Water Distribution System Used By The State Of Texas Report College Essay Help Near Me

The history of water service in the State of Texas dates back to 1878, when Houston’s City Council decided to build a water works facility. In part, this decision was triggered by the necessity to cope with devastating fires, which occurred on a regular basis (Smyer, p 2). At that moment, the entire consumption of water was 3.000.000 gallons per day (Smyer, p 2). This fact indicates that at that time, water needs of people, living in Texas were relatively small.

It stands to reason that water needs of this region have drastically increased since that time. At the given moment, the population of Texas numbers more than 21 million people. Moreover, it is one of the biggest industrial centers of the US. According to the most recent estimations, the daily usage of water constitutes approximately 18 million gallons, while the annual usage 657 billion gallons (Texas Conservative Coalition, p 2).

It is often argued that Texas is one of those US regions where the rate of water consumption far exceeds the replenishment rate. In addition to that, many scholars insist that local government should work out strategies, which would contribute to the reduction of water consumption. The thing is that many underground waters are going to be depleted, if the level of consumption does not drop. This is perhaps the key drawback of water distribution system in the State of Texas.

At present, the local government tries to make a more efficient use of underground waters; in particular, we can mention such an aquifer as Brazos River Alluvium. The surface waters include such rivers and bayous as The Brazos and Trinity Rivers (Window on State Government, unpaged). We can say that water distribution system in Texas has to rely more on surface waters but at this moment, this source of water supply remains relatively unexplored.

Water supply treatment, which aims to remove all possible contaminants, consists of such stages as pre-chlorination, aeration, desalination. Each of these processes is supposed to ensure that the water is suitable for drinking. These procedures are aimed at removing bacteria, viruses, various fungi and so forth. These purification techniques are instrumental for maintaining the highest quality of water.

The water distribution system in Texas provides several options for pressurizing water:

By means of pumps (there is a whole network of pumping stations in Texas);

By using the force of gravity feed, in other words by means of water towers;

Through pressure vessels.

This infrastructure is owned by both public and private organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should also be pointed out that according to the standards, adopted by local government, water pipes must meet the following requirements:

First, all water lines have to be rubber gasket pipes only (The State of Texas, unpaged);

Secondly each of the pipes has to be furnished with a rubber ring at each joint (The State of Texas, unpaged).

Moreover, the pipes must be of a specific diameter, which would not exceed 12 inches. These specifications are necessary for maintaining optimal pressure. Besides, water pipes must be made of ductile iron, polyvinyl chloride, or copper. This choice can be explained by the fact that these materials are durable, and more importantly, they do not contaminate water.

Water supply system is an inseparable part of fire protection; especially we are speaking about fire hydrants or fire plugs, which provide firefighters with instantaneous access to water suppliers. In Texas, the firefighters use various types of dry barrel hydrants. This means that water is not preserved directly in the hydrant, but in the piping.

This decision of the state government can be accounted by the fact that the climate in this region significantly varies and in some areas, the temperature drops below zero. Provided that water is stored directly in the hydrant, it may freeze in winter.

Consequently, hydrant, itself, will be of no use. According to the safety standards, established in the state of Texas, fire hydrant testing has be conducted twice a year. These tests aim to measure conveyance capacity and pressure. Such tests are an integral part of fire protection precautions.

In some rural areas, where there are no hydrants, local firefighters mostly rely on water towers. One should take it into consideration that the shortage of fire hydrants cannot always be compensated by water towers because such means of water delivery is not quite suitable for the needs of firemen. On the whole, this is one of the key issues that local government ought to address.

Therefore, we can come to the conclusion that in terms of infrastructure, water distribution system, used by the State of Texas, is quite advanced, especially if we are referring to urban areas. Yet, rural areas often suffer from the shortage of water supply. As it has been mentioned before, this region is one of the largest consumers of water across the United States and it is strongly dependent on underground water sources, which can be exhausted in the near future.

We will write a custom Report on Water Distribution System Used by the State of Texas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Rister M., Lacewell. R.

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Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech Essay cheap essay help

On November 4, 2008, President Barrack Obama delivered The Election Night Victory Speech at Grant Park, Illinois. During this keynote acceptance speech, he emphasized that the American dream was not on its deathbed because “change has come to America.” His passionate speech, employing rhetoric that soars and excites, instigated the people of America to restore their confidence in the nation and strive to fulfill their personal dreams and yet still form part of the larger American family.

My evaluation of this acceptance speech will concentrate on the way Obama employed the approaches of narration, intonation, verbalization, silence, and telling of stories to draw the attention of the thousands of his audience who were enthusiastically listening to this historic speech. Obama employed different rhetorical strategies to deliver the speech and it was effective in giving the audience hope concerning the future.

“If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still … tonight is your answer”(Obama, para.1). With those words, Obama started his keynote delivery with a clear message of hope to the people of America.

Maintaining a direct eye contact with his audience, Obama was loud enough to be heard, but soft enough so that the poetic words could sink deep into the minds of his listeners. Obama’s use of the power word, America, rouses the attention of the audience since invoking the word demands absolute obedience (Balshaw, 18).

In addition, the opening allusion to the American dream echoes the words of great speakers in American history, such as Martin Luther King. His use of “who still” three times in the opening sentence is a triple that serves the purpose of grabbing the attention of his listeners. The first paragraph also anchors across time. He refers to the past, “our founders,” as well as the general present, “our time.”

More so, the use of “tonight” refers to the immediate present, which is a recurring theme that brings the past to the individuals listening to the address. The concluding word in this paragraph, “answer,” is the start of the next triple and gives an indication of the resolution of the tension.

“It’s the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor… (Obama, para.2). The use of “answer” again here indicates that he is ready to solve the problems that have been affecting the U.S. in the new century and echoes the theme of change (Brill, 38). Subsequently, Obama uses “answer” again in the next two paragraphs so as to drive the point home that momentous change has arrived in America.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the third paragraph, he recognized that America is a diverse country having people from different backgrounds by saying “It’s the answer spoken … Americans who sent a message to the world that we have never been a collection of Red States and Blue States: we are, and always will be, the United States of America”(para. 3).

In order to achieve a warm reception, Obama cleverly used the second person in addressing his audience, “It belongs to you…it cannot happen without you…your victory… it’s your job too,” He used this technique to illustrate the significance of the people of America in helping him bring the change in the country.

He intended his audience to realize that his triumph and future effort to bring change in the country will depend on the endeavors of the collective and not entirely on himself. In the mind of the people, the use of the second person is intended to enable them feel a sense of belonging. Therefore, as their presence is acknowledged, they are able to feel appreciated and part of the change that was to come to America.

During the acceptance speech, Obama made numerous references within the text of gifted speakers in the American history, for example, Martin Luther King, as mentioned above.

“The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep…I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there. I promise you – we as a people will get there” (Obama, para.13). This creates the perception that the road to recovery will not be easy. He wanted his audience to realize that repairing the damage he inherited from the country’s past leadership will not be an easy task.

The inclusion of the inter-textual references of other motivational speakers also served the purpose of instilling hope in the eyes of the people. This is because it is the same hope that stirred the audience with confidence in many of Martin Luther’s speeches (Washington and King, 3). It seems that the plain and musical language of the speech was drawn heavily from the life of the past inspirational speakers.

In the speech, Obama routinely repeats the slogan “yes we can” (Davidson, 68). This acts like an encouragement that all things are possible and the people of America are able to surmount all difficulties that they may encounter in the journey towards complete economic and social liberation. Prior to his election has the 44th president of the United States, Obama had vigorously campaigned for change in the country (Gormley, 135).

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the repetition of the slogan seems to stress that the country has transformed over the years in terms of acceptance of the role of women in the society as well as how it tackles times of economic turmoil (Maclnnis, 56). In addition, it points that more change is yet to come during Obama’s presidency. Finally, but not to be ignored, it also epitomizes the American dream, which every citizen of the country can realize through maintaining a positive mentality in life.

In the speech, Obama gives thanks to various people who assisted him to ascend to presidency. He started by praising the defeated, “A little bit earlier this evening I just received a very gracious call from Senator McCain. Senator McCain fought long and hard in this campaign, and he’s fought even longer and harder for the country he loves” (para.6).

Through this, he demonstrated magnanimity in victory, appreciated the defeated and he did not ignore or trampled upon them; therefore, this indicates that he is a good leader. It is interesting to note that he was able to commend his competitors before his supporters.

Thereafter, he commenced a series of thanks. He portrayed the Vice President as an ordinary person saying, “we’re just like you” so as to connect with the crowd. And he only mentioned Joe Biden at the end of the paragraph. This created tension and also assisted in capturing the audience attention.

Next, he thanked his family members, First Lady, Michelle Obama, and his daughters, Sasha and Malia,”I would not be standing here tonight without the unyielding support of my best friend for the last sixteen years, the rock of our family and the love of my life, our nation’s next First Lady, Michelle Obama”(para,7).

To his daughters he said, “Sasha and Malia, I love you both so much, and you have earned the new puppy that’s coming with us to the White House.” This demonstrated that he is a normal family man who cares for the well-being of his family, for example, he promised his daughters a puppy. The reference to his grandma who had just passed away without being over sentimental induces the sympathy of the audience.

The speech signifies that Obama will be ready to incorporate the efforts of everybody in the road to recovery. He said, “Let us resist the temptation to fall back on the same partisanship and pettiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politics for so long” (Obama, para. 17).

The phrase “partisanship and pettiness, poisoned our Politics” is an alliteration showing the extent of the damage it has caused to the American society. “Let us” speaks to all voters in America, regardless of their political affiliation and repeats nobility as well as the call for humility and healing of the land.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Obama’s employed the life of the 106-years old Ann Nixon Cooper to repaint the history of America as well as bring to the attention of the audience the successes and failures that the country has gone through in the past century so as to connect them with it.

The creation of a sense of history was meant to demonstrate that the extraordinary could become ordinary if Americans are prepared to strive to this end. The history of skin color is meant to indicate that he is a beneficiary of the historic struggle. “America, we have come so far” (para. 29). This illustrates that he addresses the country with ease since he is a part of the struggle. He also gives an individual touch by relating his two daughters to the old Ann Nixon Cooper.

“This is our chance to answer that call. This is our moment. This is our time – to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; … to reclaim the American Dream” (Obama, last paragraph). The repetition of “this is” again is meant to draw the attention of the audience and it also acts a the final call to action. Obama gets back to the central theme of hope and beneficial gains that awaits the people of America. He concludes the speech by restating the ‘yes we can’ theme.

Listening to Obama’s acceptance speech captured my imagination from the start. The sections of the speech, which can be characterized as celebration, thanksgiving, challenge, history, and hope, had a central focus of emphasizing the importance of unity in America for the benefit of its future. The general approach Obama used in the speech is to form an inclusive sense of history so that every American could see himself or herself as a part of the road to recovery.

Works Cited Balshaw, Kevin. Speech makers bible : write and deliver speeches that hit the mark. Hawthorn, Vic. : K. Balshaw, 2008. Print.

Brill, Marlene T. Barrack Obama: working to make a difference. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2006. Print.

Davidson, Tim. The Essential Obama: The Speeches of Barrack Obama. New York: Aquitaine Media Group, 2009. Print.

Gormley, Beatrice. Barrack Obama: our 44th President. New York: Simon

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Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How Families of Solders in War are Affected

Cost of War

Effects on Education and Healthcare

Effects on Humanity

Compromised security

Compromised human rights

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Although war starts due to negative administrative assertion such as affirmations by administration catalyze its emergence. Good example of affirmation include the indications that war in Iraq stated because Iraq was in violation of some U.N. Security Councils Resolutions, such as being in possession of weapons of mass destruction.

Fight for peace is also another issue that fuels war since some governments feel the need for ensuring favourable conditions and unsuccessful endeavours to promote dialogue for peaceful solutions succumb to war threats and eventually action.

Governments react pro-actively and make the most of all in its power to protect its citizens by fighting enemies. However, power of commands to declare war without solid reasons and proof is not justifiable. In most cases, war causes negative effects on human lives by depriving them the most essential needs and respect for civilization. This research paper is critical analysis of war. The paper mainly reflects on some of the negative effects of war on humanity and human rights.

How Families of Solders in War are Affected The main reason why war is not justified is due to effects on human rights for instance many coalition soldiers lost their lives in the Iraq war (Rai and Chomsky, 141). According to Iraq coalition casualty count (1), up to date more than 4,300 U.S. and 4,693 coalition solders have died because of the Iraq war.

The death of all these great compatriots is due to haste of administrators to go to war. This has deprived many families their special members whom were responsible for basic provisions including love. Other than fatalities, many casualties who were competent family providers now depending on others in different ways doe to physical, mental and psychological injuries.

Such conditions increase pressure on health provisions due to lack of specialized facilities or medical resources in most care centres. The effects not only affect the coalition governments in war, but also members of the attacked countries for instance, Iraq people recorded the greatest number of fatalities and casualties during the Iraq war (Keegan, 31).

Cost of War After wars, there is high dependence on large-scale humanitarian and reconstruction assistances and primarily, high compromise on human rights, which requires delivery of humanitarian support and prepositioning of crucial human needs (Sifry and Cerf, 27).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Humanitarian crisis during war is very high. Before the wars, various organizations and agencies are able to provide aid through the oil for food programme, but on war engagements halts the undertakings thus causing loss of human life such as poverty or malnutrition related deaths.

People have right to basic needs such as food but war-torn areas causes massive suffering associable to lack of food especially among women and children. In line with Sifry and Cerf (27), war disrupts these non-governmental organizations plans for humanitarian assistance due to the uncertainty during and after the war.

Poverty is one of the main effects associable to human crisis. Basic needs such as medicines, shelter, hygiene facilities and food therefore remain a concession during war. There are fears over shortage on humanitarian assistance even among the affected. Casualty reports confirm the fears, as the numbers of victims are overwhelming (Iraq coalition casualty count, 1).

Effects on Education and Healthcare War often forces women and children to vacate their home and settle in displacement camps due to safety. This remains a permanent scar to the society since children are not able to attend schools. Regardless of some humanitarian assistance from neighbouring countries, there is often refusal to assist and allow refugees to enter and settle in their countries.

Children are therefore not able to attend school and access easy health services. For instance during the Iraq war, there were massive movement of people mainly from Baghdad and other major cities before and after the war began but towards the end of the war, the movement started reducing due to restrictions (Chancellor Schroeder, 3). The government is responsible for the health facilities and education programmes for displacement and refugee camps.

War causes poor or lack of governance; this means that the affected country’s administration is not able to cater for the indispensable needs in the camps. Innocent children end up suffering from something they rarely understand and furthermore war causes psychological suffering of the naive minds.

Effects on Humanity Various wars since time in history have caused massive impact on various crucial infrastructures, hindering transportation of basic needs and services. During such confrontation, unruly mobs continue to make it difficult for the movement of humanitarian aid. Some of humanitarian needs that have proven to be a main challenge are water, installation of sewerage systems and fuel shortages.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Delivery of health service has also been a major challenge for instance shortage of supplies, staff and in some cases attacks on conveys or assisting organizations. Lack of resources and existence of compromised infrastructures also hinders provision of health services. In most of the affected areas, reports indicate that peacekeeping armies provide health services to civilians (Chancellor Schroeder, 3).

Compromised security Compromise on security is also a big challenge during and after the wars. Some of the humanitarian organizations put up bases in war zones areas to facilitate relief operations, but they are worried of security since protection by the involved parties may compromise the security of its staff.

The insecurity is a total pervade to the human working environment. This causes low working morale, difficulties of finding trained or retrained workers and disrupted training or supervision. Compromised security also affects the reconstruction and relief activities especially during or after the war for instance, access to the war-torn areas, compromising the cost of service delivery due to lowered security of relief personnel and weak coordination and communication among relief agents.

Compromised human rights Denial of various human rights has been evident in majority of the countries or areas involved in wars. First, people in the affected zones have problems of accessing health services due to insecurity; financial segregation owing to high costs for services form the available facilities that are in most cases private hospitals or dispensaries.

Geographical differences also prohibit access. The health care activities are compromised and eventually as evident in war-hit areas, the care shift from the normal form of primary or preventive to specialized curative form of care.

This is a compromise on life since most of the available systems lack strong specialist to undertake curative care. War therefore adversely affects and compromises human health and life. There is reduction of the rural or community-based care, disrupted health surveillance and compromised public health programmes.

Poor or destruction of infrastructure compromises on humanity for instance destruction of health resources like clinics, referral systems, equipments and vehicles. Additional, war affects the communication logistics. Thirdly, there is lack of food, drugs and equipments maintenance procedures. Conclusively, some of the adversely yet essential human health-sustenance infrastructures include sanitation, food security, water and power.

Conclusion Restoration of peace and order appears to be a major priority before and after war. This is important especially when humanitarian needs are in consideration. Ability to overcome the main barriers to restoration of understanding, growth and provision of human needs mainly depend on infrastructure. Generally, war compromises infrastructure, which is the main support for humanity and human rights. Reconstruction of these crucial resources such pipelines, gas stations, hospitals, airports and other important needs to be carried out smoothly. There is need to enforce security since effects of insecurity shifts focus turns towards reconstruction.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of War on Humanity in Terms of Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Chancellor Schroeder. Remarks on anti-war Stance as Saddam Crumbles. Mexico City: Agence France-Presse. 2003. Print

Iraq coalition casualty count. Operation Iraqi freedom. 2009. Web.

Keegan, John. The Iraq War: UK: Vintage Series publishers. 2005. Print

Rai, Milan.

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Effects of Childhood Experiences in Adulthood Essay essay help free

Introduction Childhood experiences are the ordeals or bringing up conditions one undergoes through as a child. These experiences could be emotional, psychological, physical, cultural or even sexual. Childhood experiences play a significant role in shaping our views as adults in many ways, for instance, the way we behave, thinking, feel, act, associate and many other ways.

Psychological experiences

To begin with, a child who never had time to interact with other kids or locked up during his/her childhood will portray anti-social behaviors. Children who never experienced love from their parents and other family members will depict irresponsible behaviors in adulthood, as they are unable to express the same feelings. Contrary, a child who experienced affection from the parents will feel the need to act the same way as their parents did.

Cultural Experiences

Secondly, culture experiences also play a role in shaping a person. A cultural environment where black is a symbol of evil will affect the feeling of an adult towards black skinned people. Some cultural experiences have men as superior and women inferior. This culture, therefore, shapes a girl child to a submissive woman.

Physical and emotional experiences

Thirdly, a child who experienced physically and emotionally understanding relationship with parents and other siblings can express out his/her feelings in a relaxed and positive. On the other hand, physically and emotionally abusive and hostile family experiences shape a child to a criminal, as he will act violently to confront situations. Lastly, sexual experiences affect how adults behave, view and feel about sex. Sexually abused children view sex as evil and shy away from it in adulthood (Duck, p.46).

Conclusions How adults feel, behave, and view this is generally out of childhood experiences.

Positive experiences bear positives traits while negative experiences comprise adult well-being. It is therefore essential for parents or guardians to provide necessary conditions for positive experiences.

Works Cited Duck, Steve. Human Relationship. London, UK: SAGE Publication Ltd. 2007. Print

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Capital Punishment Legislation Argumentative Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Death penalty in the U.S

The pros of death penalty

The cons of death penalty

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Capital punishment can be defined as the deliberate and premeditated termination of human life as a punishment for the victim who is convicted under the provisions of the law. In the United States, capital punishment remains a highly debated and controversial topic as substantial portions of the U.S. population are proponents or opponents of executions.

This has been, partly, contributed by the different legislations that different countries hold concerning executions. For instance, a good number of Latin American democracies and other democratic countries in Europe have gotten rid off of executions although a number of Asian democracies, the United States and totalitarian countries still carry out executions (Cassel 1).

Death penalty in the U.S Although the death penalty is, arguably, most debated in the United States, it has not always been there. The greatest number of executions in the United States was carried out during the Depression era that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. This was, however, followed by a significant decline in the number of executions in the fifties and the sixties.

The United States subsequently saw no executions during the period from 1967 to 1976. In the year 1972, the death penalty was nullified by the Supreme Court and death row inmates were consequently given life imprisonment. However, in the year 1976, another Supreme Court determined that the death penalty was constitutional and thus it was reinstated. Since then, and up to 3rd June, 2009, a total of 1167 people have faced the death penalty (Robinson 1).

Most death penalties in the United States have been given due to convictions for murder. In addition to this, other serious crimes have also attracted the death penalty. Some of these crimes include rape, robbery with violence/ armed violence, treason, kidnapping and the like.

Thus after the aforementioned 1972 Supreme Court decision, executions were limited to crimes that were a threat to human life and appropriate legislations were passed to regulate the imposition of the death penalty. In addition to the state laws discussed in this paragraph, the executions can also be carried out by the federal government and the military using the laws of these bodies (Robinson 1).

The pros of death penalty The faction supporting the death penalty has substantial membership and thus there is need to evaluate their reasons for supporting the death penalty. Some of the reasons they cite for supporting the death penalty are the fact that the death penalty makes criminals restrain from committing murder and other serious crimes like terrorist acts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second is the argument that the death penalty is the most suitable punishments for certain crimes like murder. The proponents of the death penalty also argue that executions serve a very important role in making people obtain payback in place of the victims. It is estimated that almost a third of the countries in the world are legally proponents of the death penalty (Lowe 121).

The cons of death penalty Substantial opposition to the death penalty has, over time, developed even in countries that have retained the death penalty. The main reasons that opponents of the death penalty give for their position are, the fact that the death penalty is inhumane and cruel. The same is also forbidden by the 8th amendment that was made to the constitution of the United States.

It is also true that the methods that are used to carry out executions are inhumane and cruel and thus the legal structure and the actual pragmatic procedures employed during the exercise of executions are inappropriate and seriously unusual (Lowe 122).

Death penalty has been given disproportionately to the impoverished that are unable to finance legal counsel. It has also been used against ethnic, religious and ethnic minorities. This sometimes leads to unfair executions carried out when the substance of the law is followed to the latter.

Apart from the unfair executions that have been imposed on the poor, racial, religious and ethnic minorities, it is true that the death penalty has been inconsistently applied. This has left loopholes for manipulation of the legislations that govern imposing of the death penalty leading to innocent executions (White 1).

Among the most important reasons for annulling the death penalty is the fact that a worrying number of wrongly convicted people have been killed by the state due to the existence of the law accepting executions. Of more concern is the fact that people who are rightfully executed can be punished otherwise as the state waits for information that could prove their innocence.

The only difference between executing a murderer and jailing him/her for life is that the state punishes him/her inhumanely in the former. Furthermore, if jailed for life, the murderer may die in prison as a reformed person (Cassell 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Capital Punishment Legislation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that the death penalty should be annulled. The government should come up with effective legislation giving effective and humane alternatives for punishing capital offenses. This way, a score of innocent lives will be saved and criminals will be given a chance to die as reformed people.

Works Cited Cassell, P. Debating the death penalty: should America have capital punishment. New York. Bell

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Best Methods for Oil Clean Ups Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Abstract There have been a lot of reports covering issues related to oil spills in the world. The reports cover issues ranging from causes of oil spills to the effects of oil spills on the environment. This report is also covering some of the issues in a different perspective. The body of the report deals mainly with methods of controlling and cleaning up oil spills especially in the oceans.

Since the beginning of petroleum industry, and subsequent occurrence of oil accidents, several methods have been developed to aid in the clean up of the mess. Oil companies are faced with the challenge of cleaning up the mess in the recent past. This is because environmental groups, animal rights groups and human rights activists together with other agencies have emerged with policies which can be quite detrimental to the smooth running of the companies that violate those policies.

Although there are different methods of cleaning up oil spillage, advancement of these methods should be done in order to cope with the increasing challenges. A good example given in this report is the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

The challenges faced by BP Oil Company attests to the fact that advanced technological input is needed in this area. The overwhelming task of solving the problem from its source proved to be a daunting task to the experts. Although it was a success, this incident left a negative mark on the environment that will not be forgotten for years to come.

At the end of this study, the causes and methods of cleaning up oil spills will be crystallized. The effectiveness of these methods will also be known and the need for better facilities is greatly emphasized.

Introduction An oil spill is a situation that occurs when crude oil is accidentally poured out so that its effects are directly felt by the environment. Oil accidents have been occurring since the beginning of the petroleum industry since it is quite impossible to mine oil without spilling some.

The main causes of oil spills are accidents and operations at the port (Oracle, 2010). For instance collision is a familiar accident to mariners. Other accidents include explosions and groundings. Operations at the ports have also been causing small but several oil spills. Some of these operations include loading and discharging of oil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically there are two kinds of oil spills. One kind is the one that occurs on land. Land oil spills usually occur in confined localities. Thus they are easily contained whenever they occur. Also, they do not cause much alarm since the situation is usually localized. In this situation, pollution is also localized hence clean up is easy and the effects are not adverse.

On the other hand, marine oil spills are quite familiar and thus infamous. Sine water moves with current, marine oil spills tend to spread over large areas thus causing far reaching environmental degradation. Oil spills in the oceans have been known to occur in different ways.

The main causes of oil spills in marine environment are tankers. Tankers are large water vessels used to transport enormous volumes of crude or refined oil. When an accident occurs involving a tanker, it will cause it to release its contents into the sea thus causing an oil spill.

Pipelines are also other source of oil spills in marine environment. When a pipeline is damaged crude or refined oil will be released into the sea causing similar damage to the environment. Thus the main sources which lead to the release of oil into the ocean are related to transport of oil. Offshore drilling does also cause oil spills when they explode or when there is an oil leakage. However, this is only but a small percentage of the total oil spills that occur in the world.

As we move away from the causes of oil spills to the methods of cleaning up, we find that in between these situations, there is the environmental aspect. Environmental degradation occurs when oil is accidentally poured into water or ground. Sea dwelling animals will be affected to a great deal if measures are not taken to cub the situation. Shellfish, seals, corals and many others will experience difficulties in either breathing or in absorption of nutrients.

Similarly plants and animals living at the shores will also experience a lot of problems in their livelihood. Turtles and birds in these areas are usually among the first animals to become victims of oil spills. In addition oil spills cause a lot of financial loss to the company in terms of wastage. For these and many other reasons, clean up activities are needed in order to prevent or tame the issue of environmental degradation and to recover the oil from the spill.

There is currently a number of methods oil companies use for clean up purposes. The methods range from natural to artificial techniques, and to more advance mechanized techniques. This report tries to dissect through the range of methods oil companies can use during clean up activities.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Best Methods for Oil Clean Ups specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Causes of oil spills Oil spills are caused by many sources. These causes are:

Accidents, whereby collision, hull failures and fires caused in the refineries and oil rigs can cause oil to spill over to the surroundings (Graham, 2010). Grounding is also another accident which is commonly experienced in the oil industry. This type of accident causes the greatest number of loss of oil whereby several hundreds of accidents have been known to cause loss of several hundreds of tones of oil.

Operations of the routines in the port and terminals whereby small but several oil spills can occur while loading or discharging. This has been known to be the most common cause of oil spills (Graham, 2010).

Factors affecting method of clean up of oil spills Several factors affect the choice of a clean up method. These factors include:

Density of the oil in relation to water so that if the density of oil is considerably high, it will sink into the water. This will prompt the use of a method which can be able to separate water and oil using the physical attribute of density (Oracle, 2007).

Temperature of water; if the temperature of water is high or increases, oil will tend to evaporate. Natural methods may be employed here. Hence methods that can separate water from oil in this temperature have to be used.

Capacity of the oil spill; if the volume of the oil spill is high, more advanced techniques should be employed so that clean up and the recovery of the spilled oil may be quickened (Oracle, 2007).

How near the spill is to the coast; if the oil spill is near to the coast, or it is in an enclosed area, methods to be used should be aimed at preventing the oil from reaching the continental shores. This will help in prevention against continental environment degradation so as not to affect birds and other animals inhabiting the coast. The methods to be used in this situation should also be aimed at reducing the impact of the spill to corals and other shallow water dwelling organisms.

Wave action of the water mass; whereby methods to be used should be able to withstand the challenge of physical mixing of sea water and oil. These should be methods which are used to separate the oil from the water after the two have mixed.

The weather, strength and direction of wind and currents; methods to be used here should include those that can withstand specific weather conditions while not effecting performance of their chores.

Methods of clean up of oil spills may be natural or artificial. Artificial methods may be low or highly technical. Less technical methods include skimming, burning of the oil, or even physically using containers to scoop it or prevent it from spreading. Highly technical approaches include the use of dispersants and the use of organic agents to break the oil down. All these techniques must be carefully studied before they are finally recommended to any kind of spill.

Natural methods that use sunlight and wave action Presence of oil in water can be broken down to physically disintegrate it and make it easier to evaporate in the presence of sunlight (Davidson, Lee

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Childhood Obesity Problem Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Summary

Rational

Problem Statement

Literature review

Methodology

Possible outcomes and Implications

Reference

Summary This paper is a research proposal comparing childhood obesity in United States of America and Saudi Arabia. The paper starts by defining the purpose statement of the research which is to establish on the rate of obesity between US and Saudi Arabia, the causes and how to overcome the disease. Then there is the description of the rationale followed by the literature review. The methodology that will be used in data collection is described and finally the expected outcome and their implications on the study and the children population at large.

Rational The reason for doing this project is to establish the rate of Obesity amongst children in the US and Saudi Arabia. This has since become one of the growing problems that have affected the young people in terms of their lifestyle, health and general social behaviours. The research will evaluate on the causes of obesity and what should be done to prevent its effects on children.

The rationale of this study is to assert on the fact that obese children have social problems. Studies of overweight and obesity in have not been done adequately especially in young people. Studies on the prevailing change occurring amongst overweight and obese children over time are also lacking, hence the need for the research.

Problem Statement The purpose of the project is to do a survey on the prevalence of obesity and the intervention strategies of preventing the disease in children. Children will be considered a priority because, while 50% of the adults are overweight in many countries, it is difficult to control the problem once one is in adulthood stage. The question this research will answer is on how to deal with obesity in children and the necessary preventive measures.

Literature review Obesity is a global problem due to the increase in junk food; luxury devises easy means of transport and stationery jobs. The world health organization predicts that there will be over 2.3 billion overweight adults by 2015 and more than 700 million of them will be obese. In developed countries childhood obesity has reached alarming levels (Dehghan, 2008).

The trend of obesity has been discovered to cut across the whole population and affect people of all age and race. It has been found to have adverse effects on the health of children and is prevalent in developing countries as well as developed countries (Van, 1985). There are several other diseases associated with obesity which include paediatric hypertension and other chronic diseases. According to Al-Hazmi and Warsy (1999), the improvement in economic development has brought about change in eating habits of the Saudi Arabians.

This has mostly affected the children with statistics showing that 27.5% of overweight children are boys and 28% are girls. This was an estimate conducted on children between age 6 and 19 in a survey back in 1996 (Al-Nuaim, Bamgboye, Al-Herbish, 1996; Abahussain, 1999).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies have further revealed that almost 25% of the children in the United States are above the normal weight. A good percentage of these children suffer from obesity which have had adverse effects on their social lifestyles. There are certain factors that contribute to this disorder most of which are environmental and cultural.

The increase in number of obese children in the US can also be attributed to poor lifestyles leading to poor choice on food; high intake of sugary foodstuff is also one of the contributing factors. This eventually causes accumulation of fats within the body which sometimes leads to overweight (Abalkhail, 2002: Ghabrah,1997).

The level of obesity in most countries including the US is in the increasing trend. The causes of the disease are almost similar in these countries due to some reasons. Research has revealed that most children in the US are exposed to the consumption of dairy products and carbonated drinks. This leads to accumulation of sugar and fats within the body which consequently causes obesity especially when they are not exposed to vigorous physical exercises.

This is also reflected in the Saudi Arabia study which revealed the same results as lack of physical activities amongst the children. The children are not exposed to walking long distances since they mostly use family cars and at the same time spend a lot of time watching television, playing electronic games and using computers for longer duration (Abalkhail, 2002; Kuczmarski and Flegal, 2000).

Methodology In this research, both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies will be applied. Several methods will be used in qualitative research to gather data; these include the use of case studies, personal experiences amongst the sampled children and their parents and interviews.

Some data will be gathered through historical data and observation. These will help in exploring issues associated with obesity and answer some questions about the phenomenon. Main aim for qualitative research is to measure the degree of socialization amongst obese children and how to control obesity (Yin, 1994). Quantitative research will be used, where by analysis will be based on questionnaires, surveys and experiments.

Stratified random sampling will be used, where children will be surveyed from different schools. Each educational level will be considered depending on the class of population on the selected region. The required number of children will then be collected from each region, after which one group from each level will be chosen at random until the required sample size is full.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Childhood Obesity Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each sample will strictly consider children with either Saudi Arabia or United States origin (Chabra et al, 1997). The data will be collected through interview by nurses from medical institutions who will use structured questionnaires. The weight of the children and the height will be measured using tape measure, after which the body mass index will be calculated (Must, Dallal, Dietz, 1991). Data entry and analysis will be done using the SPSS, version 12.

Possible outcomes and Implications The results are expected to reflect decrease in weight as age increases for both boys and girls. The height is not expected to change much, however the dominance of obesity was predicted to pose some negative experiences within the society.

The implications of these results will be to reveal the recommended time when treatment for obesity should be administered. Childhood period seem to be the most preferred time since weight loss in adult stage sometimes seems difficult to administer. There are also numerous options available for children interventions as compared to adults’.

The schools can be used as the primary base where a child’s lifestyle should be moulded, this may involve exposure to right kind of diet and vigorous physical exercises. Reduction of obesity in adults seems difficult since it is considered already established and this provides a good reason as to why obesity should be checked at an early stage of life (Abalkhail, 2002).

Reference Abahussain, A., (1999). Nutritional status of adolescent girls in the eastern province Of Saudi Arabia. Nutrition and health, 13,171–7.

Abalkhail, B., (2002).Overweight and obesity among Saudi Arabian children and Adolescents between 1994 and 2000. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 8, 10-40

Al-Hazmi M., Warsy, S., (1999). Relationship between obesity, overweight and Plasma lipid in Saudis. Saudi medical journal, 20, 512–25.

Al-Nuaim, R., Bamgboye, A., Al-Herbish A., (1996). The pattern of growth and Obesity in Saudi Arabian male schoolchildren. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders, 20, 1000–5.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Childhood Obesity Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dehghan, M., Danesh, N.A.,

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Meaning of the Color Red Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Color is a mark that gives the expression of anything that is seen by our physical eyes. In the ancient times, color was used to pass a message to the public since this was the only way people could express their identity due to lack of some factors like education. Color means a lot many people. Some colors are used to pass across messages to the public hence making it one of the most important marks in life.

According to me, color plays a great role in displaying my personality. Wearing a fabric that has my favorite color makes me feel complete. Anytime I fail to display my favorite color, I always feel incomplete. Color in general is the outlook of something that conveys a message to the viewers. A particular color can be used to carry across a certain message or have a specific meaning. An example is the red color, which for a long time has been used to symbolize different occurrences in life.

One particular thing that the red color red is associated with is demonstrating emotions. It is for this reason that you find red color used in places like restaurants as it is perceived to motivate and add appetite to people. Red color is also associated with showing affection. People associate red color with love hence the reason why many roses are red. It is also associated with war and therefore you find red color used to simplify the blood shed during times of war. Since human blood is in this color, we can confidently say that red depicts procreation.

In many cultures, red color is really recognized by some people as they believe that red is power. For this reason, they grant their celebrities and VIPs anything red as a symbol of honor. This color also stands for hazard and emergency and therefore you find it used by drivers for stop lights. These red lights bring about awareness and observant to the drivers incase of any danger.

In other cultures, red is used to stand for joy, donate transparency, and merriment. Red color brings about joy and prosperity in various countries like China. The Chinese people therefore put the color in some places to depict good luck. Red is frequently the color for the brides in the East as well as a color for mourners in South Africa.

A red flag was also used by the Russia when overthrowing the Tsar. Because of this, red became associated with socialism. Many countries use color red in their flags as it signifies the blood of the people. According to Christianity, red stands for the blood that was shed by Jesus on the cross in order to receive the peace and salvation they enjoy today.

Conclusion Colors have great significance in the lives of many people. A particular color can be associated with certain things in different parts of the world. One color that has been outstanding is the color red. From love to royalty, the color red is significant to almost each one of us. Although this color has different meanings to different people, one thing that stands out is that the color is used to depict good things in life. Due to this, it has become one of the most popular colors in history.

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Social, Economic and Political Conditions of a Slovak Immigrant Group Change from the 1880’s to the 1930’s Essay scholarship essay help

At the turn of the 19th century, several Slovak and other East European immigrant groups fled their native homelands in Europe to begin a new life in America. “Out of this Furnace” by Thomas Bell, set against the backdrop of the thriving steel mills of Pennsylvania, documents the great social upheavals experienced by one such Slovak family – the Dobrejcaks, across three generations.

Throughout the book’s narrative, the protagonists undergo extreme hardships in eking out a minimal existence in the newly-evolving industrial society shaping up in Pennsylvania and other North-Eastern states. It was not until the 1930’s and the third generation of Dobrejcaks, that they acquired enough grit and determination to fight for justice, and their civil rights.

In this thesis, it will be argued that only by organizing successful trade unions against greedy capitalist steel mill owners, did these immigrant groups truly succeed in their efforts to assimilate into the American way of life. The trials and tribulations experienced by the countless workers at those labor unions, and their families has set the stage for successive immigrant assimilation stories over the decades.

The plot begins with the narrative of Djuro Kracha, a newly-arrived immigrant from Austria Hungary (corresponding to present day Slovakia) who walks all the way from New York to White Haven (after splurging all his train fare money on buying whiskey for a married woman called Zuska whom he fancies). Like other immigrants, Kracha is looking for good fortune and wealth in his adopted homeland. His dreams are clearly evident as:

“Kracha’s story of his walk from New York was a nine days’ wonder. The first time he told it he had Francka watching him, listening to every word, and he was shrewd enough to keep it simple. When he came out of Castle Garden his money was in his pocket; when he reached the ferry house and wanted to pay for his ticket it was gone. Kracha spread his hands. There it was. He had given the problem a lot of thinking without getting anywhere, his manner implied, and now he was prepared to hear their speculations,” (Part 1, Chapter 3, 11).

Kracha soon befriends another Slovak immigrant, Dubik who helps him get over his initial troubles to settle down, and find a job in the burgeoning steel mills of Braddock, Pennyslvania. Dubik finds employment with Andrew Carnegie steel mills. This is where the first generation story about immigrant anguishes commences.

“There are men in that mill who were born here, whose fathers and grandfathers were born here. They know more English than you’ll ever learn. And what good is their vote doing them? They have to work in the mill and eat dirt like any greenhorn. Let me tell you, I’ve been in America enough to know that it’s run just like any other country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Europe your emperors and grand dukes own everything and over here it’s your millionaires and your trusts. They run the country to suit themselves, and don’t think they’re going to let you interfere every few years with your miserable vote. Get that into your head. Your vote means nothing. The company man always wins. If he isn’t a company man to start with, he becomes one afterward; the millionaires see to that.” (Part 1, Chapter 4, 3)

In contrast to Dubik’s constant struggles, Kracha sees some initial success in his adopted homeland and goes on to operate his own butcher shop which helps him earn over a thousand dollars per year. However, as success goes over his head, he again befriends Zuska and continues to lust after her. The immense success and material wealth makes him ignore his responsibilities towards his only wife, Elena who he brought back from Slovakia, but no longer cared for.

“Her poor health, or America, had changed her; Kracha never could decide. He had left her a lively, healthy girl, cheerful as the day was long; now she seldom smiled and went about her.” (Part 1, Chapter 6, 12).

The fact that Elena had developed a goiter-like condition upon arrival in America contributed to the growing alienation between the couple. Rumors of Kracha’s purported affair with Zuska saw several of his customers withdraw their patronage from his shop.

Over a period of time, he becomes terribly depressed with the turn-out of events and drinks himself to death. Zuska, who rose into prominence in Kracha’s life, soon disappears from the scene and it is evident that for the first generation of this fictionalized Slovak immigrant group, their life story is steeped in a constant predicament of failure and frustration.

For the second generation of this immigrant family, the story focuses on Mike Dobrejcak, who marries Mary, the daughter of Krasa and Elena. Unlike his father-in-law, Mike remains faithful to his wife and is shown much more assimilated into American society.

He speaks English fluently, registers as a Republican and fights for political freedom and voting rights on behalf of worker unions who produced the steel that created the Brooklyn bridge, but were usually discouraged from exercising their franchise. In this context, the reader is introduced to the growing discontent experienced by the immigrant class of workers against their employers.

We will write a custom Essay on Social, Economic and Political Conditions of a Slovak Immigrant Group Change from the 1880’s to the 1930’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The increasing economic disparity and lack of social progress for immigrants was already boiling into a major issue. When the Spanish Influenza struck in 1918, many people in the immigrant slums including Mary Dobrejcak started succumbing to this illness, got removed to a sanatorium and saw their entire lives being ruined, without the greedy steel mill employers caring one bit for their health and livelihoods.

In the last part of the story, George Dobrejcak, the son of Mary, joins an immigrant labor union to agitate for the common rights of all immigrant workers of East European background.

Being a third-generation American, George has enough voice to harshly denounce the ill treatment experienced by his fellow workers at the hands of greedy capitalists. He soon recruits several other labor unionists from his background and eventually, becomes the assistant director of his labor union. George’s feelings on the rising labor union sentiment are expressed as under:

“It was the way you thought and felt about certain things. About freedom of speech and the equality of men and the importance of having one law — the same law — for rich and poor, for the people you liked and the people you didn’t like. About the right of every man to live his life as he thought best, his right to defend it if anyone tried to change it and his right to change it himself if he decided he liked some other way of living better.

About the uses to which wealth and power could honorably be put, and about honor itself, honor, integrity, self-respect, the whatever-you-wanted-to-call-it that determined for a man which things he couldn’t say or do under any circumstances, not for all the money there was, not even to help his side win.” (Part 4, Chapter 3, 20).

In conclusion, it may well be argued that over a period of three generations, the Dobrejcaks managed to successfully assimilate into American society only after they had acquired enough resolve to fight for their social justice, voting and civil rights.

The fictionalized account of their success matters a lot because it can serve as an inspirational tale for hundreds of thousands of newly-arrived immigrants, who currently find themselves at the bottom of the barrel in a “land of opportunity”, while carrying on with aspirations for social progress and upward mobility. Successful assimilation is all about learning to fight for one’s rights.

Works Cited Bell, Thomas. Out of This Furnace: A Novel of Immigrant Labor in America. University of Pittsburgh Press: Pittsburg, PA, 1976.

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The Career of a Physical Therapist Research Paper essay help online free

Introduction Physical therapists are medical experts who handle cases dealing with impairments, disability, immobility, or any other critical change of physical function of the body and healthiness as a result of injury.

Their job include but is not restricted to diagnosis procedures, assessments, evaluations and conducting intervention duties so as to attain the highest functional results for every patient. In their daily work, physical therapists are charged with the responsibility of assisting patients suffering from a multitude of illnesses, and victims of accidents as well.

In 2008, it is estimated that the physical therapist were holding about 185,500 positions in the employment register of the US. Some of the physical therapist worked two or more jobs and that made the job statistic greater than they actually are. Most of the therapies do their job is hospital settings, Offices and other health facilities. The physical therapist assist in relieving pain to patients, enhance mobility of their body, reducing physical disability and re-establishing use (Coppola para. 4).

Through the assistance of a patient’s medical history, a medical therapist is in a position to examine the patient’s strength, posture, coordination, breathing capability, and motor and body balancing function. Plans are the executed in treating patients that have exhibited specific medical conditions.

Thesis Physical therapy is a challenging career that needs greater responsibility and dedication. The therapist often faces challenging situations that test their ability to do the job. For this reason, this paper shall address the career of a physical therapist. The physical therapist usually plan and work to treat physically disabled people of all divides regardless of the source of the problem (Jensen et al1256).

Therapists are further required to offer counseling to these patients and even to their families (Curtis 56). The therapist coordinates the processes of consultation and rehabilitation. This can be one at service groups, clinics and hospitals.

Education and University Training There are several universities across the united states that are offering Physical Therapy degrees. One of the best colleges is the University of Delaware. Basically interested students study a degree in Physical Therapy and then proceed to masters of the same when they want to have more expertise (Curtis 56). A better preparation to become a physical therapist has to begin with deed dedication to the job. Students who wish to become therapists should start their preparation while still in high school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that they should take course like physics, biology; psychology among other related subjects so that they can use this as a solid foundation for the future career (Curtis 56). The next step here would be to join a university that offers the training in Physical therapy. Students can study an associate degree or a higher degree in this field.

Students that are in such colleges study social sciences, mathematics, physiology, biochemistry, psychology, physics and other courses that ate considered lifesaving. For the degree, the students increase their scope to cover more specialized courses including neuroscience, physiology, metal issues and pathology (Krumhansl 87). Choosing University of Delaware for study is so critical to anyone wanting to study therapy course.

This is because the university has been ranked number four in the country. Here, the students get the best facilities that are at the cutting edge. This means that their education is great and that they have the best quality of research and better facilities (Krumhansl 87). To be better at the job, graduates that have been in the program can then advance to do their masters degrees. Students take part in the study of the intensive care courses and they are also expected to go through an internship program.

From here, students then still have a choice for further specialization in either neurological therapy or musculoskeletal therapy among other needs (Jensen et al 20011258). In order for a student to be granted the license to practice, he/she is first required to have studied medical imaging, kinesiology, as well as to have undertaken professional and physiology course during their internship period. Upon graduation, the candidate could get the license.

The undergraduate take a minimum of four years while the post graduate programs take only about a year and a half. Basically there is no need to relocate because there are online studies but for practical course like Physical Therapy, one needs to attend classes and online is not a better option (Langenberghe 522).

Financing Education The cost of attaining a degree in Physical therapy at the University of Delaware is estimated to be about 9,486 dollars for the in-state tuition fee and 23,186 for the out-of-state. There is some financial aid for some students in Delaware University. The fellowships offer full tuition reimbursement and this is averaged at 14,600 dollar for one academic year (Chilsolm 67). This is for the students in degree programs.

For the post graduate and research assistants, there is a reimbursement of 20,772 dollars for every student’s tuition. Assistants in physical therapy get the same amount as degree students and opportunities for internships. Some important statistics are that the percentage of children that get financial aid is 60% and those on Federal grants are 9% (Chilsolm 2002 67). The average grant that the Federal government gives is 3,704 dollars.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Career of a Physical Therapist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The percentage of students that get state aid is 9% and the average amount that is often given is 3,334 dollars. The numbers of students that get this are 37%. Loans are also offered to the students and on average, students get a loan of 6,947 dollars and 48% of the students get these loans. More assistance comes in the name of institutional aid and on average the eligible students get 6,947 dollars.

There is a body known as the Physical Therapy association of America which offers financial assistance to physical therapy studies and research in universities. Application is simple as one only needs to enroll for the graduate degree program (Chilsolm 67). Then search for opportunities in their databases. After that, one can sign out for the internships and apply for funding.

Application process can take a lot of time. However, first it is important that a student determines what type of degree she/he wants in the field of physical therapy. Second is to check the geographical region that one would like to live in. this way, one can narrow down program search and even carry out assessment of cost of living while studying (Jensen et al 1258).

Most of the programs in universities will demand a degree. However, master’s degree would be very appropriate at a later stage. It’s very important to ensure that you are clear with many of or all of the requirements. Minimum GPA is usually a 3.0. It is estimated that the cost of living in Delaware at the university ranges from 12,657 to 15,821 dollars.

The tuition fee is usually the same for people living at the campus and those living at home. The differences are mainly on food, accommodation and transport (Langenberghe 522). Living on campus means that students will pay about 9,894 dollar for the accommodation. Those that live outside the campus can get expensive or cheaper house depending on the place they choose to live (Sneed et al 1287). Credit per hour for the students who stay in state is 377 dollars and out of state credit hour is 1,010 dollars.

Conclusion Career Development

Getting a degree in medical courses particularly physical therapy is a great investment. This degree allows people to be experts in this subject area. Traditionally, students who decide to pursue the career have three alternatives to choose from as they advance to doctoral level (Krumhansl 89). One is that they can pursue professional physical therapy, two, to pursue transitional therapy of three, to work on physical therapy.

There are some courses that are very important in therapeutic clinical practice. They include palpations, neuroscience, pathology, diagnostic imaging and clinical anatomy among others (Langenberghe 522). When students complete their studies in the subject and hand over their dissertations which are publishable, then they have fulfilled the procedure of being licensed to practice (Krumhansl 90).

The graduates have to meet the requirements by the association of physical therapist of America. The course presents a good opportunity to venture into medical practice because there are job opportunities readily available for people who study physical therapy (Blau et al 649). As projected by the government of the United States, the need for physical therapists is bound to increase through 2013.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Career of a Physical Therapist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because the population increases and as a consequence people suffering from physical disability also increase. Notable is the increase in the number of senior member of the society, the baby-boom generation who need therapy for relieve of pain and management of physical problems that in most cases result from heart attacks and strokes (Blau et al 649).

These conditional are increasingly becoming common among older people. Furthermore, it’s been noted that, more babies nowadays are being born with birth defects and the technology today has seen more victims of traumatic conditions survive (Sneed et al 1287).

As a result, this new technology is going to permit increase of debilitating conditions to me managed by specialist in this field (Krumhansl 95). As American become more conscious about their health, the will definitely require more physical therapist and more specialized treatment. Therefore the employment for these experts is expected to increase faster than average growth of the entire medical care needs.

Relocation

In an effort to do their job, therapists get to move around a lot and seek new pastures. These relocations are often very influencing on their lives.

Though the government encourages people to work with bigger organizations and also to adopt practices that allow work-life balance doctrine, relocation at times is inevitable (Blau et al 652). Workers tend to link relocation with great achievement or career development (Frankl para. 5). This can impact on families in a negative manner. Family responsibilities are affected and its stability shaken.

Parents move away from children and spouses away from each other (Green and Canny Para. 4). Most impact is on school going children because their education is disrupted. Young adults loose friends or financial resources that had already started establishing. For the elderly and their declining health, they can lose friendship networks and this can seriously affect their condition (Green and Canny Para. 4).

Works Cited Blau, Rosemary, et al. (2002). The Experience of Providing Physical Therapy in a Changing Health Care Environment, Phys Ther journal, 82(2002): 648-657.

Chilsolm, Stephanie. The Health Professions: Trends And Opportunities In U.S. Health Care, Sudbury, MA, Jones

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‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Personal Reflection

Works Cited

Introduction The study ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ purposed to compare the efficacy of three treatment strategies – the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), the present-centered therapy (PCT) and the wait-list (WL) – on women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arising from childhood sexual abuse.

The nature of the problem discussed in the study therefore revolves around developing proper treatment methodologies for victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed PTSD due to their perceived inadequacies to overcome the trauma related to CSA.

Previous controlled trials had adequately revealed the effectiveness of individual CBT for men exhibiting combat-related PTSD, women with PTSD resulting from rape ordeals, and women exhibiting symptoms of PTSD arising from sexual and nonsexual assaults (McDonagh et al 515).

Previous studies had also demonstrated the efficacy of CBT on men and women with PTSD arising from a multiplicity of traumas. A previous study employing the wait-list (WL) had also provided preliminary verification that WL was effective in imaginal exposure heralded by affect-regulation and interpersonal efficacy skills training on adult females (McDonagh et al 516).

However, in spite of the fact that there exist a wealth of clinical literature on treatment methodologies of victims of sexual abuse, the evidence base concerning the treatment of victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibiting symptoms of PTSD is considerably limited.

The current research therefore aimed to add critical knowledge on which treatment methodology, between CBT, PCT, and WL is most effective in the treatment of women with PTSD arising from childhood sexual abuse.

As such, the authors came up with a hypothesis that “…CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in (a) reducing interviewer-rated PTSD symptoms; (b) reducing self-reported depressive, anxiety, dissociative, and anger symptoms, as well as cognitive distortions; and (c) improving quality of life” (McDonagh et al 516).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The independent variables included: History of childhood sexual abuse, demonstration of some intrusive and avoidance symptoms of PTSD directly related to childhood sexual abuse, gender (women), and demonstration of one comprehensible and detailed memory of childhood sexual abuse.

The dependent variables included: Intensity and frequency of PTSD symptoms, coexisting Axis 1 and Axis 2 disorders, depression, level of disruptions of beliefs about self and others, level of dissociative symptomatology, level of state anxiety, state and trait anger, and quality of life.

Methods According to McDonagh et al “…both the CBT and PCT treatments were operationalized in manuals and conducted in 14 individual sessions, the first 7 of which were 2 hr long, and the final 7 of which were 1.5 hr long” (518).

The longer than 1-hr treatment sessions were intended to provide the interviewers with adequate time to elucidate attenuation of anxiety in participants during exposure sessions. After undergoing a rigorous training exercise, distinct groups of female clinicians were charged with the responsibility of providing CBT and PCT treatments to participants.

All therapy sessions were tape-recorded for later review by an expert in the treatment. The participants assigned to the WL treatment were advised that they could obtain their preference of the two treatment strategies in about 14 weeks after they had successfully completed the post-WL evaluation.

In addition to meeting the compulsory requirements for the independent variables mentioned above, the74 women who were selected to take part in the study had to meet some set standards or criteria, namely: non-current use of medication that have considerable effect to the autonomic nervous system; currently not pregnant; no known cardiovascular condition, free from conditions such as mania, hypomania, severe depression, schizoaffective disorder and other related disorders; free from alcohol or drug abuse; no withdrawal symptoms associated with benzodiazepines, alcohol or drug use three months prior to the consideration for enrollment into the study; absence of active suicidal orientation; and absence of an abusive relationship with an intimate partner (McDonagh 516).

As already mentioned, treatment groups were divided into three – cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), present-centered therapy (PCT), and wait-list (WL).

We will write a custom Research Paper on ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fundamental components in the treatment procedures for CBT included PE, in vivo exposure and CR, not mentioning that imaginal exposure was commenced in the fourth week of treatment involving attempting to remember the traumatic event with much clarity as possible, recitation of the traumatic event to the clinical therapist in the present tense, and constantly going over the memory until the anxiety or distress subsidized (McDonagh 518).

Psycho-education was also provided to the participants. Treatment protocols for PCT were specifically designed to describe an active therapeutic intervention that could be employed by non-CBT clinicians in the effective treatment of PTSD-CSA. Treatment procedures for WL revolved around the wait-times.

Dependent variables were measure using a wide array of data gathering tools, including: CAPS; SCID; ELS; The Beck Depression Inventory; The Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory; The Traumatic Stress Institute Beliefs Scale; The Dissociative Experiences Scale; The Cock-Medley Hostility Scale; The State-Trait Anger Expressive Inventory; and The Quality of Life Inventory (McDonagh et al 517).

Results There was a significant dropout rate in the course of the study, standing at 23 percent. Analysis revealed that PTSD severity as measured by CAPS did not vary between CBT dropouts and those who completed the study, but statistically significant variations were reported on all the other psychometric measures.

It is of if importance to note that the CBT dropouts citied high levels of depression, anxiety and low quality life than those who completed the treatments (McDonagh et al 519). In terms of intention-to-treat analysis, 27.6 percent of subjects in CBT, three in ten in PCT, and about 17.4 percent in WL no longer met the standards set for PTSD. Post hoc analysis of the TSI and CAPS demonstrated that participants in CBT and PCT improved considerably when compared to those in WL.

A follow-up analysis taken three months after treatment demonstrated that 82.4 percent of subjects enrolled in CBT and 42.1 percent enrolled in PCT no longer met standards for PTSD, implying that had developed adequate coping and problem-solving strategies to deal with their distress. At 6-month follow-up, just above three-quarters (76.5 percent) of subjects in CBT and 42.1% in PCT no longer met the criteria for PTSD.

McDonagh and colleagues also found out that “…on measures of anxiety, depression, dissociation, anger, hostility, and cognitive distortions, CBT was comparable with PCT at all post-therapy assessments” (519).

Discussion The researchers’ hypothesis that CBT would be more effective than both PCT and WL received consistent support across the various measures employed to evaluate posttraumatic and related symptomatology.

Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the findings came up with new knowledge that PCT is consistently more effective in treating PTSD than WL when measured using the scales explained above. According to McDonagh et al, “…both treatments resulted in marked improvements in PTSD symptom severity, state anxiety, and trauma-related cognitive schemas, all of which showed little change for the WL participants” (520).

It should be noted that both CBT and PCT never proved their superiority over WL in terms of curtailing symptoms of depression, dissociation, aggression, anger, and enhancing the quality of life. All in all, a conclusion can be made that CBT has a considerable positive impact on the treatment of PTSD symptoms for adult female victims of CSA, but the high dropout rate in CBT brings in another dimension that women were more unwilling to complete CBT than other treatment procedures.

The study also adds to our current knowledge by demonstrating that the effectiveness and tolerability of PCT, which utilizes education on the impact of trauma and facilitation of learning skills to enhance social coping strategies, may be an effective non-CBT strategy towards the treatment of PTSD that is largely viewed to be secondary to CSA (McDonagh et al 522). The study was decisively limited by the considerable dropouts especially in CBT

Personal Reflection The study utilized scientific procedures to reach a conclusion that CBT was still the treatment of choice for PTSD symptoms related to CSA. However, it must be noted that PCT demonstrated remarkable results in the treatment of PTSD symptoms secondary to CSA and, thus, it should be included in conventional treatment methodologies for PTSD. By and large, the methodologies adopted for the study were able to adequately test the initial hypothesis.

However, it must be said that the researchers employed many measurement procedures that are likely to confuse readers. It is my personal belief that the consistent findings could be achieved through the employment of a few standardized measures. However, future research is needed to demonstrate why many women survivors of CSA opt out of CBT and instead prefer PCT.

Works Cited McDonagh, A., McHugo, G., Sengupta, A., Demment, C.C., Schnurr, P.P., Friedman, M., Ford J., Mueser, K., Fournier, D.,

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Consumer Spending and Savings Analytical Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Trade involves the supply of goods and services. For trade to be facilitated there must be a supply and a demand of goods and services. The amount of resources that individual and firms are willing and are able to commit in buying of goods and services produced in the economy are called consumer consumption.

It takes two angles, from a micro economics point where there is consideration of individuals and firms and from a macro economics when the entire society is considered. The remains after consumption is the saving that an economy, individuals, or firms will save (Carrick 33). This paper analyses the effects that tax cut can have on consumption and investment.

Consumption V/S Savings The amount of income that a consumer gets at one particular point can be put in different use. It can be consumed or it can be saved. Income is the total amount of resources that individuals get. It is a product of all earnings. The following equation shows the elements of income (I);

I = savings(S) consumptions (C)

I = S C

Savings are utilized in various ways with the most common one being for investing in various projects of the economy.

So;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Savings (S) = Investments (I)

S=I

At constant income, if consumption increases, then savings will reduce and the rate of investments in the country will reduce. On the other hand, if consumption decreases, there is an increase in investments.

When an income of individual or firm increases, the effect on investment is dependent on the marginal rate to consume; if an increase leads to a proportionate increase in consumption, then the effect is the same to investment (Mishkin 12)

The diagram below show the connection between saving rate and consumer spending

Factors affecting consumer consumption There are different factors which affect the rate of consumption of an individual or firms; they include taxation, government expenditure, state of the economy and future expectations of the individual or firm.

The following table shows the rate of expenditure between 2005 and 2008, in United States;

We will write a custom Essay on Consumer Spending and Savings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rate of change

Item 2005 2006 2007 Annual expenditures……………………………………………….. $46,409 $48,398 $49,638 2.6 Food …………………………………………………………………… 5,931 6,111 6,133 0.4 At home 3,297 3,417 3,465 1.4 Cereals and bakery products………………………………. 445 446 460 3.1 Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs……………………………… 764 797 777 -2.5 Dairy products ………………………………………………….. 378 368 387 5.2 Fruits and vegetables ………………………………………… 552 592 600 1.4 Other food at home……………………………………………. 1,158 1,212 1,241 2.4 Away from home…………………………………………………. 2,634 2,694 2,668 -1.0 Alcoholic beverages………………………………………………. 426 497 457 -8.0 Housing ………………………………………………………………. 15,167 16,366 16,920 3.4 Shelter ………………………………………………………………. 8,805 9,673 10,023 3.6 Utilities, fuels, and public services…………………………. 3,183 3,397 3,477 2.4 Household operations………………………………………….. 801 948 984 3.8 Housekeeping supplies ……………………………………….. 611 640 639 -0.2 House furnishings and equipment…………………………. 1,767 1708 1,797 5.2 Apparel and services …………………………………………….. 1,886 1,874 1,881 0.4 Transportation………………………………………………………. 8,344 8,508 8,758 2.9 Vehicle purchases (net outlay) ……………………………… 3,544 3,421 3,244 -5.2 Gasoline and motor oil…………………………………………. 2,013 2,227 2,384 7.0 Other vehicle expenses……………………………………….. 2,339 2,355 2,592 10.1 Public transportation……………………………………………. 448 505 538 6.5 Health care ………………………………………………………….. 2,664 2,766 2,853 3.1 Entertainment ………………………………………………………. 2,388 2,376 2,698 13.6 Personal care products and services ………………………. 541 585 588 0.5 Reading ………………………………………………………………. 126 117 118 0.9 Education…………………………………………………………….. 940 888 945 6.4 Tobacco products and smoking supplies………………….. 319 327 323 -1.2 Miscellaneous………………………………………………………. 808 846 808 -4.5 Cash contributions………………………………………………… 1,663 1,869 1,821 -2.6 Personal insurance and pensions …………………………… 5,204 5,270 5,336 1.3 Life and other personal insurance …………………………. 381 322 309 -4.0 Pensions and Social Security…………. 4,823 4,948 5,027 1.6 Table from https://www.bls.gov/cex/twoyear/200607/csxtable1.pdf

The valuation is as a result of: Taxation

The government gets the greatest percentage of its income from taxes paid by tax payers in a certain country. Taxation is a policy whereby citizens or residents of a country contribute money for social services to the government through a well coordinated taxation policy.

Taxation affects the consumption rate of an individual as well as firms. During campaigns of 2008, Senator John McCain’s promised to reduce taxes as a way of reviving the economy but one wonders how the economy will grow if the government has no money. No one likes paying of taxes, however it is an evil that we have to live with (Straczynski 22).

Tax Cuts

Different countries adopt different taxation policies, however tax cut take the same route; it can result from raising the minimum amount that is taxable in an economy, reducing the percentage of taxation or even eliminating the entire amount of taxes. Some countries offer tax credits and remission to areas that they would like to give this percentage.

There are some cuts which are meant to cut across the entire economy and some are on a specific industry. Whichever the method, the end result is a reduced tax payable from the trader, individual or company. Governments play an important role in controlling how their country’s economy fair. In a broader perspective, they use monetary and fiscal policies for contraction or expansion reasons.

When regulations are made, they may hurt or benefit the economy in short term and long term. Tax cut is an expansionary fiscal policy adopted with the aim of reviving an economy.

Tax Cuts in the Past

There has been three times that tax cuts have been implemented by the government to facilitate economic growth, in all the phrases there has been success. In 1920’s, there was the Harding/Coolidge cuts, then in 1960’s there was president Kennedy cuts and the Reagan cuts of the 1980s. All the three cuts have proved to be successful. They have followed the same trends that facilitated revival of economies by ensuring that people are given a reason to invest and spend in their economy.

Effects of Tax Cuts

In cases of a tax cut, then the people will have more funds to use, their disposable income will increase. Disposable income increase means an increased consumption. In the recession period, consumption in the economy leads to an aggregate demand of goods and services. Spending will induce money in the economy, which in turn will affect the economy positively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Spending and Savings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If expenditure is facilitated, then chances of recovery are higher. Businesses on the other hand will have adequate resources for business expenditure (in terms of investments). In all economies personal Consumption Expenditures, account for the largest amount of government revenue; thus when facilitated it is likely to lead to a quicker recovery from recession.

Local Investments and Foreign Direct Investments

One of the hindrances of foreign investments is high taxes especially if the company is a foreign company. If taxes rates are reduced, then investors will be attracted by the favorable tax t-rates and invest in the economy. Investments increase the rate of country development, there is an increased employment, a larger tax net is created and increased consumer choices.

Local investors are also to benefit from tax cuts since they will feel attracted to invest in their own economy since the taxes they are paying is manageable. The overall will be an economy that can meet its own demands in terms of employment, products and services.

International Trade

The world is undergoing an era of globalization where different countries are involved in trade among each other. As economies expand and trade with each other with assistance of improved technology, the world is becoming a global village. Economies are joining efforts to develop an economic, political or/and social block as they prepare to play a role in the global environment.

When trading a country with a comparative advantage is likely to dominate the market since it is able to produce more goods at relatively low prices. When calculating the cost of production, there are fixed cost and variable costs. This will set the price that the commodity will be sold whether in the national or international market. When tax rates are reduced, then the cost of these products are reduced; they can then compete more favorably than the same good from countries which has no tax cuts.

Negative Effects of Tax Cuts

Government use taxation money to finance its projects; if the finances are reduced, then priority areas will be undertaken first. One of the areas that are likely to suffer is government participation in businesses directly. This is likely to come in terms of privatization as they fetch for money to finance deficit created by reduced taxes or it may be through not involving in trade. When it sells public companies to individuals, then there is a facilitated competition (Ludvigson 45).

Personal Opinion

Taxation is a macroeconomic tool that is utilized by the government to ensure that its controls the economy. It gives the government revenue to invest in different sectors of the economy and provide social amenities. When making a decision of whether there should be a tax cut or not, the government should analyze the conditions of the situation. When tax cuts are administered, there is an increased spending in the economy and the resultant will be facilitated trade which on the other hand leads to larger tax base.

In my opinion, tax cuts can revive an economy however its effectiveness and efficiency is only in the short term. They also need to be implemented timely since there are times that they can yield good results (Wilcox 21). There are times that they can injure an economy and make it worse.

Conclusion The amount of resources that individual and firms are willing and are able to commit in buying of goods and services produced in the economy are called consumer consumption. It takes two angles, from a micro economics point where there is consideration of individuals and firms and from a macro economics when the entire society is considered. Consumer consumption affects savings and investments in a country. Tax cuts can benefit an economy however it can also injure it.

Works Cited Anon. Average annual expenditures of all consumer units and percent changes, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2005–07. Web.

Carrick, James. “Consumer Spending Review.” Credit Control 29.1 (2008): 48. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Lahart, Justin. Consumer Spending Grows Modestly. Aug. 31 2010. Web.

Ludvigson, Sydney C. “Consumer Confidence and Consumer Spending.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18.2 (2004): 29-50. EconLit with Full Text. EBSCO. Web.

Mishkin, Frederic S. “Consumer Sentiment and Spending on Durable Goods.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1 (1978): 217-232. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web.

Straczynski, Stacy. “Consumer Spending Jumps 1.3 Percent in Aug.” Sales

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Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber Compare and Contrast Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Anthropologists make attempts to establish the relationships between cultural and economical sides of the life of the society, deciding between the materialistic and spiritualistic approaches or trying to integrate both of them. Weber’s theory of religious beliefs as the basis for the division of labor forces in capitalistic society can coexist with Malinowski’s and Lewi’s views but is opposed by Geertz who put emphasis on culture.

The key issue of Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber is the definition of the primary principles of capitalism and the prioritized values of people living in a capitalistic society. Defining the leading principle of capitalism, he notes that “man is dominated by the making of money, by acquisition as the ultimate purpose of his life” (Weber 53).

The researcher is aimed at establishing the relationships between the individual’s motivation for working, the principles of division of labor forces and materialistic values in the society and the level of its cultural development.

Considering the religious beliefs as an integral element of culture having a significant impact on people’s decision making, Weber finds the rational explanation for prioritizing the materialistic values in the principles of the asceticism. Not limiting the concept of capitalistic culture to the economical structure of the society, Weber attempts to evaluate the influence of the religious beliefs on the citizens’ obedience to the existing economical laws.

The anthropologist analyzes the protestant principle of calling as the main argument for faithful labor at low wages for the lowest strata that have no other opportunities. “The capitalism of to-day, which has come to dominate economic life, educates and selects the economic subjects which it needs through a process of economic survival of the fittest” (Weber 55).

On the one hand, Weber points at the utilitarian nature of humans and their passion for acquisition of the material values, underestimating the importance of culture. On the other hand, he analyzes the evolution of the Christian beliefs and considers faithful calling to be the prototype for the division of labor forces in the contemporary capitalistic society.

“One of the fundamental elements of the spirit of modern capitalism, and not only of that but of all modern culture: rational conduct on the basis of the idea of the calling, was born … from the spirit of Christian asceticism” (Weber 180). Despite all his assertions as to the place of culture and religion in the system of beliefs, in the final conclusion part of his work Weber denies the effectiveness of one-sided interpretation of history from materialistic or spiritualistic perspective, considering the complex character of the issue.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The anthropologists Malinowski, Levi and Geertz shed light upon the main principles of the development of the society, drawing the parallels between the present day beliefs and culture of primitive tribes, ancient myths and contemporary science. For instance, researching the social code of Kula population, Malinowski contrasts their preferences and beliefs of capitalistic society.

At the same time, evaluating the place of materialistic values in the system of beliefs of the tribe, the researcher establishes the relationship between the property and the social status because for Kula people “to possess is to be great, and that wealth is indispensable appanage of social rank and attribute of personal virtue (Malinowski 103).

Describing the competition of generosity among the richest members of the tribe, Malinowski still points at the significance of economical acquisition of the population as the marker of their position in the society and corresponding obligations.

Analyzing the common features of the myths structure, Levi uses their content as the basis for interpreting the principle of the division of labor forces in present day society. “The problem often regarded as insoluble, vanishes when it is shown that the clowns-gluttons who may with impunity make excessive use of agricultural products – have the same function in relation to food production as the war-gods” (Levi 223).

Similar to Weber’s analysis of the Christian beliefs, Levi finds the roots for the present day social injustice in ancient myths, explaining the inequality of various strata of population and other social phenomena with the gods’ will. As opposed to all the previous researchers, Geertz focuses his studies on the concept of culture, giving preference to the spiritualistic interpretation of the life of the society. Altering the traditional definition of culture, he points at its significance and impact on other spheres.

Geertz develops Weber’s theory of a man as an animal in the significance webs which he/she creates “I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning” (Geertz 6). Thus, the views of Malinowski and Levi do not contradict Weber’s theory and can coexist, while Geertz shifts emphasis to culture as the significant element of the life of society.

Drawing the parallels between the system of beliefs and the organization of society, anthropologists try to make understanding of social phenomena and people’s consciousness more comprehensive. Weber, Malinowski, Levi and Geertz used the definition of the concept of culture as the basis for explaining the main principle of division of labor forces.

We will write a custom Essay on Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1973. Print

Levi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Schoepf. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1963. Print.

Malinowski, Bronislav. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Routledge. 1932. Print.

Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Trans. Talcott Parsons. New York: Routledge. 1992. Print.

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Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

For more than fifty days, FBI agents were stationed outside Mount Carmel Center, the headquarters of the religious cult called the Branch Davidians.

They were waiting for the group’s charismatic leader David Koresh to stand down and order his followers to lay down their arms and surrender to the overwhelming force that has surrounded their compound. But as time breached the deadline set by the FBI, David Koresh and his followers were intent to wait out to be certain that what they are going to do next is in line with prophetic utterances made a few years earlier.

They were willing to wait for divine instructions but the federal government and the FBI who did not understand the worldview of the Branch Davidians and therefore they could not wait any longer and they believed that they were justified to use force. If only they knew the aftermath of the assault they would have made a different decision.

Background A historical background is needed to at least make sense of the numerous and sometimes conflicting accounts of what really happened in the aftermath of the final attack on Mount Carmel center in April 19, 1993.[1] It has to be pointed out that this group did not come out of nowhere; in fact, the origin of the Branch Davidians can help explain why Koresh was able to hold sway over a group of people and ultimately led many of them to their death.

This group came from a splinter sect that broke away from a Christian denomination known all over the world as the Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDA).[2] The SDA is known for “…their belief in the imminent return of Jesus Christ to earth, for their special vegetarian dietary restrictions and for their retention of Saturday as their Sabbath.”[3] Those who are aware of the practices of the SDA can ascertain that the Branch Davidians came from the SDA.

This does not mean that the SDA is responsible for what happened at Waco but at least it provides a backdrop that will help understand how and why the splinter group used some of the ideas and doctrines they had at SDA and shaped it into their own.

Nevertheless, it can also be said that these two groups were linked by: “…historical roots, the origins of their members, their name, their identity, and their apocalyptic preoccupations, idiom, and paranoias.”[4] Once again it must be reiterated that the SDA is not responsible for creating the Waco debacle and yet it is also clear that David Koresh learned much from them, especially when it comes to their strong interests with regards to apocalyptic events.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The breakaway sect was founded by a man named Victor Houteff who was an SDA member since 1919. But after more or less ten years of membership Houteff began to express his disappointment with the errors he found in the doctrines of SDA and so he wrote a book entitled The Shepherd’s Rod in 1930.[5] But more than that Houteff believed that he was a messenger sent by God and in 1935 he founded the Mount Carmel center, the same facility that would figure prominently in news headlines fifty years later.

Houteff called his group the Davidian Sevent-Day Adventist and after World War II he began to recruit members outside the United States. But in 1955 he died and soon after his wife took over the vacant leadership position and she made a prophecy that the world will end on April 22, 1959. When the supposedly dreadful day came and nothing happened many members began to desert the group.

The organization almost disintegrated due to the failure of the prophecy but a man named Benjamin Roden assumed control of the group and he renamed it the General Association of Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists.[6] After his death his wife Lois and son George took over.

The year 1981 was a significant year for the group because during this time a man named Vernon Howell joined the group; he was 21 years old and he became the group’s handyman.[7] Three years later Vernon Howell married the daughter of a prominent member of the community, her name was Rachel Jones and a power struggle ensued between George Roden and Howell.[8] But Vernon Howell came out on top and in 1985 he spearheaded a drive to recruit members abroad.[9]

The strategy that he used to recruit was interesting because he targeted former SDA members who were disgruntled with the SDA.[10] Nevertheless, Howell achieved success in this regard especially when he went to the United Kingdom. He was able to convince a number of British citizens to come and join him. In the aftermath of the final raid it was discovered that thirty-three out of the eighty two followers who died at Waco, Texas were British.[11]

The recruitment plan was not only limited to England but was also aimed at Canada and Australia, after a successful round of recruitment the membership of the Branch Davidians can be said to be multi-racial ad multi-ethnic of whom 45 were black.[12]

It was also during this time that Vernon Howell decided to change his name so that he will be known henceforth as David Koresh. He had his name legally changed and submitted a court document that explains that the purpose for dong so was “for publicity and business purposes.”[13]

We will write a custom Research Paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The group was know known as the Students of the Seven Seals and correctly interpreted as students of the scroll protected by the seven seals.[14] The name Branch Davidians was not an official name that the group adopted but it was what the Waco Tribune-Herald used extensively to refer to them.[15]

Aside from going to different countries to look for new members Koresh also traveled to the land of Israel in 1985 and this experience added another dimension to the group. According to some experts there is a phenomenon called the Jerusalem Syndrome that sometimes develops after a pilgrimage in the holy city.[16] A year after his visit, Koresh began to refer to himself as the “Sinful Messiah.”[17]

It is easy to generalize the whole group based on the thought pattern, activities, achievements and the declarations made by their leader. From an outsider’s point of view Koresh has no value as far as the normal standard of what constitutes a productive citizen is concern. He has no real job, he was no entrepreneur and he was not a professional. Thus, it is easy to conclude that his members came from the same mould. As one reporter had insinuated during the crisis and wrote the following:

Cults such as the Branch Davidians attracted the lonely, the lost, the unloved and the naïve. Their members came from all over but had at least one thing in common: they were alienated from modern society and were searching for a replacement. Many were society’s losers with nowhere else to go. Others sought spiritual salvation and believed they would discover it by joining a cult. A few, like George Roden, were simply mad.[18]

This sweeping statement cannot be used to describe every member of the Branch Davidians. There are those whom one can consider to be of good standing in the community and men of great achievement, for example Wayne Martin, one of the followers of Koresh was a Harvard-trained lawyer while Steve Schneider the group’s spokesperson had a master’s degree from the University of Hawaii and Livingstone Fagan had a degree from the Manchester Metropolitan University and at the same time a trained Seventh-day Adventist pastor.[19]

Understanding Davidian Theology No one outside the Branch Davidian cult can clearly explain what David Koresh was trying to say – his prophecies as well as his declarations. He clearly had his own system of interpretation. Nevertheless, it is important to try to understand what he said in order to determine if FBI and the ATF were justified in storming the gates so to speak that resulted not only in the death of Koresh but dozens of members including women and children.

The type of Biblical study that Koresh seem to be passionate about is referred to as apocalyptic. In the last few years of his life Koresh was obsessed with the Book of Revelation the last book of the Christian bible and it was believed to be written by the Apostle John.

In this book there is an important section that deals with a scroll or book with seven seals and the person who can break the seal is the one who will be able to read and understand these books and the fact that they are sealed means it is of utmost importance. However, the bible says that no one was able to break the seal.[20]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As one reads this particular passage in the Book of Revelation one can feel a sense of urgency and suspense not knowing what will happen next. But this feeling quickly passes because in just a few verses the One who is able to break the seal was revealed and he is none other than the Lamb.[21]

In the case of the members of the Davidian cult there is no need to ask who is the Lamb and there is no need to experience an acute sense of anticipation for his coming because they knew who the Lamb is and who can open the seal. He is not a spiritual being but made of flesh. He is human and he is none other than their beloved leader – David Koresh.[22] But Christians all over the world will sneer at this remark because they will also argue that the Lamb is none other than Christ.

The Old Testament of the Christian Bible repeatedly discussed the need to offer a sacrificial lamb for the sins of the people. This was ingrained into mainstream culture after the release of movies like the Ten Commandments wherein one can see the blood of the lamb painted on doorposts and the consumption of a roasted lamb as a means to preserve the Hebrew slaves from impending doom. This act and this symbolism were easily understood as a sacrifice that is acceptable to God.

In the New Testament of the Christian Bible the prophet John the Baptist pointed to Jesus and said that he is the lamb of God that will take away the sin of the world.[23] In other numerous instances in the New Testament one can also the reference to Jesus Christ as the lamb of God.[24]

It is therefore puzzling why Koresh would claim to be the Lamb of God. But the moment he was convinced that he is indeed the One who can break the seals as mentioned in the Book of Revelations and the moment that he had followers who believed in what he said then the sky was the limit in terms of what he thinks can be done through his actions. The following is an excerpt that Koresh gave in an interview with a reporter from Time magazine and he made the following assertions:

I offer to you my wisdom, I offer to you my sealed secrets. How dare you turn away? My invitations of mercy … Who are you fighting against? The law is mine, the truth is mine … I am your God and you will bow under my feet … I am your life and your death. I am the Spirit of the prophets and the author of their testimonies. Look and see, you folls, you will not proceed much further. Do you think you have power to stop my will? … My seven thunders are to be revealed … Do you want me to laugh at your pending torments?

Do you want me to pull the heavens back and show you my anger? … Fear me, for I have you in my snare … I forewarn you, the Lake Waco area of Old Mount Carmel will be terribly shaken. The waters of the lake will be emptied through the broken dam.[25]

Even the most objective assessment of Koresh’ words will lead to the conclusion that this man needed help because he believed that he is equal to God. At the same time he needed to check himself into a mental facility because he does not only deluded into thinking that he is God but he also believes that he has the power to destroy the Lake Waco Area referring to the water that comes from a nearby dam and therefore hinting at the destruction of this facility.

It is not only the message of doom that forced the federal government and the people surrounding the siege to act quickly, without a doubt their actions were influenced by how the Waco Tribune-Herald portrayed Koresh as the archetypal cult leader, “a man whose hold over his followers was complete, to the point of his being able, if he so wised, to order them to commit suicide” and therefore the need to stop this madmen from leading people to their untimely deaths.[26]

For those who stand in the foundation laid by the U.S. Constitution, specifically the First Amendment there is nothing wrong with what Koresh was babbling about. Even if Koresh believed himself to be the devil the federal government cannot and should not curtain his freedom to express himself and the kind of religion that he will adhere to.

It is therefore important to stress that the federal government agents who stormed Mount Carmel Center did not breached the facility because they were not in agreement with the Branch Davidians’ rhetoric but they did so on the other grounds. It is therefore crucial to take note of the fact that the agents wanted to arrest Koresh because of the legality of some of his actions.

The First Attempt On February 28, 1993 a seventy-six strong and heavily armed ATF agents were in an eighty vehicle convoy going to Mount Carmel center just outside Waco, Texas.[27] For the past several months ATF acted on a tip that the Branch Davidians were purchasing illegal firearms materials and this was allegedly for the purpose of converting AR-15 semiautomatic rifles into machine guns.[28]

This was not allowed according to the law because the Branch Davidians were supposed to report this to the government and they had to pay the required fees and since they did not, ATF was obliged to get them and force them to pay for their offenses. If only they knew what was in store for them the ATF may have reconsidered their decision to play hardball with the Branch Davidians.

The ATF agents carried with them a search and arrest warrant.[29] They also brought with them two cattle trailers pulled by pickup trucks and these two were filled with ATF assault forces and these were driven quickly in front of the headquarters of the Branch Davidians to unload its cargo of lethal force while at the same time two black hawk helicopters came out of nowhere possibly as a means to intimidate the inhabitants to surrender to the authorities.[30] All of these can be ascertained but what soon followed was disputed by both sides.[31]

According to David Koresh he shouted at the incoming ATF agents that there were women and children inside the building and so he told them to get back for he was ready to negotiate but he added that the ATF agents[32] replied with burst of gunfire.

His assertion was strengthened by a 911 call asking the authorities to stop the violence. The ATF agents on the other hand said that they identified themselves and shouted to Koresh that they had a warrant but all of a sudden they were cut off by a hail of bullets and the reason why they had to fire back.[33] It was a bloody initial attack.

When the sound of crackling gunfire was over in the said initial attack four federal law enforcement agents were killed by the Branch Davidians.[34] Six Branch Davidians members were killed by the agents.[35] In just a matter of hours the whole thing was transferred to the hands of the FBI.[36] There were negotiations made and Koresh released ten children.

The Media The Waco Tribune-Herald played an important role in the debacle because before the first raid by the Bureau of Alcohol and Tobacco and Firearms the Waco Tribune-Herald already had an idea that such an assault will be made and who was the target of the raid. As a result on February 27 a day before the ATF tried to serve the warrant to search and seized evidence of illegal activities, the Waco Tribune-Herald released a report entitled The Sinful Messiah.[37]

In the said report the Branch Davidian was reduced to nothing but a scary cult where the leader is an expert in brainwashing and has managed to control the members to follow him blindly. In other words the Waco Tribune-Herald had a hand in demonizing the obscure sect and propelled them to world prominence.

Aside from that the Waco Tribune-Herald released details that painted an image of David Koresh as a sex pervert who seemed to have his own harem – a collection of wives who were still married to his followers and if this was not enough according to the report Koresh had the propensity to have sexual intercourse with girls as young as 12 years old.[38]

This means that if proven true Koresh is not only stockpiling illegal firearms but also guilty of statutory rape. However, the evidence is still sketchy with regards to this part of the Branch Davidians’ story.

It can also be said that the Waco Tribune-Herald helped create a scenario that made it extremely difficult for the FBI and ATF agents to sit idly while Koresh continued with his propaganda regarding his belief that he is the messiah and that the end of the world is near.

This is because after the initial attack CNN broadcasted all over the world images of dead ATF agents being retrieved while the agents of the federal government seemed in retreat. For example there were footages and images were played over and over again on TV screens around the globe.[39]

It could have been a simple hostage negotiations but it is no longer possible to simply talk to David Koresh and his men because now they have to answer to the deaths of the agents in the first raid.

On the other hand the Branch Davidians were an obscure sect before this incident and after their headquarters was seen on TV the group achieved a level of notoriety that made their name synonymous to religious fanaticism while at the same time earned sympathies from those who see the government as an intrusive entity that will try to bend the law with regards to the First Amendment.

The Government The Federal Government was drawn into the destructive saga because of the belief that the government is supposed to enforce rules but it turned out that the government was not helping the situation. It was the height of irony that the Federal Government will act as fire accelerant to the flame because their presence convinced Branch Davidians that biblical prophecies was about to come to pass.

The more that the FBI tried to end the siege by force the more that they gave ammunition to David Koresh without knowing it. The government had a narrow perspective with regards to the Branch Davidian problem. For the FBI negotiators Koresh and his men could not talk about anything of substance and so their frustration increases every passing day. The Branch Davidians on other hand went deeper into their paranoia that what they feared was about to come to pass.

On the other side of the fence the FBI agents were also convinced that this paramilitary group is just doing everything in their power to elude capture and therefore the government has to act quickly. They approach the situation from a legal point of view and by being legalistic about it they could not figure out anything except to use their hostage and rescue team and other specialists to end the crisis using tools of warfare and other tactics.

The FBI negotiators did their part by connecting a private line between them and the Mount Carmel Center and through this line they were able to talk to Koresh or his spokesperson a man named Schneider.[40] In one report submitted to the Department of Justice authorities said that Koresh would often go into a two or three hour monologue.[41] This means that it was increasingly difficult for the FBI negotiators to influence Koresh to think about surrender.

Hostage/Barricade After the immense blunder of the initial attack the Federal Bureau of Investigation were called to take over and they did. The firs thing that they had to do was to assess the situation and then formulate the right strategy to end the crisis.

One of the first things that they had to do was to label the problem correctly and it has to be pointed out that in this case the FBI could not find the exact terminology to indicate what they are trying to deal with and therefore they came up with an awkward name for it and they said that it is a kind of a hostage situation.[42] However, the people inside the building could not be said to have been taken against their will.

The FBI had to reassess their initial description of the situation and so someone said that it is a hybrid between a barricade and a hostage situation. If it is a barricade then the agents had no choice but to wait it out until the group surrenders out of exhaustion there would be no justification for storming in. But if it is a hostage situation and the agents feel that the hostage taker is going to harm the lives of the people then they have all the reasons needed to enter in using force.

The Aftermath It was time for the second raid and this time around agents from the federal government made sure that all bases were covered. Armored vehicles punched holes into the walls and gas canisters were thrown inside the building and in the aftermath this is what can be seen: “…the compound was burnt to the ground and at least 75 sect members, including Koresh and 25 children under 15 years of age were killed.”[43]

The bloody end was once again broadcasted to the whole world and while there was a strong condemnation against a religious cult leader who allegedly abused his members, the result of the attack and the death of the children earned them sympathy. It did not take long before the word wanted to know why if the federal government did everything in its power to resolve the crisis without having to destroy the lives of the innocents.

The images of the burning building and the death of the children created a wave of protest from those who suddenly saw the contrast between the story that they heard on the news and the actual event. Surely the group can be considered as communal religious sect that may have subscribed to bizarre practices and yet there is no reason why their lives must end this way.

The red flames covered the building and no one knows what to do with the children trapped inside. This is perhaps the reason why the U.S. Constitution and the founders of this nation inserted the First Amendment; they must have known that someday people will be killed for their beliefs.

The First Amendment The debacle at Waco presented to the world a unique case where religious freedom and the right to bear arms converged in the life of one group the Branch Davidians. It was a curious case because most of the time the world has to deal with religious freedom, the right to worship and the right to choose ones religion without interference from the government.

However, there is an added element because this group did not only struggle for religious expression like the Old Order Amish or the Mennonites but this group also tried to make a point about their right to bear arms.

From another perspective one can see that the Branch Davidians wanted to be left alone to pursue what they believe is the only way to lead their lives. If other religions are allowed to do so then why is it that the federal government had a different outlook when it came to David Koresh and his followers?

It can be said that the Old Order Amish of Iowa and other similar groups exerclised the same right and no one bothered them.[44] The existence of the Amish people is a celebration of the First Amendment and it is a testament to the power of the Constitution to create a diverse society without its citizens destroying themselves to create a much simpler society.

This has been at the forefront of the Branch Davidian fiasco, was the federal government intent on wiping out a religion that would not conform to a more acceptable type of belief system? According to the Religious Studies Professor Rowland A. Sherrill: “Let’s not beat around the bush: Our first response to people who are religious in ways other than we are is to be irritated.”[45]

He added that common views regarding religious people are that they are intolerant; that heaven is for a select few; and that they have a blind adherent to their religion that can be a source of annoyance or dread.

The Waco Tribune-Herald, the government, and the people living within that particular community labeled them as a cult and there is no need to expound on the fact that this term carries with it a load of meaning that can surely illicit a negative response. This added to controversial image of the group.

Others however contend that the use of the term cult can be easily abused or misused. Political scientists like Michael Barkun contends, however, that the term cult, “has become virtually meaningless, little more than a label slapped on religious groups regarded as too exotic, marginal or dangerous”, in the same way that English settlers used the label barbarian and applied it to the Native Americans of this country.[46]

This is the question when it comes to the Branch Davidians, do they have the right to worship freely and even further, do they have the right to bear arms?

It is clear in the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that an American citizen has the right to own a weapon. The only question is what kind and how many?

This is an issue that is not easy to resolve and it is evidenced by the number of books, articles, TV ads and speeches made because of the need to create a common ground – gun rights advocate are asking for more while those who had an aversion for gun toting citizens are asking for greater limits. One of their most popular supporters is actor Charlton Heston who spoke out in their behalf and said:

Just about everything I hope is good about me – who I am, what I’ve tried to do – can be traced back to those smoking muskets and the radical declaration of independence by those ragtag rebels. Wearing threadbare coats and marching on bleeding feet, they defeated the finest army in the century, and they gave the world hope. Within them flowed an undertow of personal freedom, a relentless sense of what is right, so irresistibly strong they simply could not resist.[47]

The fears of those who cry for gun control is repeatedly justified every year after news of indiscriminate shootings and the deaths of many due to firearms.[48] The Waco, Texas incident was no exception.

On the other hand gun rights advocates made clear their own set of fears. It is not only their fear of being mugged and assaulted without the ability to defend themselves but also their fear of the government. There are those who said however, that this right and this talk of freedom from the First Amendment to the Second Amendment have been blown out of proportion.

There are those who even contend that these ideals were taken from the militia myth created after the success of the American Revolution.[49] In other words there is no need to form a private army in this day and age but many cling stubbornly to the idea that they must be prepared at all times to defend themselves not only against intruders but a powerful government.

Groups like the Branch Davidians may also offer a counter-argument that their purchase of weapons is justified by the fact that the government has its standing army known as the National Guard. They may even argue that it is their right as an American citizen to be armed in order that no entity foreign or domestic can overwhelm them and take their freedom away from them.

The need to bear arms was strengthened by the belief that a time will come that the federal government will try to limit the freedom of the people. The right to bear arms is also justified by the belief that only an armed populace can defend the U.S. Constitution against those who would try to tamper with it to serve their personal purposes.

A general understanding of why private arms keeping should be allowed was expounded in the following argument: “…to deter tyranny and, if necessary, to overthrow it and restore the Constitution.”[50] Those who support this view will also add that a federal government “could become tyrannical” and it is the duty of the armed people to deal with the problem by being able to stage a revolt.[51]

There is logic to the arguments made by gun rights advocate but in the case of the Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas incident there is more to the issue other than the right to bear arms.[52] It is a confluence of the First Amendment and the Second Amendment rights. The difficulty in separating the two proved futile.

And after the event it is easy for many people to judge what happened to the Branch Davidians from either of two perspectives: one will say that it is a violation of their right to free speech and religious worship while others will say that the government came in because of the weapons that they stockpiled within the Mount Carmel Center.

Resolving the Crisis The negotiators worked diligently to establish rapport with Koresh but it was not an easy task, in fact it was an impossible task. The FBI asked the help of experts, even those who are familiar with biblical prophecy. There were also third parties who tried to get through Koresh.

One of them is the station manager of a radio station based in Dallas who urged Koresh to surrender and ask for medical help.[53] The station manager also tried to convince the cult leader to release more children but instead of a favorable response Koresh started what authorities would later call as a mad rambling from a psycho and he would talk and talk about his religious views and he was oblivious to the fact that the station manager and his audience find his rhetoric unintelligible.

Nevertheless, it was easy to understand that patience is needed and at first the government was willing to wait, willing to diffuse the situation and willing to resolve the crisis without using violence. But after weeks of doing nothing except to observe and listen to a boring monologue they were ready to consider anything new.

It was discovered later that weeks before the final attack leaders in both Washington, D.C. and the FBI were increasingly frustrated over the delaying tactics of Koresh and his men. This was exacerbated by the fact that Koresh promised to stand down after March 2 but when the window of time given for his possible surrender began to close, the FBI was considering more drastic actions.

On March 15, 1993 FBI agents began to draw up a new strategy to finally defeat Koresh. It was called a “modified negotiations strategy” and this was a new directive to the negotiators to be firm and to make Koresh surrender.[54] This also meant that they would no longer listen to what Koresh had to say, from that time forward the Branch Davidians had to show that they are willing to comply or the FBI will make their lives miserable. By doing so negotiations began to break down.

At around the same time the FBI began to use “stress escalation” and harassment techniques.[55] Electricity was temporarily cut-off and then afterwards the FBI ordered that the power must be cut permanently.[56] The FBI were demanding and no longer listening to what Koresh had to say. The FBI would demand that Koresh should release more people and when he refused to comply they would retaliate with punitive measures.[57]

Such as the use of searchlights during the night in the obvious attempt to keep the people inside the building from getting any sleep. Loud music were played during the night as loudspeakers continued to blare out irritating sounds.[58] However, these actions prompted a negative response. Instead of forcing Koresh and the people to leave the building they were pushing them deeper into their shell because now they believed that the government is evil and it only seeks their destruction.

It can be argued that there could have been a better way to end the siege or hostage situation. The federal government and the FBI should have made a correct assessment of the situation by first determining correctly that there are two sides of the issues. First, the government has the right to regulate the use of weapons. It does not matter what others will say with regards to the ownership of guns and other high-powered weapons because it is clear that many had suffered from the misuse of weapons and therefore it is just proper for the government to enforce the law.

Secondly, the federal government should have considered that this is a multi-part problem and that the Branch Davidians were not only stockpiling weapons but they were convinced that they are part of a communal religious group that believed in the imminent fulfillment of biblical prophecies.

This should not be taken against them for this is what they believed. But more importantly the FBI should have realized that their presence and the failed entry of the ATF agents weeks beforehand was the signal for the Branch Davidians that the end of the world is near and that they were not seen as law enforcement agents but as enemies in the spiritual context. If this was insight of the federal government then they would have reconsidered their plan to use deadly force.

Conclusion David Koresh and the Branch Davidians were arguably the victim of the media hype specifically the report written by the Waco Tribune-Herald.

This report forced people to see them in a very negative light and put pressure on the government as well as the law enforcement agencies to bring David Koresh and his men to justice. In the process no one placed an emphasis on their right to worship in the way and form that they want to worship. Due to negative information that were broadcasted to outsiders and people who had no clear idea of what the Branch Davidians was all about the group was demonized.

As a result there was an urgency to end the crisis by force. This is the reason why so many people were killed including women and children. If the negative reports did not influence the law enforcement agents who were responsible for resolving the crisis using non-lethal force then the story could have ended differently and the lives of the people would have been spared.

Bibliography Carter, Gregg Lee. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture And the Law. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Crothers, Lane. Rage on the Right: The American Militia Movement from Ruby Ridge to Homeland Security. Maryland: Rowman

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Early Sufi Women Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Mysticism

Islam and Mysticism

Gender

Conclusion

References

Introduction In the early Islam, women were considered inferior, but due to the evolution of mysticism as a cult that emerged from within the Islamic faith, it has made many women attain the level of sainthood that was earlier a preserve for men only. The Islamic religion has a caste system for the priesthood that was strictly for men.

According to Smith (1977), “It is the development of mysticism or Sufism within Islam, which gave women their great opportunity to attain the rank of sainthood.” The objective of the mysticism is to renounce the worldly things and become clean so that one can have total devotion to God.

Al-wahatiyya in Al-Sulami (1021) defined Sufism as “…rejecting all worldly means of support and ending all worldly attachment.” Thus, the religion of mysticism is about focusing on the heavenly interests and purposes rather than getting involved with the people or material things.

Mysticism regards gender equality in serving God because “in the spiritual life, there could be neither male nor female. All whom God had called to be the saints could attain, by following the Path, to union with Himself, and all who attained, have their royal rank, as spiritual beings, in the world to come” (Smith, 1977). The Sufi women aimed at perfect union with God by making sure that they had no extra burden from the world to carry as they had better relinquish their burden through repentance than continually carry the burden in the sinful world.

Mysticism Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women where the women are the leaders in its establishment and development. Rabi’a of Basra was chosen to be the first woman saint to lead mysticism because she the Islamic region no longer restricts women from reaching sainthood.

The Sufi women heaped lot of praises to the Rabi’a that she was devoted to God like men; hence, she is more than just a woman. Smith (1997), describes Rabi’a as “the head of the women disciples and the chief of the women ascetics, of those who observed the sacred law, who were God fearing and zealous… and she was one of those who were pre-eminent and experienced in grace and goodness.”

The religious qualities of Rabi’a made her to be given chance to lead in the growth of mysticism by the Sufi woman. The biography of the saint Rabi’a is so fascinating and mystical she grew without parents, become a slave and her devotion to God made her master release her. When she was free, she experienced direct communication with God as the sakina glory of God shone over her head when she prayed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rabi’a took her pilgrimage to Mecca and on her way, the ass she was using to carry her luggage died and Instead of seeking help from strangers, she refused saying that she was dependent on God only but not His creatures. She earnestly prayed until a miracle happened when her ass stirred up and the she continues on her pilgrim journey. God in the desert directly answered the prayers of Rabi’a and this encourages her to devote her life to God more.

When Rabi’a successfully completed her pilgrimage, she went back to Basra where she become devoted to God and walk according to mystic Way of renouncing the world and asceticism. Rabi’a resolved to remain celibate because she considered marriage as a hindrance to the attainment and fulfillment of the highest will of God.

According to Smith (1977), “…purgation was the first stage towards stage towards the attainment of the mystic’s goal, and asceticism was enjoined on all who entered the novitiate.” The Way of mysticism begins when one renounce the worldly distractions like marriage as in the case of Rabi’a and then a process of daily devotion in order to be made clean and free from sins.

Fatima is another Sufi woman of Nishapur who demonstrated sainthood. She was the oldest Gnostic and many people come to seek her so that she can interpret and reveal the secrets within the Quran. She was very famous due to her great devotion to God in that many commended as the second Mary. Fatima (Al-Sulami, 1021) said, “One who acts for the sake of God while desiring to witness Him is a Gnostic, whereas one who acts in the hope that God will notice him is the sincere believer.”

Fatima dedicated her life in the service of God and many people realized her devotion. Abu Yazd (Al-Sulami 1021) admits that, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself.”

Other Sufi women have been shown to have strong mystic beliefs; taking their time in solitude while praying and fasting, renouncing the world pleasure like marriage, even though against cultural and religious persuasions of Muslims depicts how the women of Sufi are zealous in their services to God

Islam and Mysticism Mysticism is a cult within the Islamic religion because some of its teachings are not solely based on the Quran but other sources. The Rabi’a experience during her pilgrim in the desert is like to the Biblical experience of Moses, the sakina glory corresponded to halo in Christianity.

We will write a custom Essay on Early Sufi Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concepts of purgation and repentance have Biblical origin. Quran teaching recognizes the teachings of the prophet Muhammad as the central to the beliefs of Muslims. Smith (1977) proves that, “the title saint was bestowed to women upon equality with men, and since Islam has no order of priesthood and no priestly caste, there was nothing to prevent a woman from reaching the highest religious rank in the hierarchy of Muslim saints.”

The mysticism grew because when the women were given equal chance of serving God, they exercised Islamic belief out of the context of Quran and introduced their fundamental beliefs of asceticism, celibacy and purgation as the necessary requirement to attain highest level of mysticism. The Muslim theologians were against mysticism as the movement of the Sufi women because of their sainthood, their influence and the form of worship they were practicing.

Gender The religion of mysticism is depicted as the religion of women and that the women are the most devoted in their service to God. The devotion of Rabi’a, Fatima and other saints is that of asceticism and their experiences impact greatly on the religious and social aspects of their societies.

Many men praised their good works and service to God. For example, a man had to say this about Fatima, “In all of my life, I have only seen one true man and one true woman. The woman was Fatima of Nishapur. When informed her about one of the stages of spirituality, she would take the news as if she had experienced it herself” (Al-Sulami, 1021).

Fatima is equated to a man in her capacity of serving God meaning women have been treated as inferior in their abilities to serve God with the great zeal as men. The establishment of mysticism gave women a chance to be equal with their male counter parts and attain sainthood. Smith (1977) quotes Attar that, “saintship may be found in a woman as naturally as in a man.” The prophets teach that, what matters to God is the purpose of the heart and not the outward appearance.

Conclusion The Sufi women are the women who serve God with great zeal. The emergence of mysticism provided gender equality in the Islamic religion thus women explored their capacities to reach sainthood and incorporated other believes other than the Islamic beliefs that lead to their rejection by the Muslim theologians. Mysticism is a form of religion among Sufi women that involve asceticism and purgation so that one can appear worth to worship God and attain eternal bliss.

Mysticism has demonstrated the women’s ability to serve God equally as men, dismissing the cultural and societal perceptions that had limited and degrades their pursuits of eternal life. Their male counter parts and theologians were appalled by the influence of the Sufi women, threatening the own influence on the religion and the society. Thus, mysticism becomes the appealing religion to women because of the freedom from the restricting Islamic laws and culture.

References Al-Sulami, A. (1021). A Memorial of Female Sufi Devotees, Fons Vitae.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Early Sufi Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smith, M. (1977). Rabi’a the Mystic. The University of Texas Press.USA

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Staff/Family Relationship and Communication Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Background

Families welcome to the program

Information on daily happenings

Structure and content of parent conference

Monthly communications

References

Background The school administration committees are always concerned with staff, as well as other entities thus guaranteeing performance enhancement among students. An apt relationship between staff and families is essential in the accomplishment of school programs. The school authorities should, therefore, design devices and approaches that families can utilize to foster meaningful relationships and communication.

The initial step is developing a resolute association involving school workforce and families to ensure that they share common interests. Linking family units in school programs is never enough unless the personnel make the first move to fabricate unquestioning affiliation with them. There is no sole method ratified for nurturing a suitable communication and bond among teaches and families in an effort to improve students’ performance, but it involves instance and suppleness (Dietz, 2005).

Families welcome to the program A reception process full of vigor should be employed whilst building employee/family rapport and contact. A warm welcome involving warm wishes coupled with posting symbols in the families’ indigenous languages will make them feel part of the school society. An assisting authority, fluent in the native language should act like an interpreter.

Orientation episode should provide the families with a resource center because this will improve the intensity of reception. Transect walking around the school while indicating recent developments will make the families’ day enticing. Parents, guardians and other relatives will feel privileged when they split edifying and linguistic origins with some school team. The relationship should be initiated on an affirmative note thus highlighting school accomplishments.

Trust levels should be augmented by propagating communication between the two parties. The management should show that they care and should exude respect to all the attending families. This is achieved through treating each attendant as a personage without any mistaken belief consequently addressing their interests. It is crucial to indicate that the school should uphold professionalism thus enhancing self-assurance among the staff.

Information on daily happenings Information sharing amid families and staff is crucial in the daily updates of occurrences in the school; furthermore, there are several ways of attaining this concept (Christernson,

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Effects of Poverty on Immigrant Children Report college application essay help

Presently, approximately 8.7 million children of below 8 years belong to immigrant families or families with one immigrant parent. This is a drastic increase from the 1990 figure that was 4.3 million, a fact that research studies attributed to the drastic increase in the number of legal and illegal immigration before the U.S government enforced tough cross border measures to manage illegal immigration (Fortuny, Hernandez,

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Labour Wage Rate Analytical Essay writing essay help

Introduction The labor market is characterized by wage rate differentials. There exists more than one labor market since firms require different types of labor for different jobs and this implies that the demand and supply for labor is different for specific labor time. The wages paid to employees also vary with the labor service provided.

If all the firms wanted the same labor, then a common labor market would exist, however, there are variations in labor needs of the firms and employees want different jobs in different firms. These factors have led to payment of different wage rates. This papers seeks to explain the reasons for differences in wage rates and their implication

Factors Responsible For Wage Differential There are various factors responsible for different wage rates as explained below.

Compensating wage differentials

Not all jobs or occupations are the same and the degree or level of risk or injury involved is different in both nature and magnitude. For example, considering the level of risk associated with an occupation such as electrical engineering and teaching is different, an electrical engineer is more prone to death risk as compared to a teacher.

However, more often than not, the engineer is paid higher wage to compensate for the risk involved as compared to the teacher. Compensating wage rates are normally applied if the degree of risk associated with the occupation is high or if working conditions are poor. The implication is that there is a tendency for people to want to venture in occupations associated with high risk and even work in poor conditions in pursuit of the additional income that come with such offers.

Competition

Competition both within the industry and among employees has also contributed to difference in wage rates. Competition within and across industries is important to the issue at hand since it has led to a distinction between successful and unsuccessful. Successful firms, regardless of their size are able to pay better and higher wages than the unsuccessful ones.

The issue here lies in the ability of a firm to pay. It is therefore possible that two or more businesses in the same industry and dealing with identical nature of goods and services will pay different wages to their employees depending ion a firms ability to pay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competition among employees has also become a very important factor in that. employee performance appraisal is used to determine additional benefits to employees. An employee achievements and efforts are evaluated and then additional benefits are given or rewarded by the organization to serve as an incentive[1].

Employee productivity

Difference in wage rates can also be explained by the value added by an employee. This is especially true in the manufacturing industries where value addition is important at every stage of production. For better understanding of this concept, value addition is defined as the contribution by factors of production to the value of the final product.

Amount of labor required in production varies with the type of industry. For example, in a cloth-manufacturing firm, the value added by labor is lower than value added by labor in a paper manufacturing industry. The challenge lies in differentiating the actual value added by labor and that added by use of machines since in most cases, the two go hand in hand.

Sometimes, employees work as a team and it is difficult to measure the exact value added by each employee to the final product. The implication is that active employees may feel demoralized and lack the incentive to work hard and give their best and this may detrimental to the overall performance of the organization[2]. The role of trade unions cannot be ignored in creating wage differentials.

Most of the highly paid employees have trade unions that bargains or negotiates with employers for salary increment. More often than not, such bargains bear fruits. On the contrary, poorly paid employees are not even able to form trade unions that can act as their voice in bargaining for better pay. This implies that the poorly paid will continue to receive such pays since their bargaining power is weak.

Skills

Nature or characteristics of the employment and formal education required for the job. This aspect cannot be explored fully without considering individuals socialization. Socialization in this context focuses on individual’s ambitions, self-motivation, and their willingness to adhere to the authority structures in place at that time.

Productive socialization is normally associated with attainment of certified qualification such as a degree or having a good work experience record. Socialization of an individual therefore plays a part to difference in occupation wage rates through cost differentials. This can be explained further in that there are different job entry levels in almost all occupations.

We will write a custom Essay on Labour Wage Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A fresh graduate from school with no previous experience cannot be paid the same amount as a graduate with experience for the same job. This is because the latter has an additional advantage in that he requires less training. In addition, if an employer is interested in a candidate with both formal and practical experience, the costs associated with search for such a candidate are higher as compared to getting a fresh graduate since in the former a more porous screening process is applied hence increasing the costs.

From the discussion on socialization, it can be argued out that occupation requiring less formal or academic training and less experience tend to have lower average wage rate as compared to those that requires higher formal academic qualifications and experience.

Gender and Race

Another cause for differential in wage rate that does not reflect the skills and abilities of a person in performing a job is race and gender. The question rotates around socialization since a certain race may be perceived to have negative socialization. The implication is that before an employer gets to higher them, a thorough screening process will be employed and as if that is not enough, the employer will see to it that such employees are monitored and supervised.

This in return increases the costs to the organization and in order to recover for such costs or minimize them, lower average wage rates are applied as compared to those from a race perceived to have positive socialization. The implication of wage differential is that the employees who are underpaid will tent to be less productive.

Gender has also been a base for wage differential and with special regard to women of childbearing age and the traditional perception of their role. There is a preconceived idea that occupations in which women work tend to have a high turnover rate due to the time they take in maternity leaves and their inability to work for long hours since they have other family responsibilities. The implication is that such cost is borne by all the women across occupations leading to lower wage rate[3].

Table Showing Differences in Wage Rates

Average full time wages paid per week (pounds).

Gender Solicitors Accountants Teachers Nurses Sales Assistants Waiters and Waitresses All Male 800 620 520 410 250 190 430 Female 650 520 470 380 190 180 320 Graph Showing Wage Differentials between Occupations

Wage Differentials in the Manufacturing Sector To some extent, the wage differentials in the manufacturing industries are justified. This is because there are different departments and different processing stages and the skills required are different.

For example, there is need for unskilled labor to do those jobs that are not skill intensive, on the other hand, qualified personnel is required to perform the profession job. Therefore, the firm must be able to cater for all those labor expenses without passing a heavy burden on the consumer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Labour Wage Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the consumers are overburdened, the firm may be faced out by competition. In the manufacturing sectors, there is heavy capital investment on machines and technology that require special expertise and pose a great risk to the operators. Such employees will need an incentive to make them have the will to venture into such risky operations.

If the market forces of demand and supply continue to operate in determining the wages, then wage differentials will persist. This is because, it is difficult for the labor market to clear i.e. have supply equal demand. There will be increased and unskilled labor supply and the demand for the same will apply.

However, employers are interested in the marginal revenue product and will only employ it the marginal revenue product equals the marginal cost. With continued improved technology and better training facilities, the earnings of the skilled labor will continue and vice versa is true for the unskilled ceteris paribus.

Trends in Income Distribution and Wage Rates From the study, it can be concluded that unequal distribution of income will continue to exist in the society with urban areas being in a better position as compared to the rural areas. This is because, most people prefer migrating to urban areas in search for better paying jobs since most industries and firms that can offer that are located in the urban areas.

Unless policies are implemented and incentives for delocalization are given, it will be difficult to achieve equality in income distribution. Difference in wage rates cannot be eliminated since it is not possible to pay common wages to all people since the nature of job and their requirements are different. It is possible that the gap between the highest and lowest paid employee will continue to expand.

Conclusion Different occupations gave different wage rates since their requirements are also different and varied. Most employers pay wages based on the marginal revenue product gained from labor services offered and it should be equal to the marginal cost. Various factors such as difference in skills, competition, trade unions, nature of job and poor working conditions have accounted for the wage differentials.

Bibliography Gleicher, D. L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991. Web.

Gottschalk, P., B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997. Web.

Holley, W., K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008. Web.

Footnotes P. Gottschalk, B. Gustafsson and E. Palmer, Changing patterns in the distribution of economic welfare: an international perspective, Cambridge University Press, NY, 1997, 124.

W. Holley, K. M. Jennings and R. S. Wolters, The Labor Relations Process. Cengage Learning, NY, 2008.

D. Gleicher and L. Stevans, A classical approach to occupational wage rates, Greenwood Publishing Group, CA, 1991, p. 89.

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The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Slavery Experiences

Racial and Gender experiences

Conclusion

References

Introduction The Life of a slave girl is a story depicting the slavery experiences of Linda Brent. Linda Brent was born, brought up and lived under the conditions of slavery. The Whites enslaved the Colored people by making them their servants, working in plantations and taking care of their children at home, particularly women. During those times of slavery, the slaves were bought at a price and their children will inherit the slavery conditions of their parents.

The slave owners have the power to dictate the slavery conditions of their slaves for instance their work, changing the masters or mistresses and even their marital status. Linda severely endured and fought for the emancipation of her slavery status by escaping from his master and her mistress, and earnestly praying for the help from God. In this essay, I am going to analyze Linda’s experiences in terms of slavery, racism, gender and compare her unique experience with the experiences of other people.

Slavery Experiences Since Linda was brought up under slavery conditions, she has experienced a great deal of mistreatment where her human rights were crossly violated. Mr. and Mrs. Flint owned Linda as their slave amongst other slaves hence they had absolute powers over her life in that they can dictate her according to their selfish interests. Linda was a mother of two kids: Ellen and Benny.

These kids were at the disposal of their master and mistress to be sold to any willing slave owner without the consent from the mother. The Kids have inherited the slavery conditions from their parent hence they are slaves by birth and subject to their master and mistress.

Linda finds herself between the rock and the hard place when she was told that she hard to part with her children because they are to be shifted to the new masters. She cried helplessly saying that, “my poor children were between two fires: between my old master and their new master! And was powerless” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda had to endure parting with her two only kids and behave as though she never nursed any child in her life.

She vowed to find ways to free her children as confesses that, “…I had no trust in thee, O Slavery! Never should I know peace until my children were emancipated with all due formalities of law” (Jacobs, 1861). She was very determined to free her children and she made a successful escape into New York in the search for her children.

During her slavery, Linda experienced torture when her master imprisoned her. She bitterly recounts the experienced saying, “I affirm that I lived in that little dismal hole, almost deprived of light and air, and with no space to move my limbs, for nearly seven years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it is a fact; and to me a sad one, even now; for my body still suffers from the effects of that long imprisonment, to say nothing of my soul” (Jacobs, 1861). The experience of the prison severely affects her health status and still haunts her soul because she fails to comprehend why she went through such torture.

After Linda had successfully escaped from her master and mistress, she went to New York where she was faced with the great challenge of finding a job to keep her going.

She said that, “The greatest difficulty in my way was that those who employ strangers required a recommendation, and in my peculiar position, I could, of course, obtain no certificates from the families I had so faithfully served” (Jacobs, 1861).

Her life was going to be very hard unless she come back to her master who can recommend her. She was very lucky to be employed by a very humble and understanding woman, Mrs. Bruce who gave her a job without requesting a recommendation from her previous master or mistress.

Racial and Gender experiences When Linda was traveling to New York, she experienced racial discrimination on her journey as Rev. Jeremiah Durham confessed that, “I am afraid you will have a disagreeable ride, but I could not procure tickets for the first class cars …they don’t allow colored people to go in the first-class cars” (Jacobs, 1861). Linda describes her experiences in the second- class ride, as “It was crowded with people, apparently of all nations.

Every other man had a cigar or pipe in his mouth, and jugs of whiskey were handed round freely. The fumes of the whiskey and the dense tobacco smoke were sickening to my senses and the coarse jokes and ribald songs around me equally nauseated my mind” (Jacobs, 1861). Since she was a woman, it was very hard for her to endure the ride where men were smoking and drinking.

During her stay with Mrs. Bruce, Linda experiences racism in the hotels whenever they board, despite the fact that both the whites and the colored pay equally for the services. At some instances, the waiters did not allow her to sit and when she persists, they refuse to serve her until Mrs. Bruce intervenes. The white waiters hate serving the colored people and they complained that, “they were not hired to wait on Negroes” (Jacobs, 1861).

We will write a custom Essay on The Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fugitive law also threatens her stay in the New York because the law requires that all fugitive slaves be identified and returned to their right masters, failure to which the person hiding a fugitive slave is liable to fine and imprisonment. The law shocked many fugitives in that, “Many a wife discovered that her husband was a fugitive, and must leave her to insure his own safety.

Worse still, many a husband discovered that his wife had fled from slavery years ago, and as “the child follows the condition of its mother,” the children of his love were liable to be seized and carried into slavery. Everywhere, in those humble homes, there was consternation and anguish” (Jacobs, 1861).

As child inherits the slavery conditions of her mother, Linda too was in great fear, as she was a fugitive together with her daughter Ellen but Mrs. Bruce was willing to pay the price of imprisonment and fine, so she kept her in her house secretly.

Conclusion The unique experience of Linda is that she was born under slavery conditions. Her grandmother was a slave, her mother inherited the slavery, she becomes a slave, and she has passed on the slavery conditions to her kids. The problem of slavery has continually become part of their family lineage.

Unlike, the free white women and free Black African- American women, her children were subject to slavery because the child inherits the conditions of her mother. In contrast to other men and women, the marriage in slavery was neither legal nor permanent because the master or the mistress dictates the aspects of marriage and divorce depending on their interests, thus Linda had no opportunity to choose the father of her kids. Thus, Linda’s slavery experiences were unique.

References Jacobs, H. A. (1861). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. The University of North Carolina. Retrieved from https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/jacobs/jacobs.html

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Art Spiegelman, MAUS Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ambivalence

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Published in 1991 and written by Art Spiegelman, the MAUS is a book that provides the account of the author’s effort of knowing his Jewish parents’ experience, following the Holocaust as well as their survival in U.S. It gives a picture of the difficult affiliation between the author and his parents where he stands as a survivor of this as well. This tale is presented in the form of a conversation between the author and Vladek – his father.

In a humorous manner, Spiegelman employs animals to represent characters. For instance, dogs represent the Americans while reindeers represent Swedes, among others. The setting of this interview is a large area ranging from New York through Germany to Sweden, a style that enables the writer to give a broad picture of the mass destruction during the World War II while at the same time he shows the nature of relationships in his family prior and after the war.

The author uses characters like Vladek Spiegelman-Art’s father, Anja-Vladek’s wife, Art- Vladek’s son, among others, all of whom are survivors of the holocaust, either direct or indirect. The concept of ambivalence stands out clearly in the book through the various relationships provided. For instance, Vladek’s ambivalence towards his son, Art, is clear as explained in the following paragraph.

Ambivalence Ambivalence is no more than the disagreement of ones feelings towards another person or a thing. This person may simultaneously portray both the positive and negative views towards another. The novel is rich in this concept. For example, Vladek is the father to Art. He loves him but he is unable to show it off.

This case is seen when Art, who has been playing with his friends accidentally falls. Art cries of pain and rushes towards his father for assistance.“…until he has spent five days locked in a room with a group of people and no food, he cannot know the meaning of the word friends” (Spiegelman, 1991). These are the father’s comments to his son. Vladek ought to act like a loving parent by soothing his son to stop crying as well as nursing his pain. From the response, it is not clear whether he loves his son or not.

Whether he said this to make his son laugh rather than cry or whether he said this out of ignorance is not determined. Moreover, he is willing to converse with his son. In fact he narrates to him about his origin as well as that of their family. But the way he addresses some questions is wanting.

When Art enquires about the dairies, Vladek does not hesitate in giving his weird answers. “I looked in, but I don’t remember” (Spiegelman, 1991). These answers fail to classify Vladek’s feeling towards Art. He has a diverse feeling towards his son and this is no more than ambivalence. Art’s feelings towards his father are also strained and uncertain too.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Art portrays an all-round relationship with his father. This is apparent because he entirely relies on him for the account of his own story. He frequently visits him at his yard. Following the suicide of his mother, Art declares that his father is a murderer (1991).

In addition, when Vladek feels dizzy, he demands the assistance of Art who in turn fails to rescue him. Based on these issues, it is not clear whether Art has positive or negative feelings towards his father. Paying him frequent visits and abusing him portray two opposing feelings, showing how he is unsure towards his father.

Another uncertainty stands out between Vladek and his own self. It is apparent that all people love themselves and Vladek is not an exception. When he is visited by Art, he is found putting in place a variety of pills. From their conversation, Vladek posits that in order to be strong, he ought to fight for his own salvation. Art’s healers posit that Vladek has a guilty sensation following his surviving in the holocaust.

This makes it vague of the kind of feelings he has for his own self and hence ambivalent. Moreover, in another dialogue between Vladek and Art, neither of the two understands the feelings of the other as Art enquires about the holocaust. Vladek has a real experience of the scenario unlike Art. Art cannot understand the feelings of his father in relation to the episode because he (Art) was not there as it occurred.

On the other hand, Vladek is unable to identify his son’s feelings towards him because the two do not relate in the sense that the scenario happened in the presence of one and not both. Therefore the two are ambivalent towards each other. The relationship between Vladek and Anja is also ambivalent as expounded below.

Anja meets with Vladek and her boyfriend. They stay together in this relationship until they marry. This shows that Anja loves Vladek because of this evident willing to stay together as husband and wife. However, Anja has another boyfriend, whom she also loves. It is thus unclear of whether Anja is truly in love with Vladek or the other boy. This identifies her as ambivalent towards Vladek. Vladek on the other hand accepts to marry Anja.

Following the incidence where Anja’s friend was arrested, Vladek opts to terminate his marriage with Anja. When Anja gives birth to Richieu, their first child, she is taken to a high class hospital where she is well-nursed by Vladek until she recovers. Vladek’s conduct of nursing and ending of their marriage, as depicted here are opposite. Whether he is a real loving husband or not fails to be clear basing on this, hence ambivalent towards Anja. The connection between Vladek and his own father is undefined as well.

We will write a custom Essay on Art Spiegelman, MAUS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In their dialogue, Vladek explains to Art that he was almost intentionally starved to death by his father. He adds that he was even denied sleep. This followed from a plan between him (father) and his army, which sought to absorb Vladek as a soldier. Vladek tells his father not to repeat that again implying how mistreated he felt, though he becomes a soldier later. Based on this, his stance as a father, behind this scenario is not defined. His feelings towards his son are no more than ambivalent.

Conclusion The concept of ambivalence is well developed in the book. However, it is worthy noting that this concept has some attached functions. For instance, it functions to maintain one’s undefined state which is, to some extend, important. In the book, it has played a crucial role in the represented relationships. For instance, if Art hated his father, he would not have gotten the material for his book. If he loved him, he would have rescued him when he was ailing.

In addition, Anja’s ambivalence towards Vladek places her in a position better that she can be if she sticks to either of the two. If Vladek leaves her as he says, Anja will join her other boyfriend. If that is not the case, she is still safe. This shows how ambivalence plays an adaptive role in this relationship since Anja can adapt whichever outcome of her marriage. These, among other illustrations, depict ambivalence as a tool that serves some crucial functions, as discussed above.

Reference List Spiegelman, A. (1991). Maus: A Survivor’s Tale: And Here My Troubles Began. New York: Pantheon.

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Dorothy Allison’s Trash Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction “Trash” is a collection of several short stories. In this collection, Allison focuses on her main agenda concerning politics, emotions and aesthetics. Having been brought up in a poor family background surrounded by poverty and suffering, Allison is not disturbed by what she went through and insists that nothing can make her change her attitude.

She is described as a Southern trash simply because of the life she used to live while still a child. The term trash means something that has no value. It also implies something that is considered a waste or needs to be thrown away. This is how Allison perceives herself. “Allison is described as a feminist and a lesbian coming from Southern Carolina in the United States of America” (Allison, 1988, p. 4).

In the preface of these stories known as deciding to live, Allison cuts short the message in all the stories by use of strong descriptive words. She says that the stories have a message of the life experience of a working class cross-eyed lesbian full of hope in life and addicted to violence as well as language. Considering the kind of life she lived while in Southern Carolina with her family members, Allison’s love to women in general is very strong.

In her description, she does not give up easily and rarely gives consent to any efforts meant to downgrade her. Through the life she experienced, she believes that what happened was enough and should not happen to women in general. She feels for female characters and wishes no harm to them. She does not want any woman or young female to pass through the kind of life she passed through when she was still young (Allison, 1988).

In river of names, the narrator explains how she lost several of her relatives through mysterious incidences. Back in her home place Southern Carolina, Allison lived a life full of suffering and acts of child abuse. After loosing her father, her mother decided to get married to another man who became a step father to her. In the beginning, the step father seemed to be good and well behaved showing love to Allison’s mother and the rest of the family.

The relationship between Allison and her step father turned out to be a nightmare when her step father started to molest her and abuse her sexually. He actually raped her on several occasions and physically molested her. The problem is that even after her mother learnt of her husband’s behaviors, she was still confused whether to chase away the husband and protect her daughter or continue staying with the husband.

Due to the strong love that Allison had towards her mother, she decides to accept everything that happens to her. She decides not to hate her step father who molests and abuses her sexually. She considers herself as trash and compares herself to something that is meant to be used. In the story, we learn that Allison so loved her aunt that she could spend most of her time visiting her and helping her perform some household duties. Even in her aunt’s home, her step father still followed her to beat and abuse her.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is shocking is that her auntie seems to reason the same way as her mother. After learning of the molestation and harassment that Allison is passing through, she also decides that the step father should not be chased away. She considers other options provided that the family remains intact. But because Allison loved her mother and her auntie, she respects their decision and gives in to all sorts of harassment.

All this made her develop strong feelings towards women than men. She believes that women were taken as trash. She now takes everything valuable including what others considers to be trash. She takes women as normal human beings who are vital and vibrant deserving due respect (Allison, 1988).

In mama, Allison realizes the love that she has for her mother. It is this love that dwells throughout the stories. Allison so loved her mother that she dint think of any revenge despite the physical and emotional torture she was undergoing through.

In this story, there was domestic violence that overwhelmed Allison’s family. We are told that the step father could lock Allison in the bathroom and physically molest her. She had a strong and loving relation with her mother. Having been beaten by her step father, her mother could scream loud and save her from the brutal acts of her husband.

She could take her away, wash her and wipe her clean. She could soothe her to relieve pain and make her comfortable. This is the reason why Allison could not afford to loose her mother in any way. She would rather persevere and stay with her mother than loosing her. She so loved her mother that she obeyed every step that her mother took.

This shows that the relationship between the two was strong and full of love, emotions and caring. Since it is her mother who brought her step father in the house, we expect Allison to hate her mother due to the step father’s actions. Instead, Allison feels no hatred to her mother even after being molested by her step father. It is this kind of love that made Allison to develop a soft spot for women in general.

This contributed to her growing up to be a feminist and a working class lesbian. She ensures that women’s rights are respected and obeyed. She does not want to see a situation where women are molested and sexually abused (Allison, 1988).

We will write a custom Essay on Dorothy Allison’s Trash specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the gospel song, Allison shows her love to a girl who is least popular in the whole school. At first, she wants to become a singer of gospel music but she does not posses the voice. In the process, she meets an albino girl who has no friends at all and decides to become her friend.

She strives to insert a sense of acceptance into her friend’s mind. Allison does not take her as trash but instead decides to love her and make her feel loved. At her friend’s family barbecue, Allison decides to attend without even accepting the invitation. She shows up abruptly demonstrating the love she has to her friend.

During the funeral, she makes herself available when her friend starts to moan. Due to the overwhelming tears, she decides to insert her face in her mother’s dress. The relation between her and her mother was very strong. Allison took her mother as the only source of comfort at times of problems.

This made her develop a loving attitude towards female. She fights for the rights of women and forms movements that will protect all women. In don’t tell me you don’t know, the narrator’s auntie makes a step to reconcile two parties. She comes in between Allison and her mother to restore the love between them. Allison felt bad about what was happening to her in presence of her mother.

She felt that her mother should have protected her from abuse. Her mother was in a dilemma to choose between her daughter and her husband. Finally, Allison decides to reconcile with her mother and step father. She says that the reconciliation contributed to her present determination. She is determined for the well being of women in general (Allison, 1988).

Conclusion It is the love and strong relation between Allison, her mother and her female relatives that made her develop a soft spot for women. She turned out to be more attracted to women than men. She finally became a working class feminist and a lesbian. The suffering and the abuse she went through made her determined to protect women in general.

Reference Allison, D. (1988). Trash: Short stories. Ithaca: Firebrand books publishers.

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Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introductions

Feminism in the Play

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introductions Written by Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House is a play released during the Victorian era of the 19th century. The play addresses life as it was then, when women where no more than dolls, unable to perform significant roles in the then society as well as standing up for themselves in the family.

It addresses the issue of gender roles, showing how disempowered the female is and the consequences behind this. Nora, a major character and a wife to Helmer, illustrates how women suffer mistreatments and degradations from their husbands. Following the impact on the life styles of women and the devastation of gender roles in the then century, brought by Ibsen through this publication, which is also evident today, the composition stands out as a feminist essay right from the title, A Doll’s House, up to the end of the play.

Feminism in the Play Feminism is an issue that pursues the liberation of women, majority of whom live as slaves even in their very own families, whether married or not. This is the condition of women as at the time when Ibsen composes the play. He is handling the situation as it is as a call for women to stand up and fight for their rights in the society.

The topic of the play serves as a clear illustration of feminism. A Doll is denotes the position of a woman in the family. A major character employed to portray is Nora. She is married to Helmer who refers to her as a mere doll rather than a wife. Nora is referred by her husband as a songbird, a lark, a squirrel, names that suggest how insignificant she is to her.

In fact, Helmer asks, “Didn’t you tell me no one had been here…My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird must have a clean beak to chirp with-no false notes!” (Ibsen 25). Helmer stands out as a commander in his family. Everything he tells his wife ought to be adhered to regardless of the consequences therein. The way he questions Nora depicts his sternness and authoritative position in his family. He deprives Nora of the ability to decide as the wife.

She cannot decide on whom to welcome in her family, neither can she decide on what to do in it. She only dances the tune of her husband. She is just a doll in the house that does in accordance with what others need out of it but not what it needs out of them. This degradation is what the writer brings forth to the women stressing on their need to rise up and fight against it.

Nora is given every sort of names by her husband. But this does not make her dump him. They are together as a husband and a wife for a good number of years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yes, Torvald, I can’t get along a bit without your help” (Ibsen 26). Money seems to be everything that Nora wants. But she realizes later that it (money) is useless without her enjoying her rights, not only as a woman but also a living being. In her reaction against the situation, she makes the best individual pronouncement for the first time. She opts for abandoning her husband to stay alone where she can enjoy freedom.

She will not be constrained in a house like a doll; neither will she dance to any other person’s tune, but hers. She is a feminist whom the play uses as an illustration that women can make sound decisions as well as playing a significant role in their families other than just cooking and taking care of their husbands.

“The common denominator in many of Ibsen’s dramas is his interest in individuals struggling for and authentic identity in the face of tyrannical social conventions. This conflict often results in his characters’ being divided between a sense of duty to themselves and their responsibility to others” (Ibsen 1563). Nora realizes that she is more than what she does or what his husband thinks she can do and has the right to manifest her talent or powers as a woman.

She goes for this right. In fact, she declares that she needs to “make sense of [her] self and everything around her” (Ibsen 25). This is her turning point. She is ready to stand up for her rights as a woman regardless of the prevailing situation where women are being oppressed and denied some of their fundamental rights like the right to make personal decisions.

Mrs. Linde’s conversation with Nora depicts her as one who led a life based on the decisions of her late husband. For instance, when her husband dies, she has virtually nothing of her own, money and children inclusive. This places everything in her then family in the hands of her husband. She has no power to earn as a woman. This is only the task of her husband. The death of her husband is symbolic. It implies the end of slavery and a commencement of feminism.

Linde sets off to look for a job, which in turn enables her to take care of her family. This is no more than the realization that she is capable of working for her people just like her husband. In fact, she stands out as woman enough to leave a note to her husband claiming to return the following day. This is contrary to what is expected of the then women. They ought to stay in the houses all the times as the title, ‘A Doll’s House’ suggests. In her dialogue with Krogstad, she says that she is now ‘free’ and wishes to look after her family.

This depicts the oppression she experiences before realizing that she is equally as powerful as a man and that she is all able to support her family. For instance, she takes a full responsibility of nursing her sick mother. This is not a possible case before when she is a doll in her husband’s house. She says that she was “a poor girl who’d been led astray” (Ibsen 29). This is the consequence of oppression that Ibsen addresses, that is in turn realized and abandoned by people like Linde and Nora-the feminists.

We will write a custom Essay on Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Essay? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nora initially is a ‘pet’ in her family. She is just there to make her husband happy by going out with him, cooking for him, and maintaining his title as a ‘man’ owing to her beauty. As a doll plays its assigned role, not based on the situation, Nora has to tolerate this torture for the sake of her husband.

This is her life that she realizes later that it is no more than a lie. She imagines of another one where she will be, not a doll, but a significant and a responsible person in her society. Nora says, “I’ve been your wife-doll here, just as at home I was Papa’s doll-child”(Ibsen 1608). This is the beginning of her realization. She is now courageous enough to confront her very own stern husband no matter the outcome.

She is ready to fight for her rights as a woman. “I have to try to educate myself. You can’t help me with that. I’ve got to do it alone. And that’s why I’m leaving you now” (Ibsen 1609). Nora goes for the change she wants. She can educate herself regardless of her being a woman. She is not afraid of saying this to her husband.

Conclusion Ibsen finalizes the play by depicting all the women characters as feminists who abandon their ‘doll’ lives to leave like free, significant, and responsible in their societies. Nora, Linde, among others, begin as slaves but end a feminists. This renders Ibsen’s ‘A Doll’s House’ a feminist essay.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. “A Doll’s House” London: Nick Hern Books, 1994.

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Minimum Wage Issue Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of minimum wage

Analysis of the effects of minimum wage

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Minimum wage is the lowest pay that an employee should get per hour, per day or per month. These earnings are usually set by the government through legislation; however, two arguments, social and fiscal, are usually presented concerning the issue of minimum wage.

Minimum wage laws usually cover employees who work in the fields of employment with low pay, and are usually imposed to raise the wages to reduce exploitation of the employees by their employers. Governments usually impose minimum wage to reduce poverty; indeed, increase in the minimum wage is also said to increase motivation of the workers and hence lead to more productivity.

However, some economic analysts believe that raising the minimum wage does not reduce poverty, arguing that it in fact increases the levels of poverty since it creates unemployment. These people also argue that increase in the minimum wage hurts small firms severely as they usually try to minimize on their cost of production to maximize on their returns as they continue to grow.

This may usually make the firms to reduce their workforce, and the remaining workforce is usually overworked to compensate for the reduced workforce. These people also believe that minimum wage causes inflation, as organizations tend to increase the cost of their product to cater for the increased cost of production due to the increase.

Theory of minimum wage Usually, there are theories proposed to explain the effects of minimum wage on the employment. The standard neoclassical theory explains that the availability of labour and employment follow an equilibrium demand supply curve with the downward sloping demand curve for labour and the upward sloping supply curve for labour.

The point of intersection between the downward sloping demand curve and the upward sloping supply is the equilibrium point (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 70). This is the equilibrium wage, which the market is capable of offering for labour.

Therefore, if the government imposes a minimum wage lower than the equilibrium wage, this would have no effect since equilibrium wage will be higher than the minimum wage. However, by imposing legislation, which demands, that the minimum wage be higher than the equilibrium wage, this forces the minimum wage from being pushed downwards due to market forces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this creates disequilibrium in the labour supply demand curve with the supply of labour being more than the demand for it by the market. This leads to unemployment as some people will not get work for their skills; indeed, unemployed people are usually worse of than before the minimum wage since they will now have zero income.

Figure 1.1: Standard neoclassic market demand supply of labour curve

Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia,

However, increase in minimum wage higher than the equilibrium wage does not always result in unemployment. An example is usually explained in Monopsony, a situation where there is only one employer in the labour market. In this situation, the factors that are explained in neoclassical theory do not necessary hold.

In fact, minimum wage significantly influences the direction of employment in the economy as well as eliminating the shortcomings of Monopsony, thus in this situation, the cost of hiring additional workers follows an upward sloping curve, which is usually above the labour supply.

Figure 1.2: Monopsonistic demand supply of labour curve

Source: AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia

We will write a custom Essay on Minimum Wage Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MRP represents the marginal revenue product curve, which is identical to the market demand curve in standard neoclassic market. MFC represents the marginal cost curve which is the cost incurred by a Monopsonistic firm in hiring a new employee. S represents the factor supply curve identical to the competitive market.

In some instances, raising the minimum wage increases the demand of the product produced by the company. This will therefore make the company to hire more workers in order to increase output to cater for increased demand. This may occur if the workers are also consumers of the product; hence, increasing their wage enables them to buy more of the product.

Analysis of the effects of minimum wage The labour market rarely fits the characteristics of the ideal standard neoclassical theory or of Monopsony. Therefore, generalization is generally used to explain the effects of minimum wage on employment and poverty levels. Many economists have different views regarding the effects of increasing the minimum wage.

This is because the labour market does not fit the ideal neoclassical situation or the Monopsony situation. Increase in the minimum wage does not necessary lead to loss of employment. Many different states in the United States have not reduced the number of employed people after increasing their minimum wage; a notable example is New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Increase in minimum wage in these states in 1988 did not lead to reduction of the people employed; in fact, it led to increase in the employment as shown in their data. For instance, the increase in the minimum wage of Vermont and Illinois in January 2006 from $7.0 to 7.25 has been used to show the effects of increasing the minimum wage on employment (Atanova, Tudoreanu and St.Lawrence University 72).

In Vermont, it led to a decrease in the number of people who were employed. However, analysis of the data showed that it was not reliable as there were very many other factors, which affected employment. However, their increase had no effect on employment in Illinois. These are a few examples to show that increase in the minimum wage does not lead to reduced employment.

The argument that increase in the minimum wage usually leads to unemployment is usually viewed differently by different people who have vested interests.

Businesspersons and generally entrepreneurs are usually opposed to increase in minimum wage as it leads to an increase in their cost of production. This is because each entrepreneur usually strives to reduce the cost of production in order to maximize on his or her profits. Labour unions would like to portray the increase in minimum wage as of not having adverse effects on employment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Minimum Wage Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because by showing that it reduces employment they would show that it reduces their members by making them loose employment. Therefore, the debate on minimum wage is usually a passionate one as each group would like to portray the other as being on the wrong. These groups may use many different methods to prove their correctness, sometimes even overlooking some factors while analyzing their data.

Minimum wage does not necessarily lead to inflation since the costs of labour in most organizations does not usually account for a large percentage of overall expenses. Increase in the minimum wage cannot be directly related to the loss of employment, as there are many other political and economic factors, which usually affect employment.

It is clear that both theories are based upon ideal situations. However ideal situation rarely do not occur. Therefore, it would be hard to single out increase in the levels of unemployment due minimum wage increase. Form the above two theories it is clear that markets cannot be left to self regulate themselves especially in third world countries so as to reduce their levels of poverty.

Conclusion The issue of minimum wage is mainly a political one. Governments usually increase minimum wages at a rate lower than the rates of inflation in order to reduce the powers labour unions have on the powers. However, minimum wage should be increased from time to time to cater for inflation and reduce the levels of poverty.

Works Cited Atanova, Stefka, Tudoreanu, Mihnea and St.Lawrence University. “The Effects of a Raised Minimum Wage on Employment: Differences across States and Social Groups.” Issues in Political Economy, Vol. 19, pp 69-89. 2009. 26 October 2010. http://www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/students/ipe/volumes/Atanova 2009.pdf

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The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Legalization of Marijuana

Effect of the Legalization on Demand

Effect on supply

Elasticity of demand and supply

Other factors

Conclusions

Works Cited

Introduction Cannabis sativa L. is a plant that appears naturally in most of the states and all over the world. The plant has been associated with a lot of benefits and other uses by people from all walks of life. Medically, the plant has been proven to possess a lot of medical benefits as it can be used in manufacture of drugs with curative nature and also has various other medical benefits.

Marijuana is the name given to the plant and all its components and products including its leaves, stem, roots, seeds and all the other products obtained from it, both when it is growing and even when it has been cut and dried. On the other side, marijuana has been used by individuals in different ways, especially for social uses such as recreation, reducing stress and other uses (Pacula 1).

The drug has been outlawed in all the states in the USA. However, there remains a large percentage of the population that still relies on the drug for their daily living, either by engaging in its use or by engaging in its business. The Marijuana business has been operating underground and unlawfully.

However, studies have shown that the business has been in a constant state of a boom and has been estimated to amount to millions of dollars. In this way, those operating the business have been able to make great earnings especially since there are no cost implications on them in terms of taxes and other legal requirements (RAND 1).

Legalization of Marijuana It has been a common debate in most of the states as to whether Marijuana should be legalized and inscribed in the state laws hence allowing it to be used freely, just like any other item in the market.

In this way, the law will give a provision for legality of the marijuana market and also for all the undertakings concerned with the drug, including registration and taxation of all businesses, protection of those using the drugs in the right way and also a way to deal with all the crimes associated with the drugs. In addition, the states shall be able to lay restrictions on the drug, hence ensuring the citizens use the drugs more responsible and in a humane way (RAND 1).

The California state is one of the states that have embraced the idea of legalizing the drug and even inscribing it in the list of the allowed social drugs together with alcohol and cigarettes. In this way, it has been believed that the drug will act as a source of revenue for the government in terms of the taxes collected as well as a source of employment and income for many.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The step will also ensure citizens who follow the law to the letter and do not cause trouble to others are protected even if they use the drug. Moreover, citizens will embrace the use of the drug more responsibly avoiding any cases that may require jailing, probation and medical expenses for treatment of abuse of the drug (Pacula 1).

Hence, there is a need for the state of California, as well as the other states in the USA, to embrace legalization of Marijuana since this will have a lot of benefits both to the citizens and to the state eventually instead of use of the drug illegally which results to serious and undeserved penalties to those caught and also leads to loss of billions of dollars per year I n government revenue that would have been collected from the marijuana business.

Effect of the Legalization on Demand It has been predicted that if the government legalizes the drug, there will be a lot of changes pertaining to the demand for the drug in the market and as a result, there will be a lot of restructuring in the marijuana market.

Currently, due to the control and illegality of the use of the drug as well as the strictness from the enforcers of the law in the state which includes heavy penalties and possible imprisonment of those involved in possession, sale or use of the drug, many of the people who wish to use the drug in a reasonable way have evaded its use. These restrictions from the government have acted as an incentive to the use of the drug and hence many either just avoid its use or carry out illegal activities associated to the drug.

In fact, there have been a lot of underground undertakings in the market leading to large illegal underground markets for the drug. In these markets, there are a lot of people involved in the sale and purchase of the drug, though usually in disguise so as to avoid detection by the law enforcers. However, most of the citizens are not able to act on the platform of the underground undertakings since they are involve a lot of risk and hence are quite dangerous.

This has left the whole business in the hands of very cunning and dangerous gangs that undertake the sale and distribution of the drug and actually are armed in a manner to try and face any opposition from the law enforcers, posing a lot of risk and un rest to the law enforcers and the state at large (Deist 1).

On the other side, it has been observed that with legalization of the drug, there will be a lot of sanity in the market and elimination of illegal gangs that are involved in the market hence allowing the drug to be sold freely and in a safer way. This will improve the image of the marijuana market and attract more clients who will in return opt to use the drug more responsible and without carrying out any illegal undertakings (Whitcomb 1).

We will write a custom Report on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The demand for the drug is hence bound to increase in a great way as many will not be afraid of getting involved in its sale. This ay, there will be a larger market for the sales, even as the already existing market gets boosted due to its legalization.

There are many factors that are attributed to an increase in the demand for marijuana. First, the increased demand will increase the prices for the drug causing more people to be involved in growing and supplying the product, a factor that is bound to result in an eventual lowering of the price for the drugs and hence stableness in the market.

On the other side, the market will have a greater base for its returns and will also result to a more sources of revenues for the government. In addition, the market will force a competition between traders resulting to an improvement of the quality offered and the way it is delivered. In this way, the drug will be used more responsibly and will hence have more advantages to the entire society (Robak 1).

Effect on supply The legalization of marijuana in the state of California will have a large effect on the supply of the product in the market. The main effect is that it will result to more people wishing to venture into the trade since it is associated with a lot of cash flow as well as high returns gotten from sale of the naturally according drug.

In this way, even farmers will wish to plant more plants and hence increase their harvests since the plants require less inputs and less attention but have a lot of returns and do not require any further processing, except in the medical cases.

In the normal circumstances, the plants are harvested and then dried before being packaged and supplied to the market. The high prices in the market places will hence attract many farmers who will wish to be involved in the production of the drug and then supply it to the market (Preston and Tracy 17).

In addition, legalization of the drug will result to more people getting involved in the sale and distribution of the drug in the market in a legal and right way. This will lead to a high competition among the suppliers resulting to increased supply and consecutively a lowered price for the drugs. This will also ensure the dealers in the marijuana industry adhere to the law and avoid evasion of taxes, a factor that will lead to collection of more revenue for the government (Whitcomb1).

Elasticity of demand and supply The increased demand and increased supply will have an overall effect of undergoing oscillations of a rise and a fall in the prices of marijuana. This market will hence be demand and supply driven, where prices will be fully dependent on the demand and the supply of the drug as well as the competition between dealers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, due to a competitive market, the demand and supply will become more elastic resulting to a more stable market that will be more reliable by those carrying out the trade, the customers who buy the marijuana and even to the government especially in terms of collection of taxes and duties associated to the trade.

Other factors There are various other factors that will change due to the legalization of the trade and use of marijuana. In the onset, there will be less involvement of illegal gangs being associated to the trade and use of the drug. This will result to an improved security to all involved in the marijuana use and trade, the law enforcers and even the citizens at large.

Also, there is a possibility of lowered spending by the government on law enforcement changing the way it has been before. Therefore, less people will be arrested as associated to the drug and therefore the government can divert the funds to more constructive ways.

On the other side, there will be a lot of registration of those involved in the trade of the drugs as well as taxation on such a trade. This will result to increased sources of revenue for the government leading to more development in the economy (Deist 1).

Finally, citizens will be able to embrace the use of the drug and hence use it more responsible in the social, recreational and even medical aspects.

Conclusions California has many reasons to consider while dealing with the issue on whether or not to legalize marijuana in the state. Eventually, the state will be able to save a lot on its budget as well as earn more revenue from the trade.

On the other side, the state will save its citizens a lot of problems as it also gives them a chance to venture into the business and also to exercise the trade and use of the drug in a more responsible and beneficial way.

Works Cited Deist, Charlie. Why Marijuana Freedom Is Good Fiscal Policy. 10 July 2010. Web.

Pacula, Rosalie. Legalizing Marijuana: issues to consider before reforming Califonia Law. RAND website. 15 Aug. 2009. Web.

RAND Corporation. Legalizing marijuana in California would lower the price of the drug and increase use, study finds. 11 March 2010. Web.

Preston, Lee, and Brian Tracy. Introduction to Economic Analysis. London: John Willey

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No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Although more than a century has passed since the government abolished slavery, still its effects are evident in the contemporary America, because of the demand from a section of the American society to give reparations to blacks for the atrocities their ancestors suffered.

Slavery was a practice that was allowed by the law of the historical southern United States, from the time that the Britons colonized America in the 17th century, until the time of the civil war of 1861-1865, when the practice started diminishing. Although most black slaves suffered under the hands of their white masters, they played a crucial role of making the U.S. to be what it is today, because of their active role in the building of major U.S. cities, and even the white house.

Due to the extreme suffering that the black slaves went through, and the fact that, the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize to the Black community; there has been numerous campaigns to compensate the surviving families of victims of slavery. Generally, reparations campaigns are majorly based on the assumption that, the nonblack taxpayers should pay the blacks a certain amount of compensations, them being the primary heirs of the wealth that their ancestors acquired during slavery.

Yes, no one can deny that black slaves suffered under the tyrannical rule of their white masters, and it is purely wrong that the U.S. government took a very long time to apologize and offer help to then slaves, to ease their suffering. However, why should the present white taxpayers pay for the atrocities committed by their ancestors, some of whom they do not even know? Further, the present America is a mixed race society; hence, tracing the descendants of the black slaves is very challenging activity.

On the other hand, it will be so unfair to impose the burden of paying reparations to one section of the American society, while forgetting that, its only small portion of the historical whites who had slaves; hence, what of those families that never had slaves. (Olson Para. 2-14) Considering these, although every individual acknowledges that slavery made many Blacks to suffer, the government should not offer any reparations to African-Americans, to compensate for the suffering “their” ancestors suffered.

Why There Should Be No Paying Of Reparations to Blacks Frankly speaking, most activities of slavery were morally degrading, violated numerous human rights, and caused extreme suffering to the slaves. Therefore, to some extent the claim of paying some reparations to the surviving families of African-American ancestors is correct. However, one thing that most proponents of the Reparation campaign forget is that, slavery was a historical activity that was lawful, and majority of those who the tyrannical treatment of white masters are survived by families of mixed races (whites included).

Therefore, one critical question that most proponents have failed to provide solutions to is; who will the government compensate for the suffering of the historical black community. Historically, not all whites promoted the practice, as there was a group of whites who opposed the practice, for example, the Abolitionists and the Union Army members. Most members of these two groups also suffered under the tyrannical rule of the white masters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, it will be so unfair to make their generation pay for a practice that their ancestors struggled and lost their lives fighting to be abolished. On the other hand, one thing that most proponents of reparation assume is that, it is only the blacks who lost their lands; hence, the tendency of most of them proposing that, the government should give African-American tracks of lands as compensation.

In making this assumption, most supporters of reparation tend to forge that, the historical slavery injustices were also done to whites, more so those who lived in the fertile Southeastern sections of the colonial U.S. Considering this, allocating some portions of land, will be like repeating what the white oppressors did during the slavery period, because some white families resettled ion their ancestry land.

Further, it is important fro individual to note that, some perpetrators of the practice were blacks themselves (more so the freed slaves) after the civil war; hence, paying a certain portion of the American society will mean that, the government is paying those who promoted the practice, rather than the real suffers (Horowitz 1-2).

In addition to difficulties of identifying the real sufferers of the slavery, there is no practical evidence that links slavery with the current problems that the African-Americans face. Most supporters of the reparation ideology assume that, the current problems facing African-Americans are a result of the historical injustices that individuals in this community faced during the slave trade period.

Yes, this might be right because of the practical evidence of how much African-Americans have struggles to be where they are social, economically, and politically. However, it has been more than a decade since the abolishment of slave trade, and many blacks have rose to high levels of political and economic power, regardless of what their ancestors went through.

Considering this, why should a community endowed with all the necessary resources to better their lives blame their suffering on a practice that ceased to exist over one hundred and fifty years ago? Take for example the West Indian Blacks; this group has endeavored to promote its economic wellbeing, and their efforts have gained good fruits, as most West Indians earn almost the same incomes as their white counterparts.

On the other hand, since the adoption on the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, the American government has dedicated numerous funds to those it considers the disadvantages in the society (where the black community are the majority).

We will write a custom Essay on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of these funds are in form of college bursaries, welfare benefits, and economic stimulus packages (Block 56-68). Therefore, the economic assumption largely lacks a base of expression hence, for fairness purposes; there should no compensations to the black community.

On the other hand, considering the fact that, Reparations are likely to favor certain groups within the American society, this can be very detrimental to the peaceful coexistence of the American people.

That is, considering the fact that, most reparation funds should come from the white taxpayer community, likelihoods of racism increasing are high, as this may make one group to feel oppressed of forced to suffer for mistakes they never committed. One thing that most supporters of the reparation ideology forget to acknowledge is that, some whites and some members of the black community came to the U.S. after slavery had long been abolished (Munford 413-432).

Due to this, one question that always arises is that; which group of whites should pay or contribute to the reparation kitty, and how can it be identified? Therefore promoting this like an ideology can greatly endanger the nature of relationships that exist between the entire American community; hence, the need to do away completely with the reparation ideology.

Conclusion In conclusion, because of the numerous negative effects associated with the reparation ideology for individuals to accept that, it is not a good idea to give reparations to blacks, as this may lead to more wars between different ethnic groups that make the American continent.

The future of this debate depends on the acceptance of the entire American society to face the real facts about reparation, and accepting the fact that, although it’s a good way of compensating for those who suffered under the tyrannical rule of slave masters, majority of the sufferers are dead and the American community has become more multiracial. Therefore, paying certain communities can be very suicidal, as it is likely to disturb the peace America enjoys.

To deal with the issue appropriately, it is important for the government to formulate restorative justice policies that will promote love, peace, and development in the U.S. Yes it is so hard to reconcile and make all American Groups to be at par, economically, socially, and politically; however, if the government can offer its citizenry enough economic stimulating programs, likelihoods of the gap that exists between the whites and blacks is likely to reduce.

Dwelling in the history of injustice, is as equal as starting racial wars between Americans; hence, the government should instead formulate programs that are acceptable by all Americans. This can be of great help in mending the damaged relationships that exist between different groups of different ethnic backgrounds that make the American continent (Walker 382-390).

Not sure if you can write a paper on No Reparations for Blacks for the Injustice of Slavery by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Block, Walter. On reparations to Blacks fro slavery. Human Rights Review. Sept. 2002. Web.

Horowitz, David. Ten reasons why reparations fro blacks is a bad idea fro blacks and racists too. Front Page Magazine, 2001. Web.

Munford, Clarence. A black perspective for the 21st century. New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1996. Web.

Olson, Walter. Reparations, R.I.P. The Street Journal Autumn. 2008. Web.

Walker, Margaret. Restorative and reparations. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37.3 (2006): 377-395. Web.

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