Table of Contents Why is home ownership decreasing?
What is the way forward?
The American dream of owning a home is slowly turning into a dreaded concept with all the hardships it brings along with it. Many people have taken mortgages in order to buy houses simply because the incentives given to them by the government are very lucrative.
The federal government has promoted home ownership through programs that entail “tax incentives for first-time buyers and mortgage interest deductions” (Depaul 1). Mortgage interest deduction though beneficial to home owners, will have a heavy toll to the tax revenue. Future projections have shown a “$131 billion” reduction in 2012 (Depaul 1).
However, the polls carried out by Allstate/National Journal/Heartland Monitor show that the Americans are divided concerning whether the government should continue with these programs or not (Depaul 1). Current statistics prove that home ownership is on the decline.
Why is home ownership decreasing? As of February 2011 there were only 250,000 sales made which is a “record low” and this translates to a 16.9% decline in the “annual rate of new single-family home sales” (Depaul 1).
There have been different views expressed by experts and analysts some of whom have attributed this decline to: “uncertainty in labor market, falling home prices, tight credits and high unemployment” (Depaul 1). Tom Wilson, Allstate Chairman and CEO, claimed an imbalance between demand and supply.
Though the government had all good intentions in encouraging home ownership, this has had a negative impact on some families. It is known that as a result of mortgages, there is increased debt and also “soaring foreclosure rates” which in general destabilizes the community. Deliberations are still being made on the best course of action to be taken.
What is the way forward? Jared Bernstein, chief economist and advisor to Vice President Joe Biden, commenting on the issue of governments’ involvement, suggested that government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) should be reduced and that the government’s contribution should have been one that encouraged a more “sustainable home ownership” and not creating more problems for the individuals and even the economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A unanimous agreement by other panelists was that mortgage- interest deductions should not to be altered at the moment until the housing market is a bit stable. Pete Domenici and Alive Rivlin together in their report on “deficit reduction” suggested that mortgage interest deduction be applicable to loans under $500,000 only.
Henry Cisneros, “a former Secretary of the Housing and Urban Development and a member of the Domenici-Rivlin Debt Reduction Task Force” (Depaul 1) on the other hand proposed “replacing the mortgage deduction with a refundable 15% credit” (Depaul 1). He also added that changes on mortgage interest deduction were mainly going to be influenced by the Congress and that he only expects changes to the “home interest mortgage” and not its elimination.
Personal opinion Individuals, in America and elsewhere should cultivate a saving culture in order that when the appropriate time comes, then one can easily purchase the home of their choice.
This will even ensure that they do not incur any debts as in the case of obtaining mortgages and they will even be protected from the increasing foreclosure rates. When one starts to save earlier in life, then the American dream will definitely become a reality, free of debt.
Work Cited Depaul, Jennifer. Homeowner Tax breaks; Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? The Fiscal Times, 2011. Web.
Critical thinking Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Despite the fact that everyone has the ability to think; only a few engage in critical thinking. Scholars describe critical thinking as thinking within thinking to seek for clarity, accuracy, consistency, good reasons for or against, depth, relevance and fairness.
A critical thinker is one with the ability to intellectually and skillfully solve a problem by identifying the problem, conceptualizing on the same, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating information gathered and to exercise their best judgment to draw conclusions.
It requires a good thinker, clear, logic, thoughtful, attentive to all facts and open to alternatives. Critical thinking is a valuable tool in every area of management whether in office or in lifestyle management. Critical thinking will enable one to make smarter and quicker decisions.
The process also saves time. High profile jobs in society require critical thinkers hence one is highly placed if s/he is a critical thinker. A good manager should keep on learning by attending seminars and workshops and being open minded to stay ahead of the competition.
For one to think critically in business, differentiation between facts and fiction is necessary. Verification of the source would help distinguish between the facts and fiction. Close relationship with the source should not influence ones judgment. Accuracy is also vital as facts and fictions can be hectic to distinguish.
Asking of questions is an integral part of critical thinking. One major hindrance to critical thinking is emotional biasness. One should be able to fight the subjective barriers and be as objective as possible. Use of logics and basing ones judgment on good evidence can overcome this barrier.
Experts have come up with different models of critical thinking and Phoenix University is among such experts. The models guide one into thinking critically; to act not to react. Quick decisions cost a lot especially in a business set up. Any model will give one a structured discipline, which will help in focusing on important steps in decision making.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Phoenix University “identifies a nine steps model in critical thinking” (Kirby
Crime and deviance Essay online essay help
Introduction Deviance is an act perceived to be against one cultural belief and the act cannot be tolerated. Deviance acts are different from one community to another and also can vary depending on generational time.
For example, the homosexuality is allowed in American society, but in Africa the act is seen as satanic and can make the victims to be stoned to death. In some decades ago, divorce was seen to be against the rule of the church society, but with modernization, divorced has grown to be accepted as part of marriage life (Lukes 28).
Crime is an act that is against the norm of a society and the registered law of the entire country. If a person breaks a certain section of a country law, there is a correction sanction to that person. A person is usually taken to the court of law where the offence is listened to, by the judge and the person is either proven guilty or innocent.
A criminal can be put in jail for some time or for life, sentenced to death and even pay some money as a penalty (Lukes 28). A country law which is constitution is mostly formed by the parliament of that country.
Sociological perspective Introduction. Sociologists have tried to understand crime and deviance in different ways. Most of the ancient sociologists have come up with different sociological perspectives that try to explain crime and deviance.
Emile Durkheim came up with rule of sociological methods that explained crime as part of society norms. Durkheim believed crime to be higher in modernized and industrialized society as compared to less modernized. In industrialized society, division of labor is the norm of life and each person is exposed to different work experiences (Moyer 54).
Division of labor exists in two ways, one is mechanical solidarity whereby the members of the society are similar and the organic solidarity in which society members creates a relationship among themselves through the division of labor. As in the division of labor, society people have different influences and situational experiences that distinguish one person from the other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The personal differences make some people to be criminals and other to be good. No society lacks deviance or crime however perfect it could be. Every community has norms and traditions that put the members together and if the norms are broken, there is state of anomie and lawlessness.
Advantages of the perspective. Durkheim argued that besides division of labor helping to make production rise and improve the human capital it also possessed a moral character that created a sense of solidarity in humans. He explained with a married couple arguing that sexual desire would only exist after the material life has disappeared if the division of labor was to be reduced between the marriage partners.
Durkheim suggested that division of labor has more of social and moral order therefore married couple is bided by their common things they do. Durkheim saw that crime was beneficial to the society in some instances. Crime builds future morality by showing what law is to be followed.
For example a committed crime will lead to establishment of an order that will be followed by the people to avoid repetition of the same crime. Crime corrections or rewards were put not to punish a criminal and make the person stop the crime, but the punishment was to strengthen the entire law to help control crime. Durkheim saw that punishment and crime go together and cannot be separated (Marsh 98).
Drawbacks of the perspective. Crime is has negative impacts and dangerous to the people and the community at large if is at high levels. If crime is not controlled and increases more and more each day, the society can be unable to prevent the criminals. On the other hand, if the crime rate is too low, the society maybe abnormal.
According to Durkheim the breaking of the society way of living or the norms is what brings in the social change which is very important in community development. Otherwise the social change should be controlled or moderate to avoid social problem. In any case the deviance which motivate the social change should be regulated so that to prevent the loss of criminal identity which it is important in the future (Marsh 95).
Durkheim failed to explain how for example division of labor would be used to control crime in the society. Also not all crimes would be beneficial to the society because if a crime resulted to killing or a big damage then the society will drag behind on development.
We will write a custom Essay on Crime and deviance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Lukes, Steven. The rules of the sociological method. New York: Free press, 2007.
Marsh, Ian., Melville, Gaynor. Theories of crime. Canada: Routledge, 2006
Moyer, Imogene. Criminological theories: traditional and non traditional voices. London: sage publishers, 2001.
Classical conditioning as an explanation of human behavior Cause and Effect Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Classical conditioning explains some kind of human behavior that is usually associated through interaction with the environment and is used in behavioral training.
This type of learning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov in 1927 while conducting an experiment with dogs. In his theory he explains that as an individual, reactions are learned through the paring of neutral stimulus which would be defined as any event that does not result in overt behavioral response along with a stimulus of some significance (Coon
Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior Critical Essay scholarship essay help
The book, “Once a Warrior–Always a Warrior” by Hoge gives an account of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alongside other war reactions, which veterans, service members, government workers or contractor previously deployed in a war zone endure after coming back home.
Hoge was triggered to write this book so as to bridge the gap that exists between combat veterans, the society and mental health professionals in as far as comprehending PTSD is concerned.
Unfortunately, the medical definition of PTSD does not show any understanding of this disorder in the context of someone who has been through combat. It is misused to refer to any post-war behavioural problem like having failed relationships, being violent and getting in fights, or driving under the influence of alcohol.
PTSD is seen as a mental disorder but in actual sense, it is a physical condition that has a huge toll on the whole body and can be understood well via the developing science of stress physiology (describes the body’s normal response to extreme stress). Each person has a breaking point, which if reached leads to total exhaustion.
Veterans succumb to total physical and metal exhaustions since reaching the breaking point is inevitable in an event such as war. As objectively stated there is not sign of a mental condition in such an instance (xiii).
As Hoge writes, PTSD is associated with different meanings among different people. It is considered to be among the 300 diagnoses described in detail in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
It is defined based on a specific set of symptoms, which have been present for more than one month. It can be acute if the symptoms have lasted between 1 and 3 months and chronic if more than 3 months. If the symptoms begin six months after combat trauma, then this is known as delayed onset.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, warriors with delayed onset did experience some reactions that were similar to what the warriors experienced during the time of trauma but apparently suppressed them or avoided dealing with them. The clear-cut between the three categories of PTSD has not proved useful.
PTSD is defined by mental health professionals depending on the particular list of symptoms that prevail. Unfortunately, as earlier stated, it does not capture the full picture with regard to reactions to war. Neither does it distinguish between what is normal and what is abnormal within a military context. This is because PTSD is continuously confused with some normal reactions experienced by warriors/veterans during war.
Combat stress, acute stress reaction, post-traumatic stress and combat stress reaction are some other terms used to refer to PTSD. Medical professional also use these terms thereby creating confusion.
Combat and post-traumatic stresses are used to refer to less severe forms of distress or symptoms as compared with PTSD. They are not essential terms that could be used because they lack a clear definition.
A combat stress reaction/acute stress reaction/operational stress reaction is associated with being on a battlefield. It refers to the direct and immediate reaction to critical stress, exhaustion or trauma. It is a reflection of the point in time when a veteran reaches “breaking point” and requires time to shut down.
It can manifest itself in almost every form of physical symptom such as “chest pain, neurological symptoms, fatigue, shaking of the muscles, headaches, shortness of breath” or as behavioural reaction such as panic, bizarre behaviour, rage, inability to think clearly, agitation” (Hoge 1-2). This kind of stress reaction is not a mental disorder and is easily managed by rest and reassurance.
Some people perceive PTSD as a catchall phrase used to refer to the reactions of post-war veterans upon coming back home like shell shock and battle fatigue. PTSD is mainly closely linked to several reactions, emotions and perceptions, which do not form part of a neat diagnosis.
We will write a custom Essay on Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PTSD has been contraindicated with concussions, being referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Most post-war veterans have been advised that their post-war problems like anger, fatigue, memory issues. PTSD symptoms, sleeplessness and poor concentration ability are due to medically unattended concussions that resulted from exposure to blasts.
PTSD among warriors can be a day-to-day experience where warriors are haunted by memories they eagerly desire to forget. Warriors are always alert as if they expect some form of danger that others are no aware of. They endure lack of sleep at night; react to stimuli as if they were still at war.
It becomes very arduous for a lay person to understand the behaviour of these post-war warriors. These kinds of reactions are very important during survival in combat and may be required later in future hence the title of the book, “Once a Warrior–Always a warrior”.
Therefore, to some extent they are normal in a certain environment. This notion in mind, it becomes difficult to define what is normal and what is not normal in this post-war context.
According to the book, PTSD is diagnosed on the basis of Axis I for DSM-IV. The essence of diagnosis is to enable the medical professional team to communicate in the same language hence, will be more confident while managing and treating a patient. Apparently, it has been easy to diagnose PTSD due to its uniqueness among other DSM disorders.
The uniqueness is attributed to the fact that it is explicitly linked to one or more traumatic event. While assessing for a diagnosis, medical professionals inquire about the nature of the trauma and symptoms.
When the trauma is considered to have resulted into the occurrence of the requisite number and nature of symptoms going for more than one month, then a PTSD diagnosis is made.
I would make a diagnosis of PTSD on the basis of Axis IV for the DSM-IV version. The reason why I make this diagnosis is because it has been attributed to psychosocial and environmental factors in this case war and responses adopted to enhance survival in times of war.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Once a Warrior-Always a Warrior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main difference between the diagnosis made in the book and the one I have made is that the previous one is considered to be a clinical disorder while the later is not.
The diagnosis can be clarified by breaking down DSM definition of PTSD. This way, it will be evident that every symptom of PTSD develops as a result of the body’s response to serious stress or danger. Usually, six different criteria, A via F, and all must be met for the diagnosis to stand true.
Criterion A defines a trauma as an event that involves serious injury or death. The DSM diagnosis requires responses such as horror, intense fear or helplessness to result at the time of the trauma. There should be a sufficient number of symptoms: 17 in number.
Criterion B is where the patient experiences five different kinds of symptoms associated with re-experiencing the traumatic event. Criterion C is associated with symptoms depicting avoidance while criterion D entails five symptoms that suggest hyper-arousal (Hoge 12).
Some aspect of PTSD aroused my attention. Warriors in a war zone area have to develop survival tactics that enable them to make it through the war period. Some behaviours, as long as they are not harming other people cannot be considered to be abnormal.
For example, if a post-war veteran develops a strong desire to collect guns up to the highest acceptable level by law and does not intend to use the weapons in any evil way to harm others, Doctor Hoge does not consider this to be not abnormal despite the fact that other people consider abnormal.
It is no doubt that warriors/veterans have developed some peculiar behaviour while at war which may seem to be a deviation from the normal.
However, it is important for the loved ones and the warriors themselves to acknowledge the changes that have taken place so as to avoid the detrimental repercussions that come along with post-war effects hence avoid unpleasant surprises and shocks (Hoge xiv).
The book was published last year therefore there is no much difference between now and then. However, it has transverse across historic times like when referring to Iraq and Afghanistan battlefields which occurred in the mid twentieth century.
It has incorporated the enormous advances that have occurred to help in understanding PTSD better and this includes neurobiology and diagnosing, evaluating and treating the condition. Neurobiology research in relation to PTSD has involved numerous experiments to study animals upon being subjected to stress, and humans who have suffered trauma.
This advanced research has helped in bringing about a greater understanding of PTSD as a physiological condition rather than an emotional or psychological disorder. Based on this advanced neurobiology research, PTSD affects the whole body; the cardiovascular system, endocrine system as well as the immune system.
PTSD can lead to physical, emotional, behavioural, psychological and cognitive reactions, all of which have a physiological basis. The advanced findings have led to the development of new PTSD treatments like psychotherapy/talk therapy, as well as medications that target particular brain areas and body responses.
Works Cited Hoge, Charles W. Once a Warrior–Always a Warrior. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2010.
Macroeconomic Policies in Australia Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction The world today is a global village since the economic policies applied on one end of the world have an impact on other economies on the other end. The economic conditions have also become so dynamic that the policy makers are finding it hard to determine the appropriate policy measures (Conrad, 2009). There has been recession within the last ten to fifteen years that have adversely affected many economies. However, those economies that had the appropriate policies in place experienced a small impact only. Australian economy has had mixed results in the last10 to years, which can be shown by examining its macro economic policies and macroeconomic indicators (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, n.d).
The experience of the Australian economy over the last 10-15 years The four main macro-economic indicators in any given economy are unemployment rate, gross domestic product, inflation rate and the level of interest rates. Microeconomic policies are mainly used for several purposes such as to attain stable prices, full employment and register economic growth among other reasons. The Australian economy has been varying for the last 10-15 years due to economic changes within the country or in the global economy. The macroeconomic indicators as explained below can show this.
Trends in Australian economic growth Economic growth refers to the rate at which the national income of a given economy is growing, whereby national income refers to gross domestic product (Adelman, 1961).
The graph below shows that the Australia gross domestic product has been experiencing an increasing trend. Between 1998 and 2001, the GDP was stable. However, in 2002, there was a decrease in growth, which was followed by an increasing growth up to 2008. There was a slight drop in 2010. According to ABS, Australia has had an average GDP of $22.44 billion from 1965 to 2010.
In 2008, the GDP reached its record high of $1015.22 billion. In the same period of 2008-2009, the global economy was experiencing recession in which many economies were hard hit. This is a clear indicator of how stable the Australian economy has become, because during that recession most countries experienced a negative economic growth.
Source: (Trading Economics, n.d)
Australian Unemployment Rate Trend The Unemployed refers to those people who are jobless but are able to work and are actively seeking for employment. It is always given as a percentage of an economy’s labour force (Hughes
Hunting and Gathering Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Hunting and gathering was one of the ancient practices in human history. The society regarded hunting and gathering as a form of hobby, trade or simplify as a method of obtaining food. Hunting and gathering was widespread especially in densely populated forests because these areas were inhabited with animals and wild fruits. However, the trend of hunting and gathering has changed in present times (Hummel, 72). Perhaps it can be attributed to people’s evolving lifestyles.
This paper explores how hunting has transformed from native years to present. It explores in details whether the practice has become more of a game or simply a sporting activity.
How Hunting and Gathering Has Changed From Its Native Years According to Maisels (76), early man was likely to be a scavenger than a hunter. He could feed on the remains of animals which died of natural causes or killed by predators. Over 500,000 years, hunting and gathering, was the only means of survival for the early man. The hunter–gatherer communities were forced to be always on the move since some areas produced foods seasonally due to variations in climatic patterns.
Natural rocks and trees provided them with shelter. For more than 80,000 years ago, revolution started to take place and early man invented old age tools such as; the bone harpoons, fishing nets and hooks (Maisels, 86).
Besides these tools simplifying work of obtaining food, they aided in promoting sporting activities. Men were primarily hunters while women were gatherers in most communities but in some communities, women also allowed to hunted.
These communities lived in clusters based on their tribes and kinship. They adopted a democratic and non-hierarchical system of governance. In addition, shared and exchanged resources besides creating space for leisure activities as affirmed by Maisels (124).
Agricultural practices were implemented 10,000 years ago, and it has since played a vital role in the replacement of hunting and the gathering as a way of livelihood. However, some communities have not adopted it in entirety as some communities are still hunters and gatherers (Maisels, 127).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The continued demand for land for agricultural practices led to the integration of more hunter-gatherers communities to the innovative agricultural measures.
The communities which were not able to adapt were forced to flee the scene. The hunter-gatherer communities uprooted any plant deemed inappropriate for their consumption to create space for the growth of consumable plants and shelter for wildlife.
In the modern society, hunting and gathering is still practiced by agriculturalists for instance, hunting is carried out during the winter season (Maisels, 133).
Evolution of Hunting and Gathering Methods Sharp stones
Early man used sharp stones for hunting and with the development of new hunting strategies, man invented new tools for hunting such as the arrows, bows and spears which simplified hunting for fast-moving and wild animals (Maisels, 152).
The dogs were domesticated and used for persistence hunting. They were good in aspects fit for hunting such as; good sense of scent and sight. They could intelligently flush out the target from its hiding place and pace in order to hold it. They were also used since they are able to attack and kill some dangerous and difficult to trap animals.
In India, the elephants were used to pursue the extremely dangerous animals such as the tigers due to their large sizes (Maisels, 154). The horses were also used in the UK due to their ability to run fast. The elites used the war chariots to hunt lions.
Gun Powders and Rifles
These tools were commonly used when hunting bigger animals which were perceived, as threatening. The rifles and gun powders were and still are used to kill and net predators such as lions and tigers which are regarded as man-eating beasts (Maisels, 170). With the use of gun powder, safety and health regulations have to be adhered because of environmental hazards.
We will write a custom Essay on Hunting and Gathering specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hunting and Gathering, Sport or Game?
In ancient times, hunting was seen as a sport for the rich and famous. According to Hummel (95), hunting was encouraged as relaxations to facilitate the elites in the society develop their fighting skills. In our modern times, hunting and gathering, has evolved thus it is more of a sport than a game.
Some governments for example, countries in Eastern Africa region, have established laws which simplify this sport (Hummel, 102). For example, governments allow a specific season whereby animals such as; Axis Deer, Blackbuck, Nilgal and fallow Deer are hunted.
However, laws and regulations limiting hunting have also been affected. This is to curb illegal hunting and to control and protect endangered species such as Rhinos and wild birds. These laws have been affected through bans on specific species of animals and control of hunting seasons (Hummel, 121).
Nevertheless, the dog has still remained an accomplished animal during sport hunting. This is due to its persistence hunting techniques and skills. Moreover, Tourism has contributed to modernity of hunting sports. As a form of relaxation, they visits game reserves and game parks and participate in hunting.
Bird shooting has also attracted many enthusiasts. This has made countries such as the UK to come up with strategies of breeding “species of bird” specifically for hunting sports. Also, In the United States, government has taken initiatives to streamline the sport (Hummel, 124).
This has been through purchasing of land and providing hunting training to lovers of this sport. Consequently, the US government has authorized hunting of some animals because they have been perceived as pests. According to Hummel (128), computers have also endeavored in modernizing hunting sport; this has been through the use of a webcam and guns which are remotely controlled to shoot at imagined animals.
Conclusion Hunting and gathering has established a new sporting culture in our modern times. Traditionally, gathering was mainly centered towards food sustenance. However, the culture has transformed gradually thus breeding gardening as a form of hobby.
Similarly, Hunting was designed to provide enough food for families. Over the centuries, the culture has shifted thus leading to leisurely sports such as game shooting, filming among others. Hence hunting and gathering has become more of a sport than a game.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hunting and Gathering by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Hummel, Richard L. Hunting and Fishing For Sport: Commerce, Controversy, Popular Culture, Wisconsin, Popular Press, 1994
Maisels, Charles Keith. The Emergence of Civilization: From Hunting and Gathering To Agriculture, Cities, And The State In The Near East, New York, Routledge, 1993
Strategic Marketing Plan for a New Energy Drink Research Paper essay help site:edu
Executive Summary Carpe Diem Beverage Co. is a small limited liability company that has been established to manufacture and distribute healthy energy drinks in the US market.
The Mission of the company is to be a leader in the manufacturing and marketing of healthy, nutritious beverages in the USA and to satisfy consumers’ needs while at the same time enhancing the individual and society well being. The marketing objective of the company is to capture 0.015% of the US energy drink market in the first year of its operation and to create significant brand awareness in the market especially among the Generation Y population.
The Strengths of the company include a new unique product that is healthy and taste better than its competitors products. The company’s image is favorable due to its social and environmental friendly techniques. The weaknesses of the company include limited financial resources, limited knowledge and experience and lack of a distributor network.
Opportunities of the company include strong growth opportunities in the segment, global marketing opportunities, increasing demand for healthy soft drinks and low barriers of entry. Threats include a strong reaction from established and resourced competitors and possibility of imitations and launch of similar products by competitors
After considering the SWOT of the new company, there are considerable opportunities for the new product in the market and the level of threats is low and manageable. I therefore recommend the marketing plan to be implemented.
Strategic Marketing Planning: Mission, Vision, Objectives and Values
Company position in the Industry, Positioning and Targeting
Macro Environmental Factors
SWOT Analysis for Carpe Diem Beverages Co. Ltd
Marketing Mix Strategies
Implementation, Evaluation and Control
Time Plan and Budget.
Introduction The soft drink market in the USA has been declining gradually in the recent past which has been attributed to health concerns about carbonated sugary drinks (Rosman) and the effects of the global financial recession which has caused consumers to abandon non essential purchases (cnbc.com).
At the same time, healthy beverages such as ready to drink teas, bottled water, fruit juices and other non carbonated drinks have experienced steady growth (cnbc.com). This trend indicates that consumers are shifting away from fizzy sugary drink and prefer healthier and economical alternatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The energy drink segment specifically has experienced the fastest growth in the industry; since its introduction in the US market in 1997, the segment has grown at an average rate of 20% compounded annually (Heckman, Sherry, and De Mejia). The market was estimated to be worth $4.9 billion in 2008 and was expected to reach $12.8 billion by year 2013 (Heckman, Sherry, and De Mejia). This offers a very lucrative opportunity that is attractive to new entrants in the beverage industry.
Carpe Diem Beverage Company is a new company based in Ogden City, Utah which has developed a new energy drink product named Carpe Diem that intends to exploit the marketing opportunity that currently exists while at the same time delivering a superior healthy product to consumers. This paper outlines a strategic marketing plan for the introduction and marketing of Carpe Diem energy drink in the US market.
Strategic Marketing Plan for Carpe Diem Energy Drink Mission Statement:
Carpe Diem Beverages Company mission statement is to be a leader in the manufacturing and marketing of healthy, nutritious beverages in the USA.
To satisfy consumers needs while at the same time enhancing the individual and society well being through the use of socially and environmentally friendly production and marketing techniques. To create and sustain mutually beneficial relationship between the company and its partners who include employees, distributors, suppliers, customers, shareowners and the community in which the company operates.
Its vision is to achieve its mission; Carpe Diem Co. has developed a healthy, low caffeine, and low sugar, fruit based energy drink which it intends to manufacture and distribute using highly advanced, socially and environmentally friendly techniques. The company will invest in continuous innovation to improve both the product and processes.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Strategic Marketing Plan for a New Energy Drink specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Values:
The company values are similar to the values of the brand values; they include uniqueness, honesty, integrity, leadership, partnership, respect, productivity, sustainability and growth. These values are synonymous to the values of the people of Utah.
Energy drinks are beverages that directly boost people’s energy; they increase energy due to the high content of sugar, caffeine, taurine, herbal extracts and vitamins. Energy drinks are classified as functional beverages because they are consumed by convalescents, athletes and the youth to replenish energy, rehydrate the body, enhance physical endurance, reduce mental fatigue, increase reaction time and improve moods (Heckman et al).
Despite the increasing popularity of energy drinks, health concerns have been raised that concerns them. Due to the high level of sugar, caffeine and taurine contained in energy drinks, they are suspected of causing negative health effects if consumed in excess (Heckman et al).
Carpe Diem energy drink is a superior, healthy product because it uses real fruit as its base products rather than carbonated sugars. It also uses artificial sweeteners which have low calorific contents. The brand also utilizes natural energizers such as green tea extract, ginseng and guarana which in addition to being healthy are also antioxidants (Heckman et al). Thus, Carpe Diem delivers similar levels of stimulation while it contains less unhealthy content.
Industry Overview Energy drinks first appeared in Asia in the 1960’s (Heckman et al). At the time their ingredients contained vitamins, taurine and ginseng and were used for many years to provide sustained energy, reduce mental and physical (Heckman et al).
From there they were introduced to Europe and later in 1997, brought into the US market; since their introduction into the US market, the segment has grown rapidly and is now a multibillion industry. Between 2004 and 2009 for instance, the industry grew by a staggering 240% in the US alone (Mintel).
In 2008, revenues from the sales of energy drinks in the US reached $4.8 billion and were projected to reach $10 billion and $12.8 billion in 2010 and 2013 respectively (Heckman et al). According to industry analysts Mintel, new energy drinks product launches, in this segment grew by 110% in 2008 (Mintel).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Marketing Plan for a New Energy Drink by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are over 200 brands of energy drinks in the USA, which include brands from all the major companies such as Coca-cola, Dr Pepper and Pepsi. Most of the market share is held by a few brands led by Red Bull which holds about 42% of the whole market (Bevnet.com). Despite investing heavily in product development and marketing, major companies such as Coca cola and Pepsi have only achieved marginal success in this segment. The table below provides a breakdown of market share of various energy brands that are currently at the market.
Table 1: US Energy Drink Market Share (Source: Heckman et al).
Brand Company Market share (%) Red Bull Red Bull Inc. 42.0% Rockstar Rockstar Inc. 11.0% Monster Monster Beverage Co. 14.0% Full Throttle Coca-Cola Co. 6.9% Amp PepsiCo 3.6% Others Others 22.5% Total 100.0% Position of the company within the industry Carpe Diem is a small limited liability company owned by its two founder members. The company will operate from a small warehouse outside Ogden city and will employ 10 employees. The two founders will lead the organization in areas where they possess both academic training and professional experience.
One of the founders will be the president of production and operation while the other will be president of finance, marketing and administration. Due to the limited resources available, the company seeks to minimize cost and to maximize on every dollar spent.
The company will therefore pursue a niche marketing strategy and will position itself as a specialized producer of high quality and healthy energy drink which is suitable for medical, sporting and special dietary uses. Due to limited financial resources, the company seeks to exploit market opportunities that are in close proximity. Thus the company will initially concentrate on the market opportunities in Ogden city and Utah before extending to the whole of the US.
Carpe Diem will be positioned as a healthy energy drink which contains real fruit concentrate and no sugar and caffeine. Due to its low sugar and caffeine content, the product will appeal to convalescents, diabetics, vegetarians and health conscious members that constitute mainstream market.
Carpe Diem targets the youth’s segments who are the main consumers of energy drinks and the product is designed to appeal to young people whose age is between 15 and 35 years. It is estimated that this age group comprises about 25% of the US market (Kravewski).
The lifestyle of the members of this group makes them to consume products that give them energy boosts, which also keeps them awake for long periods of time. This segment is easily accessible and can be effectively targeted because they are mainly found in high schools, colleges and campuses and in metropolitan centers across the countries.
The segment is also accessible through most of the marketing communication channels that are currently available. These include TV, radio, newspapers and magazines as well as new media such as the internet, social media, and mobile phones amongst others. The members of this segment are able to afford the product since most of them are employed and have minimal financial responsibilities compared to other age groups.
As the name aptly suggests, Carpe Diem is a call to consumers who are mainly the youth to make the best and the most of the moment. It encourages the users to enjoy the present time, to maximize on the available opportunities and to be careful how they use the present time because it will determine their future.
This resonates with the product personality, which aim to energize users to stay longer so as to be able to make maximum use of the present moment. Its health conscious characteristics guarantee that there are no future negative consequences arising from current consumption.
Total Market Opportunity
According to industry analysts total market value of the energy drink market in the USA was estimated to be about $10 billion just recently in 2010. Furthermore the market is expected to have surpassed the $12.8 billion mark by year 2013. Carpe Diem Co seeks to capture 0.01% of the market in the first year of its operation between 2011 and 2012. This will mean that the total value of its market share is estimated to be about 1million dollars.
Macro Environmental Factors Political Environment
The political environment in Utah and the US is conducive for Carpe Diem Beverage Company. Both federal and state governments have put in place measures to encourage investments with a hope of creating employment; as such the company should take advantage of tax benefits and better regulatory environment when establishing its operations.
The effects of the economic recession are still being felt in many parts of this country. Consumers have less disposable incomes thus are limiting the purchase of non-essential products such as soft drinks and energy drinks. Others are unable to purchase products because they are out of work. However the economy is showing signs of recovery and long term prospects look favourable.
The primary target market for Carpe Diem energy drink is the youth of ages 15 to 35 years. This market is substantial as it consists of about 25% of the US population (Kravewski) and keeps growing. The secondary market includes athletes, convalescents and the main soft drink market amongst others.
The technology and science in the manufacture and distribution of energy drink is well developed in the US market and a host of specialized engineering and food specialists exist which the company intends to use as its consultants.
The company should outsource these specialized services. The company has developed a unique formulation that contains no sugar and less caffeine in its products which is expected to draw the market to the company’s brand.
Soft drink manufacture uses a lot of fresh water and is energy intensive. The packaging material used such as aluminum and plastic ends up in landfill yet its non-biodegradable. The company intends to use 100% recyclable packaging materials and has developed a system that uses 8% less water and energy.
Fig 2: Carpe Diem’s SWOT analysis
The main strength of Carpe Diem energy drink is its healthy contents. It’s a revolutionary product in the functional drinks market segment which unlike other products in this category contains no sugar and low caffeine contents. The drink is also sweeter than other brands; the main brand in this segment Redbull has been described as ‘bitter’ by many consumers. The company has established a new production technique that is environmental friendly and this is expected to enhance its image in the market.
As a company founded and based in Ogden City, Carpe Diem Beverage Ltd has strong values such as respect, hard work, Integrity, loyalty, friendliness and partnership which are similar to the values of the people of the state of Utah; all these are its strengths. It is expected that these values will form a strong connection and bond between the brand and the market.
The weaknesses of the new company are obvious even to its competitors who might use them to their advantage. Despite having a unique and revolutionary product, the company lacks both adequate financial and skilled human resources to enable it to fully implement its marketing plans.
The company also has limited experience and knowledge in beverage marketing as well as manufacture given that it is a new Company. Additionally, the company does not have an established distributor network which takes time and resources to establish and put in place.
The demand by consumers for healthier products is the greatest opportunity that Carpe Diem has. The market is expected to receive the new product well and the rate of growth in demand is expected to be fast and steady over the coming years based on market data. Generally, the energy drink market has recorded increased revenues since their introduction in the US market in 1997.
This indicates that the segment that Carpe Diem Beverage Co is entering is an attractive market. According to research, there are low barriers of entry into the energy drink market which could be attributed to the fact that majority of the market share is controlled by little known foreign owned RedBull Inc.
There are also numerous other small companies that operate profitably in this industry. Besides this, there are opportunities to expand into the international market which is the reason that the company is considering expanding into the North American market first, and thereafter to Europe, Asia and Middle East.
The main threat that the company faces is the possibility of a strong backlash from established competitors who besides having strong market share also have both financial and skilled human resources to effectively frustrate its entrance to the industry.
The concern amongst customers and government agencies about excessive consumption of energy drinks might affect the industry in the long term and reduce its attractiveness. There is fear that input prices may increase and this may affect the company plans especially since it is operating on a lean budget thus sudden changes in input prices will affect its plans significantly.
The following table provides a summary of additional SWOT elements of the Company
Figure 3: SWOT
Strengths Weaknesses Unique brand image Strong values attract it to the people of Utah Associated with youthfulness, fun, sports and entertainment More healthier products than rivals Fundamentally, business is lucrative Eco-friendly techniques enhances company image Tastes better than competitors’ brands Limited financial resources Limited experience Lack of a strong distribution network Limited geographical presence Limited product lines Opportunity Threats Regular and steady demand for energy drinks Low barriers of entry Strong growth in the segment Opportunities to expand globally- Canada and Mexico Diversification to bottled waters, fresh juices, Teas etc Concerns over health impact of energy drinks Government regulation Strong reaction from established competitors Input prices may increase suddenly Other new entrants into the market offering similar healthy energy drinks Foreign governments regulations and controls The major marketing objectives of the Company include the following; to capture 0.015% of the US energy drink market in the first years of operation. Secondly, to create significant brand awareness in the market especially among the Generation Y; that is youths of between 13-30 years whom constitute the main energy drinks’ market share.
Thirdly to establish the company’s presence in the energy drink market first in Ogden city and surrounding metropolises in Utah, then in neighboring states and later in the whole of the US.Marketing Objectives:
Marketing Mix Strategies
Brand Name: The brand name selected is Carpe Diem which suggests seizing opportunities and making the best of the moment. The energy drink will be packaged in 200ml aluminum cans and in 350ml and 500ml plastic bottles. The plastic bottles are of stylish and unique design such that consumers can use them as water bottles that are popular with athletes.
It is expected that the re-usability of Carpe Diem energy drink bottles as water bottles will increase brand visibility especially among the youth and stimulate first and repeat purchases. The selected brand logo for Carpe Diem suggests boundless energy, frenzied action, fun and entertainment.
The main benefit of Carpe Diem over its competitors is its low sugar and caffeine content and will be positioned as a healthy beverage that has limited or no long term negative effects. The benefits of using the brand includes ability to provide sustained energy, reduces mental fatigue, improve moods and physical endurance as it contains antioxidants such as green tea extracts and ginseng which are healthy to the body.
Carpe Diem is unique because of its healthy contents; thus it will appeal to special segments of the market such as the convalescents, diabetics, athletes, and health and fitness conscious consumers who wish to replenish their energy without risking their health.
Carpe Diem’s brand image of an energy drink that is packed with lots of energy yet healthy and enjoyable to drink is expected to attract consumers whose values and image are similar to the brand. It will especially appeal users who view themselves as strong, full of activity and life but are careful about their health and lifestyle.
As a new product in the market, market skimming strategy will be used. The company intends to recover much of its investment early before imitations and similar health related energy drinks flood the market leading to price competition.
In order to reinforce the brand position as a unique healthy product, it is suggested that its price be slightly higher than its competitors. However, the price should be realistic to ensure that the brand delivers value to customers.
Fundamental energy drink business is lucrative, the cost of input and production is very low and most of the expenses are incurred in marketing and distribution. The company therefore expects a profit margin of between 30-40%.
The company will use special pricing tactics to stimulate purchase; these strategies should include discounts for bulk purchases. The company will use discrimination tactics whereby prices of the brand at school and colleges will be lower compared to prices of the brand in hospitals, sports centers, bars and restaurants.
The company should pursue an exclusive distribution strategy whereby only selected retailers will be allowed to distribute the brand. This is expected to solidify the image of exclusivity and solidify the position of the brand as a premium product.
The main distribution channel to be used is supermarkets; this is because most of consumer shopping today takes place in supermarkets. The product will also be distributed through pharmacies, drugstores, selected bars and restaurants and in sports venues.
The company intends to intensively cover the geographic area around Ogden city first and ensure it is adequately supplied. Because of close proximity to this area, limited resources will be used in distribution. The company will also take advantage of the intimate knowledge of the geography and demographics of the Ogden city and its surrounding areas.
Finally, the company intends to establish strategic distribution centers in different location so as to ensure all areas are adequately supplied at any given time. These distribution centers will stock adequate quantities of the brand to ensure retailers’ orders are quickly filled. The company will contract national distribution firms to help distribute the brand in other States, regions and other parts of the country.
Integrated Marketing Communications
The overall objectives of the company’s marketing communication strategy are to create brand awareness, establish brand position, stimulate purchase and encourage repeat usage.
The communication strategy for the new product will comprise a massive product launch media campaign in Ogden city and in State of Utah, and thereafter a targeted media campaign directed toward selected market segments. The budget allocated for market communication in the first 6 months is $300,000.
Advertising is the most important tool in the integrated marketing communication strategy. The company will develop creative ads which will be placed on radio, TV, magazines and in mainstream newspapers in Ogden and Utah.
The company will also use outdoor advertising tools such as billboards, posters and branded vehicles. The company will invest in point of sale displays and in-store advertising to attract consumers’ attention in shopping malls.
Viral marketing strategies and social media tools will also be used. This strategy is expected to be very effective especially with the youth who are tech savvy and enjoy creative fun advertising messages. Social media marketing will also engage the youth in the brand’s activities and create a strong fan base for the brand.
The company will use celebrity endorsement strategy whereby it will recruit one of the leading sportsmen of the Utah Basketball team to endorse the product. This is expected to create a positive and direct connection of youthful consumers and the product as a result of the celebrity endorsement.
The company will use sport sponsorship as one of its main promotion strategy it should sponsor annual sporting events such as college basketball, football, hockey, skate-boarding, and extreme sports that are popular with the youth and that require extra energy to perform.
In addition to advertising and sponsorship, the company will undertake a vigorous promotion campaign that will involve personal selling. Specialists such as nutritionists and medical doctors will be recruited to give health related talks and to endorse the health benefits of Carpe Diem.
Qualified sales persons will be recruited for a short period to make direct presentations to doctors, hospitals, pharmacies, drug stores, schools and athletic teams, to explain to them the health aspects of the new product. The company will also distribute pamphlets and brochures in commercial centers that contain information about the new product.
The implementation of the marketing plan will require the company to acquire extra talent; this will require Carpe Diem Beverage Co to create a new organization structure. The company will initially employ 10 new employees to work in production, procurement and in marketing. The new employees need to be inducted into the organization, and to be provided with training so that they can understand and appreciate the organization products, processes and values.
The Company will recruit specialist agencies to assist in its marketing strategies. These agencies include management consultants, advertising agencies, marketing research companies, media planning and buying agencies, PR agencies, physical distribution firms, financial advisory firms, and resellers among others. The directors have to carefully select among several companies and should consider the company’s limited financial ability and the enormous challenge of entering a market with established competitors.
The main activities of the marketing program are 1) product launch which will be mainly a media event where the product will be introduced to the media and the public. 2) The product goes on sale on a particular date preferably 12 -24hrs after the launch. 3) Company ensures distribution of the product in selected stores in Ogden City, metropolises in the state of Utah and thereafter in neighboring states.
The company will establish control standards that will be used to guide and evaluate performance. These includes: input controls, process controls, output controls. Additional measures include, cost controls, product performance measures, price controls, distribution and integrated marketing communication controls.
Overall measures of the organization’s performance include, cost, revenues, profitability, market share and company image. Other control required are informal controls that will guide individual employees’ behavior, organization culture, and departmental expectations.
The Company’s actual performance will be evaluated against marketing planning objectives and specific performance standards. After evaluation, the management will use the information acquired to redesign marketing planning activities. See Implementation Schedule attached.
Works Cited Cnbc.com. “Soft Drink Sales Fall, but Dr Pepper Gains Share, 2010.” Web.
Bevnet.com. “Channel Check; Beverage Spectrum, 2008.” Web.
Dolan, K. “The Soda with Buzz: Clever marketing helped Dietrich Mateschitz turn a so-so beverage into a billion-dollar.” Forbes Magazine. 2005. Web.
Euromonitor.com. “Soft Drinks in the US.” Euromonitor. 2011. Web.
Physical Education and Its Benefits Exploratory Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Physical education should be an integral part of the curriculum. It is amazing that schools can compromise physical education with all its benefits. Schools in particular know the benefits of physical education in a student’s life and should be able to fight for the children’s rights.
Physical exercise promotes blood circulation in the body especially in the brain and such activity works to reduce stress and improve on mood and attitude of the student as work without play makes Jack a dull boy. Moreover studies have proved that physically active children achieve more in class.
The national association for sports and physical education recommend at least sixty minutes of exercise daily or for most days of the week.
Statistics show that over ten million children aged between six and nineteen are overweight in the United States. Among the adolescents, the number of the over weights toady is four times than in the last decade; a very alarming rate. The dangers of being overweight are too adverse to be true.
Some of the health risks associated with obesity and overweight are polygenic disorders like pre-diabetes and diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, apnea and many more.
Additionally, nutritionists say that an obese child is likely to be an obese adult. The fact that fat cells are capable of increasing in number during childhood but in adulthood the body system can only work to fill the existing ones and not to form new ones supports this claim.
Obesity is a major health concern in most of the countries and especially in the US as aforementioned. Obesity is hard to manage not mentioning its health related risks; it calls for specialist medical care, which is very expensive to a given country; therefore, nations cannot afford to cut down the programs that help to manage and/or prevent obesity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With most foods working to accumulate fats in the body and the changes in lifestyle, policy makers cannot ignore this pertinent issue. Physical exercise in schools should draw their support from family members, the society and the government.
The government should set aside money for physical exercises in particular in the national budget as it does not only affect the students positively but also saves the country’s economy greatly for a ‘sick’ nation is an unproductive nation.
There are other benefits associated with physical education, which should compel parents and the government to embrace the activity. Physical activity improves on the students overall confidence; for instance, performing in the field instills courage in the student.
In addition, many students learn of their talents in school sports most of whom secure sporting jobs internationally which is beneficial to the individual student, the parents and the nation and this underscores the need to revive this dying yet necessary activity.
Physical activity also promotes a healthy lifestyle in adulthood. Students grow into responsible citizens who influence their children positively; the best news is that this behavior passes from generation to generation hence giving rise to a healthy nation.
Hygiene and sex education are part of the physical education curriculum. These work together to give birth to an all round person. Another virtue learnt is teamwork as most sports in schools are holistic and this promotes the spirit of unity in a student’s life.
The factors above would be lost if the government does not intervene to save the dying physical education. Schools will not be a place of molding one into a responsible citizen, as the curriculum would be incomplete without physical education.
We will write a custom Essay on Physical Education and Its Benefits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
A Formal Training Guide for Handling Phone Calls Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Elements of Answering the Phone
Example of an Appropriate Greeting
Instructions on the Use of Proper Language, Titles and Etiquette
Introduction Customers form a critical asset for any organization seeking to remain profitable and maintain competitive advantage in the ever changing business environment. Their handling, especially over the telephone, is of germane importance if employees and management expect to retain the engine that drives their businesses (Penoyer, 2008). This paper serves as a formal training document that outlines the expectations of handling phone calls.
Elements of Answering the Phone All members of staff must realize that the telephone forms the primary point of contact between the customers and the business, thus the way calls are answered influences the customers’ perceptions and expectations of the business.
In this perspective, all incoming calls must be answered before the third ring to avoid keeping the customer waiting, and the employee answering the phone must always project a warm and enthusiastic environment. Employees must note that the welcoming voice a customer hears at the other end to a large extent influence his or perceptions of the business (Longenecker et al., 2005; Ward, 2011).
Telephone receivers in formal settings must always ensure that messages sent from the customer’s end are completely and accurately understood to avoid any inconveniences. Employees must therefore kindly request the customer to repeat or clarify information that has not been well understood before getting such information to the intended recipient (Ward, 2011).
All telephone calls should be answered within one business day as this does not only create a favorable impression in customer care, but it may mean increased business as ‘the early bird always catches the worm.’ Lastly, employees answering the phone must always desist from using the speaker phone unless it is absolutely essential.
The use of speaker phone will most certainly give the customer the impression that the receiver is either not serious about his call or the organization cannot guarantee confidential conversations
Example of an Appropriate Greeting Greetings form the initial interface between the customer and the telephone receiver, not mentioning that this initial contact determines the route taken by the rest of the conversation (Ingram et al., 2007). As such, the initial greeting must be warm and courteous, and this can be affected by the receiver through identifying himself and the organization he is working for. An appropriate greeting, therefore, should follow the following: “Good afternoon. New York International Hotel. Kevin speaking. How may I be of assistance to you?”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instructions on the Use of Proper Language, Titles and Etiquette Employees receiving formal telephone calls from customers must learn to moderate their voice, be coherent and answer all enquiries in a clear manner so that customers may benefit from the conversation. Of great importance is the fact that employees must always use formal language when answering the phone, implying that slang or jargon use is totally unacceptable.
Employees must always desist from using filler words such as “um”, “Gosh”, or “you know” whenever they are speaking on the phone. In equal measure, words such as “OK” or “No problem” must be discouraged in formal telephone conversations (Ward, 2011).
Employees must always remember to address customers by their titles if such information is within their reach. If one of your most trusted customers is known as Dr. Samuel, you should train yourself to use the title and full name instead of referring to the customer as “Sam.”
In terms of etiquette, employees answering phone calls must always train their voices to project a positive warm tone that reveals their responsiveness to customers’ needs. Using words such as “I don’t know” only serves to reveal to the customer that the receiver is either not interested in the conversation or the he or she is rude.
Instead, employees should use words such as “Please, can you hold a little as I find out about that for you.” Such words engender the customer to be closely related to the business. (Ingram et al., 2007). For proper etiquette, however, employees must always ask customers if it is alright to put them on hold as they look for the needed information.
Reference List Ingram, T.M., LaForge, R.W., Avila, R.A., Schwepker, C.H.,
Google’s view on the future of business Research Paper scholarship essay help
Thesis Statement Recent developments in the internet and software business especially the level of commercial aggression arising from competitors such as (Microsoft, Apple and Facebook) is making it quite hard for Google to conclude that its business model is secured in the near future and the distant future.
Considering that Google’s main source of revenue is from internet advertising, and software development and companies like Facebook and Twitter, Microsoft, Yahoo and other participants have considerably snatched a lot of business for them since they came into existence.
Google has no option but to respond quickly and effectively with plans that will enable the company eliminate all weakness and forge in the future with a more stable business.
Thus in order for Google to reduce the amount of risks and uncertainty that it is faced by the company, it may be forced to revise its business model and eliminate any elements that may pose a threat or cast a weakness upon their business model.
Introduction Today’s business environment is highly dynamic and volatile. How commercial enterprises used to go about business yesterday is not the same today and thus companies don’t have the luxury to assume that the future will be as the same today as it was yesterday ( Kourdi 2009, 122). Everyday there are new trends emerging in the business world which either influence or act as a force of initiating change in the business community and if companies remain rigid, then they may find themselves in problems.
Consumers are becoming more radical and more aware of their rights pushing companies to develop strategies that govern their marketing mix and overall business strategy (Kotler 2003, 161).
The internet and computer software industry is a highly competitive industry that is extremely volatile with the new inventions hitting the market each and every day.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore industry participants who operate within this industry are often forced to use more aggressive strategies to ensure that their business models adapt to the ever changing environment (Beach 2011. 141) Google is a software and internet company that was founded in 1998. The Company is a multinational company that runs its internet business in almost every country of the world. Additionally, the company makes annual profits of over $ 7billion and an intelligent talented workforce of over 20,000 employees.
Google has risen to be one of the most respected companies in the world, and thus has continuously aimed to improve its business amongst competitors such as Microsoft, Yahoo, Bing and Baidu and the various social sites that have arisen such as Facebook and Twitter (Beach 2011. 141).
The future of most businesses is not certain and hence companies vigorously involve themselves in a successful strategy so that the levels of risks and uncertainty can be reduced (Boone 2010, 88).
Google’s business platform involves the selling of many products and services such as Google’s famous Android Smartphone Handset, Google’s social sites such as Orkut and Buzz, Google’s Chrome OS, Google’s instant messenger Google talk and its various marketing and advertisement platforms that act as the main source of revenue for the company (Bhupendra 2011).
Googles mission and vision is to provide simple yet leading technology to the millions of people using the internet, and therefore in order for Google to succeed in doing this the organization must make sure that it operates in a problem free environment by dissolving various problems facing the organization with the help of planning and strategy.
Major problems and issues that Google needs to address Poor customer service value
The lack of a well set customer support system within Google may act as a hindrance to the mission and vision of Google. Today’s business environment is full of sensitive customers therefore it is necessary that companies develop facilities that will assist the business to make sure that each query and expression of a consumer is properly captured and responded to within a reasonable time frame ( Koontz
Christian Festivals Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Christianity is one of the major religions in the world. It has its foundation on Jesus Christ and His teachings recorded in the Bible. The Christian calendar is comprised of happenings which serve as reminders of Jesus and His activities while still on earth. Among the Christian festivals, some are considered more important than others because of their significance in the development of this religion (Kelemen pg3).
They include Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. Other religious festivals that are present in the Christian religion are Ascension Day, lent and epiphany among others. Some of these festivals have fixed dates for example the Christmas day, but others have no fixed dates for example Easter.
Christmas This is one of the major Christian festivals. The word Christmas is formed from two words. ‘Christ’ which means the messiah or the anointed one and ‘mass’ which borrowed from the Roman Catholics.
It simply means death and has to do with the death of Jesus Christ. It is believed by some people that Christmas has its roots in pagan festivals and was adapted to Christianity in an attempt to win more converts into the religion (Bratcher pg1).
Symbols: Clement (pg 178) notes that candles are lit as a reminder of who Jesus Christ is. Jesus is often referred to as the light of the world and therefore the lit candles are symbolic of him as the light of the world.
The Christmas star is another symbol used during this festival. It is usually put on the tip of Christmas tree and its significance is the biblical star that proclaimed that Jesus Christ had been born. It can also show great hopes in life as a result of the birth of Jesus Clement (pg 265).Christmas tree is also another widely used symbol. It has its origin in Germany and is used as a symbol of good luck. The Christmas tree is usually decorated with many bright colored decorations.
According to Bratcher (pg 1), Christmas is supposed to be a festival to commemorate the birth of Jesus Christ. The exact date as to when Christmas is supposed to be celebrated has been a controversial issue over the years with some saying that it should be done in the month of September while others think that December is the month.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others still have held the opinion that it is a pagan occasion that should not be part of the Christian calendar. With all these conflicting issues, the exact meaning of the festival has been lost.
There have been different views about this festival and the actual meaning seems to be slowly fading away (Kelemen pg 5). Many businesses see this as a time for selling a lot of their products, while others people see it as a time to relax and engage in activities like drinking of beer. The true meaning however can only be got from the bible.
Christmas is supposed to be a time for personal reflection about the birth of Jesus Christ and how this impacts ones life. Such reflections are supposed to cause one to live in a godly way knowing that the reason that Jesus was born was that He may die for the sins of the human race. This is according to the Christians Holy book, the Bible.
Easter History: Easter also commonly known as the resurrection Sunday is an important festival to the Christians. This is because it is the day that Jesus rose from death and hence a reason to celebrate. This festival is believed to have stated around the fourth century. Easter was usually a time to celebrate the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Easter is not just a one day event but a season full of different activities.
Symbols and meaning: Different colors are used symbolically during Easter. For example during the lent period, purple is used to symbolize affliction. It is used to show the agony that Jesus Christ underwent before and during crucifixion. Violet can also be used as an alternative because it is also symbolic of agony and affliction.
The color black is used during Good Friday and symbolizes death. It is also symbolic of sorrowing after the death of a person by the friends and relatives.
It therefore symbolizes the death of Jesus and the mourning by His disciples and relatives. Red is used by some Christian denominations for example the Roman Catholic during Palm Sunday to symbolize the imminent death of Jesus Christ. White and gold are used during the resurrection Sunday to symbolize anticipation of rising again from the death.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Christian Festivals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is during this day that Jesus is believed to have resurrected fro the dead. The color also signifies a new beginning for Jesus’ followers because His death and resurrection marked victory over sin and therefore people could live pure lives free from sin. Gold is used significantly to show light. Jesus Christ came as the light of the world.
Apart from the colors, there are also some foods which are eaten around this time and have their significance too. According to Olver (pg 1), these foods could be those which are directly connected with Jesus Christ, those which have their origin in the pagan community and the contemporary items.
These foods are normally used during the resurrection Sunday as it is a time of jubilation for the followers of Christ because it is believed to be the day He resurrected. Eggs are a type of foods that is used to show the new life after the death and resurrection of Jesus (Olver pg1).
People would give one another eggs which were decorated. In some parts of the world, eggs together with other foods are taken to church to be blessed and are used as breakfast during the Easter Sunday. In other countries like Germany, eggs that are used to prepare Easter foods are normally emptied without breaking the shells. These are then decorated with different things for example ribbons.
They are then used to decorate some young trees. Eggs have widely been used as a symbol during Easter season in many cultures. This has been so mainly because eggs are seen as the very beginning of life and have therefore been seen as a symbol of life. There are those who believe that eggs not only have the capacity to bring forth new life but also to predict future events.
Pentecost History: This festival is also known as whit Sunday. Compared to Christmas and Easter, Pentecost is the least popular among the Christians. Little or no attention at all is paid to this day yet it is also equally important as the two festivals. Bratcher (pg 1) notes that the day of Pentecost usually comes seven Sundays after Easter and has its origin in the biblical Old Testament.
During those times, it was mainly an agricultural occasion but with the era of the New Testament, its meaning slowly changed. The contemporary meaning of this festival from the biblical perspective can be trace to the book of Acts chapter two when there was an outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the disciples of Jesus Christ after He ascended to Heaven.
Symbols and meaning: The color red is used symbolically this day to represent the fire of the Holy Spirit that fell on the disciples as they waited on the upper room during the biblical account of Pentecost (Bratcher pg 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christian Festivals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Just like Christmas and Easter, different parts of the world celebrate this day differently. In Italy for example, they recall the biblical event of Pentecost by throwing rose flowers petals from the roof top. This is specifically significant of the descending of the Holy Spirit as tongues of fire on the disciples during the Pentecost.
In other parts, for example in France, people blow trumpet. This is done during the mass and is significant of strong sound of wind that was there during the biblical Pentecost.
Although Pentecost is one of the least observed festivals in many Christian churches, it is an important occasion in the history of the church. The church is believed to have started from the events that occurred during Pentecost. This is because it is during the Pentecost that the disciples were filled with the Holy Spirit who gave them power to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ.
Conclusion There are many Christian festivals, with some being more popular than others even among the non Christians. These festivals mainly revolve around Jesus Christ and His life on earth.
It is therefore important that the focus of these festivals should remain to be Jesus Christ because many of them are losing their meaning and especially due to borrowing of a lot of traditions from the secular world and also anciently from the pagans.
Although most of these festivals are celebrated by many churches around the word, some of them have been controversial in terms of their origin and the dates they are normally celebrated. For example Christmas is not usually celebrated by all Christians because some argue that Jesus Christ never commanded people to commemorate his birth but He did tell them to remember his death and resurrection.
Others still argue that Jesus was not possibly born on twenty fifth of December but around September. With all these controversies surrounding the festivals, some have argued that it is good for people to focus on the significance of the day instead of arguing about the possible dates.
Works Cited Bratcher, Dennis. The Christmas Season, Pentecost, 2011. USA: CRI / Voice, Institute. Web.
Clement, Miles. Christmas Customs and Traditions: Their History and Significance. New York: Dover Publications, 1976, pp. 178, 263-271.
Kelemen, Lawrence. The Real Story of Christmas. Web.
Olver, Lynne. Easter foods: history
Is Sherlock Holmes Realistic? Conan Doyle’s Famous Character Term Paper best college essay help
Introduction Arthur Conan Doyle, who created the character of Sherlock Holmes, was a Scottish writer from Edinburgh, Scotland. He was born on May 22, 1859, in a family of Charles Altamont Doyle and Mary Foley. His father was a chronic alcoholic, and his mother was well educated and a master storyteller. His mother greatly influenced Arthur, and he became a good storyteller too. He followed a career in medicine, whereas one would have expected him to pursue an artistic one due to family influence. He tried his hand in writing short stories. Later on, he started writing novels, and his first novel A Tangled Skein put him in the limelight as an author. His second novel, A Study in Scarlet, did very well. He introduced his audience to a timeless character by the name of Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock becomes very famous across the world. Is Sherlock Holmes realistic? Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who created Sherlock Holmes, meant him to be a realistic character who has remained a very influential fictional detective.
Creation of Sherlock Holmes A.C.Doyle succeeded in making Sherlock realistic because he did not just create a scientific detective, but he had to make the character very fascinating (Davies ix).
The character was extraordinary in that he captured the reader with his style of solving crimes. Sherlock Holmes is a detective character in Doyle’s work. Sherlock did not become famous instantly until Doyle started publishing The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes in a fiction magazine called The Strand that the fame of Sherlock Holmes catapulted.
Sherlock’s stories captivated the readers, and their appetite for more stories was insatiable. Doyle enjoyed the money that came with the publishing of the stories, but he was not very happy because the stories overshadowed his series works.
Fascination with Sherlock Conan Doyle created the character of Sherlock Holmes as very realistic. His influence can be seen in movies, television, books, plays, among others. Sir Arthur managed to create the immortal character of Sherlock by making him a brilliant human being who taps into human aspirations and fears. The character uses his brainpower to come up with solutions to problems and analyze human behavior. He is a character the reader or audience can relate to hence makes him very inspirational.
The character appeared in four novels and fifty-six short stories. Sherlock can see people’s minds; he is a person that everyone would like to be or at least have by their side. He uses his powers and smart brain in a positive way, and many people come to him when they are in trouble.
The character makes things right, and thus he is very captivating. He is both a superman and a normal human being, and the following characteristic makes him realistic. For instance, in The Sign of Four, Sherlock is shown as a character that is very domineering and only concerned with finding solutions to problems. His friend Watson fears to upset him, thus giving him heroic characteristics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Excellent Skills of Sherlock Holmes Detective Sherlock is realistic because he solves issues that are ordinary, using his extraordinary skills in deductive reasoning. The author was able to create a realistic character in Sherlock by making him have traits that a normal human being has, for instance, he has flaws such as smoking cocaine in the novel The Sign of Four.
Moreover, the detective acts just as an ordinary human being would act in certain circumstances when he is trying to solve cases.
For instance, he bends the truth and at times, outrightly breaks the law by lying to the police and hiding evidence if he feels it is the right thing to do. More importantly, the author was able to create a realistic character by giving him an unimpeachable morality and excellent deductive skills (Gruesser 143).
Was Sherlock Holmes a Real Person? The character Sherlock addressed issues that were happening in society, such as justice and life’s general concerns. The readers could identify with such problems. Doyle also mentioned in his novels places from real life, thus making it appear as if Sherlock was real. For these reasons, Sherlock seemed realistic to the readers (Redmond 139).
The author was able to create a realistic character because he provided people with novels that dealt with common issues and kept the reader guessing what was going to happen next. The books are very engaging, and the reader becomes very involved in the book such that some people have been unable to distinguish whether Sherlock Holmes is a real person or a fictional character. They keenly followed the life of Sherlock and his detective works.
To that effect, many studies have been done, and debate goes on whether Sherlock was real or not. Such an instance shows that Doyle created a realistic character in Sherlock such that when he killed him in the story work, The Final Problem, there was a public outcry as people protested the killing of their favorite character.
Some men put on black robes and matched in protest as they mourned the demise of Sherlock. Another case illustrates how realistic Sherlock was as A.C.Doyle talks of older men who would come to him and tell him that they had read about Sherlock Holmes in their childhood.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Is Sherlock Holmes Realistic? Conan Doyle’s Famous Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this could not have been possible because the stories had not been written by the time the old men were young boys (Dalrymple 1). Such an incidence could only have happened because the character was very realistic that those who read the stories felt like they had known about Sherlock all their lives. The stories appeal to the people
The hero of the novels Sherlock is a human being who comes to the rescue of the innocent. In many instances, the virtuous have no one to turn to because they lack economic or social means. However, Sherlock comes to the rescue of all and saves them. He does not care about money and often turns down cases of wealthy people to take on examples of people without means as long as they interest him.
He can solve crimes that prove difficult to the police. His ability to solve crimes that the police have failed to resolve makes him realistic to his readers because many times, the police are unable to solve crimes brought to their attention, and the matters remain unresolved.
Thus, if Sherlock can resolve such crimes and bring criminals to book, he becomes very important to the readers, and they believe in him making him a real character that everyone would wish lived in their community to solve problems. Also, he is a man who does ordinary things that his readers would enjoy doing, such as orchestral music. He also goes to the theater when he is not working.
Holmes as a Detective Detective Holmes solves problems that are committed by ordinary people by unveiling their sources of evil and bringing them to justice. He solves the significant issues in the streets in the novel A Study in Scarlet by reconstructing and creating identity. He is a detective who understands that by living, human beings leave traces.
He uses these traces to solve crimes. He observes the things that are neglected, and by putting together marks, he can come up with clues that enable him to resolve mysterious crimes. More importantly, the detective is not guided by official guidelines, and he is free to work as he deems fit.
Sherlock’s Friends Dr. Watson Hall is a friend of Sherlock, and through him, we can learn more about Sherlock. Their relationship satisfies emotionally, and through it, readers see the possibility and beauty of platonic relationships.
The author presents Sherlock as cold and unemotional, and a person only interested in solving crimes. Supposedly a sociopath and a drug addict, Holmes had no wife and family. However, through his friend and sidekick Watson, the human side of Sherlock is revealed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Sherlock Holmes Realistic? Conan Doyle’s Famous Character by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sherlock’s Sherlock’s love and loyalty towards his friend Watson was revealed when Sherlock thought his friend had sustained severe bullet wounds as narrated by Watson in The Adventure of the Three Garridebs. Watson says that at that moment, he saw the love and loyalty that Sherlock had for him because he saw his lips shaking, and his eyes dim with concern.
Watson gives us an inside look into Sherlock’s Sherlock’s life and character, and we can learn a great deal about him, such as the kind of words he uses, cigarettes he smokes. Watson tells us that Sherlock was eccentric and did not take a significant concern in tidiness and orderliness.
For example, he kept his cigars in a coal scuttle and had unread correspondence in his room. Moreover, he was a hoarder and kept stacks of documents all over his place. He could also starve himself when working on a case by skipping meals.
The description shows that Sherlock was an ordinary man with a usual backstory. Through his friend, Doyle creates a real character as opposed to a perfect hero who the people cannot relate to by showing us his shortcomings as a human being. Through Watson, one can understand how the deduction is done, and hence one becomes involved in the detective work of Sherlock, making him more so realistic (Harper 70).
The reader is involved in the work of detection through participating in possible solutions to the crimes. Was Sherlock Holmes a real person? Scholars can not identify one person who inspired Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to create Sherlock Holmes. Still, this fictional character becomes real to the reader who sees him or herself getting involved in the work of another human being.
Personality of Holmes Sherlock is realistic because he is a character who does not stop in his quest for answers even when he encounters a dead end. He believes that knowledge must be found to solve a problem through clues and observation. He goes ahead and gathers clues, even without knowing whether they will lead to any outcome.
His desire to keep moving on and the idea of progress makes not only realistic but also appealing to the reader. The reader is encouraged to remain focused until they find a solution to whatever problem they encounter (Harper 70).
Different Detective Story The detective story by Doyle is different from other detective stories written. The difference is notable in the lack of vulgarity. The author writes a new kind of detective through the character Sherlock and the stories though ingenious can appeal to those who like to read for pleasure as well as those who have an interest in detective work.
The author has written detective stories that can be read by people from different lifestyles, and each will find something appealing about a book such as A Scarlet Study. The story is intellectual and respectable (Harper 70).
Up-to-date Detection The detective Sherlock is a calculating man. He is not like other detectives portrayed in previous detective works. The clues in some of the detectives written earlier on were so obvious that even an ordinary person could see the outcome without much trouble and would not even need to call the police to solve the crime.
Conversely, Sherlock, the detective, keeps the reader guessing because his clues are not straightforward and require deductive reasoning to solve. The deductive element in Sherlock’s Sherlock’s style of detection appeals to the intellect hence appears valid and real.
Humor of Sherlock Holmes Sherlock is a humorous man as when his friend brings it to his attention that the earth goes around the sun in A Study in Scarlet, he tells him that he will now have to forget that fact. He says so because he believes that our brains have a finite capacity for holding the knowledge, and thus by learning meaningless things, they take up space that would have been used to store useful information.
Through his admission that he did not know how the solar system works, we see he is an average person who does not know everything, even though he only seeks to understand things that might help him in his line of work.
He is a man who does not like to show off, and when they find a solution to a crime, he tells Watson that was elementary. Such a man is bound to appear real to people and form an attachment.
The creator of Sherlock was able to create such a realistic character throughout the story. The author created a mental picture in the mind of the reader of the man called Sherlock.
Moreover, the illustrations done for shylock have also helped to create a realistic character of Sherlock. The author describes the gestures that Sherlock makes when he is thinking, and they give Sherlock realistic appearance.
Who Inspired Doyle to Write Sherlock Holmes? Dr. Joseph Bell inspired Doyle to create Sherlock Holmes. Doyle worked with Dr. Bell at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and it was during this time that the author got the inspiration for his famous character.
He says that Dr. Bell could conclude from observing small things that one would ordinarily ignore and make conclusions from them (Lycett 53-54). Sir Henry Littlejohn also inspired Sir Conan Doyle. Sir Henry taught forensic science, and thus, Doyle wanted to create a character that would use forensic science to solve crimes (Doyle 88).
Sir Henry provided Doyle with a base for combining crime detection and medical investigation, as seen through the detective Sherlock as he unravels murders. Another man who inspired Doyle to to write Sherlock Holmes was Dr. Bryan Charles Waller, his mother’s friend. He had studied at the University of Edinburgh, where Doyle later joined to undertake his studies in medicine.
The studies in medicine gave Doyle an opportunity to meet other authors such as James Stevenson and his teacher Dr. Bell (Brackett 121). The qualities of the people he met and especially those of Dr. Bell, are found in Sherlock (“Sir Arthur Biography” 1; Sherlock 1).
Doyle says that he was educated to be very critical in thought during his medical thoughts under Dr. Bell, who had a special gift in observation. He says that he observed Dr. Bell at work, and he could tell the illnesses that his patients had before they could even tell him anything. He was able to pick their ailments as well as their occupations and residences.
Thus, he developed an interest in reading detective stories, and he was fascinated by how results would be obtained by chance. He decided to write a detective story in which crime would be treated in the same way that Dr. Bell treated diseases using science (Davies viii).
The author was able to create a realistic character because he reflects his qualities. For example, when he dedicated The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes to Dr. Bell, he wrote to him and told him, “You are yourself Sherlock Holmes, and you know it” (The Sherlock Holmes 1).
Dr. Bell has been Doyles lecturer, and colleague must have seen that the author drew from his personal life and experiences in writing about Sherlock. Several writers have pointed out that Doyle may have drawn Holmes from Dr. Bell, but “the real detective was like himself “(Haycraft xvi). Thus, he was able to describe things carefully because he was drawing from real experiences hence made Sherlock seem real.
Furthermore, Sir Arthur, who came from an aristocratic Irish family, identified with the noble history. Doyle had received a good education, and even though he was struggling in his career, “he considered himself to be a gentleman and gave his fictional detective a similar status” (Harper 69).
A family environment influences a person’s life. The biography of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, especially his childhood experiences, definitely influenced his life and works. The kind of human relationships that one forms with the members of their family make a good source for the author’s materials. Doyle had a strong mother whom he says influenced her greatly. She was very strong, and he derived his happiness when communicating with her through letters.
On the other hand, his father was an alcoholic. He was not a positive figure in his life. The difficulty surrounding his family influenced him in writing stories that people could relate to because they addressed everyday issues and hence made them realistic.
In the novel The Sign of Four, the author addresses the issue of domestic violence. Domestic violence occurs in society even though some instances go unreported. He shows that greed can lead to domestic violence, and Roylott attempts to kill his stepdaughter so that he can continue to have control over her fortune.
He knew that stepdaughters would have control of their fortune once they got married. He is self-centered and materialistic and thus attempts to hold on to the chance. He kills Helen’s Helen’s sister, and when Helen becomes engaged, he tries to kill her, but fortunately, detective Sherlock saves her from the claws of death.
Sherlock sends the snake that Roylott had sent to kill Helen, and it ends up killing him (Haynsworth 469-470). The attention of the readers is captured by search an event because it shows that sometimes violence may recoil back to the violent. The fact that the issues that Sherlock deal with are relatable to the reader makes the character realistic and very appealing.
Doyle was a man who was both gentle and fierce. This nature may explain why Sherlock was at times very kind, especially when he showed concern for his friend and at times, ruthless as long as he uncovered crimes.
He was also tenacious and did not waver from a cause he believed in until he had found a solution. This character trait may have influenced him in writing about Sherlock, a detective who did not give up until he found answers to questions he had in his cases.
Conclusion Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created a timeless character who has lived through centuries. The evolution of Sherlock Holmes is shown in various artistic works, and though many people may not know about the original Sherlock, they have encountered him in one way or another.
Is Sherlock Holmes realistic? The ability of the author to create a realistic character is proved by its popularity that made science detection very famous, and the styles used by Sherlock are used today in solving crimes.
It is also ironical that the character that Doyle tried to kill at one point has carried his legacy thus far. Sherlock Holmes will always keep the name of the author alive through his appeal to readers and audiences. This story shows that a person’s work can outlive them.
Works Cited Brackett, Virginia. Beginnings through the 19th century. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print.
Dalrymple, Theodore. “The eternal detective.” National Criterion, 24. 3 (2005), 4-8.
Davies, David Stuart. Shadows of Sherlock Holmes. London: Wordsworth Editions, 1998. Print.
Doyle, A. Conan (1961). The boys’ Sherlock Holmes, New
Intellectual Property Rights Essay scholarship essay help
Intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks, and patents, is a phrase that is often used in reference to different unique kinds of creations of the human mind or intellect for which the creators are given certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets. The intangible assets include, but not limited to, musical, literary, various works of art, terms, signs, and inventions.
Internationally, the governing body is the World Intellectual Property Organization, and it is responsible for granting exclusive rights to the owner of the intellectual property for a varying period, according to the type of the intangible asset. Because of the benefits of intellectual property rights, they should be protected by all countries.
In order to protect intellectual property, a number of agreements are usually reached to ensure that the owners retain the exclusive rights regarding their use.
The first agreement is copyrights, which refer to the set of exclusive rights, specified under the copyright laws of a country, that guard the original authors of both published and unpublished works of literature from unaccredited reproduction and republication (Bainbridge, 2009).
In this form of intellectual property, the creator of the copyright is endowed with the responsibility to control how the work is used for a specified period, after which the work is open for others to use. The second agreement is trademarks.
These refer to any unique symbol or indicator used mostly by companies for identification purposes, for example, the products of Nike Inc. can easily be identified through the design of their logo. Once registered, a trademark has a legal protection and any unauthorized use of that trademark can make the originator to sue the responsible individuals for trademark infringement.
The third form of intellectual property is patents, which refer to the granting of exclusive rights to an originator for a specified time period for discovering any new, beneficial, and no-obvious thing (as opposed to the rights of authorship of any form of art or literature).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A patent is usually granted by the state in exchange for the originator’s agreement to disclose the aspects of the invention to the rest of the people (Smith
Thinking Critically Simulation Definition Essay essay help: essay help
Overview of the Simulation A thinking critical simulation is one of the most effective tools to be used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the three main decision-making steps which are framing the problem itself, making the decision, and, finally, evaluating the decision offered. In this paper, Credenhill business is taken into consideration; the company developed a new program, called Thorough-Cred that aims at selecting the best managers.
The chosen tool provides all managers of the company with a chance to demonstrate their skills and run the company accordingly. Linda James offers to investigate the electronics store that has been facing a number of problems during the last eight weeks, and it is necessary to make use of the appropriate thinking skills and tools to overcome the challenges.
In general, the identification of the most crucial problems such as wrong product mix, WAN and variable pay issues is necessary. As soon as the identification of the problems is made, problem resolution begins.
The budget is limited, and this is why it is better to improve sales considering the conditions given. One of the possible suggestions is to focus on workers’ dissatisfaction. The evaluation of such decision proves that the workers will be better stimulated and promote work as the possibility to get the bonus and attract attention of more customers.
Summary of the Simulation Question One
The tools which are used in this case are chosen on the basis of the investigations conducted by Prensky (2010); they are brainstorming as the possibility to come up with a variety of decisions on the same problem, intuition as a chance to evaluate what idea is more effective under the created conditions, group think as an opportunity to consider several perspectives of the same case, and importance of weighting in order to debate the reasons, conditions, and the solutions offered (Open University Course Team, 2008).
The peculiar feature of the techniques used is that all of them provide the managers with a chance to underline the main problems and evaluate as many necessary aspects as possible. It is not enough to define the problem but also think about the methods to benefit from its solution.
The techniques and tools used in this case assist with the evaluation of the decision-making process and outcomes in a variety of ways. First, the techniques provide a logical approach to solve the problems so that each manager is able to make use of his/her skills and knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, each problem is properly weighted by all representatives of the group, and the chances to introduce appropriate solution are increased. And finally, group think consensus helps to clarify properly which aspects need some improvements and which outcomes are better to expect.
The outcomes which are reached in the simulation are more or less expected. First, a new pay plan has to be implemented in order to improve the financial conditions of the company and encourage the workers to achieve better results.
Another significant decision is based on the product mix that has to be reoriented taking into consideration the fact that a number of Internet products and multimedia offers are in demand.
In general, as soon as the techniques are implemented, and the steps for improvement are taken, the outcome of the activities will positively influence the development of the company, employees’ attitude to work, and customers’ interests in the production offered.
Reference List Open University Course Team. (2008). Thinking critically. Milton Keynes: Open University Worldwide Ltd.
Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Photography as a career Research Paper online essay help
The art, science and practice of creating photographs has been one of the most interesting occupations in all history since it plays a pivotal role in preserving priceless memories that have touched people.
The career of photography is often sought after because of its prestige, the love of creating photographs, and the opportunity to immortalize exciting, captivating, or thought provoking events in life. Thus, I chose photography as a profession because of its reputation and my love for taking pictures to represent memorable moments in life.
It is of essence to note that a number of variations exist in the field of photography, for example, self-employment and commercial photographing are just some of the ways one can successfully earn a living as a photographer. Photography is an interesting profession.
In summary, the work of photographers involve generating and saving images which paint a picture, illustrate a tale, or document an occasion, through either using traditional cameras or a digital cameras to record the memorable images.
Traditional cameras store the pictures on silver halide film, which is later reproduced on paper (Ingledew, 194). And, digital cameras overcomes some of the problems of traditional cameras through electronically storing the images and thus enhancing the quality of the pictures to be reproduced (Warren, 215).
After taking the pictures, in most cases, the films are usually taken to the labs for processing and this ensures that the pictures produced are of the highest quality. Color photography, which forms images either as positive transparencies or as color negatives, needs costly apparatus and exacting situations for the precise processing and printing of the images produced by the process.
Other photographers, particularly those who use black and white film or who need special effects, often process the films on their own; however, they should have enough technical experience to operate a fully equipped darkroom or the required computer software for the digital production of the pictures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, my current major of visual and graphic arts is related to photography in the sense that it will equip me with relevant creative skills in the design and production of quality images. Consequently, I will be able to apply them in my future work as a photographer.
The average salary of a photographer is based on many things; nonetheless, the amount of money a photographer takes home is based on whether he or she is self-employed and the size of the company the photographer works for.
“The average annual salary for a low-class photographer is $29,440, and the lowest 10% earn less than $16,920, the middle 50% between $20,620 and $43,530 while the highest 10% earn upwards of $62,430” (“Photography salary information,” para.5).
For one to succeed as a photographer, he or she has to have strong imaginations and technical skills in photography, and, importantly, the most competent persons have degrees in photography or journalism.
It is of essence to note that both portrait and freelance photographers ought to have some technical experience that is attained by some kind of training offered by numerous colleges and training institutions that equip the learners with the essential skills required to be successful in this profession.
In New Orleans and Louisiana, individuals can successfully make a career from photography in three main ways. These are doing wedding photography, submitting pictures to various stock libraries, and submitting images to magazines and other publications in the states.
Works Cited Ingledew, John. Photography. London : Laurence King, 2005. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Photography as a career specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Photography salary information.” Adigitaldreamer.com. A Digital Dreamer, 2011. Web. http://www.adigitaldreamer.com/articles/photography-salary.htm
Warren, Bruce. Photography: the concise guide. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar/Thomson Learning, 2003. Print.
Selection Process Definition Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Employee selection procedure is a process through which the employer reviews a pool of applications for a given position and decides to hire one or more candidates and not to hire others.
In other words, the selection process is the procedure through which the employer decides which candidate in the applicant pool possesses the best qualification to be successful in the job (Gitman and McDaniel 209). The traditional selection process involved a detailed job analysis of a given position and that leads to understanding the psychological attributes that are necessary in a candidate deemed fit for the position.
Further, the selection process should also undergo a validation process that would allow for understanding the performative outcome of the candidate in terms of absenteeism and turnover. However, the contemporary procedure that is followed by recruiters today is described below:
Screening. The first process entailed in the section process is the initial screening process. This is done right after the candidate submits her application for the job. This initial screening process entails a brief interview, often over the phone to gauge the initial suitability of the candidate for the position. In this step, information regarding the candidate’s educational background, past experiences, and background are gathered.
Tests. Following the initial screening, the candidate may be asked to undertake a test to gauge her aptitude for the job. The tests usually entail understanding the candidate’s special job skills for example proficiency in English for a copywriting or technical writers’ job.
Interview. Interview is the process wherein the recruiter has an in-depth discussion with the candidate to understand the candidate’s psychological and experiential fit for the job. It is considered the most important selection step and is widely used in all forms of selection process. Interviews are generally conducted to understand the skills and abilities of the candidate, previous work experience, education, and career goals. This is a popular process of selection, and often at managerial or above levels a personal is interviewed by many people at the same or different times. During the interview, the candidate may be asked to analyze and interpret job related situations or problems or to demonstrate their specific skills directly related to the job. For example, in case of teacher’s recruitment at a management institute, candidates may be asked to demonstrate their class delivery skills. The interviews aim to understand the candidate’s communication skills and motivation.
Reference Checking. Background or reference checking is the process through which candidates’ credentials are checked. This is a process wherein the references of the candidates are checked. The recruiter speaks to the referrals, who are the candidate’s immediate supervisor and/or colleagues. The reference is done to understand the perception of superior and peer regarding the candidate’s performance, credits, and issues. Further, this also allows the company to understand the reason for leaving previous job.
Medical exam. This step entails understanding the medical situation of the candidate. This is usually done in jobs that require high physical labor as in case of military recruitment. This is done to understand if the candidate can take the physical pressure required for the completion of the job. Further, these medical tests may also entail drug testing.
Hiring decision. The decision to hire the candidate is done if the candidate satisfactorily passes through all the selection procedures. On making the decision, a job offer is made to the candidate.
Preliminary interview is an important step in understanding the basic fit of the candidate in the required job role. The main aim of a preliminary interview is to make sure the physical and psychological fit of the candidate for the job.
In this interview process, candidates are asked questions related to their background, taste, interests, reason for applying for the job, experience, education, etc. this interview process is important to the selection procedure because this interview process provides a valid glimpse of the behavioral fit of the candidate and the interviewer can evaluate from the candidate’s answers why she likes certain jobs and dislike others.
The reason for conducting the preliminary interview is to deselect those candidates who do not fit the job role. Preliminary interviews are conducted over the telephone or through videotaping or conferencing.
Another importance of preliminary interview is that if a candidate is found not fit for a certain position, a skilled interviewer having knowledge of other vacant positions in the organization will know if the candidate is fit for other positions and can divert her resume to the concerned department. This initial interview process is also believed to increase the goodwill of the firm and optimizes the effectiveness of the selection process (Mondy 124).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Applicant pool is defined as the number of applicants who are found qualified for the job that are recruited (Mondy 122). The advantages of calculating the applicant pool is to understand the expansion or contraction in the labor market and in availability of qualified candidates fit for the job. The ratio of applicant pool to the number of people hired for the job, called the selection ratio is an important indicator.
When the selection ratio is 1, it implies that there was only 1 qualified candidate for the given vacant position. Moreover, if the ratio was 0.1 this indicates that there were 10 candidates for 1 vacant position. Clearly, the lower the selection ratio, the higher are the number of choices available to the recruiter.
Another advantage is that this provides the attractiveness of the vacant job. The disadvantage of understanding the applicant pool is that this may provide a deceptive number of analyses of the attractiveness of the job.
Assume there is a position for an Architect for a retail company. The job description for the position is as follows:
The candidate is required to design and render architectural layouts in Autocad 3.
The candidate has to visit onsite projects for looking at the completion and rendition of the designed projects.
The candidate has to lead a team of 3 to 4 draftsmen and see.
The candidate will be responsible for competition of the designing of a project and applying them to the project site.
The candidate is responsible to handling offshore clients and convincing them of the architectural design made by the company.
Desired candidate profile derived from the above job description:
Applicant must hold a qualified B.Arch degree
Must have 2 to 3 years of experience in architectural firm
Must have exposure to commercial architectural work.
Should have excellent knowledge of Autocad
Good presentation and communication skills
Willing to travel to onsite projects
Based on this job analysis the preliminary interview will have the following questions:
What is your educational background?
What is your experience in commercial architectural designing field?
What is your current role?
How long have you been working in the current company?
Why are you looking for a change in job?
What software do you use or have used for designing?
Do you have on-site supervision experience?
How many people are working under you presently?
The above preliminary interview question will help understand the basic fit of the candidate for the position of an architect.
We will write a custom Essay on Selection Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gitman, Lawrence J. and Carl McDaniel. The Future of Business: The Essentials. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Mondy, Wayne. Human Resource Management . London: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
The Benefits of a Routine Physical Exercise Program Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In recent years, the proliferation of lifestyle diseases coupled with the underlying need to stay healthy has made many populations worldwide to become increasingly aware of the need for physical fitness.
Popular media and other advertising channels bombard us everyday with messages on how to guard and improve our health conditions. Although much of this information is commercially motivated by marketers keen to sell vitamin supplements and other ‘health’ products, some of it, in particular that campaigning for a routine exercise regimen, merits serious consideration.
Such a regimen, if done routinely and with passion, can provide numerous benefits to individuals. In essence, routine physical exercise is beneficial to individuals since it assists them discharge tension, improve physical appearance, and enhance stamina.
The first of these advantages, the discharge of tension, is in actual terms felt immediately after taking part in a workout. Current literature demonstrates that tension builds in our bodies’ overtime, in part, due to an over-accumulation of adrenaline mostly generated by stress, job strain, anxiety or fear.
Indeed, medical professionals are in agreement that participating in physical exercise or sporting events for at least thirty minutes or so actively vent off the tension accumulated in our bodies.
If an individual actively engage in playing volleyball or tennis for half an hour each day, he or she should be able to sleep comfortably at night and have a better disposition the next day primarily because sleep is vital for cell rejuvenation and growth. In addition, unwarranted irritations and frustrations with everyday tasks and responsibilities should be less upsetting if one engages in physical exercise.
For example, a manager affected by work-related distress may rush home, argue with his family and engage in other antisocial activities such as smoking and alcohol consumption to release stress. Taking about an hour or so to vent off the stress through physical exercise could inarguably assist the manager to avoid such antisocial behaviour. In this perspective, routine exercise can to a large extent control tension.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An improved physical form, which is the second benefit of routine exercise, takes some time to display, but it certainly comes if one is resilient enough to be able to strictly follow the exercise regimen. Physical exercise experts are of the opinion that individuals must at least train for a month or so before they can start reaping the benefits of improved appearance in the form of a trimmer and firmer shape.
An individual who is overweight by five pounds, for example, may enrol in an exercise program that will see him or her burn away the excess fat in a month or so and thereafter such an individual will not only acquire pride in tighter muscles and improved physique, but he or she will wear clothes more delightfully and contentedly. The individual may also benefit from an improved skin tone if he or she masters the art of combining the exercise regimen with a sensible diet.
In addition to the self-assurance occasioned by an enhanced physique, increased physical strength is known to stimulate stamina. Indeed, a stronger, healthier body is not only more capable of working harder in work-related environments, but it can withstand fatigue experienced as one goes about his or her daily tasks and responsibilities.
An employee who engages in physical exercise should be able to easily complete his or her weekly job assignments and still preserve sufficient energy for watering the garden and scrubbing the kitchen. Stamina is also known to play a significant role in warding off diseases that may slow down the individual and prevent him or her to accomplish set tasks.
Still, stamina opens the doors for employment in industries and sectors that primarily look at endurance as a basic requirement for employment suitability. The police force, the army, and the club bouncers are just a few examples of sectors that require fully invigorated personnel. In consequence, improved stamina is one of the most rewarding benefits of a routine exercise regimen.
While cheap solutions to the broader objectives of losing weight and attaining an eye-catching and full rejuvenated body continue to flood the popular media, acquiring these attributes is not an easy task for the feeble-hearted. The benefits, however, are totally worth the attempt of an established physical exercise regimen that enables an individual to not only feel relaxed and healthy, but also provides ample strength for successful completion of strenuous as well as normal activities.
Chichen Itza Archeologic Site Essay online essay help
Chichen Itza is a great pre-Columbian site which used to be a home of the ancient civilization Maya. The archeological site is located in Yucatan Peninsula and presents one of the most famous archeological sites in Mexico, “Chichen Itza has been considered one of the most important sites in the north portion of the peninsula, while the influence it has cast on the entire region has also been recognized” (Ruiz 84).
Since 1980s the site it is visited by thousands of tourists yearly which influences negatively on the cultural site. For this reason, INAH closed some monuments for public access. In this report, I am going to explore environmental, historical, socio-political and cultural issues that influence the site nowadays.
Considering the fact that the territory where the site is situated has long been transformed by humans:
“research has shown that many of the seemingly pristine forests were cleared centuries ago and have grown back, the grassland selectively burned or gazed, the mountains carved into terraces, and the waters of the deserts stored or diverted” (Marston, Knox, and Liverman 234).
The “appearance” of the site changed greatly. In addition, climate change and hazards caused by global warming, land use and human activity impact the cultural monuments of the site which causes their destruction. Thus, today, the tourists are not allowed to climb the monuments as it was previously, they can only walk around them at the visitor’s sector.
Moreover, as “Latin American’s climate does not remain constant from year to year” (Marston, Knox, and Liverman 236), one of the most important hazards from which suffers the site is El Nino – “a periodic warming of sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific off the coast of Peru that results in worldwide changes in climate, including droughts and floods” (Marston, Knox, and Liverman 236).
In this light, physical actions taken by human are the main causes which influence clime which, in its turn, influences negatively on ruins of Chichen Itza.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These days, it is the most famous touristic site, “regularly bus tours take tourists to Chichen Itza which is probably the most important and best restored site of the northern Maya culture”. (Wong 57).
As Chichen Itza is a famous tourist spot, the regions around it could not avoid economic and demographic changes. The popular migration in the region began in 1843 after the book by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan was published where they described Chichen Itza inclusively.
Since then, the exploration of the city began. Later, in 1920’s Fernando Barbachano Peon started the official tourism in the region which provoked considerable economic and demographic changes. Later, the majority of the historical monuments became the federal ownership.
And a “Federal Law over Monuments and Archeological, Artistic and Historical sites” was established. These days, the majority of population is engaged in the tourism activity. There are many hotels and a famous tourist resort of Cancún near the site which serves the main source of income for the government and people.
Though, the place is considered to be an ancient Maya city, “the most imposing buildings are not at all typical of Classic Mayan architecture, and show strong influences from non-Mayan Central Mexico” (Rider 65). The processes of migration in pre-Hispanic and after-Hispanic periods changed the basics of the Maya culture and today, the culture of the city is diverse.
In addition, “Chichen Itza emerged as a significant city around 700, as a result of the convergence of several different groups in the northern Yucatan” (Rider 77). The flow of tourists also changed the demographic situation in the region.
As it has already been mentioned, the site is a touristic spot and the majority of the population is engaged into tourism. When the city was populated, it was a great trade center. Isla Cerritos was the main port and beneficial geographical position allowed the city to lead maritime trade with distant areas in Mexico and Central America.
We will write a custom Essay on Chichen Itza Archeologic Site specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Chichen Itza ceramics was very popular in the region. Today’s main trade is concentrated in the local areas and local population provides goods and services for tourist trade. In fact, tourists constitute new population of the region and locals feel pressure. In this light, there is a high risk for the region to be overwhelmed by tourists.
The process of globalization did not go by the region. The impact of tourism activities is great, thus UNESCO took the situation under control and announced Chichen Itza one of the most important World Heritage Sites and promotes conservation of the region.
The tourist trips are controlled and there is a project to develop an alternative tourism in the region which will not impact cultural heritage that has a great historical significance.
Thus, we can come to a conclusion that Chchen Itza, which is one of the most popular touristic destinations in the world, suffers from the humans’ activities which cause climate, social and socio-political changes in the nearby regions.
Conservation and alternative tourism are the issues of the prime importance for the government, as its main task is to preserve the historic site and, at the same time support the economic stability in the region.
Works Cited Marston, Sallie. A, Paul l. Knox, and Diana M. Liverman. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 2010.
Rider, Nick. Yucatan and Mayan Mexico, 3rd. Connecticut: New Holland Publishers, 2005
Ruiz, Francisco Pérez. “Walled Compounds: An Interpretation of the Deffencive System at Chichen Itza, Yucatan” Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chichen Itza Archeologic Site by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wong, Po. P. Tourism vs. Environment: The Case for Coastal Areas. Norwell: Springer, 1993.
Philosophies that Challenge Religion’s Dominance Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Conceptual Understanding
Criticisms of religious beliefs and concepts have been in existence since religion started. However, several philosophers trace the roots of religious criticisms to the 5th century In Greece while others claim criticisms to religious beliefs were in existence during the 1st century in ancient Rome (Beckford, 2003).
Often, these criticisms have been developed as philosophies which question or attack the concepts, validity and practices taught in religious circles. To affirm their arguments, critics who challenge the dominance of religion say that, religion is misleading because it seeks to brainwash children; cheats people that they can be healed, just by having faith, among other events.
Some critics do not also shy away from attributing the source of certain ills in the society to religious dominance. For example, the increase of religious wars (such as jihad), discrimination against certain individuals (like women and gays), have been attributed to the dominance of religion in the society (Beckford, 2003, p. 2).
Among the pioneers of anti-religious views are personalities such as Dennet Harris, Hitchens, Dawkins (and the likes) who note that religious doctrines were not divinely inspired, as is believed, but rather, the authors of religious scripts were ordinary people who sought to fulfill a religious, social or political void that existed in the society (Dennett, 2006).
More works developed by anti-religious crusaders have often bombarded the public and they have so far managed to influence our morality and knowledge on the subject. This study seeks to further explain this point, but to do so, we will analyze how antireligious doctrines are effected and reflected in a major historic event – September 11th attacks in New York.
Conceptual Understanding The September 11th attack in New York City is largely seen as an extreme religious attack orchestrated by the Al-Qaida terrorist group (Muslims) against America, which is largely a Christian country (Buzzle, 2011). The event has been perceived to be an example of the effects of extreme religious activities, especially on the side of the Muslim terrorist group, Al Qaida.
Some philosophers who have criticized the dominance of religion in the society have equated the September 11th attacks to similar religious wars such as the Middle East conflict between Israel and its Muslim neighbors, the Sudan civil war, the 2008 London terrorist attacks among others (Buzzle, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One major ground identified in the argument against religious dominance is that religious leaders normally use war and violence to uphold or propel their religious ambitions and goals (Hitchens, 2007, p. 4). An example is Osama bin Laden who has been termed the leader of Al-Qaida terrorist group and a typical example of a religious leader who has successes at using violence to promote religious goals.
From this analysis, we can see that religious leaders are capable of promoting secular wars through their support of religious doctrines (such as jihad in Islam).
Morality Morality is a controversial issue, not only in religious circles but also in social circles. Philosophies that challenge religious dominance have often been directed at this very basic concept of humanity because they have been developed to show that religion has no place in morality (Dennett, 2006, p. 5).
Instead, such philosophies suggest that morality should be based on a man’s education, sympathy and social ties. The reason behind this argument is based on the fact that, many philosophers who have criticized religion have studied man’s behavior and determined that they are usually affected by fear, the hope to be rewarded and death (Dawkins, 1991).
All these factors are attributed to faith because religion teaches that man is bound to be punished or rewarded for the wrong or good deeds that he or she has done while on earth. This fear of punishment or hope for reward influences the behaviors of people and ultimately affects their morals.
The September 11th attacks in America provide the best ground for the understanding of this fact because the violence can be largely perceived as an act by an extremist religious group which recruits and undertakes its activities, based on religious teachings which assure its followers of rewards if they carry out extreme religious pursuits.
In other words, the participation of these offenders in religious conflict is motivated by the goal of achieving eternal peace if they take part in these wars. From this understanding, we are able to see how religion redefines morality because what is a wrong act is justified under the doctrines of religion.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Philosophies that Challenge Religion’s Dominance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When analyzed in the context of the September 11th attacks, we can see that the Al-Qaida terrorist group justified their terrorist activities on religious principles because it is in their belief that they are fighting a religious war (Buzzle, 2011, p. 3).
The same can also be said of America because after the attack, it launched a revenge war in several Muslim states such as Afghanistan and Pakistan where it believed was the home to such terrorist groups. The attack eventually led to a lot of civilian casualties in the affected regions, but the action by the US was largely seen as justifiable because they were victims to religious extremism.
Both scenarios (attacks on America and Muslim states) therefore redefine the concept of morality because without the inclusion of religious doctrines, both attacks would obviously be immoral because they lead to death and violence which is morally wrong.
Religion has therefore been widely used in the society to draw the line on what is moral and what is not. This is the same case depicted in the painting, done by Michael Angelo titled: the last judgment.
In the painting, the open inclusion of naked human bodies caused a lot of controversy because when analyzed from a religious point of view, it was immoral to show human genitalia in public. More condemnation was observed from the painting because it was housed in the Vatican, which is considered one of the holiest Christian places on earth.
The controversy took a different twist when the “holy painting” was later to be compared to Angelo’s nude paintings. This controversy later forced the then pontiff to extricate himself in light of such an argument, saying that in his defense, he was in no place to judge hell’s artifacts. As a result, critics were concerned over the fact that immorality was being condoned in a holy place (the Vatican).
In close relation to the moral lines drawn by Christianity, the Islamic faith has also been criticized by philosophers who teach against religious domination because it has over the years taught dogmatic principles which were only meant to promote matters like hygiene, political stability or other ancient issues which do not apply today (Dennett, 2006).
From this analysis, we can see that the society has been conditioned by the teachings of religion to perceive what is moral and what is not. An example could be the fact that Islam teaches that, women who fail to entirely cover themselves in religious clothing, are immoral and are subject to sexual assault.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Philosophies that Challenge Religion’s Dominance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Religion has therefore been known to trample over human compassion and morality because it advocates for a strict adherence to the scriptures’ teachings, at the expense of one’s individuality.
This can also be seen from the painting, the last judgment because the painting was a representation of the artist’s ideas (nudity), but he was not allowed to express himself because of the teachings of Christianity. In other words, his depiction of the naked human form as a part of his creative work could not be accepted because of what was morally perceived in the eyes of Christianity.
This critical analysis of morality from a religious point of view definitely tramples over human individuality and what an individual perceives as moral or not.
This prevents the growth of human personality because everyone has to conform to certain principles articulated in the scriptures and therefore one cannot be true to him or herself in the process. Religion therefore twists humanity to be a systematic relationship between man and God; beating the whole sense of being human in the first place.
This is the ground which religious institutions command power over the people because they assume they are bestowed with special knowledge of interpreting or redefining what is moral and what is not. From the same grounds, they have also successfully managed to curtail further debate on real issues that affect humanity today, such as same sex marriages, stem cell research and other morally sensitive issues.
Knowledge The September 11th attacks in America show just how much acts of terrorism are perceived as a small battle which is consumed in a larger global religious pursuit (Buzzle, 2011, p. 3).
Though terrorism may be largely perceived as a sophisticated art, it is apparently clear that most of the offensive is undertaken under the surety of religious doctrines which affirm to its subjects that God is with them, and they would be heavily rewarded for their acts (because they are justified to do what they do under the religious doctrines they believe in).
Often, it is usually difficult to convince either side of the religious divide that they are doing a wrong thing, especially if they believe that they are undertaking a religious pursuit, or fighting a religious cause.
Probably, an example of a misguided religious fanaticism is the Siege of the Beziers in 1209, where it was affirmed by one leader on the offensive that: “Kill them all, God will recognize his” (Locks, 2011, p. 13).
From this understanding, the September 11th attacks in the US significantly changes the knowledge assumed to constitute religion because to a large extent, religion seeks to unite the people under a major cause of humanity and the love for God.
However, the attacks significantly change the knowledge that makes up Christianity and Islam because both religions speak of peace and the love for every human being. More importantly, religion speaks against revenge because it assures its believers that revenge should only rest in the hands of God.
All these teachings are breached by the protagonists because the US launched an offensive against several Islamic nations, under a conglomerate of other Christian allies such as Britain and Canada while Islamic unity became more apparent, across the globe, as a victimized religious group out on revenge.
This is a true departure from the teachings of religion and its aim of upholding social cohesion and peace across the world. To a large extent, the September 11th attacks reinforce criticism against religion that its doctrines are based on irrational actions, unscientific fallacies and unreasonable actions which are clearly portrayed by the actions of the US and extreme terrorist groups.
The knowledge believed to encompass Christianity and Islam are therefore completely tarnished by the actions that followed the September 11th attacks
The movie, the deep impact, also represents a departure from the usual beliefs associated with religion, based on how the world ends.
This is true because the movie proposes a scientific way of how the world would end but on the contrary, it is firmly rooted in the beliefs of Christianity that Christ will come back to take his people and separate evil from good. This manner of representation of how the world will end is written in the book of revelations and it is in sharp contrast to what the movie, deep impact, represents.
In religion, there is no inclusion of scientific concepts regarding how the world would end. In fact, most of the events preceding the end of the world are largely religious and have nothing to do with science, or that a comet will come crashing into earth and virtually mark the end of humanity.
The biggest distinction in the movie is that, there is no separation of evil or good in the deep impact, because a large part of the film suggests that the comet would indiscriminately kill all humanity. This is a departure from religious doctrines because the separation of evil and good is at the centre of the end of the world belief.
It is also important to note that religion provides no manner of redemption for humanity against God’s wrath but deep impact assumes that humanity could redeem itself in the wake of destruction by simply digging a deep hole underneath the earth’s surface and accommodate a million people who will survive the disaster.
The redemption of humanity is also skewed along the lines of wealth and power where the people to be redeemed are largely sourced from the United States and Russia, representing the wealth divide that exists in the world today.
Religion actually preaches the contrary because it is believed that the poor, weak and the humble will be redeemed by God during the last day.
The September 11 attacks also seek to reaffirm the argument proposed by certain critics of religion that religion is delusional and causes normal human beings to act in an irrational manner (Dawkins, 1991). In other words, such critics note that religion causes normal human beings to do “mad” acts and still consider them holy in the eyes of God. One such act is killing fellow human beings and expecting rewards from God.
These claims have set forth a series of studies done under research on mysticism and its possible connection to child abuse which set forth a series of other studies investigating the effects of religious possession and its effects on humanity (such as epilepsy).
As a result, literatures such as Carl Sagan’s The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark have developed and suggested that extreme religious beliefs may have a possible connection with mental disorders (Dawkins, 1991, p. 11).
From this point of view, it is firmly believed by proponents of this school of thought that, what many religious believers perceive as vision, episodes and other mystical experiences may be nothing more than the stimulation of temporal lobe seizures.
From this argument, it is not exceptional to assume that the September 11 attacks on American soil may have been caused by a delusional motive among the offenders because their actions cannot be possibly justifiable under normal human state of mind. In other words, their actions and mindsets were obviously poisoned by religious doctrines, such as that affirmed by Bradshaw (2006) who suggests that:
“Some forms of temporal lobe tumors or epilepsy are associated with extreme religiosity. Recent brain imaging of devotees engaging in prayer or transcendental meditation has more precisely identified activation in such sites — God-spots, as Vilayanur Ramachandran calls them.
Psilocybin from mushrooms contacts the serotonergic system, with terminals in these and other brain regions, generating a sense of cosmic unity, transcendental meaning and religious ecstasy. Certain physical rituals can generate both these feelings and corresponding serotonergic activity” (p. 8).
In other words, it can be said that religion makes one conform to the beliefs and values of an unusual culture (which ordinary people would perceive as outrageous) because not even the actions pursued under these pretexts can be perceived justifiable under ordinary religious beliefs. When analyzed in the context of the September 11th attacks, it therefore becomes apparently clear that these acts of terrorism depict delusional behavior among believers, which only seek to reinforce the idea among critics of religion that religion encompasses irrational beliefs and possibly, delusional acts.
From this analysis, there is a clear drift of the actions of believers and the teachings of religion. This belief has been depicted in several works of art such as the musical rock opera titled: Jesus Christ the superstar. In the rock opera, the composers omitted certain basic beliefs which are at the core of Christianity such as the resurrection of Christ.
This move by the musical composers was motivated by the fact that Christian believers normally held irrational beliefs about religion and particularly Jesus Christ. In other words, they tried to tone down the “supernatural” element attributed to Jesus Christ and rather focused on his human side.
To affirm their controversial stance on religion, the musical piece tore down on some of the most basic beliefs about the scriptures of Christianity by stating that some of the books in the New testament, like Mathew, Luke, Mark and John had several inconsistencies because they were in the first place not originally written in English, but rather, interpreted from Greek.
Moreover, because the musical piece focused less on the Jesus’ supernatural nature, it also focused on Judas, which was largely perceived by Christian fundamentalists as an abomination to Christianity. This work only seeks to reinforce the arguments purported in increasing volumes of philosophical works developed by several authors, concerning the negative dominance of religion in the society.
Conclusion This study identifies that the September 11 attacks significantly change the manner we perceive morality and the knowledge associated with religion in the first place. The precursor events and the actions that followed the attacks seek to redefine the concept of morality in the society and seem a departure from the basic teachings of religion.
These events are perceived as irrational and not in conformance to the teachings of Christianity by any means possible. This is the ground pursued by philosophers criticizing the role of religion in the society because as evidenced from the September 11 attacks, religion seems to play a harmful role in the society.
References Beckford, J. A. (2003). Social Theory and Religion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bradshaw, J. (2006). Ockham’s Razor, June 18, 2006, A God of the Gaps? Web.
Buzzle. (2011). Full text: bin Laden’s ‘letter to America. Web.
Dawkins, R. (1991). Viruses of the Mind. Web.
Dennett, D. (2006). Breaking the Spell. New York: Allen Lane.
Hitchens, C. (2007). God is not Great. New York: Twelve.
Locks, S. (2011). Kill Them All; For The Lord Knoweth Them That Are His Steve Locks. Web.
The Museum of Contemporary Art Report essay help site:edu
About Exhibitions of Contemporary Art Each exhibition at MOCA is a unique opportunity for people to enjoy the beauty of the world they live in and to see how the professionals recognize the main aspects of the modern world. The exhibition under consideration is “From the Recent Past: New Acquisitions” with 50 artworks which disclose the world of photography, painting, sculpture, and video to the visitors.
The works by Frydlender, Furnas, and Janes are introduced to the public by the senior curator Alma Ruiz (“From the Recent Past: New Acquisitions”). In general, the works offered have been created between 2003 and 2010, this is why it is possible to observe some new approaches at presenting artworks as well as evaluate the possibilities which were available at the beginning of the 2000s.
People from different countries are eager to donate this exhibition in a variety of ways: photos made by Guo Yilin are given by Rosette V. Delug and works by David Thorpe are introduced by the Drawings Committee.
Of course, this list is far from being full, still, these works are one of the most successful examples of how past and present may be united. The world of art is rich indeed, and From the Recent Past: New Acquisitions is a good opportunity to learn more about the methods of how art is made by and for people.
In fact, this exhibition is available to people from March to July, this is why those who have already got a chance to enjoy the beauty of photography or video peculiarities should encourage other people who want to know more and be closer to the ideas and works offered by the professionals from different countries and with different working approaches.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA)
Vija Celmins: Television and Disaster 1964-1966 is the exhibition that is available to all visitors of LACMA. There are a number of periods during which people demonstrate their best qualities and the impact of cultural background of their vision of art. At this exhibition, it is possible to observe the works created by Clemins in the middle of the 1960s.
This amazing painter came to the United States from Latvia and showed her unique possibility to focus on one moment that could change the whole life. For example, her “Hand Holding a firing Gun” may cause a number of emotions: fear concerning inabilities to predict personal end, energy that comes from the firing gun or excitement that is observed as soon as the bullet reaches the target.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is necessary to admit that the 1960 in many countries were characterized by violent treatment to people as well as to a variety of things. This is why it is not a surprise to find Clemins’ works devoted to violence, deaths, conflicts, and other examples of disorders.
In comparison to other exhibitions offered at the Museum, Vija Celmins: Television and Disaster 1964-1966 makes each visitor feel the taste of the 1960s and become a part of the history that was created long time ago. Technical background used by the painter seems to be a justified decision to prove how dry, scared, and, at the same time, passionate period is disclosed in Celmins’ works.
The exhibition may be found at the second level of the Ahmanson Building. It is open from March 2011 to June 2011 (“Vija Celmins: Television and Disaster 1964-1966”), so, many people still get a chance to enjoy the beauty offered by Vija Clemins.
Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibition (LACE)
Not many people are ready and able to organize an exhibition that could attract the attention of many visitors. However, the curator Cody Trepte is good at art exhibitions, this is why almost each his work becomes a unique chance for people interested in art to enlarge their level of knowledge. What Trepte chooses is the attention to Conceptualism in art with the help of which ideas are prioritized in comparison to forms.
At this exhibition, it is possible to find the works of four artists who contributed the sphere of Conceptual Art in the 1980s. They are Larry Johnson, Mitchell Syrop, Meg Cranston, and Sarah Seager (“On the Line”).
These people demonstrate the power of language in their artworks: it is not enough to present an idea, but it is more important to prove that form does not matter when the idea is considered. Text-in-art forms are preferable for this exhibition, this is why it is not only interesting to observe the achievements in the chosen sphere but also make use the words and slogans offered.
One of the most memorable works is introduced by Syrop and called “Why Does It Take a Lifetime”. The visitors are free to come to the Museum and share their opinions about conceptual works between March, 3 and April, 17.
We will write a custom Report on The Museum of Contemporary Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If people want to reevaluate their lives or discover some new approaches at understanding the essence of life, they are welcome to the exhibition On the Line and think about their dignity and worth relying on the ideas offered by three amazing artists.
Sometimes, it seems to be so difficult to write about art and define the positive aspects of a particular exhibition. This is why if a person has a chance to look at works and feel the atmosphere of Conceptual Art, it is better to choose LACE.
Brooke Hodge and Her Works The work of each artist is another powerful attempt to demonstrate how unique and unpredictable the vision of the world can be. The main theme supported in the works by Brooke Hodge is the idea of connection between contemporary fashion and architectural trend.
At MOCA, she was the curator of Skin Bones: Parallel Practices in Fashion and Architecture where she made a considerable contribution to the world of art as well as architecture. What she finds obligatory to do is to pay attention to various details around: it seems to be better to introduce a work and create appropriate environment so that the visitor is able to comprehend the main message of the work.
With the help of her works, people are free to learn more about various types of identities: cultural identity aims at disclosing the peculiarities of the world around, political identity shows the conditions under which artworks are developed, and personal identity focuses on the ways of how people understand art and its trends.
One of the most significant ideas of Hodge’s works is to prove that it is easy to involve a person into the world of art and make him/her think about architecture as an integral part of human life.
In my opinion, the achievements demonstrated by Brooke Hodge are worth attention. She does not find it necessary to stop at one particular point but take any steps just in order to prove that she can do more. Her works involve many people as they have a number of grounds, and if you are not interested in one point, you may be passionate with another aspect of the same work.
Works Cited “From the Recent Past: New Acquisitions.” The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Museum of Contemporary Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “On the Line.” Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibition. 2011. Web.
“Skin Bones: Parallel Practices in Fashion and Architecture”. The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. 2011. Web.
“Vija Celmins: Television and Disaster 1964-1966.” Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 2011. Web.
The Functions Management Essay college essay help near me
Management is process of working with resources to attain goals and objectives of an organization. This can only be achieved through working with human resource, and proper planning and good supervision of all the processes involved. The organizational processes include marketing, transportation, accounts, manufacture of goods and delivery.
Therefore, this paper focuses on the four functions of management, which are: planning, leading, organizing, and controlling. They are important in any type of organization including manufacturing, distribution, and service organizations. However, the following paragraphs define the functions of management in relation to manufacturing organizations.
Planning is a function in management which means thinking ahead about the future of the organization and actions to be taken. It is an organization of activities tasks to be performed, and it determines who is to do a certain task, how the task should be done, and where it should be done.
Planning reflects on human resources and physical resources to get valuable contribution, control, and the right regulation. It is the best function because when proper plans are laid down it enables others to carry out managerial functions perfectly to achieve the set goals (Bateman
Media Violence Argument Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The debate on whether exposure to media violence plays a role in influencing aggressive or violent behavior is a critical one. There are those who argue that exposure to media violence encourages violent behavior while others oppose the notion.
Those who support the idea like Nancy Signorielli argue that exposure to media violence prompts people to have a notion that the world is a violent place. This desensitizes them so that they begin adapting unacceptable behavioral traits.
Facts The pro side of the argument clearly brings out the fact that media violence has a long time effect on the people especially the children. They are desensitized and tend to become aggressive or fearful.
The argument against the connection has however been clearly brought out the fact that media violence has significantly increased in the resent past yet cases of real-life violence have significantly reduced.
Opinions The argument for the existence of a connection between the two proposes that people exposed to media violence are more likely develop aggressive behavior than those who are not. It is stated that the media does not clearly bring out the fact that crime is bad and people in the long run tend to ape aggressive behavior from the same.
Those arguing against it on the other hand insist that studies show no connection between the two. They are of the opinion that exposure of media violence to the children at an early age has no effect whatsoever to the change of the children’s behavior to that associated with violence.
It is argued that the violence in the media is purely entertainment and that there is no message intended to convince the viewers that violence is good.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jonathan Freedman’s Argument Those who are against the notion like, Jonathan Freedman, argue that scientific evidence shows no connection between media violence and the actual aggressive behavior in people. They argue that the violence in the media just causes arousal and existent among the people but not necessarily aggressive behavior.
According to this argument, there has been a significant increase in media violence in the resent past yet the real cases of violence have significantly reduced (Potter, 2003).
Nancy Signoriell’s argument According to Signoriell’s argument, children who are exposed to violence at an early age tend to develop antisocial behavioral traits that are associated with violence later in life. Some of them indulge in fights, abuse of their spouses as well as other criminal activities.
It is believed that most of the violence shown in the media does not clearly bring out the fact that crime never pays. In some cases, those who indulge in criminal activities go unpunished and children get the wrong signal that indulging in crime is not immoral and hence tend to adopt criminal behavior.
Pro-side of the Argument The argument is based on several studies and statistical data which have proved that children exposed to media violence are more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior than those who are not. Several experiments have been carried out to the same effect.
Studies have proved that the children exposed to pro-social media messages are likely to develop positive behavior traits while those exposed to media violence tend to copy the same. Exposure to media violence increases the rates of gender stereotyping especially among the children.
People tend to use the media while confirming their attitudes as well as beliefs for instance while approving violence. Some of these arguments are however biased in a way given that some of the studies have been done in highly repressed societies like South Africa during the colonial era (Freedman, 2002).
We will write a custom Essay on Media Violence Argument specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other weakness of this argument is that violent or aggressive behavior among people could be due to the fact that people come from families that witness frequent incidences of violence.
The media might in such cases not be the cause of aggressive behavior in such people. There have also been an increase in the media violence in the resent past yet the cases of real violence in society have significantly reduced instead of increasing. This shows weakness in the argument.
Con-side of the Argument Going by the con side of the issue, desensitization has its own positive side. It has for instance been found out that children with problems of fear are likely to be less fearful after being exposed to desensitizing films or media programs, particularly those that are horrifying. It is therefore a remedy to those children with social problems.
The weakness of the con side is that exposing people to media violence desensitizes them and they in the long run tend to approve of such violence and show less concern or pity for the victims of the violence.
The violence and scary images are likely to instill fear in the children who watch such programs either on the short or long-term basis. Some of them might even have nightmares in which they might scream while sleeping. People exposed to more of the violent media tend to believe that the world is a scary place and they become cautious of many people or things.
They tend to believe that they are out to protect themselves. Studies carried out have proved that people exposed to media violence are more likely develop aggressive behavior than those who are not. This evidence shows weakness on this side of the argument (Phillip, 1979).
Author Credibility The arguments are credible given that the authors have cited the appropriate sources and studies that support their arguments. Those who argue that there exists no connection between media violence and aggression have for instance based their arguments on other scholars who have written concerning the same issue like Fowles : (Fowles 1999).
Some of the studies quoted include that done by Ronald Milavsky with others which was a longitudinal study that was carried out in three years from 1970 t0 1973. These are accompanied by statistical evidences and figures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media Violence Argument by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case for instance, a study was carried out on 2400 school children at the elementary level while 800 teenagers were sampled in the study. The argument for the existence of the connection between the two has also been based on other scholarly material like; (Singer 1988) as well as (Potter 2003). The two arguments are both coupled with evidence from other sources.
Personal Opinion The author who holds a substantive argument is the one who argues that media violence affects people’s behavior driving them towards aggressive or violent behavior. This is because the argument is couple with enough evidence to justify the same.
Television for instance tends to shape people’s opinions as well as perceptions towards life issues. When it is stuffed with violence and crime people tend to appreciate the fact that crime and violence are not bad, given that some of the offenders go without being punished. People therefore tend to adopt violent and aggressive behavior as a result.
The description, analysis as well as evaluation of the argument has been done in a comprehensive and clear way coupled with evidences derived from different studies or sources. It has been clearly brought out that exposure to violent programs to children as well as adults tends to drive them towards behaving aggressively as compared to those who are not exposed to them (Signorielli, 2002).
Contemporary Research Contemporary research supports the side which argues that a connection exists between aggressive behavior and exposure to violent media programs.
Different studies have been carried out to the same effect and they have proved that children who are exposed to violent media at an early age tend to have their future lives characterized by acts of violence like spouse abuse as well as fighting.
Studies have also been carried out whereby children have been separated into two groups; one group is exposed to violent media and the other not.
The evidence revealed that those children that were exposed to violent media exhibited change in their behavior as well as speech as they tended to be more aggressive than their counterparts who were not exposed to the same.
It has also been proved that those who are exposed to violent media programs tended to be desensitized in the sense that they tended to sympathize less with the victims of violence as compared to those who were not exposed to the same.
Reference List Fowles, J. (1999). Teaching the Post modern. The Enigma, 50-60.
Freedman, J. (2002). Media Vilence and its Effects on Aggression: Assessing The Scientific Evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Phillip, D. (1979). Suicide, the motovehicle facilities and the mass media: Evidence towards a theory of suggestion. American Journal of Sociology , 560-568.
Potter, J. (2003). The eleven myths of media violence. Califonia: Sage Publications.
Signorielli, N. (2002). Violence in the Media. A Reference Handbook , 25-268.
Singer, R. (1988). Strategies and metastrategies in learning and performing self-paced athletic skills . The Sports Psychologist, 49-68.
Language as a Symbol of Group Membership: Asserting the Right to Be Unique Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Black English: The Voices That Come from Within
“You Speak My Language!”
People have always been experiencing the problems of understanding even in their own language. The language issues will probably never be solved, even if the mankind will finally come to speaking one and the same language.
In spite of the evident similarity between the American English and the Black English, people still experience certain problems in understanding the Black American dialect.
Although this version of American English is widespread enough to be considered a dialect of its own, there are certain doubts if this version of American English can be considered a viable language.
In his gripping and incredibly insightful book, Keith Gilyard considers the Black American dialect, coming to the conclusion that what used to be a shape of the English language has finally come to be a self-sufficient language with the rules and the peculiarities of its own. After all, as the author claims, it is clear that as long as people speak a dialect, one has to admit its existence and its necessity (Gilyard).
With help of logically structured arguments and historical facts about the Black American English, the author drives the reader to the idea that the Black American English is as important and viable as the rest of the world languages, which means that the Black American English is not to be underestimated.
Black English: The Voices That Come from Within Unfortunately, the acknowledgement of Black English has been quite a problem since the time the vernacular language emerged. Despite the numerous researches conducted on the topic, it still presents quite a doubtful issue for linguists.
Though there was a research admitting that the vernacular English does have the right to exist as a language of its own, as Gilyard claims (27), the debates building around the issue are growing increasingly long.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the controversy and the complicacy of the problem raised, it is evident that Keith does have a point in his attempts to convince the reader in the necessity to acknowledge Black English. What makes the greatest impression in Gilyard’s chain of interferences is the idea that as long as there are people who speak certain dialect, the latter exists whatever linguists might think.
Thus, considering the idea that the Black English cannot exist as a self-sufficient version of the American English, Gilyard comes to the conclusion that such viewpoint denies the cultural specifics of the people who use the vernacular version of the American English:
Such writers as Geneva Smitherman (1977), Jim Haskins and Hugh Butts (1973), and J. L. Fillard (1973) have condemned the public school system’s traditional nonrecognition and nonacceptance of the separate and legitimate language variety, popularly labeled as Black English, spoken by the majority of inner-city black youth.
In their view, this implicit and explicit rejection of language communicates rejection of both Black children and the culture that has produced them. (Gilyard 9)
Therefore, the key idea which Giluyard is trying to convey is that as long as the language spoken by a group of people or a community is associated with certain culture and presupposes the existence of certain.
One of the most important issues which Gilyard emphasizes is that language is an integral part of people’s identity, both personal and cultural which means that without the language of their own, this culture will dissolve in the ocean of the dominating tastes. In this case, language is the matter that glues people together, helping them to keep their traditions and national peculiarities.
“You Speak My Language!” In terms of the interconnection between the language and the national identity, Gilyard expresses a theory of paramount importance which determines the value of the vernacular English as the self-sufficient language.
We will write a custom Essay on Language as a Symbol of Group Membership: Asserting the Right to Be Unique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emphasizing that language is a symbol of group membership and the identity of an individual, the author clarifies the interrelation between a man and the society, which is quite logical, yet it seems that the theory is not as impeccable as it should be.
On the one hand, the chain of ideas creates an impression of a natural and logical argument. Indeed, claiming that the common language is the first criterion according to which people flock in ethnic groups; yet there are certain doubts that this is one of the key issues which predetermine the idea of personal identity. However, it must be admitted that the author drives strong arguments to support his viewpoint:
First, to make light of how bound up language is with identity represents a definite shortsightedness. That much should be clear by now. Second, one should know that despite attempts to “correct” children’s grammar, children themselves for the most part choose which language varieties they will speak. (Gilyard 114)
Thus, it still has to be admitted that the person who does not speak the language of the group will never get an access to the membership in the given group. Yet it should be kept in mind that the language is merely a component of the substance that makes the identity of a person.
Therefore, it cannot be considered that the absence of common language predetermines complete exclusion from certain group. Taking a more broad-minded approach, one will find out that cultural and national identity is a sum of numerous factors, among which there is also the language factor.
Accordingly, with the rest of the elements of the national identity present, one has the right to be accepted into the given national or cultural group even without knowing the language.
Still it is necessary to mention that in the situation above the language assimilation will finally take place, and the individual will either accept the language of the group, or grate the vernacular language similar to the one spoken in the group. Anyway, the process of cultural assimilation will finally take its toll even on the person with different language background.
Since the language makes one of the components of the identity of a person, there is no doubt that the Black English is to be accepted in schools as the language which has the right to exist.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Language as a Symbol of Group Membership: Asserting the Right to Be Unique by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, teachers have to allow children to use their language to convey their ideas better and to produce original ideas. Without their mother tongue, the students might feel frustrated and upset, which will hinder their school progress and have negative impact on their personal development.
Conclusion There is no doubt that as long as there are people speaking certain language, no one can wipe the latter off the face of the Earth and off the hearts of the people. On the contrary, encouraging people to express their ideas in their native tongue will help them understand that their culture is appreciated and respected.
Only with help of mutual respect and the acknowledgement of each language, people will be able to keep every single cultural tradition in peace and harmony.
Works Cited Gilyard, Keith R. Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence. Detroit, MI:
Wayne State University Press, 1991. Print.
Learning to Stereotype: The Lifelong Romance Critical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: The Force of Habit
Stereotype Me: Learning to Think
The Secret Shelter from Vulgarity
Conclusion: A Long Way to Go
Introduction: The Force of Habit One of the most enchanting novels in the American literature, the piece by Cahan offers a plunge into the world of the usual. All soaked with the binding routine, always repeating, always the same, the book is a perfect study of human’s nature in terms of everyday life.
Although people tend to be original and outstanding, the routine and the mundane life take them back into the life of the ordinary. With help of the traditional stereotypes, Cahan manages to create the specific nowhere-to-run atmosphere.
Stereotype Me: Learning to Think It is quite peculiar that all possible stereotypes can be traced at every level in Cahan’s creation, starting from the mundane family life and business relationships up to the stereotypes concerning nationalities and national features of character and behavior. With help of these tiny details, often almost invisible, the author creates the impression of striking reality.
Yet at the same time the reader understands that what Cahan suggests is the mock-reality where everything is a grotesque, and where people watch their reflections in a distorting mirror.
What bursts upon the eye immediately is the traditional idea of various nationalities. For instance, the lead character, Leizer Lipman, is a perfect specimen of a Jew as they are often depicted – living in a foreign country, yet running his small but successful business:
The shop was one of a suite of three rooms on the third floor of a rickety old tenement house on Essex Street, and did the additional duty of the family’s kitchen and dining room. It faced a dingy little courtyard, and was connected by a windowless bedroom with the parlor, which commanded the very heart of the Jewish markets.
Another traditional picture of a national character is Lipman’s wife, Zlate, a woman of East European descent. According to the widespread myth about the Slavonic women, she is rather humble yet hard-working, a real helping hand for her husband.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another issue which the author touches upon is the prejudices and myths concerning work. Zlate mistakenly gives orders to her husband’s employee, considering the latter her own “errand boy” as well. Creating certain conflict, this small detail sheds the light on the stereotypes learned at the mother’s knee.
Although they could seem absurd to the people of different culture, they are still a part of someone’s life; they are practically a part of someone, to be more precise.
It is obvious that once Zlate or Lipman abandon their prejudices and stereotypes, there will be only empty shell left, not the people, for stereotypes are often what people’s lives depend on.
The Secret Shelter from Vulgarity Another common stereotype which the author considers is the shame of saying sorry. As Lipman decides to apologize to Beile, he feels quite uncomfortable and realizes that he might have no heart to continue what he started:
He armed himself with a fib to explain his conduct. But all in vain; he could not nerve himself up to the terrible meeting. And so day after day passed, each day increasing the barrier to the coveted visit.
With all the wisdom and understanding Cahan approached one of the most significant things in people’s lives, the art of saying “sorry”.
Another tricky issue which Cahan considers as a stereotypical situation is Lipman’s affair. Using the traditional stereotype of relationships between a man in his ripe age and a young woman, Cahan exposes the futility of people’s attempts to make the incompatible come together.
We will write a custom Essay on Learning to Stereotype: The Lifelong Romance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion: A Long Way to Go With help of his talent, Cahan makes people’s chronic stereotypes burst like bubbles. Describing the world as it is, bare and unveiled, Cahan makes people see their own silly prejudice. As stereotypes surrender the lead characters, it becomes obvious that the vision of the world can be changed – all that one has to do is to make an attempt.
Works Cited Cahan, Abraham. A Sweatshop Romance. Ibiblio, n.d., Web.
Stereotypes of American Citizens Essay essay help: essay help
The American citizens have diverse stereotypes that emanate from their inherent attributes such as gender, race, ethnicity, culture, occupation, and/or ancestral origin. McAndrew and Akande lament that in the United States, African Americans are the most stereotyped due to racial discrimination and the dark history of slavery (650).
The whites see African Americans as poor, lazy, superstitious, primitive, and criminal race. Western stereotypes depict Native Americans as fierce warriors, violent, criminals, drunkards, primitive and hunters, while European Americans stereotypes are intellectual, rich, racists, powerful, hardworking and innovative in their occupations.
Primitivism, criminals, illegal immigrants, smugglers, terrorists and actors are the major stereotypes associated with the Latino Americans. The westerners also portray Asian Americas as culture oriented, intruders, intelligent, innovative, sexually active, and hardworking.
The westerners also view Middle East Americans as Muslims, moneyed, terrorists, bombers, thieves, and murders. Gender stereotypes in the United States reflect men as tall, huge, quiet and powerful while women are tall, slim, talkative and less powerful. Given the diversity of stereotypes that the Americans hold about each racial group, how do they affect effective communication?
Stereotypes of various racial groups in the United States occur in the literature, media and comedies. The media constantly portray certain attributes and characters associated with given racial groups, thus changing the perceptions of Americans resulting into stereotypes.
In schools, literature and socialization generate more stereotypes of various races. From the stereotyped attributes, I realized that the most prominent stereotypes about certain race are the negative ones implying that stereotyping is degradation of real attributes concerning specific groups.
I discovered that stereotypes do not reflect the true and accurate attributes of a particular race or ethnic group because they are forms of criticism, which always tend to portray real attributes of the people in the most negative way possible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the society, people form stereotypes to criticize, abuse, or even defame others in social and political arenas. Stereotypes are common during times of social unrest, political campaigns, games and another social gathering. Since stereotypes involve defamation, abuse and criticism, they are unfair because they negatively portray true attributes of the people.
Stereotypes such as primitiveness and naivety interfere with successful communication because the person communicating sees the other as someone who does not understand the topic or the context of discussion and this degrading perspective contravenes existence of any meaningful engagement. Eventually, the communicating partners would not communicate effectively due to the stereotypes.
Moreover, since stereotypes due to racial differences tend to classify people into stereotyped groups, the most negatively stereotyped group would feel degraded and develop fears, which would significantly interfere with effective intergroup communication.
Stereotypes such as criminality, violence, and terrorism associated with particular races scare other racial group and prevent friendly interaction, which interferes with effective interracial communication.
Understanding one’s stereotypes and those associated with other racial or ethnic groups would enhance effective communication. For effective communication to occur, one should be able to indentify offending stereotyped language and character in order to avoid annoying others who perceive such stereotypes as offensive. Nurturing of positive stereotypes about certain racial or ethnic group enhances socialization and thus effective communication.
For example, identifying with cultural lifestyles of particular racial or ethnic groups promotes intercultural interaction, which ultimately improves effective communication. Stereotyping affects relationship among friends; for instance, one day, my friends teased me that I looked like a Negro and went further to discusses how Negroes are presumably primitive, naïve and poor.
This experience heralded the death of our relationship, even though the perpetrators of the same were my very close friends. We almost fought and for the first time, I hated my friends for upholding misconstrued opinions.
We will write a custom Essay on Stereotypes of American Citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited McAndrew, Frank, and Akande, Antoun. “African of Americans of African and European Descent.” Journal of Social Psychology 135.5 (1995): 649–655.
The Way to Wild Place and Back to Civilization Analytical Essay best essay help
A lot of different dictionaries and country-specific information is available for modern people. But, this data has been written on the basis of the expeditions and research which have been very popular in the world several centuries ago.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark are the researches who managed to conduct a land expedition, going to the dangerous and unpredicted Pacific Northwest with the goal to search for the marine connections for commercial purposes and returned to the civilized world safe and sound with the specific knowledge which has become the basis for writing the journal and the reason for West expansion.
The expedition to the Pacific Northwest was considered to be exciting as the unknown land was going to be explored. The first words which were heart from Clark when the expedition reached the Pacific Ocean was “Ocian in view! O! the joy”. The view was magnificent.
Reading the book, it dwells upon the geographical and social peculiarities which were strange for people who got used to civilization. Having a purpose to consider the ways for commerce, Lewis and Clark tried to note all the facts they faced or found out.
Even the remark “a verry large wolf came to bank and looked at us this morning” form 30th June 1804 attracts our attention. The book is a description of life of two captains and their crew in the unknown and strange land, full of surprises and unexpected issues.
Those who may think that the way to the Pacific Ocean looked like the adventure free from different dangers are mistaken, as to penetrate the continent of North America at the beginning of the 19th century was very dangerous. The crew got used to the civilization, and they were brought to the place which can be described by one word – wild.
Lewis and Clark were lucky to visit such tribes as Mandan, Clatsop and Shoshone and remain alive. The territory of the Pacific Northwest was inhabited by the Indians whose main activity was hunting. Clark and Lewis mentioned Indians many times.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, it should be stated that the letter from Lewis where he reports about their journey to the Pacific Ocean and the opportunity to read these notes show that the expedition was successful and everybody returned safe and sound.
The expedition achieved the stated objectives to research the marine ways for trade and contributed to the history of American exploration. Having conducted an expedition by land, Clark and Lewis managed to consider the way of life those lands led which helps us understand the main history of the region and why their live now in such a way.
Bibliography Jones, Landon Y. The Essential Lewis and Clark. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
Footnotes Landon Y. Jones, The Essential Lewis and Clark (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002), xi.
Jones, p. 4.
Article Summary and Critique Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free
Charles I was the first king of the England’s royal leader to face trial for betrayal which led to his execution. It was one of the most contentious and prominent incident in England’s history.
There was no law in England’s history that dealt with the prosecution of a king and so, the rule of organizing the court for Charles’s trial was compiled by a Dutch lawyer called Issac Dorislaus, and his rule was supported by an ancient Roman law which was written down that the government could legally bring down a tyrant.
This paper analyses the research with the same title conducted by Holmes (2010).
Charles’s 1 fate was to be decided by 135 judges, but only 68 appeared before the trial. Those who did not attend were not happy about the trial and did not want to be linked with the case.
MP’s who were on parliament did not want to see the king put on trial, but in December 1648, the MP’s were prevented from going to the parliament by a colonel who was joined by some soldiers. Those who supported the trial were the only ones who attended the parliament proceedings.
The execution of Charles 1 was viewed by his friend and enemies as unavoidable. Some said that they could not be secure while he remained alive because they referred to him as a cowardly cruel man who had initiated and won the war. They prayed and reflected both the first and second civil wars and came to a conclusion that the lord’s reason was to deal with the king as a killer.
S.R Gardener considered the wait between the army’s coup and the elimination of the parliament on 6th December, and later the execution after seven weeks was a deliberate delay.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He thought the votes regarding the sentence were noted as just a beginning and not binding, perhaps because they were passed by only 46 representatives. He also indicated that those among the judges who supported the planning of a capital sentence believed that he could only be removed from power by putting him to death.
Consequently, Sean Kesley wrote a novel and an interesting interpretation of legal procedures against Charles 1. His arguments were favored by scholars; Richard and Michael Braddick both came up with related implications from Kesley’s details.
Kesley highlighted that it was not planned that the prosecution could result in regicide. Efforts had been put to eliminate the regicide outcome and few kings and judges required the king to be killed.
They required that the king would cooperate with the court but he did not cooperate since Charles believed that his own power to rule was God given and by traditions and laws of England, those who were trying him were false arms and maintained that the trial was unlawful.
According to the named article, the parliament and the military are not sure in their convictions. This uncertainty was caused by Charles when he refused to co-operate with those who had persuaded him to do as he was advised. This weakened the patience of his judges who decided to condemn and put him to death, and hence the thought to end regicide became extremely thin.
The army was divided about the issue of trial and execution according to Kelsey and Nedham. Individual officers were not certain about the trial and execution, this was seen especially when Charles Fleetwood disappeared mysteriously from the parliament and from the army because he was not certain of the outcome.
Major General Skippon was also absent from the army and from the parliament. Likewise, Colonel Richard Ingoldsby did not participate in the trial, but he turned up during the final conclusions and approved the death sentence. General Hammond missed the final steps on 29th and did not sign the arrest warrant; the officers’ decisions differed.
We will write a custom Essay on Article Summary and Critique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, the author makes creativity on the contribution of others and compares Kelsey’s description about Charles who said that that the removal of the king was seen as dangerous.
Kelsey describes Charles as a Gambler who was hesitant and uncertain even to his judge, and that he was too confident and exaggerated it. When the trial began, Charles knew that he was doomed and he denied his enemies the delight of reviewing his evils in a formal trial but instead sought to stand for the rights of his people against oppression.
According to Cromwell, Charles was the toughest man on earth, and his attempt to rule again would result in a rebellion by the army and leading to deaths.
Charle’s trial was biased because it was twisted, and he was also given many chances to plead before they executed him. By doing this they thought that the conciliation could be resurrected. In essence, the proceedings on 24 and 25 January, when views of the witnesses against the Kings trial were seen as an effort to setback the trial.
In conclusion, clearly Charles 1 was an arrogant person and he refused to defend himself when he was asked by the judges to do so. He did not recognize the authority of the court and he declined to take off his hat as a sign of respect to the judges. The author of the named article has presented the facts with enough evidence.
Although the evidence which is available is not easy to assess and is marked by wishful thinking and self interest, it can be concluded that Charles 1 was a dangerous and arrogant person who did not recognize his own faults. He only defended himself when his judgment was announced by the court but since his chance had gone, he was taken out and the judgment date was set.
Work Cited Holmes, Clive. “The Trial and Execution of Charles I. The Historical Journal 53 (2010): 289-316. Doi:10.1017/S0018246X10000026.
Protest songs in the 1960s Analytical Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Protest Songs
Artists/Musicians involved and their messages
As one author quoted, “Music cleanses the understanding; inspires it and lifts it into a realm which it would not reach if it were left to itself” (Henry Ward Beecher). He couldn’t have been more right. Protest songs are considered to have span over the centuries, continents and race.
They are songs that majorly address issues that range from social injustices like racism and slavery to political matters like wars. They either inspire crowds for mass actions or simply just create awareness of the problem. Protest songs are, however, known to be associated with peaceful social movements.
In the 1960’s, the prevalent issues then were the Civil Rights movement and the Vietnam War. This article explores the many artists/musicians who were actively involved during this time and the protest songs that they sung that meticulously addressed the then current issues.
Protest Songs Protest songs stem from the folk music (Protest Song 1) that was present in the early 19th century. The folk music of that period addressed matters of social injustices and folk music eventually transitioned to protest songs in the1960s as a result of the dissatisfaction of the public and their current political and social environment especially after the end of World War 2 (Hurry et al. 162).
Folk songs were generally characterized by their simplicity and repetitive choruses (Hurry et al. 162). These songs were also appropriate alternatives to the other genres especially jazz (Gonipraw 4).
Protest songs however transitioned from the “acoustic-oriented folk styling to rock-based rhythms” (Protest Music 1) although this entirely depended on the musician. Gonipraw attributes this transition to “artistic decisions, record company involvement and a growing disillusionment among young people” (Gonipraw 5).
The then artists/musicians were known to contribute greatly to protests that sought to address the civil rights concerns and the Vietnam War (Gonipraw 4). Gonipraw has argued that: “when the needs and goals of the people were sung together by the people, a force was created, capable of defeating alienation” (Gonipraw 4). Peter Seeger who was a known musician in the 1960s summarized it rightly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Artists/Musicians involved and their messages Some of the popular artists and groups of this time were: “Woody Guthrie, Peter Seeger, Bob Dylan, Phil Ochs, Joe Hill, The Weavers, Leedbelly, Joan Baez, Neil Young, The Doors, Country Joe and the Fish, Jefferson Airplane among others” (Cogan et al. 126). Peter, Paul and Mary were also another famous trio during this time (Protest Music 1).
Woody Guthrie and Peter Seeger were very vigorous in their approach since they traversed their country and actively became involved with the political events of that time (Gonipraw 3).
For the Vietnam War, songs that were composed had messages that basically advocated the end of the war or showed its ineffectiveness. “Where have all the flowers gone?” (Perone 20) is one such a song written by Peter Seeger, and it even had the privilege to be sung in Vietnam by the soldiers.
The song’s story is about “young girls picking flowers that eventually end on the graves of their dead soldier husbands” (Ruehl 1). Another song by Peter Seeger “Last train to Nuremberg” (Perone 61) is seen to directly point accusing fingers to the President Nixon and others as to blame for the blood shed in Vietnam.
Barry McGuire is also one such artist whose song “Eve of Destruction” in 1965 had a stern message against the war in Vietnam (Protest Music 1). Bob Dylan is also a famous artist whose music mostly addressed “world problems” (Cogan et al. 128). His lyrics unlike other musicians were not as direct but were “deliberately trying to obscure the meaning of his politics in a political context” (Cogan et al. 129).
He is considered to have been the best of them all since “he redefined what protest music said and what it sounded like” and he is also know to have mentored many others (Gonipraw 7). Some of his songs that were really popular include “Blowin in the wind” and “Master of War”.
During the Civil Rights Movement, the African Americans really made use of song as a way to “send hope, calm sorrows and heal” themselves even as they struggled to find freedom (Freeman 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Protest songs in the 1960s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The songs they sang had been used in the slave era and were changed to work for them during their other struggles: for instance “Oh Freedom” sang by Joan Baez was initially “written about freedom in heaven…” (Freeman 2) but it was adapted to describe “the harsh realities of segregation that included shootings, burning and bombing of churches” (Freeman 2).
The protests were to fight for equality with other Americans and they were sang “almost nightly in the churches from the South” (Freeman 5). The fact that these musicians even stood by Dr Martin Luther King Jr. is very remarkable, since it signifies that it was not just about African American civil rights struggle but it was more of a joint effort from leaders and musicians alike.
In about 1968, the vitality of protests song was on the decline and this could be attributed to many things: President Nixon’s administration may have had a hand in it (Protest Music 1). Nevertheless, John Lennon’s song “Give Peace a Chance” in 1969 seems to have brought a good closure of the protest songs to more of peaceful songs (Ruehl 1).
Its message was just simply summarized in its title and its popularity did not stop then but continued throughout time especially where there was any “peace movement involved”. Not only did the songs lose their power, but time also saw some very influential musician like Phil Ochs who started out very well, lose ground as a musician (Gonipraw 6).
The question however is, did the songs achieve the purpose for which they were composed? They did. Simply because protest songs were a part and parcel of the movements in 1960 and the two went in hand in hand (Gonipraw 6). The popularity was more on the musicians as compared to politicians since they had much more impact than the latter (Gonipraw 6).
Conclusion Songs and music definitely have a very great impact be it in mobilizing masses or passing a message across from time immemorial. The protest songs in their time are known to have had a great influence on the leaders, the Vietnamese soldiers and even unifying many from all races during the Civil Rights movement.
Their popularity in the 1960s fully served their purpose and some of the songs are even sung to date and they even persisted through the 1970s. Though not as popular, there are songs which are sung presently that could fall in the category of protest songs.
Works Cited Cogan et al. Encyclopedia of Politics, the Media and Popular Culture. Santa Barbra CA, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Protest songs in the 1960s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Freeman, Tracy. Spiritual and Freedom Songs. Coded Communication, n.d. Web.
Goniprow, Dan. Where have all the Protest Songs Gone? Senior Honors Projects, 2007. Web.
Hurry et al. Heinemann Advanced Music. London, UK: Heinemann, 2001. Print.
Perone John. Songs of Vietnam Conflict. New York, NY: Greenwood, 2011. Print.
Protest Music. American Renaissance. Music, n.d. Web.
Protest Song. Music. Neo Himanism, 2004. Web.
Ruehl, Kim. Best Classic Anti-War Songs. Folk Music, 2011. Web.
Cons of having Nuclear Weapons Essay argumentative essay help
Whenever nuclear weapons are mentioned, it sparks fear and anxiety in many people. Currently there are very few countries that posses nuclear weapons or have intentions of acquiring them (Lee 45). Nuclear is a dependable source of nuclear power and coincidentally political power. Countries that possess nuclear weapons are widely feared allover the world.
The potential of destruction the nuclear weapons command makes them special tools for international negotiations (Fieldhouse 56). When two nations that own nuclear weapons are involved in a conflict, it is easier for them to negotiate as they both understand the destructive capacity of nuclear weapons incase war begins.
Many countries that own nuclear weapons are always researching and improving their nuclear weapons because they are seen as a source of national pride. This paper will discuss the cons of nuclear weapons despite the fore-mentioned benefits.
The discovery of nuclear weapons has brought a lot of destructions compared to benefits. To begin with, the nuclear power is a source of dangerous radiations that are very harmful to patients (Cohen
Interview with Marketing Manager of Toyota Motor Corporation the United States Branch Autobiography Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The manager interviewed is the head of marketing department to the international company whose head quarters are in Japan, the United States Branch sells automobiles and offers financial services, and rent a car business to customers. The company has 317,734 employees all over the world however, in the United States; the employees are slightly over 70,000.
According to the manager, the success of a business is a function of the quality of its management. There are different roles and functions of management that the manager described; they are;
Planning ensures that activities are well thought and coordinated. Strategic decisions of various functions of an organization are considered when planning. It involves reflective thinking that consider an organizations goals and deriving methods to attain them. This is the initial function of management.
Organizing is structuring of function in an organization to ensure that goals in the organization have been attain effectively. Functions must be planned in a way that there is high in production. The function also involves ensuring that experienced human resource is deployed in various sections.
To get things done, a manager must provide good leadership in the organization. He must understand various functions at his level and lead by example. People are more likely influenced by set examples by mangers instead of given directions. A good manager should ensure that he offers good leadership to the business.
This is overseeing functions in the organization and ensuring that they are well conducted. It involves monitoring of activities in an organization.
According to the leader, the most dominant function that he does is leading people, he is of the opinion that different situation calls for different approach that need to be mastered and applied effectively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a leader cuts across all the functions of a leader, it covers all areas in the leadership. The manager noted that there is a growing change in people’s perception, needs and drives; it calls for managers to lead their teams in the path that can result to success of an organization.
When asked about the main characters and attributes that he feels all great leaders have, the manager was quick to point out the following traits; decisiveness, good communication skills and visionary/futuristic.
The manager observed that what differentiates a good manager and ineffective managers is their decisiveness, secondly the effect of the decisions are only felt if the manager can make orchestrate teams, orchestrate teams are only developed through good communication. Businesses operate in perpetuity thus; effective leaders need to be visionary/futuristic.
The manager was quick to emphasize the need for effective communication strategies among teams; the manager feels that communication should be a two way where managers feel free to listen and be heard by the juniors and the same happens with the juniors. With good communication, the manager felt that organizations could attain high and build positive organizational culture.
When the manager was talking of his experience in management, he said that it feels good to see transformation occurring within an organization because of decisions made, the manager feels rewarded when he pioneers a successful project. It gives him self-confidence and raises his self-esteem.
The most frustrating times in a managers life according to the Toyota marketing manager is when top management and junior staffs fail to offer him support needed to perform a certain duty. It feels disappointing in such times since the manager feels he is going to fail but can do nothing about it.
In his final remarks, the manager advised that to become an effective and successful leader, a leader must have constantly been reading relevant materials from scholars, periodicals, dailies and books. The manager noted that leadership evolves with time so being updated is the secret to effective leadership.
We will write a custom Essay on Interview with Marketing Manager of Toyota Motor Corporation the United States Branch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains Essay best college essay help
Maxine Hong Kingston’s work has long fascinated critics for its investigation of speech, language and storytelling as a means of unlocking some of the deepest secrets of the Chinese culture, a culture that observes very clear behavioral distinctions between genders.
Kingston belongs to a culture wherein women “use story as a means to understanding and survival,” whereas for the most part the men of the Chinese culture “tend toward silence” (Pinkser n.p.).
In Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains, from her non-fiction work China Men, the author explores the theme of enforced silence and its consequences in numerous facets. The story details not only what happens from the standpoint of political oppression, but also how the theme of enforced silence plays itself out in families, often in an intergenerational manner.
Critic Sanford Pinsker understands that the enforced silence, especially that which is staunchly observed among Chinese men, “forces Kingston to invent multiple versions of what may have happened in her father’s past” (Pinkser n.p.).
The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains exists as an epic family history, and follows the world travels of a number of generations of Chinese men. Kingston recounts the journeys of her “family of male sojourners across America and away from womenfolk and children in China.
This dispersed arrangement of family members was the predominant form the traditional Chinese extended patrilineal family system took during the peak years of emigration” (Pinkser n.p.). Although these generations of men traveled the world and witnessed many wonders, their culture of enforced silence bid them not to share most if not all of the details of their experiences.
In Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains therefore, we see the impact of this silence as family members attempt to make sense of their heritage with only anecdotal and speculative information available to them, often delivered from third and fourth hand sources, not from the grandfathers themselves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the reader’s first experiences of the theme of enforced silence occurs when Kingston discusses the third wife of her maternal grandfather (Kingston 85). The woman in question is not given a name, nor does Kingston reveal the grandmother’s origin, explaining only that “my maternal grandfather had brought a third wife back from his third trip West, Bali or Hawaii or South America or Africa” (Kingston 85).
The impact of the silence – in this case, the suppression of detail about this element of the family – reveals itself in the fate of the grandmother. Kingston claims that “I am glad to see the black grandmother ended up with a son and grandson who are articulate. When she came to China she “jabbered like a monkey,” but no one answered her. Who knows what she was saying anyway? She fell mute” (Kingston 85).
In this passage from the text we glimpse the consequence of enforced silence on the grandmother – her family essentially ignores her, until she stops attempting to communicate with anyone at all (Kingston 85). In this example, though Kingston does not overtly state it, the enforced silence destroyed a member of her family (Kingston 85).
The above example also brings up the idea of enforced silence in the area of interracial marriages. Despite the fact that interracial marriages clearly happened between the grandfathers who traveled the world and the women of other races and cultures that they met and fell in love and married there, all details of these unions are kept silent and buried in the culture, and even within the families where they occur, as evidenced by the lack of information that Kingston seems to know about this relative.
Critic Linda Ching Sledge has spoken of the issue of interracial marriages and its treatment in Kingston’s work and in the Chinese culture at large. In Sledge’s words, Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains draws an accurate portrait of “the thorny issue of miscegenation” in the Chinese culture (Sledge 19).
According to Sledge, “it is well known that intermarriage was strictly forbidden to Chinese by Confucian teachings, for it went against the classical notion established in the Li Chi that marriage was a religious duty between consenting families to secure the services in the ancestral temple for the predecessors and to secure the continuance of the family line for posterity….” (Sledge 19).
The enforced silence in regards to the black grandmother in this case has deep cultural roots in the ancient teachings of Chinese philosophy, economic practices and social customs, although the appearance of the black grandmother herself speaks volumes about the “long ignored problems of sojourner history—loneliness, homesickness, sexual frustration—without cultural bias” (Sledge 19).
We will write a custom Essay on The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the fact that silence was culturally bred, clearly once the sojourners left China, their natural desires trumped their cultural taboos. In Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains, we see the impact of enforced silence in the way that the black grandmother is treated, but not in the action of the grandfather himself, who took her as his wife.
In Sledge’s opinion, the reader comes “to understand and accept the emotional needs motivating these men to enter relationships which violated so profoundly cherished family and religious attitudes because we view such relationships from a sojourner’s (Bak Sook Goong) own point of view” (Sledge 19).
We also see the practice of enforced silence applied in the political arena in Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains. In this case the enforced silence relates to keeping quiet and not drawing attention to oneself and one’s family, for fear of rousing the interest and ire of the Communist party.
Interestingly, this fear transcends physical borders in The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains, and the family remains cognizant of the long arm of the Communist Party – real or perceived – even though they live in the United States. We find an example of this in the text wherein Kingston discusses the enforced silence as an obstacle to her trip to China.
“I’d like to go to China if I can get a visa and – more difficult – permission from my family, who are afraid that applying for a visa would call attention to us: the relatives in China would get in trouble for having American capitalist connections, and we Americans would be put in relocation camps during the next witch hunt for Communists” (Kingston 87).
In Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains, the author also illustrates a contrasting perspective on enforced silence, one that provides an important insight as to how the Chinese sojourners were able to move beyond the constrictive silence of their culture, travel the world and enjoy a fuller experience of life.
Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains attributes this phenomenon to the influence of nature. In her mind, certain parts of China transcend the enforced silence of their culture through the example provided by the natural world – nature itself is dynamic, ever changing, and certainly rarely silent.
In the following example, the reader witnesses the impact of enforced silence slowly eroded by the natural curiosity displayed by the ocean. “”Ocean people are different from land people. The ocean never stops saying and asking into ears, which don’t sleep like eyes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those who live by the sea examine the driftwood and glass balls that float from foreign ships…Sometimes ocean people are given to understand the newness and oldness of the world; then all morning they try to keep that boundless joy like a little sun inside their chests.
The ocean also makes its people know immensity. They wonder what continents contain the ocean on its other side, what people live there” (Kingston 90).
Here Kingston’s The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains gives the reader a glimpse of how the enforced silence of the Chinese men can be broken – through curiosity, through an understanding that there exists a large world out there, one that offers different experiences, different people, and one that perhaps does not suppress verbal expression to the same extent that the Chinese culture does.
In this passage Kingston offers the reader one of the main clues as to how the Chinese men who grew up in a system of enforced silence were able to move beyond it and expand their horizons to the wider world.
Works Cited Kingston, Maxine Hong. “The Great Grandfather of the Sandalwood Mountains.” China Men. New York: Random House, 1977. Print.
Pinsker, Sanford. “Maxine Hong Kingston: Overview.” Contemporary Novelists. Susan Windisch Brown. 6th ed. New York: St. James Press, 1996. Web.
Sledge, Linda Ching. “Maxine Kingston’s China Men: The Family Historian as Epic Poet.” MELUS 7.4 (Winter 1980): 3-22. Web.
Advertising and sale promotion for enterprise car renter Hemel Hempstead Branch Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Advertising
Electronic media adverts
Use of personal selling
Adverting and sales promotions are integral parts in a product cycle; they are tools of an effective marketing strategy.
How well a company markets its products has an effect on the success of the product, the car rental business in the United Kingdom is on the rise, there is high competition in the industry thus to remain competitive, a country need to develop effective adverting and sales promotions approaches (Barney, 2007).
When developing an international marketing strategy for car rentals, the company needs to consider some crucial factors that are likely to affect the campaigns. Enterprise car renter has opened a new branch at Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire UK; this paper discusses adverting and sales promotions that can be effective for a rent-a-car company.
Advertising Advertising is a continuous process where a company creates awareness and sells special attributes that its company has; it is a tool of marketing, which aims at creating a close linkage between customers and a company’s products.
As much as people may have the idea that there are rental companies, the specific company need not to assume that people will flow in its premises, it needs to develop strategies that define its packages and how its services are. Advertising creates awareness of a company existence and offers the company a chance to sell its strong holds to the people.
To create an effective adverting system between Enterprise car renter in the United Kingdom and the target market, the company should undertake different options depending with the specific target market it will be targeting. An effective marketing campaign covers all the likely buyers of the product.
To market the car rental services, takes two folds, guaranteeing the target market that the vehicles operated by the company are quality and the drivers and the rental contract are good. Communication is an integral part of advertising, advertising is all about how effectively one is able to communicate on the existence of a certain product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company needs to adopt an integrated Communication marketing strategy (MARCOM), to support the system and tools of advertisement that the company aims at suing; MARCOM is a marketing strategy that incorporates different marketing strategies to have one strategy that can effectively fight their competitors.
The areas that the approach looks into/ the approach that the communication strategy looks into are developing effective advertising strategy, adopt a personal selling strategy when appropriates, create good Public relations and the use direct marketing. Marketing strategies that incorporate the four dimensions of communication will be effective.
To venture the market, the company should use a penetration pricing approach; the model advocates for a low pricing method where an organization sets its prices at a low rate than that offered by the competitor; the aim of the approach is attack a large mass of people to the products.
When the company comes with low offers, then it is likely to attack a large population of customers and build its brand name through the large customer base.
In most cases, the penetration-pricing model is the price that a company has to break even. Initial adverts should assist the company to penetrate the market with its services and the focus should be shifted from making a financial gain.
The tools of communication that the company should use are electronic media communication, print media, internet and word of mouth (Kerin
The Problems of Abortion in Modern Society Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Abortion refers to termination of pregnancy through the expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus resulting to its death (Boonin, 2003). It may occur spontaneously as a result a complication during pregnancy “miscarriage” or may be induced through other means by use of drugs by a specialist.
Practicing unsafe abortion has led to the death of approximately 70,000 women globally and almost 5million disabilities recorded yearly (James, 1998).
In order to minimize the tragedies resulting from unsafe abortion, the parties such as the woman should access therapeutic advice from a special doctor before carrying out the activity (Zastrow, 2005).
Several groups such as religious ,civil society and governments consider the act of abortion as illegal since it denies the fetus its right to life and therefore calls for the enactment of laws to regulate the relationship between the mother and the fetus (Zastrow, 2005).However, some countries such as United States of America enacted laws to legalize abortion and calls for its implementation by a specialist (James, 1998).
Due to serious impacts to the society, physicians have ethical principles to carry out abortion under the following circumstances stated by the law governing a country and for the societal benefits(Zastrow, 2005).
To start with, the physician may conduct abortion to protect the mother’s life especially when endanger due to diseases such as kidney, hypertension and severe diabetes among others (James, 1998).The diseases may threaten the life of the mother and may result to her death if the doctor fails to intervene the woman must be consulted before the action is executed.
In addition, termination could done to protect the woman from permanent injury that may further lead to mental or physical health of the woman (Zastrow, 2005).The mental problems could result from the woman’s emotional attachment to the pregnancy as well as conservative views in regard to the societal perspective on abortion thus making the woman develop low self esteem .
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Protecting mothers life is based on the premise that “a woman is more than a fetus” which has however been rejected by religious and philosophical groups that recognize fetus as living human being with rights similar to others (Zastrow, 2005).
Similarly, the society permits physicians to perform abortion due to uncontrolled number of women going for it through hidden ways. The laws prohibiting abortion fail to apply especially when a woman feels it’s absolutely necessary making the go for abortion conducted without medical care and under dangerous conditions exposing them to more harmful conditions (James, 1998).
This was proved in United States two decades before its legalization in which almost one million women had participated in illegal abortion leading to the death of many of thousands of them (Zastrow, 2005).
In addition, the physician has a legal principle to conduct abortion if there is a reasonable risk in the life of the fetus likely to result into serious physical or mental handicaps (Boonin, 2003).
The problems could result from health complications developed while the fetus is still in the womb giving the physician an ethical principle to protect the fetus from future frustrations through abortion (Boonin, 2003).
Moreover, it is ethical for a physician to perform abortion in order to reduce the number of young girls who might be forced to become parents at lower age such as before fourteen years when most of them are not capable of taking care of the children since they lack required resources since most of them are school-going and jobless hence incapable of raising families in hopelessness and dependency(James, 1998).
Lastly, it is ethical for a physician to carry out abortion incase the woman is impregnated through rape or forceful intercourse resulting to unwanted pregnancy (Boonin, 2003).In this case the woman is exempted from protecting pregnancy that might result into painful memories after the birth of the child.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problems of Abortion in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, since the society does not care for the unloved, brutalized and abandoned these children are exposed to rejection when they grow up, making them develop brutal behaviors against others in the society (James, 1998).
In conclusion, several groups, societies, scholars and even philosophers have argued condemning abortion as an act that denies fetus its right to life (Zastrow, 2005).
They claim life begins at conception hence even fetus should be protected against any activity likely to terminate this right. However, due to continued world catastrophes, the society permits physicians to conduct safe abortion that would safeguard the life of the mother which could be at risk due to the presence of the fetus (Boonin, 2003).
Reference List Boonin .D. (2003).Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems .New York: St. Martin’s Publishers.
James, R. (1998).Abortion: statutes, policies, and public attitudes the worldover.LosAngeles: Prentice Hall.
Zastrow.C. (2005).Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment .New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Ethics in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Essay best college essay help
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is widely sought and used in the world today. A number of debatable issues arise due to this practice and maybe the most notable is the case of Nadya Suleman. A big part of the public is of the opinion that regulations should be in place to ensure that the rights of the fetus or babies are not violated.
Sometimes in the practice of ART doctors and their clients defy the regulations and ethics as many may argue was the case of Nadya the octuplets mom.
Antonowicz (2009) tells Nadya’s story. She was a 33 year old single mother of six who delivered in vitro fertilized octuplets. Growing up, Nadya was the only child of an emotionally detached mother who herself had grown up in a dysfunctional family and a father who wanted a bigger family.
In her own words Nadya describes her childhood as lonely, and admits to an obsession to have babies. Clearly Nadya wanted to fill her world with babies as a compensation for the brothers and sisters she never had.
Nadya Suleman was jobless at the time she delivered her octuplets. Already a mother of six whom she could not comfortably provide for, Nadya had eight more children knowing well that it was beyond her means to provide them with not only materially but also love and the parental care they needed.
Three of her children had learning disabilities. Nadya Suleman’s actions can be defined as anything but ethical, her obsession with big a family is the only reason why she was giving birth.
Dr Michael Kamrava implanted Nadya with six embryos; there was a split later that resulted in a total of eight. Caplan (2007) posts that multiple births are considered an unavoidable consequence of assisted reproductive technology because implanting more embryos increases the chances of a life birth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above statement could mean that what Dr Kamrava did was within standards, but yet again Nadya’s case was different, she only wanted one more child. Dr. Kamrava was aware of her in vitro history and that all the embryos might have survived following her previous in vitro experiences which had high success rate.
There was also a possibility of a split resulting in more than six embryos. The recommended number of embryo implantation in the US for women under the age of 35 years is two (Antonowicz, 2009). Dr Michael Kamrava implanted 33 year old Nadya with six.
According to Rosato (2006) multiple births pose higher risks to the health of the mother and foetus. Children born in single births have higher birth weight, mortality rates are higher in multiple births and the risk of babies born with congenial birth defects is higher in multiple births.
Three of the six of Nadya’s older children had learning disabilities yet her doctor went ahead with a multiple implantation knowing that the babies were at a higher risk of being born with defects.
Conclusion Dr Michael Kamrava was wrong when he implanted Nadya Suleman with six embryos. In the first place it is against the US regulations of in vitro fertilization for a woman of age under 35 years to be implanted with more than 2 embryos unless under special circumstances, which was not the case.
Nadya was already a mother of six; the doctor became an accomplice who helped Nadya exploit her children and right to motherhood just to feed her obsession. By risking not only the lives of the octuplets but also that of the mother, the doctor acted unethically.
Reference List Antonowicz, A. (2009). Octuplets mum Nadya Suleman: My amazing story. Retrieved from https://www.mirror.co.uk/
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Caplan, L. Fiester, A.
Privacy and confidentiality of patients Problem Solution Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Health care providers have the duty to make sure that the information they have about patients is held in confidence. Some criminal activity that a patient may be involved in is the trafficking and use of prohibited drugs. Upon the realization of such drug use, the heath worker is faced with the dilemma on whether or not to report such cases to relevant authorities.
If they do so, they will be infringing on the patient’s right to privacy and confidentiality. This paper is will look at ways in which health care workers can best deal with such situations. Discussion
There are cases where a medical worker is legally expected to breach the patient’s confidence by reporting criminal activities conducted by such patients. In other instances however, the health worker is not obliged to disclose any such information and in such a case, they can be successfully sued for not protecting patient’s privacy.
The practitioner has to consider whether he is legally bound or not (Pauls, LeBlanc, and Campbell, 2002).
Reporting of a patient’s criminal activity is encouraged where the actions of the patient are likely to injure another identifiable person. It is the duty of the physician to determine how much risk is placed on society by the patient’s criminal activities.
In case the risk to the community is high, then the physician should not protect the patient’s right to confidence and should give all necessary information to the authorities. If such a risk to community is low or if criminal activity is on property, the patient’s privacy should be protected.
In order to reconcile his obligation, the health care worker should have an open discussion with the patient prior to making any decision. He should take into account the position of the society as a whole as well as that of the individual patient (Pauls, LeBlanc, and Campbell, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the reasons why the health care providers should not always report crimes committed by their patients is to encourage individuals to have trust in hospitals and for them to be able to disclose important information when seeking medical attention.
In case the physician suspects that his patient is a sexual offender, he should first carry out some investigation to determine whether a person has been offended before reporting the patient (Tony, Sally, Charles, 2003).
Another consideration that the health care provider should have in mind before reporting any criminal activity is whether or not the affected persons are in need of the type of criminal protection that is generally provided.
If not, then the patient’s privacy and confidentiality should be maintained. There would be no point in infringing on a patient’s privacy in the affected person does not stand to gain (Brown, 2010).
Conclusion Where there are no set rules on whether to report or not to report criminal activities, the physician should be guided by both the ethical principles as well as what he feels is morally right and has a greater benefit. In case a criminal activity is carried out by a patient and a third party wishes to report it, then the health care provider should not report should instead maintain confidentiality.
The physician may also arrange for the patient to receive help such as counseling in order to prevent the criminal activities from continuing without necessarily infringing on the patient’s privacy. This should however be done after the patient has given an informed consent and is comfortable with the idea.
Reference List Brown, B (2010). Protecting the Confidentiality of Medical Records in an Interconnected Environment. Journal of Health Care Compliance; Nov/Dec2010, Vol. 12 Issue 6, p35-38, 4p. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Privacy and confidentiality of patients specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pauls, M., LeBlanc, C., and Campbell, S (2002). Ethics in the trenches: preparing for ethical challenges in the emergency department. Can J Emerg Med 2002; 4(1):45-8. Web.
Tony, H., Sally. F., Charles, F (2003). Turning a blind eye to crime: health professionals and the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Web.
Ethical issues in heath care Essay essay help
Introduction Health care is a very important aspect of society as a whole and the actions of those in charge are very critical as they affect many people’s lives either directly or indirectly. This is why the issue of ethics is important when it comes to health care both to individual health care organizations as well as medical research.
This paper is going to take a detailed look at two ethical dilemmas in health care, the competing interests as well as the applicable theories and principles. Discussion
One of the ethical issues that health care providers face is with regards to marketing. Many health care facilities are created not only to care for patients but to also make profits.
Like any other profit making entity, the health care providers need to have in place strategies that increase their customer base. One of the ways of doing this is through advertising. However, as they do this, they should ensure that they are in a position to provide the advertised health services.
In this industry, there should be no form of exaggeration in terms of what the providers can provide (Ruger, 2008). The other ethical dilemma that the health care givers face is with regards to informed consent by patients. This means that any patient has the right to be fully informed of the medication to be administered.
Such information should include the effects and benefits both long term and short term of the medication. In some cases, the patients are not in a stable state of mind to make informed consent. In such a case, the practitioner should not be tempted to make decisions on behalf of the patient but should instead consult another party who is close to the patient (Gauhier, 2009).
While conducting their duties, health care providers are in most cases faced with some conflict of interests which should be avoided as much as possible. One of the conflicts of interest is when treating a family member. Treatment of people who are either relatives or friends of the physician might put the physician in a tricky situation. Such a doctor should ensure he does not compromise on the quality of medication (Pope, et al 1987).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Where a doctor gets paid for referring patients for medical tests, they may be tempted to even refer those patients who do not require the tests in order to increase income. There can also be competing interests where a doctor has a sexual relationship with a patient. It is for this reason that in certain medical fields, such relationships are prohibited (Gauhier, 2009).
Related to the above stared conflict of interests, there are some ethical theories such as the deontological theory. This is where the actions of the physician are guided by the set moral rules and regulations that he holds. The rights ethical theory on the other hand is a theory that gives more emphasis on the rules that have been set by society.
For instance, if society has stated that the patient should make informed consent, then the physician can use this theory to avoid a conflict of interest (Ruger, 2008). The principle of beneficence and that of respect for autonomy are some that can guide a physician when dealing with an ethical issue in the cause of his duties.
While the principle of beneficence guides physicians to do what is good the principle of respect for autonomy emphasizes on the patient being given an opportunity to make personal decisions without any interference by the physician The health care provider should only give professional advice to the patient without coercing them to make certain decisions (Ruger, 2008).
Conclusion Given the delicacy and importance of health care, the providers of health care services should be very careful in conducting their duties. They should use ethical principles to guide them when dealing with ethical issues. Where such ethical issues cannot be completely avoided, then they should at least be minimized.
References Gauhier, J. (2009). Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Ethical principles and human rights: building a better world globally. 22 (1). Web.
Pope. S, Tabachnick, G. Keith-Spiegel, Patricia (1987). American Psychologist. Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. 42(11). Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical issues in heath care specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ruger, J. (2008). American Journal of Public Health. Ethics in American health: ethical approaches to health policy.98-90. Web.
E-commerce: Bridging Gap to E-commerce Format and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Integration Analytical Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Bridging the Gap to E-commerce Format
Advantages and Disadvantages of Integration
Introduction This discussion and analysis covers the demands for converting to e-commerce within an organization, with emphasis on specific cases.
The first part of this discussion covers the actions demanded to bridge gaps between traditional business format and modernized e-business format. The case in consideration is a shoe store. The second portion of this discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of integration.
Bridging the Gap to E-commerce Format Naturally, planning to transform any area of business requires careful planning and the careful application of strategy (Krueger and DeGiglio, 2000).
E-commerce has been an increasingly common method of operation in many businesses, while both the changes in consumer demand and the use of e-commerce by competition pressure many companies to make this transfer (Andam, 2003).
Considering the case of a shoe store, the shop will need to formally analyze its current state within the company, while listing the primary differences between the existing state and the desired state.
The store can use gap analysis while considering the three main elements or levels of the e-business model. There are multiple ways to view the architecture; the business needs to examine itself in terms of enterprise, functionality, and operation (and thereby in terms of maintaining consistency between activities, reinforcing the activities, and optimizing efforts) (Anzam, 2003; Plave and Westermeier, 2004).
The business must understand the differences in resources used, employees needed, time involved, and funds required for all of these areas. It must then develop both a system which is capable of maintaining the new operations, ensure the implementation and maintenance of this system is within the current capabilities, and then strategic techniques must be applied for successful integration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Integration must be considerate of funds, employees, resources, time, and consumers, and this leads to advantages and disadvantages. Staffing requirements and architecture should be based on the funding available, equipment required for operation, time constraints, and sales goals; meanwhile, the key aspects of reinforcing activities and optimizing processes should be considered.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Integration The advantages and disadvantages of integration are fundamental in nature, although more specific occurrences may result within these larger categories; naturally, the main advantages of integration are the upgrades and benefits which occur following completion (Phan, 2003). These can range from improved profitability, efficiency, and organization to other areas.
Meanwhile, integration may give rise to disadvantages such as investments which reduce available resources and funds, disruption and disorganization, difficultly in recording business elements, and potentially disturbing normal customer options of behavior.
In the case of the shoe shop, the business manager may find the company in a temporary state of chaos which is challenged in any attempts to maintain formal procedures; without careful strategic planning, integration may be even more challenging than implied in the initial gap analysis (Singh, 2001).
However, if care is taken for planning, resources, time, monetary budgeting, and phases of implementation (including the reinforcement of activities and optimizing processes), the shoe store manager may experience minimal inconvenience while experiencing the advantages more quickly.
As the advantages are long-term, and care is taken in both the gap analysis and implementation strategies, the advantages should outweigh the disadvantages (Sawney and Zabin, 2001).
As described in the given case, small companies are at a disadvantage to larger companies when governments participate in regional trade blocs. There are many things that governments can do to minimize this unbalance (should they desire), due to the nature of governmental authority.
We will write a custom Essay on E-commerce: Bridging Gap to E-commerce Format and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Integration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government could place limits (quotas) on the larger companies, possibly according to some sort of designed sliding scale in attempt to maximize balance. The government could also provide subsidies or other financial assistance to the smaller companies.
These are the two main approaches to creating a balance: assisting the smaller companies, limiting the larger companies, or a combination. The specific developments through legislation and quantities would rely on the situations and actions taken.
Closing Remarks E-commerce has been an increasingly common method of operation in many businesses, while both the changes in consumer demand and the use of e-commerce by competition pressure many companies to make this transfer. E-commerce is an evolving trend effecting more and more businesses, and companies that successfully apply gap analysis and strategic implementation stand to improve their business.
References Andam, Z. (2003). E-commerce and e-business. Manilla, Phillipines: E-ASEAN Task Force.
Krueger, J. and DeGiglio, M. (2000). IBM Host Integration Solution Products: Extending AS/400 Applications for e-business. Cheshire, CT: D.H. Andrews Group.
Phan, D. (2003). E-business development for competitive advantages: a case study. Information
The Rapid Population Growth Causes and Effect Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Causes of population growth
Effects of overpopulation
In the current year, 2011, world population is approaching the 7billion mark: one billion more than the statistics taken in 1999. This is a definite indication that the human population is rapidly increasing. The most ironic fact is that much of this population growth is happening in the Less Developed Countries (LDCs) as compared to the Most Developed Countries (MDCs).
The overpopulation menace is generating a lot of concern since it is putting a lot of strain on our planet and its natural resources. A significant note to be taken concerning overpopulation is that it does not just refer to the density of the population, but it is a comparison of the density as a ratio of resources.
With this in mind, solutions to overpopulation do not only target the reduction of numbers but also tackle issues concerning the environment’s sustainability. In this article, I will briefly air my opinion on the causes and effect of rapid population growth. I will suggest what can be done to bring the situation under control.
Causes of population growth The causes of overpopulation vary with geographical location and the level of development as in the case of LDCs and MDCs. In the LDCs, common causes include: declining mortality rates (due to available treatments stemming from MDCs), increasing birth rates and inadequate education. In the MDCs however the case is slightly different.
They majorly are exposed to more scientific and technological advancements which go along way in improving their health and increasing their food production which results in an increase of their life expectancy. They are also affected by migration with people moving to “greener pastures”.
Another factor associated with population growth is ignorance on birth control measures especially in the LDCs. Cultural beliefs that controlling of birth is evil and against the doctrines of nature is dominant in LDCs resulting to continuously growing populations.
Mainstream churches such as the Catholic Church has been having a strong stance against the use of contraceptives as a means of controlling birth. Taking into consideration the huge followers of this faith it cannot be assumed that such a stance by the Catholic Church will not have an effect on increasing the population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of overpopulation The effects are so visible especially to our environment ranging from cutting down of forests to pollution in densely populated areas. Extra mouths to feed will definitely result in economic strain especially in LDCs leading to poverty. With places faced with economic strain as a result of population increase, poor living conditions become evident.
Religion has even been blamed by some due to the restriction they impose on contraceptives and abortion. Others include: global warming, starvation and malnutrition, land and resource disputes, increased crime rates among others. The overwhelming consensus is that something needs to be done fast to prevent even worse consequences.
Possible Solutions For the LDCs education and woman empowerment has by now continued to produce fruitful results hence it should be enhanced. General education to the public will also bring insight to the population concerning the magnitude of the problem at hand.
Many nations could also adopt the use of renewable energies (to reduce pollution), teach families the importance of family planning and also develop the rural areas in order to curb migration processes. An extraordinary solution is also being explored though its viability is yet to be proven: it involves extraterrestrial settlement.
Conclusion The solutions need to have a more personal inclination. Once one is brought to the knowledge of the prevailing problem of overpopulation, then it is essential that we all do our part as individuals in order to be able to achieve the common goal of curbing the population menace at the same time making our environment sustainable.
Computer advertisement Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Print advertisement
Overview of computer advertisements
Advertisement is the means through which a company or an organization tries to endorse its products to the public. Computer advisement, therefore, involves the promotion of computers to the public by making known their advantages and intended benefits one is to get after purchasing it or after using the computer-related service that is advertised.
This is done by use of different methods and is intended to cause a rise it the quantity of the services rendered or computers sold. Potential buyers are informed of computers, their uses, and other essential benefits and are persuaded to buy them after being convinced about the need to do so.
Advertisement is a very useful tool in the expansion and growth of a company or an organization dealing with computers. There are different ways that computer advertisement can be carried out. They include the use of print media and broadcast among many other forms. In this paper, print and broadcast computer advertisements are going to be tackled.
Print advertisement This is a form of advertising that involves the use of print media for example newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, and other printed material. By placing advertisements in print media, people can see and get attracted to the new or existing products advertised, get attracted to them and also go ahead and spend money to purchase the goods or services (Management Study Guide p. g 1). This is especially important when advertising computers.
Although this is a very effective way of advertising, it also requires a lot of arrangement and preparation by a group of creative experts. This is because for any advertisement to attract enough attention from people and cause them to use their money to acquire the advertised products, it has to be appealing and convincing enough.
Purchasing of the advertised computers may not be immediate, but once potential buyers learn about the presence of the computers in the market, they may find themselves buying it at a later date.
The use of pictures and words to bring out the special features in any given computer and types of computers is therefore crucial in this type of advertisement because people have to see to be persuaded to buy them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This type of advertisement can also be very costly. Putting an ad in a newspaper, for example, is charged depending on the size and even where its place. Big sized advertisements tend to attract more attention, but on the other hand, they are more expensive. It is also costly because placing an advert just once is not enough, but there should be consistency in advertising.
Print advertisement, therefore, becomes an essential source of income for the media offering this service (Wheeler, p. g 1). It can be particularly useful to use big pictured computer advertisement to capture the attention of potential buyers because though this is a bit expensive, it is more rewarding in the long run.
Another form of print media that deals with individuals directly is the use of brochures and fliers. People are given leaflets and brochures as they walk along the streets as they drive when stuck in traffic.
The logic behind this is that people tend to be keener on things received directly from another person. This brochures and fliers should have all the vital information about the computers being advertised and if possible brightly colored pictures.
Another form of print media is mailers. This entails the use leaflets made from uncomplicated material for example paper. Postcards can also be used. The leaflets or postcards are distributed to mailboxes belonging to different people. Most people, however, do not value such material and they end up treating them as trash and dispose of them without even reading.
The use of billboards is also another form of print advertisement. Billboards are intended to catch the attention of people who are using highways and other major roads. Computer advertisements on billboards should, therefore, be exact and should be able to create a lasting impact on the people.
This is because those targeted by this form of advertisement are people who are driving and may not have enough time to read a lot of material on the billboards. They should be eye-catching and large font should be used for them to be legible from a distance. Bright colors are also encouraged.
We will write a custom Essay on Computer advertisement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The invention of the internet has been a significant threat to print media. This is due to the internet’s ability to reach to a larger population online.
Companies have therefore resulted in the use of the internet to advertise which is more rewarding than using print media. Although there is still significant use of print media, more people prefer to compliment it with other forms of media. This makes advertising more efficient.
Broadcast advertisement This is a way of passing on the message to the people by use of radio and television. This is one of the most effective methods that can be used by computer companies and organizations to advertise because of its ability to reach many people at once both within the country and abroad.
It is also possible to reach the people targeted mainly by placing the advertisements in particular programs which have large audiences both locally and internationally. This would work especially for computer advertisement because computers are no longer liabilities but a necessity for many people.
Some of the factors that determine the cost of broadcast advertisement include the duration of the ad. Longer duration advertisements cost more than shorter duration ones. The time of the airing of the advertisements is also a factor. According to Management Study Guide (p. g 1), Advertisements aired during peak times would cost more than those aired during other times.
When a broadcast advertisement is used in advertising computers, these two crucial issues should put into consideration: the cost and the time of airing the ad. Most advertisements are given a short duration and therefore when advertising things like computers one should be very precise and use captivating features, for example, pleasant voice and attractive images.
For people computer advertisements, one should also be willing to spend some money to get prime time advertisements which are more likely to get to the target audience and potential customers than adverts aired during regular times (Wheeler, p. g 1).
This is because people tend to pay more attention to programs aired during this time and therefore is better to invest on such time for advertising because it will eventually bring good returns.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Computer advertisement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This, however, does not mean that people should drain their accounts while trying to advertise computers. Moderation is also essential in maintaining the balance between the money spent on advertisement and that spent on other marketing strategies.
Frequency in advertising is also required to make the products known and appealing to the public. Advertising should be done regularly and consistently for it to be an effective marketing strategy and bring positive returns to the company (Management Study Guide p. g 1). Once is not enough.
Advertising computers using the broadcast method is especially very effective because of the high demand for computers nowadays (Wheeler, p. g 1). Most of the things are being done online; for example, it is possible to shop, learn or sell things online among many other things possible to do online.
Many people are therefore in need of good computers which are able to carry out different functions. It is also essential for people to have confidence in computers one is advertising. This can be possible by one offering accurate information and not just trying to lure people into buying the products for the sake of making a profit.
Use of internet services can also be very effective when advertising computers. There are usually many people accessing the internet at any particular time, and hence, it is a crucial site where potential customers can be found.
Since online buying and selling of products is possible, one can use this as a site for advertising. With consistency in advertising, it is elementary to increase the sale of products for any company and especially the computers which are a commodity in demand for this generation where everything is computerized.
Overview of computer advertisements Computer advertisement is very imperative for anyone in the computer business. Different methods can be used to advertise, two of which have been discussed in this paper.
If both methods are used conveniently and to complement each other, the possibility of an increase in productivity of the company involved in advertising is very high. This is because for any business to grow, advertisement is an important marketing strategy.
Just like other products need to be advertised to increase awareness to the public, the computers also need to be promoted. Many people interact with computers in their everyday life, and therefore any information about computers is beneficial to many people. With such information, potential customers are well equipped to make informed decisions.
Conclusion Advertisement is an essential strategy in the marketing of any product. Different methods work for different products. It is vital to know which method works best for the product one intends to market. The computers for example as discussed in this paper can be advertised using print media or broadcast method or one can use both methods depending on how effective each method is when used alone.
Works Cited Management Study Guide. Classification of Advertising, 2011. Web.
Wheeler, Nikki. Guide to Computer Advertising and Marketing Key Terms. Santa Monica, CA: Business.com, Inc., 2011.
Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help: college essay help
Art has a long history of being involved in the achievement of political goals; consider the monumental imperial advertisement of power and control of resources represented by the huge Colossus of Rome. In the early 20th century, what was termed realism was not the direction that popular art movements were taking.
However, what was termed realism seemed to serve the aims of totalitarian movements at the time, despite the fact that no art is truly realistic and all art represents a set of choices from all the visual detail available.
Nevertheless, the objections of the Nazi regime to all the non-realist artists is understandable in light of the Third Reich’s goals and methods of achieving them. They were trying to influence people to do things that were difficult and morally ambiguous, if not downright horrible.
To accomplish this, they needed powerfully effective images that everyone could understand without laborious or inconvenient verbal explanation. The artists that the Nazi regime disapproved of had the opposite aim in creating art.
They were seeking to create art that was a vehicle for personal expression. Given this attitude, it is no wonder that non-realistic artists were suppressed. Useful examples of these two divergent approaches are found in the art of Fritz Erler and Otto Dix.
The term ‘realism’ has meant different things over time. It meant something different in the 1800s than what it suggests today.
Before the early 1800s, most painting tried consciously to show everything in as beautiful, serene, classically pure a fashion as posssible, even if this meant deliberately changing things around in the picture, as, for example, advised by an accepted authority of the time, Roger de Piles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starting with the Romantic movement in art, there was a gradual reaction away from a classical idealization of the subject, whether a person, a scene, or a landscape.
The gritty reality of the world became more acceptable and desirable in art. An example is the often gory work of Théodore Géricault, a proponent of Romanticism, such as his Raft of the Medusa. This work, and by extension, much of the effort of the Romantic movement, was described as an,” extended, no-holds-barred quest for truthfulness and intensity” .
However, up until the period of the Impressionists in the mid to late 1800s, there was a generally shared goal of depicting the world as most people could recognize it. For example, a person had two eyes symmetrically laid out, sky was more or less blue, and trees were more or less green.
With Impressionism, Cubism, and their successor art movements, this all changed, dramatically. The depiction of objects in the real world was no longer safely to be assumed. Buchloh describes this process of movement away from figurative art as follows:
“the perceptual conventions of mimetic representation – the visual and spatial orderign systems that had defined pictorial production since the Renaissance… systematically broken down since the middle of the nineteenth centry”.
Buchloh is drawing attention to a phenomenon that even non-artists can observe. It seems reasonable to assert that all art imposes a warping of physical reality to some extent. Simply by trying to depict a three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface, there is inevitable distortion.
The tree is not the picture, nor vice versa. It cannot be. The simplest tricks of perspective, such as foreshortening, or narrowing two parallel lines down to a vanishing point, demonstrate this. In any work of art, a process of transformation has taken place as the scene or object is translated by the artist onto paper or canvas or marble.
We will write a custom Essay on Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A recent news story humorously and clearly demonstrated this: A quirky installation artist in Philadelphia, who apparently regularly enrobes local landmarks with knitted textile art, tried to measure the famous statue of Rocky Balboa for a sweater.
She discovered the that the proportions of the eight foot tall statue were wildly different from those of an actual real person’s. However, photos of this statue do not strike the viewer as bizarre. The artist clearly altered the real proportions of the subject in a way that looks normal from a distance.
Thus, even in representing a real-world subject with the aim of fidelity, the process involves the abstraction, or pulling out, or alteration of certain elements and the de-emphasizing of others.
This may be used to indicate, for example, that the subject is a distance away, or to allow the viewer to distinguish the subject from its background. This is a matter of making sure that the viewer can see the forest for the (edited) trees.
Thus, when anyone is uses the term realism in art today, they are speaking relatively. A formal definition of realism describes it as,”Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.”
It requires some visual training to understand any two-dimensional representation, as students learn in History of Art classes. It is relatively easier for someone trained by experience at decoding two-dimensional representations to recognize a realistically painted subject.
Nonetheless, when we use the term realism today, implying that the subject of the work of art is able to be recognized for what is intended, we understand what is meant. This term is probably widely and intuitively understood in our era.
The Nazi regime, like many other oppressive governments, sought to use all available tools to alter people’s opinions, direct their behavior, or change the entire form of government. Art was just one of these.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their goals were often violent and involved hurting other people, such as Jews, gypsies, and the crippled. These folks had often been neighbors and colleagues.
This is a course of action that could inspire ambivalent feelings about cooperating, in many people. The ugliness of the Nazi’s goals, and the negative reaction of the rest of the world, like made it desirable to communicate their intention as much as possible without words.
If the Nazis had said in plain terms that they were going to kill with poison gas millions of harnless people, it would have sounded harsh.
But if the Nazis could make the German people feel that they were threatened and that the threat should be removed in whatever way was most effective, the government could get better cooperation. This threat, as we now know, was blamed on non-German elements in society, especially the Jewish population.
As it happened, the rise of the Third Reich coincided with the development of a new concept in the new sciences of psychology and psychiatry. The idea of archetypal images was pioneered by Carl G. Jung. Jung suggested that the human mind shares a collective unconscious.
This collective unconscious contains within it patterns that reliably generate images, or archetypes everyone can recognize. This, Jung asserts, is true over time and across the globe. He suggested that an example of the expression of archetypal images can be found in many myths, for example the myth of the Hero.
Clearly this is a great convenience for a regime that hopes to affect the population’s ideas and attitudes without actually coming out and saying what they want. Jung himself believed that the trends in Germany leading up to the war were an expression of archetypes that had been repressed.
While evidence for specific use of Jung’s ideas in creating Nazi art is not readily available, it is interesting that Jung and a relative of one of Hitler’s close advisors, Goring, shared the editorship of a psychiatric journal. This suggestst that the Hitler regime was well aware of Jung’s work and ideas.
If the Hitler regime was using archetypes, or even telling a story, they needed for viewers to recognize the message. This is more difficult to accomplish in non-realistic form. This is because the messages that the Nazis were attempting to propogate had to do with human issues and concerns, such as motherhood, or attachment to a place, or pride in one’s heritage, for example.
At the time, artists – those who were innovating and at the cutting edge of their field – were not oriented towards telling stories or sending explicit or implicit messages. They were not oriented towards, “the direct creation of universal beauty”, but instead, “ the aesthetic expression of oneself”, as Mondrian put it.
The movement away from the subject entirely was seen, as expressed by Mondrian, as an evolution of art, and highly desirable Mondrian says that, “by its existence non-figurative art shows that ‘art’ continues always on its true road. It shows that ‘art’ is not the expression of the appearance of reality…nor of the life that we live…” .
This process of making art something that needed only to please and express the artist’s own feelings, can and did result in art that was and is less accessible to many viewers. Buchloh asserts that this inaccessibility was an irritant. He asserts that there was pressure at the time from viewers (the public) against the abstractions that had dominated the art world.
Discussing the swing back to figurative art after the first World War, he says, “And how did this shift come to be understood as an autonomous achievement of the masters, who were in fact the servants of an audience craving for the restoration of the visual codes of recognizability, for the restoration of figuration?”
The leading lights of the art world were not sympathetic, to these consumer longings, if the views of Mondrian are typical. Mondrian, in defending non-realistic art, criticized those who had made, “no effort to know pure abstract art”. These people, he asserted, were against the, “progress of the elite”.
The implication of this attitude on the part of the artist is that it requires specific and rather sophisticated training on the part of the viewer to appreciate the pure abstract art. Mondrian’s atttitude implies that if a viewer is not willing or able to invest this effort, then their opinion is not worthwhile.
Thus, the viewing public that shook their heads in puzzlement at abstract art were dismissed. All these attitudes are very self-centered, and not at all in tune with nationalistic self-sacrifice.
Unfortunately for artists with this seemingly self-centered approach and obliviousness to whether or not the art was being understood, the Nazis, like the Russian revolutionaries, explicitly wanted art that supported their goals, a “heroic realism”. They were concerned about a national elite rather than a class elite.
In Hitler’s words, “For the artist does not create for the artist, but like everyone else, he creates for the people.” Hitler explicitly referred to this isssue of comprehensiblity in the following statement of intention:
‘Works of art’ which cannot be understood in themselves but for the justification of their existence, need those bombastic instrucitons for their use, finally reachign that intimidated soul, who is patiently willing to accept such stupid or impertinent nonsense – these works of art from now on will no longer find their way to the German people.”
The Hitler regime went to extremes in implementing his extreme intention. To see how these conflicting ideas of art for the artist’s sake, and art for the good of the regime played out, it is useful to examine two artists who addressed similar subject matter. They were, however, far differently regarded and treated by the Third Reich.
Both were actvie in and after the first World War. Both artists included war and battlefied subjects in their works. Both were, in retrospective, competent technically. Fortunately, works by both of them survive. It is interesting that two pictures of the same subject, created within seven years of one another, should be looked at so differently by the Third Reich.
Fritz Erler (1868-1940), who (although he did distort reality) depicted soldiers as heroes, was approved of by the regime. Otto Dix (1891-1969), who distorted figures to look like monsters, but depicted soldiers as well, was not approved of. They were both technically very competent.
Erler produced a number of war bonds posters for the first World War. One, entitled Helft Uns Siegen, shows an idealized soldier gazing into the indeterminate distance with eyes that glow internally. He is a strapping, well-fed, heroic fellow, with his gas mask down around his neck, alertly at ease after the attack.
He appears fully human, despite those wierdly glowing eyes, oddly elevated mood, and unseen visual point of focus. He is a fellow you would happily share a meal with or for whose benefit you would happily buy a war bond, if you were a loyal German.
Although this picture dates from 1917, Erler had a continuing career. Erler was highly thought of by the Hitler regime. This is attested to by the fact that he was rewarded for his complimentary perspective on the German soldier with at least one commission for a portrait of Hitler. This was a signal honor  for any artist or photographer in Germany.
The most famous surviving such piece painted by Erler is probably his Portrait of The Leader. This shows Hitler as the genius and sponsor of art and architecture. The Kunsthalle, Hitler’s most ambitious architectural design that was implemented, is shown in the background. Hitler appears before a heroic statue of a mounted horseman.
It is useful to compare Erler’s work to that of another favorite of the Third Reich’s, Arno Breker. Whereas Erler’s soldier did not look classically beautiful, and in fact has features which are somewhat coarse, Breker seemed to consciously hearken back to Roman and Greek models.
This must have flattered the regime with references to an earlier, very powerful empire. Arno Breker created sculptures of naked men that were heroic in size, and in mood.
They were chisel-faced, with clearly defined muscles and extreme poses. In spite of his close relationship with Hitler’s government, he worked to help artists who were out of favor, indicating that the political beliefs and artistic production were not inextricably linked.
Looking at an artist who was decidedly not in the good graces of the Third Reich, we see a very different approach from either Erler or Breker. Otto Dix, who served in the German army in World War I, was another artist who portrayed soldiers in the action of war-time. He produced a terrifying etching of soldiers wearing gas-masks.
It is entitled Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas. The soldiers look like imps or goblins, or at best, children in Halloween masks. They weapons make a diagonal cross-hatch in the composition, with their bayonets pointing in one direction, and some sort of blunt instrument and fists pointing in the other direction.
They have no grace, and seem to waddle or stumble in the midst of the confusion and terror of battle. Their forms and proportiions are distorted and they are almost cartoonlike. They appear less than human, and unrecognizable as one’s neighbors or son.
When one compares the sturdy and heroic soldier in Erler’s work, and the cartoon-like figures in Dix’s work, it is easy to see why the German government objected to being portrayed that way. Hitler did not want soldiers depicted as space aliens or evil dwarves.
He wanted handsome heroes, preferably looking like the heroes of ancient Greece and Rome. Dix was certainly not showing that – he was showing what it felt like to be on there on the battlefield with stormtroops and mustard gas.
Both artists actually distorted reality, but Dix did it in such a way as to insult the soldiers, while Erler did it in such a fashion as to make them look inspired.
They were both drawing on archetypal images, but Erler’s was evoking the hero, like Theseus after slaying the Minotaur, while the other (Dix) was evoking something more like the Furies descending on a hapless mortal, in the form of stormtroops.
Given the aims of the Nazi regime, it is entirely comprehensible that one should have been rewarded and the other discredited. Clearly, the approach that Erler takes to the subject of the German soldier is more complimentary.
Dix, on the other hand, is obviously critical in his attitude towards war, and its methods. He was also openly critical of the major players in the Third Reich. A painting of his entitled The Seven Deadly Sins actually caricatures Hitler as a baby (mustacheless) demon. He painted this after he was discharged from the art academy in Dresden.
In our own lifetime, the governments of both South and North Korea have used images to control thinking and behavior. This is an interesting phenomenon in light of the overt attempts by previous totalitarian regimes to harness art for their own aims. It is also interesting in light of the power that popular media has today, even in supposedly free societies.
Art has been a tool of governments since the earliest times. Until the middle of the 1800s, there was a shared expectation that art would represent things in the physical world as they appeared to most of the viewing public. The term realism, however, referred to different things before then.
No matter whether the approach is Neo-classical, grittily Romantic, oddly Mannerist, or Impressionist, all art distorts the physical truth of its subject matter. There is unavoidably a choice of what to include and what not to include. Thus, when governmental regimes that say they want realism are actually saying that they want the prerogative to choose which distortions they permit.
Fritz Erler’s particular distortions, which contributed to a heroic image of the German soldier, served the Nazi purposes. His representation was less beautiful than that of Arno Breker, a sculptor of very different style who also found favor with the Nazis. On the other hand, Otto Dix’s idiosyncratic distortions, which made the German soldier look like a troll, was decidely not what the Nazis were looking for in their public messages.
Given that the regime wanted art for propaganda, and self-praise, it is easy to see why they preffered Erler’s sturdy heroes to Dix’s goblins. They wanted the German people to identify with healthy and strong images rather than with ugly representations of themselves.
Such use of art to control opinion is still used today in regimes such as the North Korean’s. We need to be cautious, still, even in democracies, that we do not allow art to become the uncontrolled tool of government propaganda.
(Erler, Helft Uns Siegen 1917)
(Erler, Portrait Of The Leader 1938)
Breker, Arno. ‘Torchbearer” 1938-1945
(Dix, Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas 1924)
(Dix, The Seven Deadly Sins 1933)
Source: Newsweek. “North Korean Propaganda Art”. Newsweek.
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Breker, Arno. Torchbearer. Great Triumphal Art, Berlin.
Buchloh, Benjamin D. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting.” In Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts, by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, edited by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, 222-238. London: Phaedon Press, 1992.
Crimmins, Peter. Gritty in Pink. 2011. Web.
de Piles, Roger. The Principles of Painting. Vol. 2, in A Documentary History of Art: Michelangelo, the Mannerists, the Baroque, and the Eighteenth Century, edited by Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, 176-187. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1958.
Dix, Otto. Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas. National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra.
Dix, Otto. The Seven Deadly Sins. Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe.
Dobrzynski, Judith H. “Sex Blood and War from Wiemar Anti-Nazi Otto Dix.” Antifascistencyclopedia.com. 2011. Web.
Erler, Fritz. “Helft Uns Siegen.” Imperial War Museum. Web.
Erler, Fritz. “Portrait Of The Leader.” Unknown. 1938. Web.
Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Nazi Approved Art: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. 2005. Web.
Géricault, Théodore. The Raft of the Medusa. Musée du Louvre, Paris.
German Propoganda Archive. Hitler in Nazi Art. 2011. Web.
Griffin, Roger. “Nazi Art: Romantic Twilight or Post-modernist Dawn?” Oxford Art Journal, vol. 18, no. 2. 1995.
Hitler, Adolf. “Speech Inaugurating the Great Exhibition of German Art.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 439. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Jung, Carl Gustav. “On the Concept of the ‘Archetype’.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 378-381. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Lankov, Andrei. The Official Propaganda in the DPRK: Ideas and Methods. 1995. Web.
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. “On Proletarian Culture.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 402. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Medweth, Mark. “Jung and the Nazis.” Personality and Consciousness. 1996. Web.
Mondrian, Piet. “Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art.” In Art in Theory: 1900 – 2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 387-393. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Newsweek. “North Korean Propaganda Art.” Newsweek, May 27, 2010.
Platner, Samuel Ball. “Colossus Neronis.” In A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, by Samuel Ball Platner, 130-131. London: Oxford University Press, 1929.
Prometheseus. “Arno Breker Biography.” Prometheseus. 2002. Web.
Wilkin, Karen. “Romanticism at the Met.” The New Criterion 22, no. 4 (2003): 37-42.
Footnotes Such a piece had no function other than overwhelming the viewer with how strong the emperor must have been to have created such an object. The Colossus was a bronze statue 120 feet high, and the Emperor Nero had it erected solely to honor himself and make himself seem more impressive. Subsequent emperors modified it to suit their own purposes, changing the face, and adding rays around the head, for example. The gigantic sculpture gave its name to the Coliseum.Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby). “Colossus Neronis”. A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. (London, Oxford University Press 1929). Page 130A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929.
Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. “AKhRR Declaration”, Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 403.
De Piles, Roger. “The Principles of Painting”, in Holt, Elizabeth Gilmore, ed. A Documentary History of Art: Michelangelo, the Mannerists, the Baroque, and the Eighteenth Century. (Garden City, Doubleday and Company, 1958), page 180.
Géricault, Théodore. “The Raft of the Medusa”. 1819, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
The New Criterion. “Romanticism at the Met”. December 2003. The New Criterion. 22 no4. Pages 37-42.
Buchloh, Benjamin. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting”. In Frascina, Francis; Harris, Jonathan. Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts. (London, Phaedon Press, 1992), page 222.
Crimmins, Peter. “Gritty in Pink”.
Brainyquote.com. “Realism”. Brainyquote.com.
Lenin, Vladimir. “On Proletarian Culture”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 438.
Jung, Carl. “On the Concept of the ‘Archetype’”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 379.
(Jung 2002, 380).
Medweth, Mark. “Jung and the Nazis”. Personality and Consciousness. 1996.
Mondrian, Piet. “Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 388.
(Mondrian 2002, 389).
(Buchloh 1992, 222).
(Mondrian 2002, 389).
(Mondrian 2002, 392).
Griffin, Roger. “Nazi Art: Romantic Twilight or Post-modernist Dawn?”. Oxford Art Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, November 1995. Pages 103-107. (Griffin 1995).
Hitler, Adolph. “Speech at the opening of the Great Exhibition of German Art”. In Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 441.
(Hitler 2002, 440).
Spartacus.com. “Fritz Erler”. 2011.
Art in the Picture. “Otto Dix”. 2011.
Of the importance of portraits it has been observed that, “Hitler knew the importance of his image. Photographs of him could be released only with his personal approval. Art was even more carefully watched.” German Propaganda Archive. “Hitler in Nazi Art” 2011. German Propaganda Archive. 2011.
Erler, Fritz. “Portrait of the Leader”. 194X.
Prometheus. “Arno Breker Biography” Prometheus.
Dix, Otto. “Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas”. 1924. Drypoint etching and aquatint. National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra, Australia.
Judith H. Dobrzynski. “Sex, blood and War From Weimar Anti-Nazi Otto DIx”.
Lankov, Andrei. “Propaganda in DPRK: Ideas and Methods”. 1995. Dirkburghof.com.
Florida Center for Instructional Technology. “Nazi Approved Art: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust”.
This sort of preference is expressed in modern North Korea, as noted in the following description:“On the whole, paternalist ideas about “the ruler – father of the nation”, typical of the Confucian philosophical tradition, are the norm in North Korean propaganda. In propaganda stories one can find in North Korean magazines and school textbooks, Kim Il Song depicted as a fatherly figure, a wise and attentive parent caring for his people. In one story, he stops his limo to give a lift to an old woman, in another he personally oversees how a medical help is delivered to a young worker hurt in a factory incident, and in a third he inquires about the living conditions of a handicapped veteran. These stories about the Kims number in the many hundreds, and are constantly repeated in the media and textbooks, read aloud at meetings, or portrayed in paintings. Some of these stories are not simply Confucian in spirit, but are often remakes of popularstories from the Confucian mythology.” (Lankov 1995) A graphic example is found with the other pictures.
Judaism, Islam and Christianity: Differences and Similarities Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Beliefs and practices Judaism
Jews believe in ethical monotheism; that is, one God. God is the controller of life and the human actions on earth. Judaism is governed by the Torah (Biblical books of Moses). Torah illustrates God’s will to the people and it guides their lives. Jews believe in the Hebrew Bible (Steinberg 51); they interact with God through prayers and worship in Synagogues. They have three holy festivals which include the Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot and several holy seasons. They have different denominations with significant variations in beliefs.
Muslims are rigorous monotheists; they believe in one God, Allah and his prophet, Mohammed. They believe in angels, as the messengers of God. They believe in books which are contained in one Holy book, the Quran (Nigosian 85). They believe in prophets such as Moses, Jesus and Abraham. Muslims believe in resurrection and judgment after death. The judgment day is called Qiyama. There are five basic pillars or acts of Islam that guide all Islam undertakings. These pillars include daily prayers, almsgiving, pilgrimage, the creed, and fasting. Muslims pray three times a day in a Mosque. They believe in Sharia law and Jihad. Family is the basic unit of Islam and polygamy is legal in Islamic religion.
Christians believe in one God and His son, Jesus. Christians also believe in holy trinity, that is, the three personalities of God- the Father, the son and the Holy Spirit. Bible is the word of God through which people get to understand His will. They also believe that through death and resurrection, Jesus saved the world. They believe in life after death where people will live eternally. They worship God in Church through prayers and songs of praise. The religion has several denominations (Price and Collins 21). They believe in prophets such as Isaiah and Jeremiah. They also believe in angels as messengers of God. Polygamy is strictly prohibited. They have holy festivals such as Christmas and Easter. To Christians, angels are messengers of God.
Historians believe that Judaism was formed by the Israelites whom Moses led in exodus from Egypt to the Promised Land, Canaan. They believe that Abraham was the first Hebrew (Steinberg 57). The Israelites were the children of Jacob, son of Abraham. When Moses led these people from Egypt, God gave them the law or Torah on their way to Canaan.
Scholars refer it as the laws of Moses. On arrival to Canaan, these people built a temple for God to thank Him for taking them to the Promised Land, Canaan. In this temple, people kept Torah which formed the basis for Judaism. From then, people built temples to worship their God guided by Torah which led to the spread of Judaism.
Muhammad, a trader in Mecca City, began to receive revelations from God in form of Quran in 610 CE. As a result, he started to preach and convert the people of Mecca into Muslims. In order to avoid persecution by the Mecca authorities, Muhammad fled to Medina with most of his followers in 627 AD. He had preached for 12 years in Mecca and had garnered a good number of followers (Nigosian 87).
In Medina, Muhammad fought the Jews and those who opposed Islam. In 629 AD, he had acquired all the desert tribes around Medina. Muhammad died in 632 AD having spread Islam and conquered the Arabian Peninsula. He is indeed the father of Islam.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Christianity
The Apostles of Christ developed Christianity from the Jewish sects of 1st century. Before then, Jewish authorities persecuted those who glorified God. Christians’ end of persecution in 4th century by Constantine I and the subsequent “Theodosius’ enactment in 380 AD resulted into establishment and recognition of Christianity as a religion in the Roman Empire” (Price and Collins 26). Since then, Christianity has spread to all over the world.
The three major world religions viz. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have different perception on marriage and family. Polygamy is illegal in Christianity, whereas it is legal in Judaism and Islam. Islam and Judaism emphasize on purity of women before marriage, whereas Christianity emphasizes on purity of both sexes before marriage.
The culture of architecture and eating habits varies among these religions. Christians have the Roman based architecture; Muslims the traditional Medina architecture and Judaism use the ancient Jewish architecture. Christianity and Judaism have denominations with varied teachings unlike Islam where the teaching is universal.
Christians believe in Holy trinity while Judaism and Islam believe in God as one. Muslims pray at designated times whereas Christians pray at volition. Jews pray at the synagogues led by prayer leaders; Muslims pray facing Mecca, as the origin of their religion while Christians believe in universality of God’s presence and therefore they do not face any specific direction when praying while Jews pray facing the sacred altar usually at the front of the synagogue.
They all have holy places of worship; that is, Church, Mosque and Synagogue for Christians, Muslim and Jews respectively. They all believe in Monotheism. They have Holy books, the bible for Christians, Hebrew Bible and Torah for Jews and Quran for Muslims.
They believe in prophets; Jews believe in Moses, Abraham and their descendants as God’s messengers, Christians believe in Jeremiah and Isaiah while Muslims believe in Jesus and Muhammad as God’s prophets.
Prayer is the means of communication with God for all the religions. All the religions have Holy annual festivals and seasons; Christians have Easter and Christmas; Muslims have Ramadan and Hajji, while Jews have Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur as holy seasons.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Judaism, Islam and Christianity: Differences and Similarities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Nigosian, Shah. Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana University Press, 2004.
Price, Matthew, and Collins, Michael. The story of Christianity. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1999.
Steinberg, Milton. Basic Judaism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1947.
“The Epic of Gilgamesh” a Story by Maureen Kovacs Term Paper essay help site:edu
Heroism is a characteristic that entails a demonstration of unique traits by an individual, beyond ordinary expectations. The story of Gilgamesh and his achievements in the Epic of Gilgamesh portrays him as a true hero of the people.
From the story, Gilgamesh, the protagonist, demonstrates many character traits that pass him for a hero. Gilgamesh demonstrates high skillfulness in his work. Besides, he is intelligent and possesses great courage.
The fact that Gilgamesh is ready to die for the sake of his people, also shows that he is selfless, a character of a true hero. From the story therefore, it is in order to argue that Gilgamesh’s search for immortality is suitably heroic as developed in this paper.
To begin with, it is quite evident that throughout the story, Gilgamesh demonstrates his character as a leader with high skilfulness. According to Kovacs Gilgamesh “is strong to perfection…an awesome beast with unmatched strength and a chant that fosters armies…leads his tribe into battle fearlessly and defeats everyone…” (8).
Gilgamesh, as a skilful warrior, leads fellow warriors of his tribe to fight their enemies and in no occasion do they lose a battle. His strength is unrivalled; he has been able to slay even the most feared men like the highly feared Humbaba. In fact, his successful demonstration that he could fight Humbaba makes people of Urok village to fear him for such act is a great achievement.
The task he accomplishes by slaying Humbaba has made the Great Gilgamosh to cower since his strength is incomparable to someone who was once their king. The revelation that the people of his tribe are angered by even small things just but demonstrates their confidence in Gilgamesh; they are confident that even if they go to fight with any tribe, their king will not let them down.
Gilgamesh is a man of great intelligence; throughout his reign as a king, he demonstrates great intelligence through the way he governs his people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He naturally possesses hindsight of what is likely to happen to his people and prepares in advance to overcome it. Besides, Gilgamesh has the ability to make wise decisions on urgent matters concerning his people (Heather Para. 9). This ability has earned his tribe a good name; a powerful tribe.
By accepting to challenge Humbaba, Gilgamesh knows he could convince his people that he is strong and powerful and could actually slay the beast. It takes intelligence for an individual to look up and heed the counsel of the wise and for Gilgamesh he heeded his mother’s words of wisdom; Gilgamesh’s mother convinces him that Enkidu is a true friend not an enemy in disguise.
The epic portrays Gilgamesh as a selfless man. Being selfless is one of the characters that people do admire in a hero. Selflessness as a character trait that “requires an individual to put his/her personal needs aside to care for other people’s needs even if it requires a sacrifice that would not benefit him/her” (Prine 23).
By agreeing to fight Humbaba, Gilgamesh verily knows that it is possible that he may die during the fight; nevertheless, his selfless character compels him to take the risk and the fact that he is ready to die for his people’s safety passes him for a true hero. Only few people can give their lives for the sake of others and this move by Gilgamesh qualifies him as a true hero.
His selfless nature also comes out when he fights the sky sent-bull (earthquake). When an earthquake hits his tribe, nine dozen people die but Gilgamesh does not flee to save his life; he simply stays put because he knows his people need him at a time like this. The earthquake incident further reveals his selfless nature as a true hero.
Finally, Gilgamesh demonstrates high degree of courage that portrays him as a hero. His acceptance to fight Humbaba, a great fighter, shows great courage because he does not fear death, which is a possible outcome from this fight. His courageous nature comes out when he manages to climb up the steep cliff on Mt. Mashu.
He does not cower midway but goes up until he reaches the top of the cliff. At the top, Gilgamesh meets the scorpion guard who reveals to him that in the past, no one had ever climbed to the top of that cliff. This revelation by the scorpion guard further brings out the courageous nature of Gilgamesh; he manages to do what no other man has done before and that’s what true heroes do; they go where no ordinary man has ever gone.
We will write a custom Term Paper on “The Epic of Gilgamesh” a Story by Maureen Kovacs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the epic, it is evident that Gilgamesh’s search for immortality is suitably heroic because his character throughout the story demonstrates that he is indeed a hero. Many at times he has done things that underscore his courageous nature. As a leader, Gilgamesh shows great intelligence. In the battle field, Gilgamesh is a skilful warrior. Finally he is a selfless man ready to die for his people’s safety.
Works Cited Heather, Leah. True Love Conquers All – Love and Heroes in the Epic of Gilgamesh, 2006. Web.
Kovacs, Maureen. Trans. The Epic of Gilgamesh. California: Stanford University Press, 1989. Print.
Prine, Jackson. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1997.
Agenda-Setting Theory in Public Policy Essay essay help free: essay help free
Nowadays it is possible to find a few people who do not think that mass media affect, to some extent, public opinion. Admittedly, people find out about numerous events and phenomena from mass media. This assumption can be regarded as a basis for the agenda-setting theory. The theory’s major point is that mass media decide what is the most important news and what event (or person) “deserves” less attention.
It is necessary to point out that the basic points of the agenda-setting theory are plausible, and the strength of the theory lies in the fact that media do shape public opinion to certain extent, but the weakness of the theory is that mass media’s impact is somewhat over-estimated.
McCombs and Shaw claim that people “learn not only about a given issue, but also how much importance to attach to that issue from the amount of information”, in this way media are setting the “agenda” (1972, 176). Admittedly, this basic assumption of their theory is plausible since mass media do “sorts” news and adhere different levels of importance to each event and person.
Thus, many people follow the set “agenda” and pay more attention to most important and less attention to least important. Besides, this principle works in the same way when it deals with political campaigns.
One of the greatest strengths of the agenda-setting theory is that it presents “a vast wealth of research on the impact of mass media content on the public agenda” (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 68). The theory reveals the major processes which influence public opinion. It is especially relevant when considering political campaigns since at present the “information in the mass media becomes the only contact many have with politics” (McCombs and Shaw 1972, 176).
Thus, politicians’ pledges are perceived through the vision of mass media. Apparently, when mass media highlight the campaign of a politician and there is nothing said about others, people can forget about the existence of “others”.
However, apart from the strengths the agenda-setting theory has quite a significant weakness. Crespi states that the theory “does not accept the discredited image of all-powerful mass media”, but “does ascribe a major role to them [mass media] in the public opinion process” (1997, 40). Nevertheless, even the major role of mass media is quite a disputable issue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McCombs and Ghanem claim that the plausibility of the agenda-setting theory is supported by the fact that voters do not have “alternative means of observing the day-to-day changes in the political arena” (2003, 185). However, it is not taken into account that voters are usually exposed to different types of mass media.
Admittedly, various newspapers and magazines set different agendas. Some people prefer reading this or that newspaper or magazine because it highlights campaigns and activities of a certain politician. In this case, the voter sets his own agenda by choosing this or that source of information.
These cases are not rare; on the contrary they are rather common. Thus, this is the most evident weakness of the theory which assumes that mass media play the primary role.
In conclusion, it is possible to point out that the agenda-setting theory is very important in terms of the study of mass media impact on public opinion. The major strength of the study is that it reveals certain processes which define the impact of mass media. However, the major weakness of the theory is that it regards mass media as primary source of public agenda shaping.
Bibliography Crespi, Irving. The Public Opinion Process: How the People Speak. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1997.
McCombs, Maxwell and Salma I. Ghanem. “The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing.” In Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, edited by Oscar H. Gandy, August E. Grant, Stephen D. Reese, 67-83. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003.
McCombs, Maxwell E. and Donald L. Shaw “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36, no. 2 (1972): 176-187.
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Bipolar II Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment Research Paper essay help free
Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis defined by one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood which can be combined or not with one or more depressive episodes.
There are three main types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder characterized with at least one manic or mixed episode, bipolar II disorder defined by at least one hypomanic and at least one depressive episode and bipolar NOS which does not belong to either of the subgroups.
This paper will discuss the difficulties of identifying the symptoms of bipolar II disorder which is recognized as the most frequent one, the stages of assessment required for the adequate diagnosis of condition and the effectiveness and challenges of different treatments and their combination.
Regardless of the fact that the bipolar disorder is the sixth recognized cause of disability in America, it is a chronic psychiatric disease which can often be misdiagnosed (Leahy 417).
Diagnosing of the bipolar II disorder is complicated with its complex and diverse presentation of the symptoms. Medical comorbidity characteristic of this condition is another influential factor which should be taken into account for assessing all the symptoms in their complexity.
“Medical conditions found at increased rates include coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, dysplidemias, and hepatitis” (Leahy 418). These comorbid medical conditions can be the consequences of the reduced self-care which exacerbate the depression and stress in patients with bipolar II disorder.
Practitioners have to recognize not only mania itself as the diagnostic sign for the bipolar disorder, but also hypomania and mixed states (Leahy 419). Patients can quickly move from one condition to another and try to conceal certain symptoms which are critical for diagnosing this psychiatric disease.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The process of the premedication assessment is significantly complicated with the fact that patients with bipolar II disorder frequently have more than one mental dysfunction. This group of comorbid conditions includes anxiety, personality disorders and substance abuse which in their turn can increase the rates of aggressively, impulsivity and even suicidality.
A comprehensive and detailed clinical assessment of the prior history of psychiatric conditions and the current mental state should be undertaken for formulating the right diagnosis, developing and implementing the most effective intervention strategies (Malhi et al 2065).
Taking into account the fact that patients with bipolar disorder not only frequently do not recognize their disease, but also can have poor recollections of concrete episodes, it is necessary to consult their friends and family members for obtaining more accurate information and identifying the symptom patterns.
Thus, the adequate diagnosis of bipolar II disorder requires a detailed assessment of not only actual symptoms, but also the possible comorbid physical and mental conditions, analysis of the past psychiatric history and the current condition.
The common treatments used for the patients with bipolar II disorder include the combination of psychological treatments and pharmacotherapy. Thus, the common psychological treatments include interpersonal social group, family-focused and cognitive-behavioral types (Leahy 419).
Regarding the pharmacological treatments for bipolar depression, the drugs which can be effective for improving the patients’ condition and reducing the risks of suicide include anti-depressants and non-antidepressants. The group of non-antidepressants includes lithium salts, anticolvunsants and antipsychotics.
Currently, polytherapy as a combination of different drugs and treatment patterns is recognized as the most effective intervention strategy (Baldessarini 148).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bipolar II Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be noted that the abrupt drug discontinuation causes the recurrence of anxiety and can be followed by hypomanic episodes. Thus, the treatments for the patients with bipolar II disorder need to include a combination of drugs and psychosocial rehabilitative efforts.
Taking into account the fact that the adequate diagnosis and effective treatment of the bipolar disorder II remains an unsolved challenge for modern psychiatric practitioners, it can be stated that serious consideration should be given to complex approaches to the assessment, diagnosing and treatment of the patients with the symptoms of bipolar II disorder.
Works Cited Baldessarini, Ross, Eduard Vieta, Joseph Calabrese, Mauricio Tohen and Charles Bowden. “Bipolar Depression: Overview and Commentary”. Harvard Review Psychiatry May/June 2010, 18: 143-157.
Leahy, Robert. “Bipolar Disorders: Causes, Contexts, and Treatments”. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2007, 63(5): 417-424.
Malhi, Jin, Danielle Adams, Catherine Cahill, Seetal Dodd and Michael Berk. “The Management of Individuals with Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Evidence and Its Integration into Clinical Practice”. Drugs 2009, 69(15): 2063-2101
Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period Research Paper college essay help
Islamic art includes artistic traditions of countries that developed under Islamic rule or influence, these are the countries that are extending from Southern Spain to Central Asia.
The works of art created in these countries are very different and similar at the same time. They are united by one style and the same purpose, but they are also characterized by strong local influence and influence form other nearby countries. Islamic art is represented by numerous works which have cultural, decorative and functional meaning.
In the following paper I will examine the example of the mina’i ware Ewer (Fig. 1) in order show how these aspects are presented in the ewer of the 12th century which is a perfect example of new tendencies and techniques in design of Islamic ceramics of the medieval period.
The work of Fahmida Suleman states that Islamic ceramics “represent a very small percentage of the total ceramic assemblage produced in the medieval Muslim world”. It was used for domestic purposes and comprised unglazed storage and transport jars and “unglazed bowls, platters, and receptacles, which were made for the kitchen, pharmacy, or market shop”.
However, with the introduction of new techniques of design, ceramics began serving for decorative purposes and was considered a sough commodity in courtly context. We see this in the actual ewer by considering the form of the object and decorative details, such as delicate paintings which were produced to symbolize a “good life” of the owner.
The techniques of painting are typical for the 12th century and show the new stage of development in the Islamic art which later became very popular all over the world. The analysis has shown that a chosen ever helps establish the way of development of the mina’i artistic style and follow its travel between other cultures, such as Chinese.
The ewer presents a new type of luxury ceramics which was characteristics for Iran and neighboring countries in the second half of the 12th century. It is an example of the luster painting technique. It was a very costly process and the ceramic vessels made in such way were very expensive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, only higher layers of society could afford to buy them. The process was quite difficult. A jar, or any other vessel was covered with glaze (white or a turquoise opaque) and fried:
“The decoration was applied both under and over the glaze. Stable colors such as cobalt blue and turquoise, which could be fired successfully at a high temperature, were applied under the glaze before the first firing. The less stable colors — including red, black, and gold — were applied to the cold glazed surface and fixed in a second firing at a lower temperature”.
The ceramics of the period is very significant in religious and cultural context and related to the historical events. The ewer is decorated with figures taken from the Persian literature subjects,
“The paintings on mina’i ceramics attest to the existence of a vibrant tradition of Persian illustrated manuscripts from this period, which is now lost. Indeed, both mina’i and Persian lustre portray visual and poetic themes derived from Persian literature, such as the Shahnama epic or the romance of Varqa va Gulshah, depicting warriors, heroes, lovers, and fantastical beasts”
The subjects of paintings were created to demonstrate happy and good life. The actual ewer depicts the figures of horseman in the upper register, musicians and dancers in the lower register. Such themes were distinguished characteristics of the time period when Islamic world began its fast cultural and economic development.
The Islamic invasion of the world also began in this period. From the context of the paintings, we can judge about values that shared people of the period.
For example, the horsemen and situated in the upper register of the ewer symbolizes that people valued this art of ride and it was very important for military purposes. Furthermore, singers and dancers in the lower register show that nation was culturally developed and the art of dancing and singing was appreciated in the Islamic world.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in the paintings wore rich closes which symbolizes that nation was on its economic rise. The objects of the ewer are particular Islamic. They share typical Islamic painting techniques and characteristic color scheme (red, purple, blue, gold). In addition, the paintings demonstrate traditional clothes which can also serve a source of historical and cultural information about the period.
As it has already been motioned, such ceramics was very expensive and only rich people could have it. The ewer probably served for decorative purposes and was used only on special occasions in order to demonstrate prosperity and good taste of the patron to his guests.
The ewer was a luxury, and was used for decoration of the house. Design, decorative motifs, function, patronage of the ewer tells about cultural and artistic influence of other counties.
The exiting decorative scheme was first introduced in Syria and later it came to Iran and China, “As with Persian lustre, Kashan appears to have been the main centre of production for mina’i, with vessel shapes ranging from bowls, pilgrims’ flasks, ewers, cups, and, in rare instances, tiles”.
The painting does not really demonstrate Islamic ideology because the purpose of the vessel was to show the material prosperity of its owner, but it speaks much of the culture of the country and demonstrates a “potentially unique expression of a desire or need”.
Moreover, this technique had a great influence on other countries though it was short-lived in Iran which can be explained with the technical problems associated with overgraze technique of painting which could lead to unsatisfactory result, thus, only true masters could create such articles.
In the 14th century, the technique was exported to China and later it was transferred to the Middle East where it caused “a fashion craze in the Muslim markets”.
Having been replaced from its original use, the ewer still represents a uniqueness of the Islam culture. These days, we are lucky to observe it in a museum, but for contemporary people it has a quite different meaning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These days, we consider it only as an example of the cultural heritage and a source of information about the 12th century period of the Islamic history. As opposed to a “contemporary perception” of this article, people of the medieval period paid much more attention to the meaning of it as luxury and symbol of prosperity and development.
The art of this period presents more secular than religious art, “It would not be an exaggeration to conclude in the medial art as a whole, which is so often seen as a centered on religion, Islamic architecture appears as a sort of conscious secular variant”.
Two other examples of the late 12th century art is a Bowl (Fig. 3) from Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean Lamp (Fig. 2). Regardless the fact that they are “representatives” of the same period and the same Islamic art, a strong local influence can be observed in technique and decorations they represent.
In a bowl, we can see typical motifs of the Egyptian luster painting of the early 11th century which was popular in the 12th century as well.
The typical decoration presents the figures of people and animals (4 golden fish which were symbols of the prosperity in the Arab world) and typical golden color. The lamp was produced during the Ayybid rule and made of the Ayybid glass. The design of the lamp seems to be not characteristic for the Islam art, especially comparing with the previously discussed ewer.
Thus, we can conclude that Islamic art was very divers. Even within one time period, the design and ornaments of articles were very different from each other. The reason of this diversity lies in the diversity of cultures that were united under the Islamic rule in the 12th century.
Thus, Islamic ceramics of the 12th century is one of the greatest sources of information about Islamic culture and traditions. It is characterized by rich painting and great subjects which were used to show the prosperity, cultural and economic growth with is associated with the Islamic world of the medieval period.
In addition, Islamic art of this period had a great influence of art of other countries and made a great contribution to development of new design techniques. Having been placed in contemporary setting, it did not lose its greatness and value, though, the perception of it is different with contemporary people.
Bibliography Grabar, Oleg. Islamic Art and Beyond. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.
Komaroff, Linda. “Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period,” Los Angeles County Museum of Art, n. d. Web.
Suleman, Fahmida. “Ceramics,” in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Ed. Josef W. Meri, and Jere L. Bacharach, 143 – 144. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Footnotes Fahmida Suleman, “Ceramics,” in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Ed. Josef W. Meri, and Jere L. Bacharach (New York: Routledge, 2006), 144
Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144
Linda Komaroff, “Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period,” (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, n. d.)
Suleman, “Ceramics”, 143
Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144
Oleg Grabar, Islamic Art and Beyond. (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006), 107.
Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144
Grabar, Islamic Art and Beyond, 107.
Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix Essay essay help: essay help
Wall Street is a film about two stockbrokers who are corrupted by greed and an insatiable lust for power. The film stars Michael Douglas as Gordon Gecko, an ambitious stockbroker who uses clandestine means to feed his avarice.
The film also stars Charlie Sheen as Bud Fox, a young and equally ambitious stockbroker. Gecko takes Fox under his wing. Fox becomes Gecko’s apprentice and is easily swayed by his newfound extravagant lifestyle.
The Matrix stars Lawrence Fishburne as Morpheus, an infamous computer hacker on the run from government agents. It is later revealed that Morpheus is in fact the captain of a ship known as the Nebuchadnezzar. Morpheus actually lives in a post-apocalyptic future where machines have successfully conquered most of the human race.
The Matrix also stars Keanu Reeves as Neo, a computer hacker who discovers that his world is actually an illusion created by the machines. The illusion enables the machines to use human bodies as a source of energy. Morpheus tells Neo that The Matrix is a computer-generated virtual world that has been used to subjugate the human race. He believes that Neo is a Messiah who will eventually destroy the illusion and free the human race.
Similarities in Wall Street and The Matrix In The Matrix, Morpheus becomes Neo’s mentor. He teaches him how to survive in a hostile environment. The government agents are, in fact, computer-generated programs used to keep people sedated. They tend to kill anyone who becomes aware of their existence. Morpheus teaches Neo how to fight them within their virtual world. He shows Neo the tricks of the trade.
In Wall Street, Gecko also becomes Fox’s mentor. He teaches Fox how to steal assets from other companies. He shows him the tricks of the trade. He guides Fox on the road to success.
Morpheus is willing to sacrifice a few lives to save the world. Gordon Gecko is willing to sacrifice people’s livelihoods for financial success. In The Matrix, Morpheus kills a few police officers to help Neo escape. In Wall Street, Gecko teaches Fox how to protect his assets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Wall Street, the stock market serves as a learning institution for Bud Fox. Gecko teaches Fox how to cheat and steal his way through other people’s assets. In The Matrix, the virtual world is Neo’s learning institution. Morpheus teaches Neo how to navigate The Matrix. He shows him how to avoid agents.
Gecko uses Fox’s ambition to gear him towards financial success. Morpheus uses Neo’s ambition to gear him towards defeating the artificial intelligence residing in The Matrix.
Gecko convinces Fox that some rules are meant to be broken. He teaches Fox to use the loopholes of business to his advantage. He teaches him how to break certain rules in order to improve his financial status. Likewise, Morpheus teaches Neo how to bend the rules of physics within The Matrix. He teaches him how to exploit the resources at his disposal.
Both Morpheus and Gecko lead by experience. They show their corresponding apprentices that they are just as capable of carrying out the same tasks.
Gecko asks Fox to spy on a wealthy businessman. Gecko uses the information to buy shares from the man’s company thus improving his financial status. Likewise, Morpheus teaches Neo how to protect his teammates. On one occasion, Morpheus confronts powerful agents in order to save his crew.
Differences in Wall Street and The Matrix Gecko is corrupt while Morpheus is righteous. Gecko helps Fox to usurp his own father. Morpheus uses all the resources at his disposal to help Neo save the world. Gecko manipulates Fox. He plans to steal from his father’s company. He tricks Fox by convincing him that he is not interested in the company.
Gecko has little regard for the consequences of his actions. He is willing to destroy his friends to get what he wants. He teaches Fox to do the same. Morpheus, however, teaches Neo to be careful of his actions. He tells him that everything he does in The Matrix could change the fate of the human race. Neo’s enemies are powerful.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morpheus displays compassion for his crew while Gecko does not care about his employees. Morpheus treats his crew like a family while Gecko treats his employees like pawns. During an attack on the Nebuchadnezzar, Morpheus
When the agents capture Morpheus, Neo rescues him. When Gecko is arrested, Fox does nothing to save him. Morpheus’s leadership skills are obviously more profound than Gecko’s. Neo uses the skills that Morpheus has taught him to save his mentor. Fox uses his new-found skills to save himself. He betrays his mentor.
Morpheus believes in having a chain of command. Trinity is his subordinate. When the agents capture him, Trinity is left in charge of both the crew and the Nebuchadnezzar. Gecko, on the other hand, pretends to be Fox’s equal partner. He, instead, manipulates his apprentice.
He lies to Fox on several occasions. He tries to steal from Fox’s father. He does not believe in a chain of command. He prefers to be in control of all of his resources. He does not like to share his power.
Gecko is a manipulative leader while Morpheus is a tutor. Fox trusts Gecko to run his father’s company. He is easily swayed by the set of principles that Gecko has taught him. He makes his decisions based on what he has been taught. Neo, however, learns to forge his own path.
He emulates Morpheus but he also makes his own decisions. Before he rescues Morpheus, he tells Trinity that he is not the prophesied Messiah. Nevertheless, Neo does his level best to save his mentor.
Neo impresses his mentor while Fox financially destroys Gecko. Later, in the film, Neo discovers that he is “The One”. He trusts his instincts and defeats agent Smith. Before the credits roll, Neo resolves to continue Morpheus’s mission. He implies that he will continue to find others who are willing to learn the truth about The Matrix.
Fox, however, decides to attack Gecko by going after his assets. He uses his skills of manipulation to trick Gecko. He ensures that Gecko’s stock prices decline by convincing other shareholders to dump their stocks.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gecko teaches Fox the importance of self-reliance. He convinces Fox that self-preservation is better than friendship. He teaches Fox to trust no one. Fox uses this knowledge to betray Gecko. He collects evidence against Gecko in order to save himself. Morpheus, however, teaches Neo that humanity is sacred. He develops a bond with his student. Neo forges a lasting friendship with Morpheus.
More Communication is Not Always Better Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Technical aspect
Magnitude in communication across all professional fields underscores the intent and purpose of such communication. In fact the history of communication has bent towards lesser communication that guarantees quality. In the field of art and design, two main aspects stand out in providing a generalization that justifies the case for lesser communication.
Technical aspect The technical communication aspect refers to the tools that are used to develop and deliver the communicated message. The advancement in technology today has created and developed numerous communication channels. The traditional method of face to face communication has suffered numerous alterations that have revolutionalised the communication process.
Every message has to be transmitted through a channel or media. The communication field has created room for different varying versions of similar or substantially different channels that have been adjusted to suit the professional requirements of the time.
Technical communication entails the strategic and analytical use of machines or tools within the communication scope in their complex or simple versions.
It involves extensive analysis of the results of language mathematics which provide a summary of the effectiveness of using a specific function of technology or the technology as a whole. It allows for the adjustment of such technology to meet the objectives of the profession and the purpose of its adoption.
The more the number of channels available to the communicator the lesser the relative effectiveness of each channel (Andeweg et al pp 272). The technical aspect of communication in art and design provides a solution to the font verses type debate.
There are numerous advanced deviations and versions of font styles available thanks to improvements in software technology. This development comes into conflict with the consumer’s knowledge of the specific font type.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance every other person is familiar with the font type Times New Roman. It is therefore quite easy to identify with the formal effect that has been associated with this font. However if there is more than one font in the massage even with the prominence off a single font the message looses the intended touch.
Public aspect The public communication aspect engages the effects of language and numeracy related aspects of the communication process in the resultant interactive understanding and interpretation of a message by the target community context .The extent to which a communication device delivers the intended message within a limited amount of time (Andeweg et al pp 271- 284).
The public aspect engages in the application of mathematics in the analysis of the existing demands and needs of the public and the target of the communication initiative.
The situation as it is allows for a very limited timeframe for a communicator to deliver their message. As it were the longest the communicator has in an active environment is one minute and this period could even be less depending on the substance of the communication effort (Caricato pp 496-514).
The public communication aspect evaluates how well the message as a whole succeeds in informing the respondent of the message within the allowed timeframe without mis-informing or dis-informing such an individual. The art and design field has offered numerous alternatives in as far as pattern is concerned.
Everyday someone comes up with a new pattern that they hope will override the place held by previous ones. Statistical analysis of the effect of use of more than one pattern indicates that the more the number of patterns in a communication devise the lesser the effectiveness the message has.
People are more ready to understand simplistic patterns than where they are left to identify the collection of such patterns. This also applies in the application of colors. The more the number of colors used the lesser the effectiveness of the message.
We will write a custom Essay on More Communication is Not Always Better specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion More communication is not always better. This will depend on the various factors and interests that are represented in the communication process. This position however cuts across the general view.
Works Cited Andeweg, Bas. de Jong, Jaap.
Feminist Ethics Concept Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Feminist ethic is a new concept aimed at redefining and redesigning conventional and traditional experiences associated with women’s moral experiences from medieval times. Feminist ethic is therefore a development and a new concept developed to remedy the inadequacies created by traditional western ethics which have consistently overlooked female contributions in the society.
Such sentiments are supported by Alison Jaggar, a feminist philosopher (cited in Christine 2), who faults traditional western ethical ideals because of a number of reasons.
First, she identifies that traditional western ideals sought to emphasize more on male rights and interests at the expense of female rights. Secondly, she notes that traditional western ideals are characteristic of emphasizing on morally uninteresting realms of women roles which occur in the private world (such as the traditional roles of cooking, cleaning, taking care of the household, assisting the sick and such roles).
Thirdly, she faults the traditional western ethical philosophy because it perceives women as people who are not as morally developed as men and fourth, Christine explains that she identifies that traditional western philosophy “overvalues culturally masculine traits like independence, autonomy, separation, mind, reason, culture, transcendence, war, and death, and undervalues culturally feminine traits like interdependence, community, connection, body, emotion, nature, immanence, peace, and life” (3).
Lastly, Alison Jaggar notes that traditional western philosophy is sympathetic to culturally masculine ways of moral reasoning as opposed to the feminist ways which lack prejudice and favor (Christine 3).
These perceptions withstanding, this study acknowledges the role feminist ethics has had in reformulating traditional western ethics and comprehensively, it acknowledges that feminist ethics are distinctive and uniquely incoherent with conventional western philosophy relating to gender.
However, there have been many debates advanced by critics regarding feminist ethics which purport that the concept is basically centered on overturning existing political structures and basically centered on the concept of power and subordination at the expense of ethical concerns relating to mothering, morality, care and justice (Christine 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With regards to this debate, this study identifies that this argument is flawed and instead proposes that feminist ethics is more committed to motherhood and care as opposed to political changes (in terms of doing away with the subordination women have experienced in the past).
Ideas Concepts and Terms to be Discussed Radical feminism: Radical feminism observes that the causes for gender oppression should not be solely blamed on the political structure of the society but also on the structures of the patriarchal society.
Liberal feminism: Liberal feminism works from the context that women need to be accorded the same opportunities men have, so that they are as prosperous as men.
Marxist feminism: The concept of Marxist feminism notes that women’s oppression should not be traced to the opposite sex but rather to the capitalistic nature of the society which makes women subordinates to men.
Supporting Claims Radical feminism
Mothering and care are depicted as the underlying issues that characterize female oppression which has been evidenced for many years (Christine 3). The feminist ethics concept basically revolves around matters of care and feminine virtues (more especially nurturing and compassion) as opposed to issues to do with power and subordination (in comparison to male counterparts).
More importantly, even though many critics of the feminist ethics tend to perpetrate the view that feminist ethics inclines more towards power and subordination, Christine (3) notes that feminist ethics is particular to experiences that are uniquely female such as pregnancy, childbirth, and nursing. These issues have nothing to do with power or subordination.
Much of the current “political vs. care” debate that surrounds feminist ethics can be analyzed from philosophical research studies done by Gilligan, a philosophical researcher.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Feminist Ethics Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The same can also be said of Kohlberg’s research on feminist philosophy which can be summarized in the words of Tronto that “individuals develop morally as their cognitive abilities to understand the nature of moral relations deepen, and that this process of moral development proceeds through set, hierarchically arranged stages that correspond to different levels of moral reasoning” (5).
Kohlberg was trying to portray the view that boys had a stronger and more mature moral development as compared to girls, when analyzed within a given age group.
However, Gilligan was particularly disturbed by these assertions and decided to do his own independent studies on the same which concluded that girls had a uniquely different oral view when compared to boys because their moral voice expressed an ethics of care while the boy’s moral voice expressed an ethics of justice.
The ethics of care can be compared to relationships and justice while the ethics of justice can be compared to rights and rules. All these features can be better equated to processes as opposed to principles because they symbolize an ongoing element as opposed to a static one (Christine 6).
Gilligan’s assertion basically exposed a different field of philosophical research about feminist ethics that had not been previously researched before. Many researchers have also identified the research studies to be intrinsically positive but comprehensively, it is assumed that his point of view gives a new perception to the role historical oppression may have played in care ethics (Christine 6).
Tronto explains this concept by stating that “whatever psychological dimensions there might be to explain women’s moral differences, there may also be a social cause: women’s different moral expression may be a function of their subordinate or tentative social position” (6).
Gilligan’s perspectives gives a very interesting insight to feminist ethics in the sense that she identifies that feminist ethics essentially appeals to women’s’ unique experiences, but in the same light, the unique experiences can be traced to the oppression women face in the society.
A positive relationship can be hereby deduced because the underlying assumption in this relationship is observed whereby, though feminist ethics is based on mothering, care and nurturing, Gilligan exposes a relationship whereby the above concepts either add or subtract to the oppression women face (or have faced) in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Feminist Ethics Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same opinion is also held by radical feminists who observe that the causes for women oppression should not solely be blamed on the political structure of the society but also on the structures of the patriarchal society (Christine 6). Proponents of the radical feminist concept also note that political structures which limit the chances of women prospering in the same manner as men are essentially flawed and evidently irreparable.
Because of this fact, they propose that the entire political system should be eliminated. This point of view therefore leaves the patriarchal society as the only repairable institution and this is where radical feminist concurs with the fact that feminist ethics are centered on changing the social perceptions of women in the domestic environment. This essentially touches on the virtues of motherhood and care.
In other words, motherhood and care are the basic limitations to women’s’ chances of succeeding. Tong affirms that “Women’s reproductive roles and responsibilities, as well as the institution of compulsory heterosexuality, are the fundamental causes of women’s subordination and men’s domination” (8).
Liberal feminism works from the context that women need to be accorded the same opportunities men have, so that they are as prosperous as men (Christine 7).
However, in accomplishing this objective, there is a strong view among proponents of the liberal feminism concept that there needs to be a clear-cut difference between public and private life. Public life essentially refers to the ability of women to prosper in various fields such as medicine, science, law and the likes (because it essentially refers to personal and human achievement).
Basically, this refers to the realm of political actions where many researchers have identified that gender oppression takes place. On the other hand, private life basically refers to the realm of mothering and caring which has often be synonymously equated to the traditional western ethical philosophy of women which defines the root of subordination.
From this understanding, liberal theorists have consistently acknowledged that women have a more social significance to the political world of men; meaning that their contribution is most appreciated from the fact that they best uphold social life, as opposed to political life.
Mothering and caring activities constitute the basic pinnacle of this social world (Christine 7). Since the above fact has been identified as constituting a great part of the western traditional feminine experience, feminist ethic was introduced to fight this ideology.
Feminist ethic was therefore developed from the standpoint that women should not be subordinated to the roles of nurturing, mothering and care because this is a false ideology that seeks to limit their chances or opportunities of competing with their male counterparts in the political world.
Liberal feminist therefore point out the view that there is no such distinction between a man and a woman because they are both human beings and that is the only existing definition according to them.
However, liberal feminists have been forced to acknowledge the physical differences between the genders but they have stuck to their point of view; purporting that physical differences between men and women do not in any way constitute a platform to differentiate male and female rights (Christine 8).
Nonetheless, comprehensively we are able to learn that feminist ethics is primarily based on unique women experiences (which are mothering, care and nurturing) as opposed to the political cause identified by critics of the feminist ethics concept. Relatively, when compared to the liberal feminist approach, Christine affirms that:
“Avoiding claims about specifically male and female natures enables liberal feminists to argue that men and women are entitled to the same opportunities in both the public and private spheres. In the liberal feminist view, when all are afforded equal opportunities, all women may freely choose to ‘mother’ or not to ‘mother’” (9).
The concept of Marxist feminism notes that women’s oppression should not be traced to the opposite sex but rather the capitalistic nature of the society which makes women subordinates to men (Christine 9).
To remedy this situation, the Marxist feminism concept proposes that a communism concept will work to the advantage of women because it will give them equal opportunities that capitalist systems denies them. However, in support of the fact that feminist ethics is based on mothering and care, the Marxist feminism concept identifies that female oppression not only occurs in the public life but also in the private life.
To reiterate the Marxist feminism concept, Callahan affirms that “the inegalitarian system of classes leads to exploitation and imperialism–the domination at home (including the household) and abroad of the have-nots by the haves” (75).
Women’s’ oppression can therefore be defined by the oppression that goes on in the household and not necessarily in public life (as advocated by proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is primarily based on political motivations).
The exploitation of women at home is particularly contingent with the limitations that the capitalistic world imposes on women throughout most societies.
However, it is important to note that the Marxist feminism concept has been criticized by the fact that not all women hail from the same economic class, although in the same sense, it is also important to note that the Marxist feminism concept acknowledges that for women to be totally liberated and enjoy the same opportunities as men, domestic exploitation and oppression needs to stop first (at the household level) before any significant political changes can be felt to their advantage (Christine 9).
This fact is based on the belief by proponents of the Marxist feminism concept that gender oppression starts at the household level, and the discrimination that is evident at the political platform is just but a mere reflection of what happens in the domestic environment.
To affirm this point of view, proponents of the Marxist feminism concept point out the fact that women have been clustered together to constitute a single economic class that essentially works to produce goods and services that are only of value to the domestic environment (Christine 9). In affirming this argument, Jaggar notes that:
“In unpacking this notion of transformation, it is also important to note that Marxist theory itself would not find anything intrinsically degrading about childbearing, child rearing, cooking,… but instead Marxist theory criticizes the way in which these tasks are organized under capitalism. In this sense, Marxist feminist theory could be said to be “about” mothering and caring (19).
Counter Arguments Principles as opposed to feelings
Critics of the feminist ethics concept note that feminist ethics is basically reliant on the philosophy of principles of care as opposed to feelings of care because in the real sense, principles are deemed more reliable than feelings attributed to care (Christine 10). For instance, if we were to analyze the suffering poor people go through, it would only be logical to help them, as opposed to sympathizing with them.
This is true because contrary to the feminist point of view, in reality, principles are often relied on more than the concept of care. Equally, many philosophers have also voiced their criticism of feminist ethics, based on the concepts of justice and care, as two ultimate gender-neutral elements (Christine 10).
In this regard, these critics have voiced their reservations on the fact that feminist ethics seeks to make “care” triumph over “justice”. To support their point, they assert that, if there is a conflict between justice and care, impartiality often supersedes partiality because a person’s fundamental rights cannot be more important than another’s.
This scenario can also be equated to the American Southern grasp on slavery where many people hailing from that geographical area felt positively about slavery as a practice. However, since they harbored this sentiment, it did not mean that they were essentially ethically correct.
Many critics of the feminist approach have often observed that feminist ethics basically perceive ethical issues from a predetermined point of view (which is the feminist way) (Christine 10). More importantly, they note that the feminist ethics concept assumes that women are in an oppressed position when compared to their male counterparts.
In this regard, these critics base their contempt with the feminist ethics concept on the fact that, feminist perspectives base their standing on the structures that have contributed to this position and therefore, they focus their energies on overturning this state of affairs.
This contributes to their strong viewpoint that feminist theories stand on a political view-point as affirmed by Callahan that “A feminist perspective has three features: “a recognition that women as a group have been and are oppressed; an account of the source or sources of that oppression; and suggestions for how the oppression of women can be overcome” (78).
Nonetheless, critics who have criticized feminism, based on the concept of oppression, have also identified that the allegation by proponents of feminism that power has often been wielded to the disadvantage of men, is a female-biased point of view. Assuming this fact is well understood, the critics went ahead to assert that there was no way a one-sided view of power and oppression could be ultimately perceived as the ethical or moral point of view.
In the past, western ethical concepts have often perceived the concept of ethics from a general view-point but if the feminist view on oppression is to be relied on, it would mean that the development of ethical concepts would be targeting an individual group, as opposed to the entire human population. This is obviously a misguided and unjust view.
Oppression, subordination, mothering and care which are all observed in feminist ethics can be best understood through the historical context of feminism.
The historical context of feminism in which perspectives about feminism and feminist ethics are developed can be all equated to the traditional political theory standpoint. This means that the tradition of western political thought is essentially characteristic of the historical view of feminism.
From this understanding, many proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is developed from a political viewpoint, such as Shanley and Pateman (12), argue that since feminist ethics are based on overturning traditional western concepts of feminism; they are based on changing the political paradigm as well. This argument gives feminist ethics a political nature.
Response to the Counter Arguments The opinions expressed by critics of the feminist ethics approach tend to portray the view that feminist perspectives do not acknowledge the unique experiences of women as a unique gender and in the same manner; they are not cognizant of the ethics of care which has been traditionally associated with feminism. However, many of such critics fail to note that at the centre of feminism is the appreciation of divergent points of views.
This means that, though feminism has been criticized for upholding the concept of care over principles, it is time that the society acknowledges the uniqueness of feminism and the female gender in general. This means that the female gender is more empathic and considerate than the male gender.
It is therefore only natural that feminism upholds the concept of “care” as opposed to “principle”. This is the balance that feminism tries to create in the society because even if critics of feminism were put on the spot, they would acknowledge that humanity would seize to be what it is, if the element of “care” was eliminated.
The argument that feminism is focused on the political structures that put men in power, as opposed to “care”, contradicts the arguments of similar critics of feminism who note that feminism is more focused on the concept of “care” as opposed to “principles”.
This contradiction exposes the misguided beliefs which critics of feminism have (over care and principles), because some fail to acknowledge that feminism emphasizes on “care”, while others note that it does not.
However, for critics who voice the opinion that feminism seeks to shift the political paradigm in the world, at the expense of upholding the concept of “care”, it is obviously apparent that this is the only way through which they can eliminate male domination and oppression.
This is true because power is vested in political structures and unless women become active in politics or change its paradigm, there is very little hope that they will ever be truly liberated from oppression. The concept that feminism is politically oriented is therefore correct because this is the only way women can take responsibility for their lives. This view therefore enforces the concept that women have been politically oppressed through sociopolitical structures and positions.
However, this point of view is not what feminist ethics is entirely based on. This is true because if we analyze feminist ethics, entirely from a political point of view, we would be advocating the fact that feminism is centered on changing the existing political paradigm and nothing more. This is obviously not the case.
Conclusion This study points out the fact that feminist ethics is essentially driven by issues to do with motherhood and care, as opposed to power and subordination, which define political motivations.
Arguments based on the Marxist, radical and liberal feminist points of view acknowledge that motherhood and care are at the centre of the development of feminist ethics because all forms of oppression start at the domestic level.
This argument is according to the liberalist feminists. However, the Marxists feminists note that capitalistic structures need to be eliminated to give women more opportunities in the society while the radical point of view suggests that the political structures that are created by men with the aim of limiting women to domestic roles are irreparable and need to be eliminated.
Because of this reason, proponents of the radical feminism concept advocate for a patriarchal societal change which is in affirmation of the view that feminist ethics is concerned with motherhood and care.
This study also acknowledges the input of proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is motivated by power and subordination as the primary motivators to feminist ethics, but comprehensively, we observe that social (as opposed to political) intrigues is the main factor leading to women oppression and this is what feminist ethics essentially focuses on.
This point of view is practically applicable today in the fight for gender equality in most functional areas of our society (including gender representation in political, social and economic positions).
This analysis is also a pointer to the way we should look at various areas of philosophy, in the sense that, practical relevance is important to the comprehension of philosophical points of views. This analysis has ramifications in other areas, apart from philosophy, such as science.
Therefore, considering the above intrigues to the whole feminist ethics debate, we can safely conclude that feminist ethics is more committed to motherhood and care as opposed to political changes (in terms of doing away with the subordination women have experienced in the past).
Works Cited Callahan, Joan C. “Feminism and Reproductive Technologies.” Journal of Clinical Ethics 5.1 (1994): 75-85.
Christine, James. “Feminist Ethics, Mothering, and Caring.” Kinesis 22.2 (1995): 2-16. Print.
Jaggar, Alison. Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1988.
Shanley, Lyndon and Pateman, Carole. Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory.
University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.
Tong, Rosemarie. Feminine and Feminist Ethics. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993.
Tronto, Joan C. Beyond Gender Difference to a Theory of Care: An Ethic of Care: Feminist and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 1993.
The Black Madonna of Breznichar Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents History of the icon
Characteristics of the icon
Importance of the icon to the people
Why the icon is relevant to the people who worship it.
Ways the icon has been appropriated by people and culture
History of the icon The Black Madonna of Breznichar was fictitious and was a dark skin colored representation of Madonna by Mary. The Black Madonna of Breznichar is a Marian painting or statue of medieval origin. The first notable study of the origin of the Black Madonna was presented by Leonard Moss in a meeting held at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. This took place on Dec. 28, 1952. This was the supposed date of apparition for the black Madonna.
The Black Madonna of Breznichar is located in Bohemia. “It is an invented one though it existed in fiction” (Kidd Monk 54). Its symbolism to Mary is that it was a black version of her and was respected and considered holy by Catholics just like the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus.
Its representation of Mary highlights an important message whereby it poses trans-racial significance. In some recent time, it has been suggested that the Black Madonna should have a perception of the Virgin Mary which was not well clearly emphasized in the Christianity doctrine.
It has had history associated with it when we look at eccelesial lifestyle. The black Madonna has been a source and image of divine intervention for eccelesial life over the course of many years. The Black Madonna was approved by ecclesiastical authority a long time ago, and it was declared that it really performed miracles.
Characteristics of the icon The above image is a color picture of the Black Madonna. It is characterized to be the black version of Mary, the Virgin. The term used frequently to designate these kinds of images is known as inculturated Madonnas.
There are people and certain cultures that approve dark features and perceive them to have a particular prominence. The prominence of the Black Madonna is majorly due to the miraculous character it poses to the pilgrims.
The statue of Madonna gets its color from the material used, ebony or any other dark wood. “This is mainly done to depict the medieval “black” images of Mary, but this application and method has been fought for by the people who believe that the color of the originally black Madonna has some great significance” (Preston 79).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of the icon to the people All the Black Madonnas are regarded as powerful images to people who believe in them including the Black Madonna of Breznichar and they are perceived to be miracle workers. It is praised for its intercessions in, problems of fertility.
It is mostly located in shrines and pilgrims go to these shrines covering hundreds of kilometers to seek divine help. It is usually seen by people as a representation of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus.
For example, “since the last decade when this practice was openly and strongly forbidden by church authorities, pilgrims used to journey to the shrine of Mount Vergine, and they would usually climb the steps of the shrine while on their knees and they would always lick each step with their tongues” (Alesha 218).
This was a weird practice, but this was believed to forgive sins and hence we equal the blackness of the Black Madonna of Breznichar with the magnitude of its power to those who believed in it. We see the attitude of the pilgrims approach to be about worship for the black Madonna. Therefore, the Black Madonna was a very important icon to people.
Why the icon is relevant to the people who worship it. The Black Madonna is mostly found in Catholic areas. Catholics hold high regard to the Virgin Mary and most go to extremes of worshipping the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus. Since the black Madonna is a representation of the Virgin Mary, there are people of Catholic denomination who worship it and others in the past who used to worship it.
The icon is relevant to the people who worship it because they believe it can perform miracles and this usually attracts great numbers of pilgrims from all over the world. It is also relevant in the sense that it offers people a chance to seek divine help by putting faith in it to solve their problems and give hope for the future.
This icon was very important to certain people since it was believed to be miraculous. “There were many miraculous Marian images, and the Black Madonna of Breznichar was one of them. It was very popular among the strong faithful.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Black Madonna of Breznichar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some authors casually compared the Black Madonna which was known as the ‘Black Virgin’ worshiped by Catholics with the pagan goddess images, had similar appearances and this provided some with a polemic argument against the Catholic Church” (Duricy 15).
Ways the icon has been appropriated by people and culture The Black Madonna has hugely been appropriated by people and various cultures. This is because many Christians, including the clergy simply do not deny that the ‘Black Virgin’ is a symbol of divine help. This has made it easily acceptable by many. It is also that some people and cultures believe that the Black Madonna represents a Christian form of being a mother with child.
It has also been appropriated by other cultures since it is believed to have special healing powers among other things. For example, “that it can give fertility blessings to newly married brides” (Begg 87).
Works Cited Alesha, Matomah. The first book of The Black Goddess. Arizona. Matam press, 2004. Print.
Begg, Ean. The Cult of The Black Virgin. Penguin UK: Arkana, 1985. Print.
Duricy, Micheal. Black Madonnas. New York: Dell, 1983. Print.
Kidd, Monk. The secret life of bees. New York: Viking, 2004. Print.
Preston, James. Mother Worship: Themes and Variations. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. 1982. Print.
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English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa Essay cheap essay help
In the Caribbean and Africa regions, the language has mainly been used as the tool to colonize the people. It has been used as a major weapon in practicing imperialism.
Many nations were influenced by the colonizers by the use of the English language through which they were forced to believe and act according to the will of their colonizers. By accepting the language, natives accepted various things about their colonizers. Language was used to colonize the natives through various ways.
Use of language to colonize people In Caribbean and Africa regions, language has played a very important role in practicing imperialism. The colonies have taken advantage of their language to expand their economic, political and social powers. In the British schools, students were forced to read the British literature only they were rarely given opportunities to read about their own communities.
The colonizers taught their own language in their colonies and therefore this restricted the learners to the culture of their colonizers.
More often, English language was used in giving instructions in most of the institutions within Africa and Caribbean. The students were not given an opportunity to study other languages in school. Therefore, the colonizers determined what these students should read. They used this opportunity to expand their interests.
For instance, the natives could not access literature which informed on how they can be independent from the western forces. This made them to remain submissive despite of the difficulties they encountered. In other words, the language suppressed their chances of rejecting the British system.
Language is closely associated with culture. A certain language reflects the culture of the original speakers. For instance, English language demonstrates the English culture. Therefore, learning a foreign language implies learning the culture of the original speakers. It became easier to control the people on adopting the culture of the colonizers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, language has been used in Caribbean and Africa to dominate the people both in their minds and hearts (Anonymous par 3). This is one way through which imperialism has been practiced in these regions.
Language can be seen as a unifying factor. English language brought many people together. It is easier to influence people when they are united than when they are diversified. Therefore, by unifying the people, the English language assisted the colonizers to gain more influence the local community. Similarly, when people are united
English language was also used in colonization in Caribbean and Africa through passing of the English culture. Most languages carry some cultural aspects of the original speakers.
For instance, it may reflect their beliefs, ways of living and traditions. Therefore, when the natives of these regions learnt the language, they adopted some of these cultural aspects. By adopting these cultural aspects, the people became more receptive to the directions received from their colonizers.
Fanon (31) talked about the colonizing culture. According to Fanon (31), English language was used in developing the colonizing culture. That is, the situation where colonization was viewed as any other day to day encounter.
It made people to become more satisfied of the existing system and therefore low levels of opposition. When the natives accept the language spoken by their colonizers, they are forced to accept their standards.
This is because they will be able to have an effective interaction through the same language. It would have been more difficult to influence the natives if they had not accepted the English language.
We will write a custom Essay on English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his book ‘Black face white mask’, Fanon demonstrated how the black people were made to behave like the whites (Fanon 31). Although the natives’ skin reflected their origin, it never reflected their culture. They were made to think and act like their colonizers. The languages they speak also reflect their colonizer’s backgrounds. Consequently, they acted according to the white man’s wishes.
Through the colonial language, the natives in the Caribbean and African region became alienated. This implies that they lost control of their own cultural elements. According to Fanon (32), the colonizers’ ambition to civilize the natives resulted into inert institutions which were dependent and were functioning under the supervision of their colonizers (Fanon 35).
In other words, through the language, the colonizers in Caribbean and Africa formed dependent institutions which relied on the colonizers for them to be effective.
Therefore, the colonizers managed to come with a system through which the institutions will be forced to function under their directions. This was one of the main process through which the natives became dominated by the colonizers.
By passing their languages to their colonies, the colonizers were not only creating their listeners, but also the readers and writers of their language (Mahadeo, par 6). The colonizers were able to get teachers who helped them in teachers others. In the process, these teachers pass to other natives.
In the process, the natives pass the culture of their colonizers to other natives. The literature provided to the colonies also reflected the colonizers way of living and experiences. This had a significant impact on the natives. They were made to believe on the western culture.
According to Thiongo (59), language can be destructive if it embraces only the foreign works and culture. In other words, the language can be very influential on the natives. This is because in most cases, language reflects the works and culture of the original speakers. It is important for the people to work in their own local language in order to have a successful interaction.
In the modern world, the former imperialism has also impacted on the people through language. For instance, the media reflects the western views through television, radio and other media (Thiong’o II par 5). The media has also contributed in the spreading of the cultural imperialism in the Caribbean and African countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through his story ‘Decolonizing the Mind’, Ngugi believes that the western language has led to misinterpretation of the African culture (Thiongo 86). This has diverted the minds of the people from the reality. For instance, people are not able to realize that imperialism is the main cause of their suffering.
In other words, people’s vision is blurred from seeing the reality of the situation. In stead, they are made to believe exactly on the opposite.
Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that language was a very important tool which was used by colonizers in Caribbean and Africa. In these areas, English language was used in giving instructions to the natives in schools. The colonizers used this in selecting what the native were supposed to read.
They ensured that they don’t access any material which could enlighten them to oppose the system. By so doing, the colonizers were able to expand their political and economic powers across the region.
Works Cited Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press, 1967. Print.
Mahadeo, Satish. “English – Colonial to Postcolonial: The Problematics of Writing in English in Mauritus.” Language, Society and Culture, 6 Apr. 2011. .
Thiong’o, John. “Review: Decolonizing the Mind.” The Complete Review, 2002. 6 Apr. 2011. .
Thiong’o, John. Decolonizing The Mind: The Politics Of Language In African Literature. U.K: Currey, 1999. Print.
Problem of Smoke-free Campus Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help
Over the past, smoking has posed a big danger to the community. Many people have become victims of smoking both directly and indirectly. The people who are affected directly are the smokers themselves while those who are affected indirectly are the people who stay near the people who smoke. Smoking therefore poses a very big problem especially to people who live as a group or as a community.
In campus, the issue of smoking has been a major problem. This is due to the risks associated with smoking to the students as well as the workers. However, the issue of whether smoking should be outside or inside the campus has been controversial.
Discussion From my point of view, smoking should completely be barred from all public places where people are mixed up. This is because smoking has been found to affect both the smokers as well as those staying around them. Therefore, when smoking is carried out inside the campus, those people who are non-smokers will also be affected.
Some will even be forced to move away from the places like entertainment halls in case someone smokes around them. This denies them their right as individuals. In other words, people should smoke outside the campus to avoid interfering with other people’s lives.
Another reason why people must smoke outside the campus is to avoid peer influence into smoking activities. Peer influence is one of the main ways through which people are ‘recruited’ into smoking. Therefore, by allowing smokers to interact with non-smokers while smoking in campus, this may cause non smokers to adopt the vice.
Thus, people should smoke outside the campus to avoid such temptations. Also, smoking is closely associated with abuse of other drugs like cocaine. Most of the people who smoke are also victims of other drugs. Therefore, banning smoking within the campus will still be preventing the spread of other drugs’ abuse among the campus students.
In the same way, banning smoking within the campus will make smoking a burden to the smokers. This is because they will be forced to move outside the campus every time they want to smoke. In the long run, this may encourage the smokers to quit smoking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Smoking in the campus will expose every person residing in the compound to secondary smoke. That is, both students and workers who work around the campus.
Smoking has been associated with very many diseases. For instance, smoking has been a major cause of lung cancer. Smoking is also associated with other breathing and the general respiration system complications. Therefore, smoking within the campus increases the cases of illnesses.
Consequently, this increases health care service costs incurred by institutions in treating students and other workers within the campus. Most of the people suffering from the lung cancer are smokers. Therefore, smoking outside the campus protects non smokers from acquiring such illnesses.
Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that smoking in campus is very dangerous. Many problems can be avoided by banning smoking within the campus. For instance, it will be possible to protect non smokers from illnesses associated with smoking. It will also be possible to protect non smokers from the temptation of engaging themselves in the vice. Therefore, smoking should be abolished from within the campus by designating smoking zones outside the campus.
Capital Punishment: A Critical Evaluation of its Appropriateness in Modern Society Essay college admission essay help
The public reflection on the legality and morality of capital punishment has over the years been well documented by historians, philosophers and other theorists amid the complexities and controversies the debate continues to attract.
Although the practice is institutionalized and practiced in some countries, the raging debate about its appropriateness demonstrates a subtle balance of thought among critics and advocates that continues to be analyzed under the rubric of moral, legal, philosophical and political underpinnings (Homans 44).
It is therefore the purpose of this essay to critically examine recent arguments in support and against the practice of capital punishment with a view to elucidating facts about its appropriateness or inappropriateness in modern society.
It is indeed true that a growing number of countries across the world are abolishing capital punishment, which basically implies the lawful infliction of death as a form of punishment (Arguments para. 1).
However, supporters of the practice continue to echo their concerns in popular media using deep-seated rationalistic arguments and counterarguments that aim to widen the focus and the historical framework of capital punishment.
One school of thought argues that damages caused by some egregious behavior such as murder and rape cannot be sufficiently compensated, hence the need to formulate legislation that will provide optimum deterrence to the offender in the form of capital punishment (Baron 855).
Undeniably, the stakes in support of capital punishment are even higher if such egregious conduct is proved beyond reasonable doubt by a court of law, or if the perpetrator readily admits to taking part in the murder or rape of the victim.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such scenarios, the upholding of capital punishment is seen as a necessary antidote to such uncivilized and inhuman behavior (Steiker
History of Spanish-American War in the 19th Century Expository Essay college application essay help
The 19th century witnessed several conflicts among European powers. A lot of territorial expansion programs were conducted during this period by various European powers.
One of the conflicts that U.S engaged in was called the Spanish-American war. “The Spanish-American war was a conflict between the kingdom of Spain and the United States of America that took place from April to August 1898” (Nofi 23). America emerged the winner of this war and it marked the end of Spanish rule in the Pacific and Caribbean territories.
The Paris Treaty was used to ratify the conflict and after that, the Spanish colonies were taken over by the government of U.S.A. “These territories included Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the Guam, and it also controlled the process of independence of Cuba, which was completed in 1902” (Nofi 67). The Spanish-American War has been debated about in various political and academic circles and many people have tried to come up with a comprehensive conclusion on what really caused it.
The western hemisphere was under colonial rule for a period of four decades. In the last quarter of the century, most colonies of Spain had been emancipated and it now had very few territories. The Spanish occupation of Cuba and Philippines had been highly resented. Therefore, the people of Cuba resisted through military attacks.
Dealing with rebels was a challenging task for the Spanish. They tried to separate the rebels by establishing concentration camps. This caused a lot of suffering among the people of Cuba. “Hence, the U.S.A government found it necessary to avert the crisis by intervening through military attacks” (Nofi 98).
In 1898 during the month of February an American battle ship capsized due to an explosion, whose cause could not be established. It could probably have happened accidently. Back in U.S the media reports about the issue was not good and it led to tensions.
The issue of humanitarian crisis in Cuba dominated political debates in many parts of U.S. In Cuba the general opinion was in favor of war. Spain also felt that going to war was the only viable way out of the crisis, but they new that they could succeed in the war.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both America and Spain were keen to test the naval capacity of each other. Spain had much experience in naval wars, but U.S had newly built its navy and it was therefore ready to face Spain in war. The issue of going to war was not welcomed by investors in U.S who felt that they could lose business opportunities.
The Spanish-American war was not directly linked to the explosion of the Maine as some people would think was the case, but there were other serious underlying issues that spiraled out of control. America found it necessary to attack Spain mainly because it had refused to restore stability in Cuba.
Before the war, the situation in Cuba was seriously in a bad shape and many people found it difficult to cope with the situation. “The explosion of the Maine did not therefore cause the war, but it focused American attention on Cuba; the call was for an immediate resolution to the Cuban situation” (Nofi 89).
Having examined the situation keenly in March, Senator Redfield Proctor felt that the only way out of this situation was through fighting. After his comments, the people who earlier criticized the war now supported the move.
Cuba was declared free from colonialism by U.S congress in April, and they ordered Spain out of Cuba. They even advised the people of Cuba to rebel strongly against Spain. This move led to the end of the diplomatic ties between them.
The war was fought in different parts of Cuba and Philippines. The war had far reaching outcomes and many people lost their lives and a lot of property and infrastructure was damaged. The war was a turning point for U.S which now emerged as a world power.
After the war, America became more active in international politics. U.S also advanced economically, and it had a tremendous growth in population and infrastructure. The aftermath of this war also saw the collapse of the Spanish empire. “The defeat paradoxically postponed the civil war that had seemed imminent in 1898 and created a renaissance known as the generation of 1898” (Nofi 102).
We will write a custom Essay on History of Spanish-American War in the 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The colonies that had formerly been owned by Spain were brought under the control of America. Last but more importantly, the war brought together both the Northern and Southern States. It was for the first time since the civil war in America that they came together to fight against their enemies.
We can therefore conclude that the Spanish-American war generally had positive effects on the American side, but for Spain it was a great challenge that led to its decline. From the above discussion we cannot therefore simply attribute the cause of the war to the explosion of the Maine. I therefore conclude that the explosion of the Maine simply triggered the war but it was not the main cause of the war.
Works Cited Nofi, Albert. Spanish American war, 1898 (great campaigns). New York: Wiley, 1997.
Bill Clinton’s foreign policies Essay essay help online: essay help online
Bill Clinton was the forty second president of United States of America serving between the years 1993 to 2001. As the president of the United States of America, Bill Clinton promised the Americans that he would be “the most ethical administrator ever seen in the history of the nation” (Clinton 67).
Among his major concerns was the administration of foreign policy. However, he did not administer the foreign policy on his own; he had his “foreign policy advisors who were Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright the secretaries of state as well as Anthony Lake and Sandy Berger who were National Security Advisors” (Clinton 54).
Foreign policy can be defined as the way a nation interacts with other global countries through economic, political and social relations. Also referred to as international relations policy, foreign policy is of great importance in any nation state.
During his term, Bill Clinton did all he could to make sure that the United States of America had good relations with other nations through proper foreign policy administration. To begin with, Clinton increased the number of free trade agreements between America and other countries from three to seventeen.
This, he did to “boost the economy of the state as well as other developing and young democracies such as Jordan and Morocco” (Clinton 502). The Expansion of the US role to Somalia nation-building was another foreign policy under the leadership of President Clinton. He facilitated aid to Somalia during the political chaos by sending his troop to provide security as well as food.
In the year 1992, as part of his foreign policy, Clinton helped the refugees from Haiti who came to the United States to seek refuge. In the following year, 1993, President Clinton pushed for an aid package to Russia worth $1.6B. He did this in a bid to stabilize the economy of Russia despite its unpopularity.
In his fear for global crisis, Clinton pushed for a Mexican bailout whereby Mexico was forced to repay all the loans so that the other countries including the United States of America could not face economic collapse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also initiated peace throughout the globe by making peace deals with especially the war-faced nations. For example in the year 1993, he signed a peace deal for the Middle East countries with the then Israel prime minister, Yitzak Rabin and Yasir Arafat who was a Palestinian leader (Clinton 476).
Clinton was able to deal with the nuclear energy issue that has been of global concern for many years. During his policy administration, he made China, one of the Asian countries to sign the free trade agreement that included the clause of nuclear non-proliferation. Indeed, it was a success since China agreed with the terms thus making a positive change for itself and the world at large.
Being the president of the super power nation in the world Clinton was also obliged to make decisions concerning any wars and terrorists attacks as part of foreign policy administration.
In 1998 after the United States embassies bombings in two capital cities of Kenya and Tanzania which are East African countries by Osama bin Laden, Clinton ordered missile attacks to Afghanistan as way of retaliating for the bombings.
Just like any normal human being with success and failures, Clinton failed in some instances of his foreign policy administration. The greatest failure in his foreign policy administration was when he declined sending troops to Rwanda during the 1994 Rwanda genocide that led to death of about 800, 000 people through manslaughter. However, he later apologised his mistake in 1998 when he visited the country.
It can therefore be concluded that Bill Clinton was successful in his foreign policies which upgraded the country’s relations with the others of the world.
Works Cited Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2004.
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ACCIDENT ANALYSIS PAPER ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW Find an NTSB report of an aviation accident that resulted from or demonstrates a breakdown in critical thinking or the troubleshooting process college application essay help
(should be flight related)
You will write a 5–6-page (not including the title and reference pages) research-based paper that focuses on the application of critical thinking and troubleshooting principals discussed in the course to this accident.
The paper must be written in current APA format and include a title page and reference page with at least three references; at least one must be scholarly.
You will submit elements of the paper at different points throughout the course. Elements of the paper to be submitted include the Topic, AnnotatedBibliography, Outline, and the FinalPaper.
Accident Analysis Paper: Topic Proposal
Research the NTSB database and choose an accident for your final paper. Submit the topic for your final paper as a Word Document. Include the following in your submission: Title Page, identify the NTSB #, aircraft type, and provide an overview of what happened. Please follow APA7 guidelines. This will be a pass/fail submission.
Annotated Bibliography Assignment
The bibliography should have a minimum of three sources, including at least one scholarly source. Annotations are to correctly summarize the corresponding source and demonstrates the student’s critical thinking skills regarding interpretation and application of material. Formatting is to be in accordance with APA7 guidelines.
Accident Analysis Paper: Outline Assignment
The outline should concisely establish a well-developed framework for your final paper. Include all headings and sub-headings and ensure current APA format is used.
Accident Analysis Paper: Final Paper Assignment
Submit your finished paper.
Alcohol Problems and Abstinence Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Facts
The credibility of the Authors
Alcoholism has been a problem since the ancient times. People who abuse alcohol have always found themselves in problematic circumstances in regards to the negative impacts of alcohol (Fletcher, 2001). Whereas a majority of the alcoholics have the desire to quit, the compulsion to continue drinking overpowers them immensely. The solution to every problem lies in understanding the root of the concern.
Abstinence and moderate drinking are the available treatment options for alcoholism. Patricia Owen believes that abstinence should be the ultimate goal in alcoholism treatment.
On the contrary, Anne Fletcher supports moderate drinking in the treatment of alcoholism. This paper critically examines the contrasting position held by the two. In addition, the position supported by contemporary research is also outlined.
Facts According to Patricia Owen, all alcohol drinkers aim at achieving abstinence in the long term. People who opt for controlled drinking always train their systems to stay free of alcohol. Saying ‘No’ to alcohol is not only necessary (Owen, 2001). Rather, it is the most direct approach of ensuring that alcoholics address their problem.
In addition, Owen attests to the fact that moderation is not attainable by all people. People with serious alcohol dependence may find moderate drinking insignificant. Whereas a good percentage is comfortable with controlled drinking, the rest find the approach unsuccessful and impossible.
On the other hand, Anne Fletcher argues that alcoholism is a continuous process that requires professional care. Most alcoholics suffer from mild risks at the initial stages of their drinking experience. Subsequent drinking eventually leads to life threatening risks (Fletcher, 2001).
Abstinence is ignorant of this fact. Fletcher is categorical of the fact that moderate drinking is characterized by physiological stability, proper education and steady employment. People who possess these qualities greatly benefit from moderate drinking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opinions According to Owen, alcohol dependent people find it problematic to moderate their drinking. This is because of the intense compulsion offered by the brain.
A person finds him/herself in a condition where alcohol becomes a need rather than a liking. Such people find it extremely impossible to desist from drinking temptations. Efforts and programs that advocate for moderation are therefore futile (Owen, 2001).In addition, Owen believes that abstinence is achievable.
The ultimate desire of all alcoholics is usually to quit drinking. Abstinence offers the best treatment for such cases. On the other hand, Fletcher is of the opinion that moderation is best achieved when professional guidance and help are sought. The professionals establish mechanisms to monitor the progress of alcoholics.
The success of controlled drinking does not entirely depend on the decisions made by the professionals (Fletcher, 2001). Rather, the involvement of the alcoholics is vital. Alcoholics need to be aware of the situations to prevent cases of self denial. Consequently, several studies have shown that controlled drinking applied at the onset gave better results than abstinence approaches.
Owen’s Position Abstinence is a logical approach. It is always correct to assert that the avoidance of causes of misery is the surest way to be safe. Alcohol dependency and addiction are situations that are not experienced by non-drinkers.
Abstinence is usually the ultimate goal for all recovering alcoholics. Avoiding alcohol altogether strategically mitigates all the effects associated with it (Owen, 2001). The fact that abstinence is an ideal condition does not render it impossible.
It is possible to abstain. Through abstinence, emotional health, spousal relationships, job performance, legal and health status are improved. Moderate drinking may lead to “Loss of Control”. This condition results from the intense compulsion generated by the brain.
We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Problems and Abstinence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owen affirms that a person finds him/herself graduating from the condition of “liking” to that of “wanting”. Several factors are overlooked. Alcoholism is usually a process that requires professional care. Professionals are usually aware of the fact that people with severe neuronal sensitization may find it difficult to abstain.
Owen assumes that abstinence is the best treatment option for all. It is not correct to assert that all the prescriptive rights are vested on the professional. Abstinence may be the treatment goal prescribed by the professional. However, the alcoholic should have a say about his condition.
Fletcher’s Position Several cases are available to support that moderate drinking is possible. Abstinence should be driven by intrinsic forces and not external forces.
External forces should not be imposed against people recovering from alcoholism (Fletcher, 2001). Nolan changed from being an alcoholic to a non-problematic drinker. Abstinence and moderate drinking work together as posited by Nolan’s story. However, most alcoholics attest to the fact that abstinence is not easy as most people believe.
Moderate drinking is best achieved when one disregards emotions and the drinking environment. Drinking problems are continuously propagated as opposed to the view that they are instantaneous. Enco was of the view that most alcoholics feel more comfortable once introduced to moderate drinking programs (Fletcher, 2001).
Fletcher affirms that involving the alcoholic in the treatment process is important. The alcoholic makes an informed and experimental choice regarding moderation or abstinence. Heather, another alcoholic found out that abstinence was indeed the best option. Moderate drinking was the initial option but later on abstinence became the ultimate goal.
Studies indicate that moderation approach has been successful than abstinence on 3-year treatment programs. Setting drinking limits has worked for most alcoholics who moderate their drinking. Ed Shaw, Pat and Jack are good examples of alcoholics who have moderated their drinking (Fletcher, 2001). Moderation drinking is subjective and discriminatory. It has been found to work well in women and people under 40.
The credibility of the Authors Owen is inclined towards the views held by Alcohol Anonymous. The group insists that abstinence should be the aim of all professionals. Owen however assumes that alcoholism can be addressed instantaneously.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alcohol Problems and Abstinence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects associated with alcoholism are regarded to end at once in cases where abstinence is applied (Fletcher, 2001). Owen assumes that abstinence can be applied to all people under the influence of alcohol.
This assumption ignores the gradual effects that alcoholics suffer from starting from the initial and advanced stages of their alcoholism. The other weakness posited is the fact that the author fails to validate her position. Lack of possible life examples is questionable. Fletcher is conclusive in her study.
She gives practical life examples to support her position. Her literature review is detailed. She is considerate of all cases of alcoholisms. She appreciates the role played by both professionals and the alcoholics in the treatment process. Her study is conclusive of the fact that moderation drinking is superior to abstinence.
Personal View Alcoholism is a problem that can either be handled through moderate drinking or abstinence. The choice on which method to adopt solely depends on the condition of the alcoholic.
Abstinence is the ultimate goal in the treatment of alcoholism. However, it is not the only available option. It is ideal and difficult especially for heavy drinkers. It is therefore important to actively incorporate the views of the alcoholics in the treatment programs.
Professionals become aware of how to address specific alcoholism cases. Studies have indicated that indeed treatment programs that are interactive yield positive results. Fletcher uses various cases to validate her position. Heavy drinkers may find it difficult to abstain at once.
Moderate drinking programs may work for such people in the long term. The drinking limits set by the recovering alcoholics aid in the rehabilitation process. It is therefore correct to affirm that abstinence should not be the ultimate goal. Rather, moderate drinking should be advocated for.
Contemporary Research Total abstinence is usually the best way of treating alcoholism. However, a strong social network and family support are vitally important in the treatment program. Whereas some drinkers find it possible to abstain, the majority affirm that moderation is the best approach to take. In addition, complete alcohol abstinence remains a challenge (Campbell, 2011).
For this reason, it is prudent to advocate for moderate drinking to avert the serious problems associated with alcohol addiction. People should be actively involved in alcohol treatment programs.
Through such a forum, people are able to realize the harms posed by alcohol. Consequently, they can aim at living a sober life. Honesty by family members is usually important in situations where moderate drinking is prescribed. Stanton Peele and Herbert Fingarette have expressed their dissatisfaction with how the USA government compels alcoholics to abstinence (Campbell, 2011).
They are of the view that personal freedom should be sought in regards to alcoholism. A study involving 80 participants showed that indeed moderate drinking was the best mode of treatment.
Most participants attested to the fact that that their abstinence levels had increased from 16% to 20% through moderated drinking (Campbell, 2011). During the 12 month period, the blood alcohol content levels had reduced by 50%.Moderate drinking is therefore superior to abstinence (Campbell, 2011).
References Campbell, H. (2011). Moderate Drinking: Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial With Non-Dependent Problem Drinkers. Journal of Counseling and Psychology, 12 (5)
Fletcher, A. (2001). One Drink Does not a Drunk Make: How the Masters Determined whether they could ever drink again. Houghton Mifflin
Owen, P (2001). Should Abstinence be the Goal for Alcohol Treatment? American Journal of Addiction, 289-295.
Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Cannabis Dependence
Cannabis Induced Psychiatric Disorders
The purpose of this study will be to examine psychiatric disorders that have been induced by overdependence on Cannabis. Cannabis Sativa is a herb originating from the Cannabaceae family that is recognised worldwide as a euphoric and hallucinogenic drug.
The strong smelling herb is used for medicinal purposes, for making hemp fibres and for developing recreational drugs (hashish and marijuana). The different parts of Cannabis have been used for different purposes and functions with one of the most common uses being for recreational purposes.
Marijuana is basically derived from the dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis sativa plant which is usually ingested or smoked while hashish is a resinous extract obtained from the plant which is usually vaporized or smoked (Elsohy, 2007).
Cannabis is one of the most famous recreational drugs in the world after caffeine, alcohol and tobacco where over 100 million people especially in the United States are consumers of the drug on an annual basis.
The reason for this is attributed to the fact that Marijuana which is derived from the Cannabis herb allows the user to be in a state of relaxation thereby reducing any cases of anxiety, paranoia or stress.
The tetrahydrocannabinol compound found in the leaves of the herb usually acts as the main stimulant once it is consumed by the user enabling them to experience a sense of peace and relaxation (Bolla et al, 2002). The drug however presents tertiary and secondary psychoactive effects that might pose a threat to the individual taking the drugs some of which include an increased heart rate, hallucinations, loss of memory, increased anxiety levels, high energy levels and an increasing sense of hunger.
If larger doses of the drug are taken through smoking, vaporization or oral ingestion, the effects might last longer for 24 hours where the consumer experiences both the secondary and tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009). Marijuana is a very addictive drug which means that once it is consumed, it is very difficult to stop smoking or ingesting the drug because of the various effects that are presented by Cannabis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cannabis Dependence Cannabis dependence is defined as a condition where an individual who continues to take Cannabis or Marijuana demonstrates cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms.
Based on the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosing substance dependence on various drugs such as the one understudy (Michael et al, 2004), cannabis dependence is determined by the existence of three or the following criteria which might occur within a period of 12 months.
Tolerance which is the first DSM-IV criteria explains Cannabis dependence to be the need that an individual has to consume large amounts of Cannabis Sativa so that they can achieve an increased level of intoxication that will lead to diminished thoughts, emotions or feelings on the part of the user (Michael et al, 2004).
The second criteria based on the DSM-IV criterion for substance abuse is withdrawal which explains Cannabis dependence to be a manifestation of withdrawal symptoms such as increased restlessness, insomnia or poor sleeping habits, increased appetite as the drug brings about hunger, irritability, paranoia and anger.
Other DSM-IV criteria that are used to explain dependence of marijuana is when an individual takes the substance in large amounts for a long period of time than was intended to relieve anxiety or stress, the individual experiences a persistent desire to reduce substance abuse but unsuccessfully fails to do so and/or they spend most of their time and resources trying to acquire the substance or drug which means that their social life and other recreational activities are abandoned because of the continued use of the drug (Wenger et al, 2003).
Based on the various studies that have been conducted on the dependence of cannabis, the drug has presented a less addictive potential when compared to hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, tobacco or alcohol (Coffey et al, 2003). According to Michael et al (2004), Cannabis dependence has been cited as one of the clinical entities of substance abuse and dependence in the DSM-IV of mental disorders criteria.
The coding criterion that is used by the DSM-IV is usually based on the international classification of diseases where the signs and symptoms of diseases are identified and described in the various versions of DSM-IV textbooks. Based on the DSM-IV criteria, cannabis dependence falls under the category of substance related disorders as the individuals who consume the drug experience the various side effects that lead to cannabis dependence (Michael et al, 2004).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To further explain cannabis dependence, the extended use of marijuana or hashish is likely to produce various changes in the bodily processes of an individual which affect how cannabis is absorbed or metabolized by the individual. These changes which are referred to as pharmacokinetic changes usually force the user to increase their dosage of the drug so that they can be able to achieve a desirable effect which is known as a higher tolerance to marijuana or Cannabis Sativa (Joy et al, 1999).
Higher doses of cannabis further reinforce the metabolism rate of the individual thereby increasing the rate at which the drug is broken down and expelled from the body. This means that Cannabis sativa, marijuana and hashish act as a system of reinforcement to the metabolic functions of an individual’s digestive system as well as their small and large intestines (Wenger et al, 2003).
According to Hall et al (2001), the risk factors of Cannabis dependence are usually determined by the number of doses an individual user takes in a day as well as the frequency of these doses. Based on their research, the authors determined that one in every ten people who consumed cannabis were more than likely to become dependent on the drug at some point in their life. People who consumed the drug frequently (five times in a day) were more than likely to increase their risk of developing dependence on the drug.
The risk factors that are considered to be the major contributors to cannabis dependence based on longitudinal studies conducted by Copeland et al (2004) include the frequent use of the drug especially at a young age where drug users who begin taking the drug during their teenage or adolescent years are at a greater risk of being cannabis dependent.
Coffey et al (2000) conducted a study in Victoria, Australia where they examined 2032 high school students to determine the impact that young age had on cannabis dependence.
The results of their study revealed that mid-school consumption of cannabis sativa was mostly associated with other factors such as frequent cigarette smoking, peer pressure from other students who are ingesting or smoking cannabis sativa and anti-social behaviour such as stealing, sexual promiscuity and violent tendencies.
Coffey et al’s (2000) study also revealed that the regular use of marijuana or Cannabis Sativa among young people at an early age continued to persist even as the adolescents approached young adulthood.
A follow up study conducted by Coffey et al (2003) of the high school students who had attained the ages of 20 to 21 years revealed that one in five the adolescent users of the drug demonstrated dependence to cannabis well into the early stages of adulthood.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other risk factors that have been related to an increased risk of cannabis dependence include psychological distress where individuals use the drug to relieve feelings of distress, anger or sadness, poor parenting where children raised by parents who are cannabis consumers are more than likely to develop cannabis dependence in their teenage and adult years and influence from peers where children with friends who smoke or ingest cannabis are more than likely to consume the drug and also become cannabis dependent at an older age.
Ehrenreich et al (1999) from their study of cannabis dependence from a young age have concluded that there exists strong evidence that children who are exposed to cannabis or marijuana at a young age are more than likely to become cannabis dependent when they are older.
Psychiatric Disorders A psychiatric disorder which is otherwise referred to as a mental illness/disorder is a psychological or behavioural pattern that is usually associated to emotional distress or mental disabilities which an individual goes through. Psychiatric disorders are not part of the normal development of an individual and they are therefore termed as abnormal manifestations of the mental health of the individual.
Psychiatric disorders encompass very many mental health conditions which affect the behavioural, intellectual and cognitive abilities of an individual and some of these mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, personality disorders, sexual disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders and drug dependence disorders (Akiskal
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) Research Paper best essay help
Controversy surrounds the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD as an illness. Some critics maintain that the condition is a work of fiction by the psychiatric and pharmacists who have taken advantage of distraught families’ attempts to comprehend the behaviour of their children to dramatise the condition.
Others claim that ADHD is a viable condition only not very well known in the scientific world. In an ADHD documentary, Drugging our Children in 2005, drugs have been discredited as being inadequate and immoral in addressing the disorder.
Controversy and medication not withstanding, families still find it hard to cope with children suffering from ADHD. As a result, there is need to identify means through which ADHD can be managed without being overly dependant on medication. (Blackman 1011-1025).
This paper seeks to discuss ADHD disorder, its probable causes and the advantages and disadvantages of using medication to contain the condition. It most importantly seeks to emphasis helpful application of other alternatives to medication in addressing the controversial yet increasingly common phenomena.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is psychiatric complication affecting normal growth and development. This condition is common in children though it can persist through other stages of development like adolescence and adulthood.
The condition is based on a combined sequence of behaviour but is basically marked by attention difficulties and or pathologically intense levels of activity (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). ADHD is divided into three special types;
overbearingly hyperactive and impulsive
majorly inattentive and
A blend of hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention.
Overly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD children may also exhibit lack of attention while the inattentive ADHD ones may also show symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Both signs are however minimal compared to the dominant ones. Combined ADHD is the most common among children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is quite hard to define the symptoms of ADHD since it is difficult to clearly delineate between normal and clinical levels of hyperactivity, lack of attention and impulsiveness. However, the most common manifestations of ADHD are not being able to direct and maintain one’s mind on something for long, distractive tendencies, and or being overly active and acting unpredictably.
These symptoms recur constantly making it difficult for the individual to function normally across all spheres of life. This is because people with ADHD are mostly restless, easily distracted, cannot organise themselves, act and talk before considering the repercussions and are very impatient, have poor memory and cannot maintain permanent relationships.
Potential causes if ADHD Various theories have been propounded to shed some light into the probable causes of ADHD. Among the common theories are the evolution theories, environmental theory, neuro diversity theory, social construct theory, low arousal theory, social theory and diet.
However, according to Bailly Lionel a lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the exact causes of the condition are not yet established. Meanwhile, scientific studies indicate that the condition is brought about by a blend of various factors.
ADHD is believed to be a hereditary disorder that can be carried on amid members of a family. Though it is yet to be known just what genes lead to the condition, research is still on to determine the exact genes or the mixture of genes that could make an individual prone to the disorder with the hope of developing a cure or curbing the disorder way before its symptoms manifest themselves.
ADHD is also thought to originate from the different substantial properties of the brain parts. Studies show that the condition is eminently inherited though the genetic factor is dismal. ADHD is an unfathomable synergy of genes and other external and internal factors (Acosta, Arcos-Burgos and Muenke 1-15).
Environmental factors are also likely to contribute to the condition. Cigarette smoke and alcohol abuse by expectant mothers affect the unborn making them prone to developing ADHD. This is because nicotine could cause oxygen deficiency to the foetus hence affecting the brain.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children born prematurely are also likely to suffer from ADHD while infections in the course of pregnancy, at the time of birth and viral and bacterial childhood infections like measles could also cause the condition. Similarly, exposing young children to lead and some pesticides puts them at risk of developing the condition (van Cleave and Leslie 28-37).
To a small extent, ADHD is also associated with trauma suffered from brain injuries. Children with ADHD constantly sustain head injuries. However, this does not imply that that they developed the condition as a result.
The presumption that refined sugar is a likely cause of ADHD or worsens manifestations of the condition is widespread. However, research dismisses the notion as myth since studies indicate that there is no notable behavioural difference between children who took sugars or substitutes or even more than the required amounts of sugar.
Diet has also been identified as one of the probable causes of ADHD. According to a study by McCann, Barrett and Cooper, there is a connection between children’s consumption of various popular food additives (food colours and preservatives), with hyperactivity.
Sodium benzoate is a common preservative found in salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams and fruit juices which has been pointed out among others to prompt symptoms of ADHD. However, more research is still on to fully establish just how they are related (McCann, Barrett and Cooper 1560-7).
In addition, the World Health Organisation advances that the manifestation of ADHD is a consequence of the malfunctioning of the society and not an individual problem.
It attributes the condition to failures in the family institution and flaws in the education system. Others conceive that thrusting children to care givers and the subsequent correlation impact a lot on the abilities of the child to pay attention or take care of themselves. At the same time, children in foster care are more likely to develop symptoms closely associated with ADHD.
Furthermore, (Cuffe, McCullough, Elizabeth and Pumariega 327-3) advance that children who are victims of violence and psychological trauma are prone to developing ADHD. Psychological illnesses like Complex post Traumatic Stress Disorder can end up causing attention problems that resemble ADHD.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to a recent CNN article, children adopted across nations are more likely to develop psychological illnesses like ADHD/ADD. This has o some extent been attributed to the long duration it takes to be adopted during which time they could be violated or disregarded.
ADHD Treatment/ management ADHD is a condition that needs to be treated and monitored. This is because if neglected, it can result in serious complications for an individual such as poor grades at school or ineffectiveness at the workplace, problems in forming and maintaining lasting relationships and low self evaluation.
There is no known cure of ADHD. Treatments only serve to alleviate the symptoms and make life better for the individuals suffering from the condition. This way, ADHD victims can lead a relatively normal life. However, research is still underway to discover more fruitful treatments for the disorder.
Stimulants are the most widespread medications for ADHD. Stimulants provide calm to children with the condition. They can either be pills, capsules, syrups or skin patches. The most conventional stimulant medications are Ritalin, Concerta, Dexerdrine, Metadate, Adderal and Focalin.
It should however be noted that these medications are not applicable to all individuals hence a matter of careful prescription when it comes to individual choice. This is because what goes well with one person may not fair well with another (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 284-287).
There are also other preferable medications other than stimulants such as atomoxetine, tricyclic anti-depressants, and bupropion and also generally prescribed medications for children from 3 to 6 years of age. However, not all the medications are sanctioned to be used in grown ups.
Pros and cons of medication
Medications serve to alleviate cases of hypersensitivity and impulsiveness in children. They also help children to focus more and be able to do constructive work and learn properly. Drugs also do help make physical interaction of the individuals better.
However, it has been reported that these drugs cause acute side effect like lack of appetite, sleep disorders, anxiety, irritability, stomach problems or headaches. Majority of these side effects are not severe and usually go away with time or when the dosage administered is lowered or by changing medications.
Sometimes the use of stimulants may result to drug abuse and over-dependence on the drugs as some of the drugs make individuals feel “different”. According to the National Institute for Drug Abuse Community Epidemiology Work Group, methylphenidate is reported to be abused among teenagers in the USA and the UK. They administer the drugs orally while some inhale the crushed drugs or mix with heroin and cocaine to have a more powerful effect.
Similarly, using stimulants on individuals suffering from other complications like heart conditions may prove catastrophic as they make cause strokes, heart attacks or even sudden death. Medications may also cause other psychosocial problems like hallucinations, delusions, moodiness, and being overly suspicious. The use of some non stimulants like strattera atomoxetine in teenagers and children prompts suicidal tendencies and they therefore need to be observed strictly.
Even when some medications are safe and have minimum or no side effects, they still do not cure ADHD. The symptoms of the conditions are only controlled and depending on if the medications are adhered to, monitored and regulated. It is also not guaranteed that medications help boost children’s learning abilities and academic performance.
Alternatives to medication
According to Van Cleave and Leslie, effective treatment and management of ADHD involves a combined process of medication and complementary treatment. This is because medicines alone cannot guarantee efficacy. In some countries like the UK and the US, use of medication is only advised in cases of intense manifestation of ADHD.
Similarly, children under three years are not sanctioned to use medications owing to the un-ascertained lasting effects of the drugs. Moreover, owing to the controversies on whether ADHD is an illness or a scam by psychiatrists and pharmaceuticals, there has been need to identify other ways through which the condition can be contained.
It involves a variety of psychological and social curative processes that focus on helping ADHD children alter their behaviour. It includes behavioural therapy, psycho educational assistance, interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, group therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, training in social skills, school based interventions among others.
It ranges from literary helping the child organise tasks, finish homework to assisting the children go through events that are emotionally draining (Van Cleave and Leslie 28-37).
Behavioural therapy imparts children with skills that can help them supervise and regulate their actions. It also aims at teaching children to learn to evaluate themselves positively for behaving in an admirable way. It involves having clear and precise set of rules, activities and a variety of systematised customary procedure that exercise restraint to a child’s behaviour and a feedback mechanism.
Through therapy, children learn social skills like waiting their chance in play, sharing, requesting for assistance, or how to react towards others. They also become able to interpret facial and tonal variations and what is required in response.
Guidance and counselling
Children with this condition require a lot of love, kindness, guidance and most of all, understanding from the people around them. This involves teachers, parents, siblings, neighbours, caretakers, friends and anyone who comes in contact with them.
This enables them be the best they can ever be. The children should not be blamed or made to feel guilty of their condition. Instead, they require special assistance to deal with the condition effectively.
Exchanging opinions and making consultations gives individuals with ADHD a forum to express their feelings and come up with effective ways of coping with ADHD such as low self esteem, lack of friends, inability to form and maintain relationships and other frustrations.
Social Skills Training
Through this approach, individuals suffering from ADHD learn more acceptable ways and skills of interacting with others that were previously unknown to them. This way, they ameliorate their fundamental ways of associating with others. Parents are trained on skills and attitudes that can help change the behaviour of the children in a loving and understanding manner.
This involves rewarding good behaviour and ignoring or redirecting unpleasant behaviour; in essence, focusing more on the child’s abilities and strengths rather than their weaknesses and disabilities. If for instance a child becomes uncontrollable, the child is driven away from the scene that upsets them and is given time alone to cool off. This way, even those around them get to learn how to manage their emotions.
It is about finding strength through association with people affected by ADHD. This not only refers to ADHD individuals but also parents and the loved ones. Through sharing with people facing the same situation, people learn from others and get encouraged to move on.
Alternative sleeping patterns
Children with ADHD have sleeping problems yet sleep is a natural requirement for normal growth and a remedy for many ailments. Sleep is achieved through developing a consistent sleeping schedule regardless of the day so that a child gets used to sleeping and getting up at a given time.
This also includes regular timing for meals, resting and going to bed and minimising or doing away entirely with any form of disturbing noises that would distract the child.
There are other approaches that compliment treatment like changing diets to involve food that are less in saturated sugar, artificial additives, caffeine, chocolate, tea and some energy beverages. This reduces chances of stimulating conditions related to the disorder (McCann, Barrett and Cooper. 1560 -7).
Conclusion ADHD diagnosis is still largely dependant on the explication of the psychiatrist or clinician and in most cases a third party. Its probably caused by an amalgamation of internal and external factors. While the real diagnosis remains a bone of contention, ADHD remains an increasingly common childhood disorder for which research indicates a combination of medications and alternative can prove effective in controlling it.
There are risks in over-dependence and misuse of medication and medication on its own cannot effectively alleviate the problem. There is need therefore to focus on other ways of making those affected with the conditions cope easily and be able to lead a normal life.
After all has been done failure in these combined approaches in alleviating the problem means going back to the beginning and reviewing the diagnosis. Either there would be an error in the diagnosis or there may be other factors present at the time that also lead to lack of positive response. That will mean a total evaluation of all those factors.
Works Cited Acosta, Maria T., Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio and Muenke, Maximillian. “Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Complex phenotype, simple genotype?” Genetics in Medicine 6.1(2004): 1–15. Print.
Bailly, Lionel. “Stimulant Medication for the Treatment of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence-b(i)ased Practice?”. Psychiatric Bulletin (The Royal College of Psychiatrists) 29.8(2005): 284–287. Print.
Blackman, John. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers. Does it exist and should we treat it?” Paediatric Clinics of North America, 46 (1999): 1011 -1025. Print.
Cuffe, S.P., McCullough, Elizabeth L. and Pumariega, Andres J. “Comorbidity of attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder”. Child and Family Studies 3.3 (1994): 327–336. Print.
DSM-IV-TR workgroup. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2007. Print.
McCann John D., Barrett Agnew and Cooper Anderson. “Food additives and Hyperactive Behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old Children in the Community: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Trial”. Lancet 370.9598(2007): 1560–7. Print.
Van Cleave Jeanne, Leslie LK.”Approaching ADHD as a chronic condition: implications for Long-term Adherence”. Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 46.8(2008): 28–37. Print.
Comparative of a Widow for One Year and the Cider House Rules Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
John Irving, the author of the novels the Cider House Rule and A Widow for One Year focuses on the theme of motherhood through the description of the main characters. Children who experience parental negligence especially from their mothers are unable to make solid decisions in their lives.
Mother is the backbone of every family; consequently, children who grow up without mothers end up having tough times in adulthood, as it is the case in the two novels. Irving focuses on failed motherhood either before or after the birth of the children.
In the Cider House Rule, Homer Wells undergoes awful ordeals during his childhood which forces him into an Orphanage called St. Paul. Surprisingly, Homer comes to the orphanage when he is still an infant. He does not know his mother’s whereabouts; he simply tries effortlessly to live with four foster families. While under foster care, Homer has never known how it feels to be happy.
Similarly, Ruth Cole does not have a happy childhood after the death of her two siblings; her mother neglects her parental duties. In addition, her parents have frequent fights, which lead to divorce. In the two cases, there is evident failed motherhood and the two kids; Homer and Ruth, experience this unfortunate failure.
Dr. Larch parents only tolerated to remain in marriage for the marriage was void of love. His mother does not care about her son’s wellbeing; she is rarely at home, because her job is perhaps more important; her family more so her son comes second or third in her priorities. Interestingly, when her husband brings the young Larch a prostitute as a present for passing exams well, she does not object.
Ruth experiences the same neglect just like Larch; her mother does not love her and its not surprising when she eventually leaves Ruth under the care of her father. Regrettably, the issue of failed motherhood paints the picture of current parents who leave their children under the care of either teachers or house helps to pursue their dreams.
After growing to become a doctor, Dr. Larch bases his career on abortion; he simply lacks no respect for human life courtesy of poor parentage.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Talking of abortion, the author highlights the failure of some mothers, who respect not their unborn children; abortion to them I a common thing. Additionally, in Larch’s neighborhood, most mothers are the oldest professionals in the world; prostitutes. Besides prostitution being ‘unethical’ though controversial, the fruits are repugnant.
These ‘professionals’ conceive children they cannot raise and thus abortion becomes the last resort; unfortunately, some mothers die in the process of abortion; what a piteous way of living. On the other hand, Ruth witnesses the painful death of a prostitute in one of the red districts; statistics and conventional knowledge attribute prostitutes to failed motherhood.
The comparative element in the novels is the theme of motherhood. In both books, the role of mother is in the society goes unfulfilled. Consequently, the main characters like Ruth, Larch and Homes are unable to make standing decisions in their lives due to poor motherhood.
Children need mother’s guidance as they grow for life issues might be confounding even to the wise and children needs guidance to know what decisions to make under what situations. Irving goes further to highlight the detrimental effects children incur when parents neglect their duties and the product of the same.
In conclusion, conflicts from either marriage or poor relationship cause loss of life and heart breakage of the children. The two books comparatively highlight parenthood, especially motherhood and its significance in the society. Finally, Irving is able to enlighten the society about the expectations of a mother.
Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry Report custom essay help
America has being a super power for a long time after the fall of the Roman Empire. The country has not only been powerful economically, but also politically. However, a critical analysis of the issues that the country is facing especially in the current century indicates that its power is declining. In the book ‘Lament for America’ by Fry, the author clearly illustrates that the super power is on the decline.
The situation has been caused by various factors such as the effects of globalization, problems and challenges within the borders of United States as well as the stiff competition arising from other countries and nations within the European region. The signs of decline have already been evident in the first decade of the twenty first century.
As much as anyone may want to be optimistic, there is no doubt that the issue of America as a super power will be history. With that background in mind, this paper strongly illustrates that it is true that America is on the decline as illustrated in the book ‘Lament for America’ by Earl H. Fry.
As much as the challenges facing United States are from without, studies indicate that there are a lot of domestic problems which are affecting not only its capability to influence other nations but also the country’s ability to support its population and provide a better and comfortable life to the present and the future generation.
The economic situation in United States is troubling bearing in mind that the country has always been recognized as a super power in the past. For instance, United States is leading in terms of the government debt. The United States’ public and private sector borrow seventy percent of the world’s savings.
Although the private sector is growing tremendously, the huge government debt becomes a real obstacle to any type of development. Analysts project that the problem may become worse because during the last three decades, the government debt increased by twelve times.
Although United States was the largest creditor after the First World War until 1980s, it is the largest debtor country currently. The citizens, corporations and well as the government have been living far beyond their means and that is why the external debt is on the increase.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popularity and the importance of the United States dollar is a major contributory factor to the United States popularity. Dollar has been a major currency in the world for long time although Euro and Yean as well as the Swiss franc are replacing it. It is clear that currently, the United States dollar is the chief international currency since it accounts for about sixty percent of the central bank reserves.
However, analysts project that in the next decade, the reserves will fall to less than fifty percent. Most the United State’s competitors like Brazil, China and Russia are in the forefront pushing for diversity in the monitory system. Due to such issues and increased government debt, it is clear that it is difficult for United States to remain as a super power.
It is the duty of each nation to provide health care to all citizens irrespective of their economic status. As studies of Fry indicate, it is true that United States health care is almost the most costly system in the world and worse still, it lacks equity. Further studies explain that compared to other western countries in the world, United States spends twice as much on health care only.
On the same note, it is important to point out that though America spends twice as much, many people in the country lack any medical cover, while those that are already covered lack full cover. Due to lack of medical cover, many Americans die every year after succumbing to various sicknesses.
While most of the countries western regions spend around twelve percent of their Gross Domestic Product on health care, United States spends around seventeen percent. Families in United State spend more on healthcare more than on any other need. Health care costs have been increasing consistently and as a result, it is expected that the trend will continue in the future decades.
Most of the private companies that are operating in United States have been evading provision of medical cover to their workers. In addition, some of the companies have been shifting their operations to other places where the health care is more affordable like Canada. In that case, it is clear that the situation in America will continue to become worse.
It is easier to argue that the situation can improve but as the studies of Fry illustrate, viable solutions would only have been applicable about two decades ago. Therefore, while focusing on the health care only, it is clear that United States is declining daily and the situation is becoming worse. Moreover, the viable solutions may not be of much help currently, or they may take quite some time before they are implemented.
We will write a custom Report on Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As highlighted in the introductory part and contrary to the views of the majority, America is poorly prepared to support its population especially them that are expected to retire in the current decade as well as in the subsequent decades. Studies indicate that a quarter of the population in the United States was born from the year 1946-1964.
The same studies illustrate that the same population is expected to retire in the current and in the following decades. The situation clearly illustrates that the obligations of the programs that are meant to take care of the retirees like the Medicare and Social Security will increase.
Although the increased spending of the benefit programs like food stamp and health care are worsened by the economic recession and may reduce once the economic improves, spending by Medicare and Medicaid may not be affected positively. The problem is worsened by the high life expectancy, which ranges from 80 years for women and 75.4 for men.
Initially, life expectancy was much lower but due to various reasons, it is on the increase. As a developed nation, America ought to be prepared to take care of the aging population. On the contrary, no program has been put in place cater for the same. Such a situation will continuously deplete the savings, a situation that will contribute to the decline of the country as a super power.
Globalization has many benefits in many countries as it has in United States. However, disadvantages of the same are present in most countries of the world. To begin with, globalization leads to interdependence not only among states and countries but also among business corporations as well as among different societies. Due to that, domestic affairs are seriously affected by decisions that are made in foreign countries.
For instance, United States depends so much on the petroleum products from other countries and the same has a great effect on its industries. In addition, globalization calls for increased international interaction between various countries. Such activities and engagements are serious disadvantages to a super power like United States.
For instance, studies of Fry  indicate that the government debt of United States was doubled during the time of the George Bush administration. In the view of the fact that United States was actively involved in solving some of the international problems, the money spent on defense increased greatly.
Consequently, foreign countries like Japan and China hold more than half of the public debt after buying various instruments of debt like bonds and shares. Such situation is very dangerous to a super power like United States because the economic status is highly dependent on countries that buy the country’s government debt.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The upcoming competitors like China and Japan are challenging the economic and the military power of United States. The economy of China is growing very fast and if the trend can continue for two decades, it can surpass the economy of United States. European Union, which has twenty-seven states, is also becoming stronger, politically and economically.
In addition, there is a high possibility that Euro can replace the dollar. Countries like Japan and Brazil are also becoming stronger economically as well as countries from the South East Asia. If such countries can continue with such trend, they will get a voice in making of the international decisions and will eventually challenge the international standing of United States.
The study has indicated that it is true that United States has been a super power for many years. However, as Fry  illustrates, there is a high possibility that the future generation will know a poorer nation and not an economic giant. This is because its economic and political power is on the decline.
As much as anyone may want to disagree with the book ‘Lament for America’, reading through the text indicates that valid reasons are used to project the decline of the United States.
A critical analysis of issues pertaining to globalization, competitors as well as domestic problems of United States indicates that the current trend is not promising at all. In the view of the fact that implementing changes is not only a long process but also a lengthy process, it is clear that the decline is inevitable.
Works Cited Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Footnotes Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009 pp. 181. Print.
Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.26. Print.
Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp. 33. Print
Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.28. Print
Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009 pp.. Print.
Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.2. Print
Proposal For A Small Business Opportunity Essay scholarship essay help
The business plan provides a basis for starting a sustainable business in healthcare service provision industry to both male and female customers typically aimed at the low and middle level income bracket.
The business owner is a dedicated entrepreneur, who has identified a business opportunity in body fitness service provisions and has strategized to exploit the opportunity by offering the services at competitively low costs tailored to meet customer needs and satisfaction.
The core competencies that characterize the entrepreneur is experience and thorough training in providing services in the fitness industry for several years and the self motivating drive to offer the fitness services in healthcare services. The business will be branded as Fitness For All (FFA) (Cooper, 1993).
A number of research findings led to an informed decision to start the business. Key findings indicate that an exponential demand for healthcare services is on the rise. FFA is a precise timing. Typically, other findings indicate that within the proposed Witherands locality, there is only one business that offers fitness services without competitors. Their services are expensive and rarely are the lower and middle income cadres enjoy these services reinforcing the reality of an already available opportunity to exploit (Liao
Regarding the Research Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The research proposal focused on the importance of applying technology in workplaces to enhance worker’s productivity. The proposal suggested that the use of internet by the employees have both negative and positive effects.
Regarding the positive effects, the proposal suggested that the use of internet for leisure activities such as chatting, blogging and doing personal activities motivates and improves the performance of the employees hence productivity in the workplace.
Such an argument is difficult to understand because employees waste their time in leisure activities while the company is expecting high productivity. Since time is a valuable resource that when wasted is forever gone, it is apparent that time wasted by employees in leisure activities translates directly into loss to the company.
It is difficult to understand how employees can spend some hours in leisure and at the same time increase productivity in their workplaces. Conventionally, employees should dedicate their efforts to working for the company throughout the stipulated time and then have leisure at their own time.
Another difficult concept to understand is how the use of technology would enable human resource management to change the mode of management from subjective to objective management that promotes and motivates workers.
Subjective management involves constant monitoring of workers’ activities throughout their working time, and technology has made it possible for human resource managers to track the progress of all employees during work.
With the use of technology such as internet, human resources managers can have real time access to progress of duties and can assess the performance of the employees even from the comfort of their homes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ultimately, the application of technology in work places is more subjective as compared to instances where technology is not applicable because human resources management cannot easily track and assess the performance of employees.
In the proposal, it is easy to understand why and how application of technology in various aspects of work in companies increases employees’ performance and productivity.
Many companies are struggling to keep abreast with the advancement in technology because application of technology significantly reduces the cost of labor and production, thus giving their products and services competitive advantage in the market.
The objective of companies is to automate all process that lead to the production of goods and services to avoid unnecessary costs due to manual processes of labor.
Therefore, the use of technology does not only enhance performance and productivity of employees, but also leads to the reduction of labor cost. Therefore, availability of technology and technological experts in workplaces determine the company’s capacity to compete effectively in the world of business.
Finally, it is easy to understand that internet and web-based technologies are great tools that human resources management can employ in attracting prospective employees and retaining current employees.
For the human resources management to access large and diverse pool of employees from various places and backgrounds, internet advertisement and application process prove to be very effective in this era of technological revolution.
We will write a custom Essay on Regarding the Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internet adverts reach millions of prospective employees and this increases the chance of human resource management to recruit potential candidates that suit the needs of the company.
Moreover, since human resource management have great task of maintaining current employees, internet is the most convenient means of communication that is essential in monitoring and training of employees. Therefore, internet provides interactive relationship that is critical in motivating employees in the workplaces.
Ethics and Morals Analytical Essay essay help online
Terms Ethical Relativism
In ethical relativism, it is believed that there are no moral absolutes, and rights or wrongs. Rights or wrongs are supported by dependant social norms. Ethical relativism permits a wide range of cultures and practices. This permits people to adjust ethically as per the culture, awareness, and changes in the society.
In this case, the rights or wrongs are all relative, and a group of people might think that something is right; this should not be assumed that it is right. Ethical relativism does not allow complete lay down of ethics. Rights or wrongs are not complete, and must be determined by a grouping of emotions, experience, social like and logic.
Altruism means the selfless concern about the welfare of other people. This is a virtue which is traditional, and a foundation of many religious traditions. Altruism centers its interest on helping others, and doing well without reward. In this virtue, duty focuses on a moral commitment towards a specific individual, for example, a king or a government.
Rosen argues that altruism is giving without expecting anything in return, or expecting recognition that might come along with the giving (28). Altruism is also known as an ethical doctrine which claims that individuals are morally made to help others.
Positive rights permit or make actions; this may be a legal or moral character. Positive rights include police protection and society rights, for example: education, security, and access to health care facilities. Positive rights are associated with second and third making.
Other people must provide positive rights in order for them to be satisfactorily – they require action from others. For example, in health care, a doctor must be hired to fulfill a right for health, but he is paid for it, and others must pay the bills.
Negative rights means rights to not have bad things done to an individual or individuals. For example, right to freedom of speech or autonomy. They enforce duties on other individuals to leave an individual alone to do things that concern that person, and do as he wishes, such as decision making. Negative rights include freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom to private property, and freedom from crime and slavery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is the thought that moral value of an action is decided by its importance in increasing utility, which is preference of satisfaction, and reducing negative utility. The moral importance of an action is determined by its results. Utilitarianism begins by looking at the potential rules of action.
For a rule to be followed, an individual looks at what would happen first if the rule was followed. If that rule is observed, and gives more happiness, than otherwise, it is a rule that is considered to be followed at all times.
Psychological egoism is the view that people are at all times motivated by self interest. This means that when people decide to help others, they do so because of the benefits that they expect to get, either directly or indirectly, hence actions are encouraged by self interest. People have ulterior desires when they help others which may be ultimate desires that one has for something as an end, or extrinsic desires which entails pain avoidance and enjoyment desires.
An Issue of Long Standing A nation is better with many altruistic individuals because it looks into the welfare of others, while the egoistic individual puts weight on people doing what concerns them individually rather than what concerns others. Egoistic individuality is seen as selfish, while altruistic is the opposite. An egoistic individual acts or does something for his own interest, while an altruist focuses on helping others without getting or expecting anything in return, they are morally obliged to benefit others.
Moral Stances Altruism moral stance is better because individuals look into the welfare of others without any selfish gain. Superstone argues that the advantages of altruism is that it helps people in situations which are out of their control, it can give people choices, and is beneficial for human species survival because they depend on each other (130).
The disadvantages include the following: there is no personal responsibility; lowers the recipient because he/she has to depend on others; and can spread weakness throughout time.
On the contrary, psychological egoism should not be considered because people act on the motive of self interest, and they try to conceal their motive of helping others. Ethics egoism falls under psychological egoism, and it claims that people should seek their self interest first even if all persons might not do so.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics and Morals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One disadvantage of this theory is that a person obtains knowledge of how to help others when he/she helps herself first, hence this is a selfish moral as compared to the others.
In this regard, morals are rules or habits of conduct. They are the thought of what is good or bad and how one should behave. They may be formed within the societies, and become traditions for a period of time. Moral rules may be different depending on the country or cultures. They are subjective occurrences since most of their rules do not follow advice or objective necessities.
These rules are all about how to dress, where and how much one can cover his/her body, how to carry on speeches, what is appropriate to do and what is not, and so when judging peoples’ morals, its better to know where they come from because different societies have different moral beliefs which are deeply influenced by cultures.
Works Cited Rosen, Frederick. Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.
Superstone, Anita. The Moral Skeptic. New York: Oxford University Press, 20092003. Print.
Arizona Immigration Law Reform Cause and Effect Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
For a long time, Arizona has been one of the states facing law enactment crisis. Particularly, the Arizona’s state law has been faced with internal instability and fluctuations in controlling various illegal activities, especially the eminent illegal migration of Mexicans into the state.
As revealed by American Immigration Council (1), various Acts have been developed in the Law system to enhance the improvement of the situation in the state, with an aim of integrating the people and the police force in the maintenance of the state’s laws.
For instance, the “Support Our Laws and Safe Neighborhood Act” referred to as SB 1070 was recently developed and approved by the legislature of the state. It had been noticed that, the high rate of immigrants from the neighboring states has been accompanied by evils like smuggling, trespassing, and alien registration documents among others.
On this basis, there has been significant need to control such activities using the legal system. This paper will present the factors which contributed to the establishment of immigration law reform in Arizona.
According to Good (1), the amendment of HB2162 law on April 29, 2010 in alignment with SB 10170 was meant to incorporate other races, nationality and color of all the people in the state. It is important to note that, the Arizona laws were initially developed with les regard of the future changes the state, resulting into the kind of disequilibrium in the co-existence between the state’s citizens and its neighborhood.
The currently experienced racial profiling in the state has been one of the major rising issues; as the initial laws did not consider other races in the state (Kaye 1). In this regard, HB2162 law was established to define all the terms and specifications of co-existence between the citizens and the other races, especially the immigrants.
The main concern underlying Arizona is whether it has the capacity as a state to enforce its laws effectively without external interventions. The bureaucracy of interpreting the Law and implementing them into policies that are administratively workable policies has been a major issue. The neighboring country of Mexico has also aired its views on the matter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Foreign Ministry has written to the State for reviewing of the Laws but to no avail. In a statement made by the Foreign Ministry of Mexico, it was clear that the establishment of the Arizona Law of Immigration has interrupted the good neighborhood that had been existing between Arizona and Mexico (Kaye 1).
It is even worrying to most citizens of Mexican origin since the law is especially aimed at minimizing their illegal presence in the State. This means that even rightful dwellers of the State might find themselves in the wrong side of the Law.
As revealed by Good (1), the suggested law system has also been found to create divisions among police officers since it has some major management issues.
Many patrol officers as presented by a fragment of Phoenix Law Enforcement Association (PLEA) want freedom so as to fully enforce federal immigration laws. The other faction is of the idea that checkups should be in place to ensure minimal exuberant crack downs on illegal immigrants (Kaye 2). Divisions in the police unit saw two groups argue publicly about the law.
Supporters claimed that it would give officers more liberty necessary while carrying out their jobs and only little additional training was required. The bill was termed as having just enough teeth to keep off ignoring immigration laws by departments; on the flip side, it explicitly forbade officers from discriminating citizens on racial grounds.
Conclusion Generally, the State’s Law Legislature furthers the tussle by maintain it is failure of the Federal government to contain the immigrants that has catalyzed the enactment. Although the Law is not different from Federal Law the main debatable part of the whole issue is the enforcement of the Bill. The Law is ineffective or it is not properly enforced in the United State and thus raises questions on whether it should be enforced at the State level and its effectiveness when enforced.
Works Cited American Immigration Council. How Much Will Arizona’s Immigration Bill (SB1070) Cost? 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Arizona Immigration Law Reform specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Good, Charles. Arizona’s Immigration Law Comes with a Price. 2010. Web.
Kaye, Jackson. Arizona Police Agencies in a State of Confusion over SB 1070. The Huffington Post. 2010. Web.
Chinese Art: Art at Court Descriptive Essay essay help free: essay help free
The current exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, entitled “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”, reveals one individual’s very personal stamp on their environment. The retreat, designed and built by the Qianlong Emperor in a corner of the Forbidden City, demonstrates luxury, appreciation for beauty, decided ideas about beauty, and devotion to a philosophical ideal. This kind of private indulgence is rare, but not unknown elsewhere.
Among the 90 or so objects and artifacts included in the exhibit, the Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels, represents much of what is interesting about the royal owner, is preferences, and the intimate space from which the objects were taken.
The screen in particular demonstrates how the interest and appreciation by one powerful person could affect iconography and fashions in decoration for many years after their lifetime
The Qianlong Emperor built his Studio of Exhaustion from Diligent Service in the 18th Century, with the intention of using it for relaxation, entertainment, meditation, and reflection. The Emperor planned to enjoy it when he retired from active management of the Middle Kingdom.
It is compactly built on a roughly two-acre plot in one corner of the palace grounds. He was able to choose whatever he liked in terms of design and decoration, and display gifts from his subjects as well. They are rare, one-of-a-kind, and expensive. Thus, the furnishing of the Studio of Exhaustion from Diligent Service reflects his own taste, rather than anything handed down from previous rulers.
The screen, from the pavilion named The Building of Luminous Clouds, has a colorful and romantic story. It was a gift from a provincial governor. The Emperor liked the surface of it that featured human figures, and it was therefore displayed with that part facing outwards into the room. As a result, the other side was not seen or even known about for several hundred years. The reverse side has decorations that are just as lovely.
The paintings on the surface that is best known are copies of works by an artist from the 9th century named Guanxiu. This Guanxiu was a monk in Hangzhou Province. He was inspired by a dream to paint images of the disciples of the Buddha, known as Arhats.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These figures are known in Chinese as Luohans. They are described as beings that have attained some degree of enlightenment. They “protect the faithful Buddhist”, until the whole human race achieves some sort of enlightenment themselves
The veneration of Arhats was at its height at exactly the time that the artist Guanxiu made his depictions. There was no documentation of their actual appearance, and since Gautama Buddha was from India, not China, there were no local reports about them. However, Guanxiu claimed that he had been visited with a vision in a dream.
He created 15 of the images based on the dream but may have used himself as the model for the 16th.
The Emperor saw the paintings while visiting the region in 1757, and liked them. He ordered his staff to make copies of them. He also wrote eulogies, or brief, haiku-like descriptions of each Luohans’ personality and spiritual characteristics.
Accounts differ as to how the copying of the images proceeded, but sets were sent to all of the 18 provinces for display. There are stone relief copies of them remaining in situ today in several provinces of China. The abbot of the temple in 1757 must have been delighted at this opportunity for publicizing the monastery and preserving its 800-plus year old treasure!
With the paintings copied in stone, the images could be duplicated many times through stone rubbings. This seems like a remarkably innovative idea, but it apparently may have pre-dated printing in China. Stone rubbings had been used to preserve and disseminate all sorts of information and images, including Buddhist scriptures.
In the case of Guanxiu’s Luohans, it seems reasonable to infer that the Emperor and the abbot wanted to ensure the exact duplication of each image. This was especially true since it was believed to have been divinely inspired. In general, since art played an important moral role in China, correct copying was important.
We will write a custom Essay on Chinese Art: Art at Court specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These stone rubbings were copied back into painting form by the previously mentioned provincial governor. The Luohans were drawn in white on black, which is the way they would have appeared in a rubbing. This also gives them an almost cartoon-like effect. The eulogy written by the Emperor Qianlong appears in the upper right-hand corner.
The images on the reverse are painted in gold. They look like jewelry hung on the screen. The forms of some of the plants depicted are variously contorted to fit into the space. This contortion also evokes for this viewer the action of nature and time on all living things. Others, like the bamboo in the first panel, are so realistic that they look as though one might touch them and find them living.
These individual works of art were all installed together in a beautiful folding screen. It was lavishly crafted of “Purple sandalwood (zitan), lacquer, jade, and gold paint” . This luxurious and flexible setting of the paintings would have allowed the Emperor to gaze at any combination of the images at once.
The trees and shrubs on the reverse probably have symbolic meaning. Given the deep religious significance of the Luohans, this would be reasonable to infer. Information on their symbolism is not readily available, perhaps because their discovery is recent. However, there were traditional associations of plants noted elsewhere in the exhibit. Some sort of similar symbolism may be reflected in the screen paintings. For example, the ‘three friends of winter’, depicted in the Emperor’s heavily decorated window, are described as pine, bamboo, and blossoming plum.
It must be noted that within Chinese Buddhism, there were Luohan cults associated with a group of eighteen, and five hundred, as well as the sixteen. These, unlike the cult of the sixteen, are described as “not canonical”. This means that they lacked the backing of scripture or religious authority.
Thus, the Emperor, by commissioning the copying of the sixteen Luohans, writing eulogies for each one, and choosing to display the gift screen in a specially constructed niche, was giving his personal support to the sixteen-Arhat cult. This is very much like Michelle Obama dressing her daughters in J. Crew for the Presidential inaugural events, or Madonna wearing Kabbalistic symbols.
That fashion, or that religious practice, becomes more popular with the population as a whole, as a result of the adoption by an opinion leader. In this way, the Emperor had the power to affect artistic and decorative choices all over the country.
Indeed, Guanxiu’s images are said to have been reproduced all over China. Was this entirely the result of the Emperor’s interest? This is certainly the view of some Chinese commentators. Sets of these images were reproduced in jade, and other materials and given as highly desirable gifts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Art: Art at Court by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Emperor’s interest certainly did not discourage the spread of these depictions. In fact, these depictions seem to continue to be reproduced in mass-marketed images today, if a visit to a Chinatown souvenir shop is any measure.
The copies of Guanxiu’s images on the Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels are very un-Chinese in their prominent features, and they have been described as wild and eccentric. They are depicted as old and they look downright ugly to 21st century eyes. A modern commentator described them as “grotesque, enlightened, wrinkled old coots”. Since Buddha was from India, they may have reflected popularly held conceptions of the appearance of non-Chinese people.
One of the images, shown below, seems to be the Luohan (or Lohan) named Asita, and nicknamed Long Eyebrow Lohan (for obvious reasons). This immortal is described as, “Compassionate elder, A monk who has attained enlightenment. Perceptive of the infinite universe, with tacit understanding.” His name in pinyin is rendered as Chángméi Luóhàn.
This consistent lack of prettiness has been assumed to convey an important message. The message may have been that a person’s spiritual strength or beauty was not related to their physical beauty This is also characteristic of the Chan school of painting in that part of China in the 9th century, which sought to show spontaneity, like the process of creation.
This school of painting also sought to shock and surprise the viewer. In addition, art in China, particularly art that depicted people, was meant to convey a moral message rather than depict the accurate details of a person’s appearance.
Each Luohan is traditionally associated with one or more objects, animals, plants, or accessories. These are not readily visible in all of the screen paintings.
Every item in the exhibit is similarly rare and significant. For example, a mandala, or aid to meditation, usually drawn in two dimensions, is depicted as a sculpture in three dimensions. The standing screens and window frames that included glass are an obvious expression of the Emperor’s interest in, and approval of technology and artistic techniques from other countries.
Glass was an expensive European import at the time. Imported Japanese decorative arts are represented by cabinets with gold painting on black lacquer . By selecting these items, he could have been signaling that it was ok to own items of foreign manufacture. The oddly shaped root wood furniture was symbolic of a Buddhist ideal.
The seeker after nirvana was supposed to display a rustic disregard for comfort or the niceties of life. However, the root wood furniture was actually made of very expensive wood with careful artisanship . It was thus a style or fashion enjoyed by the Emperor rather than a real abandonment of comfort and culture.
The exhibit makes a very convincing statement about the Emperor’s taste, and his effect on the taste of his fellow citizens and women. Unlimited by money or labor, he collected the best of everything that he liked. His choices reflect a person deeply committed to his religion and curious about the world around him.
The Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels discussed above is a very dramatic example of this. It conveys a spiritual message, and is a reproduction of something very significant to the Emperor. As such, it seems to have been copied and re-copied all over the country, for decades and even centuries. This sound very much like the way a viral video is copied and transmitted today.
The spread of the style and image of the Guanxiu Luohans was clearly boosted by the Emperor’s personal interest and affection.
Bibliography Cook, Greg. “An Emperor’s Heaven on Earth.” The Providence Phoenix. 2010. Web.
East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. “What is a Rubbing?” East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. 2004. Web.
Joo, Bong Seok. “The Arhat Cult in China from the Seventh to the Fourteenth Centuries: Narrative Art. Space, and Ritual.” Scribd.com. 2007. Web.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Screens.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.
— “Rootwood Chair.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Rootwood Chair”. 2011. Web.
— “Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web .
— “The Emperor’s Private Paradise.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.
— “Window.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.
ShanghaiCentral. “China art: new Chinese arts and craftss silk painting..” Shanghai Central. 2011. Web.
Kuiper, Katherine, ed. “The Culture of China.” Scribd. Brittanica Publishing. 2011. Web.
Watanabe, Masako. “Guanxiu and Exotic Imagery in Rakan Paintings.” Go Antiques. 2011. Web.
Footnotes Examples might include Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s home, and that of Frederick Church, called Olana, both designed in every detail by their owner.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise”.
Joo, Bong Seok. 2007. “The Arhat Cult in China from the Seventh through thirteen centuries: Narrative, art, space, and ritual”.
Much like the founder of the Shaker movement, creating religiously symbolic images from a dream.
This is much like gravestone rubbings that history buffs make today in old cemeteries.
ShanghaiCentral.com China Art”. 2011. ShanghaiCentral.
East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. 2004. “What is a Stone Rubbing?. ”
Kuiper, Katherine. Culture in China, 2010. Brittanica Educational Publishing.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”.
Watanabe. Masako. “Guanxiu and Exotic Imagery in Rakan Paintings”.
ShanghaiCentral.com. “China Art”.
Cook, Greg. “An Emperor’s Heaven on Earth”. The Providence Phoenix.
Wikipedia. “Eighteen Lohans”. Wikipedia.org. 2011. Although Wikipedia is not usually considered a scholarly source, it was the most comprehensible description of the Luohan iconography readily available that could be cross-referenced against the images on the screen itself.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “”Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels”.
Kuiper, Katherine. The Culture of China.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Screens”.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Cabinets”.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Root wood Chair”.
Gambling should be illegal Essay college admissions essay help
For years, several government quarters have continued to debate on the legality of gambling. While the debate continued, people continued to gamble.
The attraction from the beautifully decorated neon lights, the excitement, and even the five start hotels where the gambling activities take place kept gamblers wanting more and more. Although to some it looks like pastime activities, to others it has been a destructive activity that has led to addiction.
Also, gambling has led to accumulation of debts for families. This notwithstanding, gambling has led to increase in crime rates. Finally, the manipulations present in these casinos are a negative factor on their own. Therefore, this paper intends to argue that gambling should not be legalized under any circumstance.
First, gambling leads to an addiction as strong as drugs. Although many people tend to believe that gambling is just a part time and that one could spend a day gambling without any harm, experience has proved otherwise. People have become addicted to gambling hence spending more time in gambling casinos than doing other constructive jobs. These people become so addicted to the extend that they look for any opportunity to enter a casino.
This is problematic because it leads to less working time and hence less productivity. Sadly, the reduced productivity comes hand in hand with increased expenditure as more money is pumped into the casino. Therefore, legalizing gambling creates devastated less productive individuals.
Second, gambling leads to accumulation of debts. As mentioned in the above paragraph, most gamblers spend time gambling which reduces there productivity while increasing their expenditure. Given the addiction, one would rather borrow from a friend to go and gamble than stay home when he has no money.
This borrowing leads to amassing of debts. Studies have shown that a seasoned and addicted gambler has an average debt of $ 80,000. With such great amounts of debts, it becomes difficult to take care of one’s family. Eventually, some of these families break up due to inability to carry out one’s obligations as a father or mother.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gambling leads to increase in crimes. Compulsive gamblers look for every reason to gamble whether they have money or not. After too much accumulated debts from borrowing, a gambler might find it difficult to get money from friends. Given that he cannot control himself from gambling, he might opt to use other means of getting cash to spend in the casinos.
This is how crimes begin to escalate in a given region. This is very true based on the fact that the odds of winning in a casino are as low as 1-54 million. This is as good as nonexistent.
It has also been proved that very few people can afford to lose in a casino. This larger group of people that cannot afford to lose is the one that opts to indulge in crime so that they can make some money to go back to the casino with the hope that they would have a chance of getting back their money.
Statistics from the Atlantic City of New Jersey pointed out that development of casinos in the region witnessed a 467% increase in crime within a short span of nine years.
Gambling also strains the government’s budget. As mentioned earlier, gambling is as addictive as any drug. Equally, a person can be salvaged from this destruction through rehabilitation.
The government hence loses a lot of money trying to rehabilitate the addicted gamblers. The strategies to increase security cost money. Therefore, the government is forced to spend a lot of money to mitigate the crime caused by gambling.
Furthermore, gambling leads to lowering reputation of the city in question as a result of the crimes associated. This means that tourists fear to come to the city fearing the likely consequences and for their safety. With this, the city loses a lot of money that would have been brought in by the tourist. Finally, gambling diverts money that could promote other business activities.
We will write a custom Essay on Gambling should be illegal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A great percentage of the City’s money goes straight to gamblers and owners of the casinos while other business people get pea nuts in return. A comparative analysis of the contribution of casinos and other businesses to the state’s economy shows that casino’s contribute pea nuts while demands more from the government. This means that casinos are a liability to the city or state in question.
In conclusion, it is necessary that policy makers make gambling illegal. This is as a result of the associated damages and negative contributions not only to the individuals but also to the state. For instance, gambling will lead to increased rates of crime as witnessed in Atlantic City of New Jersey.
Gambling will also lead to straining of government budget. The government is forced to spend a lot of money in controlling crime and rehabilitating addicted gamblers. Finally, gambling leads to addiction and debts hence devastation of the family institution. Given these arguments, I believe that gambling should not be legalized under any circumstance.
3 Criteria that Determine Whether the Manager Is Making Good Decisions Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help
When a manager makes decisions, he/she thinks about the outcome of the affair. A good decision-making process is resulted in a successful project. This criterion may be considered as one of the signs that good decisions are made. The second criterion, which may determine whether the manager is making good decisions or not, is the possibility to meet the budget.
There are always different risks which cannot be forecasted, but at the same time, the financial issues are usually stated and the possibility to meet them is a sign of good decisions-making skills. The third criterion, which helps a manager understand whether he/she makes a good decision, is the opportunity to follow the process.
“Achieving success requires that a rational and explicit or structured decision process be developed and used” (Powell
Opening a detergent plant in two Asian countries Analytical Essay custom essay help
This paper will provide valuable information on the opportunities of opening a detergent plant in Pakistan and Mongolia which should be considered by Spring Clean Products.
It is important that both these countries have rich deposits of the raw materials which are required for the manufacturing processes within the detergent plant, including sodium chloride, phosphate and chlorine. Kogel et al (2006) noted that “In Pakistan, several hundred small lakes contain sodium carbonate, chloride and sulfite” (p. 863). Regarding Mongolia, this country is known for its Quaternary Quagan Nur deposit which contains salt deposits as well (Kogel et al, 2006, p. 863).
Taking into account the Pakistani semi-industrialized economy and the recent shift towards the growth of the manufacturing sector, it can be stated that currently there are a lot of skillful factory workers and managers. Regarding Mongolia, the industry accounts approximately for the same rate as the agricultural sector does. It means that skillful factory workers can be found in Mongolia as well.
The potential size of the market in Pakistan with the population of nearly 170 million is impressive. Taking into account Afghanistan, Iran, India and China on which the country borders and to which the market can be potentially extended, it can be stated that the hypothetical size of the market is favorable for opening a detergent plant in the area.
Regarding Mongolia with the population of about 2 million, the potential sizes of the market are smaller, but can be compensated by extending the market to Russia, People’s Republic of China and Kazakhstan bordering on the country.
Regarding the political stability in Pakistan and Mongolia, it should be noted that the situation in both countries is rather stable. It is significant that Pakistan does not support the Taliban regime. Mongolia which is a parliamentary republic maintains positive relations with other countries and supports diplomatic missions.
As to the trade and investment policies in Pakistani economy, it can be stated that with the recent shift towards industrialization of the country, the foreign investments have already been made into several sectors. Regarding the Mongolian policies concerning the same issues, it can be stated that the country’s government implements strategies for encouraging the foreign trade and investments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Keegan and Green (2008) noted that “foreign exchange is an aspect of global marketing that involves certain financial risks, decisions, and activities that are completely different than those facing a domestic marketer” (p. 147). The local currency in Pakistan, the Pakistani rupee has been relatively stabilized by the central bank through decreasing the interest rates and buying dollars.
The Mongolian local currency tugrik is recognized as one of the best-performing currencies in the world. The relative stability and high performance of the local currencies in these countries create favorable conditions for opening a detergent plant on their territories.
Taking into account the availability of the raw materials on the Pakistani territory, it can be stated that the costs of transporting the materials and the finished goods would be minimal. Taking into account the correlation between the area and the population rate in Mongolia, it can be concluded that transportation can be more costly. Still, the developed railroad net of Mongolia would allow transporting the finished products to not only different regions of the country but also the neighboring states.
The governments of both these countries encourage the foreign investments. As to the competition of the local and international companies, it can be concluded that it would be stronger in Pakistan because the chemical industry is one of important sectors of Pakistani economy.
Analyzing the above-mentioned information on the availability of the raw materials, socio-economical situation and the government policies concerning the foreign investments in Pakistan and Mongolia, it can be stated that the conditions of both countries are favorable for opening a detergent plant.
Reference List Keegan, W.J. and Green, M.C. (2008). Global marketing. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Kogel, J., Trivedi, N., Barker, J., and Krukowski, S. (2006). Industrial minerals and rocks: Commodities, markets and uses. Littleton, CO: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration.
We will write a custom Essay on Opening a detergent plant in two Asian countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
“World in the Balance: China Revs Up” Essay college admissions essay help
The DVD “World in the Balance: China Revs Up”, focuses on the fast paced growth of the Chinese economy and its impact on the environment.
Within the past three decades China’s economic policy, supported by government initiatives aimed at economic reform, has attempted to remodel the Chinese economy into a global economic powerhouse. The result was the creation of the world’s second largest economy in terms of overall imports and exports and a boom in Chinese consumer purchasing power which has further supported the Chinese economy.
Unfortunately as seen in numerous scenes throughout the DVD this sudden growth came at the cost of severely deteriorating environmental conditions where nearly 6% of the total GDP of the country goes into supporting the growing health problems of various sectors in its population.
Rapid industrialization coupled with a blatant disregard for environmental stewardship has resulted in China becoming the second biggest producer of CO2 emissions in the world with estimates showing that it should reach and even exceed the C02 output of the U.S. by 2025 or 2030.
There are two specific reasons shown as to why the pollution problem has grown to such an extent namely: the rapid affluence of China’s consumer market and the government’s reluctance to impose stringent environmental safety measures for fear of the possible economic ramifications such a decision might cause. As China’s population continues to grow and prosper so to the needs of its population grow ever more complex and luxurious.
The result is a growing market in consumer goods that is attempting to meet the demand of an affluent consumer base. At the heart of this growing market is the car industry with thousands of cars being bought, sold and reaching China’s roads. Estimates show that there are approximately 20 million cars as of late on China’s busy roads with millions more to come within the next decade or so.
This sudden rise is attributed to the distinction of success that the Chinese have placed with car ownership and as such this has resulted in making China one of the largest car markets in the world. It must be noted that cars are one of the primary contributors to the release of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, with the growing car population in China it is to be expected that the rate of pollution will go up as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second reason behind the pollution problem in the country is directly related to the government’s reluctance to place effective environmental safety measures for fear that it may cause a slow down in the country’s economic activity.
Estimates show that in order for China to keep pace with its rapidly expanding population nearly 15 million jobs have to be created per year. This presents a unique situation for the government in that enforcing certain environmental standards may in fact cause various sectors in the economy to limit production thus resulting in a slowdown of the economy.
Overall the DVD is similar to the movie “An Inconvenient Truth” by Al Gore, it shows how rapid industrial expansion can and will affect the environment in negative ways if nothing is done about it. The environmental situation, the manufacturing industry and the growing affluence of the Chinese people are portrayed in a well balanced manner resulting in a rather well put together film.
My only critique is that the film neglected to showcase the effects of pollution on the waters surrounding China. While air pollution is a definite concern the fact remains that on average a lot of the pollution in the air is absorbed by the water in the sea resulting in the creation of filmy toxic sludge like substance on top of the water.
This substance is of course poisonous to all marine life and could adversely affect the Chinese fishing industry should it reach the food chain. In fact the fishing industry in China may be well aware of this fact already with Chinese fishing boats fishing in disputed waters despite the international scandals that may occur as a result.
Album Revolver by The Beatles Descriptive Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The Beatles is a famous rock group, which is known across the world. The group has a rich historical background as evident in their album called Revolver.
The group is based in Britain; however, they have engaged in numerous performances in many world-class stages, which have made the group internationally renowned. The group’s album called Revolver is their most famous regardless of other popular albums. Therefore, the album is viewed by many as the peak of the group’s career.
Revolver was released in 1966 and started by winning awards in many fronts. After its release, Revolver stayed top of a famous “English ranking called British chart” for close to seven weeks. It also won other top classifications such as the “American chart” where it dominated for six weeks.
These two charts are still top ranking measures in the music industry thus they justify why the album is still regarded as one of the best albums in the history of music. As late as 2009, the album still topped many charts and it was ranked third in a “British magazine known as Rolling Stone” which ranks the best five hundred albums in history of music.
The album is made up of fourteen songs which won various prizes as singles. These include the “famous Good Day Sunshine, Taxman, and Yellow Submarine”. Most of the songs in the album were composed by Paul McCartney who is a famous composer in Britain and he was assisted by Lennon.
A few songs such as “Love You To” and “I Want To Tell You” were composed by Harrison who is a great composer and especially in rock music. The three composers were also the lead vocalists for their songs which are the main reason their voices blended well.
The album was also promoted by high quality instrumentation which went with the songs. John Lennon applied his classic skills in playing the guitar for most of the songs. He doubled as a guitarist and a vocalist thus his voice was well in harmony with the guitar as well as the other instruments. Lennon was assisted in playing the instruments by Mal Evans who has a legendary quality and way of playing guitar.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other instrument players in the album were “Geoff Emerick who was an engineer” for the musical instruments. Brian Jones was also involved as “he played the sound effects which give a sound of clinking glass as it is heard in the song called Yellow Submarine”.
Revolver is also characterized by songs which have a great lyrical background and the vocalists were able to merge this with the instruments while creating the right tempo. The songs are cross-thematic where most of them are related to love and others are party songs.
However, “Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison” merged their talents well to give the album the quality and reputation it has earned. The quality of their album has made its songs to be preferred soundtracks for numerous movies.
Conclusion Music is largely dependent on talent but this is not always necessary to develop great music. In many cases, it also depends on the effort put in to come up with the desired music. This is evidenced by the quality of music that Beatles infused in their famous album called Revolver.
The main contributing artists have different capabilities but it took a lot of effort to merge these talents and come up with that album. The album is classical as attested by its continued preference over other new albums. It is difficult to find modern music which has the same lyrical and instrumental quality like the album.
“Doll’s House” by Henrick Ibsen Essay college essay help near me
“Doll’s House” is a three act play written by Henrick Ibsen in 1879 that gained popularity before the play’s first performance as it initially sold thousands of copies, which bring much anticipation to the audience.
The play created a dispute as it portrays social problems on how female seeks individuality. It draws audience attention because it challenges the conservative society in those times. The restrictions experienced by women in the 1870s were contained in the play. This was the time where naturalistic theatre gives importance to the working and middle class characters to discuss societal issues.
Every character in the story shows how they want to break away from the social norms. The character that clearly demonstrates this is Nora.
She is the doll in the story, as what her father and husband Torvald treats her, and she considers her home as her playroom. The play centered on Nora, who represents the typical woman at that time, who is relying on her husband and supports him being the breadwinners of the family.
Torvald is a bank manager and represents the typical men as the master of the house. Supporting character Kristine, who is Nora’s friend, also shines in the play by showing an opposite character to Nora. Unlike Nora, she needs to work to survive and experience how it is to live outside the confinements of her home.
Other characters are Krogstad, who is meant to destroy everyone’s lives by threatening Nora to tell her secret to Torvald if he will be fired from his job, Dr. Rank, a friend to the couple and a confidante of Nora, and Anna- Maria, the trusty nursemaid to the Helmer’s. The Helmer’s children, the housemaid and the porter all portray the cameo role in the play.
The plot is at Helmer’s house. The play started with Torvald, who does not like the idea of a person being in debt, without knowing that his wife is in debt, but is tries to keep this secret from her husband.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A clash between the couple is being pointed out in the second act. Kristine and Krogstad’s make a marked appearance on the third act where both decided to get back together. The worst thing that happens in this part is when Torvald read Krogstad’s letter, which was about Nora’s deepest secret, her debt.
This is the time when Nora doubts the love of her husband and the time when she wants to establish her own identity. This part shows how Torvald values society more than his wife and Nora’s realization to leave Torvald. At the end of the play Nora seeks independence by leaving her husband and children.
The striking part in the play is when Nora slams the door, implying on how Nora gained confidence to break from the typical social norms. The characters are convincing enough to showcase the theme of self-reliance, the will to sacrifice what one considers important, and to achieve the idea of changing the framework of domesticity.
The plot created a believable scenario where the internal conflict and the distinct ending have been established well. The play is exciting and is successful in drawing out the curiosity of the audience.
Henrick Ibsen conveys the true meaning of the play as it defines the moral and political stand of the society against the issues of suppression of humanity as he hopes to repeal the expectations for both gender.
As the stage rings the curtain down, “Doll’s House” manages to open the door for women to experience equality and independence. It serves as a bridge for men and women who want to get out from the gender role issues.
Conflicting Motives in “Hippocrates” Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Ganeshananthan’s, “Hippocrates”, is a wonderful short story which reveals the sufferings caused by the ethnic violence in Sri Lanka. Like her novel, Love Story, it probes into the terrific nature of the human situations in which human life loses all values and relationships.
The narrator in the story says that “there was no point in discussing what had already happened” (Ganeshanandan, 1). The cruelty inflicted by the Sri Lankan soldiers, particularly on women, has caused lasting wounds, both physical and mental, for which there is no cure available, feels the narrator. This paper is an analysis of the story to trace the conflicting motives in the characters.
The story opens with an atmosphere of indifference and strangeness. Everything seems to be mechanical, sans human emotions. The narrator is coming back from Jaffna to Colombo and her fellow passenger is a girl of her age known to her: “We had known each other since we were very young” (Ganeshanandan, 1), and yet they do not speak anything. The train jostles them, indicating that it is the external forces which direct their nearness and relationships, their life.
The narrator’s uncle comes to receive her, but even he is a stranger: “This man, my uncle, looked like my family, but he did not know me, he did not want to know me and the feeling of being surrounded by strangers made a pocket of pain inside my chest” (Ganehanandan, 1). The essence of the story is this pocket of pain created by the ethnic violence in every Tamil heart in Sri Lanka. As her uncle does not speak anything she looks outside but sees nothing.
Her heart is filled with the events of the past. She says, “My eyes were still full of Jaffna. I wanted my brothers – my brothers, who were gone. And I wanted my mother and my father” (Ganeshanandan, 1). The story now takes the readers through the experience of an innocent girl, whom the narrator once treated, to the aftermath of the horrible violence.
As the narrator listens to the radio, the announcer tells the story of a pregnant girl. This provokes the narrator to reveal the truth to the readers. She says, “I want you to understand: I was not born to fight for a political cause. I did not feel chosen. And this woman was not born this way. She was not chosen” (Ganeshanandan, 2). All the girls who join the Tiger Force do not do it willingly. It is the circumstances which led them to it.
There is no existential choice for a Tamil girl in Sri Lanka. The narrator says that like her “she was gangraped, and she watched the men who raped her kill her four brothers. I want you to understand” (Ganeshanandan, 2). No one seems to understand that the girls in that country have/had no choice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fate is decided by external factors. The narrator is pregnant, so is the case of many girls who were raped by the soldiers. She admits that the pregnant women were used to detonate the bombs because the officers may have sympathy towards them: “A transgression against a mother is a universal transgression” (Ganeshanandan, 3).
The narrator remembers an event of treating a raped and wounded girl. They both realize that pain has become part of their lives. The girl says that “I want to know what is happening and if the pain goes away then that might be worse”. “She was right. Pain informs”, admits the doctor (Ganeshanandan, 4).
Ganeshananthan’s skilful narration of the protagonist’s past is great and beautiful. Her characters are original and the social conditions rendered are real.
The way the conflicting motives of the protagonist are given is marvelous. The story keeps the readers anchored to the terrible events that took place in Sri Lanka. “Hippocrates” surely places her among the best Diaspora writers. It is a heart-rending story.
Reference Ganeshanandan, V. V. “Hippocrates”. Web.
Definition of Advertising and Its Elements Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Algos (2010) defines advertising as an art of bringing goods to the attention of a customer. A good advertising incorporates elements of typography inspired by ideas, recognises the importance and value of message. Media requirements reveal significance of an advertisement to the reader and sluices information effortlessly and memorically into the reader’s mind.
Heavily weighted in product and customer characteristics as well as target market size, advertising reveals the significant of a product to a potential client, selling the idea visibly, by image manipulation which induces the reader to take some action.
Media requirements as dictated by advertising briefs also include factors such as time factors, creative dimension and aspects of the message, merchandise objective as well as legal and ethical considerations that relates to products such as alcohol.
The medium used in this research will be advertisements using internet protocol due to the large number of households that have access to the internet, availability of products to choose from and how the availed products are used. The study linked the increased numbers of Internet shoppers over the years to be related to the increased access to internet use by many households and increased use of household products.
The studies also recognized the increased numbers of household online buyers in the past few years to be linked to diversification of products and increased access. It was however concluded that online advertisers have provide a wide array of good and services for consumers to choose from as earlier experienced and has the ability to reach wider audiences including teenagers, stay at home parents and urban men.
Conclusively, growth of e-consumers has been attributed to increased numbers of internet services and existing internet users. Despite increased usage and range of products for which internet purchases are required to chose from, growth in access is likely to slow if consumer buying behaviour is not carefully assessed (Lowe 2002, p.7).
Radio advertising may not be a suitable advertising media since most advertisements last up to 30-60 seconds which may make it impossible to cover all the key points including product use and target audiences (AllBusiness 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Primary advertising are outdoor campaigns such as billboards and door to door sales. Primary advertising has the characteristics of displaying visual material to the potential buyer (Primary Media Outdoor Advertising 2008). Secondary advertising on the other hand includes aspects such as radios, internet, newspapers and television.
Slowly moving from door to door sales, marketing, promotion, notice, message and testimonials, internet advertising is recommended to be the best and fast media gaining recognition in advertising industry.
Lycourgos and Christou (2006) analysis argue that “online retailing has provided a successful medium for consumer spending, and therefore the technology used should be able to match the utility provided by the retailing formats” (p.2). Utilities mentioned to facilitate online business include facilities such as immediate delivery, choice of payment methods, personal assistant in selecting goods, credit facilities and return policies.
The mentioned utilities are particularly significant in building consumer satisfaction and trust in an online environment. To do this, Lycourgos and Christou (2006) advices advertisers to implement strategies that will sufficiently motivate online consumers to place orders.
E-consumers driven by internet communication have revolutionized the way people use, access and share information.
Internet services has been credited for facilitating the economy and transforming organisation by eliminating paper based functions and integrate global operations. Benefits attributed from e-commerce are listed to include; online advertisers and consumers have access and low-cost, consumers can access information through diverse forms of technology including mobile phones.
Advertisers also don’t spend so much time doing marketing campaigns and suffer no geographical constraints. Organisations get the opportunity for rationalizing operations and downsizing and can easily adapt to new payment schemes. Online business had eliminated middlemen, minimized stockholdings and reduced transaction costs.
We will write a custom Assessment on Definition of Advertising and Its Elements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More E-commerce introduces a consumer to interaction rules, procedures, and safe mechanisms and provides consumer with recovery methods such as money back guarantees when trust breaks down. Trust has been viewed as the cornerstone to of any successful online trading because without it, no one will be able to trade (Sweeney 2008, p.3).
Newspaper advertising is the use of print to entice readers into purchasing a product. Its advantages include;
wide audiences in a given geographical area
Readers can cut out the advertisement for future references
The advertisement image can be large to communicate the required information to the reader
Radio advertisements are always creative and listeners can call in and get instant answers on how the product is used
A vast array of listeners can be reached worldwide including web portals (Pleshette 2003).
According to Ruane (2008), internet advertising should adhere to privacy laws and provide truth, clear and fair information to its users.
Pirelli Tyres Company, Pepsi and Coca cola companies have used online advertising, more specifically to the internet and applied the true and clear information to its potential customers.
Advertising Media Plan Two basic tasks of media planning are message creation and message dissemination. This helps an advertiser to know which media to use-be it internet, television or the internet. It simply entails the selection of media time and space to display the advertising message to order to accomplish marketing objectives.
Advertising turns features of products into benefits, reasonable for someone to try the product, while typographers convert the story into strategy and execution by positioning the product against competitor products, and by giving an identifiable look
Many businesses depend on modern technology and its promised miracles as a way of expanding their business. Modern technology has opened up new generation of visual designers. The most recent innovative developments such as e-banking, social marketing and YouTube are extensively used to expand businesses across different spectrums.
Composed of text that is readable, coherent and visually satisfying many advertisers are forced to search for very professional corporate look and attract customers (Algos 2010). Evidently, websites offer plenty of information on the product intended to be sold and clarity and transparency of information presented should be of paramount importance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Advertising and Its Elements by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Offline advertising such as radios and television, print mediums such as brochures, catalogs and post cards have been very effective when designed with good graphics and language approach in mind. Although immediate profits may not be realised, advertising both off and online should be regarded as long term investment (Algos 2010).
While many advertising options that are relevant to online advertising exist, individual aspects such as lifestyle and personal characteristics, psychological and trying to embrace, are all important in determining the type of advertising to be used.
A successive advertiser should carefully assess how the website is facilitating consumer information searches and examining how their organisation is offering consumer value (Lycourgos and Christou 2006, p.2; Sexton 2010; Lacan 1978).
Market Evidence for using internet advertisement Soft drink companies have long been dominated by two companies; Pepsi and Coca cola. Both companies have spent significant huge amounts of money on advertising and promotion and have been reported to create brand loyalty that has made it difficult for other competitors to enter the market.
Pepsi for instance devised a strategy of cutting down prices soon a new competitor tries to enter the market thus forcing them to curtail expansion plans. In brand recognition through billboards and newspaper advertising, Pepsi changed its brand to blue, consumers viewed it as modern and cool as it was exciting and dynamic and communicated refreshment.
Pepsi another advertising strategy included the introduction of variety soft drinks clients to choose from and also, reinforce the name as stated by Dehmardan 2008 as “Coca-cola Classic., a name that reflects image of value, reliability and old time values” ( p.22).
Pirelli Tires Company on the other has been a true multinational corporation that has maximised on internet advertising to reach worldwide audiences.
With a presence in 160 countries as leader in car production, internet advertisement strategies enabled the company reach greater efficiency and effectiveness, developed new networks sites directed at consumers while increasing its performance and technology.
For example, the new portal Oracle WebLogic Server is currently reported to have more than 34 million users in 40 countries. Its success is strongly linked to delivering extensive and timely company information. The quantity of pages visited during a session are all clear indication that its ability to attract interest of anyone who access the website.
The Java 2 environment typology and the introduction of dynamic website that enables easy development of core structure applications such as interactive calendar, dealer locator, product catalogue and fitment chart are all clear indications of Pirelli Tires market dominance through advertisements (Oracle 2009).
Media Primary Supplementary Time Cost Sydney Morning Herald * 8.00am $350 Highway Billboards * Throughout the month $440 NBC * 7.00pm $500 New York Times * Mondays and Fridays $320 It has been evidenced here that customers are more influenced by advertisements they see even if they only see a small portion of the video. E-consumer behaviour can also be analysed by using psychological measures which include examining consumer responses as a way of forecasting positive impacts (Bellinson 2006).
Tracking customers’ shopping behaviours during certain seasons helps an online advertiser study customer shopping trends, levels of interest and likings and plans when to avail certain products and certain periods. Sweeney (2008) states that “tracking product performance over time gives a advertiser guidance as to which products are effective and which ones are not” (p.1) It’s also important to note that e-consumer behaviour can also be linked to external environment that relate to cultures and subcultures.
Advertising can influence consumer buying behaviour by recognising the importance and value of message. Since culture is something learned rather than something being born with, an online advertiser should learn morals of his marketing demographics and try to accommodate various cultures when considering for international consumers.
This research argues here that advertisement should aim at achieving both legibility and readability. Since advertisement campaign vary in price and effectiveness, measure of its effectiveness should include aspects such as conducting a comprehensive customer service and support that will help establish consumer shopping behaviours (Naples 1979).
Customers feel secure for an organisation that provides online assistance 24 hours and 7 days a week. It’s also important to design software that would formulate answers to customers’ most critical issues like FAQ.
In some instances, a company should also engage in human talk to solve more complicated problems. Its evidenced that information-driven websites embedded in graphics tends to convert window shoppers to potential customers (Canada’s Office of Consumer Affairs 2008).
Holly (2009) studies states that “consumers prefer to start their online shopping through search engines and social media sites rather than going directly to the site to establish an advertiser” (p.1).
Advertisers that consider these aspects in their marketing campaigns gain competitive advantage over others. For internet shopping, possible measures for its effectiveness could include social media services such as facebook and twitter networks.
Just like twitter, face book provides an attractive platform that studies consumer behaviour through online interactions. Advertisements may also be placed on individual profiles pages aimed at targeting certain demographic consumers.
Since registered face book users have no problem providing personal information such as date of birth, religion, sex, and e.t.c, online advertisers use this information to their advantage by advertising only on their target demographic (Holly 2009).
Therefore, Algos (2010) recommends that advertisers should always find an advertising program that fits his customers’ data base. In this regard, long term and short term perspectives such as simple solutions for advertising special offers and one-off events such as product promotions, banners, posters and flyers that put marketing into words should be considered.
A planned budget in deciding what advertising medium to be used should be considered. Measuring campaign’s success at the end of a campaigning period is important to determined continued relationship with new customers if any (Algos 2010).
List of References Algos, A., 2010. Innovative and Modern –Technology Logos. Ezine Articles, 1, pp.1
AllBusiness. 2011. Radio Advertising Pros and Cons. Web.
Bellinson, R. L., 2006.Theory in Culture: Toward a Psychoanalytic Criticism of Advertising. Georgia: Georgia State University.
Canada’s Office of Consumer Affairs., 2008. The consumer trends report. Web.
Dehmardan, J., 2008. Pepsi Blue. Marketing classes, 1, pp.1-50.
Holly, A., 2009. Tracking consumer behavior. Web.
Lacan, J., 1978. Seminar Eleven: The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. NY
The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist Descriptive Essay essay help
Daniel Barenboim is one of the most re-known pianist and conductor in the world. He is an Ashkenazi Jew born in Argentina. His passion for piano started at a tender age of five with his mother teaching him some piano lessons.
He gave his first official concert at age seven and from then he never looked back. His postings on YouTube are very fascinating to watch. Some of the postings include the famous Beethoven Sonata and later some pieces by Wagner.
The clips are just amazing and incomparable in terms of quality and passion the Barenboim demonstrates. The G-major sonata truly rocks and has attracted a lot of admiration and respect for Barenboim. This paper will discuss Barenboim’s musical journey, life philosophies and political views.
A strong personality is what is needed for one to play the piano and conduct at the same time. Being a high profile international artist, having a warm personality is a basic ingredient.
Barenboim expressed this when performing Beethoven’s masterpieces. Daniel has always had a modest performance without any pretence. His musical personality has made his performances to be so compelling to the audience (Lewin 32). Barenboim is always regarded to as a spontaneous and impulsive performer. Some people see Daniel as being very impatient in the way he plays the piano at the podium.
This is debatable because Barenboim’s performances have always been unpredictable. Some people attribute this to his spontaneous personality. Generally, Barenboim is an accomplished performer with a musical personality that is warm and compelling. These qualities have made many people allover the world to like his performances.
Barenboim’s musical philosophy is a very pragmatic one. According to Daniel Barenboim, music is an art that has neither a beginning nor an end. He argues that sensuality and feeling can only find some form in music. According to Barenboim, true music is a combination of form and freedom and not emotionalism which he considers as lifeless. Barenboim has the ability to make music to appear as it was born at the time of performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barenboim’s music always takes a rigorous form combined with deep strategy and endless knowledge (Lewin 56). Daniel believes that sound perfection should be done in the living moment because music sounds unique every time it is performed. Daniel argues that the only way music can thrive is by performing it repetitively. According to Daniel, people can learn a lot of things about life from music than the opposite.
Barenboim believes that music and politics can not be separated. He has been at the forefront in criticizing the Israeli foreign policy especially against Palestine.
Fearing for his life, Daniel Barenboim gave up his intention of performing Wagner in his native Israel. This did not stop him completely from continuing with his mission. He has gone ahead to collaborate with Palestinian musicians by developing the Barenboim –Said Initiative.
According to Daniel, the Israeli-Palestine conflict can only be resolved if the two sides take the initiative of trying to understand each other’s suffering. Despite being a Jew, Daniel accepted honorary Palestinian citizenship in 2008 after one of his concerts in Ramallah (Barenboim 45).
He made history by being the first Israeli to accept Palestinian citizenship. Daniel regarded this as a public gesture of promoting peace between the two nations. This action sparked a lot of criticism in Israel with some leaders calling for the stripping of Daniel’s Israeli citizenship (Barenboim 68).
From his performances, Daniel Barenboim portrays his authoritative nature. His high minded persona makes him to freely air his political views with any fear. Barenboim is very commanding and his level of confidence is just unbelievable. These qualities have made him to be very influential on stage and out of stage.
His authoritative conducting is just a beauty to watch. Daniel commands a lot of respect and trust wherever he goes and is always one of a kind. By being authoritative, Daniel has made a lot of friends and enemies alike. Barenboim has received a lot of praise and recognition because of the unique way he looks at issues (Lewin 116).
We will write a custom Essay on The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Daniel Barenboim views music from a very different angle. He reiterates that subjectivity is very necessary in music. According to Daniel, music making should be both objectives.
Daniel believes that the nature of music and the kind of associations generated by it need to be differentiated. Barenboim believes that transparency, power and strength as used in music would make the world look wonderful just like music does. According to Daniel, music is so powerful because it communicates to the entire body system.
Daniel argues that all issues whether personal, social or political are completely depended on each other just like the different voices and elements in music. He further clarifies that all the elements in music are dependent on each other and so is the case with life.
Daniel encourages us to understand this vital lesson from music that everything in this life is dependent on each other (Barenboim 20).
Daniel has greatly emphasized the concept of learning through music. This concept is widely used by early childhood educators to who use music to transfer knowledge to children.
According to Daniel, music is helps us to have a better understanding of the whole society in terms of political and social aspects. There needs to be integration in our education systems for a complete revolution to be witnessed in the education sector. Daniel is of the view that human activities are all associated with music in one way or the other (Lewin 123).
According to Daniel, there should be a change from the traditional way of knowledge delivery right away from the Kindergartens to universities. Daniel has continued to popularize the concept of education through music especially for children in early childhood centers. Kindergartens have started to use music in teaching because of the aggressive campaigns done by Barenboim. Daniel calls for the integration of musical abilities and skills in all kinds of training.
Daniel Barenboim and other musicians have continued to support these initiatives by offering to give free music lessons in the institutions that have implemented the concept of learning through music. The concept of education through music has become very popular around the world with many kindergartens imparting knowledge to their early childhood pupils through music (Lewin 142).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Daniel emphasizes the need for everyone to have a point of view about life and music. Daniel sees music as a powerful medium of bringing people together and making peace .This is clearly demonstrated by the number of numerous shows and performance he has had in Palestine whose main objective was to preach peace and understanding. Daniel sees music as a powerful universal language that is able to unite all the people in the world (Barenboim 36).
He is considered utopian when he refers to music as a great authority. Daniel sees himself as a musical prophet when he says that music is the most powerful tool that goes beyond the political and racial boundaries. Daniel’s utopian views are portrayed when he holds massive performances in Palestine in coordination with Said in attempt to bring peace in the Middle East. Daniel Barenboim has earned a lot of titles and praises from various important personalities.
His pragmatic political view together with a flamboyant musical career has made him to receive a lot of admiration and recognition (Barenboim 64). This recognition has come with a lot of titles for the musician. Daniel has enjoyed a lot of social capital over the years which have made him to be so authoritative.
Daniel’s performances have been regarded as among the finest in the world. His performances have been signaled out as an actual representation of the composer’s original thoughts. Many people refer to his performances as expressive and thoughtful at the same time. There are various social institutions around the world that totally support Daniel’s artistic persona.
The Barenboim-Said foundation plays a key role in promoting peace in the Middle East through music (Barenboim 76). The foundation plans and coordinates music education projects that are aimed at promoting peace and tolerance in the Middle East.
The Palestinian Medical Relief Society has taken music education to children in refugee camps. The education through music initiative is aimed at enabling emotional, social and cognitive balance by developing the children’s personality and creativity in their desperate social environment (Barenboim 151).
Civil society institutions in Europe pledged their support for Barenboim’s global initiatives through music. Ignor Markevich is a Ukrainian conductor and composer who speak highly of Barenboim. Having been his conducting teacher, Markevich probably knows Barenboim better (Barenboim 188). According to Markevich, Daniel Barenboim is not only a mere pianist but also a born conductor.
Markevich acknowledges Daniel’s noble efforts in promoting peace and togetherness in the Middle East through his music. According to Markevich, Daniel is a great leader whose leadership is always demonstrated in his performances. Markevich believes that a great conductor should offer something extra apart from just playing instruments.
This extra thing is what Daniel offers and that is why Markevich sees him as somebody very special. According to classical ideology thinkers, conductors have a great role to play apart from just playing instruments. Markevich sees three fundamental qualities in Daniel.
He regards Daniel as an exceptional musician, conductor and leader all in one. Barenboim is an ideology thinker whose philosophies and views are pragmatic and unique (Lewin 72).
Daniel relates music with life in a special way. His musical philosophies have convinced many people that without music there is no life. Daniel’s performances are so compelling and authoritative at the same time. This makes his performances to be very unpredictable sometimes. Daniel’s courage and approach to music has made him to be labeled as a musician with a high-minded artistic persona.
This high-mindedness is what has given him the social capital to have his own independent political views. Daniel’s political views have made him to lose favor with Israel which is his native country (Lewin 118).
Barenboim‘s stage performances are always compelling and electrifying. Barenboim recorded the Beethoven Sonata during the early stages of his musical career. He is regarded as one of the world’s best interpreters of the Beethoven sonata. The Beethoven sonata consists of six master classes each running for fifty-five minutes.
In the Beethoven DVD, Daniel is seen coaching young pianists on a number of Beethoven movements. At an early age of seven, Daniel had already performed an official concert (Lewin 120). This would mark the beginning of his illustrious career on stage.
He first recorded the Beethoven sonata when he was1 just eighteen. The historical background of Daniel’s recordings and performances is quite amazing. Daniel made recording of gramophones in 1954. He later recorded piano sonatas of Beethoven, Mozart, Brahms and Bartok respectively. He then started serious stage performances when he joined the English Chamber Orchestra.
During his time with the English Chamber Orchestra, he performed in many international concerts as a pianist and conductor. His 1967 performance in London with the Philharmonic Orchestra increased his demand by many orchestras in Europe (Lewin 154).
Daniel made marked his first operatic debut by performing at the Edinburgh International Festival in 1973. During the concert, he performed the Mozart sonata. Daniel Barenboim has also done chamber music in collaboration with his late wife. In 1996, Daniel recorded Argentinian tangos by collaborating with Hector Console and Rudolf Maderos.
Barenboim met Said in early 1990s and formed a strong friendship based on both music and the Israeli and Palestine political conflict. Having a common mind of promoting peace, the two started to collaborate in musical concerts to demonstrate their common interest of finding peace in the Middle East (Barenboim 87).
They held a series of concerts in the West Bank and Ramallah with an objective of preaching peace through their music.
In 2006, Daniel Barenboim recorded the Beethoven sonata for a second time. The recording consists of six DVD sets. In this second recording, Daniel works with six young pianists at various stages of development. The Beethoven Sonata has been so dear to Daniel and that is why he decided to do a rendition of the sonata (Lewin 134).
The young pianists include Aboud Asshkar form Palestine, Jonathan Bliss from America, Shai Wosner from Israel, David Kadouch from France, Allesio Bax from Italy and finally Lang Lang from China. Daniel trains the young pianists in sonata movements and at the same time demonstrating to them the relationship that exist in piano playing elements (Lewin 126)
Daniel was greatly inspired by the overwhelming interest of young pianists who were ready to perfect their skills. Daniel had chosen the Beethoven sonata as his first album because it was very well received from the first time he recorded it. The Beethoven sonata had been so dear to him in his entire musical career and by no doubt his best sonata.
This was a perfect way of finishing his musical career in style. After the first recording of the Beethoven sonata, Daniel Barenboim recorded over fifteen other recordings before doing the Beethoven rendition in the twilight days of his successful musical career (Lewin 140).
The Beethoven sonata popularly known as the appassionato sonata was played at F minor which is also Daniel’s favorite key. Realizing that he was almost retiring from the entertainment scene, Daniel thought that it was not enough to just be a mentor to upcoming talent without offering them any meaningful help.
Lang Lang is one of Barenboim’s best students and beneficiaries of his lessons so far. Because of the good musical foundation given to him by his musical mentor and teacher, Lang Lang has become a household name. His first major solo performance was during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing (Lewin 135).
With almost 40 million people viewing him, this was a perfect opportunity for Lang Lang to showcase himself at the international stage. Barenboim introduced Lang Lang to real performing in his second recording of the Beethoven sonata. Daniel offers him and the other five young pianists some valuable master pieces in piano playing and conducting.
During the lessons, Daniel taught the young pianists about the key musical elements of rhythm, tempo and harmony. The electrifying performance he gave in Beijing was an outcome of some splendid tutoring by Daniel Barenboim. This budding young musician demonstrated his love for piano at tender age of two.
Lang Lang used to use pillows to in order to reach the keys at that tender age. His musical journey is almost similar to that of his mentor and tutor Daniel (Barenboim 43). Despite coming from a humble background, Lang Lang’s sheer determination and passion has made him who he is today. His supportive and dedicated family had to sacrifice a lot for him to achieve the success he has today.
Lang Lang has participated in many musical competitions before he finally got his break. Daniel Barenboim has been very instrumental in nurturing the talent of this talented young man.
The success of a student always speaks volumes about the teacher. In Daniel Barenboim, Lang Lang found the best teacher in piano playing and conducting .His experience on stage combined with his musical philosophies are just inspiring (Lewin 162).
In conclusion, it is no doubt that Daniel Barenboim has left an indelible mark in the world of music. The caliber of his performances and recordings are just world-class and that makes him one of the biggest performing artists in the world.
His personal philosophies about life have influenced his music and political views a great deal. Daniel Barenboim commands a lot of respect and recognition around the world which has earned him a lot of titles such as humanitarian, finest pianist, authoritative conductor, great leader and utopian.
Works Cited Barenboim, Daniel. Music Quickens Time. New York: Verso, 2008.Print.
Lewin, Michael. A Life in Music, Daniel Barenboim. New York: Nicolson Limited, 1991. Print.
The Biomedical Model of Health in Medicine Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Health, illness and treatments have been looked in different ways based on the cultural beliefs and traditions where one belong. Cultures all over the world have created and practiced different kind of healing system and all of these have rational points on how human bodies function normally and abnormally.
Health professionals should integrate diverse cultural concept in dealing to various healing system and modify treatments that put emphasis in giving the best health care that one deserves to have. Multi-ethnic understanding should be taken into consideration because different cultures have their distinct ways in dealing with diseases.
The biomedical model of health focuses on the biological aspect of the individual and uses scientific methods to diagnose and cure an illness. The diagnostic methods and tools are used to restore the physical state of the human body. It sees good health as the absence of pain or freedom from disease and is based on a fact.
While this model focus on the individual, other healing system like the Hmong model, that has little information about the western medical practice, believes that the causes and the cure of illnesses are divided into two parts, the spiritual and non-spiritual aspect.
The story of “The Spirit Catches You and You Fall down” implies that the Hmong sees epilepsy as of divine nature where a spirit enters the body.
This contradicts to what the doctor views that it is merely an illness that needs treatment to stop the seizure. In Hmong model, if the cause of the illness is of spiritual aspect, ancestral worship and ritualistic ceremonies are done by the shaman. In cases where illness is caused by non-spiritual aspect, they seek for traditional cures, and this is where herbal medicine comes in.
This is not only practiced by the Hmong, but also practice by other Southeast Asian cultures. Like in India, they practice the Ayurvedic medical system. Dietary and herbal are part of the treatment scheme because of the belief that it is essential in restoring the balance of mind, body and spirit and this balance is vital in achieving a healthy life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are two basic principles of illness causation that explain the rationale behind every healing system. The personalistic and naturalistic principles of illness causation discuss the mode of diagnosis, treatments and other elements that made up the health system.
Personalistic principle is derived from the idea that disease, magic and religion are inseparable. Misfortunes play a part why individual suffer from illness. Diseases occur because of the human and nonhuman intervention, the participation of the powerful being or deity and that illness is a result of the spiritual and moral aspects that are treated by those having magical and supernatural powers.
This is in contrast to the naturalistic principle that views illness in a systematic way. It states that the illness suffered by an individual is not because of misfortunes, magic or religion. The focus of this principle is therapeutic and conforms to the equilibrium model that health and illness is a product of balance and harmony of the human body and the environment.
When the state of balance between human beings and the environment are disrupted or when imbalance occurs, it will result to illness. The principle of equilibrium conforms to this model and is being practice by the Humoral model and the Ayurvedic health system.
The decision process in treating illness is complex because cultural beliefs and social factors are relevant in giving a quality multicultural care. How human beings respond to illness is essential and understanding the concepts of every healing system is vital in combating diseases.
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To research any subject area, it is important to collect data. This data should be valid and reliable in order to make the research results useful.
To consider the job satisfaction, the research team should pay attention to the following information, salary, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, procedures, coworkers’ work, communication, etc (Wood