What Is Organizational Psychology? Research Paper College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction


Related Disciplines

Role of Research and Statistics


Reference List

Introduction Organizational psychology, also known as Industrial psychology but commonly referred as industrial organizational (IO) psychology, is the application of psychology in workplace.

According to Borman, Ilgen, and Klimoski, (2003), organizational psychology is “simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry” (p 4).

In workplace, workers are faced with numerous challenges that if not handled carefully, could result to devastation and reduced employee productivity; hence, affecting the smooth running of an organization. Organizational psychology therefore deals with employees to ameliorate their performance and eudemonia.

Success of any organization depends greatly on the well-being of its workers and this underlines the grandness of organizational psychology in any organization.

Elementary, Organizational psychology seeks to improve employee conduct and attitude through training plans, hiring procedures and feedback programs. There is a lot of research going on in this field to make it better, improve production in organizations, and meet employee needs at the same time.

According to Jex and Britt (2008), researches in this field include analyzing nature of the job in question, performance, recruitment processes, training, balancing work and life, leadership coaching, diversity, decision making, self-motivation, and psychometrics among other disciplines.

Organizational psychology has taken a long route of evolution to be where it is today and this raises the question of its evolution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evolution Organizational psychology owes its roots to eminent personal differences in any given workplace. No person is a replica of the other; therefore, it becomes tiresome to evaluate employees. This echoes the necessity of organizational psychology for it gives standards by which people can be assessed.

Even though earlier studies indicated that organizational psychology solidified during World War I, current studies traces this field back to politics of Aristotle. McCarthy (2002) posits that, “Aristotle, developed foundations for many modern management concepts, including specialization of labor, delegation of authority, departmentalization, decentralization, and leadership selection.”

However, the word Organizational or Industrial psychology never existed until 1904, when W.L. Brian used this word in his presidential address where he urged people to study “concrete activities and functions as the appear in every day life…to establish ‘real life’ applications of a science of psychology” (McCarthy, 2002).

However, organizational psychology effloresced during World War I when Robert Yerkes; a prominent psychologist, elucidated the need to screen army recruits for genial sicknesses. Moreover, he suggested ways to motivate soldiers going to war and this marked the birth of intelligence test.

Contemporary organizational psychology is hinged on the principles that Yerkes and other psychologists outlined in their intelligence test.

The year 1917 is an important year in the history of organizational psychology; the first copy of Journal of Applied Psychology was published and as McCarthy (2002) points out, this journal “is still perhaps the most respected, representative journal in I/O field today.” However, the best times in this field of psychology were ahead.

Between World War I and II, Morris Viteles, gave organizational psychology a foothold when he published his first book, Industrial Psychology in 1932. Two years later, he published The Science of Work and since then organizational psychology has been a common place in organizations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on What is Organizational Psychology? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By late 1950s, motivational theories had grown which saw the introduction of Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y to explain the relationship between organizations and workers. In 1980s and 1990s, motivation in workplace had been accepted in different work environments and with the drastic change in technology, the idea spread quickly.

By mid 1990s, employers employed organizational psychology to help employees deal with stress in workplace and to strike a balance between work and family. Organizational psychology is still evolving.

This year, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) indicated that it would stick with the name despite persistent calls to drop the word “industrial” from it and this is part of evolution.

Related Disciplines Organizational psychology compares closely with psychometrics and Organizational development among other disciplines. Organizational Development (OD) just like organizational psychology deals with changing employees’ beliefs and attitudes to incorporate new technologies to meet market demands.

However, while organizational psychology deals with employees only, OD is broader encompassing organizational structures and planning. Therefore, difference between OD and organizational psychology, lies in the subjects addressed in each discipline with OD being a broader field.

On the other hand, Psychometrics is a unit of organizational psychology though it comes out as an independent field of study.

While organizational psychology encompasses other issues like ethics, psychometrics deals with “the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement” (Hunter, 1986, p. 341).

As aforementioned, psychometrics lies under organizational psychology; however, they differ in the scope of their study with organizational psychology dealing with diverse subjects as opposed to psychometrics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on What is Organizational Psychology? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Occupational health psychology (OHP) is another upcoming field of study. However, unlike organization psychology that deals with performance and eudemonia, OHP incorporates occupational health, health psychology, and IO psychology itself.

Role of Research and Statistics As discussed in the IO psychology evolution, this field has taken a relatively long time to be where it is today. Research and statistics are the backbone of this steady development. Through research and statistics, researchers employ evidence-based studies to improve on the current knowledge on IO psychology.

To come up with a valid and reliable program, say, recruitment program, there has to be intense research to substantiate its reliability. It is important to note that, the function of IO psychology is to improve performance and this can only come through credible programs.

Therefore, research and statistics helps in developing these programs. Additionally, it is only through research and statistics that a research objective can be approved as a theory.

Conclusion Organizational psychology, commonly known as Industrial-Organizational (IO) psychology refers to application of psychology in workplace. This field seeks to improve employees’ performance and eudemonia in workplace.

The well-being of employees reflects the well-being of the organization and this explains why IO psychology has been a common place in organizations. IO psychology has gone through a long process of evolution dating back to Aristotle’s time.

It became deep-rooted during World War I when Robert Yerkes and other psychologists introduced the idea of screening army recruits to detect mental sicknesses. Nevertheless, IO psychology is still under evolution with some people calling for a change of name to omit the word “industrial’ in the name.

Research and statistics play a crucial role in development of IO psychology for these two forms the backbone of efficient IO psychology. Other fields like OHP, Psychometrics and OD, are closely related to IO psychology even though they differ on some principles.

Reference List Borman, C., Ilgen, D.,


Identity and Diaspora Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Identity and Diaspora

Connection between language, identity and cultural difference


Reference List

Introduction Identity is marked out by differences in the surrounding or context within which an individual or thing is found. Differences are what make an individual or a group of people identifiable or definable. The identity of a person and what he uses, his culture and language are closely connected.

Language and culture act as symbols which mark or delineate an individual’s identity characteristics. Difference in identity makes an individual or a group of people see themselves as belonging.

The differences outline the demarcations of in-groups to which individuals belong. The basic differences between in-groups are enshrined in the language and symbolic systems that they use.

Identity definitions make individuals or a group of people to see themselves as being better than others. Hall (1997, p. 8) provides a case of a Serb militia man who claims that Serbs are totally different from Croats even in the cigarettes they smoke. Due to the kind of identity definition they hold, the Croats think themselves to be better than Serbs (Hall, 1997, 8).

The language one speaks is a powerful symbol of identity and through it, others can tell one’s nationality or culture. A person can encourage positive identity practice when he accepts and learns the identity of a particular community.

Inversely, if one rejects or vilifies the cultural identity of others, he or she encourages negative identity practices, which if unchecked are likely to result in full blown conflicts. Through language we are able to present to people who we really are and it’s also a way for others to make their own assumptions of who we are.

We have different languages and this is what marks an individual’s or a group of people’s identity. For example, the common English language the Australians speak is different from the ones Americans speak.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The differences in the English spoken in America and the English spoken in Australia results or is a consequence of difference in accents. Therefore, the difference in accents distinguishes these two groups although they speak the same language; English.

Cultural characteristics are also important symbols, which distinguish an individual or a group of people as belonging to a particular group or culture. Through the differences in cultures we are able to mark one’s identity and know or make assumptions of who they are and from which background they hail.

Identity is relational in the sense that it is distinguished by something it is not or does not have. If a particular culture does not have or do something which another culture has or does, then that is what distinguishes that particular culture, and thus gives it an identity.

Language, identity and cultural differences all have this character. An individual or a group of people may not have something in their language or culture which another individual or group of people have. What one culture lacks that another culture has gives the respective cultures a sense of identity; it distinguishes them from the others.

Language, identity and cultural differences are all marked through symbols. Things an individual or a group of people use are closely related to their identity, these are symbols which identify or define them.

They may be using something which another one doesn’t use or which they think is better than theirs, like in the case of Serbs and Croats it’s the cigarettes which define them. The cigarettes act as the symbols and differentiated or distinguish identities (Hall, 1969, p.10).

Language, identity and culture are connected because it is the differences inherent in language that map a given identity. Language and culture are connected because language often carries symbolic meanings that can only be understood in the context of the given culture.

We will write a custom Essay on Identity and Diaspora specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both languages and cultures have symbols which also act as identifiers or distinction between individuals or groups of people. Language and Culture like identity are also relational in that they are all distinguished by something they are not.

Different languages, identities and cultures have different things which the other does not have and this is what distinguishes and makes them different.

The differences in culture and language gives respective cultures and languages a sense of identity and this is important because it defines an individual or a group of people. Our identities reflect the common historical experiences and shared cultural values which make us to be a united people with stable reference of meaning.

Identity is important in that it defines who we really are and in the post colonial struggles it played a big role in reshaping our world.

The rediscovery of identity in post colonial societies has been the object of hope which has been helping former colonial subjects and colonizers rehabilitate themselves with regard to self definition and appropriation of how others define themselves (Hall, 1997).

Identity has also played an important role in the development of many important social movements. These include feminist, anti-colonial and anti-racist, environmental activists, lobby groups, human rights activists, among others movements. What brings this people together is a common identity.

They identify themselves because of the different causes they hold dear in society. The difference in cause or concern gives them an identity. Further, these social movements are identifiable with distinctive language use or jargon and their developing of symbols that frame a kind of subculture.

Identity and Diaspora Language being a powerful symbol of identity is a major difference between different cultural groups in Australia. Even among people who speak English, differences in accent and use of cliché words creates further distinctions, subcultures and thus identities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Identity and Diaspora by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I have some experience of having lived in a multicultural setting. The setting composed of people of African origin, African Americans and indigenous locals. From observations, I noticed many differences that distinguished each set of individuals or groups.

The Chinese believe that in order to achieve unity they must take pride in their history and culture; they believe that intellectual unity and consolidated power is what brings them social harmony. This is different from Australians who still deconstruct their culture, consolidate power and through government work to implement their agendas.

People of Chinese origin focus more on self development and personal growth than transforming or challenging traditional structures and set ups. This is unlike the attitude of black Americans or English Australians.

Considering countries, china is very distinctive or different from Australia. Australia is identified from Chinese because they don’t take pride in their history and cultures like the Chinese do.

Another way of distinguishing between Australians and Chinese is by language. The Chinese have their languages and even those who have immigrated to Australia still speak and teach their children to speak Chinese.

National identity in Australia was brought about by earlier Australians identifying selves with being able to withstand hardship. This kind of identity has produced a sporting spirit that has continued to grow.

Other historical factors like the gold rush days, Federation, World Wars and others have been significant symbols which have greatly influenced the development of Australia’s national identity.

The Gold Rush had a great impact on the economy of Australia and development of the nation. Diggers in the goldfields developed a strong relationship which has been important to them on how they and others perceive being Australian.

Since then, the diggers’ rebelliousness and disregard for the authority at that time has remained an important topic of discussion in Australia history and identity.

Diverse cultures, people and images in Australia have been a strong symbol of identity. Many important events and people who were involved in these events have helped the Australians shape the view they have of their nations and how others view them as a nation.

Indigenous communities have kept their cultural heritage strong and alive by passing it to every generation. These include their knowledge, art and performances.

By speaking and teaching their language to their children, protecting their culture, sacred and important places and objects, the Australians have been able to maintain and be proud of their identity.

The Aboriginal people in Australia value their land so much. They believe their land is what sustains people. Reciprocally, people and culture in turn are supposed to sustain the land. National parks are of great significance for the Aboriginal people because of the stories associated to them; stories that have been told from one generation to the other.

The diverse cultures and people unite the Australians and this has made them committed to their country. They have a right to express their diverse cultures and beliefs and to participate freely in Australia’s national development.

Everyone in Australia is expected to respect an individual’s worth, dignity and freedom. Every individual has freedom of speech, religion, association and is expected to support and maintain peace. The pride each individual group takes in its cultural heritage has helped keep Australian cultures live.

The cultural identification helps distinguish people and offers them an identity. National initiatives and mechanisms have been put in place to help Australians towards becoming more tolerant towards difference.

Art in Australia has contributed to the shaping and reflecting of the nation’s image. Art scenes have reflected the diverse indigenous cultural traditions and this as a symbol of identity has helped to define the nation. Modern art in Australia is totally different to that of Chinese.

Because of government funding, Australia’s art is more political compared to that of Chinese. This has caused a great divide between the private and the government funded art’s market. This is a mark of identity because identity is relational as it is distinguished by something it is not.

Art in China is distinguished from that of Australia because it’s less political. The difference in art scenes of these two countries also marks identity because identity is marked by differences, and through these differences Australia is able to define itself.

Education in Australia is different from that of China in that in Australia they are more focused on students while in China they are more focused on teachers.

A teacher in Australia will help students find answers to a question by themselves by providing them with the basic knowledge while in China a teacher will easily give answers to students without letting them do something on their own first.

In Australia students interact a lot and more easily than in China. Students in Australia learn by doing things on their own and interacting with their fellow students and they plan their own learning. These differences in education between China and Australia mark identity because identity is all about differences.

Identity is marked through symbols. As a matter of fact, symbols are very important for marking cultural identity and regeneration.

For example, national flag, food recipe and uniform are such symbols that identify individuals or groups. Australia has a national flag in which they take pride and which has become an expression of identity. It is the nation’s chief symbol and Australians respect it and use it with dignity.

Through symbols, individuals define their culture and are able to feel connected with their past. Moreover, symbols also connect the present with the future as they help to store or safeguard a people’s heritage. This is because the symbols have been there from the past and have been passed from one generation to the other.

For example in Australia, the ruling authority wanted to make the Union Jack as the uniting symbol. Many Australians were against this and they tried to create their own symbols in order to challenge the authorities and express their culture.

Many of these were rejected by the government which has in turn has made Australia remain seeking for symbols. Up to now, symbols still define much of political life in Australia and Australians are still trying to find new symbols. This shows how symbols are important in marking an identity of an individual or a nation.

Chinese boast when it comes to hospitality and this is clearly expressed by their way of life. In China they can easily invite a stranger in their homes and share with him their food and make sure he/she is full before leaving. It’s different in Australia because they are kind of wary of strangers than the Chinese people.

Identity is marked through social and material conditions. When it comes to drinking, alcohol is important for both Australians and Chinese. What makes the difference is the way of consumption. The Chinese get drunk very fast and it is acceptable for them to act in an uncontrolled manner while drunk.

For the Chinese drinking is a way of showing respect. On the other hand Australians drink more slowly while having a conversation and they don’t seem to like it when one starts to act in an uncontrolled manner due to drunkenness.

Sex is considered a taboo topic for discussion in China and in order for a woman to be respected and valued in marriage; she has to be a virgin. In Australia sex topics are not considered taboo and they are openly discussed and for a man to marry he doesn’t have to get a virgin woman.

This has caused many women and men to be sexually experienced before getting married. This for most of older Chinese is very immoral. It doesn’t mean that the Chinese are upright in behavior; they also have a number of practices that Australians find immoral.

Men in China find themselves in sexual unfulfilling marriages, this makes it acceptable for them to visit prostitutes or have mistresses. In Australia this is totally unacceptable. Chinese maintain their morality before getting married but after marriage it gets different while Australians maintain their morality in marriage.

Australia is a multicultural nation in which they have many different races, ethnic groups and cultures. In Australia there are the indigenous and non-indigenous people. The indigenous people are claimed to have been marginalized through colonization.

One of the major debates on the significance of belonging and culture is identity. Multiculturalism in Australia is about cultural diversity and has influenced greatly the identity of the nation. It values its racial and ethnic diversity by giving its people freedom to express their cultural values.

Multiculturalism in Australia has worked well because different cultures have been accepted by the people and the peaceful relationship between diverse cultures and individuals has been maintained.

Diversity in Australia has acted as a positive force in bringing the people of together by accepting each others different culture and this has been a very significant identity which the people of Australia take pride in.

Sports, music and art have provided Australia with an identity. It has been recognized worldwide through its achievements in sports.

They have been able to achieve this through a successful multicultural society and their sporting heroes are recognized and valued worldwide giving Australia an identity.

Connection between language, identity and cultural difference Hall’s explanation of the connection between language, identity and cultural difference has helped in explaining how these three connect. As Hall put it, identity is marked out by differences.

Different people speak different languages and this difference is what makes an individual identify with a particular group of people. There are different cultures and identity which exists between people and they are all marked by differences.

Identity representation has signifying symbols and processes which produce meanings through which we can know who we are and understand our experiences. This symbolic system makes us understand who we are and what we might be in future.

Representations of identity helps an individual see and know themselves. Culture shapes identity by giving meaning to our experiences in that we are able to define ourselves by relating to our cultural experiences.

Diaspora identities are those which are continuing to develop themselves a new through transformation and difference. Thus cultural identities go through constant transformation as it is about what you become and what you are. Cultural identities are the points of identification which are made throughout history of a culture.

In Australia multiculturalism has made it difficult for the government to approve a national cultural symbol because all cultures are equal and the people enjoy freedom of being individuals.

Social and symbolic markings are both important for the defining and maintaining of identities. Symbolic marking is how we look at and understand our social relations and practices while social differentiation is the way people live with these types of differences in their everyday relations.

Identities are formed and maintained because they mater so much and this is why people would always claim their positions and identify with them. Different people, cultures, ethnic groups and even religious groups claim a common culture as their foundation. Identity depends on difference and in social relations symbolic and social differences develop.

Foods people eat tell a lot about who they are and what culture we are in. Foods indicate religious as well as ethnic background and culture of a people, there are foods which are considered as unclean by other cultures or religious groups but are eaten by others.

Through such foods we are able to make an assumption or know which culture or religion one comes from, for example Muslims are identified for their avoidance of pork and this defines their religion.

This marks the identity of such groups who avoid certain foods and the identities of those who are part of a particular belief system and those who are not. The types of food people eat are materialistic because people eat what they are able to afford and what is available in their society.

Identities are made in relation to other identities, what they are not is what defines them and this brings the difference. Chinese art scenes are not as political as those of Australia and this is what marks the difference.

Cultural identities are histories which people share and thus make them one people or one culture. A Diaspora must discover this identity in order for them to express their cultural experiences.

Conclusion Around the world people define their cultural identity by stereotyping themselves. The stereotypes model the behavior that people want to copy and make people feel that they are part of a community and that they belong to a particular culture.

In Australia, individuals have appreciated the importance of identity and in order to confirm their identity, they have created stereotypes. The Australians take pride in their national unity and people from different cultures are all one and care for one another.

In conclusion, Hall’s argument that Identity is marked by differences is a valid one. Further, the interconnection he relates about language, culture and identity as illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs is a valid one.

Some differences are taken to be more important than others by different ethnic groups or cultures. One group might see themselves superior to the other and what they use as more important and great than the others.

Identity is also marked through social and material conditions. A group may be separated socially and disadvantaged materially if it is it is symbolically marked as an enemy or taboo.

Symbols mark distinctions which are present in social relations. In social relations people use different things and because an individual or group of people may think of theirs as better than others, it brings the distinction.

If a group is socially separated because it is marked as an enemy they will be materially disadvantaged because no one would want to associate with such group which is claimed to be a taboo or enemy.

Social relations may be organized and divided into opposing groups; one group may see themselves as better than the other and consider the other as nothing because of the different social backgrounds and cultures.

Reference List Hall, S. (1997). Cultural Identity and Diaspora. London: SAGE Publication

Hall, S. (1969). Commonwealth of Australia. London: Sage Publications


The Effect of Famine in North Korea Cause and Effect Essay online essay help: online essay help

The Asian continent is the world’s largest and most populous located mainly in the eastern and northern hemispheres. The population in Asia is estimated at about 4 billion people representing a whooping 60% of the world’s total human population as it currently stands (Lee 500).

The Pacific Ocean borders Asian to the east while India is to the south of Asia. Asia is also bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean. There are several independent states in Asia with China as the single largest country. It is these many countries that define Asia’s varying distribution of wealth.

It is also characterized by its immeasurable size and magnificent range of different cultures, historical backgrounds, environmental orientation, natural resources and different government systems.

The paper seeks to primarily focus on the effects of famine in North Korea. It will highlight its background information, the cause of famine in detail as well as the role of its government system in influencing economic development.

North Korea is a one of the countries in the larger Asia. It is also referred to as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) (Lee 513). Pyongyang is the largest and capital city of North Korea. It is divided from South Korea by The Korean Demilitarized Zone.

North Korea borders China to its western region and Russian to the North-east. In 1948, North Korea declined to participate in an election that was held in the south which was supervised by the United Nations. This refusal led to the creation of the current independent governments of North and South Korean states (Lee 517).

Continued tag of war for the sovereignty over the whole of Peninsula resulted in the Korean War in the year 1950. The war ended three years later with armistice but no peace treaty was ever signed which implies that the two states are still at war on book. The two states joined the UN in 1991 with North Korea withdrawing unilaterally from the armistice in May 2009.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as politics is concerned, North Korea has been a single-party state. Its united front is steered by the Korean Workers’ Party and is governed by the ideology of self-reliance known as Juche which was advocated by North Korea’s late “Eternal President” Kim Il-sung.

The ideology was made official in 1972 when the state adopted a new constitution. Juche had been used all along by Kim Il-sung to develop policies since mid 1950s. North Korea is officially a socialist republic but its operations have made other outside countries to regard it as a totalitarian Stalinistic characterized by dictatorship.

Kim Jong-il, Kim Il-sung’s son, is the current leader of the armed forces and secretary of the KWP Central Committee Secretariat. Kim Il-sung is the only president since he was never replaced when he died in 1994, but instead he was the given the name, “Eternal President”.

The ceasefire of 1953 marked the end of the Korean War but since then the relationship between the government of North Korea and America, Canada, Japan, Europe, the European Union, as well as South Korea has been tense (Eberstadt, Marc,


Presence Human Purpose and the Field of the Future Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Comparisons



The Book “Presence Human Purpose and the Field of the Future” by Senge et al (2007) is based on three main steps of leadership: Sensing, presencing and realizing. The book states that leadership presents a challenge for every one to become better, wholesome and reflective.

The book gets its name from the presencing step, whereby leaders are advised to retreat, observe and reflect in order to get a deeper understanding of why things happen the way they do.

This book suggests that fresh ideas and knowledge cannot be attained in a frenzy atmosphere and as such, leaders need to detach themselves from all the frenzy that goes on around them, take time to relax and meditate and as a result, come up with “non-decision decisions”.

Senge et al (2008) suggests that a good leader needs to understand his organization well in order to formulate leadership strategies that will be most effective. To this end, the book suggests that leaders need to attain both primary and analytical knowledge, since such is required in the leadership strategy formulation.

Accordingly, the book suggests that primary knowledge allows a leader develops compassion about specific things in an organization and hence he/she act spontaneously, without having to engage in decision-making when faced with items that falls within the primary knowledge.

Senge et al (2008) on the other hand argues that analytical knowledge is more deliberate and involves calculating the consequences of each action or decision that the leader makes.

Overall, this book views leadership as a role that requires a sound clear mind, that is able to tap through different capacities and opportunities through developing a vision, and integrating it into the organization culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book however states that leader should wake up from the notion that they are superior human beings and hence can be on a “doing” mode endlessly. “Leaders need substantial discipline to halt their anxieties and emotions, in order to refocus on what matters to them and the organization they are leading.”

Comparisons There is a striking difference between the book by Senge at al (2008) and “Getting to yes; negotiating agreement without giving in” by Fisher et al (1991). While the latter focuses mostly on the inner qualities that make good leaders, the other focuses on the interpersonal qualities that makes successful leadership.

Such are identified as: separating the problems from the people, focusing on interests rather than in positions, inventing options that would enhance mutual gains and insisting on objectivity as a criterion in decision making.

As their book title suggest, Fisher et al (1991) lays more emphasis on negotiating and winning, which is an aspect of good leadership.



Factors considered while choosing the right staff Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction In any given company, there are some techniques that are usually employed by the employers during the selection of the right personnel. Several factors are usually put into consideration during the selection of the employees.

Given the difference in needs in each organization, the factors considered while selecting the workers vary widely in each. Procedures are in essence followed during the evaluation of a member of the organization and questions are usually asked at this stage.

Questions are asked basing on the type of the job. The validity of the questions is usually low if there is not any connection between the questions and the job.

This manuscript will argue out that cancelling an interview and replacing it with paper-and-pencil measures is not the best elucidation to the jeopardy of interview validity and go further to discuss the factors that management should consider while choosing the staff.

Unstructured interviewing Whenever the validity of questions asked in choosing of the staff of a certain organization is low, the concerned individuals who are the employers need to find a substitute to the appraisal center. Since the right personell need to be found to help in boosting the profits in the companies, bias should not be entertained.

According to (Lowry 1994: 34) “unstructured interview has a lower validity and reliability and therefore when assessment is done, the alternative will be a structured interview.

The alternative is valid and less costly”. “Personnel selection for managerial and supervisory positions is important for efficient and effective conduct of business in both the private and public sectors” (Bernreuter 1933: 45).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to (Lowry 1994), an interview is a modus operandi that is premeditated to acquire information from a group of people basing on their verbal answers to verbal questions.

However, (Allport 1937 p.4) states that a “job selection interview aims at predicting future job performance based on applicant’s oral responses to oral inquiries”. (Seegal 2003: 32) states that,”it will be very unusual for an employer to hire someone without conducting an interview. Even though it has a low validity it should still remain an indispensiblbe tool”.

Interviewing is as a method of selection of staff is used worldwide. Research proves that seventy percent of companies in the Northern Ireland employ the unstrructured method of interview in order to aid in promotion of verdicts (Butcher 1995).

In (Segal


Impact of Knowledge Management on Nokia Corporation Coursework cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction This paper reviews literature relating to knowledge workers and its application to Nokia Corporation. It proposes a model to understand the way KM affects the organization, especially human resource management (Hannabuss, 2001). KM is a term used to refer to the management of the skilled and knowledgeable employees in an organization (Caddy, 2007).

Skilled and knowledgeable employees are important because they help the organization to utilize its competitive advantage in innovation (Henard


Concepts of HP Laptops Coursework college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Market Structure for HP laptops

Possible Strategies of HP Laptop Competitors


Reference List

Introduction Today’s business and leisure activities run smoothly due to the emergency of new and supportive technologies. For example, since the emergency of personal laptop computers, people are able monitor their personal finances from time to time.

Moreover, networking, documentation and online chats keep on asserting new opportunities to lives of many. Numerous companies ranging from Dell to HP are manufacturing laptops for their clients. In order to make sure its laptop industry undergoes a revolution, Hewlett Packard Company has enacted modalities to create a viable market for their laptops.

Market Structure for HP laptops Over the recent years, HP laptops are the most sold in the market. The dominance in the market is because of their resilience in price control and upgraded technologies. Information technologists argue that, HP is able to regulate market economy through its peculiar products.

The quality of HP laptops is not a selfish guarantee of aggressiveness in the market, but rather market protectionism and increased sales.

In 2008, the number of HP laptops sold was greater by two million as compared to the second placed Dell laptops. The switch from personal computer desktops to laptops is responsible for HP laptop markets structure.

The market structure of HP laptops created because of increased shares, continue to outburst the laptop industry. HP laptops furnish both small and large enterprises through dyed-in-the-wool product contours.

Moreover, HP laptops dominate markets due to aggressive selling and excellent channel strategies that spout the ever-growing market segmentations. In fact, this explains why the market structure of HP laptops is bursting. (Kerridge, 2009, p.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, competition is high in the market. For other laptop manufacturing companies to increase their sales, they must overshadow HP products must first something that needs a lot of effort and finances. The increased sales from HP products are because of proper branding strategies that helped in achieving market recognition.

Increased HP shares are due to higher revenue generated from potential sales. Competitor companies like Dell, Acer and Toshiba are struggling to create brawny and superior illustrations, which will attract customer to buy their products (Display Search 2010, p.1).

Possible Strategies of HP Laptop Competitors HP has theme in their business outsourcing strategies and this is being a market leader of computer laptops. If other competitor companies are not up to the task of creating market strength of their laptops, then there is no way out they can create pressure on HP products unless they come up with innovations in the laptop technology.

Competitor companies presently also manufacture same commodities ranging from monitors to laptops something that HP has already done; hence, the need to come up with innovations to meet the ever increasing market competition they face from HP.

Other possible strategies from HP laptop competitors include cutting the price of their products between 14 and 20 percent to induce a war price market. Some companies like dell have now embarked on server growth mechanisms, which will act like an entry point into the HP monopolistic market.

It is true that HP does not dominate all markets in the world. As a way to bring competition, competitor laptop manufacturers should embark on opening new market places all over the world especially in places where HP products do not dominate the market.

On the other hand, it is important to note that, these HP competitors are now engaged in laptop up gradation to give them an upper hand over HP laptops. This has really helped these companies in attracting more customers toward their products.

We will write a custom Coursework on Concepts of HP Laptops specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In order to increase their sales through competition, I would like to see HP competitors launch new and featured laptop computers. For example, they can manufacture laptops with inbuilt TV tuner cards and modify the keyboard to a lighting one.

Another modality to counter HP laptops is to manufacture laptops that sell at a cheaper price. In addition to that, these companies ought to make numerous advertisements so that their commodities become conversant to customers. This will boost customer loyalty hence sales and greater revenue generation.

Reference List Display Search, 2010. HP Maintains 20% Worldwide Notebook PC Market Share in Q1’08; Gains Share on Rivals in 5 of 6 Regions; Mini-Note PC Market Forecast to Grow to More Than 13M Units in 2008. Display Search. Web.

Kerridge, M., 2009. The HP Laptop Industry. Linkvana. Web.


Nintendo Wii Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help

Abstract Nintendo is a games manufacturing in Japan. It was started a long time ago in the late 1800s (1880) by a man named Yamauch as small company producing playing cards for the Japanese market (Iwata, 2006).It was until 1970 through to 1985 that Nintendo started producing electronic toys and video games.

Nintendo was the dominant player in the video gaming industry for decades soaring in the success of both consoles and hand held games. This lasted until the entry of other players who saw an opportunity in the gaming business.

Sony launched its PS in the mid nineties while Microsoft came in with Xbox in 2001.This completely changed the face of the gaming industry because there was increased competition in terms of quality and innovativeness.

Introduction Nintendo had been in the gaming industry for many decades without any reasonable competition; they had almost total control of the market and therefore had conventional marketing strategies that perhaps were not as sophisticated as present day marketing strategies with so much competition in the market.

This analysis therefore seeks to critically look at the strategies employed by Nintendo before, upon the entry of competitors and any foreseen strategies that maybe employed. Microsoft and Sony’s strategies and mistakes will also be looked into and the some insight put on the way these strategies have changed the industry.

Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis is a means or strategy used to identify and closely look at the importance and influence of certain groups and/or individuals that could affect or get affected in some way by a particular project (Nager, 2009).

In Marketing, many groups are considered but the most important can be summarized in four C’s; Customers, Competitors, Company, Community (Nager, 2009). As Nager puts it” This 4C’s Analysis is based in part on the 3C’s Model of Dr.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kenichi Ohmae, a senior partner at McKinsey


Violent Non-State Actors Essay essay help

Admittedly, the major reason for the development of violent non-state agents (VNSA) is weakening of state power (Singer 2001-2002). These agents can operate on territories which are not controlled by a state. Therefore, the term “non-state” can become inappropriate since VNSA operate on areas where state is not represented by any force.

However, nowadays many states (and the United States is among them) have to face the necessity to resist VNSAs. The development of technology and globalization contributed greatly to the spread of VNSAs. There are many types of such agents, and some of them have gained considerable power nowadays.

Williams points out several major types of VNSAs which can be dangerous for the state power. Thus, the first type of VNSAs to be considered is warlords, charismatic leaders who usually have military background, and who oppose some policies of a state (Williams 2008, 9-15). Another type of VNSA is militia, a military formation which operates in a state where state power is weak.

Another type of VNSA singled out by Williams is paramilitary force. These forces usually originate from state military formations or even established by the government.

In this way, some states try to acquire cheaper military force. It is necessary to note that the existence of this type of VNSA also raises a question about the appropriateness of the term “non-state” since the state forms the violent agent, apart from (or even instead) of conventional state military force. Another type of VNSA is insurgencies, military formations which try to overthrow the government.

Terrorist organizations are now the VNSAs which attract much attention at present. These agents are usually a threat for countries where state power is properly established, e.g. the USA.

Finally, one more type of VNSAs, which are dangerous for a weaken state, are criminal organizations and youth gangs. Of course, these VNSAs jeopardized order in any country (on every level), but if the state power is well established such agents are usually neutralized.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As has been mentioned earlier globalization, technology development and media are playing crucial role in VNSAs empowering. Thus, Kramer et al. claim that the development of electronics and information systems has put the problem of VNSAs on global scale (Kramer et al. 2009, 4).

At present such agents can easily interact with other agents: buy and sell armament, join military groups in different countries, provide technological, financial and other help to each other in order to reach certain aims (Singer 2001-2002). Basically, VNSAs have entered global market place which enables them to compete more successfully with state power.

As far as empowerment of VNSAs, especially when it deals with terroristic groups, it is necessary to emphasize that media “play an integral part” in the process (Zanini and Edwards 2001, 42). For instance, terroristic acts are aimed at attracting attention and news media help them to achieve their goals in quite an easy way.

In fact, the power of media is already acknowledged by VNSAs and many such groups have their own radio stations and television.

Thus, nowadays the struggle between states and VNSAs has shifted on another level. First, governments invest into the development of technology and information system to defeat VNSAs. This enables states to prevent violent acts, rather than try to overcome their aftermaths.

Admittedly, preventive tactics is very successful, though not all acts can be prevented nowadays (Jenkins 2010, 13). However, the development of technology and enactment of new more effective legislation can become a good background for successful struggle against VNSAs.

Reference List Jenkins, Brian Michael. 2010. Would-Be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist Radicalization in the United States since September 11, 2001. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

We will write a custom Essay on Violent Non-State Actors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kramer, Franklin D., Stuart H. Starr, and Larry K. Wentz, Eds. 2009. Cyberpower and National Security. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.

Singer, Peter W. 2001-2002. “Corporate Warriors: The Rise and Ramifications of the Privatized Military Industry”. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/corporate-warriors-the-rise-and-ramifications-of-the-privatized-military-industry/ .

Williams, Phil. 2008. Violent Non-State Actors and National and International Security. International Relations and Security Network (ISN). Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

Zanini, Michelle, and Sean J.A. Edwards. 2001. “The Networking of Terror in the Information Age.” In Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy, ed. Jon Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, 29-60. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.


Human Rights System Essay essay help

The human right system as defined by the United Nation Human Rights System is a system whereby, the fundamental rights of humans are observed as well as character and worth of all the persons. Included in this system is the application of equal rights and system to all persons.

The United Nations have set a preamble on the rights that should be assigned to humans. The preamble preaches of application of human rights to all people with maximum fairness and campaigns against discrimination, whether on the age of the person or sexual orientation.

Many rights are discussed in the universal declaration of human rights proposal in regard to the rights of individuals in a given country. The thirty articles contained in this declaration all aim at ensuring that the people rights are observed at all means.

The rights speak of a general importance of the people having the equal rights to others and living together in the spirit of brotherhood. The purpose of human rights is to be able to protect human agency and to protect humans against abuse and oppression.

Negative freedom is fought against through the underlined rights. According to Ignatieff, the rights subsistence is also important as the right of agency, since both of them fight against torture (Gutman, 2001). Though the subsistence right is not, negative freedom is equally as bad because it causes cruelty and punishment to the people.

The importance of human right is to protect human agency, which is not always inclusive of the negative freedom only. However, just because human rights are enforced does not mean that the people will live a wonderful life. The sole purpose of these rights is to ensure that individuals do not face any kind of abuse and torture.

Proliferation of right is however discouraged, as setting out rights that are not necessarily needed to protect agency may weaken even the power of the enforcers. Achievement of the international human rights may be a problem due to proliferation of rights since it is hard to achieve an intercultural assent to rights. Human right also faces a problem of nationalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By nationalism it means the right of self- determining. The problem with nationalism is that if it has to be practiced, the majority have their way while minority have just their say. Some people will benefit while others lose.

Ultimately, nationalism means that some rights will be observed and others violated; this is however not what human rights stands for since it seeks to make sure that the right of all individuals are observed and equality is the main driving force (Gutman, 2001).

The United Nation has a dream of creating a global community, which observes human rights. Anthropology plays a great role in this by carrying out a research on the different culture, and also monitoring the observance of rights and when need arises in fighting against incidences of violation of rights. Anthropology is a big advocator of the human rights through collectively fighting of human rights and for individuals.

Anthropologists have also shown great commitment in the political area, involving themselves in activities that fight away oppression in the society. Anthropology seeks to put back human back to their rights. Anthropologist can be of great help on the understanding of human rights through showing conceptions of rights, and how they function in different cultures.

For example, in Latin America traditionally citizenship excluded the locals and were subject to rights violations. Through the years anthropologists have studied the international law and tried to reform it to such a way that they revive legal pluralism. It is through this time that legal anthropology rose up that aimed at ensuring the right of individuals internationally.

A culture of transnational culture has been created where some countries like Hawaii have followed the international human rights law. Anthropology therefore embraces the need to have law in the society that guides the people (Wilson 2006).

Having the law will ensure that equality among the individuals is observed and the people in the society will have knowledge of the same. Incidences of violation of the rights are therefore minimal.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Rights System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Adams book on the suffering of winds of Lhasa, universal rights people are well advocated as compared to individualist rights of people. Vincanne is keen to note that the Tibetan refugees would endure lesser pain if the rights of all the individuals were considered. The data collected in this book reveal that the international rights were not followed.

The way they were fighting against the denial of the rights took them so long to get the independence, and it is only when they sort the rights universally that their views were heard (Adams, 2002). Culture is brought out as barrier to the rights of individually in the society, the fact that their culture embraced torture made them take long in fighting for their rights.

Sometimes, incidences of violence and suffering are important in adding the dimension of experience to the language of rights. Suffering brings understanding to the people of the accepted human suffering right to the people. The same is expressed in the anthropology theory where we are deemed to imagine ourselves living the lives of other people and enjoy the treatment they enjoy.

Instances of having political violence and atrocity are some of the ways the human rights of people can be denied. According to Humphrey (2002), violence does not only to cause injury, but also destroy the human life. In such a setting where the political violence is in existence, the rights of people are usually not practiced and oppression is high.

After the end of the violence, the only way to ensure that such violation does not occur again is ensuring that there is closure among the affected parties. Achieving closure means that the victims’ rights are observed and those in the violation of the rights are subjected to the justice of the later or international justice (Humphrey, 2002). S

ometimes the rights of the victim are seen as an obstacle to political change. Such a notion should not exist since for justice to be there, it is necessary to have people’s rights being observed.

Observance of the rights laid down is not usually followed especially in scenarios involving politics. Internationally, there have been various incidences of violence and this time through violation and lack of awareness to the general public. Application of rights right down by the United Nation is not always followed.

The right against oppression, which is highlighted in their declaration of human rights is not followed in some countries; Argentina is one of the countries that has faced this problem. Military dictatorship around the1970s denied the people their rights by subjecting them to oppression, torture, and imprisonment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Rights System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this time, the constitution was not followed and rights against the people were denied. Pressure amounted from the international community that led to formation of human right groups that fought impunity. It is through the meetings between these groups that pushed the authority to stop oppression and embrace transition.

Truth and justice commission emerged at this point, and were campaigned for democracy (Bosco, 2004). Creation of democracy led the government to engage in attempts to set up ways of ensuring that the justice in the country is observed, as well as a frame work of ensuring human rights are followed.

To the local people, some individuals have gone to the extent of putting up memorial landscapes that are historical to the people, reminding them of the time their rights were being violated. Madres de Plaza de Mayo is one of the symbols used in Argentina, that acts as a reminder to the general public of having the rights of the public (Bosco, 2004).

The symbols are reminders of the visitors as well as the public of the past and how oppressive it was to them. Rituals have also been used as a symbol of fighting incidences of lack of issuing of rights. The fact that they are collective can offer a commemoration to all the people of importance of the past as well as the need to observe human rights.

Education to the local public of their rights has been promoted through various methods. Among them has been setting up Truth and Reconciliation bodies. In these bodies, the cause of the violence is determined as well as the reasons that led to the occurrence of the violence.

According to Humphrey (2002), it is not always that these bodies offer justice to the public, as in some instances, for example the incident is South Africa: So that the truth can be determined, the violators of these rights were given amnesty to unreveal the truth that would set closure to the general public. Humphrey highlights that the testimony has more importance than meeting the individuals’ physiological needs.

Giving these testimonies also involved transformation and creation of a culture of having human rights being observed. Humphreys is also keen to note that the international court can be used to offer justice to the individuals who have been involved in massive denial of rights (Humphrey, 2002).

Through this system, the public rights can be fought against as well as ensure that justice is practiced. Having trial is one of the steps that can be taken to ensure that the general population has recovered from the violence times. Morality is also instilled by this move. However, this is not always enough, working with the memory of the past is important in ensuring that the political reality is created in the country.

Human rights are important among individuals in any society. They enhance the spirit of living in harmony among the individuals in the society. There are many theories that explain the need to have practice of right. Among them is the anthropology theory that stresses on the need of collective fight for peoples’ rights (Wilson, 2006).

There is no need to just highlight the rights that people have without ever ensuring that the rights are given to the people. Justice is also an important element in offering the rights of the people; individuals involved in violence against other people, whether political or not, should be accountable for their actions.

There is also the need to have a truth and justice commission to bring healing to a country that has suffered great violence, and also trials to individuals involved. To a country involved in violence, there is need to set a reminder to the future generation where the country has come from, to ensure that it does not happen again. Setting out symbols can be one of the solutions that remind the locals of where they have come from.

List of References Adams, V. (2002) Suffering the Winds of Lhasa: Politicized Bodies, Human Rights, Cultural difference, and Humanism in Tibet, in The Anthropology of Globalization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Bosco, F. J. (2004) Human rights Politics and scaled performances of memory: conflicts among the Madres De Plaza De Mayo in Argentina. Social


Nanophase Technologies Marketing Mix Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Nanophase Business strategy

Nanophase is a company dealing in some of the latest technologies available today. Nanotechnology is being seen as the greatest inventions of the modern day. This being the case, Nanophase is a pioneer commercial enterprise dealing in the new technology.

The most notable character of the company’s business organization is that it is market oriented. The company is focused on developing technologies which are commercially viable based on nanotechnology. The most important sector offering the largest customer base for the company is the manufacturing sector.

It is clear that all business entities are aimed at optimizing the resources available to them. This being the case, Nanophase was established to offer the new technology which has the potential to revolutionize the way manufacturing processes are conducted.

Due to the above described characteristics, the company operates a customer orientation model of business. The most important principle of this business model is that the customer is king. The company has to constantly develop customized technologies to suite the unique requirements of the entire spectrum of customer base.

Due to the expansiveness of application of the technology, product development becomes a major component of the company’s business model. New products are continually being developed as a way of expanding the customer base for the company as the new technology is yet to be fully entrenched in the market.

However despite the wide application of nanotechnology, the company mainly focuses on products and market opportunities in material science which can be developed within a time frame of 12 to 18 months (Brady,


Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Essay essay help online free

Introduction This paper aims to discuss the application of the two-factor theory in project management. This model was introduced by Frederick Herzberg in late fifties, and since that time it has become very popular among business administrators.

Our key task is to show how project management can use it to motivate the employees who participate in the design and construction process such as architects, contractors, interior designers, and other professionals.

Project managers perform a great variety of functions such as planning, staffing or organizing (Demkin, 693); however, ability to provide a stimuli to employees is an important part of their competencies and skills. At this point, Herzberg’s two-factor theory has already proved to be successful areas of business administrators, and it is vital to show how project managers can benefit from it.

The key premises of Herzberg’s two-factor theory Yet, at first it is necessary to discuss some underlying premises of this theory. It stems from the idea that there are two kinds of factors that affect a person’s attitude toward his/her job. The group called motivators includes opportunities for professional growth, career advancement, recognition, or responsibility (Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 133).

In other words, motivators are those forces which prompt an employee to fulfill his/her potential. In turn, one has to speak about the so-called hygiene factors. This group comprises such factors as job security, compensational policies of a company, working conditions, relations with the management etc (Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 133).

According to Herzberg, they do not contribute to the creation of dissatisfaction, but their absence inevitably leads to the discontent among employees (Herzberg as cited in Schermerhorn 299). The main reason for it is that hygiene factors are not directly related to professional skills or personal qualities of an employee.

The key argument advanced by the supporters of the two-factor theory is that one cannot motivate employees only by offering them higher wages or fringe benefits. In their opinion, one has to change the nature of work: it must be made more creative or challenging.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, it must force the employee to demonstrate his or her best quality. This idea lies at the core of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and on its basis, business administrators enhance the performance of the employees. It has to be admitted that Herzberg’s theory of motivation is not the only one, to some degree is very Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Maslow also argued that every person strives to fulfill his/her creative potential (Maslow as cited in Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 132); however, Herzberg’s two-factor theory is more adapted toward the needs of management. This is why it seems to be most beneficial for the needs of project managers and other business administrators.

The use of two-factor theory in project management Challenges faced by project managers

Project managers who specialize in construction and design can find this approach very useful. They cooperate with different professionals in the course of their work, namely architects, engineers, consultants, exterior and interior designers, builders, and so forth. Each of these groups sets different expectations for the work, and they must be taken into account.

Another challenge, faced by project managers is that they need to motivate employees who do not work directly for them; moreover, project managers are often perceived as organizers and facilitators rather than motivators (Flame, 257).

As it has been pointed out by David Haviland, project managers, working in construction sphere, deal with high-skilled professionals and traditional method of “carrots and sticks” is not applicable for them (Haviland, 8). These are the issues that should be taken into consideration. In part, David Haviland’s argument confirms the two-factor theory.


At this point, we need to explain how this model can be applied by project managers. For instance, one can take architects; these professional have to possess a great of skills, including technical competence, in-depth understanding of the construction process, profound knowledge of modern technologies, etc.

However, the key component is creativity, and this component seems to be the most rewarding part of being an architect. This is why a project management must provide this person with opportunities for demonstrating his creative talent. It can be done in several ways: on the one hand, the project manager should relax supervision of these employees: they must understand that the project manager puts trust in them.

We will write a custom Essay on Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the project should not restrict their creative capacity. Certainly, an architect has to adhere to a certain style and also take into consideration the needs of people who will occupy the building but no one should be telling architects how exactly they must design a building.

In this way, one would greatly diminish their job satisfaction. Similar strategies can be applied to exterior and interior designers. Overall, these people attach the highest importance to creativity, and project managers must make sure that they have such an opportunity.

Furthermore, project managers work directly with many contractors and consultants. If we are speaking about motivators, we need to single out such factors as empowerment and recognition. These professionals need to receive a certain degree of autonomy and especially ability to make independent decisions. Moreover, one should not overlook the role of recognition.

For instance, while assessing the performance of the workers, the project manager should record every contribution made by consultants, engineers, contractors. If one of them has made recommendations that can facilitate the process of construction, the project manager should definitely recognize this contribution. Those employees, who continuously contribute to the success of the project, should be promoted.

Without recognition and advancement, they people may think that the manager does not value them, and they will gradually become dissatisfied with their work. As we have demonstrated, those people, who take part in construction and design projects, tend to set different expectations for their jobs.

For some of them, creativity is of the highest priority, while others may pay more attention to recognition and advancement. In some cases, this difference can be explained by the peculiarities of the job, itself; yet, very often expectations depend on the personnel traits of an employee.

It is a duty of a project manager to understand what exactly people expect from their job; otherwise, he or she will find it very difficult to motivate them.

Hygiene factors

Nonetheless, one should not disregard the importance of hygiene factors such as salary, job security, work condition, managerial policies of the company, etc. The project manager has to make sure that every person receives adequate compensation for his/her work.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, the project manager should make sure that each member of the personnel does not feel insecure about his or her position in the company since this is one of those factors which lead to discontent and even force employees to search for a different job.

Finally, the project manager must ensure that each consultant, engineer, contractor is occupied with a task that directly matches his/her skills since this is an essential part of work conditions. As a rule, hygiene factors do not provide a powerful stimulus to the employees but they are essential for avoiding employee dissatisfaction.

Conclusion This discussion shows that two-factor theory advanced by Frederick Herzberg can be of great use to project managers who are working on construction and design projects. Their major task is to improve the first group of factors which are usually called motivators.

The thing is that a project manager must know exactly which factor provides the most powerful stimulus to the employees. In some cases, it can be the opportunity to demonstrate one’s creative skills without restrictions, while some employees can value recognition and advancement. Hygiene factors seem to have a similar effect on the workers satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Works Cited Demkin. J. The architect’s handbook of professional practice. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2008. Print.

Flame. J. The new project management: tools for an age of rapid change, complexity, and other business realities. London: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Print.

Haviland. David. Managing Archtectural Projects: The Effective Project Manager. American Institute of Architects. 1985.

Levi. Sidney. Project Management in Construction. Cambridge: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. Print.

Schermerhorn John. Exploring Management. New Jersey. John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.

Tosi. Henry. Mero Neal, and Rizzo Mero. Managing organizational behavior. NY Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. Print

Waldrep. Lee. Becoming an Architect: A Guide to Careers in Design. Lomdon John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.


Work Values Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Work Values

Employee Commitment

Influence of Work Values on Employee Commitment



Introduction The purpose of this essay will be to determine the influence of individual work values on the commitment of an employee to an organization. This essay will seek to define the meaning of work values and also employee commitment and how work values influence the commitment of an employee to an organization.

The type of organization that will be evaluated will be a multinational telecommunications corporation (Vodafone) that has a high number of employees and handles a large customer base.

The essay will seek to determine the kind of organizational factors that exist within the multinational company that affect the work values and organizational commitment of the employees as well as the available structures of work values that are used in many multinational organizations around the world.

The discussion will mostly involve the use of American literature and research work that is available for the last ten years which has offered extensive feedback on the topic.

The focus on Vodafone will be suitable for this study given the diverse number of employees that work for the multinational company around its global offices. The company employs over 80,000 employees around the world who are from diverse ethnic backgrounds and possess individual work values that are necessary when it comes to their job performance.

The study will therefore discuss the concepts of work values and employee commitment by focusing on the global telecommunications company so as to gain a more practical interaction of how work values influence or affect employee commitment to an organization.

Work Values The concept of work values has continued to receive increasing interest amongst various scholars and researchers around the world, especially with regards to its influence on the individual commitment of an employee to their organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To better understand the concept, work values are referred to as the set of traits or qualities that are considered to be important by an employee in the performance of their work duties and responsibilities. They are also defined as those qualities that employees within an organization desire to have when performing their work.

Work values are viewed as measures of employee performance since they determine the efficiency and effectiveness of a worker when it comes to completing certain tasks within the organization.

They also provide a measure of the work preferences, ethics, culture and beliefs of the employee, which prove to be beneficial when it comes to performing organizational tasks. Work values also provide a measure of personal need and satisfaction as they allow an employee to reflect upon their individual goals and objectives in the workplace and what they have to do to satisfy their needs (Levy 2003).

Dose (Cited by Matic 2008) defined work values as the standards of evaluation related to work, which employees used to measure the importance and significance of work preferences.

Dose further categorises work values to fall under two dimensions with the first dealing with work values that are based on moral dimensions and the second dealing with the degree of consensus that exists on the importance and desirability of particular work values.

According to Matic (2008), the very first studies of work values were conducted to explain the differences of employee performance and worker motivation when it came to job performance.

Researchers such as Hoppe and Hofstede, who were some of the theorists that conducted early studies on the effect of work values, had their research work incorporated into the development of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and also Herzberg’s explanation of intrinsic and extrinsic needs.

We will write a custom Essay on Work Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Matic (2008) noted that Hofstede and Hoppe’s work played an important part in providing a theoretical explanation of how work values motivated employees to perform their work duties.

Based on both current and recent research, work values present a strong implication for many managers as they determine the level of motivation an employee will have towards their job and also the kind of job satisfaction employees will derive from performing their work duties.

Before assigning any duties and tasks, managers usually observe the work values of their employees so that they can be able to determine what work ethic and motivation they possess when carrying out their work duties.

Vodafone, as a multinational corporation, is constantly facing changing and evolving management practices, which has forced its management to continually re-evaluate the work duties and responsibilities of their employees.

In doing so, the company also has to consider the individual work values of its employees to ensure that the management practices and work duties do not conflict with the individual behaviours of an employee. Therefore identifying the work values of an employee plays an important role in redefining work duties and responsibilities within an organization.

According to Hofstede (2001), the work values possessed by an individual worker are usually significant for two reasons; the first of which being that they provide an excellent measure of an employee’s work ethic since they are determined by sociological and cultural factors.

The second reason is that work values have a direct impact on the various faucets and activities that occur within an organization such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, conflict resolution and employee commitment to the organization.

As a result of this, many organizations around the world have restructured their activities to encompass work values, which will be important in achieving value congruence in business operations (Hofstede 2001).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Work Values by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because the image of an organization is closely linked to the work ethics the organization wants to convey to its various stakeholders, the individual work values of an employee in all the levels of management become increasingly important, especially for a corporation such as Vodafone that has a large employee base.

Work values become important since they provide managers with a perspective of what is right and wrong within an organization

According to Matic (2008), work values encompass emotions, cognitive processes and behaviour that are related to the performance of work duties and responsibilities where employees demonstrate work value characteristics such as individuality, punctuality, attentiveness, subjectiveness and cooperation towards their organizational tasks and duties.

The personality of an individual is also an important factor when it comes to determining the work values of an employee and this, therefore, contributes to the overall performance of an employee in their work duties. The implication of work values on multinational corporations becomes important, especially when it comes to organizational performance and leadership.

Given the large numbers of employees who work for Vodafone, job performance becomes a top priority due to the large volume of customer queries that are handled by the global telecommunications company in a day or an hour.

Leadership also becomes important to such an organization, especially when managers have to delegate certain roles to their junior staff, such as monitoring the floor operations of the call centre or monitoring the number of calls that have been made in an hour.

Apart from organizational performance and leadership, other implications of work values to an organization are that they assist managers to prepare employees during periods of change, they assist human resource managers to develop suitable and effective reward/compensation systems, they affect changes in management practices and leadership styles and they facilitate open communication within an organization (Li, 2008).

Employee Commitment Employee commitment, which is at times referred to as organizational commitment is the psychological attachment that an employee has to their place of work.

The most common measures that are used to determine the commitment of an employee to an organization include job satisfaction which deals with the feelings an employee has towards their job and organizational identification which is the degree of belonging and oneness that an employee derives from working for an organization.

To further explain employee commitment, Meyer and Allen developed a three-component model of commitment that would be used to identify the various types of commitment that existed within an organization (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).

The affective commitment level, which is the first part of the model refers to the positive emotional attachment that an employee demonstrates towards their workplace. According to Meyer and Allen, employee’s who were affectively committed to an organization were able to identify with the goals and objectives of an organization which in turn enabled them to have sense of belonging.

Employees who demonstrated affective commitment usually did so because they personally wanted to display attachment and loyalty to the organization. The second part of the model was referred to as continuance commitment which refers to an individual’s commitment to the organization based on their perceived cost of losing organizational membership.

This perceived loss is in terms of economic benefits which the employee gains from committing to an organization, social costs such as friendship ties with co-workers and also financial costs such as rewards and compensations that arise from belonging to an organization (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).

The third part of Meyer and Allen’s commitment model was normative commitment which refers the feelings of obligation that an employee has towards an organization. These feelings are usually derived from a variety of sources such as when an organization has invested in the training and development of the employee.

An employee in such a case feels obligated to the organization to work extra hard in their work duties so that they can be able to repay the organization for the training exercise. This three-component model of employee commitment therefore explains the various levels/types of commitment that an employee has towards an organization.

According to Mutheveloo and Rose (2005), the concept of employee commitment forms the basis for most human resource management activities within an organization as most human resource policies are directed towards increasing the level of employee commitment with an organization.

Various researchers such as Meyer et al. have set out to identify the various types of employee commitment by viewing them as constructs that can be used to explain the attitudes and behaviours of employees when performing their work duties.

Meyer et al. developed three groups that would be used to explain employee commitment to an organization with the first group being commitment to their work or job where employees demonstrated feelings of attachment towards their job and work responsibilities. Employees with this kind of commitment derived a sense of job satisfaction because of their commitment to work (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).

Work/job commitment according to the researchers did not however refer to the level of commitment that an employee had to the organization or their jobs. It instead focused on the level of their commitment towards the employment itself where an employee’s sense of duty towards their work was seen as a strong measure of employee commitment.

The second group according to Meyer et al. was career/professional commitment where employees demonstrated a sense of commitment or attachment to jobs that guaranteed them career progression. This category also explained employee attachment to be in the form of any professional training offered to an employee that was meant to improve their professional qualifications (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).

The third category that would be used to explain employee commitment according to Meyer et al. was organizational commitment which refers to the willingness of employees to accept organizational goals, objectives, beliefs and values as their own by working to achieve them.

The researchers noted organizational commitment was a subset of employee commitment as it required the full involvement and participation of employees in work-related activities Other researchers who developed models that could be used to explain employee commitment within an organization include Angle and Perry with their 1981 model of value commitment, O’Reilly and Chatman with their multidimensional model of compliance, identification and internalization and Jaros et al. with their multidimensional model of affective, continuance and moral levels of employee commitment (Muthuveloo and Rose 2005).

These categorizations and models of employee commitment demonstrate the importance of employee commitment when it comes to motivation to perform work duties within the workplace.

Vodafone has conducted various employee satisfaction surveys to determine the level of commitment that its employees have to the company. These surveys usually take place once every year and they are usually conducted with the sole purpose of determining employee commitment to the global telecommunications company.

The survey also assesses job security, career progression within the company, management practices of senior executives within the organization as well as the overall satisfaction of employees within the organization. The two most important indicators that are used in the survey include employee commitment and employee satisfaction as they form the benchmark of Vodafone in all the international and local divisional offices.

Influence of Work Values on Employee Commitment According to researchers such as Mottaz, Bruning and Snyder, work values play a significant role in the commitment of an employee to an organization, especially when the work values manifest themselves in the behaviour of the employee.

These researchers highlight the fact that employee commitment usually arises from a set of values displayed by an employee towards their work for an extended period of time. Researchers such as Huang, Kidron and Charanyanada have viewed work values to be a major influence of employee commitment because work values strengthen the attachment an employee has towards their organization.

Charanyanada in his 1980 study highlighted the fact that an employee’s investment of time and energy demonstrated the reciprocal relationship that existed between commitment and work values (Ho 2006).

Since work values encompass the behaviour and personality of an individual, the interaction that exists between the individual’s personal characteristics and their work environment is termed to be dynamic as it determines the level of commitment that the employee will have towards the organization.

If the interaction is weakened over time, the individual might lose their sense of commitment forcing them to leave the organization and if the interaction is reinforced the individual might decide to increase their level commitment to the organization by engaging in more work duties.

The various characteristics that make up an employee’s work values, therefore, have a direct influence on the commitment of the employee to the organization (Ho 2006).

Work values according Wollack (cited by Ho 2006) are an important construct of employee commitment to an organization as they play an integral role when it comes to influencing the affective responses of an employee in their place of work. Wollack argues that the work values an employee possesses are usually gained from past work experience within the organization and they, therefore, play an important in determining how an employee will perform their work duties within the organization.

Wollack continues further with his argument on the influence work values have on the commitment of an employee by stating that the personal characteristics of an individual employee usually interact with the stimuli and environmental conditions that exist in the workplace to form the work values that an employee possesses (Ho 2006).

According to other researchers such as Brown who conducted his studies in 1996, Mathieu and Zajac who conducted their studies in 1990 and Rabinowitz and Hall who conducted their studies on work values in 1977, work values have an effect on the overall commitment of an employee to the organization as they represent the three work attitudes that are required from all employees which include job involvement, career salience and organizational commitment.

Because work values represent the psychological investment an employee has placed on their work, they play a great role in determining whether an employee will remain loyal and attached to the organization.

Rokeach concedes that work values are usually gained during the socialisation process that an employee goes through once they become oriented to the organization. Rokeach also concedes that the most valuable socialisation for a human being usually occurs in the home during their formative years and at work when they begin to shape their careers (Ho 2006).

Other researchers who have conducted investigations into the relationship between work values and organizational commitment include Putti et al. in 1989 (cited by Ho 2006) where they noted that the intrinsic work values of an employee had a more direct impact on employee commitment when compared to the extrinsic work values.

Intrinsic values refer to those factors that determine whether the employee’s work is interesting or challenging while the extrinsic values refer to the job benefits an employee gains from tasks that are unrelated to the work job. An example of an extrinsic value is good pension plans, holiday allowances and good medical cover (Ho 2006).

Employees working for multinational telecommunication companies such as Vodafone have demonstrated both extrinsic and intrinsic work values as they both determine the rates of employee turnover in the company, employee motivation and job satisfaction.

According to Tayyab and Tariq (2001 cited by Ho 2006), intrinsic work values were related to normative or norm-based employee commitment to an organization while the extrinsic work values had a relation to the reward-based commitment employee demonstrated towards an organization.

The two authors also identified the existence of a positive correlation between intrinsic work values and the commitment of employees by particularly focusing on executives who worked for the private sector. Based on this relationship, they were able to ascertain that these executives were more committed to an organization when their personal work values were in congruence with those of their direct line managers (Ho 2006).

Huang noted that work values such as employee responsibility and personal achievement were perfect indicators of the level of employee commitment as well as job satisfaction and involvement. Huang also believed that the more work values an employee possessed, the higher their level of commitment to the organization.

Other researchers Lee and Chung (2001, cited by Ho 2006) identified the instrumental work values that exist within most multinational corporations such as Vodafone that have an impact on employee commitment within an organization.

These work values include the stability and freedom of anxious considerations which according to the two researchers was the strongest influencing factor of employee commitment to an organization.

The consideration of economic security was the second most important factor that influenced employee commitment followed by social interaction considerations which involved the social interactions that employees had with their colleagues in the workplace.

The consideration of stability and freedom had a direct influence on the retention commitment of an employee, which meant that low job stability was more than likely to contribute to high employee turnover rates (Ho 2006).

The consideration of security and economic costs directly influenced the effort commitment of an employee where the amount of economic compensation, pension benefits, medical allowance and other employee benefits determined the level of input they placed in their work duties.

The social interaction consideration had the greatest influence on the value commitment of an employee where the social relationships an employee is able to have in an organization determine the level of their commitment to the organization.

Properly identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors/work values that are possessed by each individual employee will contribute further to the proper understanding of how work values can be used to improve organizational performance.

Conclusion This discussion has dealt with the concepts of work values and employee commitment within an organization and also how work values influence employee commitment to an organization. Various research work and studies have been conducted on whether work values affect employee commitment and this study has been able to refer to these works so as to build the discussion.

As noted in the study, most of the findings have demonstrated that work values have an effect or influence on employee commitment as they determine the level of motivation and job satisfaction and employee has towards their job.

Work values play an important role in determining the intrinsic and extrinsic work values possessed by an employee when performing their work duties. The study has therefore been able to ascertain that work values play a significant role in the commitment of an employee to an organization.

References Hofstede, G., (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications

Ho, C. C., (2006) A study of the relationships between work values, job involvement and organizational commitment among Taiwanese nurses. Published Thesis. Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology

Levy, P. E., (2003) Industrial/organizational psychology: understanding the workplace. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin

Li, W., (2008) Demographic effects of work values and their management implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, pp 875-885

Matic, J. L., (2008) Cultural differences in employee work values and their implications for management. Management, Vol.13, No.2, pp 93-104

Muthuveloo, R., and Rose, R., (2005) Typology of organizational commitment. American Journal of Applied Science, Vol.2, No. 6, pp 1078-1081


Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Aims and objectives of the book under review



Introduction Mary Shelley’s story of Frankenstein and the monster remains one of our contemporary myths. This study reviews this myth by analyzing its history in literature in the pre-film times, beginning with an examination of the strings of meaning arising out of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in respect of the political “monstrosity” images occasioned by the French Revolution.

Baldrick goes on to trace the erratic makeovers of the myth in the imaginary tales of Lawrence, Hoffmann, Melville, Hawthorne, Conrad, and Dickens, as well as in writings of Carlyle and Marx (12).

Discussion Monstrosity, according to Baldrick, is to be construed as that was regularly applied as a figure of a specific vice or transgression (13). And when the monster is the king, the quintessence of regal/imperial power whose sanctions or privileges drew expressly from a celestial source, the moral lesson offers even much more fascinating consequences, since a monster-king almost entirely appears as a symbol of God’s trial for the sins and mistakes of a nation or country (14-15).

Baldrick further establishes that “the representation of fearful transgression, in the figure of physical deformity, arises as a variant of that venerable cliché of political discourse, the body politic” (14). He also goes on to contend that in such cases where political turmoil and revolt appear, the ‘body’ is said to be sickly, unproductive, and distorted/ deformed monstrous (15).

In addition, Baldrick concedes that as the state is put in jeopardy to such an extent that it can no longer be reasonably associated with a central and hallowed totality (that is ‘the king’s body’), then the “humanity recognizable form of the body politic is lost, dispersed into a chaos of dismembered and contending organs” (14).

Further Research What Was Victor Frankenstein’s Laboratory Like? 5 541 Describe the Island Where Frankenstein Created a She-Monster 5 22 How Does Elizabeth Die in Frankenstein? 5 89 In Frankenstein, Who Cares for Victor When He Is Stricken with a Fever? 5 95 Lack of appreciation is a monster that relates to another element of monstrosity, and Baldrick stresses that it is the “vices of ingratitude, rebellion, and disobedience, particularly towards parents, that most commonly attract the appellation ‘monstrous’: to be a monster is to break the natural bonds of obligation towards blood-relation” (13).

In Frankenstein, therefore, the most notable attribute of the association between the creator and the creature is insurgency, resistance, or disobedience, regardless of how much it can be reasonable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Baldrick’s ‘In Frankenstein’s Shadow’ is an indispensable input to what is promptly gaining primacy as decisive and learned compromise regarding the integral nature of Mary Shelly’s narrative to the comprehension of the two concepts of the Romantic ‘spirit of the age’ and of mythical modernism (15).

Baldrick convincingly explores and analyzes the extent to which the ‘myth of modernism’ and Shelly’s discourse permeated the 1800s, particularly in England, France, and Germany.

It is to be appreciated here. Thus, that of significance is affectionate, motherly, and fostering presence in the rearing of a child. Mastery of language and a myriad of emotions, and isolation and lack of motherly or relational love and care alter personality into a real monstrous self (24).

The damage and waste occasioned by the constant fights between the creator and the creature have been construed as a warning of the imminent dangers of contemporary science.

Aims and objectives of the book under review In his new and fascinating book, Chris Baldrick (1987) reviews the importance of monstrosity in respect of the 1800s writings with a concentration on the significance of monstrosity in the context of the nineteen-century writing, focusing on the classification of Frankenstein as a myth.

In fact, Baldrick succeeds in impressing upon us the contention or assertion that “in modern usage, ‘monster’ means something frighteningly unnatural or of enormous dimensions” (10).

Conversely, prior usages which persist to the 1800s, the term ‘monster’ was associated with such implications/undertones which were both physical and obviously moral and as Baldrick contends, the ultimate goal is: “to reveal the results of vice, folly, and unreason visibly, as a warning to erring humanity” (10).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this, he succeeds by comparing colonialism and imperialism to the monster, which was created by humans but which has finally turned against them.

He goes on to propose that, in general, sense, it is worth appreciating that the monster is “one who has far transgressed the bounds of nature as to become a moral advertisement” (12). Therefore, one who disobeys authority is a monster.

Critique In spite of the wits and lots of significance that Baldrick’s review project, it is pretty obvious that he fails to invoke other writers’ ideas in expounding on the subject. Notable here is his failure to refer to Richard III, yet this is an excellent resource worth being consulted.

Therefore, my belief is that the story/drama maintains reasonable associations with the skeptic’s contentions, in which Richard III appears to provide a connection in the main chain of the handling of monstrosity resulting in the theoretical framework which appears in Frankenstein.

More on the Topic Which of the Conflicts in Frankenstein Drives the Story Forward? 5 102 How Has Victor Changed by the End of Frankenstein? 5 237 Which Quote from Frankenstein Brings Out the Theme of Revenge in the Novel? 5 175 What Is Frankenstein’s Monster’s Name? 5 59 From a conflict perspective, therefore, the monster here stands for the industrial working class, the fodder of the owners of the means, the obliteration of the body politic by the masses during the French Revolution, and a dystopia born of excessively massive growth in population (16).

Baldrick’s view of both the monster and the intended companion as subalterns and less human is central to the process and practice of colonization and the whole concept of imperialism, in which the colonial master is powerful and superior compared to the powerless and inferior servant/slave. The novel further generates, unexpectedly, patriarchal anxiety arising from the fact that the author, Shelly, is a woman (45).

Though the completion of this novel might have gained the impetus from the desires of both Mary and her husband, such other factors as debates between the vitalism and materialism school of thoughts might also have motivated the completion.

Conclusion The central thesis of the book is an actual nightmare of being held up in a monster that is disturbed by its own image on top of being frowned at, shunned and avoided by the society, qualify as a social repugnant.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This novel essentially proposes to the contemporary reader to rethink the position and propositions of science, especially in view of such controversial subjects as genetic engineering and other areas where modern technology is highly appropriated. The book also succeeds in impressing upon us the need to reconsider the association we have with our own body and its association with the universe.

This Baldrick proposes to be done by questioning the preconceived viewpoints of aesthetics, especially the manner in which the creature is shunned by the society by virtue of its physical appearance. Finally, Baldrick reveals that the myth’s most influential associations have “centered on human relationships, the family, work, and politics” (33).


Culture in Organization Essay college essay help online

Introduction Successful organizations are always highly focused and have profound understanding of their customers’ needs, the competitive environment, and economic realities. This can be attained through implementation of high performance work practices and effective management of the workforce (Pfeffer, 1998).

According to Schein, one important aspect of successful organization is organizational culture, which is defined as a set of unique values or beliefs shared by members in an organization (Schein, 2004, p.12).

Alternatively, organizational culture is also defined as a system of shared meaning in an organization (Dwevedi, 1995, p.9). Organizational culture has some key components including shared values, norms, expectations and assumptions (Fong


Critical Close Reading of Benedict Anderson’s ‘Introduction’ in his “Imagined Communities” Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In his Imagined Societies, Benedict Anderson proposes that nations are imagined political communities, which are limited in scope and are self-governing. He argues that a nation is an imagined community because members of nation who may not know each other but still have same national identity (Anderson 1991, p.7).

Anderson insists that the “end of the era of nationalism” is prevalent with the current globalization. He emphasizes imagination plays an important part in creating a national identity.

He rejects the Marxist theories on nationalism based on the war between Cambodia, China, and Vietnam; countries that uphold the Marxist ideologies. He further argues that revolutions have negative implications on nations and nationalism. He supports this argument by giving a historical account of the Soviet Union’s disintegration into smaller nations, which has rendered nation-states irrelevant (Anderson 1991, p.5).

By this, he suggests that Marxism only works when there is recognition of nationalism. Anderson argues that nationalism comes into being based on economical equity of the people and once established, it is difficult to take it away.

Anderson further argues that nationalism is the basic component of modernity and that loyalty to race or specific class is only secondary to nationalism. Anderson portrays nationalism as still relevant even in the face of globalization and requires self-sacrifice especially in cases where inequality and exploitation are prevalent.

Although Anderson is correct in his proposition that nations are imagined and that nationalism requires sacrifice, he fails to give clear definition of a ‘community’ and how it is different from nationalism; therefore, I do not agree with this argument.

The communities that make up a nation are imaginary just like nationalism. He further claims to justify Marxism and liberalism as ‘universalistic ideologies, ill-at-ease with nationalism’ thus suggesting that the ideologies support nationalism but states that both these ideologies do not involve cultural aspects of nationalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Anderson “nationality… nation-ness, as well as nationalism, are cultural artifacts of a particular kind” (1991, p.6). This argument is correct because communities always identify themselves with culture and thus the nationalism must appreciate culture.

Anderson’s claim that a nation is imagined, does not mean that a nation is unreal or that nations exist somewhere in dreamland. He instead proposes that nationalism is a process brought about by common culture and interests among people that in the end pulls them together as they strive for a common goal.

This means that political and cultural factors contribute to nationalism as people ‘imagine’ that their cultural beliefs and attitudes are common. Therefore, the people remain aware that their personal opinions are national. Anderson further argues that nations represent political entities with physical boundaries rather than entities that are limitless.

Anderson proposes that the concept of the nation is recent and it came into being the late-eighteenth century to take over the regimes that were dependent on monarchies or religious governance. By this, he suggests that within the precepts of nationalism, sovereignty is important. A nation therefore must conceptualize sovereignty and rule over its national citizens.

However, the national rule should be over limited population demographics and within limited territorial boundaries. He further argues that patriotism is a national duty of all the citizens of a nation and that the sacrifice for the sake of nationalism is important. In times of war, citizens forget their class boundaries or ethnicity in their united struggle for national victory and survival.

Reference Anderson, B., 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.


Concepts of Factor Analysis Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Descriptive statistics and correlations


Variance explained

Component matrix




Introduction Factor analysis is a useful exploratory tool which is helpful in determining the number of factors that should be extracted. The factors that are extracted are those that have a meaningful share of variance and the rest of the variables and their interrelationships are discarded.

Variables which exhibit maximal correlation are clustered together while variables with equivalent minimal correlations are also grouped together. In the end, it becomes possible to establish a relationship(s) or factors which display the data candidly leaving out the less significant factors out.

An interpretation of the factor loadings is essential in correlating extracted factors with meaningful variables (Newcastle University, 2007). For this project, the aim is to find out commonalities that are likely to exist between four variables i.e. rath (Rathus assertiveness Scale), crwone-marlowe (Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale), axin (“Anger in” scale) and axout (“Anger out” scale).

Complete_mooney_bp.sav dataset based on the four variables was used to conduct Factor analysis. It is speculated that up to three factors are measured by the four instruments (scales).

Descriptive statistics and correlations All the factors have the same sample size, N = 63. The mean for crowne-marlowe is.6829 and a standard deviation of.0762. Axin had a mean of 2.2560 with a standard deviation of.4543 while axout had a mean of 2.1071 with a standard deviation of.4277. Finally, the mean for rath was 3.3860 with a standard deviation of.4370.

From the means, it is evident that rath i.e. assertiveness is the most important factor in determining anger in, anger out or even social desirability as it has the highest mean of 3.3860, followed by axin, axout and crowne-marlowe social desirability is the least influential variable.

In summary, the Rathus assertiveness scale has the highest likelihood of being among the factors that should be retained. The “Anger Out” scale, the “Anger Out” scale and the Crowne-marlowe desirability scales then follow in that order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Pearson correlation coefficients and their single-tailed significance values are presented in Table 2. There is a weak negative Pearson correlation between axin and crowne-marlowe and this is statistically significant, r = -.247, p =.026. A negative and weak Pearson correlation also exists between axout and crowne-marlowe but this is not statistically significant, r = -.197, p =.060.

Rath and crowne-marlowe have a very weak positive correlation which is not statistically significant, r =.048, p =.353.

There is a weak negative correlation between axout and axin which is not statistically significant, r = -.005, p =.486 whereas the correlation between rath and axin is negative but statistically significant, r = -.383, p=.001. There exists a weak positive correlation between rath and axout and the correlation is statistically significant, r =.286, p =.012. All correlations between variables and themselves are 1.

Communalities Table 3 indicates the communalities prior to and after extraction. The extraction method utilized in this case is the principal component analysis whose assumption is that there is commonness in all variance. That is the reason why the communalities for all factors are 1 prior to extraction. The ‘’extraction” column provides the common variance exhibited in the data structure.

It is therefore correct to say that 65.6 percent of variance associated with crowne-marlowe is common/shared variance or.656 of variance is explained by crowne-marlowe. A communality of.697 for axin after extraction indicates that 69.7 percent of variance associated with axin is shared variance, which can also be stated that.697 is the amount of variance in axin that is explained by the two retained factors (factor 1 and factor 2).

A communality of.703 for axout after extraction implies that 70.3 percent of variance associated with axout is shared variance or.703 is the amount of variance in axout that is explained by factor 1 and factor 2 as the retained factors. Finally, a communality of.733 for rath is an indication that 73.3 percent of variance associated with rath is common variance or.733 is the amount of variance in rath that is explained factor 1 and factor 2.

Consideration for whether to use the Kaiser criterion (where factors with eigenvalues above 1 are retained) or the Scree Plot in determining the factors that should be retained is made depending on the sample size, number of variables and average communality.

We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Factor Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Field (2005) explains that the Kaiser’s criterion is used if average communality is at least 0.7 and the variables are not more than 30. In addition, the same criterion is considered if the sample size is more than 250 with an average communality of at least 0.6.

Failure to meet any of the above conditions calls for the use of the Scree Plot bur the sample size has to be large enough i.e. at least a sample size of 300. In this project, the average communality was 2.789/4 =.69725, there were 4 variables and the sample size was less than 250.

As such, the Kaiser’s criterion was applied since the communality is approximately 0.7 and the variables are less than 30 and hence the first condition was met. This led to the retention of all factors with an Eigen value above 1 (Factor 1 and Factor 2.

Even going with the Scree Plot (Figure 1) which is suitable for sample sizes that are larger than 300, the first point of inflexion is after the second factor and it is clear that the Eigenvalue is greater than 1. It is therefore justifiable to retain two factors only i.e. the first and the second factor, since they lie above eigenvalue 1 and appear before the graph starts to flatten.

Variance explained The Eigenvalues associated with every factor (linear component) prior to extraction and after extraction are provided in Table 4. Prior to extraction, it is evident that there were 4 linear components in the complete_mooney_bp.sav dataset. The variance explained by every factor is given by correspondent Eigenvalues and these are displayed in percentage form.

In that case, factor 1 explains 37.636 percent variance whereas factor 2 explains 32.102 percent variance. Only two factors have Eigen values greater than 1 in this dataset and therefore only the two factors are extracted (factor 1 and factor 2) and the other two factors can be considered as non-significant.

The Eigenvalues and percentage variance for the two extracted factors are again displayed under the ‘Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings’ column.

It is evident that the cumulative variance that is explained by both factor 1 and factor 2 (extracted factors) is 69.738 percent variance. From the ‘total variance explained’ output, it becomes clear that the largest variance is given by factor 1 and factor 2 and discarding the rest of the factors is justifiable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Factor Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Component matrix Table 5 is a component matrix table prior to rotation and the loading of each variable onto the two extracted factors is provided. In this case, all loadings were produced where the loading of crwone-marlowe onto extracted factor 1 is.327 and -.741 onto factor 2.

Axin has a loading of -.782 on factor 1 and a loading of.290 onto factor 2. The loading of axout onto factor 1 was.343 whereas the loading of axout for factor 2 is.766. Finally, the loading of rath onto factor 1 is.818 with the loading of rath onto factor 2 being.253.

It is also possible to view Table 5 as correlations between variables and the various unrotated factors. In that case, the correlation between crowne-marlowe and factor 1 is.327 whereas the correlation between crowne-marlowe and factor 2 is -.741.

The correlation between axin and factor 1 is -.782 while the correlation between the same variable and factor 2 is.290. The correlation between axout and factor 1 and factor 2 is.343 and.766 respectively. Finally, the correlation between rath and factor 1 is.818 and the correlation between rath and factor 2 is.253.

It is evident that rath has and axin has the highest loading/strongest correlation with factor 1 while crowne-marlowe and axout have the highest loading on factor 2. Since the highest load on factor 1 is rath, it is arguable to label factor 1 as assertiveness (based on Rathus Assertiveness Scale).

On the other hand, axout seems to have the highest loading on factor 2 and thus it is arguable that factor 2 can be labeled as tendency to let anger out. From the interpretations of the component matrix it appears that the researcher was mainly/or should concentrate on finding out the relationship between assertiveness and tendency to express anger out.

In other words, it is evident that at least two factors are measured by both the Rathus Assertiveness Scale and the “Anger Out” scale. Indeed, it can be said that the more an individual is assertive, the less likely the individual is to hold anger “in.” In other words, assertive individuals tend to express anger more openly. Increased assertiveness leads to decreased tendency to hold anger in.

Summary Factor analysis is helpful in determining which variables should be retained by looking for variables with maximal relationships. From the above factor analysis, it has been demonstrated that among the four variables i.e. Rathus Assertiveness Scale, Crowne-Marlowe Desirability Scale, “Anger Out” scale and “Anger In” scale, there exists stronger correlations between factor 1 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale and factor 2 with “Anger Out” scale.

This is demonstrated by high means for these variables and the fact that they are the only factors that are extracted, or meeting criteria for extraction in the analysis. The variances explained by the two factors have a lion share in the total variance with a cumulative variance of 69.738 percent being registered for factor 1 and factor 2.

The variance that is explained by factor 1 alone is large enough (37.636%) to qualify the factor for retention. This is the same with factor 2 which explains 32.102% of the variance.

Moreover, both factor 1 and factor 2 have eigenvalues above 1. Finally, the loadings of the two factors on the variables are of significance with factor 1 having a loading of.818 onto rath (Rathus Assertivness Scale) while factor 2 had a loading of.766 onto factor 2.

It is from these observations that it is concluded that factor 1 can be labeled as the Rathus Assertiveness Scale while factor 2 is labeled as “Anger Out” scale. These two variables are therefore essentially important in the study and for sure, assertiveness and tendency to express “anger out” can be measured by these two instruments (scales).

Appendix Table 1: Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation Analysis N crowne-marlowe .6829 .07621 63 axin 2.2560 .45427 63 axout 2.1071 .42766 63 rath 3.3860 .43697 63 Table 2: Correlations of all Factors

Correlation Matrix crowne-marlowe axin axout rath Correlation crowne-marlowe 1.000 -.247 -.197 .048 axin -.247 1.000 -.005 -.383 axout -.197 -.005 1.000 .286 rath .048 -.383 .286 1.000 Sig. (1-tailed) crowne-marlowe .026 .060 .353 axin .026 .486 .001 axout .060 .486 .012 rath .353 .001 .012 Table 3: Communalities-Before and after Extraction

Communalities Initial Extraction crowne-marlowe 1.000 .656 axin 1.000 .697 axout 1.000 .703 rath 1.000 .733 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 4: Total Variances (Variance and Cumulative Variance)

Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 1.505 37.636 37.636 1.505 37.636 37.636 2 1.284 32.102 69.738 1.284 32.102 69.738 3 .688 17.204 86.941 4 .522 13.059 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 5: Component Matrix

Component Matrixa Component 1 2 crowne-marlowe .327 -.741 axin -.782 .290 axout .343 .766 rath .818 .253 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 2 components extracted. Figure 1: Scree plot of Eigen Value against Component Number

Reference Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd edition). Sage: London.

Newcastle University. (2007). How to perform and interpret Factor Analysis using SPSS. Retrieved from https://www.ncl.ac.uk/