Table of Contents Gender and Society’s Expectations
Social Class and Society’s Expectations
Race and Ethnicity and Society’s Expectations
To understand and evaluate a society’s expectations of a person, the need to know what composes or constitutes a society arises. This evokes the question, what is a society? According to Sinclair and Helen, a society is described as consisting of people in a particular country who share a common past, or heritage and culture. They give an example of the United Kingdom, France and the United States being parts of British, French and American societies.
There are within each society diverse and distinct communities, which people belong to (Sinclair
Marketing Mix: Surf Excel and Unilever Research Paper college essay help online
Introduction Marketing is a combination of strategies and methods used by companies to identify, build and maintain gratifying relationships with customers therefore, benefiting both the customer and the marketer (Amity Institute of Higher Education, 2011). For a successful marketing strategy, a marketer needs to combine, in a balancing manner, the right elements and processes. This is dependent on the nature of the products, services or ideas that the company wants to market.
It also comprises the decisions the management make in the implementation of the positioning strategy and in line with the achievement of the company’s overall objectives. Moreover, a marketing mix will involve the marketing tools the marketer uses to achieve these goals in the target market according to Armstrong
Performance-Based Pay for Executives Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The contemporary reward system for top management is mostly performance based, also known as pay for performance. The idea behind this reward system is that through the recognition of performance by the executives, their interest merges those of the shareholders of the company hence bridging the principal-agent gap. This reward system is American-based and has attracted a lot of debate from human resource scholars as well as from other relevant stakeholders.
This paper is a research report prepared by business analysts (BA) who have been instructed to conduct research for a client company and write a report regarding McDonald’s (the client) foreign direct investment project in China, which is the largest emerging economy. Based on the fact that the provision of professional HRM consultancy was part of the contract, there were instructions to conduct a research and give recommendation in terms of a report on whether McDonald’s should use performance based pay for executives in the new venture in China.
McDonald’s Corporation is the largest fast food restaurant in the world. The giant chain has continuously expanded internationally for a long period of time opening stores in different countries across the globe. In China, rivalry among competitors is severe and hence this food chain is facing a lot of competition from other established chain stores. In this country, Colonel Sanders and Mao have more popularity than McDonald’s which makes the competition here very severe.
This explains why McDonald’s need to invest in good strategies when opening their venture in China. The company projects that by the year 2013, it will have added more than 700 outlets to the 1300 that are already in existence (Jie, 2008).
Despite the normal challenges, McDonald’s is not lagging behind in its quest for expansion bearing in mind that the chain is opening new restaurants at a high rate. The motive behind McDonald’s venture in China is the desire to maintain its worldwide market position as the biggest fast food chain. The company plans to add its presence in China by ensuring that it operates 1500 to 2000 fast food outlets. It is alleged that half of these new stores will actually be drive-through outlets.
The giant burger chain is also said to be planning on remodeling over 80% of its stores in China by the end of 2012 to be able to offer the latest menu that is more health-conscious. For McDonald’s, China is one of its strong regions as far as growth opportunities are concerned. Majority of its restaurants that have been open for a period of at least one year have recorded a 12.7 % rise as compared to 5.3% in the US. The stores in China are estimated to be around 1100.
This report is predestined on evaluating the effectiveness of performance based pay, also known as pay for performance for executives. It lays its focus on determining whether performance based pay for executives at McDonald’s China project is worth being implemented or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scope
The report focuses on various views that have been raised by different scholars in regard to the use of performance based pay for employees at different levels. This paper evaluates the pros and the cons of performance based pay. It explains the strategic reward system in details and gives the reasons as to why it should be used for the McDonald’s project in China as a way of motivating the executives for increased performance.
Besides this, the report also examines the extent to which the reward system will not breach local corporate governance laws within China in addition to a detailed explanation of the structure and details of the reward system.
Strategic reward system Strategic reward system has two basic elements; financial rewards and non-financial rewards. The financial rewards consists of pay incentives, base salary and employee benefits. On the other hand, the non-financial rewards include intrinsic rewards that are work-based and other rewards such as recognition, praise and time offs. In the performance-based pay, pay is treated as a variable cost (Towse
Media and the War in Iraq Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Session A: Cultural studies
Session B: The Toronto school
Session C: Critical Theory
Session A: Cultural studies The cultural studies approach to the effects of media and media related aspects suggests that there can be three main hypothesis and explanations. The first of such hypothesis uses capitalism as the basis of segregation of the society into subgroups and alienated groupings.
These groupings are based on social economic ethical and physical characteristics such as race, nationality sexual orientation education as well as political opinion. In every such division there exists a further subdivision between the majority and subordinate groups of individuals (Deakin University (DU). 2009).
The subordinates are therefore assimilated by the majority opinion that is advertised and marketed by the media. The assimilation occurs through constant aggressive and determined media coverage of a series of events. For instance as suggested by the key note address, the media due to the motivation and funding of the majority who were for pro war ideology was able to bring the war to the living room.
Those against the war were left with little option but to sympathize with the sites of suffering pain and agony of the victims (Hall 1996). In effect, they became slowly naturalized to the idea that there had to be a war. The naturalization is achieved through a hegemony process.
This is a process that involves the calculated and planned winning of the consent of the subordinate groups to an ideology of the dominant groups. The ideology of the dominant need not be the actual feasible and beneficial ideology but rather that which appeals to those who matter.
The majority therefore need not be in numbers but in influence. The subordinates are easily swayed by a clever advertisement that sways their loyalty. This therefore means that there is a certain category of persons who are really influenced due to either lack of knowledge or insufficient knowledge. The media was manipulated strategically positioned and stage-managed into a smooth selling narrative with a pro war agenda (Sparks 2006, p89).
Session B: The Toronto school Technology and by extension the media as a whole has a great bearing on the rate and direction of social change (Fitzgerald 2001). Technologies are readily available to for the use and manipulation of society depending on the nature and use of such technology. The direction and bearing of technology as a driver of social change however relies and depends on several factors such as economic social and political values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The undeniably significant role of the media in directing and guiding opinion and ideas in the Iraq war is evident in the key note address where the war is marketed and sold in the form of a smooth selling acceptable and fluid narrative. The individual approach to the war depends on the various perspectives and opinions that were put to the individual about the war. In essence, the soldiers fought an entirely different war from the war that they are congratulated and remembered for.
The media packaged the war into a justified and inevitable consequence of provocation and a series of unjustified injustices. As White ( 2011 ) puts it “the war you saw depended on where you lived and the different angles, stories and perspectives you were subjected to” the societal determinism approach therefore embraces this aspect of media influence.
The world has transitioned from the media to the mass media eras to get to the multi-media age where the world is no longer divided in geographical regions in as far as media information and connectivity. McLuhan (1969, 53-158) explains of the global village concept as the unification of the world into a “massive, modern day tribal community” held together by the power of instantaneous communication (Sparks 2009, p241).
This has increased the stake that the media has on the general world opinion. It has raised the amount of interest as well as the role that the media plays maintaining order and or disorder. Even further, the presentation of a message greatly influences the actual message. Therefore the message may be common but the manner in which it is presented determines heavily how it will be received and interpreted.
A picture and a cartoon of the same will give different perceptions of the same picture (Cunningham and Flew 1997, p23), the quality and manner of the presentation of the information determines the message that will be conveyed. The severity or otherwise of the actual war and the broadcasted war differed a lot. The media war was more severe and painful to the viewers than the actual war was to the soldiers despite the fact that they were supposed to be of the same idea.
The war as it was broadcasted though various media mechanisms differed greatly in severity and magnitude and therefore there were varying ideas conceptions and opinions of the same war. It was convenient for the 71 % media sources to report a severe and more punitive war in furtherance of their opinion even if it involved infiltration of the actual events and happenings of the war. As Sparks (2009) puts it, the media motivated and cultivated one big group emotion (80).
Session C: Critical Theory The media plays a great and fundamental role in influencing and directing public interest. It is the states responsibility to secure and safeguard public interest. This therefore creates an interdependent relationship between the government and the media.
We will write a custom Report on Media and the War in Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This interdependence creates room for the government to pollute and manipulate the media to suit its convictions whether they are for or against public interest. As it were, matters of public interest are highly scrutinized by the public since they affect a great number of people and therefore stir up great emotion.
The media therefore possesses a great power in the public domain that is often polluted and abused by governments to further self interest. The media therefore develops a mysterious or fictional perspective that is convincing and appealing to the public. In the key note address it was clear that there existed other alternative viable options as against the attack of Iraq.
There was a considerable and available option of international interventions thought the international community (Gordon 1997). Bodies such as the United Nations had the capacity to interpretively and comprehensively investigate the claims of possession weapons of mass destruction. The united nations had commenced a weapons investigation in to the claims but due to the polluted media coverage and reporting the united states by passed these alternatives and went on to launch a defensive war (Fiske 1992, pp. 284–326).
The government however abused their power by giving little regard to this option and proceeding to weaponize and subsequently attack Iraq.
Conclusion The keynote address does not solidly subscribe to one theory or school of thought. It is however best explained in great respects by the Toronto school.
The critical responsibility that is borne by critical journalists and key note presenters maintains a continuous and viable force that drives the mass media movement in a consistent and stable direction. The media has however been corrupted and literally employed to serve specific interests.
The media left the anti war activists to be marginalized and choked by the dominant thought. This therefore means that the pentagon made a strategic and planned media strategies that moved beyond the mere public relations developing the attack of Iraq as a sweet narrative that presented Iraq as the problem and an attack as the only solution.
The plans were highly funded and motivated with media being given hints and leads that compromised actual proper reporting (Schechter 2004). Individual reporter’s rights such as the BBC news reporters were violated and not reported in Bagdad to secure their offices (12). This therefore means that the fancy for a war was up and motivated and there was no turning back. This led to the subsequent attach and death of thousands of citizens and innocent persons.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media and the War in Iraq by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Cunningham, S
Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Abstract Smart Mobile devices have become very popular both in the social and business world. This paper seeks to discuss the effect of these devices among people in the social as well as the business settings. There will be in-depth discussion on the devices’ effects of people’s lives at work, private social life, in government and education.
Introduction Since the industrial revolution, technology has been characterised by stativity, well apart from a few applications like the wheel, the train, the automobile and the airplane. Given the bulk of the equipment used in the above-mentioned inventions, stativity was not much of a choice.
Telecommunication gadgets like the Morse code and the telephone were grounded as well and their sizes and modes of operation did little to enable much movement. Two centuries later, technology experts are of the opinion that mobility displayed by telecommunication gadgets today is likely to get out of hand and possibly impact negatively on human life. Of particular importance to this discussion are the developments characterising the information and communications technology sector.
The last two decades have experienced some of the most effective ICT inventions in human history. The technology boom of the last decade of the 20th century provided the platform for the development of mobile technology that today has changed the ways of communication (Gallagher 2005, et al, p. 67). Technology nowadays is so mobile that business and individuals who fail to adapt to it risk being left behind, literary. Nothing in the 21st century captures the very spirit technological mobility as the mobile phone does.
The smart phone stands out nowadays as the epitome of synchronisation and mobility of technology. While its benefits cannot be overstated, there is genuine concern that the overall, especially adverse effects of this very technology have been grossly overlooked.
Which therefore begs the question; will the ever-increasing number of smart mobile devices (i-Phones etc) impact on the way we conduct our lives (work and private)? The answer to the above question is to the affirmative. The specifics of the answer will therefore form the main content of this discussion.
This paper will address the particular impacts on both work and private lives of human beings of smart mobile devices. It’s important to note that the impacts that will be discussed will touch on both the negative and positive sides of smart mobile devices. Besides, the above, there will also be a discussion on how smart mobile technology impacts education as well as government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the words; business and work will be used interchangeably but will have similar meaning in the same context. Also, the words; smart phones and smart mobile devices will be used interchangeably.
Before the analysis is carried out however, it’s important to have a brief look on general effects of smart mobile devices, an enhancement of the affirmative answer given above
Smart Mobile Devices Impacts Human life According to Salt (2011, p. 152), the advent of advanced technologies like the smart mobile services has drastically altered human being’s work, life and relationships. However, Salt (2011, p. 152) singles out the mobile phone, social media such as Facebook and Twitter and smart phones as some of the technologies that are increasingly defining how people work and form relationships in the social arena.
The smart phone technology is undoubtedly influencing the formation of protocols and strange social behaviours that all lead to addiction. Through addiction to smart mobile devices, people are fast becoming slaves to the gadgets which dictate them what to do while defining every sphere of their lives.
As evidenced in the figure below, there are currently close to 500 million smartphone users in the world. That number is set to increase by 32.4% to 1.2 billion people by the year 2015. The growth of the smartphone usage by the above margin is likely to net more people to the addition that currently is being experienced. In turn the effects; both negative and positive will trickle down to the populations.
Fig 1.0. Projected growth in Smartphone usage, Source: Gartner and Berg Insight
Impact on work/Business Business communication is nowadays technology oriented (Stockard 2011, p. 153), letters, memos and reports have been replaced by technologies such as NetMeeting and LiveMeeting. Additionally, business communication is increasingly relying on the telephone especially Smartphones such as Blackberry and i-Phone (Stockard 2011, p. 153). Stockard adds that because phones can nowadays send messages as fast as the PC, business communication has become easier and quicker.
We will write a custom Essay on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a long time the business world has relied on the PC for conducting business. The PC still maintains its rightful place in the day-to-day running of organizations and conduction of business. However, the advent of the smart phone is increasingly diminishing the importance of the PC in business transactions.
This is because the smart mobile gadgets like smart phones and tablets have what the PC doesn’t; mobility and portability. The above features coupled with the presence of integrated PC features in smartphone makes them attractive and addictive to business people. The addiction and effect of these devices on work lives can be capture through a Ring Central online survey that was carried out in the year 2010.
Increased reliance on Smart mobile devices for conducting business In the survey, respondents ranked the smartphone and intimate life both at 40% as the two most important things that they can’t do without in their lives. Additionally, the majority of respondents totaling 79% cited the smart phone as the main business tool for conducting business easily beating the home and office phones (Trade 2010).
This is in contrast a few years ago when laptops were the main gadgets through which business was conducted remotely. The smartphone however easily beats the laptop as the primary preference in conducting remote business especially because it enable people access the physical tools that were only found in the office.
Some business people (34%) admitted to using the smartphone for business more than the computer (Trade 2010).
Levels of addiction of the smartphones, Source: Ringcentral Online survey
People are now increasingly addicted to productivity Many business people and those that are in both formal and informal employment admitted that they are addicted to the smart mobile devices for the sole purpose of improving productivity in their respective work areas. Again, the ability to conduct business from any location came top among the reasons the respondents gave.
To that effect, 40% of respondents ranked smart phones as being significant as intimate relations. Hypothetically, therefore these people cannot easily choose between their social lives and the gadgets they are holding (Trade 2010). This therefore shows a worrying trend where people may rank non-living requirements like gadgets ahead of social and personal development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a nutshell, business people as well as those that are working in the formal sector have demonstrated an unmatched passion for smart mobile devices. The fact that it has changed their way of life as shown above underscores the critical role these devices play and the depth of their effect.
Of more importance however is the dynamism that these gadgets have brought to the business world. They have reduced overreliance on the PC and the business phone as the main tools of conducting business. Mobility and speed have now become the norm thanks to these devices.
Impact on Private Life Many academics and political critics have conceded that the smart mobile devices like the BlackBerry can result into negative impact on the balance between work life and family life (Sweeny 2009, p. 190).
Addiction to mobile smart devices has not only affected business/ or work relationships of the users. There is sufficient reason to believe that the addiction has extended to the private or social lives of many people that use them.
Increasingly, people have found themselves in the awkward position where they need to split their time between their social lives and business. This effect will be captured through a presentation of different social scenarios that are aimed at showing the skewed devotion and commitment to family and relationships due to the use of mart mobile devices. In all the scenarios, the use of the gadgets is a deviation from the norm as we know it.
Less family time Nowadays, many people are devoting more time to business than to family. It’s not uncommon for people to conduct business while on a weekend or holiday alone or with family. Smart mobile devices come in handy in when one needs to check on the developments in the business world.
During this time, people split their time between being with family and communication various business issues. People with the smart gadgets find it difficult to keep to themselves without referring to their devices in social functions such as funerals and weddings and children’s outings. Subtly, and without realizing, these actions indicate lack of attention on the family and other social relationships which takes its toll in the long-run (Powell, p. 181).
Less privacy According to Furnell et al (2011, p. 50), the use of smart phones by people with no or little technical knowledge exposes them to the risk of being attacked through the use of their gadgets as security or attack vectors. In fact, most people who use these devices have little or no technical knowledge on measures that mitigate these risks.
Many of the smart mobile devices have been fitted with advanced microchips which make it easier for surveillance of the holder. The log installed in the smart devices can record all the places the holder has been to and sometimes the activities they have been up to.
Additionally, it’s easy for the parent companies and other interested parties to monitor the devices remotely illegally or otherwise. No matter the circumstances under which the surveillance takes place, the privacy of the holders of these devices is compromised. It’s no secret that surveillance information from these devices has led to the collapse of many social relations of the holders.
Social Networking One of the biggest impacts of smart mobile devices is social networking. Butler (2010, p. 100), quoting Comscore, says that over 30% of smartphone users access social networking sites like facebook and twitter using their phones. It’s now possible for people from different locations to communicate and participate in social events without necessarily meeting physically. The social networking impact can be positive or negative depending on the function it plays.
Impact on Government/ Administration Andersen et al (2011, p. 278) does not entirely see the effects of smart mobile devices as being negative. According to them, mobile communication especially through smart devices positively influences mobile business which in turn reinforces social media. Mobile business and social media therefore reinforce each other in a form of co evolution that has positive consequences (Andersen et al 2011, p. 278).
Through the use of these devices, both commerce and government have been forced to adopt technological changes for better communication and business procedures in the technologically mobile world (Rhomobile 2011, p. 23). On the same note, there is a feeling among many scholars that these gadgets have played and will continue to play a crucial role in social media growth and evolution.
As such they come in hand in the implementation of changes in government and in society especially through participation of citizens in e-democracy. A good example is role smart devices have played in the political crises of North Africa and the Middle East.
Impact on Education Education is one of the fields that have evolved with time. There is a marked difference between ancient and modern universities. Though there has been considerable adaptation of technology in education, the advent of smart mobile devices is likely to have a major impact on education. Smartphones aide students in accessing online textbooks while connecting them with databases and libraries online when doing research (Wright
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From the case study, ‘The Engineering Change on the shop floor’, it is apparent that there is no clear change management framework, which is the core source of the problem.
Here, it is important to note that change management is very critical in various aspects of organizational projects aimed at leading, managing, and enabling the workforce to change from one operational process or technology to another (Ott, Parkes,
The Political landscape Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
The Political landscape holds that the American government has made it possible for all its citizens to access both jobs and services. It is believed that everyone enjoys equal opportunities.
The political landscape discusses the key issues that challenge the American government, and what has been done to stop them. The issue of ethnocentrism is discussed. The journal states that times have changed for the American nations, and they have come a long way in battling with discrimination among its people.
America has diversity of culture, since people from all walks of life are seen in this great nation. In the past, the African-Americans were treated as inferior people.
There was a long fight before they were recognized as American citizens and access education. They were also not allowed to ride in the buses the white people took to work. The battle for equality has been a long and tedious one, but it has brought liberation to the African-Americans. However, it is not over, yet, because, in certain institutions, they are still considered second-class citizens.
Women, on the other hand, have also made their mark in the professional industry. In the past, they were considered to be homemakers, but with time they have also been allowed to learn alongside their male counterparts and compete for similar jobs. Women have also been liberated since they have also been empowered by the laws that allow them to access and use family planning. This means that they are allowed to make the choice of whether they can have children or not.
To some level, this is true, but there is no reason why most of the affluent estates are mainly occupied by white people. There is also no explanation why majority of the top jobs are taken by males, yet these jobs should be shared equally between males and females.
In addition to that, if the laws show that all citizens are equal, then what would be the account for the Native Americans being marginalized or located in reserves while the government imposes their laws on them? There is also no explanation why the Mexicans are viewed as drug dealers yet; not all Mexicans are engaged in drugs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More America has also shifted from agricultural to industrial and to post-industrial economic jobs. The older people are also more involved in politics than the young generation. This might be because they had first-hand experience in the First World War and World War II. They, therefore, value their freedom and democracy.
For the younger generations, they are less involved in politics and voting. Education is seen as a tool that is to empower students. They get more information on their American history, and this would serve to make them understand the fight of their forefathers for freedom. This is in an attempt to make the students appreciate their history and more so to make them more patriotic to their nation.
In conclusion, the American nation is rich in culture since it is composed of people from all walks of life. It has also come a long way in trying to incorporate all these people. Much has been done but much is still yet to be done since the nation is still crippled by some degree of racism ethnocentrism. Women have been empowered in writing, but in practice, they are still being viewed as being unworthy to compete for the same opportunities as the men (Connor and Sabato 1-24).
The federal government is one that allows states to develop independently, but they are governed under the same laws and regulations. States are, therefore, allowed to make their economic decisions on their own but at the end of the day they are answerable to the federal law. Business and commerce should be the ruled by state law. This gives the different states the chance to explore their opportunities.
They get the chance to experiment, and this even gives them a competitive edge. The federal government serves to regulate states so that tyranny is not propagated. The national government has the authority to control the revenue. The constitutional government allows states to have authority to punish the member of the states when they commit offences, and this is applicable in cases where someone goes against federal law.
To make laws in all states equal, when members of one states cross the boundary and go into another state, they are supposed to be governed by the laws that govern the host state. States also share laws with other states, judicial proceedings among other things. It also is stated that a fugitive who flees into another state has the right to be deported back to the state where he or she is wanted.
The federal law holds the right to govern the welfare of its members, and if it deems it right, it can take measures to regulate security, commerce and laws of a state. For instance, the federal government decided to build a military station in Hawaii after it decided to increase security.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Political landscape specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was followed by unceasing protest from the state leaders who felt that they were supposed to rule themselves. The Hawaiians also feel that the federal government has also been actively involved in their displacement, and they have been forced to reserved areas and they feel oppressed.
In other instances, the federal law comes into play when there is trading between states or when states trade with countries of other nations. Since most of the times, the laws governing one state are the same laws presiding over another state; the states are allowed to share laws.
However, in certain situations, certain laws may be considered repugnant and they are unworthy of being made uniform. For instance, the Hawaiian law legalizing same-sex marriages was considered unacceptable, and the federal government decided that it would only remain legalized in Hawaii alone.
For most nations, they would want independence from the federal government because sometimes it curtails their freedom. However, as much as it seems like the enemy, it is also involved in offering financial aid and grants to states. It may also regulate the activities of states; partially or fully preempt the states from their debts with the federal fund.
In conclusion, the federal government acts as a body that acts on behalf of the welfare of its people. It ensures that the people under its rule are treated equally under the law, but they are allowed to explore different endeavors, as long as, they are within the federal law. This also ensures that there is an equal opportunity for growth and experimentation (Connor and Sabato 90-110).
Works Cited Connor, Karen, and Larry Sabato. American Government: Roots and Reform. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009.
Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Population, sample size and sampling design
Data collection methods
Validity and reliability
Introduction A research method is a procedure for collecting and analyzing data in a way that combines the research purpose of the study and the economy. Research studies in psychology are carried out in accordance with scientific methods standards. This encompasses both quantitative and qualitative statistical modalities that generate and analyze explanatory hypothesis regarding a psychological phenomena.
There are various methods that are used in qualitative research. Some of these methods include explorative approaches as well as observing the participants and recording the behaviors. In addition, it is possible to use interviews, which can be made to be made to be structured.
Through such qualitative methods, it becomes possible to get data which would otherwise be hard to get if quantitative approaches were taken. Quantitative methods in psychology incorporate use of statistical techniques to analyze data about human behavior.
This paper will be comparing research methods used in two peer-reviewed articles that focus on emotions and motivation. The paper will review an article by Jianzhong on “Homework Emotion Management Reported by High School Students” published in 2005.
The paper will also review an article by Xiang, Bruene, and McBride on “Achievement Goals and Their Roles in Students’ Motivation and Performance in Physical Education Running Programs” published in 2005. Specifically, the paper will compare and contrast the research design, target population, sampling design and sample size, data collection methods, data analysis and ethical considerations.
Research design Kothari (2004) indicates that a research design is a blueprint of a research project that comprises of a research procedure which makes the research study efficient, yielding maximum information while reducing the expenditure of effort, money and time. Different research studies that are commonly used in research include a survey method, a case study and descriptive design.
In both research studies the researchers used a survey method as their research design. A survey method involves interviewing the participants on their feelings, views and experiences in relation to the research objectives and hypothesis. A survey method is appropriate in psychological research since it helps the researcher to collect data on a subject that is not directly observable. Motivation and emotions cannot be observed and hence they can be measured best using a survey research method.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population, sample size and sampling design A population refers to a group of items or individuals with a common attribute under consideration in a field of enquiry. The target population in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 1,869 students while the target population in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.
Both research studies were done in schools. Jianzhong (2005) combined both purposive sampling and random sampling to select their sample sizes. Purposive sampling was used to select English classes. Purposive sampling is a non random sampling method which helps the researcher to select a sample of people, events or settings who have predetermined characteristics.
The researchers had observed that they were required by all students and hence purposive sampling was appropriate. However, the sample size was still large and hence simple random sampling was used to select a total of 10 English classes; five in grade 10 and five in grade 9.
Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used purposive sampling to select their sample size. In both studies, the researchers used purposive sampling but Jianzhong (2005) also used simple random sampling. The sample size in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 205 students while the sample size in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.
Data collection methods Primary and secondary data can be used in a research study. Data collection methods used in collecting primary data include mailed questionnaires, structured questionnaires, semi structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, structured interviews, semi structured interviews and observations.
In both studies the researchers used questionnaires to collect their data. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used a close ended questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale in each and every question. In Jianzhong (2005) study, possible responses to the questions were: strongly disagree which was scoring, disagree which was scoring two, ‘agree’ which was scoring three, and strongly agree which was scoring four.
Structured questionnaires are preferred by most researchers since they are economical in terms of cost, and time as compared to other data collection methods. In the two articles the researchers used quantitative data to answer the research questions.
We will write a custom Essay on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Validity and reliability The accuracy of data collected mostly depends on the validity and reliability of the data collection instruments. Validity is the extent to which the results obtained after analyzing the data represent the study’s phenomena. Validity of the data collection instruments is achieved by pre-testing the research instruments in order to identify any ambiguous offensive of awkward questions and make changes where necessary. In both research articles the researchers did not do a pretest.
Reliability measures the degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results. Jianzhong (2005) in his study tested the reliability of his data and found that Alpha reliability coefficients were.81 for extrinsic reasons and 86 for intrinsic reasons. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not do a reliability test in their study.
Data analysis Quantitative data can be analyzed by three statistical data analysis tools: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and test statistics. Inferential statistics helps the researchers to make conclusions and predictions in relation to the properties of a population using the information from the sample size. Descriptive statistics helps the researcher to obtain information about central tendency, kurtosis, skew and dispersion and of data. Inferential statistics also help the researcher to obtain information of on the relationship between variables.
Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used both inferential and descriptive statistics to analyze their data. In inferential statistics they used MANOVA test while in descriptive statistics they used mean.
In his study Jianzhong (2005) used both descriptive and inferential statistics. Jianzhong (2005) used descriptive statistics to describe levels of education and his dependent variable (homework emotion management). In his inferential statistics Jianzhong (2005) used Zero-Order Correlations to establish the correlation between his dependent and independent variables. He also used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to analyze variances in homework emotion management which was his dependent variable.
Ethical considerations Minja (2009) described ethics as norms that govern the conduct of a human being and has a greatly impacted human welfare. Research studies should always have ethical consideration in relation to the respondents or organizations.
Researchers should therefore assure the respondents and the names of the respondents should not be disclosed when analyzing the data or when discussing the findings. In his study Jianzhong (2005) shared information on his study with an assistant school principal to seek approval to conduct. In their study Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not consider any ethical consideration.
References Jianzhong, X. (2005). Homework emotion management reported by high school students. The School Community Journal, 15(2):21-36.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers.
Minja, D. (2009). Ethical leadership practices. KCA Journal of Business Management, 2(1):1-15.
Xiang, P., Bruene, A.,
Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development Exploratory Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction The concept of growth denotes either physical or mental change in size. Growth, as discussed in this paper, will concern both manifested physical growth and external growth associated with progress in careers, personal relationships, and existing networks with friends and colleagues. Motivation plays a tremendously pivotal role in growth; in essence, many employees and workers that engage in their various endeavors that result in growth in their careers usually require a dose of motivation to achieve growth.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Growth The ERG theory of growth states that a person’s most salient aspects have to do with the person’s existence, relatedness and growth. The existence needs concern the person’s concerns for bare survival. These include the need for food, the need for clothing and shelter. As concerns relatedness, the theory states that a person needs to have satisfying relationships with others in his or her social circle in order to have a sense of self and be ready to embrace growth.
Finally, the element of growth in this theory relates to an individual’s need for personal development. The need for personal development occurs in a person’s private and professional setting. Personal development, thus, involves a sense of increased maturity as well as development in a given career that an individual may choose.
Growth and development in employees, as stated earlier, requires motivation that may be co-opted from different sources. According to Peterson et al, characteristics such as hope, optimism and resilience are powerful motivating factors for employees.
In their study, Peterson et al found that when employees and workers gain these characteristics and attitudes (hopefulness, optimism and resilience) towards their work, they become highly motivated and attain higher levels of career growth (2010, p.428). The onus is thus on employers and managers of various organizations to ensure that such characteristics are imparted in their employees.
This impartation can happen through various means to ensure that employees develop a proper and positive attitude towards work and achieve a level of growth in their respective posts and careers. Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth thus aligns with the findings of the study, since to develop the positive characteristics mentioned here requires that these employees’ needs concerning the existence and relatedness are met.
Before an individual becomes hopeful, optimistic and resilient, his or her basic need for food, clothing and security has to be fulfilled first. Additionally, the individual has to feel that he or she has positive relations with members of family, coworkers and friends. After these two needs are met, then, through training and positive reinforcement, the individual can easily become hopeful, optimistic, and resilient. These are the characteristics necessary for individual and professional growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional Goal setting And Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth An individual’s own characteristics also play a crucial part in one’s professional growth. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth and development, an individual’s need for personal development features prominently in his or her growth needs. The most successful professionals in their various fields usually have a high rate and level of personal development.
Baum and Barbara state that, highly successful entrepreneurs usually exhibit a high level of their sense of self and belief in achieving what an ordinary person would deem impossible (2010, p.398). According to their study, successful entrepreneurs are highly goal driven. These entrepreneurs set goals and then take the necessary steps to achieve the set goals.
Similarly, personal and professional development is achieved through setting goals and striving to achieve them at various points in an individual’s life. Personal development goals range from an effort by one individual to lose weight or the set target of another individual to start a business. The common element in personal development goals is that they are set to improve or change the current socioeconomic, bodily, financial or other status of the individual.
Informal Personal behavior and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development An individual’s personal behavior draws entirely from the characteristics that the individual acquires and develops over a period. The environment in which a person grows, as well as the nature of parenting undertaken play a significant role in the development of an individual. For instance, children that are raised with single parents are more likely to engage in crime and other social vices compared to children raised by two parents (the father and mother) (Ricciuti, 2004, p. 196).
Therefore, an individual’s personal informal behavior is a function of both nature and nurture. According to Alderfer’s Theory of growth, when an individual’s needs for existence and relatedness are not met – for instance by neglectful parenting, the individual will lag behind in his or her rate of personal development. The personal behavior of such an individual will also exhibit signs of neglect, and the person may be socially withdrawn, aggressive or acquire other such extreme characteristics.
However, although the nature and nurture are strong factors in an individual’s personal development – and thus his subsequent behaviors, persons who undergo severe trauma, regardless of their upbringing, exhibit signs of unfulfilled existence and relatedness needs.
Such persons require training and goal setting lessons in order to achieve personal growth – and thus exhibit appropriate personal behavior. According to Lerner and Blow, soldiers who engage in battle usually exhibit signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
We will write a custom Essay on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These signs resemble the signs of individuals whose relatedness needs have not been met. Lerner and Blow state that through positive training on the need for setting goals that bring personal development – for instance re-joining a previous career, or engaging in volunteer work – these veterans eventually eliminate PTSD signs (2011, p.40).
Therefore, personal development training is also a decisive factor in creating positive characteristics in individuals. Interestingly, research on biological processes of growth reveals an almost similar pattern. Bhagia et al, in their study of persons suffering from brain injury, discovered that, when the individual was injected with a growth hormone, recovery was quicker and more holistic (2010, p.565).
Therefore, just like personal and professional growth and development, biological growth also benefits from induced, targeted growth stimulation.
Social Policy and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development With the understanding of Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth, social development policies enacted in society should ensure all polices aim to fulfill the existence, relational and growth needs of all the members of society. A lack in any of the above needs creates a sense of loss in an individual, and such an individual is likely to engage in behavior that causes harm to the rest of the members of society.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Growth
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory states that, an individual has needs that need to be fulfilled at various levels for the individual to achieve personal and professional development. These needs are physiological needs (food, shelter, security), social needs (friendship and intimacy), self-esteem needs (belonging) and self-actualization.
According to Maslow, when an individual’s physiological needs are not met, the person will not be able to apply himself or herself fully to any task at hand, and the pattern holds as the different needs at different levels are explored. Therefore, an individual can be motivated with the promise of fulfillment of higher needs. For instance, an employee whose pay enables him or her to meet only physiological needs can be motivated with the promise of a higher pay that will enable him or her fulfill his or her social needs.
Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Informal Personal Behavior
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, whenever a given level of needs is not met in an individual, the individual will exhibit this lack in certain antisocial behavior. For instance, a child who is neglected by the parents- thus the safety needs are unmet, will most likely develop a sense of inferiority towards his or her peers. Similarly, an adult whose self-esteem needs are unmet is likely to resort to self-destructive and harmful behavior such as drug abuse in an attempt to fulfill the need of being respected by peers.
Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Professional Goal Setting
In a professional setting, especially in organizations with employees at various stages of their career growth, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory is useful in ensuring that employees remain motivated to perform their tasks and achieve personal and professional growth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory enables individual employees examine areas of his or her personal life that do not align with the theory, and adjust accordingly.
That quarrelsome manager may be suffering from a simple lack of professional appreciation, and may feel that he or she is simply not getting the respect that he/she deserves, and thus their tendency to pick a fight over unnecessary issues may be a manifestation of the need for professional appreciation.
Similarly, the guard who is always unmotivated may be exhibiting signs of a person whose pay does not fulfill both physiological and social needs. Thus, the management of an organization can use the theory to ensure that the workplace becomes a place of wholesome and appropriate rewards for all workers and managers involved (Benson,
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay college admissions essay help
Abstract Autism is a serious disorder that has the potential to disrupt the success of people living with it. This report shall set out to explore various aspects regarding this disorder. To this end, an overview of the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment shall be offered. This shall aim at expanding our understanding regarding this disorder so as to enable us to be better prepared to handle it whenever the need arises.
Introduction Autism has been noted to be among the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder. Kuder (2003) denotes that in the USA, an estimated 2.1% of the population aged between 8 and 17 is affected by autism in its various forms.
Autism is manifested by varied behavior but it is chiefly characterized by inability to communicate, lingual deficits, lack of a sustained attention, low level of activity, temper tantrums, sleep disturbance, aggression inadequate motor control and other non-compliant behavior. These behaviors are detrimental to the social and educational endeavors of the people involved.
Biological and genetic aspects of autism Spectrum Disorders Autism spectrum is a medical term that is used to describe children and adults who experience difficulties in motor coordination, socializing, communicating (verbal and non-verbal) and language acquisition (Tager-Flusberg, Paul and Lord, 2005). The authors describe autism as a neurological disorder that stems from the brain’s inability to carryout some functions normally.
The causes of Autism as well as the reasons why it affects lingual and communication skills are not entirely known though there is a close linkage between Autism and genetics.
Studies indicate that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is inherited between family members. A study conducted by the American Psychiatric Association (2000) indicated that there is a 3-6% chance of getting autism amongst siblings.
However, Korvatska et al (2002) state that the difficulty experienced by scientists in pinpointing the genetic aspects of autism emanates from the lack of extended family histories. In most cases, autistic individual become more detached socially that they rarely marry or have children. As such, finding a family that has detailed genetic information regarding autism is difficult.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On a brighter note, twins have been used to explore the genetics behind autism (Beaudet, 2007). One study indicated an 82% likelihood of an autistic identical twin having the same disorder. This is in contrast to the 10% likelihood indicated by results from fraternal twins. More sophisticated studies have in the recent past concluded that 90% of autism related behavioral phenotypes are as a result of inherited genes (Happé
Giving Advice about Treatment Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Patients, who need psychotherapy care needs to be handled with a significant amount of care. This is because such patients are delicate and that the way they are handled may deteriorate their condition. Choosing the right kind of psychotherapy is part of handling such patient.
This is because psychotherapy does not function in isolation and is dependent on other factors. These factors include the type of the relationship established, as well as the technique applied. While these two variables are useful, there are basic fundamental principles which facilitate the success of psychotherapy.
Moreover, generalized clinical solutions may not necessarily work for individual patients. As such it is vital to provide evidence based healthcare, which facilitates individualized treatment programs for the patient. In this case where the patient feels the need to make the right choice, there are certain basis issues that need to be put into perspective. This will enable the client identify the most suitable form of psychotherapy plan
There has been numerous research studies conducted on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Within these research studies, the researchers have focused on numerous variables that can alter the findings.
Despite the varied opinions of these researchers, they have all arrived at one conclusion: that psychotherapy works and that there is no any significant variation in psychotherapy outcomes, whether it is accompanied by medication or not (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2010).
This implies that the patient should take psychotherapy which is not accompanied by any form of medication. This is due to the realization that medication does not alter the efficacy of psychotherapy.
Moreover, medication for such clinical conditions may have side effects, thus the need to avoid it at all cost. Research studies also reveal that a majority of patients who need psychotherapy have multiple problems which need complex solutions (Butcher et al., 2010). In this regard, it is not wise for patient in this case to exclusively choose any type of psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because such approaches to psychotherapy are limited and are only suited to treat certain types of psychological issues. General psychotherapy is aimed at evaluating, analyzing identifying related conditions. For the patient to receive comprehensive diagnosis it would be wise to avoid any special type of psychotherapy.
It is important to recognize that each patient has special needs and that each of the clinical condition is unique in every patient (Butcher et al., 2010). As such patients seeking psychotherapy treatment needs to understand that their needs are uniquely personal and that general remedies may not necessarily be effective for that particular condition.
In this case the biggest question for his patient is how to access evidence based patient care; evidence based healthcare requires that the clinician maintain contact with the patient for long duration, as the clinicians studies the development of that patients condition. The need for evidence based care is to allow the clinician to have sufficient time to diagnose and categorize the patient as either complex or worse.
Furthermore, the clinician, using the evidence based method will be able to categorize the particular patient condition as either mild moderate or complex. The psychotherapy patient will benefit from this type of healthcare since the clinician will be able to develop tailor made psychotherapy.
Furthermore, the clinician will be able to assess the efficacy of the treatment plan for and make adjustments according to emerging needs, should there be any. Such individualized treatment plan will also enable the patient to gain a deeper understating of the condition, and as such the patient becomes actively involved in the treatment process.
Despite the findings that the outcomes of psychotherapy are not varied by the presence of other types of medication, it is imperative to state that psychotherapy does not work in isolation of other variables (Butcher et al., 2010). This implies that there are other factors that influence the efficacy of psychotherapy.
Generally psychotherapy revolves around the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist. There are a number of factors that determine this relationship. These include the warmth and comfort generated during the process of psychotherapy. This implies that the effectiveness of tailor-made psychotherapeutic plan for the patient in this case is highly dependent on the type of relationship that evolves between the patient and the psychotherapist.
We will write a custom Report on Giving Advice about Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is difficult to predict the nature of relationship that there might evolve between the patient and the clinician while at the stage in which the clinician is being chosen. However, it is still possible to track the development of the patient clinician relationship by evaluating the patients comment about the clinician.
If the patients voices dissatisfaction, any form of disapproval of the clinician or any method of treatment prescribed, it thus becomes necessary to withdraw the patient from that particular psychotherapist. Such kind of disapproval is an indication of the fact that the patient has lost faith in the clinician and since research suggests that such factors affect that the outcomes of psychotherapy, then it will be wise to seek an alternative.
Suffice to say that the patient clinician relationship plays a very significant part in determining the nature of the outcomes. Thus, it is vital to keep alternating clinicians until the right kind of patient clinician relationship is established. Furthermore, developing this type of relationship is part of tailor-made psychotherapy plan.
The purpose of seeking psychotherapy is to facilitate therapeutic changes in the patients. As explained earlier, the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist plays a significant role in facilitating therapy. Furthermore, techniques of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist have been found to be ineffective.
This is not to mean that the role of technique in facilitating therapy should be downplayed. To some extent these techniques also motivates successful therapy. The question however is not on which of the two; relationship and techniques, is more effective than the other.
This implies that for this case, it is vital to identify the basic principles which facilitate successful therapy. For instance if it is found out that the psychotherapist is too involved (in the relationship) instead of acting the patient will be withdrawn as this type of relationship is unhealthy.
Choosing a psychotherapist is not just a mater of locating one who will be able to handle the patient in question. It is imperative to note the while choosing a psychotherapist for the patient in this particular case, it is vital to consider a number of fundamental issues. These issues are vital since they facilitate individualized and patient based care. This will be to the advantage of the patient since the treatment plan will be focused on the patient. As such the efficacy of psychotherapy will be achieved.
Reference Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., and Hooley, J. M. (2010). Abnormal psychology (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn
The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Social Networking Sites
Privacy in Social Media at Workplace
Ethical considerations while using social media
Social media and computer security
Introduction Social media plays an important role at work places. Importantly, it is increasingly gaining popularity among different users as compared to other media like radio and television (Patel, 2010, p.60). By making use of computer networks in communication, social media plays an important role in helping organizations to communicate with their new employees (Sims, 2010, p.157).
In addition, it provides an interactive platform, whereby, individuals can converse uninterrupted. Unfortunately, this has resulted into misuse of the media, for instance, some users can express their ill motives or influence the public, or post information that they could not convey in a real life encounter.
Privacy of the employees at a given workplace should be given priority when using social media. Primarily, ethical codes of conduct should be observed in communication through the social media. Here, individuals should understand the feelings and emotions of the recipients of the information.
There is also a need to ensure security of the information contained in these media, since some of the information is essential for smooth running of the organization. The access to such information by unauthorized parties such as competitors of an organization would be very detrimental to the realization of the objectives of the company.
The Social Networking Sites These are websites used for social interaction in the cyberspace. They include Facebook, MySpace, Opera, Yahoo, Twitter, Livejournal, Classmates, Myblog, and Linkedln among others (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011). Facebook has had a significant subscription recently, with a figure of over 500 million users by 2010 (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32). In most of the sites, a user is required to develop a profile (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011) by signing up in the network. Other individuals then get to know more about this particular user.
Privacy in Social Media at Workplace Individuals have a right to privacy, and there are legal provisions that protect this right. Similarly, employees of an organization have the right to privacy of information. Unless it is necessary, employers need not to get into the private affairs of employees. To some extent, the kind of communication between the employees and the allies should be of little concern to the employers.
However, while using social media at workplaces, the company has the capacity to check into the content of such information. Ordinarily, the company retains the ability to monitor communication through the facilities at workplace (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). Importantly, organizations have private policies enacted to protect their operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because some irresponsible employees could use the social sites to influence the behavior of other employees or leak information to the wrong individuals. Indeed, information concerning an organization’s operational strategies is crucial and thus it should be kept secret (Guerin, 2011, p.260).
Thus, it is apparent that, even though it is necessary to respect the privacy of employees, the information shared in the social media sites at workplaces need to be assessed by the company. Employers are often interested in checking if the employees are doing a good job (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). However, the retrieved information should be revealed only in the event that it is deemed dangerous to the operations of the organization.
Ethical considerations while using social media Using company resources for individual purposes is considered a good working condition that motivates employees. However, this is acceptable if the employees use the resources responsibly. This can be achieved through ethical consideration by the employees. Firstly, the sender of a piece of information should take precautions to ensure that the information will not hurt the recipient. In addition, employees should respect the privacy of their co-workers and provide identity only under the authority of the organization (Guerin, 2011, p.260). Indeed, a good understanding of the emotions of others enables one to identify a piece of information that is likely to hurt others.
It is also important to consider the diversity among the users of the sites. Different people understand life differently. When providing some information, an individual often believes that, his/her opinion is right and acceptable. However, the sender should acknowledge the fact that other individuals could have different opinions on the same subject.
Similarly, employees should be send proper and meaningful information. Retrieving information from these social sites is expensive; therefore, the information so received should be of some significance to the recipient. Observing the organizational values and codes of conduct will enable the employees to operate smartly towards the realization of the company’s objectives.
The employers often expect that the employees will use their employer time doing the assigned duties. However, studies have shown that a substantial proportion of employees often visit social media sites during employer’s time (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32).
We will write a custom Essay on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social media and computer security Computer security is increasingly becoming an issue of global concern, more so given that cases of new strains of computer viruses continue to threaten computer users in different institutions (Yale University, 2009). By joining the network within an institution or the larger WWW, an individual exposes his computer to attacks that would lead to loss of information stored in the machine (Yale University, 2009).
Given that the stored information is of importance to both the employees and the management of the organization, it is important to protect the information from loss. Indeed, all operating systems are vulnerable to such attacks (Yale University, 2009).
To improve on the security, users should stay informed of the latest developments registered in fighting computer viruses for a given operating system. In addition, software manufacturers often detect and provide alerts on possible attacks. Therefore, users should often consult with the manufacturers to fix the problem.
Security can also be improved using anti-virus (Yale University, 2009). This software checks updates, and prompts the users to fix the latest vulnerability that is discovered. Moreover, the use of a hardware-based firewall can also improve on the security (Yale University, 2009).
Conclusion Social media plays an important role in workplace communication. Therefore, moral values and ethical considerations need to be observed, as they affect the effectiveness of such communication. Ordinarily, any conversation should be conducted in a similar manner it would be communicated in a real life situation.
Moreover, it is desirable that all the users of social media sites should show some sense of maturity, just like in a real life encounter. In this sense, they will avoid conveying information that would hurt the recipients of such information, or any other party that has access to such information.
Moreover, it is important to convey substantial pieces of information; however, the privacy of employees and the company should be respected while using the sites.
Appendix Communication is essential in different settings including workplaces. Social media has had an increasing significance in enhancing effective communication among members of an organization. The management teams of business organizations often want to pass some information to their stakeholders including the customers, suppliers, the employees, and the public.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective communication is essential in the supply chain management in a business organization. Similarly, non-profit organizations also have a lot of stuff to communicate to their stakeholders, while employees of such organizations also have a lot to share among themselves.
References Guerin, L. (2011). Smart Policies for Workplace Technologies: Email, Blogs, Cell Phones
Psychology of Gender Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender Identities in the Different Cultures
Gender Attitudes Studies
Introduction Gender issues such as equality between men and women and gender roles evoke strong reactions in the contemporary world. Much like race, ethnic, and class stereotypes, gender stereotypes, exclusion, and discrimination are central to politics in many countries.
In particular, issues of feminist exclusion and discrimination characterized by a relatively low political participation of women remain unresolved and often elicit negative feelings in many societies. Additionally, these issues shape a society’s politics especially the policies of left-wing parties and feminist activist groups. For this reason, gender issues in contemporary societies require a cautious approach when addressing them.
Gender issues, particularly gender equality, roles, relations, and political participation are common stereotypes despite the massive awareness campaigns and legislations on these issues. Ideally, studying gender aims at promoting knowledge about gender exclusion and discrimination as well as encouraging the respect of rights of minorities (Spence, 1993, p. 632).
However, the high sensitivity and politics of gender issues with respect to economic, cultural as well as social inequalities are obstacles to studying gender. In addition, sample participation in gender studies is low; thus, decisive conclusions cannot be made. Future research should focus on understanding the gender roles within social contexts rather than on inequalities.
Major Challenges to Studying Gender
Most scholars studying gender issues focus on gender roles, as opposed to studying the broader gender identity along with its cultural, social, and economic aspects. In particular, social roles of each gender vary across culture; therefore, studies should focus cultural aspects. Stet and Burke study analyses the causes of social oppression against women as well as ways of fighting discrimination (1996, p.210).
In addition, other studies focus on social feminist movements and analyses the causes of feminist political activity as opposed to focusing on the social, cultural and political background of gender disparities. In my view, the ever-increasing interests on gender roles face stiff opposition from cultures, which hamper effective study of gender issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, masculinity and femininity are not only based on sexes but upon cultural and social conditions of an individual. Burke’s study shows that observed differences in social behaviors between women and men result from the cultural and cultural expectations of each gender (1991, p.838).
Traits and temperaments that are normally linked to one sex are, in fact, present in all the sex groups. In addition, far more variability in roles or identities does exist within each gender. Burke’s study concluded that, the “patterns of temperament vary among societies” (1991, p. 841). In most societies, male exhibit active and competitive temperaments while females are more cooperative and expressive.
However, according to Burke and Cast, in some societies the males show cooperative and expressive temperaments while females are more competitive (1997, p. 287). Consequently, their social roles are different compared to other societies. This shows that gender studies should be a function of social and cultural factors. In my view, studying gender should be in the context of the prevailing cultural and social factors in a given society.
Gender Identities in the Different Cultures Gender studies also face a challenge of defining gender identity in social and cultural contexts. The gender identity phenomenon has many aspects. Certain behaviors, attitudes and attributes are exclusive to either male or female. However, the underlying issue is the society’s view of the qualities of being feminine or masculine.
Culturally, physical attributes, traits, and occupational preferences reflect masculine or feminine gender identities. A study by Burke and Cast established that individuals base their personal qualities on culturally defined gender characteristics to “define themselves as feminine or masculine” (1997, p. 278).
Moreover, gender identities tend to be more variable depending on the internalized behaviors that the individual engages. The behaviors then shape their identities and by extension their social roles (Drass, 1986, p. 301). In this regard, studying gender faces the challenge of defining gender identity in the context of a given culture.
In my opinion, studies should use a multidimensional approach as gender roles relate to gender identities, which are both dependent on social and cultural factors. In addition, gender inequality and underrepresentation in any given society influence gender studies. The politics and gender polarization in contemporary societies, in my view, hampers objectivity in gender studies with regard to political participation and representation in leadership.
We will write a custom Essay on Psychology of Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my opinion, future work on gender should focus on how societal institutions including political institutions, religion and economic structures can modify gender identity. Among the greatest challenges of studying gender, is the issue of gender identity in the context of cultural structures.
In this way, socialization can be improved in many social settings. Secondly, gender studies should focus on cross-cultural and sub-cultural differences in order to understand the meaning masculine and feminine roles and identities in the context of that culture. Since such roles or identities are not universal, the studies should provide insights on a society’s division of labor, power structure and responsibilities as well as help to modify the challenges of defining gender identity and roles.
Gender Attitudes Studies Gender attitudes involve common views associated with an individual’s gender and are variable across cultures. In most cultures, masculine attitudes reflect justice while feminine attitudes in most situations tend to be in terms of care. In particular, the gender-role attitudes shape the gender roles and identities (Spence, 1993, p. 625). By extension, the gender-role attitudes influence the reproductive behaviors, family relationships, and the political participation of each gender in any given society.
Accordingly, children develop their gender-role attitudes from their experiences with social structures including the family and society. From these early experiences, the children identify the appropriate masculine and feminine roles within the society (Drass, 1986, p.298). The gender-role attitudes can be traditional, such as men providing for the family and female caring for children, or untraditional, where roles are assigned based on ability or circumstances regardless of gender. Additionally, the untraditional gender roles differ from culture to culture. As a result, gender attitude studies should be done across cultures, in order to draw meaningful conclusions.
Gender attitude studies conducted involving the Caucasian middle class adults alone cannot be conclusive. Firstly, the studies involve adults instead of children or adolescents whose present gender-role attitudes has an impact upon their roles in adulthood. Secondly, in my opinion, the gender-role attitude studies should involve societies with a history of gender inequality and discrimination. In particular, the studies should involve the African-Americans whose attitudes on gender roles has implications on gender participation in public affairs.
Conclusion Gender studies in contemporary societies often face challenges from underlying social and cultural factor. Precisely, the gender roles and gender identity are dependent on cultural and political constructs of a particular society. In addition, these factors determine the political participation of either gender and are variable across cultures. In my opinion, studies should focus on understanding the gender roles and identities and how they are shaped by gender-role attitudes across many cultures.
Reference List Burke, J. (1991). Identity Processes and Social Stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836-849.
Company analysis-Harley-Davidson Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Harley-Davidson Inc. was established during the first ten years of the 20th century in Wisconsin. It is one of the major motorcycle manufacturers that was not hard hit by the Great Depression. It has also survived stiff competition from Japanese motor cycle manufacturing firms due to its high quality and competitive products and services.
The external analysis of the company reveals that Harley-Davidson Inc. is one of the companies that are highly recognized and admired worldwide. One of its notable marketing strategies entails excellent academy for training individuals who desire to learn riding motorcycles.
Issue I: Competition On the basis of internal rivalry, the company inevitably faced competition from firms which manufacture similar products as well as enjoy larger market share and stronger financial bases. For instance, Yamaha Company is one of its close market rivals. Consequently, just like Harley-Davidson, the three other competitors also concentrate on production of heavy weight motorcycles.
These competitors include Honda, Yamaha and Suzuki which are all Japanese companies. In addition, Honda Company which stands out as the major competitor of the company in the United States of America enjoys a larger market share (Grant, 2005).
Causes of stiff competition
It is imperative to note that Harley-Davidson products are highly priced and therefore, it locks out customers who are of low-income levels. Additionally, in some European nations, the company has problems in attaining larger market share. In the markets that are considered big and diverse such as India, Harley-Davidson has failed to venture and exploit the same. Finally, the company has not met the requirements of the production process by analyzing the future of their product’s market segment (Bloomberg business week, 2011).
Impacts of competition
Competition has been heightened by the fact that most of the competitors have larger market segment, diversity and financial capabilities. Following stiff competition the company is likely to experience a fluctuation in its market share if no action is taking to retain and attract new customers. Apparently, los of market share due to increased competition also translates to a decline in the company sales and subsequently a reduction in profitability (David, 2010).
It is highly recommended that the company should penetrate the market by obtaining a larger market share from the existing ones such as UK, U.S and Japan. It can attain this by employing advanced marketing techniques such as online advertising and intensive use of social media. The fact that the company has a well established brand name, it can viably compete with other market rivals. Moreover, due to the fact that there is high level of competition in US market, the company can achieve more as a result of market penetration (Reuters, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issue II: Reduced threats from potential entrants In regards to potential entrants into the market, the company faces minimal threats since most entrants are quite often deterred by high amount of capital investments required in establishing Motorcycle Company. Furthermore, the motorcycle industry has already reached what may be referred to as maturity stage. Therefore, there are only four players in the market segment who are also major competitors.
The small number of players can also be attributed to the fact that optimum profitability may only be enjoyed when manufacturers take advantage of economies of scale.
One of the important elements in the operations of Harley-Davidson is the presence of substitute products or services. The main substitutes of Harley-Davidson products are cars, scooters and sports bikes.
This is because the company concentrates on production of luxurious motorcycles. Hence, it has fewer substitutes. In addition people who want to purchase heavy weight motorcycles produced by Harley-Davidson do not consider buying the existing substitutes. Consequently, lack of substitutes reduces the threat of entry by potential competitors.
Barriers to entry imply that Harley-Davidson operates to nearly oligopolistic competition whereby they the power of suppliers. It has a large number of suppliers and hence if a supplier increases base price, the company has the option of switching to others without necessarily affecting production process.
The only materials that Harley-Davidson seeks from the suppliers are electrical and steel equipments in addition to shipping process (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). The same significantly impact on the financial position of Harley-Davidson (Pahl
Effectiveness of the Group Minds Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction People normally depend on one another starting from the time they are born. When a child is born, he/she has to completely depend on those people around him/her for a number of years. But still, even if people grow up and become mature, they do not progressively become independent from one another but they instead turn out to be interdependent.
In the course of living, people come to make up a large number of relationships which are set up on “give-and-take” basis with those around (the community, family and friends) as well as the culture. Human beings have turned out to get used to this for the reason that they are biologically formed in such a way that they live in groups and also work and grow in groups.
Doris Lessing pointed out in her article “Group Minds” that, a small number of people take joy in being alone and people are in constant search for groups to associate themselves with. In this paper, a critique of Doris Lessing’s article “Group Minds” is going to be carried by considering what other authors say about group mind.
Group Minds Human beings are social creatures and this obviously gives them power to come together in order to set up something that is stronger as well as more adaptive and inspired than any individual human being and that is, the group.
The general concern that Doris Lessing has in her article “Group Mind”, is that human beings have a lot of information available to them but they are not ready to use it to bring improvement in their social structures as well as groups and thus, they live their own lives.
This author is right to a significant level. The moment human beings come to a realization of the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now start examining how to set up group minds which boost just love alone and the well-being of the society in general.
There is a strong believe within the society that human beings are “free individuals” who engage in thinking and speaking for themselves each day. However, this is not true because people’s actions are, in an unconscious way, under the continuous influence of groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whatever relationship that exists between two people, or even more, who have the same views in regard to a particular issue offers a good example of the way groups are easily and unconsciously formed among people. Human beings would like to think of themselves as individuals, but the question is, are they actually aware of their group minds?
Doris Lessing points out that, as on one hand human beings living in the free world present claims that they have the freedom to live as well as hold beliefs the way they wish, on the other hand, they are negligent in being aware of the way the opinions they have develop from the influences of other people (Lessing 333).
Having such social groups as the family and work groups among other social groups as being a quite significant part of the “American lifestyle”, Lessing points out that it is quite normal for human beings to stay in groups and gather together in groups.
This author presents an argument that a very small number of people are willing to live in absolute isolation and they are of course, in constant search for groups to identify themselves with. Lessing goes ahead to point out that, whereas each and every person has experiences of “group pressures”, people rarely depict themselves as “someone who lives and thinks similarly of those in groups” (Lessing 333).
According to Lessing, the moment a person joins a group, in most cases this person changes his or her way of thinking in order to go in line with the group and “there is nothing harder than trying to maintain your own opinions while being a group member” (Lessing 334). This author draws a conclusion that “the reason why an individual never challenges the opinions and affirmations of a group is because they are developed by the entire group mind, and challenging these might cause the entire group to collapse.
Human beings brand themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. Even in the conditions under which people are aware that they are wrong and should not certainly go in line with the group they, in most cases, go on following through with the group mind.
Lessing pointed out that “it is almost impossible to stand firm on your beliefs while taking part in a group….some of our shameful memories are how often we might have said black was white just because other people were saying it” (Lessing 334). A most important example is given by another researcher, Stanley Milgram, who set out to carry out the determination of the level to which “traditional individuals” would have obedience for the evidently morally wrong order of an “authority figure”.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Effectiveness of the Group Minds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Milgram carried out tests about the way particular individuals would give a response to imposing pain on to another individual for the reason that they were told to do so by another figure. He set up an experiment in which a person was required to engage in the studying of words that were paired in a list.
Another person was given instructions to ask the learner concerning the words in the list. Every moment the learner was not able to remember the paired words in the list, he was exposed to the electric shock as a way of punishing him. The strength of the electric shock was even increased every time this individual missed the “pairing word”.
The individual who had been assigned to inflict the pain (shocks), in a surprising manner, was not in any way very much disturbed at having to give out electrical shocks to the victim up to the time the victim turned out to be clearly uncomfortable, a point at which these individuals inflicting pain over and over again sought after “bailing the experiment” (Milgram 43).
But the “authority figure” in this experiment that was being carried out would give instructions to the one who was questioning the “learner” to go own regardless of what was happening.
Amazing enough, the one who was questioning would generally go on a few more times before they would stubbornly cease sending more electric impulses to the learner. Initially, the theory was that a large number of individuals would cease from carrying out the experiment having the awareness that the individual to whom they were sending the electric shocks was actually being inflicted but this notion was proved not to be true (Milgram, 43).
Those who were involved in the Milgram’s experiment held a belief that the scientist was very much aware of what he was doing and following this, the assumption they had in their mind was that they too, were doing a thing that was as well acceptable, although at the back of their mind, they knew this was not right.
The subjects surrendered the free will to choose that they had for the reason that an authority above them gave them instructions to do so. This is a clear illustration that gives evidence that going in line with an authority figure or a group in not the best choice at all times.
Lessing poses a question that “if we are truly individuals then why do we not stand up for our own morals and values?” (Lessing 334) This just gives out an indication that human beings hold a belief that the authority figures and large groups have all the possible answers and they have to act in a manner that goes in line with the ‘authority figures’ or groups’ wishes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of the Group Minds by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although human beings can think for themselves, they ensure they conform to the authority’s decision and this is for the sake of the “group mind”. An explanation is given out by Milgram of his results in the experiment that “for many, obedience is a deeply ingrained behavior tendency, indeed a potent impulse overriding training in ethics, sympathy, and moral conduct” (Milgram 44).
A large number of human beings show obedience to the authority figures without much thinking. However, there are situations in which disobeying may be helpful to an individual in regard to achieving safety and maintaining one’s morals and values. Lessing, in her article, gives out a discussion about the dangers that come out from being obedient and these are also illustrated by another author, Shirley Jackson, in the short story “The Lottery”.
In this story, the villagers depict the observation that was made by Doris Lessing that “it is the hardest thing in the world to maintain an individual dissident opinion, as a member of a group” (Lessing 334). The villagers in “The Lottery” as well portray how lack of a vision as a member of a group can be quite harmful. Lessing observed that “the majority will continue to insist and after a period of exasperation the minority will fall in to line” (Lessing 334).
Solomon Asch in his article “Opinions and Social Pressure”, points out that “the assumptions are that people submit uncritically and painlessly to external manipulation by suggestion or prestige, and that any given idea or value can be ‘sold’ or ‘unsold’ without reference to its merits” (Asch 307).
What this author is putting across is that a large number of people do ignore their values as well as their virtues without ceasing to engage in thoughts about whether they actually needed to be ignored. Asch and Lessing “tie together” to give an illustration about the way a group can be very powerful and how considerably a group can have an effect on the mind of an individual within the group.
Human beings give in to the external pressure that comes from the authority figures as well as from the peers. Basing on what Lessing points out, there is actually nothing wrong for an individual belonging to a particular group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society.
In Jackson’s “The Lottery”, the group behavior was actually dangerous to each and every individual that was involved. Other than the clearly seen threat of the “lottery winner” dying after being stoned; this was a tradition of the village. Any individual who had thoughts that could not conform to the group was insulted and regarded to be foolish (Jackson 3). Following the mentality of this group, the direct effect that came out of this was individuals killing the fellow members in the society without any indication of he practice being stopped.
To avoid this practice, it could only require a single individual in the society standing up and protesting, regardless of whether this is a decision of the group or of an individual. By one person in the society boldly giving out his or her opinion, this will serve to change the way people in the group look at things or situations. Since human beings are conscience and aware of themselves, they have the power and ability to positively utilize the group mind in order for them to be able to renew the human condition.
Conclusion People in the society depend on each other and they find themselves unconsciously forming groups with which they identify themselves. Human beings label themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. It becomes hard for individuals belonging to particular groups to come up with individual decisions that may go against the group and therefore they end up doing what they might be aware that it is not right.
According to Doris Lessing there is actually nothing wrong for an individual to identify him or herself with a certain group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society. Once people get to find out the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now commence on looking for ways to set up group minds which boost love alone and the well-being of the society in general.
Works Cited Asch, Solomon E. “Opinions and Social Pressure.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005. 306 – 312.
Jackson, Shirley. “The Lottery”. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 1 – 9.
Lessing, Doris. “Group Minds.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2000. 333 – 335.
Milgram, Stanley. “The Perils of Disobedience.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 41 – 47.
The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
The Affect of Group Minds on Behaviours The effect of group minds on behaviors implies the general influence group minds have on individuals’ thinking and opinions. The term “group minds” refers to joint intellect with regards to a conception in sociology and philosophy. This term in science fiction is widely explained as shared awareness.
In the book ‘‘group minds’’ by Doris Lessing, she brings out the fact that many people all over the world live in groups. Some of these are social and work groups not forgetting the family and the very minute percentage of the population that is contented by living in solitude. Such people are viewed in a negative way as to be either bizarre or egocentric. Lessing (12) portrays the ideology that people opt not to live alone for a lengthy period of time rather, they tend to look for groups to belong.
A hazardous fact is not belonging to a group but rather the lack of understanding of the social laws that rule groups and those that govern people individually. Group minds tend to think alike or in a better term, people in a group are ‘like-minded’ nevertheless, the challenging aspect of it is having a clear individual mind as an affiliate of a particular group.
Doris Lessing expounds on group minds by caring out an experiment where an individual is separated from a group and he /she is not given clear instructions on the task ahead which entails the comparison of different lengths of wood that have a slight difference from each other yet the group of people are collectively asked to perform the same task.
In the outcome, the majority group will stubbornly confirm that the lengths are equal while on the other hand, the minority, that is the individual who performed the task alone, will state that the pieces of wood differ in length. However, the group will continue persisting that right is wrong and after a period of enragement and even frustration, the minority will change their stand and join the majority thus most people give in to the major opinion hence the term “obey the atmosphere”.
The affect of group minds is usually strong and many agree that the most challenging thing is to differ with one’s group in opinion. A large number agree that they often side with the majority just because it is simply, the majority, even in situations where it is wrong.
A group mind is one major underlying hypothesis that goes unnoticed in a group and members of a group not only submit to the group but they also hardly notice that they have a collective mind and never have a difference in opinion and to them, other people not belonging to their group seem insignificant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Members of this group are so resistant to change that no debate about their postulations can be held. Only 10 percent of the total population of the world can be called natural leaders since they have independent minds and do make their own decisions by themselves without influence from majority groups. In individual thinking, a person differs and rings out that one factor that is often overlooked by a group of people and this issue of overlooking by the group is brought about by the group thinking that they are right.
According to Lessing (56), when you analyse the way a stance towards a particular book is viewed by everyone, people say the same thing whether positive or negative until there is a drift in opinion: this may be an element of some wider social drift. She gave an example of a women’s movement where a publishing house governed by women re-assess the work of women writers who have been disregarded by the community due to the ‘group thinking’ of the masses.
In some cases, a shift of the general opinion occurs due to a person standing out against the general opinion and other people join him hence creating a new ideology that subsequently becomes general. When a well respected person of the society says that something is good yet someone who isn’t known in the society thinks it is not, it is difficult to differ and better yet, it is more difficult to differ when quite a lot of people say the opposite.
The external pressure that people undergo and succumb to often comes in form of groups such as patriotism, loyalty groups, beliefs and needs. However the hardest pressure that is difficult to control is the internal one which stresses that you follow the majority. An experiment popularly known as Milgrma is used to illustrate the group thinking phenomenon whereby, people who are randomly chosen were put in one room and an opaque screen divides the room.
In the second part of the room a number of volunteers are put in and they are wired to a machine that is used to run electric shock up to a point of killing a person similar to an electric chair. That machine gives them indications on how they are to react to the electric shocks either with a grunt then groan and screams and finally with a plea to cease the experiment.
Those people who were randomly chosen and put in the first room actually thought that people in the second half of the room were connected to the electrocuting machine. They were instructed to administer shock gradually increasing and hence ignore the grunts from the other side.
Out of this sixty-two percent of them continued administering shock up to 450 volts level and at the voltage of 285 the guinea pig had already become silent after giving an excruciating scream. Those that administered the shocks had a firm belief that they had given the painful shocks at their best and they experienced a great deal of pressure though they kept on increasing the volts of electricity.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the experiment many of them found it incredulous that they had the capability of such actions and some of them said that they were only following the instructions given to them. This experiment very openly and clearly shows how majority of people follow orders issued to them regardless of their degree and nature even if atrocious in order to obey the authority above them. Such an example is the German Nazis who did not question the orders given unto them.
‘Group mind’ is an element of the general human behavior. Doris Lessing points out that by a person joining a group in the name of finding people like themselves, the chances of that group changing the views and opinions of that person are usually high. She also warns that if a person does not think for himself/herself, that person is a part of a group and may end up never having the opportunity to be a standalone individual with his/her own views (Behrens and Rosen 96).
Solomon Asch, the author of “Opinions and social pressure”, carried out several experiments to demonstrate the effect of group minds in human beings. In one of the experiments, college students were asked to give their views regarding various issues and at a later date they were asked the same question but this time around they were first given the views of the authorities and majority of their peer groups on the same issues.
In the outcome, many of the students changed their views towards the direction of the opinions of the majority. This proves the extent to which group minds has affected the society as a whole. The fact that a particular group has the majority rule tends to shift views even in the event of there being no argument for other views.
People should strongly criticize the power of social pressure since an affect of group minds causes uncritical submission to members of a group. According to Asch (105), the capability of rising above group thinking and the phenomenon of group minds through independent thinking is a factor open to human beings.
In another experiment a group of about eight to nine students were put in a room for a “psychological experiment”in visual acuteness. The experiment was about giving the comparison between lengths of lines where two white cards are marked by a black line. One card had a single black line while the other had three which had varying lengths.
The students were to make a choice on which vertical line had the same length as the one that was on the first card. Initially their answers were to be given in the order in which they were seated and they gave the same matching line and in the second round they gave a common answer. However, in the third round one person differed from the rest in his answer and he looked surprised by the disagreement and on the fourth trial he still disagreed while his colleagues are unanimous on their decision.
What was duly noted was that the more he disagreed in the other trials, the more he got worried and hesitant and one occasion he paused before giving his answer and spoke in a low tone of voice or he grinned in an embarrassed manner. The experimenter had given instructions to the other members of the group to give wrong answers unanimously and the dissenter had no idea about this.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dissenter who was also the minority had actually given the correct answer but he was opposed by a majority group that was giving the incorrect answer in unanimity. Out of 123 people put to this test, a large number of them followed the majority group due to group pressure that resulted from group minds. The minority shifted their answers to the majority which was out rightly misleading them in 36.8 percent of the varieties.
Although the individuals differed at some point, a quarter was independent and hardly agreed with the majority but at some other point some students affirmed with the majority in almost all the occasions.
This experiment conclusively shows that those students who followed the majority could not free themselves as the ordeal went on and on while the independent did not end up following the majority as the trials continued. Those that followed the majority did so because their suspicions failed to free them at the moment of making a concrete choice.
In addition, an experiment was carried out and it gave the conclusion that when an individual is subjected with only one person giving a contradictory answer to his, that individual is only influenced slightly. But as the trials continue and the opposition is increased to two people, he starts experiencing pressure and doubt on his answer.
In a case where the minority number keeps on decreasing where the members shift their answers and join the majority. So long as the minority subject has a person siding with his answer, he has invariable independence but immediately that person defects, the chances of the dissenter following the majority in the next trial increases sharply.
Philip Zimbardo in his book, “The Stanford Prison Experiment,” studied the psychological effects of a person as a prisoner or as a prison guard. He carried out the Stanford Prison study where his subjects were 24 college students who were allocated duties to be either “prisoners” or “guards” in a model of a prison situated in the Stanford Psychology Building at the cellar.
In this experiment, the volunteers knew they were participating in a study but they did not have a clue when it would begin. When they were arrested at random and taken to the prison they were in a placid state of distress. The “prisoners” underwent humiliation where they were undressed, shaved and searched and just like in an actual prison they wore uniforms, ID numbers and given an escort to the cells by the guards.
It was difficult for the prisoners to show any individual personalities due to the changes they had undergone which had brought isolation to them. The psychologists in this experiment did not issue any instructions to the guards on how to treat the prisoners all they were to do was to maintain order in the replica prison. The volunteer prisoners portrayed signs of shock and uneasiness and they ridiculed the guards as they tried to reclaim their individualism (Zimbardo 123).
The guards formulated a tactic to fight back so as to maintain order and discipline to the disobedient prisoners who had rebelled. The prisoners who had started the rebellion were stripped and put in a solitary confinement by the guards while those that had no involvement in the riots were given the privilege of laying in their bed, bathing and food while their colleagues lacked those three things.
But after sometime even those prisoners that obeyed were also subjected to punishment to a point where visiting the toilet was an advantage to that particular prisoner.
At this point the prisoners thought themselves to be actual criminals and both themselves and the guards took to their roles and acted way beyond their jurisdiction of what was expected and thought of them hence leading to psychological suffering.
Many prisoners had been emotionally disturbed and five of them were removed from the study earlier on when it was concluded that a third of the guards portrayed vicious trends.
After the experiment, the volunteers, that is, both the guards and prisoners were assembled into the same room for assessment so as to put across their feelings to each other and evaluations were drawn to the Milgram experiment. Due to the distress the participants underwent, the study ended within 6 days as opposed to the planned two weeks.
The aim of this experiment was to test the philosophy that personality characters of prisoners and guards were swiftly the key to understanding offensive prison circumstances. The experiment was terminated by Zimbardo when Christina Maslach who was conducting interviews opposed the horrendous conditions of the prison. Out of more than fifty people who had seen the prison, he noted that only one of them had raised the issue of its ethics and that one person was Christina Maslach.
In the excerpt from Ian MeEwan’s novel, ‘Atonement’, he states the German Luftwaffe had raided soldiers who were retreating and those on the beaches without the Royal Air Force(RAF) responding to this hence, they followed orders and followed the majority. This shows the affect of group mind in the military.
Atonement is a British film that revolves around romance, suspense and war and it is generally described as “redemptive and astounding”. In the film, Turner tried to maintain order on the movement that was before him a thing that he almost succeeded. A short man who worked with Royal Air Force (RAF) was cornered by the crowd and received a beating from some members of the crowd. The man was a minority while the crowd had the majority rule.
The crowd laughed at the man as he was kicked and no one questioned them. A sense of individual responsibility eroded the crowd as they circled around the short man as the members of the crowd got reckless and irresponsible. Turner took the assumption that he could not do anything to help the man because if he did so, he would be risking getting lynched by the mob. The factual threat that had occurred to Turner was the ‘righteous state of mind’ of the mob.
As a man decided to whip the short man, Mace tricked the crowd to thinking that he was going to drown the man an idea that the crowd was so excited about. In this, the minority which was comprised of Nettle ,Turner ,Mace and the wounded man ended up winning through their wise thinking whereby, instead of trying to stop the crowd they coerced it since the multitude had “group minds” (MeEwan 89).
Conclusion Group minds on behaviors greatly affect human behavior and regardless of human beings having sufficient information about themselves, they do not use it to develop their lives. This aspect greatly influences the actions of a group whereby whatever the group has decided as a whole cannot be questioned and each and every member of the group does not have the power to think individually.
It is therefore appropriate and correct to state that group minds negatively impacts the lives of those belonging to a particular group. On the contrary, individual thinking enhances progression in people’s lives and it defeats the illusion behind democracy where people have the capacity to assess situations before following a group and its views.
Works Cited Asch, Solomon. Opinions and social pressure. Prentice Hall Inc., 1955. Print.
Behrens, Laurence and Rosen, Leonard. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. New York: Longman Pub Group, 1996. Print.
Lessing, Doris. Group minds. Toronto: Knopf Canada, 2001. Print.
MeEwan, Ian. Atonement. New York: Nan A. Talese, 2002. Print.
Zimbardo, Philip. Stanford prison experiment: A simulation study of the psychology of imprisonment. Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc., 1972. Print.
Steps Involved in Decision Making Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Steps in Decision Making
Introduction Decisions constitute a major part of our everyday lives. The way we make these choices determined the very quality of our lives and whether we succeed or fail in our endeavors. These decisions are not only at a personal level but extend even to the realm of business where simple decisions impact on the lives of many and the course of an economy.
Yet all decisions follow a similar pattern and learning to use the right model is the key towards an effective decision making habit. Take for example my decision to pursue a major in human development and a minor in Special Education from this university. This decision was highly influenced by cost, sacrifice and practicality in a world of unlimited choices and limited resources.
Steps in Decision Making There are many factors which influences an individual’s choice of both the university and university program. For me, the process was influenced greatly by circumstance and passion. The end of high school education brings a need to apply for college depending on performance and financial capability to pay for the cost of one’s choice.
My choice of disciplines was due to passion and demonstrated skills in the subject matter which constitutes the field of human development. Like many other students, an Ivy League university would have been the better choice but the cost of tuition in such institutions is way beyond the reach of many. So the process involved identifying the opportunity, evaluating the pros and cons of joining a particular program in a particular university and choosing the most practical option.
Bateman and Snell (2002) identify the following as the steps of making good decisions. Identifying what the problem is. The person faced with a decision must have the will to solve the problem and have the opportunity or resources to do so. First, one must brainstorm or identify possible solutions to the diagnosed problem.
Then evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of generated alternatives to choose one with higher probability of maximizing one’s welfare. This must be followed by making the decision of which alternative to adopt. Best to make a decision which has the greatest potential to better one’s circumstances. However, sacrifice is sometimes needed depending on circumstance and the available alternatives. The chosen alternative must then be implemented. Once a choice is made it should be enforced with total commitment. Finally, one must look back and evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen alternative. It is clear that the decision to enroll in this university was the right one and the knowledge of this decision making stages would not have altered it.
Bateman and Snell emphasize the need to make decisions based on the consideration of cost. The cost of implementing any decision with the corporate world is one of the major tenets which managers have used to make corporate decisions (Bateman and Snell, 2011). These decisions have far reaching consequences since the cost of any project might determine the level of innovation, quality and even productivity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This in turn reflects greatly not only on the conduct of the managers but also on the company and might determine future profitability or lack of it in the future.
Bateman and Snell (2011) have one major theme behind all their decision models and that is the need to deliver results by creating collaboration and better leadership within organizations. My decision to forego one of the major Ivy League universities was based on consideration of cost and here lies the similarity between the influence of cost advocated by Bateman and Snell and my university choice.
Conclusion This paper makes it clear the effect choices have on us and others. The way we make these choices becomes important if only to gain the ability to make good ones and refrain from making classical mistakes which lead us to misery. Needless to say that knowledge gained here will aid in making decisions which will shape our future for a long time to come.
“Fight Club” by Fincher David Essay best college essay help
The film Fight Club, which is based on the novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk, presents an evaluation of modern consumerist culture and social values. To a great extent, this movie urges people to regard goods as necessities rather than those things that define an individual or indicate his/her status in the society.
One of the major characters, Tyler Durden acts as a conveyer of the authors’ views on contemporary culture. It is possible to say that this person advocates the values of a hunter-gather society which tends to be simpler and more egalitarian, at least from economic point of view.
There are several examples that illustrate this argument. First, we can refer to the conversation between Tyler and the narrator. Tyler expresses the idea that modern people view themselves primarily as “consumers” whose sole purpose is acquisition of property. He even accuses the narrator of being too focused on material values overlooking the fact that the protagonist lost virtually all his possessions.
More importantly, he emphasizes the point that the majority of these goods are not essential for the survival of a person. More likely, they are used to underline high prestige of an individual. Such worldview is unacceptable for him. His ideas bear close resemblance to a hunter-gather society.
Its members acquire goods such as food or clothing only to feed their families or sustain themselves. In such social and economic environment the main purpose of labor is survival or subsistence but not profit or prestige. People, who live in such communities, do not derive pleasure from mere possession of property or goods.
This lack of highly sophisticated needs or desires greatly appeals to Tyler and, in part, to the narrator. Additionally, acquisition of property can be the underlying cause of inequality in the society. This is another reason why Tyler cannot accept consumerism. Hunter-gatherer community becomes his ideal mostly because it is more egalitarian. However, he overlooks the drawbacks of such social system.
Another example, which shows Tyler’s rejection of consumer culture, is the destruction of other peoples property. For instance, the members of Project Mayhem burn computers, smash vehicles, and even bomb the office of some unidentified company or corporation. This sabotage originates from their rejection of consumerism. In this way they attempt to demonstrate that property is not critical for the survival of a human being.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The people are guided by Tyler’s philosophy which relies on the premise that acquisition of property cannot be the only driver of human behavior. Again, we can say that this ideology stems from hunter-gather society. Finally, the members of Project Mayhem bomb the buildings of credit card companies in effort to erase debt records.
These bombings can be explained by their desire to recreate primitive or hunter-gather society in modern America. Nonetheless, the main characters of this film, especially Tyler, forget that other people may disagree with their views on contemporary culture or their willingness to transform the world through violence.
Fight Club is a rich social commentary on various social, economic, and political issues. This movie is aimed at showing the shortcomings of contemporary capitalism and consumerism.
Yet, its characters fail to find solutions to the problems of society; instead they try to return to primitive culture with its simplicity and alleged egalitarianism. Tyler does not care to explain the reasons why modern world moves toward consumer culture and this is the main limitation of his worldview.
Works Cited Fincher David (dir). Fight Club. 20th Century Fox. DVD.
Evaluating performance through motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Employees are a significant asset to the organization; therefore, it is crucial to motivate employees and resolve conflicts wisely within an organization to achieve remarkable performance. Different organizations apply motivation theories differently to stimulate the interest of employees.
It is essential to understand the theories of motivation first, before determining their application in different organizations. Abraham Maslow explains that employee motivation comes through a hierarchy of needs. The highest point of motivation for employees is the point where management meets the self-actualization needs of employees (Cofer,
Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process Report online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Continuous improvement process review
Review communication to stakeholders
Future planning for Fast Forward
Introduction Continuous improvement process entails all effective changes undertaken in an organization to ensure that the organization maintains a sustained growth and value for customer. It involves instituting measures, techniques and performance indices that are used to assess, evaluate and take appropriate actions to sustain the life of an organisation. Fast Forward’s continuous improvement policy serves as a frame of reference in delivering courier services to its clients (Bartol et al. 17-35).
Continuous improvement process review Following a decline in Fast Forward’s performance including loss of Build With Us, a key corporate client, due to dissatisfaction with service delivery, a review of the following service segments is essential to revitalize Fast Forward’s business: Customer feedback, service monitoring system, staff mentorship and coaching programs, firm’s communication system and channels, performance review and operation’s structure.
Customer feedback: A mechanism should be put in place to collect, evaluate and respond to customer feedback. This will involve designing and distributing questionnaires to the firm’s service points to be filled by its customers about their complaints and complements.
A customer service feedback task team should be formed to ensure that customer’s feedback is handled appropriately including making follow-ups to enhance development of a strong relationship between business and clients (Bartol, et al. 17-35).
Service delivery monitoring system: The departure of Build With Us is attributed to the current manual system of monitoring and recording of mail deliveries which is slow and inefficient. Owing to this, an elaborate IT system should be instituted to enhance fast recording and information tracking to ensure customer retention and high business efficiency.
Staff mentorship and coaching: Mentoring is providing guidance and support to help a mentee, to find a direction of doing something on his own while coaching is giving directives and guidelines for someone to follow to enhance his/ her potential. Mentoring and coaching differ in the sense that mentoring is long term and often leads to a relationship as the mentee looks at a mentor as a role model to emulate while coaching is short term and does not require the coach to necessarily be a role model (Rummler’s and Brache’s 10).
The firm will assume a rigorous mentorship and coaching program in which professional mentors and coaches will be sourced from within and outside to facilitate staff motivation and growth. Such mentors and coaches will be expected to have good communication skills of message precision, time consciousness, proactivity and mindful of employees’ efforts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication systems and channels: A good and effective communication system will be instituted to ensure effective flow of information in the firm’s hierarchy through meetings, noticeboards, office telephones, firm’s intranet and e-mail system. There will be effective weekly meetings and trainings at all departmental levels and monthly meetings involving management.
Performance review: To ensure high performance, targets will be set for all employees and key performance indicators put in place to measure their productivity. Following this, there will be monthly and annual employees’ performance appraisal.
To ensure effective monitoring of the company’s operations, the operations department will be structured into task teams each assigned a specific task to ensure high service delivery and customer retention. Such teams will hold regular meetings to report on the progress of their assignments (Samson and Daft 7-21).
Review communication to stakeholders Following the above described reviews, a communication will be made to the firm’s employees, shareholders, customers and top management including directors through suitable channels as described: Internal stakeholders will be communicated to through office-mails, intranet uploads and noticeboards.
External stakeholders such as customers and shareholders will receive communication through global e-mail system where appropriate, newspaper notices and annual stakeholders’ meetings among others.
Future planning for Fast Forward The future plans of Fast Forward will entail measures to expand business territories, and to maintain a growth in asset portfolio and profit margins.
The following progressive improvements are essential in meeting the future of the firm: Firstly, I will ensure a sustained growth in human resource with respect to growth in business; secondly, I will ensure integration of ideas of all employees in business planning including customer feedback in making business decisions, thirdly, I will invest in IT systems to meet business expansion and modern communication challenges.
We will write a custom Report on Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, I will invest in staff motivation and mentorship to motivate employees to work for the common goal and philosophy of the company.
Conclusion From a general perspective, the decline in business performance of Fast Forward is due to laxity in implementation of its continuous improvement processes and policies. The above described reviews should help revitalize the company’s performance. Staff motivation is of essence in ensuring effective implementation of these reviews as this will change them from being reactive to proactive.
Works Cited Bartol, Kathryn e tal. Management:A Pacific Rim Focus. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.
Rummler’s G.A and A.P. Brache’s. Improving performance 2nd edition :How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass publishers, 1995. Print.
Samson, Danny and Richard Daft. Fundamentals of management. 2nd ed. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2005. Print.
The Australian Ecomony Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Abstract Australia is a steadily growing economy that can attribute its success to the economic policies that have been applied. This report evaluates the macroeconomic setting in economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade. The investigations will discuss the performance after adoption.
Issues surrounding the macroeconomic policies will be discussed. Two major policies have been adopted and have been successful. The monetary and fiscal policies are most effective when applied within a short period. They have been implemented in creation of more water resources, expansion of the port, communication infrastructure, transport network and education. The policies have seen reduced rates in taxation, privatized the governmental enterprises and changed the structure of the enterprises.
The main challenge is that the electorate and the legislature have sometimes used the policies for their own interests. Another challenge is that employment is sometimes unsustainable. To overcome the challenges, reports on the implementation of the policies need to be documented and availed for analysis. This will also allow for transparency. There is also need to form independent groups to be in charge of the fiscal policy and monetary policy.
Introduction The Australian government has been keen to attain economic growth, reduce the levels of inflation create sustainable employment and create opportunities for future, in terms of market. Due to the dynamics of the market, Australia has adopted policies that control the economic prospects in a changing market. This is a report on the macroeconomic policy settings for economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade currently being applied in Australia.
The current macroeconomic setting in Australia The economy of Australia receives greater revenue from mining and agriculture than from other services. In line with Travel Document Systems (2011, p. 1), government has benefited from exporting raw materials as well as manufacturing them.
Manufacturing therefore, is causing gradual economic growth and creating more trade opportunities while creating more employment. Redding
The US Constitution Essay essay help: essay help
The book by O’Connor and Sabato (2011) is valuable, and deserves special attention. Its second chapter examined the US Constitution. The US Constitution is the product of many years American political, economical, religious, and social experience. Following O’Connor and Sabato’s book (2011), one may see that this document cannot be changed in an easy way.
From colonies to the United States, the country had passed a long challengeable way. Only the best juridical practices stroke roots on the abundant US land. The ideas that resulted in the creation of this legal document addressed the problems and demands of a changing nation (O’Connor and Sabato 30). Thus, the US Constitution has gathered those laws and legal norms that reflected the country’s historical experience.
The authors’ book (2011) describes key events that led to American independence. These events are connected with the swift development of the thirteen colonies, intense foreign policy, and the Civil War. However, the book presented Boston Massacre of 1770 as one of the most notable events that led to the independence. The incident that happened in Boston (the encounter of the American citizens, disappointed with unfair tax policy with the British authorities) resulted in the removal of the British military from the town.
Six years later, on July 4, 1776, the Americans declared independence: the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress (O’Connor and Sabato 33). Since that time, the US Constitution became the supreme law that cannot be broken with impunity by each American citizen.
The adoption of the Constitution was accompanied with participation of numerous notable individuals: George Washington (in 1789, he became the first US President), John Adams, James Madison, and others. The book (2011) says that such notable figure as Benjamin Franklin signed the most essential US document of all times. He is believed to be the founding father of the US Constitution (O’Connor
Intellectual Property Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction This paper discusses the inception of intellectual property (IP) and its associated features. The concept of Intellectual property emerged after the foundation of the “World Intellectual Property Organization” (WIPO) in 1967. There is increase use of this term by diverse groups seeking to safeguard their intellectual knowledge and cultural heritage.
This paper also examines the recent “Wai 262 claim before the Waitangi tribunal” in order to identify the issues at stake (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). Furthermore, it presents the advantages and shortcomings of using Intellectual property model in protecting local people’s traditions and knowledge. Additionally, it presents the possible alternatives to the language of intellectual property. These discussions focus on New Zealand and the citizen’s relation with Maori people due to their cultural distinctiveness.
The Wai 262 claim before the Emergence of Waitangi Tribunal The Waitangi Tribunal recorded the claims on 262 occasions. This gave rise to the name Wai 262 claim. The preliminary recording took place on 9 October 1991 and the petitioners included six people. This is in addition to the iwi who were complaining against the New Zealand Crown (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
The claim was referred to as the living things claim because of the underlying issues. Furthermore, it had extensive coverage of additional issues regarding civilizing and intellectual property. The claimants recognized the existence of the New Zealand decrees and the government rules but questioned the place of Maori people’s customs, distinctiveness, and customary knowledge within the setting (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Furthermore, the claimants wanted to know the entities that would manage Maori cultural art and the unique surrounding that created Maori identity. The claim was also concerned with questioning the place of Maori cultural importance in New Zealand, especially the responsibility of the natives towards guarding their culture (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Further, claimants wanted to know the responsibility of the natives in caring for the valuable cultural materials that determined their identity, including artwork, historic sites, vegetation, and animals.
Issues at Stake in the Wai 262 Claim The petitioners argued that certain legislations enacted by the government contravened the Waitangi Treaty. This diminished chances for Maori to implement their political right basing on indigenous knowledge and environment. Further, it also limits their rights regarding traditional knowledge and intellectual property (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 66).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They argued that foreign powers affected the Maori through legal guidelines, which were contrary to the Waitangi Treaty provisions. These issues were evident in the decision-making process that influenced commercialization, management, and conservation of diverse ecological resources.
Issues entailing the integration of the Maori people in the determination of cultural rights in the application of the original environmental endowments were evident (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). Further, the Maori required opportunities to conserve, improve, and transmit the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) basing on environmental materials (WIPO 2011, pg. 8).
There was an issue concerning the right to ecological sustainability that was possible through sustainable use of customary resources. The Maori also needed to participate and achieve benefits basing on contributing opinions on the application, improvement, and trade of indigenous environmental endowments (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
There were also concerns about the associations that existed between Maori and the Crown. Furthermore, the significance of improving the relations in the presence of emerging regulations was at stake. Discrimination basing on racial relations also existed between the Crown and Maori because of the native’s cultural identity (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
This necessitated the search for ways of resolving historical conflicts that emerged because of the way that the New Zealanders handled the Maori. This resulted in relationships that awarded governance rights to the Crown over Maori cultural pieces while the natives held their power (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
The Maori also noted that enacted decrees marginalized them against exercising full management rights over their primary resources. There was also an ongoing unlawful exploitation of Maori intellectual property and related resources.
Intellectual Property The emergence of Intellectual Property (IP) coincided with the founding of WIPO in 1967. IP concept gained escalated application over the recent years in protecting people from losing their original creations. According to the “New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development”, IP means a nonspecific term for the variety of property privileges that safeguard knowledge (MED 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Intellectual Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WIPO argues that IP entails original creations that emerge from people’s minds including “inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs”, which are used in trade (WIPO 2011). Furthermore, IP differs in two classes, including industrialized property together with copyright.
The industrial property includes “patents, trademarks, and industrial designs” (WIPO 2011). Copyright property includes literary, creative materials and drawings. The cultural expressions that fall under fictional and creative works include novels, poems, plays, films, musical works, and artistic works that entail drawings, paintings, photographs, monuments, among others.
Intellectual property rights (IPRs) include the privileges that people who invent or create new things enjoy because of the protection they receive. These rights offer control over diverse processes that may be used by other entities (MED 2008). However, such privileges last for a short period.
The privileges and rights are defended by the idea that creators and inventors of ought to profit from their activities. Further, the owners of such property receive incentives for generating ideas or property that would have not taken off (MED 2008). The benefits that emerge because of inventions compensate for the costs incurred by societies.
Intellectual property is linked to the affairs of the indigenous people. This is because of their cultural, knowledge and environmental resource endowments, which generate specific intellectual property characteristics. WIPO differentiates these aspects of IP regarding indigenous people according to traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) and TK (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
These are differentiated according to their relations with IP among native communities. It is noteworthy that indigenous people have diverse TCEs that are protected as their IP. These TCEs includes productions that contain characteristic essentials of the cultural inventions developed and preserved by indigenous communities (WIPO 2007, pg. 8).
The cultural expressions occur in diverse forms, including verbal, musical, and activities, among others. The inventive heritage of indigenous people has substantial social, belief, and cultural functions. Furthermore, they are also exploitable for commercial functions.
Native people also have diverse knowledge systems collectively named TK. These include knowledge regarding customary methodological know-how, conventional environmental resources, scientific or health understanding (WIPO 2007, pg. 6). These knowledge systems can also be linked with TCEs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Intellectual Property by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because some conventional pieces that symbolize TK can also refer to inventive expressions. This uniqueness makes different groups of indigenous people argue that TK and TCEs are indivisible (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
Furthermore, IP advocates require rule-makers to recognize the inseparability of TK and TCEs basing on their significance to different aspects of indigenous peoples livelihoods and cultural identity. The economic importance of indigenous people awareness and TCEs cause their exploitation by third parties. In some scenarios, these exploitations occur unlawfully, thereby necessitating their protection as IP.
IP in Relation to Indigenous Peoples using the Waitangi 262 Claim Maori who is indigenous people of the New Zealand advanced the Wai 262 claim. It contained concerns regarding IP of their green resources, including living things. Furthermore, it also concerned seeking responsibility for the management of Maori TK that entails arts, sculpture, history, verbal expressions, music, and traditional healing systems and surroundings management.
Collectively, these were named taonga because their continuation and improvement signified continued Maori uniqueness and well-being. According to Waitangi Tribunal (2011), Maori IP included their TK and aspects of culture that signified their identity. The continued undermining of Maori by the New Zealand Crown necessitated their claim actions that were necessary for safeguarding and maintaining their IP.
The inappropriateness of the IPRs that protected Maori conventional knowledge and cultural wealth marginalised the natives from their indigenous property. Furthermore, the idea that IP offers owners privileges to determine the use of their materials and Maori was not available in this provision (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
They had complications in gaining IPRs that would facilitate their interest in preserving or economically exploiting their conventional knowledge. This is because the existing rights had inconsistencies with the native’s property (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
The native’s interest included preserving their property against third-party exploitations while rights limited the period and provisions for public disclosure (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). The requirements that include originality and recognition of certain individuals or companies as inventors limit Maori’s protection since it culminates in marginalization.
The claimants noted that the rights are unfavorable to indigenous people’s traditional information, cultural materials, and green endowments. This means that third parties can obtain rights regarding certain inventions. This means they can apply them commercialisation processes (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Furthermore, certain rights eventually result into successful trade activities, but the claimants recognised that they might not benefit because of inadequate sharing. The claim called for the patenting of diverse fauna and petitioning unlawful registering of brands using Maori pictures or writings. Intellectual property is a form of legislation and the New Zealand’s enactments together with other global requirements affected Maori rights (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Advantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture
The recognition that indigenous people’s customary and cultural wealth is significant for their livelihoods and identity necessitates protection of these aspects (WIPO 2007, pg. 13). This is because the protection avoids their erosion and ensures that indigenous people continuously enjoy their endowments (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Furthermore, it enables owners of inventions to benefit economically and preserve native’s cultural materials and ideas. The monetary benefits occur when owners apply their inventions in generating commercial outcomes or through sharing gains (WIPO 2007, pg. 8). Cultural resources and ecological materials generate financial development through enterprises creations, skills development, and tourism expansion.
Safeguarding IP also facilitates continuity of cultural wealth and environmental endowments. This leads to escalated information access and safety. Further, IP protection ensures that future generations appreciate aspects of their preserved culture (Zogfaros, 2010, pg. 69). It enables native people to utilize their knowledge systems in encouraging sustainable exploitation of their cultural expressions and ecological endowments.
Disadvantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture
Using intellectual property for the conservation gives rise to inconsistencies regarding ownership and exploitation tactics for such endowments. Additionally, it does not offer genuine solutions to the predicaments faced by indigenous people in protecting their wealth (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Further, the related concepts also affect the preservation and improvement of cultural and environmental materials among some native groups. It rarely facilitates maintenance of indigenous people’s valuable materials under conflicting legislation and customary awareness systems.
Furthermore, inadequacy of distributing benefits poses disadvantages to inventors of original materials or indigenous groups. The idea of collectively referring to aspects of native and ecological materials as intellectual property interferes with their safety. This is evident in the holistic nature of this group. Evidently, within such collections, certain beneficial aspect is not preserved (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). The ineffectiveness of enforcing legislation is disadvantageous to minor individuals or indigenous groups.
Incorrectness of IP Joining diverse aspects of culture that are related and referring to them as intellectual property is erroneous. Instead, single cultural and ecological aspects ought to be labeled as distinct issues. Lumping “trademark, copyright, and patent” laws and referring to them as IP also displays incorrectness (Stallman 2011). This is because these laws emerged disjointedly, advanced differently, possess diverse provisions, and are concerned with separate public policy matters.
The use of intellectual property generates different meaning in separate situations (Stallman 2011). This is because specialists in these knowledge areas understand the varied dynamics.
The use of intellectual property also lies about key issues regarding inventions. Furthermore, the concept instills distorted thinking’s among people making them focus on harmony other than specific guidelines (Stallman 2011). IP also causes issues generated according to understanding of different laws to disappear. This is because people tend to disregard issues that are fundamental to different laws.
Alternatives of IP The notable alternative to Intellectual property is evident when indigenous people initiate new property models and reject the current provisions and designs (Stallman 2011). The efficiency likely to arise from this tactic is evident in diminishing bio-colonization by civilized societies.
The inconsistencies regarding intellectual property, culture and related aspects make it difficult for indigenous people to preserve their resources (Zogfaros 2010, p67). The alternative to this situation would entail endorsing parallel worldviews that facilitate continuation, improvement, and transfer of these knowledge systems to emerging generations.
Furthermore, achieving political independence can also free indigenous people from disguised protection through intellectual property (Stallman 2011). The exploitative intellectual property should embrace processes that enable them to protect native people from abuse.
Conclusion In summary, intellectual property is use in protecting inventive people from third parties interested in exploiting their creations. The concept also protects indigenous community’s cultural identity through preserving their values, customary expressions, and ecological endowments. Maori marginalization by New Zealand Crown in the control of environmental resources, customary knowledge, and cultural expressions contributed to claims.
The Wai 262 claim focused on resolving these issues basing on the IP legislation that New Zealand had enacted. Application of IP in the preservation of the traditional understanding and cultural aspects exude different advantages and shortcomings. Furthermore, intellectual property is an incorrect term because it lumps diverse society’s innovations and refers to them as IP. This presents challenges in the protecting communities’ traditional understanding and cultural identity materials.
List of References MED 2008, What is Intellectual Property. Web.
Stallman, R. 2011, Did you say ‘intellectual property”? It is a seductive mirage. Web.
Waitangi Tribunal 2011, Time to Move beyond Grievance in Treaty Relationship Tribunal Says, Web.
WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions/Folklore, Web.
WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and TK. Web.
WIPO 2011, What is Intellectual Property. Web.
Zogfaros, D. 2010, Intellectual property, and traditional cultural expression, Cheltenham:Edward Elgar Publishing.
Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Executive summary Having a strong, cohesive organizational culture is perhaps the most important strategy that an organization can implement to cope with the current aggressive competition, declining economy and ever increasing internal challenges. This report shall set out to elaborate different concepts used to define, explain and justify organizational culture.
To this end, an overview of what culture entails shall be provided and benefits that an organization can accrue from adopting a strong culture outlined. Different theories and principles shall be used to recommend the best course of action that can be taken by BSG to address its behavioral and cultural issues.
Introduction In today’s business environment, members of any given organization are expected to behave in a manner that enables them to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives. To ensure this is done, rules, regulations and guidelines are designed and implemented to act as a framework through which activities and operations can be carried out.
As a result of these frameworks, organizations develop practices, attitudes and norms that define how organizational practices are carried out. These practices, attitudes and norms form the organizational culture. Wilderom et al (2004), state that organizational cultures play a pivotal role in unifying and motivating employees to perform better, and commit to the organization. As such, it can be argued that by having a strong organizational culture, business entities can perform better and more efficiently.
Purpose of the report In all organizations, there are internal and external factors that influence the ability of the organizations to perform efficiently. They include but are not limited to: leadership, management and motivational factors among others.
Regardless of the category, organizational culture seems to play an integral role in the determination of how members of an organization carry out their duties and responsibilities. In response to these undertones, this report shall set out to define and elaborate various concepts of organizational culture. In addition, the benefits of having an organizational culture shall be discussed and justifications for these benefits provided.
Scope of the report De Long (1997) argues that organizations have different organizational cultures. Some may adopt a competitive culture, while others may choose a collaborative culture. It is therefore important to understand the culture that an organization has. This understanding can only be achieved by examining the values, practices and beliefs that are held by the members of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this report, the cultural and behavioral characteristics of BSG Pty Ltd shall be analyzed. This shall be done by deducing these characteristics from the scenario given and identifying the cultural and behavioral issues that affect the organization’s success.
Background of the report Over the past few years, the profitability of BSG Pty Ltd has been significantly declining against the expected projections mainly due to aggressive competition and economic hardships that characterize the market. In addition, results from a recently conducted cultural/employee attitude survey indicated that BSG Pty Ltd employees lack cohesion, motivation, commitment.
More importantly, employees at BSG Pty Ltd seems to have significantly low levels of job satisfaction, team work, trust (among themselves and the management), and expectations for future advancements (promotions and rewards).
On the same note, there was a 30% increase in pilfering of company resources as evidenced from the analysis of company data. The 15% increase in last year’s staff turnover is also an issue that needs to be addressed. In light of these issues, the C. E. O of BSG Pty Ltd strongly suggested that there is need for change if the company is to survive the current unforgiving market and economical trends.
This he attributed to the fact that the current culture adopted by the company was the root cause of the poor performance exhibited by the company. As such, this report has been necessitated by the need to identify, analyze and solve the cultural and behavioral issues that affect BSG Pty Ltd.
Sources and methods used in this report Evidently, BSG Pty Ltd has numerous cultural and behavioral inadequacies as has been identified in the currently gathered information. We shall use this evidence as the basis of the report.
Relevant academic sources and concepts shall be used to analyze these issues and recommend viable solutions for the same. Literature related to theories, principles and models used to address the aforementioned cultural and behavioral issues shall be applied as necessary.
We will write a custom Report on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture: A Literature Review De Long (1997) defines culture as the values, norms and practices that are followed by members of a given organization. According to the author, values refer to the beliefs held by an organization in regard to the worthiness of what it does and has. Practices in this context are associated to the routines (formal and non-formal) that organizational members follow to accomplish their tasks.
According to the author, norms are the shared belief that organizational members’ have regarding proper working behavior (De Long, 1997). From this definition, it can be argued that organizational culture is rooted in how people act, their expectations to each other and how they interpret the actions of others in an organizational setting.
On the same note, organizational culture has been defined as particular practices carried out by organizations that evolved over time (Kostova, 1999; Wilderom, 2004).
These practices reveal the competence and shared knowledge in an organization. In this context, organizational culture can be described as the shared perception that members have in regard to the correct or wrong organizational work practices. Such practices may differ from one organization to another.
From the definitions stated above, it is evident that values play a significant role in defining culture. This is further accentuated by Hibbard (1998) who defines culture as a set of beliefs and values that are strongly shared by members of a given organization. Despite the logic behind Hibbard’s (1998) definition, research conducted by other scholars presents a strong case against this criterion.
Wilderom et al (2004) argue that the greatest disparities between organizations are strongly based on practices than they are on values. The authors reaffirm this fact by stating that the cultural difference exhibited by different organization is deeply rooted in the organizational work practices that are adopted by the personnel.
These authors contend that values are constituents of practices. As such, using values as the basis of defining organizational culture creates a problem when it comes to measuring culture in an organizational context.
Cohesive culture: A Brief Overview Cohesion broadly refers to collaboration and unity. Using the definition of culture proposed earlier, a cohesive culture can best be described as the work practices that promote unity and inter-departmental collaboration. They include but are not limited to knowledge sharing, trustworthiness, team work, effective communication and commitment among others (Luca, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a cohesive culture refers to harmony experienced in an organization as a result of clearly defined practices and values that are shared by an organization’s personnel. The authors argue that an organization that adopts a cohesive culture is bound to succeed. This means that a cohesive culture leads to success and it is not always the other way around.
Benefits of a strong, cohesive organizational culture Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a strong culture is pivotal towards the promotion of team work in an organizational setting. When the members of an organization share the same values and practices, they are better placed to work together as a team. This is in contrary to a situation whereby employees compete against each other for recognition and personal gratification.
In addition, Palmer (2008) contends that team work is guaranteed by the presence of a vision. An organization envisioning harmony gives its employees a glimpse of what to expect from the organization and they judge the organization by the principles that govern it (Cartwright
Trends and Issues in Nursing Expository Essay a level english language essay help
The nursing role is shifting from good cooperation with other medical professionals to managed care. This is because the most valued education and training are those that focus more on clinical experience in nonhospital settings.
The training, other qualifications, and advancement statistics indicate that the higher levels in nursing education emphasize on furnishing the nurses in areas that are somewhat outside the actual therapy (USDL, 2011). These include areas on psychology, nutrition, and management. Indeed, other qualifications involve personal attributes that promote interaction between a nurse and the patients. On the other hand, it is easier for a nurse who has nursing experience than one with technical savvy.
It is a fact that the demand for nurses is more than the supply and this trend is expected to continue. Job outlook statistics indicate that the employment of nurses is glowing such that employers are unable to retain nurses. Technological advances are playing a big role in expanding the role of nurses.
The more the nurses learn on the emerging needs, the more the opportunities to work in other related fields. Moreover, the scarcity of qualified nurses will continue as the aging workforce leave the profession and the failure for the education facilities to be sensitive about the nursing education (USDL, 2011).
A new fact learned from the nursing statistics is that the nursing professionals earn lower wages than any other medical profession in the United States. Looking at the earning statistics, the nurse wages is almost half that of the physicians. This might affect not only individual nursing professions, but the entire health care.
Now that the nursing fraternity is becoming the center of the whole healthcare system, individual nurses will have to work more. Under the same pattern of pay, individuals like me might consider shifting from employment to working independently.
Nursing education Nursing education is facing new trends that affect both the curriculum taught, the nursing professions, and the delivery of the nursing services. These trends emerge as the healthcare climate evolves as a result of political and policy consequences, fueled by factors like the economy and new policies being set by sensitive legislature.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rapid technological growth is triggering an evolution of the information systems in healthcare industry which brings about the need to expand technology training in nursing education. In the current information age, nurses must be prepared during their education to face the needs that emerge with the increasing use of technologies within healthcare facilities.
In addition, nursing education is required to prepare nurses for the complexities involved with population-based care. Allen (2011) observes how older people with specific medical problems are causing a new shift in health care delivery focus on population-based care and away from the conventional pattern of individualized care.
As the trend towards population-based care becomes more apparent, nursing education is required to provide nurses with interdisciplinary knowledge. Managed care involves more than just working cooperatively with other medical professionals.
Furthermore, a new trend emerges as the continued shortage of nurses, impact deeply on the quality of healthcare in acute and long-term settings. Hence, nursing education is tasked with the creation of awareness about this shortage, work to prepare quality individuals into the profession, and change the lingering discernments about the role of nurses.
Nevertheless, nursing research field has continually failed to provide valuable data on the provision of quality care (Judd et al., 2010). It is the role of nursing education to inspire nurses to carry out relevant research in order to improve health care outcomes. The positive change in the nursing research paradigm should be reinforced by nursing educators through continuous support of the research initiatives.
References Allen, J., E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Judd, D., M., Sitzman, K.