The push for interest rate cuts came as a means to ease financial markets from inflation and credit crunch that has been witnessed since late 2011 with economic growth in Europe weakening while China and Asia eases in pace.

Most economic analysts argue that cash rate cuts are an automatic recipe for low interest rates. However, it is evident from this report that banks have other factors to consider for lowering their interest rates and cash rate cuts may have minimal effect on major banks. For major banks, activities in the global financial market have greater influence than domestic interbank interest rates.

While RBA’s cash rate cuts should automatically lead to interest rate reductions as has been witnessed in small to medium size Australian banks, the difficult global financial environment in which major Australian banks operate cannot be ignored when understanding the interest rate disparity. Examples from Europe, China and Indonesia have also revealed a disparity between central bank’s monetary policies and banks’ interest rates.

Recommendations Based on the findings, this report recommends that the Reserve Bank of Australia:

Revisits its monetary policy and address the disparity that exists in interest rates between major banks and RBA interest rate cuts before lowering the rates any further as anticipated in May,2012

Establish mechanisms for ensuring that its cash rate cuts are automatically transferred to the public

Encourage banks to capitalize on domestic sources of funding as global financial market is likely to get tougher as European economy weakens.

References ANZ 2012, Why ANZ is changing the way it sets interest rates. Web.

Australian Bankers Association 2012, Bank funding-an explanation, media release. Web.

Colebath, T 2012, Big banks marginal case. Web.

Financial Review 2011a, Wong urges banks to pass on rate cut, media release. Web.

Financial Review 2011b, Big four silent as Swan presses for rate cuts, media release. Web.

RBA 2012, Minutes of the monetary policy meeting of the reserve bank board-3 April 2012. Web.

Song, D. 2012, EUR/USD: Trading the European Central Bank interest rate decision, news report. Web.

Xin, Z. and Yao, K. 2011, China’s central bank cut reserve requirements for commercial lenders on Wednesday for the first time in three years, a policy shift to ease credit strains and shore up an economy running at its weakest pace since 2009. Web.

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Public Scrutiny and Accountability: An Ethical Dilemma Case Study best college essay help

Brief Overview of Facts and Issues Art Springer was the head of the Bureau of License Enforcement. Springer worked under Anne Trotter, the agency director of the firm. Trotter on the other hand worked directly under the office of the Governor. Springer was given a free reign in his office. In the process, he made a lot of decisions without consultation of his junior staff.

However, under certain circumstances, Trotter would intervene and give Springer some directives. These instances were considered as high profile situations (Miller, n.d.). However, even under these instances, the directives that Trotter gave were not different from what Springer would have done. In addition, Springer had no ethical issues that affected his work.

William J. Smith held the office of the governor. Governor William was used to getting his way. He also had a habit of getting even with anyone who did not stand on his lines. Smith ensured that all his employees were loyal to him.

The idea of loyalty according to the governor meant that all the employees would have to portray his administration in the best light. Working for the Governor came with strings attached. In fact, to be part of the administration, one had to be willing to sacrifice his reputation for the governor’s sake (Miller, n.d.).

Springer realized that to survive at the state administration, he had to show his support to the governor. Moreover, Springer realized that Trotter would go along with anything that she thought would be beneficial to the governor. Springer thus began working shortly after Governor Smith was elected.

In fact, Trotter, who was head hunting for the best people in the market to head the departments, recruited Springer as the head of bureau of License. At the present moment, Governor Smith is facing a tough re-election campaign and the media is all over the place “digging for dirt”.

Hence, the media presence around Springer’s office has increased by at least 20% (Miller, n.d.). In a meeting, the public information officer cautioned the Bureau Chiefs that they should not let anything to occur within the bureau that the media would deem as scandalous.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The governor liked to be surrounded by his supporters despite the fact that in public, he portrayed the picture of a non-partisan politician. Moreover, the governor liked knowing that his administration was behind him. Most of his administrators understood the importance of supporting the governor. It happened that the governor was hosting a gala fundraiser in the state capital.

Most of the mid level administrators expressed their desire to attend this event (Miller, n.d.). To facilitate the idea of mid level administrators attending the event, three of the four chiefs decided to hold meetings at the state capital. This would ensure that the mid level administrators attended the event. Moreover, their expenses to and from the capital would be reimbursed.

The law is very clear on using the states resources for personal gain. Springer is sure that the idea of the three chiefs is against the law. In fact, his certainty was compounded by the fact that the chiefs have confided in him that there no real reason behind the meetings.

In fact, the meetings are just decoys so that the employees can go to the event organized by the governor and network with other state administrators (Miller, n.d.). Springer initially thought that the chief’s ideas were self-initiated. However after, Trotter, he realized that there was more to the case than he knew.

From Trotter, Springer learned that he was supposed to go along with the idea. In other words, the director wanted Springer to call his own meeting and go to the state. Springer’s loyalty was put to test (Miller, n.d.).

The same afternoon, one of the chiefs, Mike Daniels, asked Springer if he intended to go along with the plan but he dodged the question and tried to point out the dangers of getting involved with such an activity. However, Daniels dismissed his arguments and told him that the media had to be led to a problem before they could actually do anything.

PA at Center of Force Field and the Mission of this PA This is a case of ethics and decision-making when an individual is faced with ethical problems. Therefore, to identify the public administrator who is at the center of the field, we have to identify the person who is facing issues regarding to ethics and decision-making. From the article, several administrators have violated several ethical rules and guidelines that are supposed to guide their conduct in office.

We will write a custom Case Study on Public Scrutiny and Accountability: An Ethical Dilemma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, decision-making issues do not hold most of them captives. This is because they have already made their decisions. This therefore leaves Springer as the major candidate who is faced by ethical violations and a decision to make on these issues. Therefore, Springer becomes the best candidate to be placed at the center of a force field.

Springer has a tough mission. He has to make decisions on whether to go along with the plan put forward by the director or to act within the law and do nothing. Both these decisions have consequences. If Springer decides to go along with the plan that the other chiefs have accepted, he risks breaking the law.

Moreover, he risks being put on the spot light by the media that have intensified their activities around the Bureau of Licensing. On the other hand, if Springer decides to be ethical and act within the stipulations of the constitution, he risks losing his job.

Moreover, in an industry where most of the employers do like whistle blowers, Springer risks his reputation among other potential employers. Therefore, Springer’s main mission is to find a solution that would satisfy both his employers and his personal needs.

Insights from the Case Questions The case questions present a deep insight into the case under study. To begin with, the main questions with regards to this case requires one to identify the ethical challenges that Springer faces. In the first place, Springer has a choice between showing loyalty to his boss to maintain his reputation as well as his job or upholding the law and losing his job. The ethics demand that Springer should uphold the law.

However, ethics is a question of morals and morals may be forced to change with circumstances. Springer is under a lot of pressure to make a decision that may leave him at a position where he is not compromised. There is always the tempting factor that since all the others members are involved it may be okay to do the same. Therefore, in order not to lose his job Springer may be tempted to go along with plan.

However, if he goes along with the plan and they get caught in the fiasco, it is a known fact the governor would always look for a fall guy and defend himself. With this in mind, Springer is in a tight spot where he will require a lot soul searching to make his final decision.

The second question demands a course of action that Springer can take. There are two courses of action that Springer could take. To begin with, Springer can collude with the chiefs and go along with the plan. This course would enable him to keep his job in the short run. However, in the event that they are exposed, he will eventually lose his job. On the other hand, Springer can take a different course of action.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Scrutiny and Accountability: An Ethical Dilemma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He may decide to expose the scandal altogether. This might probably make him lose the current position that he holds. However, from a legal and professional view, this is an ethical decision. This, may however lead to his dismissal from office.

However, he may use all legal means, including requesting for a body of inquiry to investigate on the issue in order for him to be reinstated to the position that he held. This means that he can sue the governor. Therefore, the most probable and safest course of action would be to make a decision based on ethics.

Another question that can be looked upon in this case is the demand to know whether the alternative course of action should be discussed with anyone else. Actually, discussing the problem with someone else would be the best decision. Therefore, if I were Springer then I would discuss the question with someone else.

In such a situation, the best person to discuss with would be a lawyer. This is because a lawyer presents the best cover in case of job termination. Moreover, a lawyer will offer legal advice on the matters regarding to ethics. Furthermore, lawyers always provide alternative solutions to the problem and methods that one can use to ‘cover his back’.

The considerations that will affect Springer’s decision-making include what Springer has to lose or gain (looking at the pros and cons of each decision). Each decision has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, choosing the right decision will depend on the consequences that the decision will yield. To begin with, if the decision is likely to lead to dire consequences, then it should be avoided.

On the other hand, if the decision will lead to minor consequences then it represents the course of action. As discussed above, choosing to go along with the director’s plan may lead to only short-term benefits. If the plans go wrong, the resulting consequences may include removal from office, serving a jail sentence and loss of personal reputation.

On the other hand, choosing to be ethical is likely to lead to loss of job and loss of reputation among the corrupt. Looking at these two options, the best option to take is being ethical.

This is because the likelihood of losing the job will be high but due to the laws and legal restrictions, the probability of being directly fired will be reduced. Moreover, since Springer was ‘head hunted’ from the best the probability of finding another job will be high.

If I was in the shoes of Springer and asked to schedule a formal meeting, I probably would have taken the offer. The reason for this decision is that in the case of a formal request, I would have a means of defending my actions. A formal request from my superiors means that they are actually admitting liability hence they will be liable for the consequences that may arise from the meeting.

Therefore, despite the fact that I would have ignored ethics, I will have shown my loyalty and kept my job. Moreover, with this decision, I would manage to keep both my job and reputation intact. However, when the question comes down to morality, I will probably have the feeling of guilt.

Nevertheless, law and morality are two different things. Since in this question I will not have broken the law, then it may live with the social guilt. After all, when the society is analyzed as a whole, almost no one upholds morality.

In case, if the media calls to ask about the appropriateness of the meeting, I can clearly defend my actions by stating that I was requested to attend the meeting therefore, I had no choice but to abide to the directions of my superiors. Therefore, all the answers can be obtained from the director.

Identification of the Stakeholders The stakeholders, in this case, are the people who have an interest in the developing situation. From a plain analysis, there are several stakeholders on the case at hand. To begin with, the State can be considered as the major stakeholder. This is because the case involves ethical issues and the state has interest in matters that pertain to ethics.

Therefore, the state has interest in his case since it involves a case where several individuals are willing to utilize resources under false pretence. Another interested party is the governor. The governor has an interest in the case since it may affect his image and public reputation. In addition to the governor, the director, Trotter, also has an interest in the case.

This is because the case will affect her work directly or indirectly depending on the decision that Springer will make. Furthermore, there are the chiefs in other departments. Springer’s decision will affect the chiefs in that they may lose their jobs if Springer makes an ethical decision. Lastly, at the core of the case is Springer. Springer is the man left with the decision making capability.

All the outcomes of the case shall depend on how Springer makes his decision. The media remains a stakeholder in this case but only to a small extent. This is because the media is portrayed as the only source that may uncover the activities of the agency. Therefore, to a given extend they have some interest in the agency and this translates to interest in the case as well.

Kurt Lewin came up with Force Field Analysis in 1951. This analysis is widely used by many people to make informed decision-making (Lewin, 1951). Moreover, managers and administrators use the force field to make plans and implement changes in the administrative programmes. Force Field Analysis is a powerful tool used in gaining comprehensive point of view on different forces that act for and against a decision.

Therefore, managers may use the Force Field Analysis to simplify the process of decision making in an organizational set up. Force Field Analysis may also be useful to individuals facing tough decisions. A simple form of a force field analysis is a pro-and-con list that most individuals use when making personal decisions.

The formation of a force field analysis will depend on the merits and demerits of each decision. Each decision has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, choosing the right decision will depend on the consequences that the decision will yield. To begin with, if the decision is likely to lead to dire consequences, then Springer should avoid it.

On the other hand, if the decision will lead to minor consequences then it represents the course of action. As discussed above, choosing to go along with the director’s plan may lead to only short-term benefits. If the plans go wrong then, the consequences include loss of job, probability of going to jail, and loss of personal reputation.

On the other hand, choosing to be ethical is likely to lead to loss of job and loss of reputation among the corrupt. Looking at these two options, the best option to take is being ethical. This is because the likelihood of losing the job will be high but due to the laws and legal restrictions.

The probability of the governor firing him will reduce considerably. Moreover, since the director chose Springer from the best, he is likely to take a short time before he gets another job.

Force field analysis works best when a small group is discussing the case, especially a group of about four to eight people. The first step in creating a force field analysis framework is to decide on the area that requires a decision to be made. This decision might be written as a suggestion or proposal. All the forces that support the proposed decision should be listed on the left column.

These forces drive change and encourage a person to make a certain decision. These forces are also known as the pros of making a certain decision. All the forces that are against the decision are listed on the right column. These forces restrain a person from making certain decisions. After doing this, all the two columns are compared to each other and the one with the most compelling arguments is chosen.

Springer decision is highly dependent on ethics. Therefore, at the core of the force field we will have Springer’s ethical decision. On the left of the force field, we will have all the forces that support the idea of a decision based on ethics. On the left, we will have all the negative forces that may try to prevent Springer from making a rational ethical decision.

Springer needs to consult a legal team that will assist him in formulating a comprehensive force field. A well-formulated force field will assist Springer in coming making a rational decision. Moreover, it simplifies the problem by breaking it down to smaller units that can be solved individually. The figure below shows a sample force field that Springer may use to make a decision on the dilemma that he faces.

Force Field Analysis Diagram

The Problem According to the law, no one is allowed to use the taxpayer’s money for personal gains. Springer’s colleagues have no qualms about using the taxpayer’s resources to attend a gala event organized by the governor. On the other hand, Springer is an employee who has adhered to ethics all through his career.

Therefore, he is faced with a dilemma, which requires him to choose between two the options. Therefore, in this article the question is should Springer uphold the law or should he show loyalty to his employer.

The problem in this case is with the higher authority (Director and the governor). These two are ‘backing Springer into a corner’ due to matters that relate to ethics. Therefore, the problem in this case is lack of adherence to ethics and the law. Most of the employees at the agency do not abide to the ethics and code of conduct that has been set by the law.

Moreover, they are breaking the law and are demanding the same from Springer. Springer finds himself in situation where he has to choose between losing his job and breaking the law. Springer has to make a decision on whether he will adhere to the code of conduct in his profession or he will join the bandwagon and keep his job.

Analysis of the problem Art Springer is in a dilemma because he is faced by a tough ethical decision. As head of the bureau of License, Springer has never been faced with ethical problems. Therefore, when the case of ethics arose, Springer found himself in a tough position.

The dilemma arises because his superiors are willing to misinform the public and the state on matters of public finances. The chiefs are willing to call meetings for no good reason. The public will finance these meetings but this is unethical since the meetings will only benefit the governor.

The problem in this case is arises due to difference in moral standards and interests of public administrators. To begin with, the Governor likes to be surrounded with his supporters. Therefore, he tends to consent to any ideas that would have him around his supporters. The fact that his employees are breaking the law to be around him does not raise much concern.

In fact, Springer learned that the governor might be the one who sanctioned the meetings at the states capital. Under the governor is the director who is very loyal to him. Trotter always goes along with what the governor wants. Therefore, she wants Springer to do the same. Moreover, the chiefs of other departments are already going along with the plan. Therefore, this raises a lot of question on ethics of the staff in the agency.

How ethical are the people who work for the governor? Most of them are unethical. These employees do not adhere to the code of conduct required in their profession.

Therefore, when Springer shows that he is not willing to throw his morals out of the window, it raises a lot questions about his loyalty to the governor. However, Springer’s dilemma shows that, as a public administrator, he is doing the right thing to doubt his colleagues’ commitment to their public duty.

Ethic derives its origin from the ancient Greek language, which expressed the idea of morality and conformity in behavior to a certain code.

Ethics therefore defines a code of conduct that should be adopted and implemented by management to govern the behavior within a working environment. To evaluate ethics, we have to look at the personal values that a person portrays. This article is concerned with ethical issues that affect public administrators.

Most of the countries and businesses in the world have incorporated ethics into their constitutions. Taking the example of Brazil, their federal constitution has incorporated the concept of morality, impersonality, publicity, efficiency, and legality in public administration. The concept of ethics is based on morality.

Morality is a principle that leads to the understanding that the service to the people requires more than compliance to the law. Therefore, a public administrator needs to obey rules of the social morality, show good behavior, and have integrity by showing common sense of honesty (Figueiredo

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Joan Miro’s Self Portrait I Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction A self portrait encompasses an artist’s representation of himself. This paper’s major subject encompasses a 1917 self portrait by Joan Miro1. This portrait encompasses one of his earlier works that were produced before his first exhibition in 1918. The identification of themes is essential before the painting of a self portrait.

The painting’s major themes encompasses Miro as the painting’s painter and subject, political radicalism, positivity of western influence in the artistic styles of Catalan artists as well as the use of the varying artistic styles in the production of a personal artistic style2.

Though this self-portrait displays the art confusion facing Miro due to the influences of cubinism, dada arts style and fauvism, it can be described as a masterpiece that integrates the true feelings and emotions Miro had before his work was influenced by Surrealism.

To enhance the support of the identified thesis, such elements of analysis as line, shapes, forms, space, value, color and texture will be utilized together with such art principles as balance, contrast, movement, emphasis, proportion and unity.

Body Analysis of Historical facts

The painting’s original setting is both in his grandmother’s native village of Majorca and Barcelona. After finishing his schooling in the private school of Art of Francisco Galy, he continued to stay in Barcelona, but he travelled to Majorca to acquire his painting inspiration. This original setting symbolizes the hostile period in which Miro initially became an artist.

This hostility culminated from the aged art world that not only locked itself in its original academies, but was also infuriated by the young artists whose art was aimed at climbing out of the old stifling academies of aged art3.

Though this original setting emphasized on the inheritance of “ism” from the 19th century that enhanced the liberation of painting from depicted recognizable subjects, Miro was being faced by the challenge of deciding what artistic style he would incorporate into his art work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because by the time he had decided to start painting, the dada style had enhanced the meaning of art, cubinism hade assembled, enhanced and restructured subject matter and picture space in paintings, while the fauvists had started focusing on the use of nature to demonstrate paint, rather that using paint to demonstrate nature4.

For this reason, this painting incorporated the dada, cubinism and fauvism art styles, to bring out the major themes that occupied Miro’s mind during this period.

This clearly indicates that the painting’s original setting enhanced the recognition of Miro’s feeling and emotions before the changing of his artistic style to surrealism. As per the historical functions, Miro utilized it to ascertain his political radicalism and rejection of the classicalism supported by The Noucentists that ruled the art scene in Barcelona.

He felt that the Catalan artists should integrate western influences into their artistic style, as opposed to the selective judgment passed on by The Noucentists. Essentially, Miro utilized this painting to show that an artist can combine different artistic styles to form his own artist style He uses color symbolically like the fauvists and radically fragmented objects of cubinism in this portrait5.

The painting’s patronage lies on Van Gough, Picasso and the various fauvist artists. This is because most of his earlier art was influenced by dada artistic style that encompassed a continuation of the Van Gough’s artistic style. Essentially, he incorporated cubinism in his art, an artistic style that can be attributed to George Braque and Pablo Picasso. Inherently, he incorporates the color symbolism of fauvism.

Analysis of Work Content and subject matter

This portrait’s content encompasses Joan Miro as the subject and painter of the self portrait6. Though the painting encompasses a reflection of Miro’s self examination, its subject matter is political and artistic radicalism. The brown coat he wears in this painting symbolizes political and artistic radicalism.

Under political radicalism, he believed that all people in Spain should be accorded with a chance to make their own political choices void of the politician’s influence.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Joan Miro’s Self Portrait I specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under art radicalism, he believed that the Catalan artists as well as other artists in Barcelona should be accorded with the freedom of articulating other western artistic styles into the personal artistic styles. This would enable the young artists to formulate their own unique artistic styles that were unrepresented in the old art world.

Historical Context and Analysis of the Style

As per historical and artistic context, this self-portrait was painted using the artistic styles of cubinism, fauvism as well as that of Paul Cezanne. Under cubinism, radically fragmented objects were utilized, as opposed to the copying of texture, space, color and form.

In this case, it goes beyond the traditional techniques of chiaroscuro, foreshortening, modeling and perspective to incorporate picture place surface of a flat and two-dimensional nature7. As such, synthetic cubinism as utilized by Miro in the painting encompasses emphasizing on forms’ synthesis or combination, which enlarges and makes the flat fragmented two-dimensional images more decorative.

This is done by emphasizing on the strength of color. Fauvism encompasses the utilization of color to symbolize specific themes. Cezanne represented the impressionist artistic style. Under this style, thick paint implications, distinctive brush strokes, real-life-subject matter and vivid colors were utilized in art.

Formal Analysis

Having been a short man, he utilized vertical lines in the portrait to indicate height by extending his form upwards8. This was aimed at enhancing his height because after self-examination, he realized that his short stature could be regarded as a limiting factor.

The various lines utilized also aid in leading the audience’s eye from his predominant eyes to his coat and the other features of the portrait. In terms of shape, lines are utilized to form the circular form of his head. His body also reflects a two-dimension shape. In terms of form, his part of the body painted in the portrait reflects a two-dimension shape in terms of depth, length and width that cannot be viewed from all angles.

In terms of space, Miro’s figure encompasses the positive space while the green and yellow background reflects the negative space. The reduced negative space accords the audience with the chance to concentrate on the pronounced positive space.

In terms of value, the portraits background is light as compared to the central figure in the portrait; this contrast aids the audience to differentiate between the background and the Painting’s central figure. In terms of texture, the face is smooth, while the coat is hard and rough9.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Joan Miro’s Self Portrait I by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Color is liberally utilized in the painting. The painting’s main focus includes the green and yellow color of the portraits background and suit coat’s brushwork which is done in an intense dark brown color to symbolize radicalism.

This portrait is balanced because the textures, form, shapes and colors have been harmoniously combined. Contrast is created through the positive and negative space as well as colors utilized in the portrait.

The varying lines, color and space are used to enhance movement between the background and the central figure in the portrait. In creating emphasis, Miro contrasts the color, texture and shape in the portrait. Proportion is essentially created by the harmonious combination of sizes. Unity is created through the harmonious combination of the principles of art in the portrait.

Conclusion The 1917 self portrait by Joan Miro can be classified as a self portrait. Miro utilizes the portrait to bring out his nature as a subject as well as painter, his political and artistic radicalism and the utilization of various artistic styles in the production of a unique personal artistic style.

From an historical facts perspective, the portraits original setting is Barcelona and Majorca and its patronage lies on Pablo Picasso, Van Gough, Paul Cezanne and various Fauvism artists10.

In terms of work content and subject matter, the work content is reflected by Joan Miro, while the subject matter encompasses political and artistic radicalism. The historical context of the work encompasses Cubinism, impressionism and Fauvism.

In terms of formal analysis the work can be analyzed using the various elements and principles of art. In conclusion its contribution to the history of art encompasses an affirmation that various artistic styles can be combined to for a distinctive artistic style.

Works Cited Hudson, Suzanne, and Nancy Noonan-Morrissey. The Art of Writing About Art. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2002. Print.

Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006. Print. Miro, Joan. Self Portrait. 1917. Olga’s Gallery, Coudersport.

Footnotes 1 Miro, Joan. Self Portrait. 1917. (Olga’s Gallery, Coudersport), 1.

2 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 7.

3 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 8.

4 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 9.

5 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 9.

6 Miro, Joan. Self Portrait. 1917. (Olga’s Gallery, Coudersport), 1.

7 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 10.

8 Hudson, Suzanne, and Nancy Noonan-Morrissey. The Art of Writing About Art. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2002. Print.

9 Hudson, Suzanne, and Nancy Noonan-Morrissey. The Art of Writing About Art. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2002. Print.

10 Mink, Janis. Joan Miró, 1893-1983. (Los Angeles: Taschen GmbH, 2006), 6.

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“The experience of space and time” Response Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

From the article, it is imperative to note that time and space are meaningful and as such determine human existence (Berman 31). In this case, they influence what human beings do and the expected outcomes. Hence, they should not be taken for granted.

Different societies have various perceptions on the value of time (Berman 106). It is important to understand that proper utilization of time is a major ingredient towards progress. Therefore, people ought to learn how to utilize time well and prioritize activities at hand in order to experience modernity.

The issue of space is more complex to determine than that of time. This is because space is compromised of pattern, direction, area and other dimensions. Space is anything that can be measured and utilized to achieve progress.

Different societies have different ways of perceiving and utilizing space in order to make life meaningful (Berman 15). It is notable that proper use of space and time lead to achievement of desired goals and objectives within a given time span. Therefore, the concepts of time and space have to be made valid for a society to become modern.

The issue of objective perception of time and space should be discouraged since it is likely to encourage diversity in perception and conception. This is a factor that can hinder success of any homogenous society. It is also certain that time is the primary dimension that enables one to conquer and utilize the available space.

Hence, it can be deduced that progress involves conquest of space with time and the experience ultimately results into modernity. I therefore support social theories proposed by Weber, Marx, Smith and Marshall who privileged time more than space (Berman 62). Having taken this stand, I disagree with the aesthetic theory that gives more privilege to space than time.

This is due to the fact that there is no way space can become a central action to achieve progress if there is no time for spatial practices. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that the level of progress is determined by individual practice and appropriate use of time and space (Berman 203).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To recap it all, appropriate command of time and utilization of space is a vital source of power in our day to day life. Moreover, space and time should not be materialized objectively just like individuals do to make money and other resources. Instead, they should be defined, perceived and utilized through social organizations in order to liberate societies from social struggle and hence venture into modernity.

Works Cited Marshall, Berman. All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York: Verso Publishers. 1983. Print

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Critical book review of privileging the press Essay essay help online

Introduction Journalism is as highly perplexing career that involves rubbing of shoulders with the law in both positive and negative ways. This has brought about confusion over its relation to courts and witness protection. Journalists have a responsibility to protect their sources when it is deemed necessary. However, the law also works to ensure that justice is served by calling on authenticity of information given by the journalists.

This is sometimes very difficult as it compels journalists to provide their sources. However, as stated in the first amendment, freedom of press was authenticated. Nonetheless, each state in the United States varies in their degree of protection for media against subpoenas. This depends on the kind of information gathered or whether it is published or not.

In this regard, a number of issues have come up on the reasons for journalists’ use of confidential sources, how the law hinders their work as well as definition of a journalist in the context of law. This paper will review Jason Shepard’s privileging the press with regards to witness protection. It will also seek to address issues concerning definition of journalists as well as how the law hinders their work (Shepard 10).

Why Journalist use confidential sources and how they frame source protection in first amendment term

Jason’s book on privileging the press explores protection of confidential sources against subpoenas, which have increased in the recent past. Journalists gather information from a range of witnesses who may or may not want to be identified. Moreover, once a journalist has assured his/her source of confidentiality, it becomes a breach of ethics to end up revealing them.

This has caused great concerns as most of these sources sit on crucial and sensitive information that requires action. On the other hand, revealing sources may hinder future newsgathering of information from the same or other potential sources. In addition, this may endanger some sources’ lives or jobs as well as interest on sensitive issues.

For this reasons, it is always compelling that journalists meet their end of the bargain to protect confidential sources. Several issues have come up on the reasons why journalists use confidential sources. It is important to note that information from confidential sources is usually important to the government, society or the world at large. Moreover, some of the news gathered may be sensitive to the security of a State or its people.

In this regard, the book explores professional duty of journalists to protect their sources. Jason strongly emphasizes that journalists have the responsibility of protecting their sources as this helps in strengthening confidence on their work. Moreover, it helps to instill integrity on their line of work. In essence, journalists need confidential sources because of the risks involved with regard to the news gathered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, journalists need confidential sources because most of the information gathered is always interesting, disturbing or opinions whose sources never want to be named. These may range from information that is sensitive to hierarchies in multinational companies, agencies or government.

In addition, these categories of confidential sources include backstabbers, gossips, snitches and whistle blowers, among others. Moreover, the sources are always reluctant to own up to their information. Another issue that has been rife in journalists’ line of work is their interpretation of source protection according to the first amendment.

To them, confidential sources should be treated as so irrespective of whether they have been published or not. However, this conflicts laws in various states in which unpublished information is excluded from absolute as well as partial protection. This has brought about dispute in court as journalists try to defend both published and unpublished sources.

Moreover, due to the importance of confidential sources in revealing information that is socially advantageous as well as harmful, it is necessary that their protection be upheld irrespective of the publication. Freedom of the press was entrenched in the constitution and was to be upheld in all circumstances in order to allow free flow of information. However, this cannot be achieved when confidential sources are not protected.

On the other hand, the media has a responsibility of providing information that is advantageous to society as well as upholding moral ethics. They also have a responsibility of protecting confidential sources. In this regard, confusion arises on the balance between protection of confidential sources and subpoenas.

However, this does not renege on the belief in protecting confidential sources in order to promote their integrity and flow of information (Shepard 5-30).

How the law does and does not give journalist a right to protect confidential sources

In numerous occasions, United States has been accused of endangering democratic right of free expression as outlined in the first amendment. This sentiment is shared by the international federation of journalists (IFJ) which has criticized the U.S.’s recent approach to protection of confidential sources.

We will write a custom Essay on Critical book review of privileging the press specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To support this, Aidan white, who is the general secretary to IFJ argues that judges in the United States bullies journalists into disclosing their sources. Moreover, they are continually threatened by jail if they talk government employees into revealing information of great concern to the public.

This has caused uproar among journalists and stakeholders on how the law hinders protection of confidential sources. For instance, Judith Miller, a reporter for the New York Times faced jail after she was held in contempt over her refusal to disclose the source of a story from Whitehouse, which was never published.

Moreover, since revealing a CIA agent’s name is deemed a criminal offence in the United States, this complicated the matter. Furthermore, it shows how difficult and complex the matter was to both reporter and judge. Besides, it was deemed to have negative impact on Whitehouse and its integrity.

In this regard, the judge threatened Miller with jail in order to reveal her source. It is important to note that use of subpoenas has intruded on the process of newsgathering. This is mainly because it deals with both confidential and unpublished information, which are significant to the work of journalists.

The law has had its effects on achievements of the first amendment. Moreover, it suppresses the free will of media to be independent and free from influence of the government. In addition, the law deters media from covering matters that may result in subpoenas.

It is also important to note that about 39 states along with the District of Columbia adopted shield laws that are aimed at giving varying degrees of guard against subpoenas. In this regard, some shield laws protect journalists from involuntary disclosure of the sources of confidential information.

However, they are not protected against unpublished materials. Furthermore, the type of legal proceeding involved also determines whether protection is provided or not. Moreover, other factors such as whether the journalist is involved in proceedings also determine protection against subpoenas. In this regard, the law protects as well as deters journalist’s right to protecting sources of confidential information.

For instance, majority of states give journalists the right to protect sources of confidential information if they are published. In addition, other states allow them to protect sources if the type of legal proceeding is civil. Again, this happens if the role of the journalist is an independent third party.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical book review of privileging the press by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this changes when the journalists takes the role of a defender in which case he/she may be forced to disclose his/her source. In addition, this happens when the type of legal proceeding is criminal. Besides, this is also necessary when the information is not published. In this regard, the law does and does not give journalist a right to protect confidential sources (Shepard 10-68).

Why the question of “who is journalist?” is such a perplexing one for law

The definition of a journalist has brought about numerous issues as the law tries to outline those who are free to claim protection. Stakeholders and media fraternity claim that privileges to journalists should be based solely on the first amendment. However, this does not stand fully because the privileges in first amendment are not limited to journalists but also the citizens.

This makes it difficult to establish whether the law only applies for freedom of press as well as whether journalists are like other citizens. To this extent, defining a journalist is quite complex given the number of confusions that it draws. For instance, if the first amendment law is to be utilized in the case, then they are to be considered as other citizens.

However, this is not the case because they perform different functions. In this regard, it is important that definition of a journalist be well put out in order to iron out these issues. For instance, depending on the kind of regulations brought about, each law tries to define a journalist.

For instance, the state of Delaware defines a journalist as one who earns his/her livelihood or principle livelihood from the practice of preparing, or obtaining information for dissemination to the general public with aid of facilities that produce them in mass.

Moreover, it adds that a journalist can be one who acts as an agent of media. However, it is important to note that a common definition of a journalist is still unclear as each state interprets it differently and this becomes the bone of contention to solving privilege issues (Shepard 55-110).

Conclusion Privileges of journalists have been the bone of contention between media and the law since 2000. They try to define a journalist as well as lay out their rights and limits concerning protection of confidential sources. Jason, in his book that explores privileges of journalists tries to shed light on the relationship between law and ethics.

In addition, it proposes on how the courts should define a journalist as well as grant him/her the right privileges. In this regard, Jason’s book finds out that the bone of contention between media and law is definition of a journalist.

He therefore believes that once this is sorted out, privileges given to them will be well defined. However, this is far from being achieved due to complexity in the matter of protecting confidential sources (Shepard 15).

Works Cited Shepard, Jason. Privileging the Press: Confidential Sources, Journalism Ethics and the First Amendment (Law and Society), New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, 2011. Print.

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Stopping Illegal Immigration: Border Security Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Border Security

Pros of border security

Border security vs. other control measures

Ending birthright citizenship

No amnesty with harsher penalties for illegal immigrants

Conclusion

References

Introduction The United States government should make it a priority to secure the border because of national security and defense. Illegal immigration has done more harm than good to the country.

Many measures have been put to place to prevent the violation of immigration laws as well as to protect the sovereignty of the nation. One method that has been adopted as a strategy to combat illegal immigration is border security. This report will focus on the issue of body security, its pros, and compare it with other strategies meant to deal with illegal immigration.

Border Security Border security is a major measure that has been put in place to stop illegal immigration. This is due to the fact that tens of thousands of immigrants are getting in the country each year illegally. This is why the government has put its focus on border control. The government has in turn put a lot of resources and money so as to combat this issue and ensure the implementation of its policies.

These resources have been used to fund and come up with innovations that are meant to stop the large influx of immigrants into the country. Technological systems have also been developed that screen passengers at the entry points so as to prevent people from entering the country illegally.

A lot of effort has been used in trying to prevent illegal border crossing. Different approaches have been used together so as to ensure this. Some of these methods include the construction of fences.

The set-up of high tech radar systems, ground sensors, an increase of agents who are meant to guard the border day and night, and also an aerial vehicle. The attempt to create a virtual fence at the border failed due to the problem it was facing. It was very expensive and would be able to experience technical failures.

The other reason for the need to stop illegal immigration is that the Illegal aliens are weighing down many systems in the country. These systems range from education, healthcare, law enforcement, insurance etc. The massive influx is also costing the citizens jobs as the illegal aliens provide cheap labor to some companies. This is why the companies opt to hire them because they cut costs (Kowalski, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pros of border security Border security is more effective as it deals with the problem at the root. It is a preventive measure as it aims at ensuring that the illegal aliens do not get in the country. This strategy is easier and more efficient than the other methods which are used to deal with them after they have entered the country.

Policies like ending birth right citizenship will not be an issue as the illegal aliens would not even be in a position to have an offspring in the country, because they will not get the opportunity to enter the country. The same applies to the other control measure of not giving amnesty to the illegal aliens. If this problem is solved at the root there would be no need for these other control measures.

It will also allow the control of access to the country. The fence put in place will control the number of entry points to be used in entering the country. This limitation of access will go a long way in making sure that only those people who are supposed to get in the country are allowed in.

Through the different border crossing preventive measures that have been put in place many people will not want to risk as it is now harder to get in the country. Before this strategy many people would risk getting in the country as it only entailed walking right through, but now it is not that easy.

A border fence will make it harder for immigrants to get into the country illegally. This will in turn slow down the number of illegal aliens in the country. This will also aid in the prevention of other problems associated with illegal immigration. These problems include the prevention of illegal drugs from entering the country and job security .The measures that have been put in place to counter border crossing have shown success.

The physical barriers and technological innovations have increased the apprehension of the people attempting to cross the border. From the implementation of this strategy thousands of immigrants trying to cross the border have been apprehended.

Although it has led to the apprehension of thousands, the number of arrests due to border crossing has gone down meaning that less people are able to penetrate the systems that have been put in place.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Stopping Illegal Immigration: Border Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Border security strategies have adopted various means to provide enough personnel to aid in patrolling the border. Some of these strategies are border militarization and civilian border patrols. This is a major boost to border security because there is need for more people to aid in border patrol.

This will make the strain on border patrol less. The military aids in performing its purpose of protecting the public by doing this. The deployment of troops will aid in protecting the country from the illegal aliens who could cause harm to the country. The citizens who volunteer at the borders also show their patriotism by helping the country in dealing with the threat of illegal immigration.

This is also evident in the fact that after border security was made stricter, criminal activity in the US has been eliminated in some fields while it has been decreased tremendously in others. The border before this measure was porous and that is why it was used by many drug traffickers and terrorists. They exploited this gap by using it to smuggle things to the country as they could easily get in and out undetected.

Nowadays it is effective in the prevention of drug smuggling into the country. Border fences have proven to be effective in other countries. This is evident in Israel as terrorist attacks reduced by 95% after the set up of a border fence. This proves that less people could enter the country illegally.

A majority of illegal aliens in the country enter the country through the border. The other immigrants who enter the country legally and have expired visas make up a small fraction of the statistics.

Close to half a million illegal aliens enter the country every year. This is after one million are apprehended at the border. The border control measures serve a great deal in trying to prevent this problem from getting worse than it already is (Kowalski, 2010).

Border security vs. other control measures Border crossing aims at preventing other problems that are as a result of illegal immigration. Most of the other measures to stop illegal immigration serve to control the problem not to prevent it. Some of these control measures are;

Ending birthright citizenship Ending birth right citizenship is not very effective when it comes to stopping immigration. There are many countries that do not have birth right citizenship but the number of illegal immigration is very high. Illegal immigration cannot be prioritized as a strategy for combating this issue. The country has in fact benefited significantly from birth right citizenship.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Stopping Illegal Immigration: Border Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been through the taxes they pay, the children granted citizenship, have grown up to join the army and they have been elected to offices of power and even participated in sports. The country will lose these benefits if they are to remove this law.

The changing of this law will not be easy and will result in the loss of a lot of money in trying to implement it. It is also going to affect a number of processes in the country. Some processes such as getting a passport, social security number etc. will also be made more complicated due to this .

No amnesty with harsher penalties for illegal immigrants This measure prevents the giving of amnesty in the form of citizenship and aims at instead issuing more severe penalties, with an aim of curbing and stopping illegal immigration . This measure is formed on the basis that one should not be awarded for committing a crime. The immigrants have already broken the law by getting in the country illegally.

This policy is also fair to those who have legally entered the country, and followed and passed all the legal and administrative procedures.

This is why strict policies should be put in place so as to discourage them from entering the country and this can greatly be achieved through imposing penalties for the law breakers and removing all incentives to promote them (Roarty, 2011).This method is more effective than ending birth right citizenship but less effective as compared to stopping border crossing.

Conclusion Illegal immigration is a very big problem to the country. Out of all the measures that are being put in place to combat this, border security measures should be prioritized as it accounts for the most number of illegal aliens who are in the country.

Recent findings have shown that the implementation of border security prevention measures, have resulted in the prevention and decrease of thousands of immigration cases. It is more effective than strategies such as ending birthright citizenship and not giving out amnesty to illegal aliens, and offering harsher penalties to those who violate this law.

Border security should however be supported by this strategies as they aid in making border crossing less due to the discouraging of illegal immigration. The cost to be incurred in ensuring the prevention of border crossing is minimal compared to the thousands the government loses as a result of illegal immigration. The country loses more money from illegal immigration.

Stopping illegal immigration will result in increased security in the country, less strain on the social amenities and a decrease in the crime rate. This is why border security which is the most effective strategy of stopping illegal immigration should be prioritized .

References Huisenga, S. (2011). Gingrich Voices Support for S.C. Immigration Law. Web.

Johnson, F. (2010). Norquist Says Ending Birthright Citizenship Is a Tax. Web.

Kowalski, D. M. (2011). Border Security After 9/11: Ten Years of Waste, Immigrant Crackdowns and New Drug Wars. Web.

Kowalski, D. M. (2010). Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry. Web.

Kowalski, D. M. (2010). Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Web.

Roarty, A. S. Q. (2011). Numerous Punches Thrown in Spirited Iowa Debate. Web.

Sternstein, A. (2012). DHS Requests Bids for Second Try at Virtual Fence. Web.

Strohm, C. (2011). McCain, Kyl Girding for Border Security Fight. Web.

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Charismatic vs. Inspirational Leadership Report online essay help

Introduction Leadership is one of the most important management functions in every organization. An organization can only run successfully if it is piloted or led by a skillful, as well as, an influential leader. A good leader inspires and motivates his followers. Additionally, the leader is expected to structure the organization in a manner that facilitates goal achievement.

Thus, leadership can be defined as, “the process of social influence in which, one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Leadership can be conceptualized as a process in which an individual (leader) influences others to achieve an objective and guides the organization in a manner that promotes cohesion.

In this context, the main role of the leader is to influence a group of people such as employees of an organization to achieve a shared or a common goal. Leaders play their role by applying specific leadership skills and knowledge.

Additionally, the effectiveness of the leadership process is determined by the traits of the leader such as beliefs, values and character. Leadership is characterized by four factors namely, the leader, followers, communication and situations. The leader is the person entrusted with the task of leading others. A successful leader must prove to his followers that he deserves to be followed.

The followers are the group of individuals being led through inspiration, motivation and supervision. Communication helps the leader to build a relationship with his or her followers. In most cases, leaders use a two-way communication approach to express their views and obtain feedback from their followers. Leaders often perform their duties in different situations.

Each situation requires a unique leadership style and course of action. Thus, the leader must be able to adapt his leadership style to the situation at hand. Leaders influence their followers in three ways. First, they exert influence by establishing goals, as well as, performance standards. An organization is likely to be successful if its leader is able to set high but achievable standards and goals.

Second, leaders influence others by establishing values in the organization. Values refer to the organizations’ concern for its stakeholders such as customers, investors and employees. Thus, the values guide the operations of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, leaders influence their followers by establishing business and people concepts. In this context, concepts refer to the products the organization intends to offer and the methods it intend to use to offer its products. Great leadership can be achieved if the leader is able to challenge the process. This means that the leader should be able to identify an aspect of the organization that needs to be improved.

Having indentified what is to be improved, the leader should be able to share his vision with the followers on how the improvements should be accomplished. Once a shared vision is created, the leader should provide his followers with the tools needed to solve the problem. The leader should also help the followers to solve the problem, especially, when difficulties arise.

Upon achieving the desired results, a good leader should share the glory with his followers. In general, good leadership is reflected in the leadership style adopted by the leader. This paper focuses on two leadership styles namely inspirational and charismatic leadership. The similarities and differences of these leadership styles will be discussed.

Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership is “a leadership style based on the leader’s ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach followers on a basic, emotional way, to inspire and motivate”. Charismatic leaders provide an environment full of energy, as well as, positive reinforcement. They inspire their followers and encourage them to do their best in everything.

Charismatic leaders use dint of personality, as well as, charm rather than external authority to gather followers. They also give their followers or team members a lot of attention. Additionally, charismatic leaders are able to understand the moods and anxieties of their followers both at personal and at group level. Research indicates that charismatic leaders use a variety of methods to manage their image.

Leaders who are not naturally charismatic often perfect their leadership through training. In most cases, charismatic leaders win the trust of their followers by taking personal risks, as well as, self-sacrifice. A typical charismatic leader is often persuasive and shows confidence in his followers. Such leaders often focus on building a strong team that is distinct from others.

They ensure the followers view the group as being superior to others. Additionally, the group’s image is associated with the charismatic leader. Thus, any person joining the group not only identifies with the group, but also the leader.

We will write a custom Report on Charismatic vs. Inspirational Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assumptions of Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership is based on three basic assumptions which can be explained as follows. First, it is based on the assumption that charm and grace are the most important qualities needed in order to gather followers. Thus, every aspiring charismatic leader must have these qualities. Second, self-belief is an integral attribute of leaders. A charismatic leader should be confident and believe in his leadership abilities.

Finally, individuals are followed by those who admire them. This assumption implies that charismatic leaders must be admired by their followers. Consequently, he or she must inspire and establish a positive rapport with the followers in order to be admired.

Characteristics of Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leadership is associated with four distinct characteristics which include the following. First, the leaders are seen as individuals with supernatural powers, as well as, abilities. The followers consider the leader to be a hero and respect him due to his perceived and actual abilities. Second, leaders are followed due to the charisma they exhibit, as well as, personal trust.

The leader must be trusted for him to gather followers. Third, followers are transformed into leaders if they are able to demonstrate charisma. In the context of an organization, the followers will be promoted to leadership positions if they are able to exhibit charisma.

Finally, charismatic leadership does not involve formal offices of authority. Power is mainly gained through social skills rather than external sources such as the authority associated with the position of the leader. Hence the leader has to develop social skills such as effective communication in order to inspire and win the trust of the followers. This enables him to gain power over the followers.

Characteristics of the Leader People who are considered to be charismatic leaders usually demonstrate certain characteristics that their followers identify with. Such characteristics enable the leaders to gain respect from their followers. Additionally, they enable the leaders to obtain support for their visions, as well as, beliefs.

Empirical studies on leadership reveal that both good and bad leaders can be charismatic. This is because even bad leaders can have the ability to convince their followers that their beliefs and visions are right. The specific characteristics associated with charismatic leaders include the following.

To begin with, charismatic leaders demonstrate high levels of self-confidence, as well as, self assurance. Charismatic leaders often show high levels of maturity in everything they do.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Charismatic vs. Inspirational Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More True charisma “is a measure of a person’s maturity and character”. Charismatic leaders take cognizance of the fact that leadership is not all about showmanship. They do belief that effective leadership is achieved through application of wisdom acquired over time.

Most charismatic leaders begin their careers by learning from their seniors. After some months or years, they gain the knowledge or wisdom and skills required to effectively lead others.

Such knowledge gives charismatic leaders the confidence they need to handle most of the leadership challenges they face. Due to their self-confidence, charismatic leaders tend to be risk lovers. They are able and willing to take risks in order to achieve their goals.

Charismatic leaders need social power to lead their followers. However, they need low authoritarianism to succeed as leaders. Power is the “ability of a person to exert influence over the behavior of others with or without resistance”. Charismatic leaders prefer to influence others without resistance.

This explains why charismatic leaders focus on winning the support of their followers and creating a common vision before implementing any strategy. Authoritarianism is a leadership concept in which the followers blindly submit to authority.

Power is centralized and maintained through repression, as well as, exclusion of followers, especially, those who are likely to challenge the leader. Since charismatic leaders have great concern for their followers, they can not succeed by focusing on high levels of authoritarianism.

Charismatic leaders are associated with expert power. They earn the respect and trust of their followers by applying exceptional skills and knowledge to solve particular problems. For example, a marketing manager can gain expert power if he or she is able to formulate marketing strategies that facilitate achievement of the company’s sales targets.

Individuals tend to accept the opinions and recommendations of persons with highly regarded expertise. In leadership, expert power enables the leader to win the trust of his followers. A charismatic leader is trusted by his followers due to his actual and perceived expertise in solving problems.

Charismatic leaders are also associated with referent power. Referent power refers “to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower’s loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, affection or a desire to gain approval”. Referent power is based on the extent to which the followers admire, identify with and respect the leader.

Referent power can only be gained if the leader has effective interpersonal skills that he uses to establish strong relationships with his followers. Charismatic leaders need referent power since charismatic leadership is based on influence instead of command and control. Referent power is gained when the leader has qualities that followers admire and wish to posses.

Consequently, the followers tend to identify with the leader and even try to copy him. However, the leader might not have referent power over each and every follower. This is because referent power is based on how the followers view the capabilities and personality of the leader.

Charismatic leaders have good communication, as well as, rhetorical skills. Charismatic leaders need communication skills in order to motivate followers during difficult times. Such communication skills are also needed to convince the followers to stay focused during good times.

Charismatic leaders are not only skillful in one-on-one communication, but also in communication at group level. Additionally, they are able to explain technical details in a language that can be easily understood by all followers. Successful charismatic leaders normally empower their followers by coaching them to develop inspirational, as well as, excellent communication skills.

Finally, charismatic leaders are assertive, dynamic and outgoing. They are full of energy and often encourage others to move on despite the challenges facing them. They are also able to listen carefully and show concern for their followers. This facilitates the loyalty that is needed to ensure cohesion and unity among followers. Charismatic leaders often mean what they say.

Thus, their words are usually reflected in their actions. Assertiveness enables charismatic leaders to convince their followers to support their vision or opinion. Additionally, it enables the leaders to effectively explain the course of actions they prefer to take when solving a particular problem.

Characteristics of Followers Followers of charismatic leaders share some common characteristics. Such characteristics include the following. Those who follow a charismatic leader usually identify with and admire their leader. The followers trust and identify with the leader’s beliefs. This is because the leader is considered an expert who is able to offer effective solutions or advice.

Followers of charismatic leaders often exhibit heightened emotional levels. The followers tend to be emotionally attached to the leader and the leadership process. Most followers normally consider charismatic leaders to be heroes who they can not do without. The other characteristic of the followers of charismatic leaders is the willingness to be subordinates.

Charismatic leadership is not based on coercion, but on the ability to convince the followers to voluntarily follow the leader. Since charismatic leaders are trusted and admired, their followers are often willing to follow them without questions. This explains why charismatic leaders’ opinions are often accepted without much comment or thought.

Finally, followers of charismatic leaders are associated with a feeling of empowerment. Charismatic leaders always show concern for their followers. Additionally, charismatic leaders encourage their followers to move on even in difficult times. This results into high morale and a feeling of empowerment among the followers.

Situations that facilitate Charismatic Leadership Studies on leadership have showed that charismatic leaders emerge when a situation arises. Some of the situations that can lead to the emergence of a charismatic leader include a social crisis, task interdependence in an organization, as well as, the need for innovation. Additionally, charismatic leadership is facilitated by an environment that is receptive to change.

Cultural charismatic leaders usually emerge when the society is facing the danger of losing its values, traditions and norms. In such circumstance, the leaders enhance learning and implementation of new actions that restores the society to its former state.

In the context of an organization, a financial crisis can facilitate charismatic leadership. In this case, the CEO, for instance, becomes a charismatic leader if he is able to use his charismatic skills to improve the performance of the organization.

Strengths of Charismatic Leadership Scholars agree that organizations that are run by charismatic leaders often report good performance. This is because charisma acts as the catalyst that transforms average leaders into great or better ones. A charismatic leader not only posses the skills and knowledge acquired in school, but also posses unique interpersonal skills that are necessary to inspire change and growth in an organization.

Consequently, charismatic leadership is likely to promote high performance. As stated earlier, charismatic leaders show concern for their followers and take their concerns into account when making decisions. Additionally, charismatic leaders focus on teamwork and pursuit of a shared objective. Hence, they are able to promote unity and cohesion in an organization.

Finally, charismatic leaders intellectually stimulate their followers by seeking their opinion on various issues before making a decision. They also empower their followers by motivating them to do their best in everything. Hence, charismatic leadership creates followers or subordinates who will ultimately be able to lead themselves.

Weaknesses of Charismatic Leadership Despite the fact that a person needs charisma in order to become a better or a great leader, some scholars believe that charisma alone is not enough to create a successful leader. Charismatic leadership is associated with the following weaknesses. First, the vision shared between the followers and their leader often creates an enormous energy which the leader can use in a destructive manner.

As the leader becomes more confident, his chances of abusing power become very high. Due to their exceptional communication skills and charisma, charismatic leaders are often followed without any resistance.

However, failure to check the leader’s power through opposing views gives room for corruption. An effective organization should facilitate competition for power. Such competition facilitates ideation and proposal of better values. Without competition for power, the leader remains uncontrolled and can misuse his power.

Second, over dependence on the charismatic leader prevents the development of a capable successor. Selecting a successor of a charismatic leader is often difficult since the leader is highly tied to the organization’s identity. Even though some scholars believe that charisma can be acquired through practice, the practicing process is often tedious and the leader might not succeed in acquiring charismatic skills.

This makes it difficult to replace a charismatic leader even if a lot of resources are invested in succession planning. Failure to develop or identify a successor in time, eventually creates a leadership crisis in the organization. Finally, charismatic leaders normally deny the existence of problems or failure. Given their high level of confidence and self-assurance, charismatic leaders might fail to admit their failures.

Additionally, charismatic leaders can fail to learn from their mistakes. This is because they are hardly challenged or opposed by their followers. Since the followers believe that the leader is always right, they might fail to identify the leader’s mistakes.

Failure to correct the leader’s mistakes can lead to poor performance. Additionally, chances of organizational learning will be reduced if the followers fail to objectively assess the decisions and strategies adopted by the leader.

Inspirational Leadership Inspirational leadership is based on the power of the leader to inspire his subordinates to follow him. A person who intends to become an inspirational leader must have the ability to inspire others to achieve high performance and success. Some of the skills that an inspirational leader needs in order to succeed include the following. The leader must have a sense of purpose and passion in his work.

He must also be able to cultivate the same sense of purpose in his followers. An inspirational leader must have good listening and communication skills in order to develop positive relationships with his followers. These skills enable the leader to create the inspirational culture in the organization.

Instilling Inspiration Inspirational leaders achieve their goal of inspiring others to reach great heights in the following ways. To begin with, an inspirational leader must be seen as a ‘real’ leader by his followers. This means that the leader must lead without having any selfish motives. Real leaders take leadership roles due to their passion for helping others. Inspirational leaders always uphold the spirit of good cheer even during difficult times.

They believe that a solution can be found for every problem. This instills confidence in their followers. Research shows that inspirational leaders tend to take “a little more than their share of the blame and a little less than their share of the credit”.

This means that inspirational leaders appreciate and motivate their follows through encouragements, as well as, rewards. They focus on making their followers feel important by challenging them and exciting them to attain goals. Individuals tend to perform better if they are appreciated and rewarded for their effort. For a leader to win the support of his followers, he must be committed and convinced about the goals to be achieved.

An inspirational leader must passionately pursue the mission and vision of his organization. Additionally, he must be able to encourage his followers to feel passionate about the organization’s vision and mission. This can be achieved if the followers are able to identify with the vision and mission of the organization.

Generally, communicating the organization’s broad objectives on a regular basis helps the followers to understand and identify with the organization’s vision. In order to inspire others, a leader must share meaning with his followers.

A shared meaning can be created if the leader listens to his followers and incorporates their ideas and thoughts in the vision and mission of the organization. Additionally, the followers’ ideas must be taken into account when formulating the goals and objectives of the organization.

Individuals become inspired if they feel included. Inclusion involves more than just listening and taking feedback from the followers. In order to achieve real inclusion, the followers must feel “intimately connected to the actions and processes that lead to the accomplishment of goals or decisions”.

The integrity of the leader is central to the process of inspiring followers. The followers will only identify with a leader who they trust. Finally, the inspirational leader should promise only what is within his means to give. This helps in boosting his trust and integrity.

Roles of the Inspirational Leader The inspirational leader is considered a crusader who formulates an inspiring vision and creates strategic alignments to facilitate achievements of the vision. In this context, the leader should enable followers to align their personal goals to those of the organization. An inspirational leader creates a culture of consistent innovation in the organization.

In a business environment, such innovations involve fostering entrepreneurial creativity, as well as, experimentation. The inspirational leader is also entrusted with the role of empowering the followers. This is often achieved by coaching and training followers in order to boost their performance. Additionally, the followers’ should be included in decision making.

It is the role of the inspirational leader to build teams by promoting effective teamwork. They also build effective teams by leveraging diversity among the followers. Finally, the inspirational leader encourages the culture of risk taking in the organization. Most followers often fail to achieve their targets since they fear taking risks. Consequently, the leader should inspire his followers to take risks in order to succeed.

Characteristics of Inspirational Leaders Inspirational leaders are associated with certain characteristics that differentiate them from other leaders. The following are the main characteristics of inspirational leaders. First, inspirational leaders have strong strategic focus. They are adept at ensuring that the organization uses its resources for projects or activities that create real value for all stakeholders.

Inspirational leaders instill inspired standards rather than charisma in order to motivate their followers. They foster a culture of discipline that facilitates freedom and responsibility among the followers.

In the context of a business, an inspirational leader will hire self-disciplined individuals who are capable and willing to do their best to achieve the company’s objectives. Additionally, inspirational leaders always do what they are passionate at in order to achieve the objectives of their businesses.

Second, inspirational leaders are lateral thinkers. They are able to effectively draw on their experiences, as well as, outside their sectors or areas of expertise. Inspirational leaders focus on the bigger picture by taking a broader view rather than focusing only on the organizational norms.

Besides, inspirational leaders are risk takers. Thus, they tend to ‘bend the rules’ by taking calculated risks in order to achieve their goals and the objectives of the organization. Similarly, inspirational leaders normally allow their followers to ‘bend the rules’ to some extent. This is because the leaders recognize the fact that some amount of flexibility is needed to adapt to circumstance and to move forward.

Third, inspirational leaders have a clear vision of what the future of the organization should be. They also have excellent communication skills to convey their vision. Good communication skills enable inspirational leaders to convince their followers to support the vision and to identify what they can do to facilitate achievement of the vision.

By focusing on plain speaking rather than jargon, inspirational leaders enhance their followers’ understanding. Inspirational leaders normally involve their followers in the change process in order to succeed.

They give their followers the freedom, as well as, the support required to successfully complete a given task. They also find time to bond with their followers through informal and personal contacts. Such contacts motivate the followers to achieve their goals.

Fourth, inspirational leaders have the ability to stimulate ambition in the organization. They usually align their ego needs with the needs of the organization. Thus, by pursuing their personal goals, they eventually achieve the organization’s goals. Most inspirational leaders often sacrifice their personal gain for the benefit or gain of the organization.

Fifth, inspirational leaders are associated with personal principles that guide their actions. In particular, inspirational leaders are normally committed, courageous and demand high performance both from their followers and from themselves.

Additionally, they demonstrate their confidence in a quiet and understated manner. The uniqueness of inspirational leaders is illustrated by their strong set of values based on honesty, respect and openness.

Sixth, inspirational leaders tend to be reflective. They are distinguished from other leaders by their ability to show genuine humility without fear of showing occasional vulnerability. Inspirational leaders normally reflect on their abilities on a regular basis. Additionally, they always have a desire to learn new things that enhance their performance, hence their focus on humility.

Empirical studies reveal that great leaders are often quiet, reserved, as well as, self-effacing. They lead from the back by motivating and supporting their followers. They give their followers the freedom that promotes high performance.

Finally, inspirational leaders consider the attitudes of their followers to be very important in achieving the objectives of the organization. This is because they believe that salaries are only one aspect of job satisfaction. Thus, salaries must be accompanied by other factors in order to achieve high job satisfaction among followers. The other factors that promote job satisfaction include respect and prestige.

Employees who are highly satisfied with their jobs tend to be highly productive. Additionally, employees are more likely to unleash both process and product innovation if they are satisfied with their jobs.

Such innovations promote efficiency in the organization and satisfaction among the customers. Similarly, the performance of the followers is likely to be very high if they are appreciated. It is against this backdrop that most inspirational leaders focus on fulfilling the emotional needs of their followers.

Situations that Facilitates Inspirational Leadership Inspirational leadership emerges in situations whereby, coercion through rules and commands, as well as, reward based motivation can not be achieved. Using coercion in an organization demands consistent investment in a bureaucratic system characterized with rules, process, as well as, an enforcement framework.

Motivation, on the other hand, is often expensive to implement if dollar-based performance targets are used to motivate employees. By using inspirational leadership, the employees will not just work in order to be paid but also to achieve something they consider to be inspiring. Thus, an inspirational leader will emerge if a person inspires others to achieve the objectives of the organization.

Strengths of Inspirational Leadership It is apparent that employees are the most important assets of an organization. The organization is likely to flourish if it has the right people in the right jobs. However, getting the right people in the right jobs is not enough to enhance high performance.

Thus, the organization must find ways of ensuring that employees perform to their level best. This can be achieved through inspirational leadership. Hence, the strengths of inspirational leadership include the following.

First, inspirational leadership enables members of the organization to pursue significance. Various studies have revealed that employees “want to believe in what they do” in terms of the tasks and duties they are responsible for at the workplace.

In the contemporary labor market, employees are more interested in a career or a calling rather than just the salaries. If employees are proud of their jobs and find meaning in their jobs, they will develop inherent passion. Consequently, they will achieve success as they strive to develop their careers.

Second, inspirational leadership enables people to lead through culture. In particular, it facilitates the development of the culture of inspiration within an organization. Culture determines the choices, decisions, as well as, the operations of the organization.

Culture can not be controlled or developed through rules and regulations. It has to be developed through inspirations that enable members of the organization to identify with the norms and vision of the organization.

Third, inspirational leadership extends trust in the organization. The modern business environment is characterized with intense competition. Companies that intend to overcome competition must take some form of a risk. The ability to take such risks is often predicted on trust; hence the importance of inspirational leadership becomes apparent.

Inspirational leaders facilitate the development of trust among their followers. This in turn promotes engagement, loyalty, as well as, risk taking. Fourth, inspirational leadership promotes transparency within an organization. This is because inspirational leaders often act on the basis of sustainable values. Thus, they have nothing to hide, and this promotes transparency.

Transparency not only helps the organization to avoid losses, but also improves the image of the organization. Finally, inspirational leadership promotes business connection and collaboration.

Globalization has necessitated connection, as well as, collaboration across stakeholders, borders and even operations. Such connections can only be achieved through two-way communication in which all stakeholders are involved in the decision making process. This can be achieved through effective inspirational leadership.

Weaknesses of Inspirational Leadership Inspirational leadership has the following weaknesses. Inspirational leadership does not take into account situational dynamics. It assumes that followers are interested in teamwork in order to achieve a common goal. Hence, it is not effective in circumstances where followers lack the skills and experience required to complete a given task. The outcomes of inspirational leadership are often achieved after a long time.

This is because, inspirational leaders must invest a lot of time and effort to build trust and convince the followers to identify with a shared vision. Thus, organizations that are interested in achieving instant results are not likely to succeed by using inspirational leadership. Inspirational leaders assume that their followers have visions or ideas that should be fused to form the overall vision.

However, followers might not necessarily have visions that can be pursued by the organization. In some cases, bad ideas or inappropriate visions might be proposed. Such ideas can conceal the good ones, thereby leading to failure in the organization.

Inspirational leadership depends on the values and personality of the individual entrusted with the leadership role. Thus, inspirational leadership might not be used by individuals who lack inspirational, as well as, excellent communication skills. Inspirational leadership also depends on one leader who motivates others and drives change in the organization.

While other leadership skills such as delegation can be learned, inspirational skills are never learned in a school environment. Thus, the leader has to practice over a period of time in order to acquire such skills.

However, acquiring inspirational leadership skills through practice is not guaranteed and this leads to dependence on the few leaders who are naturally inspirational. Such dependence can lead to a leadership crisis if the leader can not be easily replaced. Finally, inspirational leadership can be abused since the leader has great control over the followers.

Discussion of the Similarities The above discussion has highlighted the distinctive features of both inspirational and charismatic leadership. From these features we can identify the similarities between the two leadership styles. Thus, the similarities between inspirational and charismatic leadership include the following. First, both inspirational and charismatic leadership focus on the pursuit of a shared vision.

In both leadership styles, the leaders formulate a vision that defines the future of the organization. The leaders use their interpersonal skills to influence their followers to support the vision. The leaders are considered to be successful if the followers are able to identify with the former’s beliefs and ideas.

Second, both inspirational and charismatic leadership depend on the personality of the individual or the leader. The success of inspirational and charismatic leaders depends on their interpersonal skills and ability to build relationships with their followers. Both leaders have excellent communication and rhetorical skills that enable them to convince their followers to support their visions.

They also use these skills to establish strong relationships and teamwork in their groups. Additionally, personal attributes such as character, ethics and values determine the success of the leader in both leadership styles.

These attributes form the personal principles that guide the leader’s actions and relationship with the followers. Charismatic and inspirational leaders are distinguished by their personal principles rather than general leadership skills. Inspirational and charismatic leaders can only be trusted by their followers if their integrity is unquestionable.

Third, inspirational and charismatic leaders focus on social power rather than formal authority and coercion. The aim of the leaders is to win the support of their followers. Once the followers trust the leader and identify with his vision, the leader gains the power to lead their followers. The leaders wield expert power since they have the skills and knowledge that is required to lead the organization and to solve problems.

The leaders also wield referent power since they are seen by followers as mentors who should be emulated in the organization. Inspiration and charisma enhances sustainable and effective leadership by enabling the followers and leaders to establish long term relationships.

The commitment that results from such long term relationships enables leaders to control or influence their followers without necessarily using financial rewards. Thus, both inspirational and charismatic leadership can be used to enhance job satisfaction in situations whereby financial rewards can not be used.

Fourth, both charismatic and inspirational leaders have great concern for their followers. They have good listening skills which enable them to understand the concerns and expectations of their followers. They are able to read the moods of their followers both at personal and group level. The aim of both inspirational and charismatic leaders is to enable their followers to achieve the highest possible results.

This in turn leads to achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Showing concern for followers is important in inspirational and charismatic leadership since it helps the leaders to win the trust of their followers. It is also a strategy for empowering the followers. This is because a leader can only empower his followers if he understands their concerns.

Fifth, inspirational and charismatic leadership are characterized with dependence on one leader who drives change in the organization. Thus, the success and the image of the organization, to a large extend, depend on the leader. The dependency on one leader, however, hinders development of potential successors.

In most cases, the leader can do away with potential successors or he can hire weak successors in his management team. Additionally, acquiring charismatic and inspirational skills is often very difficult. This makes it difficult to embark on succession planning through training and development.

Failure to develop a successor in time can lead to a leadership problem, especially, if the exit of the incumbent leader is abrupt. Thus, charisma and inspiration alone are not enough to ensure effective leadership.

Both old and current studies reveal that the enormous energy created by both inspirational and charismatic leadership can be abused. This is because charismatic and inspirational leaders can take advantage of the trust of their followers to engage in undesirable behaviors such as corruption or mismanagement of the organization’s resources.

Sixth, inspirational and charismatic leadership are based on idealized inspiration. Both inspirational and charismatic leaders always display conviction. They emphasize trust among their followers in order to achieve a shared meaning. Most inspirational and charismatic leaders take stands on various issues, even though they also take into account the views of their followers.

The leaders also emphasize the significance of purpose and commitment in achieving the goals of the organization. Most inspirational and charismatic leaders take cognizance of the significance of ethical considerations in decisions. Thus, they encourage their followers to engage in socially ethical behaviors.

Generally, inspirational and charismatic leaders have the ability to generate pride, loyalty, as well as, confidence. Consequently, they are admired by their followers.

Finally, both inspirational and charismatic leaders are risk lovers. They are more likely to sacrifice self gain in order to achieve the goals of the organization. They prioritize the gains of the organization and the followers in order to demonstrate their commitment to success.

Discussion of the Differences The differences between charismatic and inspirational leadership mainly exist in the leadership process. Thus, the differences between inspirational and charismatic leadership include the following. First, the leadership process used in charismatic leadership is substantially different from that used in inspirational leadership. In charismatic leadership, the leader is seen as the ‘head of the show’ since he is in charge of nearly everything.

The charismatic leader is responsible for articulating his vision. Additionally, he ensures commitment and support for his vision. An inspirational leader, on the other hand, allows his followers to give their input and influence the vision to be pursued in the organization. Thus, an inspirational leader shares power with his followers.

Additionally, followers of inspirational leaders normally participate actively in decision making and formulation of the vision and mission of the organization. An organization that is led by an inspirational leader is considered to be a ‘learning organization’.

This is because such organizations recognize the fact that leaders and followers have important aspects of the vision which must be put together in order to achieve a common goal. In a nutshell, an inspirational leader allows the followers to participate in the formulation of the vision, whereas a charismatic leader does not.

Second, charisma plays different roles in inspirational and charismatic leadership. Even though an inspirational leader is seen as the change agent in his organization, charisma is not their defining characteristic. Inspirational leaders do not focus on achieving status through charisma. Thus, charisma is not the main trait for describing inspirational leaders.

In the context of inspiration, inspirational leaders instill inspired standards rather than charisma. They use inspired standards to motivate their followers to achieve high performance. Charismatic leaders, on the other hand, inspire their followers through charisma. They mainly depend on charisma to motivate their followers and drive change in their organizations. Thus, charisma is the main trait that describes charismatic leaders.

Third, inspirational and charismatic leaders perceive the self differently. This means that their understanding of the self is based on different considerations. As stated earlier, the inspirational leader does not use charisma to influence his or her followers.

Thus, elevation of the self is not the main focus of an inspirational leader. Research reveals that most inspirational leaders credit their followers with the success of the organization rather than taking all the glory. Additionally, they tend to be reserved and lead from the back by motivating followers to move on even during difficult situations. A charismatic leader, on the other hand, is seen as a hero in the organization.

They lead from the front by formulating a vision and influencing the followers to support the vision. As experts, charismatic leaders dominate the leadership process. Consequently, the success of the team or organization is associated with them. A charismatic leader always takes all the glory when the organization succeeds.

Fourth, in charismatic leadership, the leader is “responsible for ‘buy in’ of followers for the vision that he or she has established”. This implies that the leadership process in charismatic leadership is leader focused. Thus, it is the duty of the leader to continue to develop a vision that describes the future of the organization and to inspire ideation on behalf of the followers.

The inspirational leader, on the other hand, believes or assumes that the followers have a vision. Thus, followers only need a context that can enable them to share their visions with the leader.

Additionally, the followers’ participation in the formulation of the vision is respected by all stakeholders. Thus, in charismatic leadership, the leader is viewed as a hero change agent. However, in inspirational leadership, the leader is seen as a servant change agent.

Fifth, in inspirational leadership, the process of empowerment is reciprocal. This means that the leaders empower the followers and vice versa. The leader empowers the followers by giving them the freedom and guidance that is needed to achieve their targets. Additionally, the followers are given a chance to participate in decision-making. In charismatic leadership, the process of empowerment is unidirectional.

In this case, the leader is responsible for empowering their followers. This involves giving the followers the support they need in order to achieve their goals.

Finally, inspirational leaders are comfortable in leading the followers at any level in the organization. Hence, they can hold any position. Charismatic leaders, on the other hand, are associated with top positions in the organization. Thus, they are more comfortable in leading others from top positions in the organization.

Conclusion The aim of this paper was to discuss the similarities and differences of inspirational and charismatic leadership. Leadership is “the process through which a person influences others to achieve a particular goal”. In order to influence others, the leader must use some leadership style such as charismatic or inspirational leadership.

In charismatic leadership, the leader uses his communication skills and charisma to emotionally connect with his followers. They use charisma to inspire and motivate the followers to achieve both personal and organizational goals. In inspirational leadership, the leader uses inspired standards to motivate his followers and to drive change in the organization.

The main similarities between inspirational and charismatic leadership include the following. Both leadership styles focus on social power rather than coercion to influence their followers. This power is achieved through inspiration. Inspirational and charismatic leaders have visions that they passionately pursue in their organization.

Additionally, they strive to instill the same passion in the organization. Inspirational and charismatic leaders depend on their excellent communication skills and personal attributes such as values to convince or win the support of their followers. The main differences between inspirational and charismatic leadership include the following.

Charismatic leaders mainly depend on charisma to inspire their followers, whereas, inspirational leaders use inspired standards to influence others. Charismatic leaders formulate their visions and inspire their followers to believe in and support such visions. Inspirational leaders, on the other hand, allow their followers to participate in the formulation of the vision.

Unlike charismatic leadership, inspirational leadership is characterized with power sharing between the followers and the leader. In a nutshell, charismatic leadership must involve inspiration and charisma. However, in inspirational leadership, the leader does not have to posses charismatic skills in order to succeed.

Works Cited Chung, Anyi, Heng Chen and Amber Lee. “Charismatic Leadership and Self-Leadership: A Relationship of Substitution or Supplementation in the Context of Internalization and Identification?” Journal of Organizational Change Management 24.3 (2011): 299-313. Print.

Daft, Richard and Patricia Lane. The Leadership Experience. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

Eyal, Cri and Guy Rotin. “Principals’ Leadership and Teachers’ Motivation: Sel-Determination Theory Analysis.” Journal of Education Administration 49.3 (2008): 256-275. Print.

Gold, Jeffrey, Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford. Handbook of Leadership and Management Development. New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.

Jayakody, John. “Charismatic Leadership in Sri-Lanka Business Organizations.” Journal of Management Development 27.5 (2008): 480-498. Print.

McNichol, Elaire, Susan Haner and Lynne Wigan. Leadership and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.

Miller, Peter. “The Inspirational Leader: How to Motivate , Encourage and Achieve Success.” Leadership and Organization Development Journal 27.5 (2007): 418-419. Print.

Nohria, Niten and Rakesh Khurana. Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. New York: New York, 2010. Print.

Paulsen, Neil, Drama Maldonaldo and Victor Callan. “Charismatic Leadership, Change and Innovation in an R

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Linguistics in Opera and Libretto Exploratory Essay college essay help near me

Introduction Opera is performed using theatrical scenes where the art involves a combination of singing and dramatization. This kind of text is referred to as the libretto. It was a very popular form of art in early Europe. Opera remains popular today in some quarters of the society. The art brings together singing, speaking as well as acting. All these activities are performed in an opera house which is specifically designed for such purposes (Kennedy 62).

Linguistic on the other hand is the exploration of human language and its origin, revolution as well as application of the language. The application encompasses the use of morphology, syntax as well as the phonology in the composition of words.

The meaning of language has been explored by analyzing the meaning of other forms of art in the real world. This is with the view of understanding the origin of opera from different backgrounds. This means that opera can be analyzed from a linguistic perspective.

The opera is characterized by features such as the stage, orchestra pit and an audience area among others. Some operas are designed to accommodate various aspects of linguistic analysis. This is especially so considering the fact that operas were very popular in England and other countries during the early centuries.

A comprehensive analysis of linguistics in opera can be achieved by looking at the origins of this form of art. This is given the fact that linguistics in opera is influenced a great deal by the origins of this art. It is noted that the art originated in Italy towards the end of the 16th century.

It later spread to other parts of the world especially in Europe. To date, the operatic terminologies in these countries are referred to as the libretto (MacNutt 101). This is an indication of linguistics in opera. The origins of opera are evident in today’s compositions where aspects of Italian language are incorporated.

This is given the fact that most of them have retained the original Italian characteristics such as accent and others. Such aspects help in tracing the common origin of today’s opera performances as far as linguistics is concerned.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the author is going to look at the use of linguistics in opera. The author will make reference to librettos from operas in English from England and the United States of America. Examples of linguistic operas will be put into perspective in a chronological sequence. The aim here is to depict the link between the two fields of linguistics and opera.

History and Origin of Opera from a Linguistic Perspective Before embarking on the critical analysis of the link between opera and linguistics, it is important to look at the history and origins of opera as a form of art. This will give the reader an idea of what opera is all about. It will also give the reader an idea of how contemporary opera differs from classical compositions and performances.

The word opera is an Italian word implying “work” when translated. When loosely translated, opera involves the combination of “…….works from acting declamation in opera house stage” (Kennedy 75). Jacopo Peri is considered as the pioneer of this form of art. Dafne is actually a piece of work that was originally produced by Peri and it remains one of his most popular compositions.

A group of Camerata found out that the entire opera was performed by the Greek dramas. So far the idea was to conceive and restore the traditional art. On a sad note, Dafne was lost and Peri was forced to come up with a new composition, the Euridice. This is the only opera that is still performed to date. It is to be noted that singing was an important aspect of opera (Warrack

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Transition to Higher Education for Psychology Students Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Experiences encountered by Psychology Student

Challenges

Difficulties

Facilitating Learning in Commencing Psychology Students

Opportunities

Support from Psychologists

Conclusion

References List

Introduction Even though transition, apparently, seems to be the transition of student from high school education or FE background to a higher education institution, actually it is much less straightforward. Hence, offering a student with an effective transition depends on a range of contributors who jointly support a student to become conversant in, participate in and be successful within a course of study.

Factors influencing transition within the psychology fields may be distinctive, but many students are applicable to a range of sciences and other fields. This analysis can serves as an introduction for helping higher education institutions and psychology students with transition to higher education.

Investigations about the first year of students in higher education have become even more essential part of higher education research to support transition of students into higher education. Studies concerning first year at higher education states that there is need to conceder significantly on the similarity between what students consider as important and what scholars believe is important for students.

It is vital to consider how diversity of students may benefit them in their live at the first year and how it may transform the character of transitional matters. Studies and scholars should focus on the importance of considering the experiences and identity which psychology students convey and to connect with the various backgrounds that these students hail from (Jackson, 2003).

Students who are going into higher education with more complex expectations on the new academic backgrounds were even ready to manage stressful conditions that they can experience. The impacts of students’ previous academic motives, study objectives, and experiences have been seen in several fields in higher education.

Scholars claim that producing a suitable climate and providing possibilities to network with peer students, tutors, and the entire university is very vital in their exposure to a different environment. There are several approaches of learning activities provided intended to encourage social interaction and lessons between new and senior students within the university or any other form of higher education.

Experiences encountered by Psychology Student Psychology students are faced with developmental undertakings while they are growing up, but there some specific moments in life where several challenges are met by these students at the same time. The transition into high school life is one of these significant development stages. It is an interesting period that normally brings about significant gains in maturity, but it is as well a time during which several students face challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This transition is a significant occasion for families also, since the families experience some major changes in relationships between the students and the other members of the family (Brubacher

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Importance of Dance in Human Experience Essay online essay help

Dance is an art that refers to the movement of part of the body, some of the parts or the whole body while keeping rhythmical to music (Luetzner). Dance is also referred to as a nonverbal form of communication in essence that it carries some massage with it. The following are the importance of dance in human experience.

Expression Dance as an art itself can be used to make expressions. The expressions can be either of joy, sorrow, warning or sometimes used for entertainment (Luetzner). In many parts of the world, dance can also be used to express talent or extra ordinary ability over others has in dance competitions.

Sense of unity Dancing can be used as a symbol of unit. Among the several symbols of unity in different people in the world, such as taboos, cultures, songs, color and many others, dance is the most common way of expressing the sense of unity (Browning). In other words, dancing to a rhythm shows appreciation and acceptance despite the perspectives on can have.

Form of Exercise This is because of the movements that are involved in dancing. It is proven that dancing can considerably improve one health by reducing the risk of some worse health conditions such as high blood pressure, weight gain and heart diseases (Browning). Just like any other exercise or sport, dancing has been incorporated in sports such as gymnastics, martial arts and figure skating (Luetzner).

Offers Mental and Physical Relaxation. A combination of music and a simple physical exercise are the most effectual way of setting one’s mind stress free. Dancing provides a quick and fun state that naturally relieves stress.

Form of Entertainment Dancing and fun go hand in hand thus; it is the easiest way to happiness. Happiness can come from the activities one gets involves into will in dance groups, which include, making friends, dancing settings and of course learning new dance styles (Luetzner).

Source of Motivation and Inspiration This is commonly in some games, competition and even sports such as basketball and football. The dancers can perform before, during the event and even on commercial breaks to keep both the fans and the participants motivated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source of Income Dancing is a skill that if specialize can lead into career. So many professional dancers nowadays are able to form affiliates and make a living from training interested people and competitions (Browning).

Enhances education Dancing is a major booster for both the old and the young. In children, dancing contributes a lot in terms of personal improvement hence enhancing their skills more so those necessary for better education. Research shows that dancing help in boosting self-esteem as well as confidence (Luetzner).

Social and political activity Just like any other practice, dancing is also a social and political activity. The importance of dance is vividly understood during performance. As explained above, dance sends a message to the audience hence it is an important activity to the society at large.

Confidence Booster Dancing being an exercise, it improves posture, strengthen muscles and bring out sense of them. Eventually, this state of body and mind eliminates doubts and fears and replaces them with confidence and thus good time (Luetzner).

Enhances Creativity Lastly, dance provides emotional outlet that helps a person to clearly reveal his or her feelings through coordinating body movement with music. It is this ability that translates back to the sense of creativity in the real world (Browning).

Works Cited Browning, Sarah. The Importance of Dance. 22nd April. 2012. Web.

Luetzner Andreas. Benefits of Dance. 22nd April. 2012. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Dance in Human Experience specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Dance and Autism Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Exploring Autism

My Feelings towards the Dance Project

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Miami Dance project headed by Barbara Delgado is a new and innovative way in which dance is being used as a method of encouraging children with autism to better express themselves and develop more confidence in social situations (Martinez, 1).

What must be understood is that adults and children suffering from autism are often more susceptible to stressful situations resulting in actions wherein they withdraw inwards and become silent, don’t move at all or they tend to utilize physical coping mechanisms in order to cope with the stressful situation that they are presented with.

When I was younger I had a friend who had autism and I can say from personal experience that at times when presented with a situation he couldn’t cope with such as meeting new people he would just freeze and hide or just sit down and ignore everyone else. It was at times frustrating but I felt mostly pit for him since he couldn’t seem to enjoy the things I myself took for granted.

Exploring Autism Based on recent estimates examining the prevalence of autism in the world today 1 to 2 individuals out of every 1,000 has some degree of autism with numbers in the U.S. actually being significantly higher with the potential for 1 out of every 155 children having the potential to be autistic.

In the case of my friend I always felt a certain degree of frustration that over the years he still continued to remain the same no matter how many times I tried to help him become more outgoing.

A rather interesting aspect of autism explored by Geddes (2008) details how people with autism can actually be quite imaginative when it comes to the use of certain words and physical activities and actually leads to many individuals with this particular type disorder to seek careers as writers or artists (Geddes, 10).

Schwarzer (2011) explains this by indicating that people with autism are more “inward thinkers” rather than input interpreters (Schwarzer, 796). This means that the imaginative and at times almost brilliant and striking artistic works they are able to create are a direct result of inward thinking wherein a particular aspect, object or topic is looked at from every angle in a rigid and almost repetitive manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My Feelings towards the Dance Project It is based on this that my feeling towards the Miami Dance Project is one of bittersweet remembrances; of all the times I attempted to help my friend but couldn’t. I wish that such a project had existed in the past wherein he could have attended a class, got to know people and was able to develop the ability to better express himself to people and within social situations.

For me, what the Miami dance project represents is in line with what is known as the concept of confidence building wherein through the development of certain talents children with autism will begin to have more confidence in themselves and as a result develop a greater predilection towards outgoing behavior.

Conclusion Based on the work of Geddes (2008) and Schwarzer (2011) it can be seen that dance can be used as a method of exploration and development for autistics wherein they will be better able to express who they are and their feelings to other people. While some people may doubt the effectiveness of dance as a facilitator of behavioral change all you would need to do is examine the responses of children from the Miami Dance project to see how effective it is.

Works Cited Geddes, Linda. “Are Autistic Savants Made Not Born?.” New Scientist 198.2659 (2008): 10. Science Reference Center. Web.

Martinez, Lynn. “Parent to Parent: Autism Dance Class.” wsvn.com. 7News, (2011):1 Web. .

Schwarzer, Gudrun. “Face Processing In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent Or Interactive Processing Of Facial Identity And Facial.

Expression?.” Journal Of Autism

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World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Roles of WTO and their success

Reasons for success of WTO

Developed vs. developing countries

The Cancun Agreement

Conclusion

References

Introduction World trade organization can be analyzed from two perspectives. First of all, it is considered as a way of negotiating the trade dispute or as a way of opening trade. Governments, the participants of the world trade organization, use this avenue to settle trading disputes between member countries using the rules that were established among them and signed to all of them.

The organization was established after negotiations had been held and agreement had been signed. Thus, all actions taken by an organization are guided by the rules provided in the agreement and negotiations among the major countries.

Its current operations are largely guided by the agreements of the 1986-1984 in Uruguay and the other rules that guided General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) which the WTO replaced. WTO is the product of the new agreements inaugurated in the year 2001 through the “Doha Development Agenda”.

The WTO negotiations helped countries that faced trade barriers to operate in open market environments. At times, the rules also support trade barriers to block out non member countries, as well as protect consumers. This helps control the spread of unethical rules and procedures.

The success of the organization is a result of the agreement signed by over 27 countries trading together. The organization ensures free trade among the operating countries through regulation of the international trade and it has succeeded in meeting its objectives as it will be described in this paper (Haerens 2010).

Before WTO was introduced, GATT had been operating between 1947 and 1986, the period within which it made several achievements. Its last achievement in 1974 was a successful agreement regarding international trade in textiles, it rebranded the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) and it came into operation. It was formed to control the growth of exports in textile and clothing strictly at 6% per year.

Several negotiations took place in 1977 and 1982 with an extension in 1986 and 1991 and lastly in 1992 which led to the sister organization the WTO. In 1986, World Trade Organization was brought into inception during the Uruguay Launch in the city of Punta del Este. The final law which established the WTO was signed by the member countries in April 1994 to round up the outcomes of the Uruguay round.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On January 1st , it entered into full operation, after successfully operating for 4 years a new round was signed in Seattle but failed in the ministerial meeting. As a result, a new round of talks was scheduled for Doha, Qatar branded the Doha Development Agenda.

Each of the results of the meetings resulted into rules and procedures geared to support international trade. It was agreed and signed that there was a minimum which each country could inject into the world trade. Developing countries are set for quotas given their 2/3 share in the quota. The contracts signed bind member countries to adhere and keep the policies agreed upon and follow them to the limits prescribed.

The main objective to be achieved by the rule regulations and contracts is creation of an enabling environment for countries producing both, goods and services, as well as importers and exporters so that they are able to do business successfully. The rules also guide on ethical practices which are geared towards helping the said countries to meet their environmentally, as well as socially acceptable aims and goals (Haerens 2010).

Roles of WTO and their success the WTO has enormously succeeded in bulk of the roles accorded to it. The organization has since developed a framework and structures to support its work through formed treaties. WTO has combining roles and responsibilities one of which is to be an overseer of a signed treaty that is over thirty thousand pages.

The other treaties that it is to look at and safeguard, is that involving agreement with regards to safety of goods and services to both the producer and consumer countries respectively.

The strength and effectiveness of the WTO was seen at the start but has since recorded a decline in strength and how viable it is especially after the failure of the ministerial conference which happened in Seattle. Trade dispute settlement is a key identity of the WTO through it is a well established dispute settlement procedures.

The organization officers have great pride in the manner in which they are always up to the task of settling any dispute that entangles their members, through this the WTO had a very big impact on the world trade systems and alongside the diplomacy between countries resulting into trade propelled.

We will write a custom Report on World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The treaties efficacy is dully supported by international laws hence efficiency. The treaties are also highly supported since they support free trade flow and free trade flow is responsible for massive economic development and growth mostly realized with developing countries (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

Reasons for success of WTO The reasons that have ensured that success is achieved are by ensuring that individuals, firm and organizations and member countries are aware of the trade rules and regulations. The stakeholders must also be assured of the stability and how long lasting the laws is likely to be so that their confidence is worn.

The rules must advocate for transparency and accountability not forgetting that they should be predictable so that they enhance the planning of the member countries (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

The underlying base of the dispute settlement process of the WTO is the normal agreement on the basis of a strong legal framework which ensures that conflicting interests are always laid to rest and the interpretation of agreements, whenever there is some form of misunderstanding among the member countries.

Through its strong dispute settling framework, WTO has been a success in solving trade disputes since its inception; this has acted as its strong pillar. Members have witnessed and agreed that this dispute settling pillar has been beneficial to most of the members if not all, since it has facilitated members in solving their trade wrangles at fast speed in a fair and just manner and at a highly predictable way.

The achievement of the organization in achieving settlements of international disputes due to its automatic nature of action has enhanced world security, peace, stability and certainty of its international trade regulations.

While it is true that there is never success without challenges, it is of no doubt that the ads override the disadvantages in the procedure of conducting and resolving international trade disputes, the appellate body has also contributed significantly to ensuring that members get clarification on vague issues as indicated by the contract documents (Qureshi 2006).

Developed vs. developing countries It is true that policies of the WTO are shaped majorly by the developed countries due to the vast challenges that the developing countries face. The ever growing problem that is that of economic disparity between the developed and developing countries. WTO deals with facilitation for condition of trade and investment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The challenge that is faced by the WTO is how to integrate the developing country given their specific concerns about the organization. The developing countries cannot be neglected given that their quota in the organization is allocated 2/3 of the membership classification.

This is despite the fact that they actively attend the meetings and listen to the speakers, while they do not comment on anything. In this manner, they constitute a part of the decisions arrived, without contributing anything to the resolutions.

This may be favorable or unfavorable. The silence may be because they may not be feeling that the decisions arrived affect them directly, they may as well not understand the content of discussion hence fear being irrelevant.

They may also be afraid of providing opposing decisions since opposing a major developed country may act as a slap on their face, politically or economically. The strategy may also be relevant in the case where a country does not participate thinking that another stronger country will speak for them.

Far from the mentioned above, the slow development of trade of developing countries, as compared to those of developed is a major issue with the WTO. This is because their power is political due to their voting power in the block is of immense importance to economic development.

Trade liberalization that is majorly influenced by the developing nations through their votiong facilitates the development of the promotion of increased trade and investment (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

The General Agreement for Trade in Services (GATS) as a binding contract is used to enhance and support business of services which are never well developed in developing countries. This agreement is to enable developing countries to have the capability of exporting services and also form partnerships with the foreign service firms so that they are able to share in their technology.

When it comes to dispute resolution, developed countries are the major participants led by the US and the EU, but recently the developing countries have been witnessed to participate in equal measure. It has been evidenced that developing countries have shown success in dispute resolution systems not only developed country members but to extremely larger trading nations (WTO analytical index 2003).

The Cancun Agreement The agreement was established prominently to help in addressing long term environmental set backs, especially climatic change. The policies are set to help in cutting down the emission of green house gases. Its fundamental objective was to help save developing nations from vast effects of the gases.

The agreements were to help reduce production of green house gases through enhanced participation of all countries. It advocated for transparency and timeliness in the way the actions were taken among many other agreements (Krolll 2007).

Conclusion The agreement have lead to a success in the forms that it has ensured that the world countries are able to come together to agree in a way to reduce green house effect, it has come at a time when the developing countries needed help to deal with climate change, hence the agreement provided it with the relevant package for the same. It has also resulted into the pieces of agreement being done within the required schedule.

The world trade organization has since played a fundamental role in shaping how countries relate depending on whether they are developed, developing or less developed. This body has facilitated the spread of resources in almost an equal measure to create a balance. The formulated ideas are thus very essential for the development of the world orders.

References Haerens, M. (2010). The World Trade Organization. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/gale, Cengage Learning.

Krolll, D. (2007). Toward multilateral competition law?: after Cancun: reevaluating the case for additional international competition rules under special consideration of the WTO agreement. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Macrory, P. F., Appleton, A. E.,

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Global labor migration and host countries Report (Assessment) essay help

According to estimates provided by the united nation, the number of international migrants has increased from about 82 million to over 190 million from 1970 to 2005. During the same period global export’s volumes underwent a major expansion while the foreign direct investment, which is determined using the U.S dollar, received more than 100% growth in the 1970 level to 2000.

Over the last decades, international migration has greatly attracted a lot of attention although there has been slow rate of expansion on how people move internationally (Borjas, 1989).

Various attempts have been made in barricading borders and this has shown that the borders may not be dominant limiting factors in reducing international immigration expansion. Controlling irregular immigration has become a very hard task to handle, both locally and internationally.

Each year many people worldwide leave their home countries with prospects of getting new jobs. Some are not looking for jobs but better working conditions and in some instances, they are propelled by insecurity and poverty to look for any work. Migration in search of labor is a major globalization feature and it creates a very big impact to the world economy (Boyd, 1989).

In 2005, it was estimated that migrant workers every year send to their home countries about US$250 billion or US$160 billion with informal remittance in order to cater for their family’s and community’s needs. Such money also helps in boosting the economic prosperity and growth of the host countries.

Currently a global consensus has been reached on how labor migration contributes to development and growth of both destination and home countries. However, barriers have been put in place to check movement between labor market demands and possible immigrations for foreign labor in the host nations.

The global labor migration policies that fail to meet the needs of human rights can put a lot of pressure on individual immigrants as well as their societies (Ethier, 1986). Studies done have revealed that 10-15% of current migrations involve immigrants at irregular situations who enter or work in other countries without the necessary authorization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such cases, individual who opt to use irregular immigration expose themselves to very high degrees of abuse of their human rights, forced labor and exploitation. Hence, the today’s global challenge lies in formulating mechanisms and policies of managing and regulating labor migration and ensuring that it creates a positive development in the host and home countries as well as the migrant’s wellbeing.

In situations where migrants find themselves in risky conditions, I LO comes in to protect them and improve their working conditions (Friedberg, 1995).

The body has been in operation since 1919.ILO is entrusted with the mandate of controlling the entire workers world as well as structuring rules that cover their competencies. In addition, it plays a central and crucial role in promoting effective use of policies that minimize risks and maximize benefits in work-based migration.

There is need to develop and extend the already undertaken research on migration of skilled international laborers as global international cities keep on attracting big flows of corporate power and capital. The research should be undertaken within the context the globe verses the cities, more particularly on banking and international nance.

Cities such as New York, London and Tokyo have increased their Streng in holding the banking industry and global nance, they have discovered the importance of being global market players by attracting skilled workers (Mahroum, 2000).

The global cities command and control the global economy, which is based up their success. In particular, they control spatial organizations in new international divisions and transnational corporations strategies. Urban hierarchy is becoming central to control and accumulation of capital since corporate power and decision-making have rapidly been increasing in the global cities’ headquarters.

Within the banking industry in particular, the skilled international migration workers have greatly helped the city of London in maintaining its local labor market. The migrants have helped the city in going global by creating parallels to its major functions as a major capital corporate.

We will write a custom Assessment on Global labor migration and host countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The city has also become a social center of nancial service in the corporate global networks with a very big worker’s through flow from different country where issues can be marketed, deals made, syndicates established and deals made.

There has been an increase in skilled international workers as a result of globalization in nancial capital. This effect has been felt within investment banking using three main interlocking mechanisms; exchange expansion, emergence of international nancial system and producer service internationalization.

Skilled international migrations play a very critical role in processes of global labor market in the nancial service industry in which corporate transactions, face-to-face communication, “dealing, and wheeling” perform great roles. In securities industries and investment, banking the labor process requires individuals who are knowledge specific and highly skilled.

In Britain for instance, labor market entry is regulated tightly by banks recruiting from Cambridge and oxford universities (Mahroum, 2000). The banks have also placed specific qualification with are accompanies by trainings in the course of the job. “Deskilling” process is therefore not a feature of the global labor market.

Specific personal skills in managerial and processional work in securities and investment banking cannot be easily replaced by use of subcontracting arrangement, automation or through indigenous labor assimilation.

Therefore, international labor migration of skilled workers is mainly focused between global cities’ nancial communities, which in most instances cut across internal labor markets, securities houses and transnational banks.

In terms of wealth creation and earnings, relatively higher incomes, bonus schemes and performance based pay have greatly encouraged managerial workers and international professionals to look for opportunities within the global cities especially within the corporate headquarters (Jonathan, 1996). Such a case was witnessed in 1980s booming in which big influx of migrants entered the city of London.

This caused salaries over-inflation beyond the average expected earnings. The media has helped in constructing a powerful image of wealthy pickings of London nacial or Manhattan through exposure of the yuppie culture, sexy and fast lifestyles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global labor migration and host countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More London’s magnetism as a living space and and working destination cannot be underestimated in constructing of the uneven skilled individuals distribution within nancial industry’s economy worldwide. Corporate professional want to work in global cities as they consume and accumulate wealth.

One can argue that; migration of skilled international laborers can be termed as a disproportionate process in formation of the global city since its characteristics and magnitude dependent highly upon a person’s functional city and control capabilities in the urban hierarchy.

In addition, in the course of the relationship existing between the global city and migration, headquarters functional control and principal earnings greatly determine global labor movement concentration.

In order for an individual to conceptualize deeply on the relationship that lies between skilled international labor migration and the global cities two studies done in London city on global investment banking were analyzed. The city’s postal questionnaire of security houses foreign banks and a detailed survey interview of foreign and British investment banks was also analyzed.

In this review through the various provided examples on international labor migration, it been stated that migration plays a fundamental role in global city control and functional capability in the world economy.

In addition, other cities such as Singapore, New York, Tokyo and Hong Kong have disproportionately improved the capabilities to control international labor within the nance (Jonathan,1996). Suggestions have been made that; the magnitude, nature and the characteristics of the skilled international migration will only work at different levels in urban hierarchy.

There are number of impacts felt on the receiving countries. The effects on migrants arrival on the host nation’s economy is highly influenced by different circumstances (Friedberg, 1995).Sometime there can be flexibility in salaries and wages like in the U.S and this acts as a form of evidence in justifying that increases in supply could cause decreases in wages even among individuals with quality education (Either, 1986).

Among the European nations where wages vary with flexibility, there are higher degrees of unemployed individuals. In both cases, the problems caused by the underlying issues clearly prove to have relatively small magnitude.

By analyzing migrant’s degree of production and chances of securing employment from a broader perspective, one can note that migrants chances of getting greatly rely on the demands of an employer. Different countries have decided to make us of a adoption point scheme, a tool that is useful in identifying acceptable immigrants who can work in such countries (Durand, 1996).

The tool is currently being used in; Canada and Australia and greatly helps in increasing matching likelihood (Boyd, 1989). However, employers can closely match their demands by requesting migrants for previous working experiences.

Therefore one state that; many migrants’ chances of securing employment are highly dependent on the employer’s personal demands. If such a case occurs, employees are given strict penalties as one of the ways of reducing undocumented immigration.

Migration leads to so many mixed initial challenges upon any given host country, but in most scenarios, the general resultant effects upon the natives incomes seem meager. Over a long period, other factors may start showing their impacts (Borjas, 1989). Host country’s production activities mix in some occasions could start changing in order to accommodate new arrivals’ the framework.

Secondly, there can be disturbances caused by migration on the fiscal balance within the host state. Whether immigrants are part of the effects depends on a number of factors such as tax collection, their employability, their eligibility and need for state support.

If migration is not managed in a sober manner, it very unlikely that it could act as a relieve source. Lastly, immigration can greatly affect the migrants in a negative way through acceleration of technical changes in the society.

There are various approaches, which can be used in improving and expanding the temporary migration schemes without putting into consideration of whether they are broader or bilateral. One of such approaches is by ensuring that there is improved immigrants outcome and reduced return to home countries rate (Massey, 1993).

Reference list Borjas, G.J.,1989. Economic theory and international migration. International Migration Review 23(5),p.457-485.

Boyd, M.Y.,1989. Family and personal networks in international migration: recent developments and new agendas. International migration review, 43(4),p.638 670.

Durand, J.K.,1996. International migration and development in Mexican communities. Demography,33(2),p 249-264.

Ethier, W.J.,1986. Illegal immigration: The host-country problem. The American economic review,76(1),p56-71.

Friedberg, R.M.,1995. The impact of immigrants on host country wages, employment and growth. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2),p.23-44.

Jonathan, V., 1996 International labor migration, investment banking and the city of London, 33(8),1378-1392.

Mahroum, S.K.,2000. Highly skilled globetrotters: mapping the international migration of human capital. R

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Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Free enterprise is an economic system that provides individuals the opportunity to make their own economic decisions, free of government constraints, and as private profit potential businesses. It equates to a capitalist system of economy which is completely different from a socialist or communist system.

It is, however, important to note that a free enterprise system is not simply the absence of government. It is therefore wrong for any one to simply assume that a free enterprise system automatically comes into existence when government interference is removed. There is a heavy dependency on the law to determine what should be traded (JTF, 2008).

The system allows for the privilege of individual ownership of property and the means of production. The key ingredient of the free enterprise system is the right of individuals to make their own choices in the purchase of goods, the selling of their products and their labor, and their participation in business structure (Lewis, 2001).

The system is based on a number of principles that include the right to private ownership of property, the rule of law, free prices, and competition among others.

A free enterprise system operates in a democratic environment and allows private citizens to freely go into business, produce whatever they choose to produce, and distribute whatever they produce.

Some government restrictions may, however, exist to make sure that the marketplace is orderly and causes no harm to the public. It is through government controls that smaller companies are protected from any form of exploitation by the giant companies.

This paper looks at how a free enterprise system affects the moral and economic development of individuals in a society. The above principles of a free enterprise system and their effects will be examined.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Features of a Free Enterprise System and Effect on Individuals and Development By and large, free enterprise systems are considered responsible for the moral decay in certain areas. Although this is the case, there are other instances where the morality of individuals in the society is enhanced. However, it all depends on an individual’s judgment regarding what constitutes a good life.

As observed by JTF (2008), a free enterprise system leads to more than simply creating and spread wealth. It also results in better moral character among its participants.

Critics are, however, of the opinion that a free enterprise system is a stumbling block to social and ethical agendas, such as the desire to reduce child labor and poverty in poor countries and the promotion of gender equality and environmental protection globally (JTF, 2008).

Private Property Private property consists of items of value that individuals have the right to own, use, and sell. It is different from public property which is provided by the government for the common use by all. The right to own property gives individuals the freedom to control productive resources such as land, labor, and capital. These productive resources can be used to produces commodities to be sold.

Apart from being allowed to control the productive resources, the producer also owns the goods produced. Locke (2008), however, argued that only God owns property and it is improper for any single individual to claim ownership to any form of property.

The more property rights a person has in a good, the closer his or her private cost is to the social costs of using that good, and the more incentives that person has for seeking the highest-valued use for the asset.

That is, different property rights in goods create their own incentives through the impact they have on the relationship between the private and social costs of using those goods, which, in turn, affect human behavior in specific and predictable ways.

We will write a custom Essay on Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Private ownership also encourages vigorous competition and economic efficiency. Private ownership ensures that entrepreneurs have a right to the profits generated by their own efforts. This gives entrepreneurs an incentive to search for better ways of serving consumer needs.

That may be through introducing new products, by developing more efficient production processes, by pursuing better marketing and after-sale service, or simply through managing their businesses more efficiently than their competitors.

In turn, the constant improvement in product and process that results from such an incentive has been argued to have a major positive impact on economic growth and development. The market alone puts the whole social system in order and provides it with sense and meaning.

Although proponents tend to think that a free enterprise system lets individuals think about others, it is impossible to imagine how people who thinks so much about their own success and how they can outdo opponents, will work for the benefit of others.

There is a general belief among proponents that a free enterprise system creates room for individuals to advance personal interests while thinking about the good of others. Proponents also consider greed and envy that are prevalent in a free enterprise system as necessary vices that can aid the development process.

Rule of Law Law is regarded as the collective organization of an individual’s right to lawful defense and is the greatest threat to liberty (Bastiat, 2004). The law allows every individual to protect what rightfully belongs to him or her. This includes freedom as well as property.

According to Rawls (1999), justice is the first virtue of any social institution and it is guaranteed through the rule of law. Every single individual possesses and inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of a society as a whole cannot override.

As observed by John Templeton Foundation, free enterprise systems always involve moral constraints which are controlled by governments through the rule of law. The property rights on which free enterprise systems rely are also enforced by the government (JTF, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though freedom is guaranteed to a certain degree, the government regulates certain aspects of the market to ensure that business is undertaken fairly. The state will make use of every means available to coerce people into submission so as to prevent unhealthy practices that may end up inflicting harm to others.

The life and property of each individual is protected by the government through the rule of law. In summary, the government does quite a bit to ensure that effective operation within a free enterprise system.

Price Determination Generally, changes in price send various signals to entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs understand quite well that if prices are too high, customers refuse to buy their products. On the other hand, if prices are too low, the products will sell out very quickly. In most cases, the price of commodities is determined by the laws of supply and demand.

Demand refers to the number of products that will be bought at a given time for a given price. It is not the same as want. When a person wants a luxury car without the ability to pay for it, no demand is generated. The demand for an item is represented by people who want an item, have the money needed to purchase the item, and are willing to spend the money on the item.

As the price of commodities goes up, the quantity demanded by consumers subsequently goes down. A tight relationship exists between price and demand. Prices usually rise with increased demand, and as demand decreases, prices will usually come down. Supply refers to the number of products that will be offered for sale at a particular time and at a particular price.

In case there a shortage in the supply of a commodity, prices will generally rise. As the price for a given product goes up, producers are more willing to make the product available in the market. There is also the market clearing price which is that price at which the quantity of the product the consumer is willing to buy equals the number of products the producer is willing to supply.

Competition In any business, the goal of sellers is to make a profit while consumers want to be supplied with quality goods at a reasonable price. Usually, this conflict is settled through competition. Competition is the rivalry among product sellers for the consumers’ money. Benefits of competition to society include improved quality of products as sellers strive to attract customers, development of new products, efficient operation to keep prices down and conserve scarce productive resources.

Healthy competition ensures that customers get new and quality products at very fair prices. A number of ways exist through which companies compete. One such approach is price competition where a company takes a competitor’s business by lowering its own prices.

The other approach is non price competition where a company aims to produce better quality products or adding a feature that the competition doesn’t have or can not provide. Businesses may use unique shapes and colors among others to compete.

To critics, however, a free enterprise system creates room for moral decay. In the presence of fierce competition, and when survival is at stake, people tend to think less about issues morality. The system forces individuals to do whatever it takes, without thinking about the repercussions, to exist.

Conclusion Despite the seemingly cruel nature of a free enterprise system, it can improve the well being of the society in two major ways. To begin with, an individual who considers morality as being valuable will tend to advocate for it. Companies may find it necessary to give part of their profits towards charity work with an intention of enhancing the level of competitiveness.

A good reputation in the face of the public that results from giving back to the society can be of great benefit to a company. Secondly, when the economy grows to such an extent that there is a surplus of resources, it is possible that individuals will want to protect their moral standing.

There is increased concern for the welfare of others. As individuals continue to benefit from others, they will be inclined to act morally. In the same way, companies that succeed because of reliable employees or customer loyalty will be forced to carry out their operations with honesty and a high level of integrity.

References Bastiat, F. (2004).The Law. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Foundation for Economic Education.

John Templeton Foundation (JTF). (2008). Does the Free Market Corrode Moral Character? West Conshohocken, PA: John Templeton Foundation.

Lewis, C. S. (2001). The Abolition of Man, Or, Reflections on Education with Special Reference to the Teaching of English in the Upper Forms of Schools. New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco.

Locke, J. (2008).Two Treatises of Government. United Kingdom: Jonathan Bennett.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice, Revised Edition. USA: Harvard University Press.

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Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents A brief overview of citizenship in Australia

Patriotism versus preceduralism

Permanent residence versus citizenship

Conclusions

References

Citizenship in Australia has been considered as a new concept in spite of the prevailing politics that has existed for many years. The political factors often raise questions on the relationship between the state and its citizens. In addition, the validity of Australian citizenship has also been argued out on the perspective of whether it acts to safeguard an individual’s legal status or that of the state.

Short and Mutch (2001, p. 114) point out in their publication that while citizenship in Australia is an important component that draws individuals and institutions together in order to share aspirations and values as well as to exercise social responsibilities, issues of individuals’ legal status, ability to perform duties and enjoy certain rights in Australia have been of concern for some duration of time now.

Citizenship has been described as a legal entity which should create a balance between individuals and state while allowing equal access to rights and protection by existing laws.

In addition, citizenship in Australia has in the past decade been affected by conflicts both in terms of its practical meaning and in relationship to an individual’s legal status. It is against this background that this paper critically examines the citizenship in Australia and its legal role among Australians in general.

A brief overview of citizenship in Australia The history of the creation of the current Australian citizenship can be traced way back in 1949 when it took effect after it was formed through the Nationality and Citizenship Act (1948). Studies reveal that earlier on, before its formation, Australians did not have any form of well recognized legal status in their own country which could be granted to them as proof of citizenship.

As a result, they mainly relied on the one which was being offered to the British nationals. However, with an increase in immigration practices that became common after the federation, migration programs were developed which saw the rise of citizenship laws that were addressing immigration policies.

The trend of migration in Australia has over the years risen significantly with 153, 648 in 1949. The latter was the number that was granted citizenship at that time. This figure rose to 22 million individuals in 2009 (Dutton 2000, p. 333).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Chauchat and Cogliati-Bantz (2008, p. 193), citizenship in Australia may be obtained in several ways. Some of the key ways include grant, adoption, descent as well as birth. It is important to mention that many permanent citizens in Australia today have attained their status through grants.

However, obtaining citizenship by grant saw the introduction of new rules that made acquisition of citizenship in Australia harder than it was some 30 years ago. Today, over thirty amendments have been made on the Australian citizenship legislation.

This has led to less regard of the Australian citizenship status since it is being regarded as an important component of identifying oneself with the country. In other words, it is a way of showing commitment and loyalty to the country.

Boreham, Stokes and Hall (2004, p. 100) argue that even with the rise in provision of citizenship to individuals in Australia, its practical impact on legal rights and material situation has very little effect on individuals.

This is attributed to the manner in which it impacts negatively on the legal status of individuals and poses the threat of its ability to grant individuals their rights and protection. This has been worsened by myriad of amendments that have been done in the past.

Patriotism versus preceduralism The amendments carried out in the Australian citizenship legislation have been subject of great debate in legal and academic circles bearing in mind that its symbolic and legal changes have impacted on individuals’ legal status. The amendments have also made the cost of acquiring citizenship to be a lot easier.

This has made its expected impact on provision of support and legal protection to be less felt and robbed Australians the sign and status of feeling like distinct people with a unique culture, evolved memories, history and a common future.

We will write a custom Essay on Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The citizenship has ceased being associated with loyalty and patriotism, rather it demands adherence to procedures and laws. Dutton (2000, p. 333) argues that proceduralism has replaced the aspect of an individual’s legal status.

Its call for obedience to laws and tolerance seems to be the only value which it demands from citizens. While proceduralism has received much credit from many analysts who feel it fits well with multiculturalism, others feel that citizenship ought to be light and prescriptive and not complex and oppressive.

As Cook, Walsh and Harwood (2009, p. 45) indicate, Australia has a highly diverse population similar to other countries.

Unlike other countries that highly restrict their growth and development only to their people, Australia is open to all who have basic history of the country and English understanding, good moral characteristics, no criminal record and readiness to swear allegiance to the country’s constitution.

Among individual Australians, their belonging in Australia is based on legal status and patriotism and not tolerance in living as a community or side by side as this does not just rob them of some of their rights, it also allows newcomers to interfere with their cultures.

Permanent residence versus citizenship McGregor (1997, p. 64) argues that the introduction of permanent residents in Australian citizenship impacts on the legal rights that an Australian individual reserves on its provisions. Being largely symbolic, the Australian citizenship and its material benefit like education, welfare gains and access to Medicare which were legally enjoyed by Australian citizens have now been opened to permanent citizens.

Another area of change is full access to employment and old age pension. These have made citizenship and its legal rights not to be fully enjoyed by Australian citizens. Jaensch (1997, p. 90) argues that there are a few legal barriers that prevent full participation of migrants with or without citizenship in the Australian society.

The problem of citizenship on an individual’s legal status as put forward by Dutton (2002, p. 86) is that it has not been thoroughly debated in terms of how Australians are supposed to benefit. Rather, it is about commitment and levels of loyalty to the nation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Citizens in Australia confer the right to a passport, service on juries and right to vote and work. Besides, citizens and non-citizens alike may work in public offices and have immunity from deportation. The problem posed by these provisions on the legal status of Australian citizens is the slightness in their practical difference with permanent residents.

The element fostered by the Australian citizenship legislation is one that strongly supports proceduralism over individuals’ legal status. This has drawn sharp arguments from different supporters and opponents with the former seeing citizenship as more inclusive and a component that grants everyone full community and political membership.

While critically evaluating the problem of citizenship and individuals’ legal status, Sifa, (2000, p. 154) argues that addressing it should largely be considered from an economic outset. The very reference of minority groups invokes a sense of poor social economic overtone that restricts their ability to move up the social economic hierarchy towards the top.

Therefore, the manifestation and outlay of citizenship and its effects is a paradox in the sense that demanding people at the top to reflect their own cultures and those of the minority groups is indeed cumbersome. Donoghue and Tranter (2010, p. 493) posit that through economic empowerment, the minority groups and their representative cultures become easily represented in important developments and societal demands.

The numerous amendments in the Australian citizenship laws largely sought to protect possible bias towards people of a given group or culture in Australia in terms of enjoyment of basic rights and protection by the law. Such amendments are critical because they reduce possible sense of inferiority for the minority groups and their cultures.

Though some analysts indicate that such laws may present possible crashes between the dominant and the minority groups, the same consideration is not always true.

Chesterman and Galligan (1999, p. 64) indicate that the Australian local administration creates effective checks and balances that require strict adherence and sets up major penalties if faulted. Though it often takes place involuntarily, the resulting orientation depicts key tolerance and eventual acceptance based on mutual respect.

Conclusions To sum up, the arguments above were based on the thesis statement that citizenship in Australia has been considered as a new concept for many years in spite of its political theories that have been advanced by the political class. This factor has elicited more questions especially in regards to the relationship between the state and its people.

In addition, an individual’s legal status has also been inquired on whether it is an integral component that affects the acquisition of Australian citizenship. From the discussion, it is clear that citizenship may be obtained in several ways such as grant, adoption, by descent and birth.

It is also evident that the Australian citizenship law has gone through many amendments, a consideration that has seen citizens in Australia and other residents, permanent and non-citizens, receive equal treatment.

As noted in the essay, while this has received a considerable support from multiculturalists, it is without doubt that it has impacted on individual legal rights of Australians raising questions on whether Australians should continue existing as a community besides immigrants or as individuals who have full legal status.

References Boreham, P., Stokes, G.,

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Marketing: McDonalds and KFC Essay essay help site:edu

Executive Summary The manufacturing sector has been involved in the production of consumer products for a long time. The goods have been produced and selected to suits specific segments in the market. Different positioning strategies of the products’ development were examined before the goods have been supplied to the market. While doing the market segmentation for the products, the target market has been well studied and investigated.

However, from study on the two companies discussed below, it is evident that some major points have been overlooked. The failure to meet the target market needs concerns the people with special needs in the society. This group of population includes the sick like the diabetics, those who experience high blood pressure, and others.

Does this mean that the needs of these individuals can never be met because they are not included in the target market or simply because they are a minority within the society? Such individuals should be paid the equal attention to and treated just as the rest of the people who are considered normal

. They also have certain wishes, and these manufacturing companies should carry out a research to establish the special needs of these individuals, and come up with some of the products to cater for that market segment (Thomas, 2006).

The analysis of the two companies shows how the theory of marketing has been implemented in our society in terms of the market segmentation, target markets, and strategic marketing.

Industry background A manufacturing industry involves processing of raw materials to finished products. These industries are classified based on the source of the raw materials, for example agro based industries are agriculturally oriented whereas mineral based are classified in form of the mineral elements collected raw and refined to their products.

These industries could also be classified according to the major role played whether the products are supplied raw or as finished products to consumers. They could also be classified on the basis of capital invested, small versus large-scale industries; also on the basis of ownership whether public, privately owned, a joint sector industry, or a co-operative sector industry

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Companies’ background McDonald’s Corporation is one of the leading fast food chains of restaurants in the world dealing with the production and supply of hamburgers. The company whose headquarters are in the United States of America began long ago in 1940 and has managed to spread all over the world, with branches in close to 119 countries (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 108).

McDonald’s Corporation initially began as a barbecue restaurant before specializing in hamburgers production. This was under the leadership and management of Maurice and Richard McDonald.

However, in 1955, Ray Kroc became a member of the company through agency franchising but later the company from the McDonalds (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 109). Ray Kroc is therefore behind the success of the McDonald’s Corporation with regard to its worldwide growth.

Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) was founded in 1997 after splitting off from PepsiCo in the name of Tricon Global Restaurants. Harland Sanders of Kentucky was the man behind the creation of this company. The common products that KFC deals with are sandwiches, chicken pieces, salads, and wraps. However, the primary product that is produced by KFC is fried chicken.

KFC has managed to spread in Kentucky, the United States of America and in Louisville among other places. As such, the company boasts of over 3,700 units internationally. Most of these units are franchisers who assist in the distribution of the products.

Product overview As mentioned earlier in the paper, McDonalds specializes in the production of hamburgers. Hamburger can be described as a snack that is made from minced beef which is then sandwiched in bread amongst other ingredients such as tomatoes, sauce, lettuce and mayonnaise just to mention a few.

Hamburgers from McDonalds have been ranked the best all over the world for a long time now. McDonalds offer a wide range of different types of hamburgers ranging from the Big Mac, Angus Deluxe, McDouble, and Cheeseburger among others.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing: McDonalds and KFC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Below is a picture of one of the different types of burgers produced by McDonalds.

Fig. (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 109)

On the other hand, KFC produces various products some of which include sandwiches, chicken pieces, salads, and wraps. However, the main product of KFC is their fried chicken, which is loved by many. Their fried chicken is normally cooked by grilling in oven.

Despite the fact that KFC’s fried chicken is a preference to many the company uses oils that are partially hydrogenated in preparation of the chicken. As such, the oil normally has high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, which increase the risk of people suffering from fat related illnesses such as heart diseases.

Below is a picture of Kentucky’s fried chicken

Fig. (Queste et al. 2004, p. 76)

Strategic marketing This is the business of selling and promoting products of different companies either through research or through marketing. This entails detailed structured approaches, which define what a company is trying to achieve thus an integrated campaign, or a team of skilled and dedicated individuals is required to help achieve the defined objectives of the campaign.

Strategic marketing determines where the organization is going to be in the coming years in terms of development and other factors. There are a number of issues involved for instance a SWOT analysis, a plan, goals, objectives and an appropriate model.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing: McDonalds and KFC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More SWOT analysis should be carried out both internally and externally to enhance strategic decision-making. At internal level, the analysis helps in future planning as it articulates present operations. It can divulge trends, indiscretions, limitations, as well as opportunities.

There should be a mission, which the organization is aligning with. There should also be well set goals and objectives to be achieves because of strategy planning. An action plan or activities are the implementation of the strategic plan where duties are allocated and resources mobilized.

Evaluation should be carried out to establish whether the strategy plan has worked. Strategic consulting can also be used in strategic planning as well as using personality and style match. Rewards and incentives can also be used for both the employees and the customers.

A comparison of the strategic marketing techniques used by both companies (McDonalds and KFC) it is by no doubt that, both have managed to market their products and services effectively. However, McDonalds seem to have invested more in their marketing strategy given the wide scope of market it has all over the globe.

For instance, a look at McDonald’s and KFC’s homepages, that of McDonald is of high degree of content and advertising material that gives the visitors to the home page who make the consumers, sufficient information regarding the company’s products.

Secondly, McDonalds has more outlets all over the world compared to those of KFC. It is therefore, recommended that the management of KFC invest more in their strategy marketing techniques in order to reach the standards of McDonalds and other companies in the food service industry.

Macro environmental forces Macro environmental forces are the ones that are not directly related to an organization. They are sociocultural, political, technological, International and economic variables (Pride

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Human Trafficking Synthesis Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Human trafficking involves recruiting and forcefully transporting individuals to foreign countries with the aim of exposing them to do forced labor. Human trafficking is different from traditional smuggling of people in that the relationship between the victims and he traffickers continues after their transportation. In most cases, they are passed from one trafficker to the other.

It takes place because of the demand for cheap labor and the presence of individuals willing to move from their homes in search of better economic opportunities. It is further enhanced by the financial gains that the traffickers get.

Many governments have started dealing with the problem through programs and policies designed to prevent and protect the victims, and take legal actions against the traffickers and smugglers. Although the phenomenon has been highlighted in every part of the world, knowledge about its consequences is still limited.

Owing to its secretive nature, details on the characteristics of its victims and what they go through as well the trafficker’s and smuggler’s characteristics are hard to get and often difficult to generalize.

The available data is obtained from different nongovernmental, governmental and few academic sources. Due to its negative impacts, there is need to look for ways of preventing it. This essay will look at some of the ways that can be used to prevent and stop human trafficking.

Preventing Human Trafficking Despite the fact that preventing human trafficking is the most effective long-term method of reducing or eliminating the practice, many governments have not been using the method. Part of the failure to use prevention methods emanates from the fact that there are no mechanisms for measuring the impact and success of prevention programs in attaining the anticipated goals.

Nonetheless, partly due to the increase in advocates of anti-trafficking and service providers, both NGOs and governments have embarked on the development of stronger practices and policies for prevention strategies. These prevention policies are classified into supply-based, demand-based and reduction of financial gains (Prevention of Human Trafficking 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supply-based Policies These prevention policies are interested in the supply of persons who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Their focus is on the vulnerable populations and channels of recruitment and transportation of trafficked victims. The programs are subdivided into four main areas.

Awareness-Raising Raising awareness is one of the most common activities in human trafficking prevention (Prevention 10). It assumes various forms and does not only target the public at large and critical policy makers, but also individuals who are likely to fall victims in the future.

Non-governmental organizations are used to carry out awareness raising campaigns among the homeless and other groups of individuals deemed susceptible to human trafficking. Such groups include prostitutes, youths and migrant farm employees. During the campaigns, they are familiarized with possible scams and the strategies applied by human traffickers.

The awareness raising programs comprise of the establishment and promotion of hotlines which provide information on national trafficking, local television, poster campaigns, radio and education materials that tackle human trafficking (Rosenberg 14).

Legal Alternatives Migrant advocates have raised the issue of availing legal means of moving into other countries as a means through which the various forms of exploitation that affect transnational migration could be prevented. With reference to this argument, there is a stable number of individuals who think that it is necessary for them to look for job opportunities abroad, regardless of whether they migrate legally or not.

Making it hard for individuals to migrate in accordance with the law, therefore, compels potential migrants to engage themselves in risky activities in order to look for work abroad, potentially leading them into the hands of traffickers and smugglers.

By doing away with the requirement for migrants to take such risks of crossing borders illegally, the provision of legal alternative avenues for migration or temporary work abroad is considered one method through which the role of, and opportunities for, trafficking could be diminished.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Trafficking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the meantime, safe programs of migration are comprised of one method of providing vulnerable groups with the right information to enable them make informed decisions regarding the jobs they concede to, and of empowering them to safely migrate to other countries and look for help in case of troubles. However, it is assumed that there is adequate information available to make judgment regarding the safety of the jobs offered.

Reducing “Push” Factor Conditions Long-term efforts of dealing with human trafficking are geared towards reducing the push factor conditions such as gender, poverty, inequality and lack of economic or educational opportunities. It is estimated that these factors compel people to engage in risks that eventually lead to human trafficking.

Some countries have been sponsoring programs that are involved in reduction of poverty, domestic violence, assistance programs and shelters, job training, integration programs and initiatives that prevent prostitutes against HIV/AIDS infection.

USAID has also been involved in sponsoring programs aimed at fighting corruption in governments on the basis that reduction of corruption among governments improves state resource distribution making it possible for larger groups of people to access opportunities.

In Europe, prevention of human trafficking is interpreted to mean both awareness raising and active prevention activities that ideally look into the primary causes of human trafficking.

Most countries continue with efforts of preventing human trafficking by concentrating on prostitution, migration and organized crime. Despite debates about the importance of having comprehensive prevention approaches, awareness-raising is the common prevention instrument in many countries.

Demand-based Prevention Policies Despite the unending debate concerning the causal and enabling factors of human trafficking, research has shown that exploitable workers are highly demanded in many countries. Many industries require such workers with the need being fulfilled through trafficking (Belser 35).

Demand-based programs operate on the assumption that instituting legal actions against consumers, making services of trafficked people socially unacceptable, educating consumers about trafficking and its victims, or providing information to potential traffickers and beneficiaries about human rights, gender violence and prostitution reduces the demand of trafficked individuals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Trafficking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reducing the Financial-Gains from Trafficking Advocates have started coming up with policies that limit the financial gains traffickers, smugglers, and corrupt individuals enjoy, which in turn enable criminal operations to survive. Governments have been working towards imposing costs at the individual and national levels. Sanctions are imposed against countries that are ranked among the most notorious in human trafficking.

The sanctions may withhold non-humanitarian, non-trade-related help or, if a country is denied such assistance, the funding for taking part in cultural and educational exchange programs is withheld. The countries might also be barred from applying for assistance from international financial institutions. At the individual level, traffickers may be forced to compensate the victims (Women, War and Peace 5).

The aim of these initiatives is to make human trafficking unattractive by increasing its cost relative to its would-be gains. It is envisaged that with the increasing arrests followed by prosecutions, traffickers will be compelled to conduct an evaluation of the benefits they earn from trafficking.

Countries have also been considering the possibility of giving the victims an opportunity to demand compensation from their traffickers. They do this by requesting a compensation order after being convicted and starting litigation against the traffickers in civil courts.

Capacity Building Capacity building is an important method of preventing human trafficking. Education and outreach efforts in law enforcement, justice and tourism help in fighting human trafficking. Different officers, who hold positions in governments have been targeted for further training in order to equip them with skills on how to identify, rescue and provide the right referrals for human trafficking victims.

In countries like the US, experts have been involved in training local judges, law enforcement agencies, lawyers and community watch groups on how to enhance witness protection programs (Rosenberg 20).

Other European countries have adopted the same initiatives in order to improve their capacity to detect and prevent human trafficking from taking place. They also assist the countries of origin to prevent the practice. The above outlined capacity building methods are important in preventing human trafficking.

Conclusion Anti-trafficking campaigns have been on the increase in the recent past although the global progress against human trafficking has been inconsistent and hard to measure. To date, most of the work that has been done on human trafficking portrays the emphasis on prosecuting the traffickers.

However, prevention might be the most effective way of combating the practice in the long-run. It is important for governments to devote more energy and resources in preventing the practice rather than dealing with it after it takes place.

Works Cited Belser, Patrick. Forced Labour and Human Trafficking:Estimating the Profits, New York: ILO, 2005. Print.

Prevention of Human Trafficking 2011. Web.

Prevention 2012. Web.

Rosenberg, Ruth. Best Practices for Programming to Prevent Trafficking in Human Beings in Europe and Eurasia, New York: Development Alternatives Incorporate, 2004. Print.

Women, War and Peace. n.d. Web.

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Information communication technology Report argumentative essay help

Introduction The term ICT, or Information communication technology, refers to communication devices and communication applications. These encompass mobile phones, satellite systems, radio, computers and network hardware, television, etc. ICT is currently among the most important drivers of retail logistics.

It has also become an indispensable part of contemporary homes and retail businesses (Kuppusamy and Santhapparaj, 2005). Many economists and other professionals have likened the contemporary use of ICT in development to the use of machine power and steam power during the industrial revolution (Hoek, 2001).

ICT is expected to have a profound impact on the retail logistics business. It is evident that optimum overall organizational performance is positively dependent on, and correlated with the use of ICT (Pokharel, 2005).

A number of researchers have indicated the importance of adopting technology in retail enterprises because ICT helps these enterprises to acquire and maintain a competitive edge. Retail businesses therefore depend on the use of ICT in order to survive in the contemporary age that has knowledge-based economies.

ICT’s role in Retail Logistics The fact that ICT has a vital role in logistics is indisputable. Researchers have conducted a number of studies in a bid to establish the importance of ICT in organizations that carry out logistics operations.

The use of ICT by firms that are involved in logistics operations is necessitated by the need of these firms to integrate a number of logistical activities, the need to manage information effectively, as well as the need to come up with a holistic logistical plan.

The latter includes details like warehousing, transportation, and fleet management, and it is geared towards streamlining the product flow of clients’ products (Lai et al., 2005). Currently, there has been an occurrence of innovations in ICT, which have changed the economy, and which have affected the day-to-day activities of retail businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect of ICT is that it makes organizations to strive to find innovative ways of expanding their markets, innovative ways of getting a larger customer base through service and product customization, and opportunities for business restructuring, which gives the business a competitive edge (Gratzner and Winiwarter, 2003).

The application of ICT is vital in business organizations because it helps them to achieve their objectives. This is due to the information intensity, which is potentially high in the value chain of the firm (Hinton and Tao, 2006).

Since the activities carried out by the ICT department in an organization essentially include information processing, information creation and information communication, the use of ICT influences the value chain pervasively.

At present, the ICT employed for gaining a competitive edge by firms can be grouped into three categories. These include data acquisition technologies, identification technologies and data communication technologies.

Identification technologies used by firms are Barcoding, Radio, and Frequency Identification (RFID). The aforementioned technologies are vital in the collection and exchange of logistics information.

In order to communicate data, firms may need to use the internet, fax machines, the VAN (Value added Network), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Power and Sohal, 2002). In addition to these, firms may also use POS – point of sales (Ellram et al.1999), the EOS – Electronic Ordering System (Closs and Xu, 2000).

Firms may also use enterprise information portals, logistics information systems, and computer telephone integration (Lin, 2006). The component of data acquisition is necessitated by the fact that firms deal with large volumes of goods, transactions, and data.

We will write a custom Report on Information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that organizations deal with large volumes of data necessitates data collection and exchange during the control and management of logistics information. If a firm can acquire data of high quality for exchange, then the firm will be able to serve customers with their goods in a more efficient and accurate manner.

In order to meet this objective, it is vital that firms use reliable data acquisition technologies. These include optical scanners, voice recognition, logistics, electronic pen notepads, and robotics (Lin, 2006).

Types of ICT in retail logistics Retail businesses use a number of technologies in their operations. These technologies help the retail businesses to reduce the volume of paperwork, and be more organized. The following are some of the most common technologies in retailing businesses.

Integrated POS System

The main ICT that is used in retail businesses is Point-of-Sale (POS). The POS refers to a computer system that contains all the information required to complete a transaction. Customers normally pay for goods at the POS where the transaction is posted.

Thus, the POS must have a number of modules in order to function as desired. These include a module with goods’ codes, an electronic payments system, and a receipt producing method like a printer (usually a dot matrix printer). In addition to this, the POS is mostly linked to a system for controlling stocks that tells the business management when to take stock-related actions (Copley, 1994).

Additionally, a number of retailers use the RFID technology that is critical in reducing theft, cost, and inventory. Some of the costs that the RFID technology reduces include POS labor costs, warehouse costs and distribution costs.

A Bar Code Scanner scans one item at a time, but the RFID can account many items in a second. Some of the advantages of using a POS system include less waiting time for customers and less error in price application and sales data-time.

Inventory Management System/Software

Management systems are a vital part of retail businesses because they help in cutting carrying costs. This software is quite instrumental in operations because it tracks the transportation of products from a supplier to the warehouse of the business, it tracks the movement of products within the business and also tracks the delivery of products to a retail location.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In case the business decides to deliver the products directly to the customer, the management system also tracks this delivery. Therefore, the use of a management system gives a business the following advantages under

A business can easily balance stock levels to avoid instances of deficits or surplus

A business is able to track the transportation of products between locations.

A business is able to receive goods expeditiously in a specified location like a warehouse.

A management system makes activities like picking, packing, and shipping of products from a store easy.

A business is able to know the levels of inventory and the amounts and details of goods sold.

The management system helps the business to reduce obsolescence and spoilage of items in the store.

Warehousing Management System

Businesses use ICT-based systems in their stores with the aim of providing a collection of computer-based procedures that dictate how goods are received into a warehouse.

The use of such a system is also aimed at managing how goods are physically stored within the warehouse, how products are managed in the store with regard to receipts and issues, and enabling smooth processing of customer orders in terms of the logistics of issues and delivery.

Cloud Computing in retail

Retail Express has employed the use of cloud computing in its stores. This implies that its stores are operated by a centrally placed database that contains the information about every individual store. This system is internet-based, and thus it requires uninterruptible internet connection.

This arrangement has a number of advantages, including the fact that running costs are reduced, there is no need to purchase software, and its data is of high integrity. Additionally, delays are reduced and the system is redundant and thus it is more secure (Retail Express, 2012).

Expected technological innovations in the next 5 years The advent of globalization has had a profound impact on the use of ICT in businesses. The advancement of ICT use in businesses is perhaps the most important factor in determining how the retail industry will be in the future.

The industry has therefore realized profits and growth thanks to ICT. Forms of technology that have helped to realize this growth include mobile telephony, tablets, automation machines, virtual services, POS, credit cards, and use of radio frequency identification.

An upcoming innovation in the retail sector is the use of Mobile Point-of-sale (POS) system. Retailers will replace their checkouts, which are normally centralized, with portable computers that will be used by their clerks in completing transactions. Apple stores, have particularly eliminated the use of conventional POS, which is normally fixed at the POS terminal.

The stores have employed the use of handheld devices to carry out their functions, which include stock checks, answering the questions of customers, and finalizing sales. Despite widespread concerns that wireless technology is not adequately secure, merchants and consumers will benefit from the availability and use of mobile POS.

Companies in the retail industry that use this technology are likely to reduce their labor-related costs by making their personnel more productive. In addition to this, the technology reduces instances of errors because of the elimination of written orders. The use of the technology will also ensure that services are offered more promptly, and that receipts are more detailed (Kelly, 2010).

Another prominent innovation is the use of NFC (Near-field communication) technology in smart phones. By synchronizing the cellular device equipped with NFC technology and POS, payments can be made instantly.

The result of this is that POS queues will be reduced, and customers will have an easier time because they will be able to find customer care personnel with much ease. This will definitely help retailers in serving customers more efficiently, and thus customer retention will increase. The two, better customer service and customer retention will result in more profits (Green, 2011).

Conclusion Customers value convenience and the state of being informed about their favorite products. Technology enables this and more. Major retailers have accepted and embraced ICT, and thus they are seeking new and exciting technology to have competitive advantage. The use of technology in retail businesses can potentially revolutionize the industry.

This is because the use of technology improves customer experience, improves the operations of the retailer, and gives the management the required information to make decisions geared towards improving the business. The retailer therefore gets invaluable benefits from the use of technology in his/her retail business.

Reference List Closs, D. and Xu, K. (2000). Logistics Information Technology Practice in Manufacturing and Merchandising Firms – An International Benchmarking Study Versus World Class Logistics Firms, International Journal of Physical Distribution

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Managing Change in an Organization Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Change is relative to a thread. It is intertwined into both professional and personal components of lives. It has the ability to steadily occur within the environment mankind dwells in and even beyond.

This ranges from occurrences in local and global events, different ways through which structured organizations do business in socio-economic and political governments and eventually at a communal level. In the advent of modernity, more complexity and relationships cause changes that affect us in one way or another.

Developmental efforts in an organization, whether facilitated by an outsider or an insider expert and achieved through performance, bring about planned organizational change. There in only one type of change that can occur in an organization (Bass 1990). Changes in an organization can be either planned, unplanned, or both. Nevertheless, changes in an organization may occur in universal dimensions.

For example, planned change within chief justice, support to employees, and appropriations will dramatically change the traits of judicial organizational education. Besides, it will cause alignments in the institutions, the state bar, small law colleges, and other higher learning institutions. In addition, professionalism in the judicial system is all expected to bring about similar effects.

Planning for a change in an organization normally requires a conscious and attentive effort either from the managers or educators. Kotter (1995) initiated the master of change concept. In his description, he refers to the organization or an individual adept of expecting change needs to adopt change in productivity to reinforce change process in management role.

Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to analyze the use of ‘change’ reference to managers who have an interest of bringing some organization transformation in the environment and the work force they manage. Reflectively, unless there is a need for change from the management, such a change cannot take place in any organization. This is because individuals and organizations tend to develop resistance to any possible change.

Unless they take a positive attitude to embrace change and create an environment that motivated change, quantifiable change may just be a dream. Hannan and Freeman (1984) explain that it is through pain that change occurs. The moment one encounters an opportunity, it means that we have to make utilization of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Failure to utilize the opportunity may result in incurrence of higher cost. Thus, the moment an individual embraces change, an automatic relief from pain occurs.

From this perspective, it is important to note that change does not just occur because it seems to be a good idea, but it occurs the moment responsible people are satisfied to justify the difficulties of incorporating change.

As a result, professionals are obligated to ensure change in an organization should be able to come up with strategies that will ensure that there in a need for such a change to take place instead of simplifying on the benefits expected from such changes.

Change agents who have an understanding of this, should take up the role of ensuring that they offer assistance to others in order to embrace inclusive change in their organization. An organization cannot continue to hold on its status quo, but embrace positive change. In order to create a clear picture of the above description, the study reflects on a college movement of Ohio Judiciary which received funding emerging from catharsis.

While in other regions, forced training in the work force helped save the office of justice. This led into an emergent of an independent professionalism out of a difficult situation. Illustrating such an example gives an insight to organizations managers to help to create a need towards change and offer assistance in fostering change.

In view of change to occur in any organization, all change agents must make an analysis of the system that they will effectively operate and function in. It is, therefore, critical to note that whenever a change occurs in any one of the organization system, it is expected that other systems will be affected as well.

This will be either in a direct or in an indirect way. However, variability in organizations calls for various distinct approaches to bring about such changes. These variations in organizations, as I will briefly mention in the next paragraph, occur because of structural differentiation, cultural differentiation, organizational sizes, scope of operations, area of specialization, and country in which the organization is located.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Managing Change in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A company such as Apple, which deals in technological production of electronic products, may carry out changes in its organizational structure different from Starbuck Company that deals in production of coffee and beverage products.

Weick and Quinn (1999) assert that despite existence in variability and operations of organization, there are some changes that may be common in most of the organizations. However changes in organizations normally come in different forms, that is, intrinsic and non-intrinsic.

Planned changes in an organization are normally adopted and implemented by professionals who have complete knowledge on possible impacts of them to the organization. This is because such professionals are able to consider where such changes shall be conducted and its history. Planned changes in an organization aim at improving situations and desirability in goals before its commencement.

Examples of planned changes include salary increase to employees, changes in productions capacity, product and service change, reduction on the production, and operation costs. However, management may adopt and implement changes that may not be driven by people’s will. Failure to act on human will result in such organizations moving towards undesirable directions.

The speed at which such changes can take place in an organization can also be described as either continuous or episodic. As the name suggests, continuous change in an organization is one that is ongoing and performed periodically such as offering training skills to employees.

To improve on the organizational performance, the management of the organization should adopt strategies that ensure continuous acquisition of knowledge by employees. One way through which I can effectively implement on these while working in an organization is through seminars and workshops. Episodic change occurs in a piece mill manner.

It is discontinuous with an intentional motive. An example of such a discontinuous change is addition of another machine in a company. Due to increased aggregate for the company’s product, the management decides to increase on the supply through adding of an extra machine to boost on the capacity.

Bass (1990) asserts that while this may be implemented in a short time period, continuous change occurs in smaller adjustments and making improvements in daily actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importantly, it is through people that changes in an organization can be adopted and implemented. It becomes critical to note that nothing can really move in the right direction without motivation, coordination, and linking stakeholders.

Typically, they form up the workforce for the organization since whenever changes occur; they develop either a negative or a positive interest, including also agencies that organization has entered into contract with.

An effective implementation of project changes by an organization requires full involvement of the stakeholders at different levels. This makes them understand reasons behind their involvement and benefit from such projects. Additionally, it gives them opportunities during forums to give their opinions and make possible recommendations on what and how it should be conducted.

But, sometimes, such changes may fail to create an opportunity that may allow for negotiations, collaborations or cooperation. However, they have to be informed whenever changes happen in an organization. For instance, in the Starbuck Company, there is a corporation with the community and market through environmental conservation projects.

Furthermore, it offers grants to youths and organizes seminars to pass on skills to the community. Such an experience depicts an approach towards change in a more open manner and through consultations. This makes them feel the recognition and develop attachment to the organization (Prosci, 2007).

Change can be presently considered to be a constant axiom. Hence, increased advent in technology, globalization and emphasis by cost managers on how to make reductions on costs, competition, and variations in aggregate demand and aggregate supply have created a need for organizational change. However, few approaches or models exist to offer assistance to organization.

The objectives of such models are to ensure that upon their adoption and implementation, such organization will achieve an understanding of dynamisms involved in change processes. Through most of the research that I have conducted concerning organizational change models, most of them seem to be too demanding or academically oriented. This ends up making them have a limiting character.

Most of the models propose a linear format to make judgment that change within an organization and can be described in reference to future expectations. In reality, modernism cannot accommodate the approaches proposed.

This is because the rate at which changes occur is rapid making many firms to miss on exact predictions of their desirable future positions. Instead, they end up giving descriptions in more aspiration forms. This means that businesses will be striving to achieve their future desires while present pressure will give their management problems.

In order to present an alternative but flexible, I propose that the process should be able to allow firms to plan for future desirability and be able to achieve them while responding to the rising circumstances. This process encompasses five dimensions to organization change.

An adoption and its flexibility may allow for its use in a number of organizations. Being cyclic in nature, it operates on the perception that management of change in an organization is an interactive process.

Direct as the first dimension deals with making an alignment. It ensures that all the objectives are thought in a right way and then articulated appropriately to create a platform on which the other four dimensions will rely and operate.

Thus, it is considered to be the most critical and essential of all the other dimensions. In entirely, the dimensional core strategy is to ensure that business values, mission, and vision statements are articulated as required. The three are always an aspiration statement that forms the blueprint on which the business will make reference to both at its present state and future expected position.

For instance, in a service organization, the management may come up with a strategy to ensure that the company excels in service provision to its customers. Consequently, the task by management should be in a way that it is evidenced both to the internal and external customers in the supply chain.

As an exemplary behavior, it needs to be incorporated into the management system in order to be in a continuous evaluation. Achievement of these factors will only occur if behaviors of the business are clearly defined and described appropriately. Management of an organizational change requires consistency in the approach together with purpose constancy.

Translation of both direction and vision strategies towards operations require description is the second dimension. Operational strategies are plans that ensure functions are well articulated as required by every section of business. This means that deployment of professionals in these divisions becomes of an essence. As an enabling strategy, it assists management to deal with various groups of people.

Researches relating to major companies like North West Waters and Rolls Royce and Bentley car motors reveal that four key enabling strategies are strategy towards resourcing, strategy for management performance, rewarding strategy and, finally, strategy that ensures proper communication in an organization.

Define forms the third model the management has to adopt to ensure organizational change. This approach, though mostly ignored by most of the organization managers, is crucial in the ongoing processes within the organization. Failure to implement on the strategy by professional limits them from full potential of the operational strategies.

As an operational model, it presents a practical platform on which the first mentioned strategies will operate. It encompasses various aspects such as procedures, policies, and processes that ensure implementations in the businesses are fulfilled. As illustrated by Hannan et al. (1984), failure by the organization employees to follow on the processes formulated will reflect in the unstable cost, safety, quality, and health of the business.

Delivery of the strategies is the fourth strategy that the management should strive to embrace. It ensures that consistency in implementing overall values and visions of the organization is quantifiable and within reach. Reflectively, depending on organization management, decision making process may not guarantee commitments to their implementation.

Thus, this strategy calls for communications to appropriate models demonstrated through behaviors as displayed by managers and other stakeholders. This is a case for any organization undergoing changes.

In the fifth position is the dimension that ensures development and is placed above all requirements to ensure that there is appropriate monitoring of the processes. Its application is only dependent on two aspects. The first one is when there has been an achievement in both strategies and objectives.

Secondly, it is also applied when the most critical circumstances in an organization happen to undergo some changes to a degree that the initial stated strategies may require reviewing.

In conclusion, from the whole aspect of organizational management change, the five outlined dimensions are normally cyclical in nature. They create a link to all factors that contribute to change in an organization.

It become of essence to make an alignment of the business in relation to its visions and values. Additionally, strategies and related activities should be coordinated in a consistency and constant manner if an organization is to make use of changes in the system.

References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass

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Information communication technology Report college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The term ICT, or Information communication technology, refers to communication devices and communication applications. These encompass mobile phones, satellite systems, radio, computers and network hardware, television, etc. ICT is currently among the most important drivers of retail logistics.

It has also become an indispensable part of contemporary homes and retail businesses (Kuppusamy and Santhapparaj, 2005). Many economists and other professionals have likened the contemporary use of ICT in development to the use of machine power and steam power during the industrial revolution (Hoek, 2001).

ICT is expected to have a profound impact on the retail logistics business. It is evident that optimum overall organizational performance is positively dependent on, and correlated with the use of ICT (Pokharel, 2005).

A number of researchers have indicated the importance of adopting technology in retail enterprises because ICT helps these enterprises to acquire and maintain a competitive edge. Retail businesses therefore depend on the use of ICT in order to survive in the contemporary age that has knowledge-based economies.

ICT’s role in Retail Logistics The fact that ICT has a vital role in logistics is indisputable. Researchers have conducted a number of studies in a bid to establish the importance of ICT in organizations that carry out logistics operations.

The use of ICT by firms that are involved in logistics operations is necessitated by the need of these firms to integrate a number of logistical activities, the need to manage information effectively, as well as the need to come up with a holistic logistical plan.

The latter includes details like warehousing, transportation, and fleet management, and it is geared towards streamlining the product flow of clients’ products (Lai et al., 2005). Currently, there has been an occurrence of innovations in ICT, which have changed the economy, and which have affected the day-to-day activities of retail businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect of ICT is that it makes organizations to strive to find innovative ways of expanding their markets, innovative ways of getting a larger customer base through service and product customization, and opportunities for business restructuring, which gives the business a competitive edge (Gratzner and Winiwarter, 2003).

The application of ICT is vital in business organizations because it helps them to achieve their objectives. This is due to the information intensity, which is potentially high in the value chain of the firm (Hinton and Tao, 2006).

Since the activities carried out by the ICT department in an organization essentially include information processing, information creation and information communication, the use of ICT influences the value chain pervasively.

At present, the ICT employed for gaining a competitive edge by firms can be grouped into three categories. These include data acquisition technologies, identification technologies and data communication technologies.

Identification technologies used by firms are Barcoding, Radio, and Frequency Identification (RFID). The aforementioned technologies are vital in the collection and exchange of logistics information.

In order to communicate data, firms may need to use the internet, fax machines, the VAN (Value added Network), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Power and Sohal, 2002). In addition to these, firms may also use POS – point of sales (Ellram et al.1999), the EOS – Electronic Ordering System (Closs and Xu, 2000).

Firms may also use enterprise information portals, logistics information systems, and computer telephone integration (Lin, 2006). The component of data acquisition is necessitated by the fact that firms deal with large volumes of goods, transactions, and data.

We will write a custom Report on Information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that organizations deal with large volumes of data necessitates data collection and exchange during the control and management of logistics information. If a firm can acquire data of high quality for exchange, then the firm will be able to serve customers with their goods in a more efficient and accurate manner.

In order to meet this objective, it is vital that firms use reliable data acquisition technologies. These include optical scanners, voice recognition, logistics, electronic pen notepads, and robotics (Lin, 2006).

Types of ICT in retail logistics Retail businesses use a number of technologies in their operations. These technologies help the retail businesses to reduce the volume of paperwork, and be more organized. The following are some of the most common technologies in retailing businesses.

Integrated POS System

The main ICT that is used in retail businesses is Point-of-Sale (POS). The POS refers to a computer system that contains all the information required to complete a transaction. Customers normally pay for goods at the POS where the transaction is posted.

Thus, the POS must have a number of modules in order to function as desired. These include a module with goods’ codes, an electronic payments system, and a receipt producing method like a printer (usually a dot matrix printer). In addition to this, the POS is mostly linked to a system for controlling stocks that tells the business management when to take stock-related actions (Copley, 1994).

Additionally, a number of retailers use the RFID technology that is critical in reducing theft, cost, and inventory. Some of the costs that the RFID technology reduces include POS labor costs, warehouse costs and distribution costs.

A Bar Code Scanner scans one item at a time, but the RFID can account many items in a second. Some of the advantages of using a POS system include less waiting time for customers and less error in price application and sales data-time.

Inventory Management System/Software

Management systems are a vital part of retail businesses because they help in cutting carrying costs. This software is quite instrumental in operations because it tracks the transportation of products from a supplier to the warehouse of the business, it tracks the movement of products within the business and also tracks the delivery of products to a retail location.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In case the business decides to deliver the products directly to the customer, the management system also tracks this delivery. Therefore, the use of a management system gives a business the following advantages under

A business can easily balance stock levels to avoid instances of deficits or surplus

A business is able to track the transportation of products between locations.

A business is able to receive goods expeditiously in a specified location like a warehouse.

A management system makes activities like picking, packing, and shipping of products from a store easy.

A business is able to know the levels of inventory and the amounts and details of goods sold.

The management system helps the business to reduce obsolescence and spoilage of items in the store.

Warehousing Management System

Businesses use ICT-based systems in their stores with the aim of providing a collection of computer-based procedures that dictate how goods are received into a warehouse.

The use of such a system is also aimed at managing how goods are physically stored within the warehouse, how products are managed in the store with regard to receipts and issues, and enabling smooth processing of customer orders in terms of the logistics of issues and delivery.

Cloud Computing in retail

Retail Express has employed the use of cloud computing in its stores. This implies that its stores are operated by a centrally placed database that contains the information about every individual store. This system is internet-based, and thus it requires uninterruptible internet connection.

This arrangement has a number of advantages, including the fact that running costs are reduced, there is no need to purchase software, and its data is of high integrity. Additionally, delays are reduced and the system is redundant and thus it is more secure (Retail Express, 2012).

Expected technological innovations in the next 5 years The advent of globalization has had a profound impact on the use of ICT in businesses. The advancement of ICT use in businesses is perhaps the most important factor in determining how the retail industry will be in the future.

The industry has therefore realized profits and growth thanks to ICT. Forms of technology that have helped to realize this growth include mobile telephony, tablets, automation machines, virtual services, POS, credit cards, and use of radio frequency identification.

An upcoming innovation in the retail sector is the use of Mobile Point-of-sale (POS) system. Retailers will replace their checkouts, which are normally centralized, with portable computers that will be used by their clerks in completing transactions. Apple stores, have particularly eliminated the use of conventional POS, which is normally fixed at the POS terminal.

The stores have employed the use of handheld devices to carry out their functions, which include stock checks, answering the questions of customers, and finalizing sales. Despite widespread concerns that wireless technology is not adequately secure, merchants and consumers will benefit from the availability and use of mobile POS.

Companies in the retail industry that use this technology are likely to reduce their labor-related costs by making their personnel more productive. In addition to this, the technology reduces instances of errors because of the elimination of written orders. The use of the technology will also ensure that services are offered more promptly, and that receipts are more detailed (Kelly, 2010).

Another prominent innovation is the use of NFC (Near-field communication) technology in smart phones. By synchronizing the cellular device equipped with NFC technology and POS, payments can be made instantly.

The result of this is that POS queues will be reduced, and customers will have an easier time because they will be able to find customer care personnel with much ease. This will definitely help retailers in serving customers more efficiently, and thus customer retention will increase. The two, better customer service and customer retention will result in more profits (Green, 2011).

Conclusion Customers value convenience and the state of being informed about their favorite products. Technology enables this and more. Major retailers have accepted and embraced ICT, and thus they are seeking new and exciting technology to have competitive advantage. The use of technology in retail businesses can potentially revolutionize the industry.

This is because the use of technology improves customer experience, improves the operations of the retailer, and gives the management the required information to make decisions geared towards improving the business. The retailer therefore gets invaluable benefits from the use of technology in his/her retail business.

Reference List Closs, D. and Xu, K. (2000). Logistics Information Technology Practice in Manufacturing and Merchandising Firms – An International Benchmarking Study Versus World Class Logistics Firms, International Journal of Physical Distribution

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Managing Change in an Organization Research Paper online essay help

Introduction Change is relative to a thread. It is intertwined into both professional and personal components of lives. It has the ability to steadily occur within the environment mankind dwells in and even beyond.

This ranges from occurrences in local and global events, different ways through which structured organizations do business in socio-economic and political governments and eventually at a communal level. In the advent of modernity, more complexity and relationships cause changes that affect us in one way or another.

Developmental efforts in an organization, whether facilitated by an outsider or an insider expert and achieved through performance, bring about planned organizational change. There in only one type of change that can occur in an organization (Bass 1990). Changes in an organization can be either planned, unplanned, or both. Nevertheless, changes in an organization may occur in universal dimensions.

For example, planned change within chief justice, support to employees, and appropriations will dramatically change the traits of judicial organizational education. Besides, it will cause alignments in the institutions, the state bar, small law colleges, and other higher learning institutions. In addition, professionalism in the judicial system is all expected to bring about similar effects.

Planning for a change in an organization normally requires a conscious and attentive effort either from the managers or educators. Kotter (1995) initiated the master of change concept. In his description, he refers to the organization or an individual adept of expecting change needs to adopt change in productivity to reinforce change process in management role.

Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to analyze the use of ‘change’ reference to managers who have an interest of bringing some organization transformation in the environment and the work force they manage. Reflectively, unless there is a need for change from the management, such a change cannot take place in any organization. This is because individuals and organizations tend to develop resistance to any possible change.

Unless they take a positive attitude to embrace change and create an environment that motivated change, quantifiable change may just be a dream. Hannan and Freeman (1984) explain that it is through pain that change occurs. The moment one encounters an opportunity, it means that we have to make utilization of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Failure to utilize the opportunity may result in incurrence of higher cost. Thus, the moment an individual embraces change, an automatic relief from pain occurs.

From this perspective, it is important to note that change does not just occur because it seems to be a good idea, but it occurs the moment responsible people are satisfied to justify the difficulties of incorporating change.

As a result, professionals are obligated to ensure change in an organization should be able to come up with strategies that will ensure that there in a need for such a change to take place instead of simplifying on the benefits expected from such changes.

Change agents who have an understanding of this, should take up the role of ensuring that they offer assistance to others in order to embrace inclusive change in their organization. An organization cannot continue to hold on its status quo, but embrace positive change. In order to create a clear picture of the above description, the study reflects on a college movement of Ohio Judiciary which received funding emerging from catharsis.

While in other regions, forced training in the work force helped save the office of justice. This led into an emergent of an independent professionalism out of a difficult situation. Illustrating such an example gives an insight to organizations managers to help to create a need towards change and offer assistance in fostering change.

In view of change to occur in any organization, all change agents must make an analysis of the system that they will effectively operate and function in. It is, therefore, critical to note that whenever a change occurs in any one of the organization system, it is expected that other systems will be affected as well.

This will be either in a direct or in an indirect way. However, variability in organizations calls for various distinct approaches to bring about such changes. These variations in organizations, as I will briefly mention in the next paragraph, occur because of structural differentiation, cultural differentiation, organizational sizes, scope of operations, area of specialization, and country in which the organization is located.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Managing Change in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A company such as Apple, which deals in technological production of electronic products, may carry out changes in its organizational structure different from Starbuck Company that deals in production of coffee and beverage products.

Weick and Quinn (1999) assert that despite existence in variability and operations of organization, there are some changes that may be common in most of the organizations. However changes in organizations normally come in different forms, that is, intrinsic and non-intrinsic.

Planned changes in an organization are normally adopted and implemented by professionals who have complete knowledge on possible impacts of them to the organization. This is because such professionals are able to consider where such changes shall be conducted and its history. Planned changes in an organization aim at improving situations and desirability in goals before its commencement.

Examples of planned changes include salary increase to employees, changes in productions capacity, product and service change, reduction on the production, and operation costs. However, management may adopt and implement changes that may not be driven by people’s will. Failure to act on human will result in such organizations moving towards undesirable directions.

The speed at which such changes can take place in an organization can also be described as either continuous or episodic. As the name suggests, continuous change in an organization is one that is ongoing and performed periodically such as offering training skills to employees.

To improve on the organizational performance, the management of the organization should adopt strategies that ensure continuous acquisition of knowledge by employees. One way through which I can effectively implement on these while working in an organization is through seminars and workshops. Episodic change occurs in a piece mill manner.

It is discontinuous with an intentional motive. An example of such a discontinuous change is addition of another machine in a company. Due to increased aggregate for the company’s product, the management decides to increase on the supply through adding of an extra machine to boost on the capacity.

Bass (1990) asserts that while this may be implemented in a short time period, continuous change occurs in smaller adjustments and making improvements in daily actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importantly, it is through people that changes in an organization can be adopted and implemented. It becomes critical to note that nothing can really move in the right direction without motivation, coordination, and linking stakeholders.

Typically, they form up the workforce for the organization since whenever changes occur; they develop either a negative or a positive interest, including also agencies that organization has entered into contract with.

An effective implementation of project changes by an organization requires full involvement of the stakeholders at different levels. This makes them understand reasons behind their involvement and benefit from such projects. Additionally, it gives them opportunities during forums to give their opinions and make possible recommendations on what and how it should be conducted.

But, sometimes, such changes may fail to create an opportunity that may allow for negotiations, collaborations or cooperation. However, they have to be informed whenever changes happen in an organization. For instance, in the Starbuck Company, there is a corporation with the community and market through environmental conservation projects.

Furthermore, it offers grants to youths and organizes seminars to pass on skills to the community. Such an experience depicts an approach towards change in a more open manner and through consultations. This makes them feel the recognition and develop attachment to the organization (Prosci, 2007).

Change can be presently considered to be a constant axiom. Hence, increased advent in technology, globalization and emphasis by cost managers on how to make reductions on costs, competition, and variations in aggregate demand and aggregate supply have created a need for organizational change. However, few approaches or models exist to offer assistance to organization.

The objectives of such models are to ensure that upon their adoption and implementation, such organization will achieve an understanding of dynamisms involved in change processes. Through most of the research that I have conducted concerning organizational change models, most of them seem to be too demanding or academically oriented. This ends up making them have a limiting character.

Most of the models propose a linear format to make judgment that change within an organization and can be described in reference to future expectations. In reality, modernism cannot accommodate the approaches proposed.

This is because the rate at which changes occur is rapid making many firms to miss on exact predictions of their desirable future positions. Instead, they end up giving descriptions in more aspiration forms. This means that businesses will be striving to achieve their future desires while present pressure will give their management problems.

In order to present an alternative but flexible, I propose that the process should be able to allow firms to plan for future desirability and be able to achieve them while responding to the rising circumstances. This process encompasses five dimensions to organization change.

An adoption and its flexibility may allow for its use in a number of organizations. Being cyclic in nature, it operates on the perception that management of change in an organization is an interactive process.

Direct as the first dimension deals with making an alignment. It ensures that all the objectives are thought in a right way and then articulated appropriately to create a platform on which the other four dimensions will rely and operate.

Thus, it is considered to be the most critical and essential of all the other dimensions. In entirely, the dimensional core strategy is to ensure that business values, mission, and vision statements are articulated as required. The three are always an aspiration statement that forms the blueprint on which the business will make reference to both at its present state and future expected position.

For instance, in a service organization, the management may come up with a strategy to ensure that the company excels in service provision to its customers. Consequently, the task by management should be in a way that it is evidenced both to the internal and external customers in the supply chain.

As an exemplary behavior, it needs to be incorporated into the management system in order to be in a continuous evaluation. Achievement of these factors will only occur if behaviors of the business are clearly defined and described appropriately. Management of an organizational change requires consistency in the approach together with purpose constancy.

Translation of both direction and vision strategies towards operations require description is the second dimension. Operational strategies are plans that ensure functions are well articulated as required by every section of business. This means that deployment of professionals in these divisions becomes of an essence. As an enabling strategy, it assists management to deal with various groups of people.

Researches relating to major companies like North West Waters and Rolls Royce and Bentley car motors reveal that four key enabling strategies are strategy towards resourcing, strategy for management performance, rewarding strategy and, finally, strategy that ensures proper communication in an organization.

Define forms the third model the management has to adopt to ensure organizational change. This approach, though mostly ignored by most of the organization managers, is crucial in the ongoing processes within the organization. Failure to implement on the strategy by professional limits them from full potential of the operational strategies.

As an operational model, it presents a practical platform on which the first mentioned strategies will operate. It encompasses various aspects such as procedures, policies, and processes that ensure implementations in the businesses are fulfilled. As illustrated by Hannan et al. (1984), failure by the organization employees to follow on the processes formulated will reflect in the unstable cost, safety, quality, and health of the business.

Delivery of the strategies is the fourth strategy that the management should strive to embrace. It ensures that consistency in implementing overall values and visions of the organization is quantifiable and within reach. Reflectively, depending on organization management, decision making process may not guarantee commitments to their implementation.

Thus, this strategy calls for communications to appropriate models demonstrated through behaviors as displayed by managers and other stakeholders. This is a case for any organization undergoing changes.

In the fifth position is the dimension that ensures development and is placed above all requirements to ensure that there is appropriate monitoring of the processes. Its application is only dependent on two aspects. The first one is when there has been an achievement in both strategies and objectives.

Secondly, it is also applied when the most critical circumstances in an organization happen to undergo some changes to a degree that the initial stated strategies may require reviewing.

In conclusion, from the whole aspect of organizational management change, the five outlined dimensions are normally cyclical in nature. They create a link to all factors that contribute to change in an organization.

It become of essence to make an alignment of the business in relation to its visions and values. Additionally, strategies and related activities should be coordinated in a consistency and constant manner if an organization is to make use of changes in the system.

References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass

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Global labour migration and global cities’ labour markets Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Major relationships

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Labour (human capital) is a significant provision in countries, which endeavour to progress economically. Evidently, there is a massive migration of labourers from one country to the next in search of appropriate job opportunities and reasonable pay. Global labour migration is a considerable concern in numerous contexts.

The situation has bountiful impacts on the native countries and host cities in terms of increasing population and augmentation of human expertise for the growth of the concerned cities. There is a critical relationship amid the two factions despite the condition. It is agreeable that when people leave their native countries to other cities for job opportunities, the trend leads to some impacts (Berg

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Importance of Public Relations and Relationship Marketing Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help

Marketing as a management role, has undergone a serious shift, from what used to be an operational function of management, to its current strategic role. The marketplace has grown more competitive, with market rivalry that requires a proper strategy in order to emerge the winner. Globalization has increased this competition as much as it has opened new markets for firms around the world.

With marketing having moved from an inward-out approach to an outward-in, there has been need to develop a lasting relationship with customers in the market. As part of what has been referred to as social marketing, public relations and relationship marketing has been seen as key instrument for success in managing markets, especially in international events.

Marketing in the international forum is much more demanding than doing the same within the country. If a firm wishes to market its products within Switzerland, it would be easier to do so using the national mass communication channels to reach out for the intended customers. However, international trade is much more demanding.

According to Woodruff (1997, p. 78), international markets requires more effort because the area of coverage is large. For a firm to manage international markets, they would require a proper marketing strategy that would see to it that they reach out to the target group with the right information, and they manage to convince this group about the products they have for them.

Cancer awareness creation is an international event that would require proper marketing in the target area if success is to be realized. It has come to the realization of many nonprofit making organizations that marketing is an inevitable event. Marketing, as Ward (1999, p. 78) says, is the only way an organization, both for profit and not for profit organizations, can realize success in their activities.

World Health Organization gets funds from donors. These donors have their expectations of the firm. They expect the firm to achieve a given level of success within a given period of time. For this reason, World Health Organization has a role to ensure that it meets this target within the specified time. It may not avoid marketing as a tool of ensuring success.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in our current society. Many individuals, including such renowned innovators like Steve Job who was the founder of Apple Inc, perished out of this disease. According to the report by Ulaga and Chacour (2001, p. 80), cancer is not lethal is it can be detected at an early stage and measures taken to eliminate it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, if this is not taken care of early enough, the patient may have very limited chances of surviving this disease. It has been the concern of World Health Organization to create awareness of this disease among various countries around the world. Cancer treatment is very costly, and the process is daunting both to the patient and the family, and the medics concerned in the process.

To the patient, the process of cancer treatment is painful, cumbered with a lot of procedures and instructions that has a serious torture to the mind and body. To the patient’s family, the cost of treating cancer is huge. It would require huge amounts of money to get good hospitals to offer the patients good treatment (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman, and Hansen 2009, p. 56).

Even with this, it is not an assurance that the patient would survive the disease. To the medics, cancer treatment is one of the complicated procedures that take several hours of keen monitoring of the patient.

To ensure success in this process, there must be appropriate machines and equipments that would facilitate the whole procedure. To the entire country, budgeting for cancer treatment is a costly venture. It would demand that the government foregoes other developmental projects to increase its budget on recurring expenditures.

For this reason, there has been pressure on World Health Organization to help curb the spread of this disease. Donors want to see the prevalence of cancer drop in countries all over the world.

This organization must therefore reach out to the intended information with an aim to convincing them to act in a manner that would help avert the disease all together, or to seek measures that would ensure that they intervene at early stages of the disease before it gets to advanced levels.

There are some conventional ways through which cancers can be avoided. Such ways include the type of food one takes, exposures to harmful radiations, including direct sunlight during some hours of the day, among other reasons (Andreson, Narus,

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Flare Fragrances Company Inc Case Study essay help online free

Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss marketing challenges, current situation, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and marketing mix of Flare Fragrances Company Inc. In addition, this report focuses on the alternative solutions to recommend the company to sustain in the market in the recessionary economy.

Statement of the Marketing Challenge Flare Fragrances Company is a women’s perfume manufacturer in the US market, which encounters with primary marketing challenge to prove its sustainability for achieving declined growth due to global financial crisis in 2008.

There are varieties of challenges for the marketing of FFCI1, but the foremost challenge is how the marketing strategy would enable to work under the difficult economic environment and keep its revenue growth rate stable.

Following the global financial crisis and its consequential recessionary economy, the marketers would find difficult situation and the marketing successes and failures would depend on the patterns of consumers’ shifting behavior under the recession and the marketing strategies of the company to respond to the downturn.

In the economic downturn, the companies necessitate to identify with the changing consumption patterns of the customers and restructure the marketing strategies accordingly while consumers limit their spending based on priorities.

Due to job cut and increasing unemployment, the customers drop their spending for consumption of luxurious goods, but emphasis on necessary items. At the same time, the companies strive with dropping sales, forced to cut costs, trim down prices, and reschedule their new investments while marketing expenditures are also under pressure to reduce unsystematic cost.

In the given case study, under a recessionary economic condition, the CEO of FFCI Ms. Patterson has thrown the challenge to the marketing team of the company to increase revenue by target at least US$ 7.5 million in 2009 to turn around declining sales trend in 2008 and to do so she has presented two points of strategic implication.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Patterson pointed out that it is the discretion of the marketing team how they would take the challenge of gaining growth target under the recessionary market, but the two suggested point is either to emphasis on drugstore channel or to introduce a new perfume brand.

Thus, the marketing team of FFCI would evaluate the overall situation to identify their exact marketing strategy that can mitigate the primary marketing challenge of gaining target growth either by implication of drugstore distribution channel with brand extension strategy or by any other means.

At this context, the marketing team of FFCI has to take into account of a wide variety of factors including the company’s brand management, customer’s demography, pricing, and product-positioning map, and brand extension for new product launch along with the SWOT analysis of the company.

At the same time, this analysis would provide the marketing team more insights to explore multiple factors that could contribute to stronger growth with an entrenched consumer base in the US women’s fragrances market and to develop systematic evaluation of multiple growth opportunities for Flare Fragrances Company Inc.

Analysis of the Current Situation of FFCI Strengths

Long Experience: FFCI started its journey in 1955 as a small perfume producer, but it has placed itself at the fourth position in the U.S. women’s fragrances market (Quelch and Lisa 1);

Brand awareness: Strong brand image of the company in the US market is one of the most strong point for FFCI;

Popular Brands: FFCI owned at least six most popular brands in the US market like Loveliest, Awash, Summit, Essential, Swept Away, and Natural;

Market Trends: The company has succeeded to becoming the trusted one to both matured women and younger demographics of the US market concerned with health and green trends;

Customer Base: Around 74% of the matured women and 75% of teenage girls are loyal customer of FFCI (Quelch and Lisa 2);

In addition, FFCI evidenced its most powerful presence in sales of fragrances all the way through mass channels, predominantly the US market of “prestige” brands;

Distribution Channel: For the long-time, the company has strong distribution channel at the US premium and mid-tier department stores along with discount department stores and chain pharmacies;

To meet the needs of all classes of customers, the company classified its brands as premium brands ranging from US$ 70 per ounce spray bottle, mid-tier brands ranging from US$ 30 per ounce spray bottle and mass brands at very affordable price and available at mass merchandisers and discount stores;

Sales Projection: The sales projection of the company evidenced its strength of marketing;

Other: Other strong points are corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, supply chain management system, leadership style, human resource management, financial capabilities of the company, and so on.

Weaknesses

High Costs of Production: FFCI has limited its operation the United States, and it is avoiding to enter the international markets due to its very high costs of production;

Decreasing profits: The company evidenced a 3% overall annual decline because of global financial crisis;

Less Popular Products: Rather than the Fragrances, FFCI has a variety of product line like bath soap, body lotion and shower gels which are sold only through department store channels, but the brands of such products are not enough familiar in the market;

Budget: Lack of additional investment for marketing research;

Budget for advertising: The budget for advertising is not homogeneous, 70–80% of advertising budget allocated for umbrella brand Loveliest, but the other five brands sanctioned 20% to 30% (Quelch and Lisa 5);

The company evidenced high price of product line and it has also decided to further increase and waiting to settle the financial crisis;

Other: Price of raw materials and high operating costs are also key problems for this company.

Opportunities

Expansion: The retail perfume market of US has evidenced the overall customers spending of US$ 5.7 billion, where FFCI serves 9.5% at the women’s segment and the company has opportunity to expand its business at men’s segment;

Target new customer: Although the company has strong customer base at the matured women segment, it has opportunities to address new customer segment at 18 – 24 year females;

The consulting group of Arlmont Associates demonstrated that the prestige image fragrances would be the best performers for the company;

The company has the opportunity to introduce new brands with its innovation and originality;

Strengthening the relationships with department store channels, it has scope to focus on drugstore expansion;

The company has huge scope to increase its profit by strengthening its media plan;

Threats

Economic Downturn: The impact of global financial crisis in the US economy is a dangerous threat for FFCI as the purchasing power of the customer has decreased dramatically;

Long-term Crisis: The bailout and recessionary package could not settle the recessionary economy if the crisis prolongs for the long-term that would be another hazard for the company;

Reducing sales at the high-end department stores carried enough threat for the company;

Postponement of launching new brands is another threat for the company;

Existing Competitors: Strong competitors like Depuis, Suzanne Weber, and Aromatique, those hold market shares ranging from 11.5% to 15.6% is another threat for FFCI;

Advertising Budget: The competitors have more advertising budget and suitable strategies than the FFCI;

New Entrant: There are also threats of new entrant in the market because Chinese and Japanese companies have enough opportunities to enter the US market and capture large market share.

Analysis of the Marketing Mix Product

The product mix of Flare Fragrance Company is the combination of product lines that the company individual offerings to its target market, as an experienced player of the US women’s perfume market, the company organized its product mix to address the actual needs of its customers. FFCI is the fourth largest manufacturer of women’s perfume with a huge variety of product lines that consist of six familiar brands along with bath soap, body lotion and shower gels, the products mix of FFCI is as follows-

Loveliest: – Loveliest is the umbrella brand of FFCI introduced in the market in 1975, with a thirty-five years life cycle it has gained strong demand among the US women over 35 years as their classic perfume linked with prestige, stylishness, elegance, and personality.

Awash: – The brand Awash had introduced 1996 as a real endeavor of FFCI to enter in the US fragrances market segment of younger demography paying keen attention to the health and green trends; in addition, the packaging of this brand has leveled the umbrella brand name ‘Loveliest’.

Summit, Essential and Swept Away: – The Summit came into the market in 1998 as a new product of FFCI while ‘Essential’ and ‘Swept Away’ were introduced in 2000 and 2003 respectively to meet the needs of beauty and health conscious women, this three brands also carries the sign of leveled the umbrella brand name ‘Loveliest’.

Natural: – this brand came in the market in 2006 to meet the needs the demand of environmentally conscious people; in addition, natural is the latest innovation of FFCI has special appeal to the younger demographic with remarkable success.

Other individual fragrances: – The Company has some other individual fragrances like soaps and shower gels those are packaged as gift box and this product persists with a stable customer base and contributes 7% of the annual revenue.

Price

Although FFCI classified its products into three classes based on price, but it has evidenced that the overall price of FFCI is enough high, nevertheless the research of Arlmont Associates confirmed that the prestige image fragrances would be the best performers for the company.

The premium brands are sold at US$ 70 per ounce bottle spray, the mid tire brands are priced at US$ 30 to 70 and the mass brands are sold at affordable price while the umbrella brand Loveliest is priced at US$ 32. It has evidenced that 93% of FFCI’s aggregate sales come from six premium brands and rest 7% revenue generates from other individual fragrances.

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Rather than overseas expansion FFCI emphasis, its operation in the home country United States and the company uses distribution channel like department stores, food, drug, and mass merchandisers and discount shops along with factory sales.

Premium Brands are available at majority of prestige department stores, gift stores, and the mid tire brands are distributed through mass, and discount department stores while the mass brands are sold through food, drug, and mass merchandisers.

The department stores like Saks, Macy’s, J.C. Penney and, later, Target, Wal-Mart, and Kohl’s are the remarkable points of sales where most of the fragrances of FFCI are available for retailing, at the same time the company has notable factory sales for different product lines.

For new product’s introduction, the company makes them available at the prestige department stores and following market respond, it supplies in the other channels; in this context, Arlmont report has suggested to make available its product line at drug stores.

Promotion

The company invests its promotional budget 70% to 80% for the Loveliest and 20% to 30% for other brands while the media focus is on television, print media, web, and other promotional activities.

Most of its advertising materials communicate with the different age segment of females touching their prestige, personality, and emotion, which is very effective to reach at the target segments of the society- women from 18 to 64 years old generate their greater willingness to purchase FFCI products.

The promotional budget of FFCI pointed to 19% of its aggregate sales revenue, while the competitors remarkably spends 23% of their sales revenue for promotion and the company has emergence to increase its spending in this regards.

Alternative Solutions Explanation of Scale: Each criterion was evaluated and given a score between one and five, with one being very unfavorable and five being highly favorable

Not sure if you can write a paper on Flare Fragrances Company Inc by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alternative Solutions: Restructuring Pricing Strategy and reducing operating costs

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness It would help Flare Fragrances Company creating the brand image in outside the US market 5 Aligns with vision In 2007, sales of the company have been increased by 12% while in 2008, this rate was only 2%; in this context, the sales revenue can be increased by changing this pricing strategy 4 Exploits core competency Flare Fragrances would need a longer period of time to regain its glorious position if it not implement this strategy 4 Competition Local competitors like Aromatique would launch new products with comparatively lower price to capture the market; 5 Creating loyal customer base Due to ongoing recession over 2008, the purchasing power of the customer had decreased. Therefore, the key purpose of this strategy is to create loyal customer base by maintaining both price-competitiveness and a prestige image 5 Financial risk Adopting this strategy has minimal financial risk, for instance, sales revenue can increase but net profit can decrease for several reasons. In addition, different agencies could impose fine for breaking competition law like the EU countries; 4 Short and long-term Growth rate It can meet both short and long-term growth in the US market 4 Think customer first This alternative solution meet the criteria of think customer first in the recessionary period 5 Total / 40 36 Alternative Solutions: Multimedia Marketing Campaign

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness Flare Fragrances Company has six leadership brands in the US markets; however, this company faced intense competition, as a result, the decision-marker should focus on IMC campaign to develop brand awareness; 5 Aligns with vision Since, Flare Fragrances intended to offer the best quality products, Multimedia Marketing Campaign would help the company to aware target customer regarding the product features with minimal costs 4 Exploits core competency Flare has already developed the product quality to avoid any controversy and Multimedia marketing campaign could give this message to the target customers 4 Competition This alternative solution will play vital role to gain competitive advantages over competitors, 4 Creating loyal customer base As competitors of the industry offer similar products with competitive price, it is difficult to say that IMC help creating large loyal customer base though it must increase sales revenue in global financial crisis 4 Financial risk Considering previous experience and total budge for the campaign Flare Fragrances, it can say that IMC campaign has no financial risks 4 Short and long-term Growth rate It would only meet short-term growth rate 3 Think customer first This alternative solution has focus on the customer’s need and aware them accordingly but this criteria do not concentrate on the concept of think customer first 4 Total / 40 32 Alternative Solution: Develop new product line

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness Flare Fragrances Company has already captured 10% share in the US market in terms of sales, but Depuis, Suzanne Weber lead the market with holding 11.5% to 15.6% share; so, alternative solution three need to implement to build new brand to increase sales 4 Aligns with vision This solution complied with the vision of the Flare 4 Exploits core competency It has addressed areas that can add value for GM automobile and further develop the world class experience 3 Competition As the industry is too competitive, this solution would help target all range of customers 3 Creating loyal customer base As Depuis and Suzanne Weber offer similar products at lower price, then it would be hard to create loyal customer base if it can attract customers 3 Financial risk Implementation of this strategy may create financial challenges in this recessionary period. In addition, Flare Fragrances may need to face lose from new segment 3 Short and long-term Growth rate It would be possible to expand market and sustain for long-time in some business zone 3.5 Think customer first As the prime intention of the company is to maximize profits, It is not meet the criteria of think customer first 3.5 Total / 40 27 Recommendation This report suggested that alternative solution one is the best solution considering the evaluation criteria, advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy; however, this solution would help Flare Fragrances Company to increase profit margin in global financial crisis.

Alternative solution two would help create short-term growth and alternative solution three would cause financial challenge, but first solution would be the most prominent strategy to increase sales revenue and become market leader in the US market within very short period.

Works Cited Quelch, John and Lisa Donovan. 2010, Flare Fragrances Company Inc.: Analyzing Growth Opportunities. PDF file. 23 April 2012. .

Footnotes 1 Flare Fragrances Company Inc.

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Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions Report essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction to the organization

Background

Information technology policy, innovative use, IT as an enabler

Information systems Architecture

Findings, analysis and discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction to the organization For any institution to work properly, it needs an information system set up. This is so because the company has to coordinate all the activities at a central point or on a distributed system that can be audited. Management information systems (MIS) are methods of using technology to help organizations manage people and make decisions efficiently.

Management information systems are used by managers to assemble and evaluate information about various aspects of the business such as employees, sales, accounts, production or other pertinent factors.

Every company needs to enumerate its employees. In this regard, it prompts it have a management information system in place. Previously, these companies used to have things like ledger books and books for logging into work. These traditional methods were so much flawed such that, it was difficult to recognize duplicates in the records. Sometimes the company would pay what is commonly known as ‘ghost workers’.

Ghost workers are nonexistent workers in the employees’ payroll but they do not exist physically. This means that the company remits wages or salaries to people who do not actually work in these institutions. The situation was very pathetic because a blacklisting mechanism was difficult to implement.

Another area where there was massive error was in the books of accounts. In most cases, large companies had problems of balancing books of accounts because the work was too much and it was done manually. Sometimes, there was demand for work to be shared among a group of accountants who may not accept responsibility of a mistake for example, in the balance sheet.

With the invention of personal computers and other information technology tools, the companies had to develop a proper information technology system that would handle the work of the organization and reduce the errors that were experienced previously. This paper takes a sample institution and tries to explore the management information system used in the company.

Background The Microsoft Corporation is a giant Software company that has major market share in the software industry especially in Operating systems and Office applications. The lines below explain the inception Microsoft Corporation in a nutshell. Thirty four years ago, a nineteen year old kid and his twenty-two year old business partner sold their first program to a little computer company in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The program was called BASIC, and it was the start of this company, Microsoft (“The History…”2012). The company and its Chief Executive officer saw a bright future in the software industry.

The management concentrated in the improvement of their products. With that in mind, they also thought of the idea of stealing knowledge and ideas. They raised the issue of piracy and patented the name Microsoft in order to safeguard identity.

Information technology policy, innovative use, IT as an enabler Having laid down the necessary ground for the growth of the company, Bill gates and his friend hired the first fulltime employee and concentrated on software development. Programming is the study of using defined sets of instructions known as programming software to create other software. Examples of programming languages used by Microsoft are COBOL, FORTRAN and Visual C .

The business of Microsoft became stronger as they ventured into the operating system software. In fact, “1981 means an entrance into the Operating Systems Business” (Sullivan 77). Microsoft developed its operating system which it called the Microsoft Windows OS.

This is a graphical user interface based operating system designed to enable computer users to use computers with ease. It also concentrated in the gaming and animation activities by collaborating with companies like Dream Works and Apple computers.

Information systems Architecture Microsoft is also popular in the offices because of three main things. These tools are the Microsoft Windows server, the cloud system and the office automation applications. The office automation packages include Excel, Word, Publisher, PowerPoint and others. Indeed, it is a giant organization because it sells its products to the whole world. It markets its products and services to more than seven billion inhabitants of the world.

Microsoft’s new ventures are the development of smart phones and operating systems of the smart phones. With this in mind, it is clear that Microsoft had to work on a robust management system that enables proper operation of the organization including hiring of staff.

We will write a custom Report on Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is clear that Microsoft was started by Bill Gates and his friend as the sole proprietors of the company. They hired casual employees and in 1978, they hired the first fulltime employee to the company. At this point in time, the company did not have departments. As the company grew bigger, there was need to separate the functions to each department.

For example, there was need to hire more talented employees to handle the enormous activities of the company thus, the need for the human resource department. There was a widened area of its market hence, the sales and marketing department was created. The fact that the company had to tussle with people who pirated its product, it led to the inception of the legal wing of Microsoft.

Obviously, all the departments had to report to the company owners who comprise of the top management and the board of directors. The company deals with Information and Technology Tools which in itself had to be used to make its operations automated, validated and licensed to reduce duplication of sold copies.

Findings, analysis and discussion The company is governed by a board of directors ready to work for the company and take it to greater heights. This is illustrated by the statement on their Microsoft’s site stating that anything they undertake to uphold their success and create value for their stakeholders and customers should be guided by long term thoughts.

“Good corporate governance encourages accountability and transparency, and promotes good decision making to support our business over decades” (IBM Agricultural Symposium 8).In the management of the company, the board of directors is the top decision maker.

The board of directors is elected by the shareholders. However, the decisions of the board of directors are independent of the management and are usually made to the best interest of the company.

The founder of the corporation Bill gates had a vision for all offices in the world and used his best skills in the development of software to automate the business and business transactions. Microsoft indeed has embraced technology in its management. From its model, it has been able to develop software to enable management in companies easier.

They use Office 360, Microsoft accounting essentials and project management tools to accomplish major operations in the company. Office 360 enables the interconnection of the corporation’s offices intertwined with the networking tools (both Local area and wide area networks).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The accounting essentials enable the company process its books of accounts and prepare reports for such transactions, while Microsoft project enables the company to make time tables for its software development activities.

By use of system analysis and design tools such as the Gantt and pert charts, Microsoft’s software development activities are accomplished within a specified time. Other technology tools employed by Microsoft are the use of databases, data encryption and decryption tools. These tools enable Microsoft to protect their work by hiding from potential violators of piracy laws.

Due to the use of the technology and Microsoft’s desire to protect its work, it is fair to look at the management system it uses to minimise piracy. One may ask how Microsoft implements this information management system in this department. The process is simple but first things first. Microsoft thought of a situation whereby, it would protect its customers from software counterfeit.

This idea was great however, implementation was a challenge. After great thinking and pondering about the idea, they came up with the genuine advantage system. Microelectronics in Agriculture – Facts and Trends (17) explains that, “Genuine Windows is published by Microsoft, properly licensed, and supported. With genuine Windows, you get access to support, updates, and downloads to help you get the most from your PC”.

They dubbed it genuine advantage because they need the customers to insist on buying genuine software so that they can be able to enjoy value added services from Microsoft such as free antivirus software.

The system is organised in a series of stages that help the customer to get the best out of Microsoft operating system. The first step is to teach the customers the importance of having genuine software from Microsoft Corporation through authorised dealers. Once the customer installs the software, it pops up an initial message asking him/her to validate the windows to ensure that it is genuine through the internet.

The customer then can be able to access the central database of Microsoft’s genuine copies of the software. The customer will decide to register his/her product so that he/she may get the value added services through the genuine advantage from Microsoft. This information management system is a robust system that can be able to handle data throughout the world without being hacked into and consequently inconveniencing the customer.

This enabled Microsoft to reduce counterfeiting and piracy. In a single line, the architecture could be to learn about Microsoft’s genuine software and its advantages, select the software wanted from an authorised dealer, install the software, and make the software genuine online. The advantage centre validates your software and start enjoying genuine software value added services from Microsoft.

The system employed is good; however, it has various shortcomings like not being able to use the software fully if you don’t have internet connection. There is also malicious corruption of data and the way data transmitted through internet browsers is possible to be classified as counterfeit because of the information browser send to the central database that may not march.

Conclusion In conclusion, the decision system is not well designed because there are communication barriers between the user and the corporation while the advantage of the system gets out of date so easily, reinstallation of software in the same system after crashing may be considered counterfeit, and customers incurring extra costs in internet connection.

To mitigate this, Microsoft should come up with a better information management system that is properly structured to avoid the hitches caused in the genuine advantage system.

Works Cited IBM Agricultural Symposium. Management Information Systems. Web.

Microelectronics in Agriculture. Facts and Trends Papers from International DLG – Congress for Computer Technology held in Hanover Germany. Web.

Sullivan, Laurie. Heavyweight Retailer Looks Inward to Stay Innovative in Business Technology. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing, 1998. Print.

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Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors Research Paper college application essay help

The goal of this paper is to provide a pest analysis of the contribution of technological factors toward the success of Ryan air. This analysis presents various external factors likely to hinder this airline company from normal operations. Expansion in technological factors has led into the adoption of online booking services in Ryan air.

Expansion of technology is performed with regard to the Porter’s five forces of competition because of the increased competition in the airline industry. To attain a competitive advantage, Ryan air operates a low cost approach. To attain the implicated competitive advantage and at the same time maintain low costs of operations, aircrafts in this company and designed and build by Boeing.

Technological factors Technology refers to the process implicated in changing the inputs of a company into outputs:

Technological factors for this company revolve around the fleet.

Ryan air’s fleet comprises of a collection of 735 aircrafts (Sheth 590).

These aircrafts are owned by the company contrary to other airlines that prefer to lease aircrafts.

Owning aircrafts as opposed to leasing ensures the capitalization of maintenance costs on the company’s balance sheet.

The company sources spare parts and various maintenance services with regard to economies of scale.

The importance of technological factors in enhancing the operations of Ryan air Expanding technology enables this company to attain new markets through the use of online booking.

These factors enable the company to earn a competitive advantage.

Identify mechanisms of reducing costs.

Aircraft maintenance services To enhance its commitment toward safety:

The company uses very qualified aircraft maintenance personnel.

Provides adequate training to aircraft maintenance personnel.

Adheres to European Union Industry standards.

Despite that the company wishes to enhance a cost-effective approach in the maintenance of its fleet, the top management of this company does not explore the low cost strategy with regard to aircraft maintenance.

The company acknowledges the use of very qualified personnel and a very effective quality assurance team for the supervision of aircraft maintenance services.

The company strictly adheres to the regulations of the European standards of aircraft maintenance alongside standards formulated in the European Aviation Safety Agency (Data monitor 1-3).

Besides forming part of the EASA with regard to 145/JAR, this airline is an approved contractor of aircraft maintenance services.

Most of the routine aircraft maintenance services are performed by the company itself.

In addition, the company conducts constant checks on its fleet.

The checks are performed before take-off and during transit at some of its major bases.

Most of the repair and aircraft maintenance services required when its aircrafts are within any of airports served by the company are offered with regard to the provisions of the Part 145/JAR 145.

These provisions cater for aircraft maintenance provision contracts.

Most of the company’s fleet return to its bases every evening for examination by qualified engineers.

In 2002 the company indicated plans to expand its aircraft in-house maintenance potential by developing two-bay hangar services in one of its bases in Glasgow (Davey 1-2). This facility was meant to enhance light C checks on its fleet. In 2003, the facility launched its operations. At the moment, this facility has been developed further to cater for A checks on the company’s 737-800 aircraft.

In addition, the facility can perform two light C-checks in a week (Alle and Schmitz 145). This enables the company to enhance in-house flight checks. However, the company does not have the full potential to conduct most of the heavy maintenance checks. This explains why it is considering the possibility of engaging service providers from Poland, Venezuela, and Turkey.

Current service providers on aircraft maintenance services contracted by Ryan Air To enhance the provision of adequate aircraft engine maintenance, Ryan air entered into a 10-year engine maintenance agreement with General Electric (GE).

The agreement was an inclusive aircraft maintenance contract involving engine overhaul and repair.

This contract was to cover repair and maintenance of CFM56-7 engines used in most of its Boeing aircrafts, especially the 737-800 fleets.

This agreement was geared at enhancing partnership between GE and Ryan air for the purpose of promoting a wide access to quality aircraft engine maintenance at relatively reduced costs.

Aircraft maintenance services in Venezuela The aviation industry in Venezuela has undergone rapid expansion with numerous aircraft maintenance providers. Among the major service providers are Elite Air Services. This company offers;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cargo and commercial passenger aircraft maintenance services.

Other services offered by this service provider include

Provision of Marshall Procedures.

Corrective procedures for maintaining aircraft parts.

Aircraft quality assurance inspection

Routine servicing of aircraft

Trains and offers skilled personnel to help the flight crew.

Additional services include

Inspecting fuel appliances.

Fuelling and defueling of planes.

Aircraft manual revisions.

Aircraft maintenance services in Turkey

There are two major aircraft maintenance facilities at Ankara Guvercinlik airport.

The first hangar facility is located between Sefakoy and Yesilkoy (Jiang 431).

Unlike, Poland, and Venezuela, Turkey has a long history of aircraft maintenance.

The maintenance services offered in Turkey are diversified and can accommodate different types of aircrafts.

The maintenance services in Turkey have been approved by the Joint Aviation Association.

This association established the compliance of the aircraft maintenance services in Turkey to stipulated regulations.

The Turkish airline received a certificate of compliance to the Joint aviation regulations in 1996 and is authorized to provide international aircraft maintenance services.

Aircraft Maintenance Services in Poland

Most of the airline maintenance services in Poland are provided by both state and private service providers.

Among major service providers are ARP, a state owned corporation that has acquired most shares in nearly all aircraft maintenance service companies.

Aircraft maintenance service provision in this region is not very developed and offers limited international services.

Conclusion Aircraft maintenance is an essential determinant of flight safety, which adds on to determine the competitive advantage of an airline company. This possibly explains why Ryan air is willing to invest heavily in aircraft maintenance despite operating a low cost approach in its major service provision. The choice of this company to invest in Boeing aircrafts is an added advantage with regard to enhancing the competitive advantage.

To foster the safety of passengers and the durability of its aircrafts, the company uses its highly qualified aircraft maintenance personnel to perform in-house checks. In addition, the company has also outsourced services of other companies, such as GE to perform major engine checks.

The choice of an appropriate service provider will enhance safety and quality service provision. Considering, Venezuela, Poland, and Turkey, the later has a better range of aircraft maintenance services to offer.

Works Cited Alle, Michael, and William Schmitz. “Ryanair plc.” Séminaire d’elaboration d’un Business Plan 2004: 1-45. Print.

Data Monitor. Ryan air holdings plc. Data Monitor Europe: London, 2008. Print.

Davey, Jenny. “Ryanair has earned its wings – investors should set autopilot.” The Times, 6 January 2006:1. Print.

Jiang, Hudson. “Competitive strategy for low-cost airlines.” Asia Pacific Management Conference 13.1 (2007): 431-436. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sheth, John. “The future of relationship marketing.” Journal of Services Marketing 16.7 (2002): 590-592. Print.

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Normal Communication Culture and Deaf Communication Culture Compare and Contrast Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Culture is how human beings relate with each other, how they express themselves in the context of relating with others. Through culture, individuals form a group, and identify themselves as unique and in unity with each other. One distinct value that makes up the deaf culture is the ‘deaf pride’.

Deaf people do not consider themselves disabled, instead they demand for fairness, equality and they are proud of their language. Deaf culture therefore is the tradition, social belief, behavior, history and institution of communities that use sign language as a major mode of communication because of their inability to communicate verbally. Deaf culture has mainly been obtained from schools which deal with deaf students only.

The main barrier that divides hearing people from the deaf is communication, which hinders interaction between people. For the deaf, they do not accept that they are handicapped, and for this reason they make sure that they remain independent, and that they work towards making it in the world. They encourage each other, build confidence among themselves, and ensure that they do not get discouraged.

The deaf are very straightforward in the way they communicate with each other, unlike those who hear, they appear rude because of this directness. Hearing people try to cover the truth by not highlighting the real meaning, this brings confusion in communication.

Since the deaf use the sign language, they tend to read the body language first, and get the true meaning of communication even if the words do not rhyme with the body language.

Deaf communication language is basically visual, that is, gesture based which involves; body movements, gestures, facial expression and hand shapes. The hearing people on the other hand depend on; tone variation, sound, information, volume and sometimes on expressions and body language.

Deaf music is different from the one that hearing people listen to. It is beat-based and it consists of timing, coordination and flow. The hearing music consists of melody, harmony and rhythm. The deaf organize themselves in cliques and they find it hard to allow anybody in their clique. The hearing individuals accept each other so long as they do not violate the rights of the group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deaf are slightly slower in learning compared to the hearing people; this is because of the concepts used in teaching them, especially when the concept is abstract. In terms of thinking, they do it differently from the normal communication people; they have to involve visual concepts. It is really hard to handle deaf students as compared to the hearing students.

Most trained students fall out of colleges because they find it hard to study the sign language. A trained person should be a link between the two worlds, which means that he should be able to understand English and be able to interpret it to the sign language.

Dealing with deaf people requires one to be knowledgeable about the deaf culture. The major area is that of communicating with them. When talking to a deaf person, one is not supposed to bend so low to the deaf person, because they get irritated and it also makes communication difficult.

When talking to a deaf person, one should be at a good position, visible and should also have good lighting so as to allow the deaf person to view every move they make clearly. In a forum where a group is involved in a communication, one person should talk at a time. If it is a board, it is important to distribute the agenda to every member of the group.

In a situation where you want their attention, you should touch the hand or tap their shoulders. If they are closer to you or in a gathering, you should use flash lights. Also, when talking to a deaf person, one needs to be patient with them, this is because they take time to conceptualize a certain sign in a given time period.

We should also minimize the wrongs that we do to them so as to reduce their anger. This may lower their esteem, which may affect their struggle in making it in the world, and also in their progress towards being self reliant.

It is very important for the normal people to study deaf culture so as to boost the interaction between the two groups. For instance, in a case of emergency, one should be able to alert all the people including the deaf effectively by learning the various signs that fit particular situations.

We will write a custom Essay on Normal Communication Culture and Deaf Communication Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important for the hearing parents to know about deaf culture, so that incase they give birth to deaf children or their children become deaf after some time in life, then, they are aware of what they ought to do. Sometimes deaf children fail to get access to appropriate education for the deaf because their parents have no idea of what most educational institutions have to offer.

In most countries, education is freely given to the deaf children. It is also important to be aware of the deaf culture so as to promote communication between the deaf and the hearing people, hence ensuring that the deaf are able to participate in similar activities with those that hear. Since the deaf do not admit that they have a disability, it means they have the capability of performing like the rest.

Thus, we need to consider them as normal human beings and distribute opportunities to them without looking at them as unable to produce desirable results. They are capable people who need support and encouragement for them to stand for themselves.

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Impact of philosopher to the educational process and purpose Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Progressivism

Constructivism

References

Introduction Pragmatism education philosophy marks a point of demarcation. This point is from the authorities based on realism and idealism. Also, they are in relation to educational philosophies, which include perennialism, essentialism, and scholasticism. The early child-centered curricula had an approach on the needs, interests, and prior learning of the child.

This great movement in education was made successful by the progressive movement in society. Progressivism is the one that expresses pragmatism in a nice educational manner. The progressive movement in education has a main goal on how to improve the society. Constructivism is a theory that states that through reflecting people’s experiences, there is the construction of the world in which they live.

Both the Progressivism and constructivism are theories that have differences. However, they both accept the idea that the world is changing. Darwinian Theory is the one that had a strong influence on this idea. (Hickman, 2009). Hence, improving the world’s society.

Progressivism This educational theory consisted of educators and education reformers. They changed the foundation of education by using its procedures. Kilpatrick was devoted to teaching. He held many positions in educational institutions like he was a professor of philosophy of education at the Columbia Teachers College. He advocated a curriculum that did not separate teachers and students.

However, he did not prove that teachers and student were equal in understanding. Instead, he meant that students needed to understand that teachers were their advocates. The idea that schools in democratic societies and school institutions were democratic did not come from him.

He did the encouraging of problem solving activities, flexibility in curriculum design, cooperative learning and learning based on experience. He stressed on the idea of the teachers understanding a child. This helped a child feel appreciated and is able to express what they know to the rest of the children in the school compound. The child then improves.

Constructivism This educational theory is based on internal structures of learners. This is a method of learning that is very strong. This is because they help learners or students understand the world and put new experiences into practice in their prior learning. In connection to education, almost all constructivists’ procedures in learning originate from Dewey.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, for constructivism to be acceptable, the belief on the general skills occur independently and naturally in the minds of human beings ought to be rejected. Constructivism theory states that individuals construct their own understanding through interaction with what they already know together with the new ideas and experiences they encounter.

By the end of the day, learners are able to make decisions instead of depending on their teachers (Wadsworth, 2004).Over the years, Jean Piaget developed the theory on how minds develop by a number of stages. Piaget, who was a philosopher of education, stated there are four stages of development.

They include the sensorimotor-based on physical development of a child, preoperational stage- language learning development, concrete operational stage; this is where a child learns to satisfy objects according to their differences and similarities, and the formal operational stage which is characterized by logical thinking.

Piaget insists on the point that a child does not skip any of the stages. These stages are supported by education in their schools.

References Hickman, L. A.,

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Country report: Brazil vs. China Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Political and legal systems

Economic systems

Society and business culture

Managing practices in Brazil

Implications made

Reference List

Political and legal systems Brazil operates a political system which is headed by an elected president who is the head of the chief executive branch of the government and the state (Brasil.gov.br, 2010). The Brazilian federal government is divided in 3 major powers which are coordinated harmoniously and independently. They are the executive, the legislature, and the Judiciary powers. All these bodies have different power within the government.

Politically, Brazil is a multiparty state implying that several parties are constitutionally and legally accepted. The country has been considered as a Presidentialist Federative Republic which is composed of the states, federal government and municipalities (Brasil.gov.br, 2010).

Different independent and distinct bodies are assigned with the power and a control system which ensures that constitution and laws are enforced (Brasil.gov.br, 2010).

The People Republic of China uses a socialists system which is an alliance of farmers and workers but led by the working class (China Internet Information Center n.d). In addition, the PRC operates under the Communist Party of China which leads the people’s way of life.

According to the Chinese constitution, all the power of the country belongs to the people and is exercised through the local people congress and the national People’s Congress (China Internet Information Center n.d).

In other words, the people have the power to manage the economy, state, and culture among other social affairs. The Nation is governed through the rule of the law and all people are equal to the law. Democratic centralism acts the organizational principle which harmonies and controls the state organs (China Internet Information Center n.d).

Economic systems Although china is ranked as a developing nation, it has emerged to be one of the nations with an increasing and stable GDP growth rate. China GDP has been increasing over the years and just like Brazil, the nation was not adversely affected by the 2008 financial market crisis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 2011, China had a GDP of 9.2% which has been seen as a major economic growth given that most economies in 2011 were still recovering from the 2008 economic shock (CIA 2012a). Unlike other markets in the world, the exchange rate of china is determined by fiat instead of the market forces.

Through economic stimulus, China has been able to experience an economic growth which has surpassed other developing nations in the region. In Asia, China is the largest economy outdoing economies of developed countries like Japan.

Brazil is the 8th largest economy in the world and the economic hub of South America. Its economy has undergone great changes over the years thus providing a good environment for conducting business. Just like China, Brazil is categorized as a developing nation despite its growth in economy. In 2011, Brazil experienced a GDP growth rate of 2.7% (CIA 2012).

The nation depends heavily on agricultural exports while the service sector has been able to develop the country’s economy. With a population of over 200 million people and unemployment rate of 4.7%, the economy has been described as stable one for business investments (CIA 2012).

Accordingly, Brazil has the highest interest rates which make it more attractive to business investors. In addition, the country was not hit hard by the global financial market crisis in September 2008.

Society and business culture Brazil has a strong and diversified culture which results from the fusion of the many ethnic groups such as the indigenous, African and South Americans (Veras

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Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

As a result of the 2008/2009 economic crisis, different countries are increasingly using monetary policies in an effort to stimulate their economic growth. One of the monetary policy tools being used is the cash rate which is the rate of interest that financial institutions charge to lend funds (Marthinsen, 2012, p. 202).

The Reserve Bank of Australia is one of the central banks which have adjusted the cash rate severally. In November 2011, RBA’s board lowered the official interest rate by 25 basis points to 4.25% (Reserve Bank of Australia, 2012, para.1). By adjusting the cash rate downwards, the central/reserve banks expect commercial banks to respond by adjusting their lending rate similarly and with the same margin.

This paper is aimed at evaluating situations of similar changes with specific reference to lending cuts undertaken by central/federal in other countries over the last year.

The paper has considered three countries which include Turkey, India and China. The report specifically focuses on cuts undertaken on the lending rate. Other roles performed by the central/reserve banks in an effort to promote economic stability are not considered.

China, India and Turkey are amongst the countries which have cut their lending rate over the last one year. For example, the Reserve Bank of India lowered the short term lending rate with a margin of 0.5% to 8% (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 1).

The decision by the RBI was motivated by the need to stimulate the country’s economic growth by lowering the rate of inflation. Findings of a study conducted by the RBI revealed that the country’s economic growth had slowed considerably in 2011 compared to the previous year.

In 2011, India experienced an increment in the rate of inflation which was fueled by increment in the price of commodities such as food and fuel (Ro, 2011, para.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, from December 2011, India has experienced a significant decline in the rate of inflation as a result of the cut in the lending rate (Daily News, 2012, para. 3). This has arisen from the fact that cutting the lending rate is reviving investment and hence promoting employment (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 2).

Despite the measure taken by the RBI, some of the public and private-owned banks such as the State Bank of India are not willing to cut the lending rate sooner. These banks argue that they are experiencing narrow profit margins, threat of increased bad debts and high-cost of long term deposits (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 2).

As a result, they are not willing to follow RBI’s direction. Additionally, these banks argue that the tight cash conditions are making the deposits remain high thus preventing them from lowering their interest rate.

Similarly, from October 2011, Turkey reduced its overnight loans lending rate from 12.5% to 11.5%. Additionally, Turkey’s central bank also lowered its repo rate to 12%. The decision to lower the interest rate arose from an increment in the rate of inflation and currency deterioration.

Over the past year, the Turkish central bank has been reducing its lending rate. For example, from January 2012, the lending rate has been 7.5%. This has significantly enhanced the country’s economic growth despite the economic slowdown being experienced in Europe. Additionally, the cut in the lending rate is expected to enable country attain its 4% rate of economic growth during 2012 (Perker, 2012, para.1-3).

As a result of the previous economic meltdown both in the United States and the Euro zone, the People’s Bank of China resolved that it would reduce its interest rate with a margin of 25 basis points in order to revive the country’s economic growth. The Central Bank of China intended to achieve this by lowering the cash reserve ratio with a margin of 50 basis points.

The central bank intends to reduce the rate of interest from 6.56% to 6.06% during 2012. The downward adjustment in the rate of interest is expected to result into a decline in the rate of inflation during the 1st half of the country’s fiscal year (Financial Times, 2012, para. 1-4).

We will write a custom Essay on Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In summary, it is evident that a number of governments have incorporated monetary policies in their effort to stimulate their country’s economic growth. One of the monetary policy tools that they have incorporated entails open market operations which entail adjusting the lending rate. Turkey, China and India are some of the countries which have implemented this monetary policy.

As a result, they have successfully reduced their country’s rate of inflation. However, the effectiveness of this monetary policy in promoting economic efforts is limited by resistance by the commercial banks to cut the lending rate. Therefore, it is paramount of central banks to make it compulsory for commercial banks to cut their lending rate with the same margin that they reduce the interbank lending rate.

Reference List Daily News, 2012, Indian central bank cuts key interest rates. Web.

Financial Times, 2012, People’s Bank of China may cut interest rates this year to boost growth. Web.

Marthinsen, J, 2011, Managing in a global economy: Demystifying international macroeconomics, Cengage, New York.

Perker, E, 2012, Turkish central bank unexpectedly cuts upper lending rates: Yields slide. Web.

Ro, S, 2011, Indian central bank raises interest rates and cuts GDP growth forecast. Web.

Reserve Bank of Australia, 2012, About financial stability. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Economic Times, 2012, RBI cuts lending rate to prop economy: Home, auto, and corporate loans to become cheaper. Web.

The Times of India, 2012, State bank of India may not cut lending rates soon: Chairman. Web.

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People Management: Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India LTD Proposal college essay help near me

Table of Contents Summary of the Case Study

Analysis of the Case Study of HMSI

Lessons from the Case Study

Reference List

Summary of the Case Study This is a comprehensive case study which clearly explains historical, human resource management issues in the company – HMSI. HMSI carried out its management functions by basing on the two key beliefs. These beliefs are the respect for differences of individual labourers and what the company termed as the “three joys”. The company aimed at using these tools for promoting all its members.

Just like many other firms that are managed through the modern human resource management principles, HMSI also carried out performance appraisals on its employees. Workers were graded basing on a certain grade after which they were rewarded according to the respective grade scored. The study also explains the development of unionization activities in the company.

These activities emerged because of the differences between the employees and management as regarding the human resource policies and implementation. The union activities took a long course. They resulted in attempts to use dispute resolution methods like reconciliation to resolve the problems. However, some of these problems escalated to violent confrontation.

This forced the intervention of the government to stop the violence and provide a strong foundation on which a mutual agreement was built.

The study explained how the unions and management of the company adapted and coped after the agreement of stopping hostility between employees and management of HSMI was reached. Finally, the study discusses the lessons that were learnt by the company and how it can utilize these lessons as it focuses on the future management.

Analysis of the Case Study of HMSI Company data, history and records; are distinguished when it comes to betterment of the existing human resource management policies (Malonis, 2000). This study gives a deep insight of the management activities in HIMSI since its inception. When a firm faces challenges, the management should make decisions which will help in sorting out the constraint facing the firm.

The decisions that are made need to be well thought and widely consultative; otherwise, they are likely to cause more friction in the organization. Any change in an organization must be followed by restructuring decisions to aid in enforcing it. A clear example is the decisions that were made by the president of HMSI in the year 2005 when the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The president wanted to see the company embarking on an expansion program that was a bit aggressive which could see the company regains its operation as was before the constraints (Saini, Management Development Institute (Gurgaon), and University of Hong Kong, 2006).

Confrontation in organizations can be as a result of the failure to attend to the seemingly small grievances which later escalate to crises. One of the major functions of the management of companies is the identification of issues from either within or without the company which can result to divisive conflict in the organization.

Crisis results in the loss of productivity (Moffitt, Bordone and Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, 2005). The 2005 conflicts in HMSI resulted in the loss of sales of up to 1.3 million Rupees (Saini, Management Development Institute (Gurgaon), and University of Hong Kong, 2006).

More often than not, restructuring is used to regain the image and the grounds of the organization more so in the aftermath of a crisis. Restructuring aims at having a total overhaul of the organization by changing a number of operations and organizational identities for instance changing the name, logo, packaging and branding of products among many other strategies.

As mentioned earlier, the restructuring strategies must be systemic and deliberated on by the entire organization. Failure of doing so by the management is likely to escalate the problem already at hand (Armstrong, 2006).

The management of firms increasingly understand the need to expand the operational capacity of their firms by expanding into new operational areas by way of opening subsidiary firms. HMSI began its operations in the year 1999 as a subsidiary firm of the Honda Motor Company Limited which is headquartered in Japan. The subsidiary firms often operate basing on the operational principles of their mother companies.

As part of its expansion programme, HMCL has opened more than 130 firms across the world HMSI being one of these firms. Performance appraisal has become an integral part of managing employees in organizations.

We will write a custom Proposal on People Management: Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India LTD specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is one way of making employees feel appreciated by the company for their efforts. HMSI recognized the need for this and put in place such a system. However, this system had its own flaws which mostly resulted from the way it was implemented (Armstrong, 2006).

Lessons from the Case Study Most management of companies come up with different initiatives, which aim at improving the performance of their organizations. With the realization that workers are often the most significant assets for firms, the initiatives of management mostly centre on workers. When workers are satisfied with the organization, they raise their input, which automatically spills over to the general output of the firm.

However, all human resource initiatives in organizations must be employee centred. The employees must be actively engaged and or involved in formulating these policies or initiatives as these initiatives directly affect them (Robert, 2011).

Failure to engage employees in the plans of the organization is likely to have grave consequences in the organization just as was the case with HMSI management and its employees. Before a performance appraisal programme is run by the organization, employees must be notified and trained on the assessment procedures and the importance of such a programme.

Most modern labour laws allow employees to join labour unions. These unions act as tools of negotiation with the management of organizations. Organizations must recognize these unions and formulate proper channels of negotiating with these unions in order to avoid bitter confrontations (Robert, 2011).

Dispute resolution has thus become a vital part of the function of management. Organizations, with the aim of surviving in the competitive industry must be aware of this. They must craft exhaustive channels of resolving disputes with their employees.

Communication is a vital entity for the management of firms especially so the subsidiaries. Cultural noise can negatively hinder the performance of a firm in the country where it is located because of cultural disparities that come in between communication.

Thus, it is important for the company staff to receive mentorship on the culture of the business destination. The company will have to consider this as it expands into new destinations globally (Marieke

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Product Innovation in Business Organizations Report best essay help

Product innovation in a business organization requires team work. Product innovation is a project, which requires different team members to play different roles. The organization of the team and communication among team members during innovation is crucial to the success of the team. Effective organization requires that team members with the most suitable skills to work on the innovation project be selected.

The teams should also be multi-disciplinary in nature incorporating members from operation department, technical marketing and sales. Members from these various disciplines are required to cooperate when working as a team in order to eliminate communication barrier that may be brought by conflict of interest.

The innovation team is supposed to work on the project from its initiation to the end and remain accountable. The project should also have a leader who will be responsible for the implementation of the ideas behind the project, and project teams should accountable for the outcome of the project.

However, for the project to succeed, the project team should have an effective communication system. An effective communication system can be realized through a centralized information sharing system. This helps multiple teams work simultaneously on the same idea even if they are at different locations.

To ensure that the product teams are communicating well, a business organization should make sure that the information received by product teams are relevant to the current project they are working on and in harmony with the decisions of the organization. Effective communication among product teams also requires that the information passed to the product team to be accurate especially with regard to the potential cost of the project.

Product development teams should, therefore, not be supplied with information outside their area of interest because this has the potential distorting the decision process. Effective communication among product teams also requires that these teams should be provided with exhaustive information, especially during the initial stages of product development.

Good communication in product development teams also requires that the business organization to ensure communication and collaboration between the firm and its customers. This is because new products in a company are normally developed on behalf of the customers. Prototyping is another method that can be used to ensure the product teams communicate well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prototyping refers to the process of representing the product being developed. Prototypes enable communication between product designers in an organization and consumers. This ensures that the product design team accurately captures the needs of customers in their design to avoid rejection of the product after it is complete.

Another important characteristic of shared information system is that this system needs to be cost effective in order to enable easy communication among product development teams. The communication system used by product development team should also be efficient when it comes to gathering information.

Shared information systems enable product development teams to make accurate decisions by providing analysis tools and information models. A good information sharing system also reduces risks by enable efficient risks assessment based on the information gathered.

Teamwork in product development that is integrated with effective communication has the potential of encouraging constant innovation in a company through product development. Basically, a shared information system should be in a position to supply relevant information, minimize risks, and ensure the objective of the product development teams is met.

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Business and economics: The organic food sector Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Trends in the sector The organic food sector has grown tremendously in the last two decades. This is attributable to various factors such as the changing dietary habits among the masses. The change has resulted in an increased demand for organic food. Studies have linked several cancerous ailments to the consumption of genetically modified food (GMF).

Fear among the masses has resulted in a significant proportion of the people reverting to organic food. This has driven the demand for organic food upwards over the last two decades. Companies that deal with such products have experienced relentless growth in demand for their merchandise. This trend is expected to persist as the public becomes aware of the nutrition value of organic food stuffs.

Entities in this sector will raise customers’ awareness on the nature of their commodities. Raising awareness that their commodities are organic will resonate well with their potential clientele. Overall, entities in this sector will market their commodities on the basis that they are organic. Thus, they possess more nutritive value than inorganic products (Dunn-Georgiou 34).

Porter’s model The increase in demand has resulted in a robust organic food industry. Growth of the organic food industry has various implications on the firms or entities that operate in it (Dimitri and Greene 7). Michael Porter’s model seeks to analyse how various factors impact on an organization’s future.

These environmental factors include rivalry among firms in the sector, entry of new firms, the bargaining ability of the clientele, the bargaining capability of the suppliers and the threat posed by substitute commodities. The lucrative nature of this industry has attracted new investors (new entrants). New entrants are a threat to entities in the organic food industry.

Firms can bar new entrants by raising the cost of entry into the sector. Nevertheless, there are no such costs that may prevent entry of new firms. Subsequently, new organizations have become a real threat to companies in the organic food sector. The entry of new firms has increased the number of players involved in the sector. This has bred rivalry.

Rival companies spend funds as they pursue dominance in a sector or guard their market segment. The rivalry may translate to slashing of prices to unsustainable levels. Such a strategy will result in the powerfulentity driving weaker firms out of business. Though such a strategy is unethical, it is utilised by entities seeking a monopolistic status.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once an entity attains a monopolistic status, it is always a threat to other smaller firms. Another threat to firms in this sector is their clients. If customers have a bargaining capability over the companies, entities in this sector will have to lower prices.

This will result in lower revenues for firms in this sector. Lower revenues lead to reduced profitability for firms and investors. If such a trend persists, many firms or investors may pull out of the sector.

Suppliers are a vital component in any industry. They provide inputs that entities in this sector process for sale to clients. They pose a certain threat to organizations in this sector. If the suppliers’ bargaining capacityrises, they will charge more for their inputs. This will have several implications on the firms that operate in this sector. These firms will encounter higher costs of operations.

Hence, diminishing the profitability margin. Reduction in the profitability margin will trigger closure of entities that cannot break even. The final threat to firms in this sector is substitute goods. These are commodities that will deliver the same nutritional value as the food produced by the organic firms.

Commodities produced by entities in this sector are unique. Hence, substitute goods pose no real threat to entities that operate in this sector (Willerand Sorensen 65).

Creating a competitive advantage SWOT

The key strength of this sector is that it has created a unique niche, which non-organic food companies cannot take over. The market segment created by the organic food sector has been expanding rapidly. The expansion implies that the purchaser is informed of the kind of commodities sold by firms in this sector. This market segment has a massive potential as indicated by the statistics.

However, it will require the industry players to create awareness among the potential clientele. The masses are more willing to try out organic products owing to the effects of GMF. This presents a key opportunity for the industry. The firms in this sector should exploit this opportunity through advertising that creates awareness on the nutritional value of their products and absence of side effects.

We will write a custom Assessment on Business and economics: The organic food sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This industry also has weaknesses. The products sold in this sector require a lengthy time to grow while some are seasonal. This hinders all-year production, which is common in inorganic products. Finally, advertisements to dismiss the nutritional value of organic products may pose a serious threat to the success of firms in this sector (Milbrodt 132).

Based on the SWOT analysis, this industry’s competitive advantage lies in creating customer awareness on the nutritional value of organic products. Creating awareness will require elaborate promotions, which targetthe clients that are likely to shift their preferences based on timely promotions.

Works Cited Dimitri, Carolyn and Catherine Greene. Recent Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organic Foods Market. Washington D.C: Economic Research Service, 2002. Print.

Dunn-Georgiou, Elisha. Everything You Need to Know About Organic Foods. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing, 2002. Print.

Milbrodt, Carola. Organic Food Industry in China – Current State and Future Prospects. Muchen: Verlag Grin, 2005. Print.

Porter, Stanley and Jason Robinson. Hermeneutics: An Introduction to Interpretive Theory. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans, 2011. Print.

Willer, Helga and Neil Sorensen.The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2008. New York, NY: Earth Scan Publishing, 2008. Print.

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Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death Compare and Contrast Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay”

Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”

Theme and Treatment

Symbolism and Paradox

References

Robert Frost’s poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” and Emily Dickinson’s poem “Because I could not stop for Death,” abound in symbolism that depicts temporality of life. The time bound existence of all things is expressed through metaphoric symbolism in both the poems.

Dickinson presents this idea of temporality by personifying Death as a guard of worldly life and Frost presents nature in his distinctive style of a synecdochist to demonstrate how time changes everything.

Frost on one hand believes in mortality while Dickinson reestablishes her belief on death and immortality. The poems are similar in their belief that everything in life ends with time, however, Frost does not confirm to Dickinson’s idea of immortality.

This essay compares and contrasts the two poems to demonstrate the similarity in its theme of temporality but difference in stylistic and poetic content. In other words, the aim of the paper is to trace the similarities and differences of symbolism and temporality found in the two poems.

Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay” First published in 1923, “Nothing Can Stay Gold” is a unique example of a short poem. This poem is just eight lines long and the diction is extremely simple. It is written in trimester lines that add to the poem’s extreme brevity and stylistic lyricism. The poem is usually categorized as a nature poem, and is full of paradoxical symbolisms.

The central theme of the poem is temporality and change. Frost recurrently emphasizes on the fact that things initially may seem vibrant but with time fades into oblivion. Therefore, the question of temporality or transience is central to the theme of this eight-lined poem. A line-by-line explication of the poem reveals that Frost has filled it with paradoxes that symbolize the central theme of the poem.

The very first line of the poem, “Nature’s first green is gold” shows that the paradox of life and death in nature. Green is the first color of spring that assures us of life; however, one may have observed that the very first color that nature bears is not green but a haze of golden yellow. Here Frost does not mean wealth by use of the word “gold,” rather uses it as a color.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Here the reface is again to the very first inception of life in spring when the color of green is not rich viridian but a light golden shade, which appears to be yellow. However, the first golden leaves of spring are awfully short-lived and changes to other shades. In the second couplet, Frost reinforces on another paradoxical observation of nature to demonstrate that the fading away of its initial beauty.

The second couplet describes the “early leafs a flower,” which describes when the leaves bloom out of the stem, curled against each other, shaped like a flower. This demonstrates the leaf’s early life is as beautiful as that of a flower.

However, they grow, as Frost says in, “only so an hour” and are transformed into their flattened shapes. The symbolism of the core idea of the poem is demonstrated with “gold”, “early leaf”, “flower”, “Eden”, and “dawn” . The poem, through its paradoxical imageries, presents the paradox of death in life.

The poem recounts the truth of life i.e. all things eventually ends; it narrates the development and failure, and birth and death in life. The emergence of the eventuality of Fall in the poem is explicitly symbolized with words like “sank” and “goes down”. The transience in life is emphasized and reemphasized in the poem.

The temporality of all things beautiful takes a bigger character when Frost writes about Adam and Eve in paradise and their eventual fall. Thus, he writes, “So Eden sank to grief” . This too symbolizes a transition as was done in case of a golden leaf transforming into a green leaf. Therefore, the paradoxes are juxtaposed against contrasting ideas to demonstrate a different anthology of life.

This emphasizes on the cycle of life, which moves and never stops. The poem ricochets in a sense of the demise, a fall that is abundantly found in nature. The eventual fall is the norm, the rule, the inherent order of nature that is metaphorically expressed in the poem .

Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” One of the most famous anthologies by Emily Dickinson, “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” expresses the same theme of change as observed in Frost’s poem. A summary of the poem recounts that Death dressed as a gentleman suitor takes the narrator for a ride in his horse drawn carriage.

We will write a custom Essay on Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narrator appears relaxed with the presence of Death as they pass towns, schools, and other signs of humanity at an extremely relaxed pace. However, the poet intentionally juxtaposes such beautiful sites with the chilly dusk that evolves in the next stanza.

The narrator finds herself completely underdressed for the chill of the evening their journey ends at the burial stand where she was to be buried and in the final stanza, the anti-climax of the poem emerges when we come to know that the narrator has been dead for centuries and this rendezvous with death took place a long time back.

The final line of the poem demonstrates Dickinson’s belief in afterlife and reemphasizes that the horse’s head was a pointer towards an eternal life after death.

The central theme of the poem is change, which is found at its very core, and is symbolically demonstrated through a journey that ends abruptly with the cyclical nature of the movement of time: “We passed the setting sun … He passed us” . The change in the setting of the poem explicitly demonstrates in the alteration of the description from a pleasant ride through the afternoon to the “quivering and chill” symbolizing death.

The finiteness of life is expressed repeatedly in Dickinson’s poem demonstrating the transience and temporality of life. The cyclical nature of life demonstrated through the rising and setting of the sun and journey from a happy afternoon to the chill of the evening transforms the poem from a traditional journey-through- life poem, to a more complicated poem demonstrating the temporality and eventuality of life:

“Since then –‘tis centuries – and yet

Feels shorted than the day

I first surmised the horses heads

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Were toward eternity”

The paradox in the poem is the belief that Dickinson asserts, which is inevitability of death, but it is only through death, one can achieve immortality. The poem is more astounding as it gives a mere glimpse into the experience of death rather than providing an exploration of an idea of death.

The poem is rich with symbolism, as one of the main characters of the poem is Death (a personification of death) and Immortality (as another passenger in the carriage). The main theme of the poem is that life is a steady journey towards the eternal eventuality brought by death. This temporality and transience of life is reverberated through the poem.

Theme and Treatment The summary of the two poems presented at the beginning of the essay shows that the main theme of the two poems are similar i.e. temporality of life. Both Frost and Dickinson strive to present similar ideas of the eventuality of life. The temporal nature of all things beautiful is explicitly presented through both the poems.

In Frost’s poem, every line reflects the sentiment expressed in the final line “Nothing gold can stay”. Frost presents the idea of entropy in his poem, which dictates that all things deteriorate over time and thus moves from order to chaos. Therefore, all living things are destined to fatality and nothing remains eternally.

On the other hand, he presents the idea of cyclical movement of life as we see in nature. Life comes to full blossom in spring and then through the course of the year sheds its colors in autumn. Nevertheless, life returns to full glory in the next spring, repeating the cycle. Therefore, Frost uses the imagery of the natural process, as he describes in his poem, to reveal the real theme of transience and temporality.

Frost’s style in the poem is that of a photographer. He captures every image of nature to its precision – the golden leafs and the leaf flowers at birth. However, he recreates his photographs in paints of eventuality. The poem is a juxtaposition of the idea of life and death presented with the artistic ability of a painter to paint an image.

On the other hand, Dickinson’s poem speaks of immortality discoursed through the same course of transience. Life, as portrayed by Dickinson in “Because I could not wait for death,” presents the same temporality as portrayed by Frost. Human life is mutable and eventually embraces death.

But in the end, Frost looks at life that reoccurs through a perennial cycle of birth and death, while Dickinson moves towards a more permanent end by embracing immortality through death. Both the poets believe in deterioration of everything beautiful and lively, to death, but in the end, they differ in their perspective as one embraces immortality while the other encumbers into the continuous cycle of birth and death.

Symbolism and Paradox Both the poems abound in rich imagery and symbolism. Frost, however, believes that he is not a symbolist and rather prefers the title of a “Synecdochist” . A synecdoche is a figure of speech that represents a part for a whole and this idea is reverberated in Frost’s poem. He believes that nature represents “the entire system of things that gets represented in every particle” .

Therefore, the symbolism in Frost’s poetry is presented from style to the structure of the poems . The condensed metaphor used in poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” present a brilliant description of the Nature’s true character at inception. Another important line of the poem that presents its theme, other than the last line is “Hardest hue to hold”.

Frost then compares the autumnal fall of the leaves with the fall of humankind in Eden. The episode of Adam and Eve plunged the human race from the life of immortality to one eventually perishes. Frost thus presents the idea of suffering and decay that eventually ends everything that is beautiful.

The poem is a synecdoche. The first five lines of the poem present the birth and fall of the minutest parts of nature. Frost describes the leaves at birth as golden and then compares them to flowers in order to establish the concrete, the symbols of something much bigger which is then entered with a significant “So” in the sixth line that presents the turn of the poem towards a bigger misery and fall – that of the humankind in Eden.

Therefore, Frost employs the imagery of the golden leaf and the flower shaped leaf and their change to symbolize the transient nature of life and the rise and fall of man, which is further exemplified with the episode of Adam and Even in Eden.

Emily Dickinson uses personification as a tool to symbolize the advent of death and immortality. The two themes of the poem, Death and then eventual Immortality achieved through death, are personified. Death is embodied as a courting gentleman while Immortality is personified as a passenger in Death’s carriage: “The carriage held just ourselves … And Immortality” .

The imagery in the poem presents the past to “clarify the infinite conceptions through the establishment of a dialectical relationship between reality and imagination” . Through the symbolism of death and immortality, Dickinson tried to present her philosophy of the interconnectedness and the “mutually determined” system of the finite (human life) and the infinite (immortality achieved through death) .

The presence of immortality after death is symbolized through the narrator who had died a long time ago but lives eternally to tell the story of her meeting with Death and Immortality. The paradox of the poem is apparent when the narrator tries to determine the extent of the immortality after death through temporal concepts such as “century” and “day”.

She states that “centuries” in the immortal life is “shorter than the day”, which is an earthly notion. Further Dickinson’s personification of Death as a gentleman becomes more striking as she described him in the most agreeable manner. However, in the fourth stanza Dickinson amalgamates the finite earthly life with the infinite death:

“The Dews drew quivering and chill –

For only gossamer, my gown –

My tippet – only tulle”

These lines represent the temporal existence of the narrator where her mortal qualities are affected by the “chill” of the “Dew”. In a way, the narrator tells the story of her temporal life from a higher position of immortality and literarily a higher awareness of everything.

Symbolically the poem talks of three stages of life – the school that represents childhood, “School, where children strove”; adulthood is represented through “Fields of gazing grain; and old age and eventually death is represented through “setting sun” .

Dickinson visualizes life as a play of childhood, adulthood, old age and death, and eventually immortality. Immortality freezes time. Therefore, the narrator symbolically uses the “horses head” as life, which is a walk towards eternity.

This is the point where Frost and Dickinson differ in their philosophies. Frost sees life as a never-ending cycle of being and fatality while Dickinson romanticizes death as the bearer of immortality that freezes time. The styles of the two poets are different in their treatment of temporality and change.

Frost shows change as a symbol for the transformation in the greater sorrows and miseries of life while Dickinson shows change as an alteration in the life of man towards his ultimate goal of embracing death. Even though, the themes of temporality and change are common in the two poems, Frost and Dickinson have disparate attitude towards life and death.

References Bagby, G. F. (1986). Frost’s synecdochism. American Literature, 58(3), 379-392.

Dickinson, E. (2010). Because I Could Not Wait for Death. In E. Dickinson, Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries (pp. 62-63). New York: Harvard University Press.

Frost, R. (2005). Nothing Gold Can Stay. In J. Parini, The Wadsworth Anthology Of Poetry (p. 636). Toronto, Canada: Cengage Learning.

Quinn, M. B. (1966). Symbolic Landscape in Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay”. The English Journal, 55(5), 621-624.

Shawa, M. N. (1991). Dickinson’s Because I could not Stop for Death. The Explicator, 50(1), 20-21.

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Abraham and God Reflective Essay essay help: essay help

Abraham was faithful and obedient to God. God told him that He would be “the ancestor of a multitude of nations” (The New Revised Standard Version, Gen 17.4). God told him that He would become fruitful and, from His off-springs, kings would rise. The Lord made a covenant with Abraham and his future generations. Circumcision of the males would symbolize the covenant.

Moreover, the slaves and those people bought from other lands who belonged to his household were to be circumcised too. Male children would be circumcised on the eighth day after their birth. Through circumcision, even the slaves and foreigners would also be enjoined in the covenant. On the contrary, any male who refuses to get circumcised “shall be cut off from his people: he has broken my covenant” (Gen. 17.14).

We must obey God and keep His word so that He can continue to be with us, and our future generations. He has promised to increase us and make us fruitful, but there is a condition, we must cut off everything that might make the Lord unhappy with us. We are His children, and His covenant with us is everlasting.

The Lord promised to give Abraham a son through Sarah, His wife at her advanced age. God would bless her, and through her son, the Lord would raise nations. Abraham was tickled by that news, and he laughed asking himself if his wife would give birth at her old age. Sometimes, we may laugh at the promises of God and wonder how they will come to pass because so much time has passed.

However, we should keep our trust in God because everything He has promised, he will bring to pass. Our day of liberation might seem to have delayed for long, but it will come to pass and we will rejoice. We should not get tired of trusting in God and praying. Moreover, we ought to remember that our way is not a God’s way. Abraham thought God would bless him through his son Ishmael.

However, that was not the plan of God, “No, but your wife Sarah shall bear you a son, and you will call him Isaac” (Gen. 17. 19). Therefore, we should be open to any way that the Lord chooses for our liberation. Moreover, we should take action and act upon the word of God like Abraham did and he had all the males in his household circumcised. The cutting of the foreskin would be a visible reminder of God’s covenant.

Just as God had promised, Sarah bore a son named him Isaac. She was old, but she nursed a child. God revealed His power in enabling an old woman to conceive and become a mother. He shall give us our freedom and we will be filled with joy. Those who feel sad and hopeless that our situation will not change should look at Sarah giving birth at an old age and be encouraged that nothing is impossible with God.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, she started to feel disturbed by the presence of Hagar and Ishmael. She requested her husband to chase them away. She did not want to see Ishmael playing with her son Isaac. She also did not want him to inherit anything from his father. She wanted to be the only heir with her son. Abraham had to send her away even though he was distressed about it.

Sarah might have despised Ishmael because she had her own son, but God did not despise him and because he was a child of Abraham. “As for the son of the slave woman, I will make a nation of him also because he is your offspring” (Gen. 21. 13). Thus, even if you are despised and seen as unfit, God does not look at you that way. God loves you and He will honour His covenant to you.

God will overturn your misfortunes into blessings. After Hagar was sent away, she went to the wilderness of Beer-Sheba and her water ran out. She cried to God because she was afraid her son would die of thirst. God answers our cries and prayers as he asked, “What troubles you, Hagar? Do not be afraid for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is” (Gen. 21: 17). The Lord gave them water.

God was with the boy and made him a nation. We ought to depend on the Lord always and pray at our time of need because he will hearken to our prayers and send help to us. He did not abandon the chid of Hagar because she was a slave, but took care of him and he prospered.

Furthermore, God will protect you from your enemies or any person that rises against you. For instance, He protected Abraham’s well that Abimelech’s servants had seized. Remain hopeful in God and do not forget to pray; He will deliver you from your troubles, and keep His promises to you. Moreover, He will protect your property because He is an everlasting God and He will never changes.

Work Cited New Revised Standard Version. 1989. Web. Apr. 22. 2013. .

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The TiVo Company Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The TiVo Company is a company that offers an avalanche of television solutions through a variety of solutions that make it possible for the viewer to enjoy an independent form of viewing. The pioneers of TiVo were Jim Barton and Mike Ramsay. The invention of the company-redefined entertainment in numerous ways as it delivered the promise of much hyped technologies.

TiVo is the pioneer of home entertainment and a creator of the first Digital Video Recorder (DVR). The largest part of the company’s business is in partnerships with leaders in technology and entertainment industry. Some of the company’s partners include Virgin, DirecTV, Hewlett-Packard (HP), among others.

The company partners with the aforementioned companies to provide its customers with branded boxes that incorporate the DVR technology synonymous with TiVo (Barton 28-35).

History, Development, and Growth of TiVo over Time The TiVo idea began to shape up in the late 1990’s with Ramsay and Barton working together to provide a project network in Orlando. This was necessitated by a joint venture between SGI and Time Warner that culminated in the creation of an interactive television system.

It took a short time for the pioneers to come into a realization that they could develop a similar system, which exhibited greater intelligence at a consumer friendly price. The system on their mind would be easier to use. Moreover, viewers would be capable of controlling television programming and timing. The aforementioned idea was the core part of TiVo genesis.

To transfer this idea to reality, Jim Ramsay and Mike Barton quickly assembled of a top-notch team that would facilitate delivery of the TiVo promise. Subsequently, TiVo blended Silicon Valley, Madison Avenue, and Hollywood together to create a television service that was personal and to enable the masses to access.

In 1999, this company unveiled the television service at consumers at an electronics show for national consumers. From this time, the company continues to work diligently to ensure that viewers enjoy better television. This feat has been achieved through teaming with industry leaders to foster changes in the manner that consumers can interact with and enjoy the television (Barton 29-36).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the launch of the first working TiVo prototype, at the 1999 show, and limited time for the completion of an authentic working product, Mike Ramsy dared the TiVo Company to ship the DVR by April 1999. This was to the thrill of everyone with many dubbing the effort ‘the Blue Moon’.

To deliver this promise, the team working on the idea had to dedicate time and effort with most of the members spending the entire March at the company’s premises. In March, TiVo rolled out the first box from the assembly point.

Following the launch of TiVo, the company has been made available in Mexico, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The Cable CARD standard is incorporated in the new models of the company albeit limited in the United States (Chorianopoulos and Spinellis 50).

Internal Strengths and Weaknesses for TiVo TiVo uses patents to guard its products from imitation. These patents enable the company to operate effectively without the fear of imitations. Moreover, this strength has enabled the company to amass profits and ward off competition. Since its launch, the company has been conducting successful campaigns, which have enabled it to have a bigger market share relative to its competitors.

The company has internal strength in licensing technologies. Some of the companies that have such licenses are Toshiba, DirecTV, Pioneer, and Sony.

Furthermore, because TiVo integrates its technologies with the products of the aforementioned companies, TiVo is capable of necessitating the adoption of the future products for these industries. In return, this will facilitate the adoption of TiVo services. The company’s strength enables them to target the consumers effectively (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 28).

With regard to the company’s internal weaknesses, TiVo tends to rely on its partners. The company over reliance on its numerous partners is a weakness as this implies that the company trends are determined by the business trends of the partners. A slump in the sale of products by its partners implies that TiVo will experience a similar slump.

We will write a custom Report on The TiVo Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has a weakness because of the separation from its customers by its partners. Most of TiVo customers go through the company’s partners in case they want to seek clarification or launch complaints. This feat prevents TiVo from giving direct assistance to its customers as these customers go to the partners first.

In the light of this, there exists the need for the company to appoint directors who will influence the future direction of DVR. In addition, the TiVo gets core product components from a supplier. This is a weakness because the supplier can decide to charge higher prices to the detriment of TiVo’s productivity (Ferrell and Hartline 295).

The External Environment Surrounding the Company Constant changes are prevalent in the TiVo’s external environment and the industry in which the company operates. TiVo can formulate its strategies after accessing if the external environment favors its operations. There are general environmental factors that explain the nature of TiVo’s environment. These are global, social-cultural, demographic, political/legal, economic, and technological factors.

The youth in the United States are relatively more technologically knowledgeable than the older population. Consumer demographics of the TiVo Company are individuals aged 25-45 years. The company focuses on market of the individuals in their 30’s prior to designing services and products.

Since the company’s inception in 1999, the aforementioned age group has evolved into sophisticated user of technologies formulated by the likes of TiVo. Subsequently, this has compelled TiVo to increase breadth and depth of the available technology in the services and products (Ferrell and Hartline 295).

In the technological domain, understanding and use of DVR is rampant in the United States. Moreover, other countries embracing the DVR are at their introductory phases. Through technology, even the average homes have been rendered capable of imitating the basic functionality of DVR. Moreover, the cycle of television purchase has shortened because of technology updates, faster decline of prices.

TiVo technology of stand-alone televisions replicates a computer’s functionality. In the economic environment, the recent recession that rocked financial markets affected the company’s sales and was a blow to companies that sold luxury items. TiVo was among these companies because its DVR concept is not a necessity when watching or using a television (Chorianopoulos and Spinellis 49).

The economic turmoil translated to less income at the disposal of the consumers, which in turn was responsible for lack of purchase of luxury goods such as TiVo sets. Currently, the company is grappling with the effects of the recession with the customers being cautious buying luxury products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The TiVo Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite predictions that the economy of the United States will continue exhibiting an upward trend, TiVo sales range from slow to moderate (Barton 30).

The political/legal environment affects the way the company conducts its operations. Currently, there exist numerous unsettled laws concerning intellectual property. The foci of these laws have been the ability of technology to alter shows. Legal issues with Internet use have also characterized the legal climate. Particularly, YouTube has been airing copyrighted material devoid of the owner’s permission.

Lawsuits on patents are currently going on in the technology front over the need to enforce patents. Furthermore, several bodies are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that current regulations and laws are enforced appropriately and involved companies are in compliance.

Generally, the political/legal environment surrounding TiVo’s operations is dynamic because of constant scanning and monitoring (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 294).

TiVo company’s global environment is characterized by two aspects, which are emerging markets and intellectual property rights. Enforcement of intellectual property legislation and copyright laws is marred with inconsistency in the entire global market.

Currently, the most vital aspect in this realm is the enforcement of such laws because technology is always reverse-engineered in countries like China and resold at lower costs in gray markets.

Moreover, new markets such as Brazil, China, and India are advancing and the DVR market is likely to expand with the middle and upper classes in these markets increasing in size and wealth. TiVo should be wary of these developments because they are globalization benefits that come with piracy risks and intellectual property infringement (Barton 29).

SWOT Analysis Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006; 297) reveal that TiVo has numerous strengths with the demand of the DVR rising since the public understood and accessed the company’s technology.

With the television being pivotal in the American life, the strengths of this company are obvious. The company has strength in increased subscriptions particularly in the United States because no other country has surpassed large television viewing than the United States.

Factor conditions in the United States are sources of strength for this company. The company has access to capital from well-established corporate banks and private individuals. The entrepreneurial culture in the United States guarantees the company knowledgeable workforce, which cannot be replicated in other countries.

Communications infrastructure in the United States is an advanced factor and a source of strength for the company. Most of the homes in country have telephone lines and televisions, which are sources of demand for the company (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

The company is supported by various industries. Because the company makes products complementary to the televisions, in case the aforementioned broadcasting companies offer poor programming quality, TiVo’s uses will decline.

The company has a market characterized by intense rivalry; Comcast and EchoStar are some of the competitors as they offer generic DVR. Replay TV has also been a major competitor in the stand-alone concept. This competition compels the company to evolve and cut costs while making innovations to its products (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

Opportunities and Threats Currently, TiVo has an avalanche of opportunities. The DVR industry is rising and analysts expect an increase in the number of consumers. Promotion and advertising is a good opportunity for TiVo. The marketing aspect of sponsoring products is an opportunity that will enable TiVo Company to enjoy a larger market share. TiVo has a tempting opportunity in the global market.

The United States is among many countries that enjoy viewing the television. These countries can also provide a larger consumer base for the products of this company. When the company becomes more stable and gains wider acceptance in the United States, control over the foreign markets will be the next move for this company (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 233).

Despite the numerous opportunities for TiVo Company, the DVR industry has a fair share of threats. Satellite and cable providers are threatening the success of this company by producing generic units. An example is DISH networks that have introduced a generic unit that has been subscribed to by many consumers.

Imitations from other companies are exhibiting highly advanced technology than that of the TiVo products. Comcast cable is a company that conducts campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness of the technology used by Comcast but TiVo enjoys the dominance in DVR industry (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

The stand-alone concept in television boxes will soon be rendered obsolete. The integration of DVR into set-top boxes will soon phase out the stand-alone concept. The latter has about a quarter of TiVo’s subscriptions. Barriers to entry are low in the market that TiVo is involved.

Nevertheless, the entry of big competitors should be a source of concern, as these competitors will offer more innovative products, cheaper products, and products that can be used with ease.

TiVo may struggle to hold on to its market if it fails to differentiate itself through low prices for its products (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 338). According to Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006; 298) the DVR industry has been consolidated. Consumer who gets cheap DVR units from rivals will seldom decide to buy from TiVo, notwithstanding the add-on’s and features provided by the company.

Corporate-Level Strategy by TiVo The corporate level determines the way resources are allocated in the company. The TiVo Company defines its markets based on the age, income, and preferences of the consumers. This strategy has been of great importance to the company because the targeted market segment consists of individuals with high income and technologically knowledgeable.

Through corporate strategy, the company has decided recently to diversify their market through entry into other countries. The company continues to improve the technological features of its products to maintain and expand their market. The numerous partnerships made by the TiVo Company are core part of the company’s corporate level strategy.

These strategic alliances are necessary, as the company cannot manage to venture into the technology and communications industry on its own. Directors at the company set high standards for its officers and employees. These standards are implicit in the philosophy of good corporate governance. The directors have the responsibility of ensuring that the targets of the shareholders are met (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 117).

Business-Level Strategy The business-level strategy used by the TiVo Company can be accessed upon a closer look at the company’s demographics, consumption patterns, lifestyle choices, and industrial characteristics among other factors. As mentioned earlier, TiVo focuses on customers aged between 25-45 years. These customers are technologically knowledgeable and have the capacity to buy TiVo products despite its high prices.

The lifestyles choices of the individuals in this age bracket are more on luxury and entertainment goods. On the other hand, the industry in which TiVo operates is highly dynamic because of technological preferences.

The TiVo Company adopts a business strategy of ensuring that the customers are equipped with the latest television strategy. Through partnership with major players in the broadcasting industry, the company can cater for the preferences of its consumers (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 29).

The Business level strategy used by this company limits consumer base through the high prices that are charged for its products. Although the company enjoys a better market relative to its competitors, charging lower prices can guarantee a wider market. The five forces model by porter can also explain the business strategy adopted by this company. The company’s strategy has been largely influenced by the influx of major competitors.

Manager must continue to formulate newer strategies to ward off the competitors. Rivalry is rife in the entertainment industry. Price wars have exacerbated rivalry and determine the strategies to be adopted by the company and its competitors. With regard to substitute products, the company operates in a market with few substitutes (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 29).

Structure and Control Systems The structure of the TiVo Company comprises of board of directors that determine the direction of the company. Other teams involved in the company’s operations are the Research and Development (R

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View of Boston Bombing Descriptive Essay essay help online

The world got astonished by the attack during the Boston marathons last week. A huge number of people had turned up looking forward to a great day in the world of sports, fans had dressed in various colors and gamblers had already put bets on who was to win. No one was prepared for a terrorist attack except for the police, who were there to keep peace but who were not expecting a thing to go wrong.

Sniffer dogs were everywhere but the terrorist or the group of terrorists managed to trick all the enforcers of peace. The first round was okay, and fans were busy humming, cheering Capella in jubilation.

The atmosphere was filled with an aura of happiness just before the unexpected happened. The first blast spread panic among people around, while the second signified hysteria; people started to run helter-skelter, and it was upon the emergency workers to save the day.

The police tried to push the crowd away from the sight, while the doctors in all hospitals dropped their appointments to cater for the many affected by these terrible blasts. The firefighters took their trucks with a mission to rescue those affected. Sirens could be heard as the ambulances were driving fast towards the sight ready to ferry the injured to the awaiting doctors.

The military also joined in trying to usher the crowd away from the sight and give way to the firefighters. However, people got confused and critical time was wasted during the operation. When one of the soldiers was interviewed, he stressed on public education in regards to ‘how to act when faced with an emergency.’ The soldiers resorted to tearing down the fence to give way for the estranged crowd.

Bodies and body parts were scattered all over the place, the injured could be heard moaning in pain. Mothers didn’t know where their children were and vice versa.

Some emergency workers who had quickly arrived for the rescue operation were also affected, since their families included those who had attended the celebrated event. “As much as these emergency workers are professionally trained, it does not stop them from being human” (Kalman 122). They are just men and women who have dedicated their lives to save others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resources were a major challenge; as much as the paramedics were prepared to give first aid to the injured, there weren’t enough ambulances on the site. It was also reported that in one of the hospitals a doctor was handling more patients than it was allowed. Thus, the government should think about increasing the number of medics.

The bomb squad didn’t have enough equipment to find the cause of the blast or to prevent another. Most people at the scene were expecting the third attack; it was only out of sheer luck that it didn’t occur. If only these men and women had all the equipment they needed, maybe the three who died would have lived to tell their story.

“It is only when disaster strikes that we realize how unprepared we are; thus every disaster should be treated as a warning of what may happen caught up again in a maze of unpreparedness” (Kalman 158).

We may not prevent a bomb from detonating, but are we prepared well enough to save the lives of those affected? If the emergency rescue workers had enough resources, maybe the number of casualties in either natural or fabricated disasters would be less. At the same time, if only the public was taught how to react in case of an emergency situation, maybe rescue workers would have an easier time.

Works Cited Kalman, Bobbie. Hospital Workers in the Emergency Room. USA: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2005

Kalman, Bobbie. Emergency Workers Are on Their Way! USA: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2005

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Management Consultancy Project Annotated Bibliography essay help: essay help

Annotated List of Books and Articles Gothberg, H. (1991). Time Management in Public Libraries: A Study of Public Libraries. Public Libraries, 30(6), 350–377

The author of this article discusses various procedures, established in public libraries. This study shows how public administrators can make the work of public libraries more time-efficient.

Kinnell, M.,

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Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights Analytical Essay college essay help online

Introduction The very legacy of war of any kind is its disregard for human rights. The September 11 attacks on the United States’ commercial hubs in New York and Washington provoked America and allies to launch an international offensive to counter the growing threat by terror groups. However, the decision to launch a global war on terror has had its fair share of both negative and positive ramifications on international human rights (Ishay 2004, p. 364).

Combating political or religious extremist networks of any magnitude has had a series of restrictions, infringements, and violations of human rights in unprecedented scale. In the wake of war on terror, numerous countries have had to contend with arbitrary restriction on civil liberties in a nefarious effort to rid the world of extremist groups.

Human rights watch document these scenarios across all nations primarily considering the US Patriotic Act, Intelligence Cycle, and the rights of detainees as being complicit in the quest for human rights (Human Rights Watch 2015). War on terror brings forth a new global context that emboldens forces of repression to take drastic tall on international human rights. The language of war on terror evokes a strong passion to justify violation of human rights of even ordinary populations with no or concerted intent to cause mayhem.

Tracing the roots of terrorism: Jihad in Islam and other perspectives Jihad is a widespread text authored by one of the most influential and highly celebrated Islamic scholars of the twentieth Century, Sayyid Maudoodi. Maudoodi was a man of various facets, doubling as a philosopher, journalist, theologian, and political activist. In 1941, for example, he claims credit for the establishment of the Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan and India an ideology that re-energised the spread of Islam.

This political movement was dedicated to advocating for the establishment of untainted Islamic states in the regions governed by Sharia law (Huzen 2008, p. 33). Rather than view Jihad from a personalised, parochial view of Islam, Maudoodi view of Jihad according to Sharia law entails at the top of its priority: Family relations, socio-economic and political administration, judicial systems of the Muslim world that guarantee the laws of peace and war in diplomatic relations as well as duties and rights of citizens.

Succinctly, Jihad under the Sharia law seeks to embrace all the confluences of life. Accordingly, Sharia law aims to achieve a comprehensive scheme of life by striving to embrace and restore social order defined by the abundance of life and richness of the people (Kelsay 2007, p. 57). To the rest of the population, Jihad evokes conflict and war and it is the defining factor for making Islam to have the least reception in the minds of such opponents.

The interpretations about Jihad in several traditional Islamic jurisdictions may have been correct for their own precise classical context, nevertheless today as the entire structure crumbles, the international relations continue to wallow, and global world have undergone great alterations, it seem difficult to understand the usefulness of Jihad in today’s context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Islamic extremists view Jihad as an Islamic holy war whose meaning is attributable to struggle as the foundation of its creed. Jihad as a popular Islamic practice emanates from the word Juhd meaning struggling in the way of Allah. Jihad therefore denotes striving to make the kingdom of Allah profound by bringing up Allah’s word of which all Muslims have an entitlement to protect Islam as a holly religion.

The confusion in the conceptualisation of Jihad is partly responsible for the continue rise of extremist groups that are currently terrorising the world. According to Kelsay (2007, p 36), Jihad, therefore, is reminiscent of a revolutionary act, a struggle to the utmost exertion, which the radicalised Islamic opinion brought into play in achieving their objectives.

With the already radicalised mind-set of the Muslim world, the Islamic extremists sought to destroy all governments and destabilise all states that were less receptive to or opposed to Islamic ideology and programmes.

The resolve of Islam was therefore, to set up states based on the ideology and programming of the Islamic opinion, regardless of which states become receptive of the Islamic ideologies (Huzen 2008, p. 42). The most indoctrinated feature of the Jihadist as a movement was to roll out a programme that ensures no state undermined Islam.

Tracing the roots of war on terror: Iraq’s inversion of Kuwait The Iraq’s disastrous inversion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 sent shockwaves to all corners of the world with America feeling the pinch technically. For America, this was not only an insult to regional tranquillity, but also pronounced domestically as bearing disastrous future to the region and the world. President George H. W. Bush particularly saw Iraq’s aggression as a proven determination to destabilise the international system and to cause a humanitarian crisis in unprecedented scale.

Bush in his official capacity as president condemned the inversion and spoke of it in bitter tones, often comparing Saddam Hussain, the Iraqi leader, to Adolf Hitler of Germany (Hinnebusch 2007, p. 10). The Bush’s administration saw a need to find a solution to this unnecessary aggression and in time became certain that the best answer to Iraq was a military action. War, according to President Bush, was the only language that Saddam would understand best.

As a result, the Bush Administration went ahead to build international coalition for a popular Iraq subduction. Not only was international inversion necessary in totality. The Bush administration saw the character of Bagdad as an opportunity to reinforce the international community. As the events unfolded, the international community knew Iraq’s intention; Bush in countenance to Iraq’s defiance mobbed a popular vendetta to quash Iraq at a most opportune moment.

We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coming shortly after the United States’ opposition to Iraq’s interference in Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council stated their condemnation in the assault for its proclivity to human rights violations (Hinnebusch 2007, p. 22). However, in just a span of a week, the UN, and the international community slapped Iraq with a widespread sanction. The unanimous actions directed to Iraq by the international community passed out as the strongest show of unity against repression.

The Just-War Concept Whether it was by design or default, the Gulf war was, and still perceived as a moral victory for the American people and the world in general. In this war, supremacy loomed large and the forces of deceit led by Saddam Hussein were just about to subdue world peace. The Gulf conflict as Hinnebusch (2007, p. 24) notes was a war, designed, orchestrated, and executed by the very forces who have never wanted the good for humanity, forces that are itched by peace and commonality of purpose.

The United States’-led coalition against Iraq’s forces not only proved Saddam’s actions as inhumane, but also as a mark of contempt and imprudent disregard for truce as has always been fronted by the United Nations. Perhaps Saddam’s rejection to commit to popular practices that mitigate the chances of war is what majority of the people cling to as a defence for their submission of justness in the subjugation of Iraq in the Gulf conflict.

For some time now, the just-war concept has been instrumental in dictating the efficacy of going to war or not, and once consented, the demeanour of the combatants are unquestionable hence the collapse of human rights in wars against terror. It is conceivable that after the defeat of Saddam Hussein, the undercurrents of the Gulf war regrouped to form a formidable terror group for yet another onslaught (Ludvig 2014, p. 384).

In the context of the 21st century, war on terror has had some positive human rights consequences though. For example, Afghanistan has been able to shrug off from the Taliban regime. Apart from that, the on-going conflict resolution processes in Sri Lanka continues to strengthen humanitarian perspectives in the region. War on terror has greatly constrained Pakistani’s support for Kashmiri terrorists groups. Most often, though, considered on a balanced scale, the global war on terror has had negative impacts on human rights.

Patriot Act and Federal Powers The USA Patriot Act, came into force in 2001 as the most sweeping enactment following the 9/11 attack. At the behest, the presumption of the act rested on its uniting and strengthening ability to provide among other things, appropriate tools necessary to intercept and thwart terrorism. As an effective homeland security commitment to ensure the safety of the American people, the Patriot Act aimed to restore order through surveillance and rapid tracking response including seizures and detention of suspected terrorist agents.

In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, President Bush together with the Attorney General John Ashcroft effectively rallied the Congress to increase the federal powers of search, seizures, surveillance, as well as detention of suspects (Etzioni 2004, p. 175). In the meantime, the concerns of domestic liberties were put away deliberately as the act unanimously got support from both the Democratic and Republican divide.

Among the key features of the Patriot Act included the Roving Wiretaps, which allowed the federal agency to wiretap any telephone conversations that terror suspects and agents might use to penetrate the security systems. In the course of all these developments, the federal agency became more consistent in the use of internet tracking as a means of fast tracking internet communication.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The law enforcement authorities therefore had the capacity to interfere directly in the personal accounts of individuals using the internet without necessarily having to obtain warrants for such impersonations.

The Patriot Act also guaranteed the federal authorities the right to order for business records for private and public companies for litigation scrutiny and auditing by the federal authorities. In so doing, federal investigators were able to access information and communications from consumer purchases, bank records, credit cards, libraries as well as schools, and colleges.

Moreover, the Act instituted a special Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court with the capacity to issue search certifications at the request of an investigator to launch terrorist investigation on foreign visitation to America (Panetta 2014, par. 3). In addition, the Aliens Reporting and Detention Act authorises the Federal authorities to require reportage by foreign persons vising America and those found to be in America illegally risked detention and arrest without warrant.

Within the tenets of keeping with the traditions of the Patriotic Act, the federal authorities could seize the property or obstruct such logistics of suspected terrorists. Individuals whose property fall victim of the rule bear the duty of proof that the property in question was not for the purpose of terrorism and the provision also guaranteed no claim.

The detention laws allowed the federal authorities to detain suspected terrorists and agents for lengthy periods during which interrogation and effective investigation for such persons will take place. The federal authorities became effective in fast tracking the indigenous American citizens from terrorist connections.

Patriot Act instituted prohibition against harbouring terrorists as a duty to thwart the emergent terrorist networks in America and other parts of the world. Harbouring individuals who have committed a felony amounting to terror and or are about to commit such acts of terrorism therefore became highly constrainable by the federal authorities.

In retrospect, the Patriot Act unleashed a tall order for the various institutions charged with the security of the American populations. In achieving the objectives of the Patriot Act, the American citizens became more involved in ensuring the smooth passage of the Act by showing a commitment to thwart terrorism (Panetta 2014, par. 5). Terror suspects and agents by contrast carry the greatest responsibility for their crimes as provided for by the Patriot Act.

Intelligence Cycle Intelligence cycle denotes all the activities that are within the intelligent cycle niche. Usually, these include processes that guarantee useful decision-making for a given information. As the name suggests, Intelligence Cycle is a set of processes that includes planning, data analysis and evaluation, as well as integration and information dissemination.

The war against terrorism, therefore, passes out as a moral victory not only for the American people but also for all the populations of the world. It is a proof of America’s decency to the use of power proportionately. It is a demonstration that with America as the world’s military power and intelligence might, all nations get protection against aggressors and transgressors such as Osama Bin Laden whose extremism ideologies were increasingly making the world more insecure.

Ethics entailed in war on terror Ethical and moral intelligence seeks to nurture principles of just intelligence by creating theories capable of answering many ethical concerns while emphasising on the classical metaphysical laws developed over the years. No clear theory seem to conjoin community intelligence studies to the just war theory as provided for in the military ethics.

The main forms of ethics within the study of wars on terror consist of fundamental freedoms, rights, and utilitarianism. Utilitarianism, as Moyn, Andrew, and Elizabeth (2010, p. 37) note, defines the priorities of principles and explore whether such principles conflict with those of others in practice or not.

Utilitarianism, rights, and freedoms ideologies are applicable as a single comprehensive concept of justice that assents to fairness and equal treatment for all without seeking to put individual interest above all others in any way (Cohen 1997, p. 5). These ethical principles are applicable in a broad spectrum and significance in ensuring that the least the law does not apply by default to certain individuals.

These ethics, therefore, presents the image of justice and equity concept that aims to political liberalism among individuals and within their societies without necessarily infringing on others’ freedoms or liberties. As Arneson (2000) notes, intelligence’s concept of justice as fairness envisages a society of free citizens with equal rights whose main desire is to work in harmony within a democratic and free economic systems.

Intelligence account of fair and equal treatment for all is a version of political liberalism that concerns the legitimate application of political power in an egalitarian (Arneson 2000). As noted herein, intelligence’s pedagogy of fair and equal treatment for all is a demonstration of how enduring unity is achievable even under the multifaceted worldviews that democratic institutions are capable of offering (Blake

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