Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and Conclusion
Introduction Communication in an organization is very important hence there arises the need for its effectiveness to avoid miscommunication. However, there are various barriers to effective communication in an organization, noise in communication will being one o them discussed in the paper. Noise in communication is a major factor since it distorts meaning and hence leads to possible mistakes.
Physical or environmental barrier is one of the forms of noise in communication. It involves anything external that disrupts the sender and receiver from sending or receiving messages.
These factors may become the cause for the interlocutor not to perceive and understand their collocutor in terms of hearing or viewing the message or it may become an obstacle for the interlocutor to get the messages. Some examples of such miscommunication include loud music, ringing phones and people shouting.
Reflection Semantic noise arises when the sender and receiver get and apply a different meaning to words uttered. It mainly happens when words are translated to another language. The direct translation may not portray the true meaning of words. The example is, for instance, when one uses a word with several meanings, jargons or different dialects.
Psychological noise refers to “mental interference that occurs between the sender and the receiver” (Joyce 2006). When one of the parties communicating has problems or prejudices, it may lead to psychological noise as well.
This noise comprises feeling of love, hatred, pain or financial problems. This widely influences the way information is passed depending on the sender’s feelings and attitude towards the receiver. Also, the receiver’s feedback depends on their feelings towards the sender.
Physiological noise is the noise that is characterized by arising physical barriers within the receiver and the sender (Joyce 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They include hearing loss, poor eyesight, memory loss, etc. In an organization, if a message is communicated on a notice board, those with poor eyesight will experience physiological noise. In the same way, if any communication is made by word of mouth, those with poor hearing will experience physiological noise.
Supportive materials According to the case study, the case of Radioshark, direct communication when firing employees was argued to be the best form. In this case, employees were fired by using electronic notification which could lead to psychological barriers and employee’s feedback could be influenced by their emotions (Wood, Zeffane, Fromholtz, Wiesner
Recruitment and selection practices at Sunshine Steel (China and Australia) Report online essay help
Selections and recruitments practices at Sunshine Steel are causes for concerns to Jessica Walker. The company separately utilises different recruitment and selection practices that result into high turnovers of employees.
In the Chinese company, the general operations manager, Chu Jian had different methods for different groups of employees. For the middle management, he embraced authoritarian and paternalistic approach. He recruited close relatives, friends, or associates. In this scenario, he treated them as replaceable resources insignificant to the organisation.
These two ways of recruitment and selection are part Chinese culture leadership and management style. For the team leaders and professionals, their recruitment and selection depended on the academic qualifications, personality, values and English proficiency. Each candidate had to undergo a personality test. This was to determine whether the recruits’ values marched those of the company’s culture.
Although a well designed and up-to-date job description for each position in the Chinese company, the general manager only considered the job description after the candidate started working.
In the Melbourne Company, Jonathan stable shouldered the responsibility of recruitment and selection processes. He perceived that utilising hard HRM practices would work in the selection and recruitment procedures.
Therefore, he took responsibility of applying it in the recruitment and selection to the line management. Majorities of the company’s positions had job description and person specifications, but contrary to those of China’s, they were unrevised and out-of-date.
In the event of hiring more staff for Sunshine steel in Australia, Jonathan shortlisted candidates using the outdated job description method. These candidates teamed up with their counterparts in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this situation, Jonathan Stable failed to consider factors of cross-cultural interaction and communication at the workplace. Similar to China’s case, many employees proved unfit for the job. Therefore, new employees left the organisation within the first six months of employment.
The leaders of the company lack competence and proper management skills. They have failed to embrace key approaches of recruitment and selection that results to high numbers of employees leaving the organisation (Lepak and Gowan, 2008).
Handling the notification of the acquisition and the consequent staff changes in the Chinese company
In the deal of purchasing the Chinese medium-size firm, Jason Blaker should have thought of many phases the acquisition ought to have taken. First, the whole recruitment and selection process is poor due to lack of planning. In addition, the process left most of the employees devastated.
Prior to informing employees of the sale plan, the companies ought to have known the exact positions that would remain vacant, and the interview process for hiring new staff. It also ought to have taken into consideration whether or not all the employees would retain their positions or only operation staff, or managers or supervisors would remain (Stahl and Mendenhall, 2005).
In the acquisition process, management would have notified employees of the changes that were likely to take place. This would have prevented situations of employees discovering for themselves about the acquisition and spreading rumours that would ruin the company’s reputation as initially feared (Schweiger, 2002).
Sunshine Steel and the Chinese medium-sized company would have taken an initiative to plan for a series of meetings with employees. They would also consider the likely question to rise in such meetings. Such issues need the management team to plan in advance and provide satisfactorily responses.
After the acquisition, most of the employee feared for their job security and were uncertain of what the future of the company holds for them. They were not sure of their new terms of services and employment, and the new company’s policies. Such issues lead employee to make comparisons with the previous management.
We will write a custom Report on Recruitment and selection practices at Sunshine Steel (China and Australia) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The human resource for the company ought to have familiarised itself with the employees audit in order to obtain information on promotion, pay rise, performance evaluation, stage of disciplinary action or even vacations. These would have provided guidelines on whether to continue with the promises or threats from the previous owner or start a new process.
Sunshine Steel did not factor in preparing the existing staff for the merger. This acquisition process also did not take into account diverse management styles in different cultures. Thus, the recruitment and selection processes insisted on English language proficiency for the potential recruits. Cultural differences play a significant role in cases of global acquisitions.
Therefore, it was necessary to arrange for smooth transition and embracing of the differences among the two cultures. These steps would have prompted the existing staff to embrace new ideas from Australia and merge with their own.
After the transition, the company would have come up with a plan of helping the staff that would have lost their jobs to have a smooth transition. This process requires adequate preparation. The process of acquisition affected most employees’ motivation.
Significant number lost their jobs as the new employees did not last for more than six months before finding themselves unable to cope in the new organisation (Galpin, Timothy and Herndon, Mark, 2007).
While merger and acquisitions are meant enhance growth and competitive advantages an organisation, poor planning and takeover can ruin a promising organisation particularly in a different culture.
Although the Chinese HR department has up-to-date and comprehensive job descriptions, they do not use them recruitment and selection process.
Reflections about keeping job descriptions confidential
Job descriptions enable applicants and potential recruits become acquainted with the job requirements. Thus, keeping job descriptions confidential is not among the best HR practices in recruitment and selection.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Recruitment and selection practices at Sunshine Steel (China and Australia) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The need for potential employees to have clear job descriptions before a job search begins is a fundamental step towards selecting the right applicant for the vacant position. Job descriptions enable potential employees gauge their qualifications against those outlined in the vacant position. This eliminates cases of unqualified applicants.
The best HR practices in recruitment and selection processes demand that job descriptions should be current, comprehensive, and concise”. This is because the job description document is an essential requirement that is crucial at different stages during recruitment and selection of employees.
Employers should also review their job description documents to ensure that potential recruits have access to current contents that do not discriminate them, and are relevant to the positions. Potential employees have the right to know what task are in the position, minimum qualification, knowledge and skill, work experience required, and a given level of academic achievements.
However, the document should not contain how the potential employee will follow traditional practices in discharging their duties. Accessible job descriptions can protect the organisation from possible legal battles. At the same time, such job descriptions should be reviewed periodically to keep them up-to-date.
Ways in which job descriptions work to make the recruitment and selection functions more efficient
Stone notes that job descriptions define jobs in terms of “specific activities and responsibilities and identifies the abilities, skills and qualifications needed to perform it successfully” (Stone, 2010).
Job descriptions enable organisations to perform their selection and recruitment drives based on laid down qualifications and procedures. In this manner, the HR can use such descriptions to make relevant choices for the organisation (Heron, 2005).
Job descriptions are responsible for providing a base on which selection and recruitment teams can base their decisions.
In this manner, job descriptions influence most essential aspects of the organisation, such as recruitment and selection, hiring and placement, performance evaluation, training and development, compensation, job design, workforce projections, and workforce growth in terms of elimination and promotion” (Clifford, 1994).
Nelson further notes that job description can influence all the recruitment and selection processes as it attempts to offer interdependency, flexibility, and diversity that is necessary for the organisation and the nature of the job (Nelson, 1997). At the same time, job description ensures that recruitment and selection processes are efficient and valid.
Globalisation, merger and acquisition, and takeovers have changed the HR landscape and procedures and practices. This means that the HR must keep its recruitment and selection procedures and practices up-to-date. This calls for flexible and diversified descriptions of jobs.
If we take the changing environment of employment and different cultural aspects into practice, HR must align their job descriptions for such constant changes for subsequent recruitment and selection.
Some studies have proposed that the future job descriptions will mainly focus on technical issues. These will involve work and workers related issues (Nelson, 1997).
Work related issues highlight job description and its components. On the other hand, worker related issues look at areas of employees’ behaviours in a working environment. Thus, the current dynamic employment requires flexibility in defining job descriptions to cater for the need of a diverse workforce.
A study by Compton and associates posits that job descriptions are changing rapidly (Compton, Morrissey and Nankervis, 2006). Thus, the traditional approach may not work, particularly where there are mergers and acquisitions that involve different cultures.
In this case, the HR must incorporate job descriptions into “employee contract for agreement by both parties before the start of the job” (Compton, Morrissey and Nankervis, 2006). Thus, job description is a necessary tool for the HR in recruitment and selection processes.
Selection procedures recommended for job such as technical supervisors, senior supervisors and middle managers in two branches of the company
Selecting management teams needs different approaches and thorough analysis of the recruits than hiring some employees more so in organisations that operate in more than one culture. Thus, Sunshine Steel must take that into account before commencing its selection process.
This is because the success of any organisation depends on “the abilities, competence, and leadership styles of its management team” (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). Therefore, HR must improve selection procedures in order to ensure future growth and improved performance of the organisation. These procedures must result into the most effective leadership for the organisation.
Since both branches of the company are in different locations and cultures, selection procedures must reflect the real situation of the company in terms of work and culture of both countries.
This procedure involves thorough job descriptions. It process must account for diversities in both Chinese and Australian cultures. In this regard, the company must focus on cultural adjustment, personal characteristics of the management team, organisational requirement in terms of its operations, communication skills, and other issues related personal or family.
The company may apply the use of both internal and external recruitment sources so as to attract and retain the best talents in both countries. Sunshine Steel operates in a tough economic and dynamic environment. Thus, it should source its senior management from external sources and develop internal sources. It must take qualified staff from within and resort to external sources to fill gaps.
The company must also enhance its recruitment effectiveness through a number of ways. The HR should resort to résumé mining from large numbers of applicants instead of picking the first 50 applicants and throwing the rest. The company should apply tracking of its applicants through various stages of the job from listing, performance, and appraisal.
The company should also implement career website where interested candidates will sample available jobs and post their applications. It should also resort to internal sources whereby it tracks existing employees and their performance for future vacancies.
The company in China must enable potential employees preview job descriptions and get relevant details of the job and employer. On the other hand, the Australian branch must update its job description to fit the dynamic work environment, global contexts and different cultures.
There should also be responsive recruitment. Still, the company should base recruitment drives on suitable qualities for applicants and not on kinship and friendship, or business relations.
Sunshine Steel should target pool of applicants, broad labour markets, change its recruitment approaches, enhance internal recruitment processes, interviewing of managers and their subsequent training (Nelson, 1997). The HR must also enhance positive communication with potential applicants.
Effective selection of technical supervisors, senior supervisors and middle-level managers is a crucial success factor for Sunshine Steel in both Australia and China.
References Clifford, J. (1994). Job Analysis: Why Do It, and How Should It Be Done? Public Personnel Management, 23(2), 321-340.
Compton, R.L., Morrissey, B. and Nankervis, A.R. (2006). Effective Recruitment and Selection Practices (4th ed.). Australia: CCH.
Galpin, T. and Herndon, M. (2007). The Complete Guide to Mergers and Acquisitions: Process Tools to Support M
Media and Power Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
It has been acknowledged that media have significant power over many processes taking place in societies. Schroder and Phillips (2007) argue that it is still unclear whether media can be regarded as certain expression of public opinion or it is the way to shape it.
Researchers still have doubts on the matter. However, many agree that the correlation between media and public opinion is binary. Thus, some forces may try to influence public opinion controlling information which is communicated to the public.
However, now media try to meet the demand and highlight topics which are interesting to the public (De Bruin 2011). Numerous poles are held to extract people’s opinions, expectations, etc. Now media provide a variety of topics to discuss worldwide.
Of course, when it comes to politics there is a great temptation to influence public opinion. Some forces try to do this. Miller and Dinan (2010) claim that media is sometimes seen as a tool to influence public, though the abundance of information diminishes such a one-sided effect.
In other words, even if there is a force which uses media to highlight an issue from a particular perspective, there are always other forces that try to provide their own perspectives on the matter.
De Bruin (2011) states that media has contributed greatly to the creation of such notion as cultural citizenship. Nowadays people are exposed to great amount of information. People sort this information out to build some outlooks; as a result many citizens come to share specific outlooks.
De Bruin (2011, p. 86) argues that media as well as popular culture are “vital resources which people utilize to make sense of their lives and social positions”. Vega and Rodriguez (2009) use another term for the same concept.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The researchers claim that “citizen’s media” play important role in developing public opinion. At that, Bruin (2011) as well as Vega and Rodriguez (2009) stress that now there can be no citizenship confined to one nation as all issues are now viewed on the global scale. Thus, when an event takes place in some country, it often acquires global attention.
For instance, Urquhart (2012) reports on riots in Tel Aviv where people protest against the arrival of about 60,000 refugees from Africa. Urquhart (2012) notes that after heated debate and passionate speeches, demonstration turned into a riot with several victims and nine people arrested.
Israeli people argue that their economy cannot handle newcomers. For instance, Benjamin Netanyahu noted that “migrants threatened the Jewish character of Israel” (Urquhart 2012, n.p.).
It goes without saying that the article published in The Guardian confirms that a local event has already acquired international coverage. More so, it is necessary to note that the issue has been already highlighted earlier this year. Thus, Greenwood (2012) reports on the conditions African refugees live in Jerusalem.
The reporter also covers the Israeli officials’ attitude towards refugees. Thus, 170 people who claimed asylum have managed to obtain the status of refugee in Israel since 1949. Greenwood (2012) also provides figures concerning refugee status policy in such countries as the UK and Canada.
Therefore, it is possible to note that the issue of refugees in Israel has acquired attention on the global scale. This issue is potentially a topic of a heated debate as one of the aftermaths of the so-called Arab Spring.
Thus, revolutions in Arab countries were discussed worldwide. Social media has played quite a significant role in the spread of information on the matter (Beaumont 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Media and Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social media enabled people to unite and share ideas. People from different countries were able to see real picture of what was really happening in the Arab cities. However, it is still unclear whether the issue concerning refugees in Israel will be a matter of such a discourse.
In the first place, it is important to define possible audience which can be interested in this kind of discussion. Schroder and Phillips (2007) claim that different groups of people have different attitudes towards different issues. Thus, young people (18-25) tend to learn about some political events just to know what is happening around them without going into detail (Schroder
The Problems of Carbon Emissions in Australia and Saudi Arabia Report essay help online
Abstract The enlightenment that human activities contribute to climatic changes all over the world has made every country and organization look for ways in which they can conserve the environment for future generations. Activities that consume high levels of non-renewable energy have been identified as the greatest contributors of carbon emissions.
Carbon emissions are dangerous to the inhabitants of planet earth mainly because they deplete the ozone layer that acts as a buffer of high and dangerous rays from the sun (Wright 2011).
If the activities that contribute to the carbon emissions are not contained depletion of ozone layer will affect the climate negatively making the earth inhabitable. Efforts by the governments and other international organisations are involved in environmental conservation.
Introduction The essay compares the Saudi Arabia policies on carbon emissions and those of Australia. It looks into how both countries contribute to the increased carbon emissions and the strategies they are putting in place to reduce carbon emission.
The other aspect is that of contribution of oil and natural gas engineering in carbon emissions. The discussion unravels what the participants in the oil and gas mining are doing to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
Contrasting the government of Australia initiatives with those of Saudi Arabia The Australian government has been involved in environmental conservation through the effort of carbon initiatives. The government of Australia has embarked on a number of projects towards reduction of carbon emissions in the country to facilitate environmental conservation.
The first initiative by the government of Australia in the reduction of carbon energy is through the clean energy legislation. This is a legislation that gives details of how companies and the government need to work together to reduce carbon emissions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Australia, Saudi Arabia does not have a legal framework or legislation outlining the county’s strategies and efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Saudi Arabia on the other hand has engaged on educating the people to reduce fuel consumption. The country is currently looking for a better and efficient way of using the resources (Minx
“Talent management decision-making” by Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Assumptions and their influence on the article
Credibility of the authors
Literature review and its quality
Establishing the issue as important for IHRM
Useful of the article for IHRM policy or practice
Strengths and weaknesses of the article
Representation of ‘sound research’ of the article in IHRM
Executive Summary This is a critical report that offers an objective, yet crucial account of the IHRM matters and tendencies presented in the article, “Talent management decision-making” by Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings (2012).
The report focuses on assumptions of the article, and their influence on presentation of the article. In this context, the article shows that global talent management is an emerging field thus, lacks a precise definition. Consequently, it focuses on contemporary issues affecting decision-making in global talent management.
It also reviews credibility of the authors, literature review, and its quality. This report covers an up-to-date account of the research issues.
The report also shows how IHRM practitioners can use its findings to formulate policies and practices for global talent management. It also asserts contemporary issues, which influence decision-making in global talent management. Finally, the report presents strengths and weaknesses of the article. These include a thorough review of literature and its inability to offer precise solution to challenges facing IHRM. However, it calls for further studies to tackle such challenges.
Assumptions and their influence on the article Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings conducted a thorough literature review of talent management decision-making. They established that talent management of knowledge workers has become a strategic tool for organisations (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings 2012).
The authors argue that the field of talent management is emerging and lacks a concrete definition. Some scholars and professionals define talent management from human capital perspective. Conversely, others view talent management as a business strategy, corporate culture, and key to organisational success.
These researchers assumed that the challenge of exact definition of talent management has led to inadequate comprehension in the field of global talent management. However, they adopted a definition of global talent management by Scullion and Collings. It states that global talent management entails “every organisational action for attracting, selecting, developing, and retaining the best employees in the most strategic roles (those roles necessary to achieve organisational strategic priorities) on a global scale” (Scullion and Collings 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The global perspective on talent management enables these authors to look at talent management from a global perspective. As a result, they take into account various perspectives based on differences from various countries. They conclude that decision-making in talent management should take into consideration various contexts in which employee management take places. This implies that it should differ from one region to another including the US where the practice and theory emerged.
Credibility of the authors The article inspires credibility based on the number of sources these scholars used for the analysis talent management decision-making. Abilities to present issues systematically with logical conclusions and areas of limitations give the article credibility it deserves.
The authors carefully base their work on existing works of other researchers. This approach ensures that the article reflects previous works in the field of talent management. At the same time, they also remain objective by recognising that the field of global talent management is emerging, and practices may vary from country to country.
These authors have based their studies on perspectives of other authors in the same field. As a result, they establish credibility, identify gaps, and propose areas of study for future researchers.
Literature review and its quality The article is about literature review in the field of global talent management decision-making. The authors have used 100 sources in this article. These sources present both current and past developments in the global talent management.
Such extensive usages of sources enable these researchers to establish various views about the global talent management. For instance, the researchers have established that the field of talent management is emerging. As a result, there are considerable debates about its areas of focus, definition, and application.
According to literature review, the authors have established that the field of talent management shall remain a major problem to various economies across the world. In addition, they point out a recent research, which suggests that talent management shall be acute in emerging economies (Yeung, Warner and Rowley 2008).
We will write a custom Report on “Talent management decision-making” by Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The literature review allows the authors to create a connection between talent management and management decisions. From this perspective, they draw from the works of Boudreau and Ramstad, who claim that HR departments have to change themselves as “a function and shift the emphasis from the provision of services to supporting key decisions within the business, particularly in relation to talent” (Boudreau and Ramstad 2007).
The authors also note that putting talent decision in its right context and maximising the use of relevant information during decision-making processes have gained attention in the past years (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings 2012). In addition, decision-making about global talent management has been the main source of concern among international corporations. Consequently, they have identified several factors that have resulted into these challenges.
First, the article shows that a shortage of talent shall remain a main source of challenge among many organisations as they expand their activities globally (Cappelli 2008). Thus, management decision-making is vital for strategic positioning of multinational organisation.
Second, studies have also identified rapid changes in demographic characteristics as factors, which influence the supply of labour and availability of employees in the labour markets. Consequently, organisations operating in such regions must apply strategies when selecting, recruiting, and retaining employees (Tarique and Schuler 2010).
Third, some studies have indicated that organisations should regard “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as an imperative part of their strategy to decision-making in talent management” (Summer 2005). According to these organizations, CSR has become a tool of attracting and retaining highly qualified employees. CSR is critical for developing organisational reputation for attracting and retaining top talents.
Fourth, diversity also has significant influence on the global talent management decision-making. Multinational organisations face challenges of managing workforce diversity. Therefore, as levels of organisational complexity increases, organisations find it difficult to manage global talents (Beechler and Woodward 2009).
Fifth, Tung and Lazarova note that increasing mobility of workers to various cultural and geographical locations also affects decision-making in the global talent management (Tung and Lazarova 2007).
Sixth, these authors also identify a permanent change to a knowledge-based economy as another factor influencing decision-making on the global talent management. According to International Labour Organisation (ILO), there is “a general change towards intangible and human assets” (International Labour Organization 2009). This trend emanates from the rapid growth of service sector where demands for highly qualified human resources are high.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Talent management decision-making” by Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, emerging markets have also affected decision-making on the global talent management. This is because firms are looking for competent teams who can manage in geographically and culturally different locations all over the world. As a result, retention of such managers and talents has become a challenge among many multinational organisations (Bhatnagar 2007; Li and Scullion 2010).
Establishing the issue as important for IHRM Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings assert that decision-making in the global talent management affects strategic activities of the HRM and organisation. In this sense, they argue that IHRM practices and procedures must link talent management, strategy, and culture of an organisation. At the same time, this article suggests that organisations shall experience changes as practices evolve in the international labour market as globalisation matures.
These authors also tackle the latest trends witnessed in the international labour market as the main factors, which influence decision-making and the global talent management. This implies that IHRM practices must focus on these issues for successful decision-making in the global talent management.
Therefore, multinational organisations must coordinate and integrate international IHRM practices and policies relating to recruitment, selection, transfer, and retention of employees. However, this process may not be easy for such organisations. As a result, this article suggests further studies in order to identify factors, which may hinder global talent management decision-making. At the same time, such studies should review how HRM practices and policies have changed in response to the global talent management.
The article also shows that HRM practices should be different depending on the region. For instance, HRM needs to apply different procedures and practices when making decisions about international workforce. This implies that multinational organisations must change their HRM strategies depending on the region of operation.
Useful of the article for IHRM policy or practice This article demonstrates how multinational organisations should align their decision-making processes with the global talent management. It shows that IHRM policies and practices should be different based on the region of operation. This is because of different cultures and geographies of the world.
This article also highlights the importance of global talent management with reference to IHRM policies and practices. In this regard, the article highlights “aspect of strategic HR management in the international company and shows several imperative elements, which influence decision-making in global talent management” (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings 2012). At the same time, it also shows some of the rising tendencies, which shall affect decision-making in talent management in the coming years.
However, this article cannot give a definite conclusion on IHRM practices and decision-making in global talent management because the field is still emerging. Therefore, it calls for further research and empirical studies to provide ways of understanding the field of IHRM and global talent management in a given context of practice.
Strengths and weaknesses of the article This article has strengths on a thorough literature review. Consequently, it presents the subject from different perspectives of various scholars. At the same time, the article clearly identifies its areas of focus so that readers can easily understand the article. As a result, it systematically presents areas in which practices and policies of multinational organisations should focus on when formulating IHRM policies and practices.
On the other hand, the article lacks empirical data to support the theoretical perspectives it presents. It is only a review of past studies. Thus, it offers nothing new to the field of global talent management and decision-making. In fact, the article proposes a number of further studies to tackle issues it cannot find their solutions.
For instance, these authors also dismiss “the narrow best way to global talent management, which is still dominant in the global talent management literature” (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings 2012). However, they do not offer any alternative solution to the global talent management. Instead, they call for future studies to explore issues surrounding the implementation of talent management across various countries among multinational organisations.
In all, the article points out challenges IHRM policies may face in the future. In this sense, adequate empirical studies shall address issues relating to talent management decision-making in various contexts. At the same time, the article also posits that there is a need for further studies on new roles of HR departments as responses to emerging and complex issues of global talent management.
Further, the article proposes a further research to focus on the relationship between CSR and talent management, especially in emerging economies where CSR tends to control talent management decision-making among multinational organisations.
Representation of ‘sound research’ of the article in IHRM Vaiman, Scullion, and Collings present their study in a systematic way just like other authors of scholarly studies. They outline the purpose of the research as an attempt to understand key issues that influence global talent management decision-making. These authors also note that their study takes the approach or design of literature review.
From the literature review, the authors present their findings. They review debates on the subject, focus on factors affecting global talent management decision-making, and propose further studies to enlighten subsequent decision-making in talent management. The authors also provide practical implications of their study.
They note that article shall be useful for IHRM practitioners when formulating policies for global talent management. Finally, the authors claim that the article provides an up-to-date account of talent management decision-making.
References Beechler, Schon, and Ian Woodward. “The Global War for Talent.” Journal of International Management 15, no. 3 (2009): 273-85.
Bhatnagar, Jyotsna. “Talent management strategy of employee engagement in Indian ITES employees: key to retention.” Employee Relations 29, no. 6 (2007): 640-63.
Boudreau, John, and Peter Ramstad. Beyond HR: The New Science of Human Capital. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2007.
Cappelli, Peter. Talent on Demand: Managing Talent in an Age of Uncertainty. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2008.
International Labour Organization. Global Employment Trends. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2009.
Li, Shenxue, and Hugh Scullion. “Developing the local competence of expatriate managers for emerging markets: a knowledge based approach.” Journal of World Business 45, no. 2 (2010): 190-196.
Scullion, Hugh, and David Collings. Global Talent Management. London: Routledge, 2011.
Summer, Lin. “Employees: your most important stakeholders.” Corporate Responsibility Management 1, no. 5 (2005): 2.
Tarique, Ibraiz, and Randall Schuler. “Global talent management: literature review, integrative framework, and suggestions for further research.” Journal of World Business 45, no. 2 (2010): 122-133.
Tung, Rosalie, and Mila Lazarova. “The human resource challenge to outward foreign investment aspirations from emerging countries: the case of China.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 18, no. 5 (2007): 868-89.
Vaiman, Vlad, Hugh Scullion, and David Collings. “Talent management decision making.” Management Decision 50, no. 5 (2012): 925-941.
Yeung, Arthur, Malcolm Warner, and Chris Rowley. “Growth and globalization: evolution of human resource practices in Asia.” Human Resource Management 47, no. 1 (2008): 1-13.
Italian Culture Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Customs and Traditions
Introduction Italy has been considered by many people as the epicenter of human civilization. Located at the southern part of Europe, Italy has a rich history since ancient times.
Most of the western culture be it religion, science, education, philosophy or even art are attributed to Italy. It should be noted that unlike the ancient times, nowadays Italy has a mixture of people who have emigrated from various parts of the world. Besides music, arts and religion, Italy also boosts of a well performing economy and political structures which have far reaching effects to the rest of the world.
Customs and Traditions Italians like associating themselves with one another especially those who are related to them. Family ties are highly regarded in the Italian community and both sides of the family are accorded equal treatment. Traditionally, marriage was an arranged affair in the Italian culture though nowadays it is a free exercise.
Until quite recently, divorce was forbidden because marriage was taken to be a life long engagement. It is important to note though most of the Italians marry, there is the custom of children remaining unmarried so that they can take care for the old members of the family (Nickles, 2001). As far as inheritance is concerned, both male and female members of the family are allowed to get equal inheritance.
Traditionally, society allocated roles according to gender though this has changed of late due to civilization. However, the family still remains the basic unit of society and in most cases husbands head their families. The physical appearance of a person including the dressing style highly matters (Parasecoli, 2004). Consequently, Italians are customarily fashion conscious and to them first impression is very important.
Arts Italians are known for their love in arts and their tradition has been rich in arts. The support that works of art has received from both public and private sectors have propelled the tradition to date. Italy’s arts include literature, music, fashion and design sculpture and theatre arts among others.
From the ancient times sculpture has dominated Italians’ work. The aspect was highly prevalent in the middle ages and most productions were religious in nature. It should be noted that artistic works of Italy have played a crucial role in influencing modern art (White, 2007). On the other hand Italy is also known for its influential literature both audio and written.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Written literature was done in Latin until the 13th century when first Italian work was produced. Currently, Italy has a lot of writers in poetry, fiction and many other forms of literature (Nickles, 2001). It is important to note that music writing began in Italy, prompting Italian language to be used to date in explain how music should be played.
Religion Italy is considered as the place where Roman Catholicism started as it spread all over the world. As a result, a majority of Italians are Roman Catholics. Therefore, the common religious beliefs in Italy are based on the teaching of Roman Catholic. As a matter of fact, the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church are situated in Vatican City in Italy.
However, there are people who still maintain traditional beliefs in the evil eye, charms and messages through dreams (Parasecoli, 2004). The Roman Catholic has somehow separated its affairs from the state though it still has a vital role to play. Besides Roman Catholic, other religions like Islam and other Christian churches are also present (White, 2007). It is a general belief in Italy that after death there is life where the good people will be rewarded.
Language The language spoken by most natives of Italy is Italian and it is the official language of the country. Majority of the Italians are native speakers. However, there are dialects in few regions which are sometimes considered as different languages. The dialects include Friulian and Ladin in the north and Albanian and Croatian in the south. In addition, there are other parts where people speak different languages including German and Greek as their first languages (Killinger, 2005).
Politics The current constitution of Italy came into effect in 1st January 1948 after people voted to have a republic instead of a monarchy. As a result, Italy’s parliament consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The government has three branches; the executive, judiciary, and legislature.
The president is elected for a seven year term and must be less than 50 years old. The president then appoints a prime minister who should form a government (white, 2007). There is no post of the vice president in Italy and in the event that the president dies, elections will have to be held.
Italy has joined various organizations including North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European Union which it was the founder as well as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. It should be noted that the president is the commander of armed forces and has powers to dissolve parliament and call for new elections (Nickles, 2001).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Italian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Food Differences exist regarding the food that people eat in various regions and the mode of cooking. However, Pasta, soup, bread, and meat either white or red are common in all areas.
Spaghetti and pizza which are nowadays known world wide are traditional Italian foods. People of southern Italy are known to like heavy cooking compared to the northerners. It should be noted however that unlike the common argument that Italian food is more or less homogenous, there exists diversity in the types of foods eaten in Italy (Parasecoli, 2004).
Economy Agriculture contributes a mere 4% to the gross national product. Agricultural products that are locally grown include wheat, vegetables, olives, grapes and fruits. However, the country imports dairy products as well as meat. Majorly, Italy is an industrial economy having shifted its focus from agriculture after the Second World War.
The main industries in the Italian economy include textile production, chemicals, cars, shipbuilding, iron and steel among others (White, 2007). Italians are known for their love of speed and they produce the world’s fastest cars though they have not ventured into mass production.
So far, Italy is among the richest economies in the world today both in terms of nominal gross domestic product and purchasing power parity. It is a member of the world’s eight most industrialized countries. It is also among the world’s largest importers and exporters either in goods or services.
It should also be noted that technologically Italy is advanced and invests a lot in science and technology as well as research and development (Killinger, 2005). Because of the high volumes of trade between Italy and the rest of the world, Italy is very influential in the global economy both as a producer and a consumer.
References Killinger, C. L. (2005). Culture and Customers of Italy. Westport: Greenwood Publishing group.
Nickles, G. (2001). Italy: The Culture. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Italian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Parasecoli, F (2004). Food Culture in Italy. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
White, J. C. (2007). Italian Culture Lineages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Heat Related Injuries in Sports Essay scholarship essay help
Heat related injuries in sports occur as a result of doing excessive physical exercises in hot or humid conditions resulting in heat cramps, heat stroke or heat exhaustion. This paper is going to look at the symptoms, signs and ways of preventing heat related injuries in sports.
In human bodies, heat is regulated through sweating. The sweat is evaporated through the surface of skin to cool or rather bring the body temperatures to normalcy. However, the level of moisture in air is high when the wheatear condition is humid thus decreasing the evaporation rate since vapor and air are saturated (Anderson, Parr
Plants and Carbon Dioxide Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Physiologically, living things regulate the intake and removal of various metabolic precursors within their systems. In this context, it is true that plants will not increase their CO2 uptake in response to increased levels of the gas (CO2) in the atmosphere.
Additionally, plants will not increase their relative significance in the removal and sequestration of CO2 (a greenhouse gas) despite the characterizing expectations. It is important to agree that most terrestrial and aquatic plants only absorb considerable amount of CO2 during photosynthesis (Taub, 2010). This uptake stops at the optimal levels despite the concentration of the gas in the atmosphere.
The phenomenon is termed as ‘downregulation’ as indicated earlier. For example, experiments (using soya beans leaves) indicate that plants will only synthesis enough Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) to operate in the Calvin Cycle depending on the energy demands of the concerned plants.
This is not dictated by the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. Plants usually make and store ATP only to their respective optimal levels. Thus, they can minimally reduce the atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Obviously, the levels of CO2 intake might increase tremendously at the initial stages of the photosynthetic processes; nonetheless, this trend is bound to reduce upon saturation of plant cells with the gas (CO2). In the Calvin cycle, CO2 sequesters/combines with Rubisco to form 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate. The process requires a constant supply of Rubisco (Raghavendra, 2000).
Despite the abundance of CO2, the cycle cannot proceed minus Rubisco whose synthesis is not pegged to the CO2 abundance but to the physiological demands of the concerned plants. This is an important provision that indicates why plants should not be considered as the ultimate liberator from greenhouse gases.
When plants have synthesized and stored enough energy they require, they will obviously disable the Calvin Cycle during dark stage of photosynthesis. For example, plants will hardly synthesis metabolites more than they require for immediate use and storage. The metabolic cycles within terrestrial plants are under stringent regulations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is evident during photosynthesis where various processes are regulated accordingly. It is important to agree that various processes within the plant regulatory systems are responsive to environmental factors. Nonetheless, the alleged response can only occur to some levels despite the CO2 increment. This provision is relevant in this case.
Plants should not be expected to respond extraordinarily to the environmental factors (Shwartz, 2002). It is agreeable that plants need CO2 for photosynthetic processes and they can also increase their responses depending on the levels of such precursors; however, this is only relevant to some extent.
Although atmospheric scientists prospect to enhance the growth of plants in order to remove excess CO2 from the atmosphere, this will not materialize as expected. There are numerous challenges that characterize this move. These consider physiological provisions of various plants with regard to photosynthesis.
The aspect of ‘downregulation’ mentioned earlier is relevant in this context. There are various physiological limitations that regulate plants’ metabolic, photosynthetic, and other physiological systems. Shwartz (2002) argues that higher CO2 concentrations might retard the growth of some plants contrary to the expected higher CO2 sequestration rates. This is an important provision when considered critically in this context.
For example, the tissues of most terrestrial plants might change their chemical compositions in response to higher CO2 levels thus causing their premature death. Consequently, plants must undergo ‘downregulation’ in order to restore the situation. This provision defies the claims that plants will help in reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere.
References Raghavendra, A. (2000). Photosynthesis: A comprehensive treatise. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Shwartz, M. (2002). Climate change surprise: High carbon dioxide levels can retard plant growth, study reveals. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Plants and Carbon Dioxide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taub, D. (2010). Effects of Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide on Plants. Nature Education Knowledge. Web.
Analysis of BP (British Petroleum) Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Current situation of the company’s industry
Secondary data resources
Information gathering techniques
Introduction The company chosen for Analysis is BP (British Petroleum); a vertically integrated multinational firm, and one of the largest organizations in the globe. The company is in need of revamping the oil production process especially after the catastrophic 2010 oil spill and dwindling returns over the past five years.
Main consideration The organization is vertically-integrated because it handles almost all aspects of oil production such as exploration, refining, marketing, electricity generation, distribution, and the sale of petrochemicals. While the company might boast about its large size and its capacity to handle all these aspects, its returns indicate that the firm might need to reinvent itself.
The notion of integration might not be the best model for the company. This is evident through minimal shareholder pay backs over the past five years. In this period, the company has recorded shareholder depreciation in its annual returns.
Shareholder pay outs do not come from capital growth; they instead emanate from dividends. As if this is not enough, the firm has not witnessed any substantial production growth over the past nine years, yet it keeps investing in its business processes.
Current situation of the company’s industry Not all oil companies are doing as badly as BP. Firms that focus on one line of production, or those that are not as vertically integrated as BP, tend to perform well. An organization such as BG only dwells on upstream oil processes and leaves the marketing, distribution and trading to other partners.
This company has recorded high capital growth numbers. Conversely, large oil corporations that integrate production with sales are position 23 out of 24 among all other significant industries in the country.
This implies that profitability is quite low for integrated oil firms. Members of this industry must also contend with concerns about environmental protection. Many of them also have difficulties in acquisition of new resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this light, the company needs to consider separating its brands and businesses. In other words, it can sell away declining brands and stick with the ones that have a long life such as shale gas or liquefied natural gas. It could rebrand upstream and downstream portfolios and thus concentrate on the aspects of production that truly yield effective returns.
Secondary data resources An industry analysis will be necessary to start the research proposal. Cowan (2) wrote one such report concerning gasoline prices. This article highlights how refineries, marketers and distributors are performing. It will allow one to make an analysis regarding performance in the oil industry.
The second resource will be a Wall Street journal report by Power et al. (11) on the feasibility of drilling as part of the company portfolio. Lastly, the proposal will use a publication from BP concerning its performance in order to prove that it requires a restoration of the same (Tharoor 5).
Information gathering techniques The research will mainly dwell on secondary data, and it will only use the most relevant and credible resources. This will entail a selection of reports and articles that discuss oil industry performance over the past five decades. Such papers must specifically relate to profitability within vertically integrated oil firms.
Additionally, the paper will involve an analysis of the growth numbers within BP itself so as to justify the need for a brand revamp. Thereafter, the research will give some suggestions on how the brand reinventions can occur.
Works Cited Cowan, Trey. Crude Math: What is really impacting global gasoline demand 22 Feb. 2012. Web. https://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/115404/crude_math_what_is_really_impacting_gasoline_demand/
Power, Stephen, John Kelly and Stephen Hughes. “Lawmakers chastise oil firms over spill.” Wall Street Journal 16 June 2010: 11. Web..
We will write a custom Research Paper on Analysis of BP (British Petroleum) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tharoor, Ishaan. “A brief history of BP.” Time Magazine 2 Jun. 2010: 5. Print.