Table of Contents Introduction
Pro: Argument in Continuing the War
Con: Costs and Criticism
Introduction The Afghan wars an example of the United States led war against terror campaign. The United States together with its allies invaded Afghanistan after the attacks of September 11 with the objectives of destroying the Al-Qaeda organization, ousting the Taliban regime and establishing a democratic Afghan state (President Bush Releases National Strategy for Combating Terrorism).
Al-Qaeda, a group based in Afghanistan and operated in alliance with the then ruling Taliban regime, was identified as the one responsible for the attacks. The United States demanded the arrest of Osama Bin Laden, Al-Qaeda leader, from the Taliban government but the latter would not do so without hard evidences (Vogt).
This started the military mobilization and attacks of the United States and its allies on October 7, 2001 (Wintour, Ahmed, Vulliamy and Taylor) until the Taliban regime was abolished and the democratic Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was established. The United States should continue their military presence in Afghanistan because Taliban-led uprisings against the young democratic government continue to increase (nato.int).
Although the US war in Afghanistan has lasted a decade already and is still continues as we speak, the United States of America together with its allies should still persist because the Afghan government needs their help in stabilizing the young democratic regime of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan amidst threats of Taliban forces and also the presence of democratic powers also helps in the improvement of human rights conditions of country.
Pro: Argument in Continuing the War After weeks of massive military bombing and fighting, the Taliban government was ousted from authority in Kabul and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, a democratic regime, was established under the leadership of Hamid Karzai but it did not take long for Taliban forces to start turmoil by leading revolutionary campaigns against the democratic government (Gall).
Afghan civilians were the prominent targets of terrorist attacks in Taliban-led insurgent activities. The United Nations reported that about 85% of civilian casualties in Afghanistan were caused by Taliban groups (Michaels).
Amnesty International pointed out that Taliban activities such as the murdering of teachers, kidnapping aid workers and setting fire on school buildings are considered war crimes. About 735 civilians were killed in 2006 alone by Taliban bombs carried out by suicide attackers or planted along roads (Taliban attack civilians to spread fear: Amnesty).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIGRC) agrees with the Amnesty International in considering Taliban terrorism against Afghan civilian populations as war crimes while Islamic religious leaders condemned Taliban terrorist attacks referring to them as malpractices of Islamic ethics (AIHRC Calls Civilian Deaths War Crime). US military presence is highly significant in the stabilization of democracy in Afghanistan.
The growing number of insurgent activities of Taliban-led groups post as threats to the current democratic government which have inferior military strength compared to those of the Taliban. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan’s military force is still very young in terms of military training and weaponry thus US forces help protect the democratic regime of the country by serving as its armed division against Taliban aggressions.
The continuous presence of the US army defends the young government’s existence by protecting it from Taliban-led activities that may cost the fall out of the government. The intervention of the United States government greatly contributed to the new Afghan government’s construction of democratic policies and structures which improved the country’s political, social and economic sectors such as in the flied of health, education, transportation, agriculture and construction.
With close association of Afghanistan to the United States, its government would greatly improve in its democratic process and friendship will be nourished thus improving its foreign policies and relations which may attract more aid and even investors once turmoil in the country is settled.
According to the Human Rights Watch, there have been multiple abuses and violations of human rights in Afghanistan with the resurgence of Taliban forces which threatens the safety and welfare of Afghan citizens (Incitement of Violence against Hazaras by Governor Niazi).
Human rights abuses and violations against women in Afghanistan were prominent during the Taliban regime from September 1996 until 2001 when the US attacked the country (Hayes, Brunner and Rowen).
In a report published by the United Nations, the Taliban government conducted about 15 regular massacres in 1996 to 2001 against civilians when they were trying to secure control over the northern and western parts of Afghanistan especially targeting people whose religious beliefs are that of Shia or people of Hazara ethic background (Afghanistan: Situation in, or around, Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal. Ethnic group and who is currently in control).
We will write a custom Essay on War Against Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1998 when Mazar-i-Sharif was invaded and captured by the Taliban, about 4,000 civilians were executed and tortured with the help of Arab and Pakistani troops in the mass-killings of Afghan civilians where many were skinned (Afghanistan: Bush, Karzai, Musharraf Must Act Now to Stop Militant Abuses).
Another concern is the violation of Afghan women and girls’ human rights were the victims suffer from physical and sexual violence, discrimination in the society and little or no access to justice and education (Afghanistan: Bush, Karzai, Musharraf Must Act Now to Stop Militant Abuses).
According to UNICEF, about 80% of the female population lack contact to educational centers with only 10% of the population is literate. Afghan civilians were used by the Taliban as human shield in their conflicts with the US and NATO. In 2009 when NATO air strikes in Farah, around 150 civilians were forced into buildings to be targets. According to US Lieutenant Colonel Greg Julian on Taliban’s tactics, “This was a deliberate plan by the Taliban to create a civilian casualty crisis.
These were not human shields; these were human sacrifices. We have intelligence that points to this” (Gertz). Taliban power brings about human rights threats to civilians (Afghanistan: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices). The United States must continue to fight the war in Afghanistan to eradicate the growing Taliban power so that the current democratic government will persist.
With democratic background, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan will be a supporter of human rights, serving for the people in looking after the civilians’ safety and well-being and with its alliance with democratic powers it will continue to promote human rights in the country of Afghanistan.
Con: Costs and Criticism The war in Afghanistan was first initiated by President George Bush on the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks but it was continued by his successor President Barack Obama. In 2009 President Obama supported the war in that he announced to deploy an additional of 30,000 more soldiers to Afghanistan but he scheduled a withdraw date for the year 2014 considering the toll the war had brought about to the United States (Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases).
The cost of war has been a major factor of debate among the US congress. The US Defense Department’s expenditure increased by 50% from $4.4 billion to $6.7 billion a month with troop strength also increasing from 44,000 to 84,000 and by 2011 it is expected to grow by 102,000, also operational costs in 2010 alone is almost as big as the spending from 2001 to 2006 combined at $93.8 billion and in 2011 the anticipated cost is expected to reach $468 billion in total (Cooper).
Cost of war including military operations, security, reconstruction, air, embassy costs and war veteran’s healthcare from 2001 to 2011 is estimated to reach $1.283 trillion. Studies show that if the military budget for 2012 would be approved, around $1.415 trillion will be spent on the war alone and if the number of men deployed will be decreased to 45,000 by 2015 until 2021, the total expenditure would amount to $1.8 trillion in the 20 years the US has fought in the war against terror on Afghanistan alone (Wihbey).
Not sure if you can write a paper on War Against Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cost of war is too much for the US economy. War debt from World War II has greatly affected the economy in that generations still continue to pay the bill. Also with the large amount of money used in funding war against terror complications arise with the coordination of fiscal and monetary policy.
Relating to the Vietnam War which resulted in the Great Inflation of the 19702 and early 1980s because defence and social program spending increased which put pressure for the demands of goods and services while monetary policy became accommodative, the current spending on the Afghan war must require monetary policy makers to carefully analyze such actions to avoid increasing inflation rates (Poole).
The initiation of the United States in invading Iraq in October 7, 2001 has been controversial because of the debate whether the attack on September 11 was considered a war against a state or that against an organization. Critics maintain that with open-ended goals of the United States’ on “War on Terror” may give way to perpetual war because such grey area may produce unending conflicts with terrorist groups arising indefinitely (Richissin).
Also the inefficiency and difficulty in defining “War on Terror” lead to criticisms from a number of experts on security, public figures such as politicians and diverse organizations which claimed that it is counterproductive because of its consolidation of conflict to the United States government, helped terrorist organizations recruit and for some believed that it increased the likelihood of the United States and its allies of being attacked for it had bread hatred towards them. RAND Corporation conducted a study on eradicating terrorist groups and found out that
“by far the most effective strategy against religious groups has been the use of local police and intelligence services, which were responsible for the end of 73 percent of terrorist groups since 1968. The US military should generally resist being drawn into combat operations in Muslim countries where its presence is likely to increase terrorist recruitment and by moving away from military references would indicate that there was no battlefield solution to countering terrorism” (Jones).
Conclusion The declaration of war against terror by the United States of America and its allies in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks had given rise to mix feelings from the international system and the public alike. The question on whether the US should continue its presence in the Afghanistan soil remains a controversial debate in global politics especially since it has already been a decade since US military presence existed.
Critics claim that cost of war, given that the withdrawal of US troops is still unknown, is too much for the US economy as the spending continues to grow. Although a democratic government was successfully established in 2001 when the Taliban regime, which supported Bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda, was ousted, still threats of Taliban-led attacks continue to take place making the young regime instable.
The US military is needed in Afghanistan because it provides security in protecting the Afghan citizens from terrorist attacks and helps stabilize the present government. To withdraw military troops when things are not as stable as it seems may defeat the whole purpose and efforts of US troops for the past years if it would only result to the re-establishment of the Taliban government.
Also critics argue that the US government should leave the Afghan conflict to be resolved by the local government because such involvement breeds hatred towards the United States and allies increasing probability of attacks and only promotes recruitment among terrorist but evaluating the strength and capabilities of the present democratic government it can be concluded that the latter is too weak compared to the enemy thus it would be likely for it to be defeated.
The continuous presence of US troops in Afghan soil may help stabilize the present government and promote the importance of human rights because during the previous regime it was found out that massive violations of torture, rape and discrimination occurred. US involvement in the war against terror in Afghanistan should continue to persist until the present government will be stabilize. By doing such, the United States and its allies are making the international system safe for everyone to live, promoting freedom and security.
Works Cited “Afghanistan: Bush, Karzai, Musharraf Must Act Now to Stop Militant Abuses.” Hrw.org. Human Rights Watch, 27 Sept. 2006. Web..
“Afghanistan: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.” State.gov. US Department of State, 25 Feb. 2004. Web..
“Afghanistan: Situation in, or around, Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal. Ethnic group and who is currently in control.” Unhcr.org. UNHCR, 2011. Web..
“AIHRC Calls Civilian Deaths War Crime.” Tolonews.com., 13 Jan. 2011. Web..
Cooper, H., “Cost of Wars a Rising Issue as Obama Weighs Troop Levels.” Nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 21 Jun. 2011. Wev. 18 Dec. 2011.
Gall, C. “World Briefing: Asia Afghanistan Taliban Leader Vows Return.” Query.nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 13 Nov. 2004. Web..
Gertz, B. “Afghan commander’s aide blames deaths on Taliban.” Washingtintimes.com. The Washington Times, LLC, 12 May 2009. Web..
Hayes, L., Brunner, B., and Rowen, B. “Who are the Taiban?.” Infoplease.com. Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. Web..
“Incitement of Violence against Hazaras by Governor Niazi.” Hrw.org. Human Rights Watch, n.d. Web..
Jones, S. “Defeating Terrorist Groups.” rand.org. RAND, 18 Sept. 2008., Web..
Michaels, J. “Taliban behind most Afghan civilian casualties.” Usatoday.com. USA Today, 22 Jun. 2011. Web..
“Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases.” Msnbc.msn.com., 1 Dec. 2009. Web..
“Operation Active Endeavour.” Nato.int. NATO OTAN, 22 Feb. 2011. Web..
Poole, W. “ Putting War to the Cost/ Benefit Test.” Stlouisfed.org. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, July 2003. Web..
“President Bush Releases National Strategy for Combating Terrorism.” georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. n.p., Feb. 2003. Web..
Richissin, T. “War in Terror difficult to define.” Seattletimes.nwsource.com. The Seattle Times Company, 2 Sept. 2004. Web.
“Taliban attack civilians to spread fear: Amnesty.” web.archieve.org.,19 April. 2007. Web..
Vogt, H. “NATO kills ex-Gitmo detainee in Afghanistan.” News.yahoo.com. Yahoo! Inc., 3 Sept. 2011. Web..
Wihbey, J. “Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Anti- Terrorism Operations.” Journalistresource.org. n.p., 3 May 2011. Web..
Wintour, P., Ahmed, K., Vulliamy, E., and Traynor, I. “It’s time for war, Bush and Blair tell Taliban.” Guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Medial Limited, 7 Oct. 2001. Web..
Doing the Right Thing Opinion Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Inequality, Cohesiveness and Civic Virtue
Law Proposal 1
Linking Politics and Moral Engagement
Law Proposal 2
Introduction Perhaps, the American society is the most divergent, the most accommodating and the most culturally diverse among all societies across the globe. Interestingly, most Americans reflect similar elements of behavior in many respects (these elements are distinct to our American society).
There are a number conscious and unconscious core values which are expected to guide every American character. Most of the American culture has to some extent embedded western civilization: A civilization that accommodates different cultures, merges multiple ideas, and values the freedom of choice.
Still, a number of challenges in the direction of promoting our general wellbeing have been arising; thus, leading to questions on the direction that our society should direct for our common wellbeing. Here, I will be discussing approaches that can be designed in addressing the issues of wealth distribution, and the relationship between politics and community beliefs so as to have an even happier society.
Inequality, Cohesiveness and Civic Virtue One among the challenges that face our society today is the widening rift between the rich and the poor (Sandel 267). Although our politics has evaded the reality of a widening society, several philosophers have given their opinions on the challenge of wealth distribution (Sandel 267).
Our politics has become so distant from the challenge of widening social gaps that president Obama’s proposal to review tax laws in the direction of burdening the wealthy with more taxes has received heavy criticism from the republican political quarter (Sandel 267). Apart from philosophical ideologies on the topic of wealth distribution, there is a more important challenge which requires the attention of our political leaders: Civic Virtue (Sachs 14).
Getting a picture of our social landscape will be useful here. As the gap between the affluent and the poor continues, the social gap between the rich and the poor is likewise widening; hence, decreasing the elements of cohesiveness and civic virtue within our society (Sachs 14).
While the poor can only afford the often low quality education in public schools, the rich will take their children to expensive private schools (Sandel 268). Moreover, the rich can afford expensive social amenities and can even rely on their own security systems instead of the community policing (Nzich 60). Such an arrangement has two important results. First, it (wealth disparity) has led to a significant decrease in the level of interactions between the poor and the rich (Sahar 50).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While a rich American will prefer to visit a private park for recreation, a poor American will rely on the often deteriorated public park. Secondly, such an arrangement (wealth disparity) has left most of the government’s services to the poor (Hansen 108). The rich are becoming less reliant on government services. For example; they (the rich) can pay for their own security services; they can take their children to private schools; and will often visit private parks (Hansen 128).
As such, the rich will become less enthusiastic in paying for public services which they rarely utilize; thus, presenting the government with a challenge in collecting enough resources required in providing primary services to citizens (Sandel 268). The quality of public services can therefore be expected to deteriorate even further as a result (Nzich 61).
Moreover, it will increasingly become difficult for interactions between the rich and the poor to flourish. Since it is not possible for democracy to exist in a divided society, such an arrangement will deal a blow to our democracy (Hansen 129). A society can only act democratically when it can make choices objectively, and with the consideration of everyone’s good.
Considering the utilitarian moral theory, an act is judged to be good or wrong depending on the measure of happiness/ sadness that the act will cause to the majority of societal members (Mill 9). An act that brings pleasure to the maximum number of societal members is therefore judged to be morally acceptable (Mill 9). Utilitarian philosophers will therefore view wealth distribution as an act that is morally acceptable.
Thus, although the act of wealth distribution is likely to cause a degree of slight sadness among the rich, it will bring numerous benefits/pleasure to a big proportion of our society (Maclntre 15). Moreover, when future generations are considered, the benefits of wealth distribution are even more obvious. In particular, future societies will want to live in a society that is cohesive, democratic and where the majorities are happy (Maclntre 15).
Considering John Rawls’ principle of justice, we are likely to consent to wealth distribution as a right moral act (Rawls 203). John Rawls proposes that we consider ourselves as persons that have self interest (meaning that we intend to always select choices that are beneficial to us), and as a people in ignorance of our common identifiers such as ethnicity, race and class (Rawls 203).
The conditions described above can then be considered as our original position. Here, we are very likely to accept wealth distribution as an approach that can better our wellbeing. Standing on the argument above, a number of philosophers consider wealth distribution as an approach that will be helpful to our society (Rawls 204).
We will write a custom Essay on Doing the Right Thing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Law Proposal 1 I will therefore agree with Obama’s policy proposal which intends to overhaul our tax system in the direction of distributing wealth. Such a tax system will see the wealthy paying more taxes than the poor. Here, it will be important to come up with measures that will see the development of policies precisely designed to utilize collected taxes in improving the living conditions of the poor.
Promoting government services (like public education and recreation) to levels that can be utilized by both the rich and the poor is important here. I propose the above law in the view of promoting our wellbeing, guarding our democracy and enhancing our cohesiveness.
Linking Politics and Moral Engagement Having seen the evils that could be perpetuated by a state that has entrenched religion into her government, the formulators of our constitution were careful to emphasis on the separation of the religious institution from the government institution (West 68). We all know about millions of people that have died from the machinery of a government that was against their religious belief.
Today, the question is whether we can engage religion and politics in a fruitful direction for our society. Here, it is important to make it clear that such engagement should not have elements of coercion, discrimination, among such vices (Sandel 269). Rather, as I will describe here, such an engagement should be designed to diffuse tensions, educate our public, help to eliminate religious extremism, and promote unity in our society (Sandel 269).
Religious leanings which are undeniably present in our government cannot be ignored (Sandel 269). When it has come to multiple issues, our governments have at times developed policies considered to lean towards certain religious beliefs (West 70). On the other hand, many people in our society are exhibiting behaviors that have shown to tend towards various degrees of religious extremism.
Following terrorist attacks, racism, among other vices that are linkable to religious extremism, it is important that we find a useful direction in dealing with religious matters (William 53). It is therefore useful to engage politics and religion on a high moral pedestal that is acceptable, just, and fruitful to our society (Zauderer 213).
Such a direction needs to be designed with the recognition that although we have avoided talking about religious and moral beliefs, we have silently held our own perspectives (sometimes in ignorance) on religion and morality (Zauderer 214). Instead of coming out to talk about such issues, we have kept quiet and ignored, despised, and avoided the perspectives of others on religion and morality (William 53).
What should therefore be encouraged is an open discussion on religious and moral issues within our society. Such discussions should be based on a framework which (guided by mutual respect among societal members) would allow societal members to gain enlightenment on various religious and moral ideals, to credit and discredit such beliefs, and to generally give their opinions on such beliefs (Bentham 9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Doing the Right Thing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One might argue that such a direction would be a precipice for religious intolerance. However, such a framework would allow people to diffuse tension, and move further from extremist religious ideologies. Here, people are likely to become more liberal and less religious (Bentham 10).
According to utilitarianism, an act can be judged to be morally acceptable or not depending on the degree of happiness that such an act will bring to societal members (Mill 14). Since an engagement between politics and religion can be helpful in diffusing moral tensions in our society, help in alleviating religious extremism and contribute in creating a more tolerable society than the one that we have, such an act will be helpful in contributing to happiness among the majority of our societal members; hence, it is morally acceptable.
Law Proposal 2 I will therefore propose that we allow for the teaching of various religious beliefs to take place in our schools and other institutions. Instead of only focusing on the teaching of various religious and moral beliefs, students should be allowed to openly present their opinions on various religious matters. Such a direction must be done under an environment that respects the right of people to choose various religious and moral beliefs (which are available in our society).
Conclusion As I have discussed, I agree with Sandel’s opinions on the two issues (the distribution of wealth, and an open engagement between religion and politics) that I have discussed above. Wealth distribution is especially useful in guarding our democracy, promoting cohesiveness, and improving the welfare of the poor.
On the other hand, an engagement between politics and religion will be useful in promoting unity, tolerance and knowledge within our society. With the emerging challenges (such as poverty, terrorism, and religious extremism) that are threatening to haunt our society, it is important for our society to react accordingly by adopting the measures that I have considered in this particular discussion.
Works Cited Bentham, Jeremy, Principles of Moral Legislation ed. Michael Sandel. New York: McMillan, 2010. Print
Hansen, Chad. “Utilities” A Journal of Utilitarian Studies, 7.4 (1996): 128-218.
Maclntre, Alasdair. 2007 After virtue: a study in moral Theory. London: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print
Mill, Stuart. Utilitarianism ed. Michael Sandel New York: McMillan, 2010. Print
Nzich, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia ed. Michael Sandel New York: McMillan, 2010 Print
Rawls, John. Justice and fairness ed. Michael Sandel New York: McMillan, 2010. Print
Sachs, Jaffrey. The end of Poverty. New York: McMillan Publishers, 2011. Print
Sahar, Ben. How to Live Positively New York: McMillan Publishers, 2011. Print
Sandel, Michael. What’s the right thing to do? New York: McMillan, 2010. Print
West, Henry. An Introduction to Mill’s utilitarian ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004 Print
William, Owen, Arthur. Utilitarianism: for and against. New York: University of Cambridge Press, 1973 Print
Zauderer, Naaman. Descartes’ deontological Turn: reason, will, and virtue in the later writings. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print
Strategic Leadership Expository Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Survival of today’s business environment requires strategic leadership. Therefore, in order to gain some competitiveness in the environment it is important that each business organization must have its unique form of strategic leadership.
For that matter, strategic leadership refers to the potential of the manager to utilize good strategic plans in the employees’ management so as to influence them to achieve organizational change. Besides, the main objective of strategic leadership is to attain strategic productivity. Moreover, in order to have strategic leadership that is functional, it is relatively important to promote inventiveness and creativity in the organization in order to realize its goals and objectives.
In relation to today’s business environment, it is imperative to acknowledge that it is characterized by stiff competition. Consequently, it is therefore important for business organizations to have proactive and reactive strategic plans that seek to combat the competition.
Nevertheless, it is important that for these strategic plans to be implemented properly there is need to have strategic leadership in the organization in order to provide the much needed leadership. Strategic leadership is relevant in terms of providing vision and to ensure that business’ objectives and mission is attained. Therefore, this paper discusses approaches to strategic leadership as a way of surviving in today’s business environment
Survival in today’s business environment requires strategic leadership Survival of business in the current times requires strategic leadership. However, in order to have strategic leadership, there is need to craft effective and efficient strategic plans to drive businesses in a stiff competitive environment. For that matter, it is necessary to adopt an appropriate approach to strategic leadership to assure this survival (Watson
United Arabs Emirates Report (Assessment) essay help
Introduction The United Arabs Emirates (hereafter referred to as the UAE) was formed in 1971 as a result of a merger by seven states which included Abu Dhabi, Ash Shariqah, Al Fujayrah, Abu Zaby, ‘Ajman, Umm al Qaywayn and Dubayy (Index Mundi para. 1). Abu Dhabi is the capital city of the UAE.
Over the past few decades, the UAE has undergone a significant economic transformation. Some of the factors which have contributed to the country’s economic growth over the past 3 decades relate to availability of sufficient oil resource and global finance (Index Mundi para. 1).
During the 21st century, the UAE’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is ranked at par with those of the leading West European countries. However, during the period ranging from 2008 to 2009, the country’s economic growth was adversely affected as a result of the collapse in real estate prices and the decline in oil prices.
This situation forced a number of activists to petition the government to undertake a greater political responsibility. Over the years, the UAE has continuously adopted a moderate foreign policy stance which has enabled it to play a significant role in the economic transformation of the gulf region (Central Intelligence Agency para. 1).
This paper is aimed at conducting an analysis of the UAE’s economy on the basis of various components such as its demographics, language, currency, political system, and predominant industries. The paper also analyzes the UAE’s economy on the basis of various economic factors such as nominal GDP, GDP per capita, unemployment and budget deficit. A description of the behavior of these economic indicators for a period of 20 years is also conducted.
The paper also entails a historical analysis of the relationship between real GDP and labor productivity, real economic growth and labor productivity, real GDP and unemployment. A historical analysis of the relationship between inflation and real economic growth, inflation and money supply growth and unemployment and money supply growth is also conducted. Finally, the paper gives the relationship between the accounts in the balance of payments, average interest rates and the government budget balance.
Demographics The UAE’s society is relatively cosmopolitan which is evidenced by the composition of its population. Approximately 19% of the country’s population are Emirati while 50% are South Asian and 23% are Iranians and Arabs. The remaining 8% of the population are composed of expatriates from different countries such as East Asians and Westerners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The official language in the UAE is Arabic but some of the common languages spoken in the Emirates include Urdu, Hindu, English and Persian. Muslim is the major religion in the UAE with 96% of the citizens being Muslim while Hindu and Christians are only 4% (Central Intelligence Agency para. 5). The UAE has a national currency which is referred to as the UAE Dirham commonly abbreviated as AED (Central Intelligence Agency para. 6).
Over the past decade, the UAE has undergone a significant population growth. The UAE’s population growth is estimated to be 3.282% (Central Intelligence Agency para. 6).
In 2000, the UAE’s population was estimated to be 2, 369,153. During the period ranging from 2000 to 2006, the population of the Emirates grew at a steady rate from 2,369,153 to 2,602,713. However, from 2006 to 2007, the country’s population increased from 2,602,713 to 4,444,011 as illustrated by Figure 1. From 2006 to 2011, the population growth rate has been steady as illustrated by Figure 2. The population increased from 4,444,011 in 2007 to 5,148,664 in 2011.
Approximately 78.7% of the population are composed of individuals aged between 15-64 years. Of these, 2,968,958 are male while 1,080,717 are female. On the other hand, 20.4% of the citizens are aged between 0-14 years while 0.9% of the population are represented by individuals aged over 65 years. By 2005, the UAE’s population was estimated to be 5,148,664 (Central Intelligence Agency para. 6).
Year ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘11 UAE 2.37 2.40 2.45 2.48 2.52 2.56 2.6 4.44 4.62 4.8 4.98 5.15 Figure 2
Source: Index Mundi
We will write a custom Assessment on United Arabs Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political System Since its formation, the United Arab Emirates has managed to establish a distinctive national identity as a result of consolidation of the federal status of the seven states that form the UAE (Emirates para. 1). As a result, the UAE has managed to develop a substantial degree political stability.
The UAE’s political system is unique in that it is a combination of modern and traditional systems. By merging the two systems, the Emirates has been able to maintain, adapt and preserve the best traditions. The ultimate effect is that the UAE has succeeded to develop an effective administrative structure (Emirates para. 1). Prior to formation of the UAE, each of the states had their own political system.
To ensure success of the new state, the leaders decided to form a provisional constitution that outlined the allocation of powers to the new federal institutions. Through constitutional review, a federal system was instituted in 1996. The UAE’s federal system of government is composed of the following:
A Supreme Council
Cabinet (Council of Ministers)
Federal National Council
An Independent Judiciary
Council of Ministers
Each of the UAE’s state has its own ruler which makes it to be loose alliance. On the basis of the 1971 provisional constitution, each of the seven emirate states has reserved a number of powers and rights such as those related to control of minerals and revenues. The resultant effect shows that development of federal powers has been relatively slow (US Department of State para. 13).
Through the constitution, the UAE has established the position of the President and the Vice President who are required to serve for a 5 year term. The Council of Ministers is headed by the Prime Minister.
The Federal National Council (FNC) is composed of 40 members some of which are appointed by the rulers while others are elected by an electorate which is selected by state rulers (US Department of State para. 13). The Cabinet is selected by the President in consultation with the Supreme Council. Additionally, each of the six states has its own local government (Emirates para. 6).
Predominant Industries In an effort to attain economic growth, the UAE adopted the concept of diversification of its economy. As a result, the United Arab Emirates has attained rapid industrial development. Diversification of industries in the UAE has played a critical role in the economic success of the country. There are a wide range of industries within the federation. The most important industries in the UAE include the chemical fertilizer industry, cement industry, oil and gas, aluminum, steel and cable industries.
The UAE’s chemical fertilizer industry is a core component of the country’s economic growth. The industry’s growth arose from the foundation of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). In its operation, the industry produces approximately 1,050 metric tons of ammonia and more than 1,500 metric tons of urea. The chemical fertilizer plant was formed in 1998 as a result of a merger between International Technical Trading Company of the UAE and SQL of Chile.
Not sure if you can write a paper on United Arabs Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cement industry is ranked amongst the oldest manufacturing companies in the United Arabs Emirates. Al Ittihad Cement Company was the 1st cement factory. Other factories have been constructed at Dubai, Fujairah, Ajman, Al Ain, umm al-Qaiwain and Sharjah. By December 1998, there were 9 cement factories within the UAE.
One of the plants specializes in the production of Portland cement and another produces white cement. The capacity of 8 plants that specialize in the manufacture of Portland cement is estimated to be 9 million tones. The cement factories have provided direct employment to approximately 2,999 citizens. This represents an investment of approximately Dh 1.8 billion.
Oil and gas are the major contributors to the UAE’s Gross National Product (GNP) and hence the country’s economic growth. On a regional scale, the UAE is ranked as the 3rd largest producer of natural gas and the 4th on a global scale. The UAE has a substantial amount of oil and gas reserves which enables it to meet its domestic and international demands. Abu Dhabi oil sector accounts for 85% of the total oil produced in the UAE.
One of the factors which made Abu Dhabi to be a major oil producer is that it has both onshore and offshore oil fields. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company is charged with the responsibility of formulating oil production policies. However, oil production is conducted jointly with other international companies. The daily oil production within the UAE is estimated to be 2 million barrels. The most renowned gas and oil sectors in the UAE are located at Fujaira, Sharjah and Dubai.
The aluminum industry is also a significant component of the UAE’s economy. The aluminum industry in the Emirates also contributes to the growth of other industries such as the aerospace and automotive industries. This arises from the fact that the success of these companies depend on the availability of aluminum for them to operate effectively.
One of the largest players within the industry is Dubai Aluminum Company. The firm produces more than 861,000 metric tons of metal. The UAE has a sufficient amount of aluminum to meet both the local and international demand. Moreover, the United Arab Emirates exports aluminum to more than 40 countries.
The steel industry is also a core component of the UAE’s economy. The country has a number of steel plants, such as Ducast, International Quality Steel, Haji Siddique Foundry and Eurogulf Steel Industries.
Economic Indicators In 2010, the UAE experienced a growth in the level of net exports, investment and private consumption. As a result, its nominal GDP increased from Dh 780 billion in 2009 to Dh 843 billion in 2010. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected that the UAE’s nominal GDP will increase from $1.084 billion in 2010 to $1.402 billion in 2011 (MSN para. 1).
With regard to GDP per capita, the UAE has a relatively high GDP per capita compared to other countries. GDP per capita of a country is obtained by dividing a country’s national output by its population. In 2010, the UAE’s GDP per capita was estimated to be $ 49,600. In 2011, the UAE’s GDP per capita increased to $66,626. This represents a significant growth in the country’s GDP per capita (Index Mundi 1).
Currently, the UAE has a relatively low rate of inflation. However, the rate of inflation has been fluctuating over the past 3 years. In 2008, the UAE’s rate of inflation was 12.3% while in 2009 and 2010, the rate of inflation was 1.6% and 0.9% respectively. However, in 2011, the rate of inflation increased to 4.5%.
Prior to attainment of its independence, the UAE’s economy was mainly driven by fishing and agriculture. The discovery of oil in the 1970s led to a significant economic growth. Currently, oil accounts for more than 35% of the country’s GDP. The UAE is ranked amongst the countries with the lowest rate of unemployment in the world.
However, over the past decade, the Emirates has experienced an increment in the level of unemployment as illustrated in the chart below. By the end of 2010, the UAE’s rate of unemployment was reported to be 4.3%.
Source: Trading Economics
In 2009, the UAE had a relatively high budget deficit which amounted to Dh 126.5 billion. The high budget deficit arose from the slum in oil prices which was experienced in 2009. Additionally, the high budget deficit was also a result of an increment in the government spending with regard to development (UAE Interact 1).
In an effort to improve the country’s economic growth, the UAE’s government reduced its budget deficit to Dh 84.9 billion in 2010. In 2011, the UAE’s government projected that it would reduce its budget deficit with a margin of 53% by the end of 2012. If this is achieved, the country’s budget deficit will amount to Dh 1.82 billion (UAE Interact 1).
The percentage of the UAE’s balance of payment in relation to GDP is relatively low. By the end of 2010, the UAE’s balance of payment as a percentage of GDP was 7.7%. The chart below illustrates the trend in the country’s balance of payment as a percentage of GDP from 2000 to 2010.
Source: Trading Economics
Over the past 20 years, these economic indicators have been fluctuating as a result of changes in internal and external factors such as globalization and industrialization. Additionally, the changes in these indictors have also arisen from adoption of various economic policies. For example, from 1980 to 2010, the UAE’s average balance of payment as a percentage of GDP has been relatively stable at 9.36%.
However, the country’s balance of payment as a percentage of GDP reached its historical high in 1980 when it averaged 25%. On the other hand, the UAE balance of payment as a percentage of GDP reached its lowest level in 1994 when it averaged 0.1%. If the UAE experiences a high balance of payment as a percentage of GDP, its competitiveness in the international market declines (Trading Economics 1). This arises from the fact that the competitiveness of its products in the international market can be negatively affected.
Real GDP and Labor Productivity There is a direct relationship between real GDP and labor productivity (Arnold 360). According to Arnold (360), growth in labor enables an individual or a firm to increase the level of its output. The resultant effect is that the probability of an increment in the level of real GDP is enhanced. The chart below illustrates the relationship between Real GDP and labor productivity.
Arnold (360) further asserts that change in average labor productivity is dependent on whether the additional workers are productive compared to the existing ones. Therefore, if the additional workers are less productive, the average labor productivity will decline. On the other hand, if the additional workers are more productive, then labor productivity will increase.
Arnold (360) asserts that it is only an increment in labor productivity that can result into an increment in real GDP. Based on this relationship, it is important for economies to focus on how to improve their labor productivity. One of the ways through which they can attain this is by investing in education and training. Additionally, labor productivity can be also enhanced by increasing the level of capital investment.
Real GDP and Unemployment The relationship between unemployment and real GDP has been evaluated by a number of economists such as Arthur Okun. Okun asserted that there was an indirect relationship between real GDP and unemployment (Bell 135). In his study, Okun showed that the level of unemployment in the US during the postwar period reduced with 1% for every 2.2% growth in real GDP. Okun illustrated the indirect relationship using the formula K= (Ya-Yu)/dU.
Where Ya= actual economic growth.
Yu= unemployment stabilizing growth rate.
dU= change in the unemployment rate.
Another study conducted in Australia during the 1990s revealed that to stabilize the rate of unemployment with a margin of 1%, real GDP was to grow with a margin of 3.5% (the required rate of growth) plus 2.15% which represented the Okun coefficient. Therefore, real GDP had to grow with a margin of 5.65% annually. This relationship indicates that in order to reduce unemployment, the rate of real GDP growth has to be relatively high (Bell 135).
Real Economic Growth and Labor Productivity One of the factors that contribute to a country’s economic growth is labor. Through combination of labor and capital, a country is able to create output. To increase labor productivity, it is imperative that each individual increases his or her level of output. This stimulates the rate of growth in a country’s labor productivity. The resultant effect is that a country’s rate of economic growth is enhanced. This means that there is a direct relationship between the rate of a country’s real economic growth and labor productivity.
Inflation and Real Economic Growth According to Li (1), a country’s economic growth is adversely affected by high rate of inflation. However, the relationship between inflation and real economic growth is complex. For example, studies conducted by Easterly and Bruno in 1998 revealed that there was a nonlinear relationship between real economic growth and the rate of inflation. Findings of the study showed that at low rate of inflation, the nature of relationship was neither positive nor significant.
Li (1) further asserts that high rates of inflation have a significant and adverse effect on a country’s rate of economic growth. Additionally, studies conducted by Easterly and Bruno also revealed that some countries experienced high rates of inflation of up to 20% and 30% while their economic growth was not adversely affected.
However, when the rate of inflation exceeds a certain critical level, the rate of economic growth is adversely affected (Li 2). Inflation increases the level of uncertainty in an economy hence reducing the level of investment. The resultant effect is that the country’s economic growth is reduced.
Inflation and Money Supply According to McMahon (para. 1), there is a direct relationship between the level of money supply and the rate of inflation. McMahon asserts that an increase in money supply (M1) results in an increment in the rate of inflation. The chart below illustrates the relationship between the rate of inflation and money supply in Australia during the period ranging from1985 to 2000.
From Chart 1, it is evident that the annual increment in money supply during the period from 1985 to 2000 ranged between 5% and 10%. In 2000, the level of money supply crashed before stabilizing. From Chart 2, the direct relationship between money supply and the rate of inflation is evident especially during the 1980s. However, during the 1990s, the relationship between money supply and inflation is not clear.
This arose from the political changes that the country undertook which affected the rate of inflation (McMahon para. 1). On the basis of the relationship between inflation and money supply, it is evident that in order for an economy to attain a stable rate of inflation, it is critical that it maintains the level of its money supply at a relatively low point.
Based on this relationship, if a particular economy adjusts its money supply, the result should be attainment of its natural unemployment rate. This means that in the long run, it is possible for the natural rate of unemployment to coexist with any inflation rate. Therefore, there is no tradeoff that exists between the rate of inflation and unemployment. However, this tradeoff is only evident during the short run (Kennedy 209).
There is also a strong relationship between the accounts in the balance of payments, average interest rate, and the government budget balance. If the balance in the current account is large, a country experiences high external indebtedness. Additionally, if the amount in the current account does not balance with that in the capital account, the average interest rate is affected.
A number of empirical studies conducted reveal that there is a direct relationship between the amount accumulated in the current account and the rate of interest that a particular government pays in order to clear its debt. Historically, it has also been proved that economies have high current account deficit experience currency depreciation from time to time.
Conclusion The paper has given an analysis of the UAE on the basis of various aspects such as its demographics, population growth, predominant industries and political system. These factors make the UAE to be a viable investment destination. The resultant effect is that the country’s economic growth will be enhanced. Additionally, the UAE’s economy has been also analyzed on the basis of various economic indicators.
The paper also outlines the relationship between various economic variables such as real GDP and labor productivity, real GDP and unemployment, real economic growth and labor productivity, inflation and real economic growth, inflation and money supply and unemployment and money supply growth. Finally, the relationship between the accounts in the balance of payments, average interest rate, and the government budget balance is given.
Works Cited Arnold, Roger. Macroeconomics. New York: Cengage, 2008. Print.
Bell, Stephen. The Unemployment Crisis in Australia. Which Way Out? London: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Fact Book. Web.
Emirates. Government and Political System. 2011. Web.
IndeX Mundi. United Arab Emirates Economy Profile 2011. Web.
Li, Min. Inflation and Economic Growth: Threshold Effects and Transmission Mechanisms. Alberta: University of Alberta, 2008. Print.
McMahon, Tim. M1 Money Supply and Inflation: How Does M1 Relate to Inflation? 2009. Web.
MSN. IMF Raises GCC Growth to 7.8%. 2011. Web.
Trading Economics. United Arabs Emirates GDP per capita. 2011. Web.
UAE Interact. UAE Nominal GDP to Expand 8% in 2010. 2010. Web.
US Department of State. Background Note: United Arab Emirates. 2011. Web.
Human Resource Management Plan Qualitative Research Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Many business owners prepare a business plan before starting their business. However, many business owners often do not include human resource planning as part of their overall business plan. They may start out with only a few employees or none at all. Over time, it is important to properly forecast employment needs.
Just as failing to address potential threats in the marketplace can jeopardize the viability of a business, failing to anticipate personnel needs can impact on overall business success. The success of a business is directly linked to the performance of those who work for that business. Underachievement can be a result of workplace failures. Because hiring the wrong people or failing to anticipate fluctuations in hiring needs can be costly, it is important that business owners put effort into human resource planning (Patrick).
Planning for HR needs helps in ensuring that employees have the skills and competencies that a business needs to succeed. An HR plan works hand in hand with a business plan to determine the resources needed to achieve the business’s goals. It better prepares an organization for staff turnover, recruitment, and strategic hiring and alleviates stress when there is an emergency/last minute hiring.
The daily demands and hectic lifestyle of business owners and managers often has an unfortunate by-product: human resource planning is placed on the bottom of the list of things to be done. Failure to anticipate potential changes in an organization’s workforce often leads to last minute or ‘crisis mode’ decision-making.
Needless to say, quick fixes are no solution to long-term issues. Taking time to forecast future hiring needs today will save you time and money in the long run (Bandt
Post classical Hollywood Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Film style: ‘post – classical’
The Hollywood Renaissance
Characteristics of the New Hollywood films
Hollywood is, as Murray Smith suggests, ‘a multi – facetted creature’ and cannot be reduced to a single essence, ‘Old’ or ‘New’. Changes at one level; are related to changes at another, but there is no guarantee that they match up tidily. Much has changed in Hollywood since the ‘classical’ or ‘studio’ era, a period that is itself subject to conflicts of definition.
But a good deal has remained the same. In some cases different strategies have been used to secure more familiar ends. Sweeping definitions of ‘New’ Hollywood as something entirely different overlook important continuities and are often based on simplified generalizations about the earlier period. How do we find a way around these confusions?
We need to establish precisely what is and is not new about ‘New’ Hollywood, to identify its distinctive characteristics – sometimes contradictory – and its points of similarity with the Hollywood of the past. As a multi – faceted creature, Hollywood is shaped by a combination of forces ranging from the most local and industry – specific detail to the scale of national or global social and economic movements.
The stylistic and industrial levels of New Hollywood cinema obey their own distinctive logics, but they are far from autonomous. The industrial level sets particularly important horizons of possibility, as should be expected in a form of cultural production so strongly governed by commercial imperatives.
Hollywood remains, above all, a business. Hollywood cinema, ‘Old or New’, is regularly subjected to critical interrogation for what it tells us about the society in which it is produced and consumed. It is often taken to ‘reflect’ or ‘express’ something about its time and place. These kinds of reading can be based both on the subject matter of Hollywood films and the stylistic devices employed.
But analysis of this kind that ignores the industrial dimension can be misleading or, at least, incomplete. Do the features of a particular blockbuster reflect and or tackle issues of social concern? Or are they merely the components of a particular strategy designed to attract audiences.
The answer is probably: both, but in a manner that requires a distinct awareness of the part played by each element in the process. If New Hollywood is to be understood in terms of stylistic, industrial and socio – historical contexts – and interrelations between them – there is still no single definition available for any one of these perspectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The term gained widespread use initially to describe a wave of films and filmmakers that came to critical attention from the mid to late 1960s to the mid to late 1970s, a phenomenon also labeled as the Hollywood ‘Renaissance’. Some insist that the term Hollywood should still be reserved for this period, little more than a decade.
Subsequently, there has been applied in two additional ways. ‘New Hollywood has been used since the 1980s to define a brand of filmmaking almost entirely opposite to that of the Hollywood Renaissance: the Hollywood of giant media conglomerates and expensive blockbuster attractions. Alternatively, the term can be used to encompass both, and a broader context dating back to the 1950s, the Hollywood renaissance being viewed as one specific phase.
Film style: ‘post – classical’ Does New Hollywood cinema represent a significant shift in film style? New Hollywood style has been defined in a number of different ways, as might be expected given the existence of contradictory versions of ‘New Hollywood.’ One proposition is the New Hollywood has seen a move away from what is defined as the ‘classical’ Hollywood style.
Some have argued for the establishment of a distinctly ‘pots classical’ style. In style – oriented accounts, the term ‘pots classical Hollywood’ is often used instead of New Hollywood. The classical style forms the main point of departure of inclined definitions of New Hollywood. What, then, is ‘classical’ Hollywood style?
A brief definition will be sufficient for now, focusing on two principal aspects of the classical style. One concerns short arrangement and editing style, the other focuses on the centrality of a particular form of narrative organization. The films of classical Hollywood are in general shot and put together according to the conventions of continuity edition.
A range of different camera positions and movements are used to present the viewer with a selection of different viewpoints on the action, an approach often described as offering something close to an ‘ideal’ perspective on the key events of a scene or sequence. The conventions of continuity editing are designed to ensure a smooth and continuous flow across and between these various perspectives.
Close up shots of detail, for example, are preceded by longer ‘establishing shots’ designed to provide general orientation. The 180 degree ‘rule’, according to which the cameral should stay on the same side of an imaginary line drawn through the action in any one set – up, serves to ensure a consistency of space and direction.
We will write a custom Essay on Post classical Hollywood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Techniques such as the eye line match (cutting from the look of a character to the object of the gaze) and match – on – action (cutting in such a way as to continue a particular action across the cut) are used to link one image to that which follows. The aim is to render the editing itself largely ‘invisible’, to lead the viewer seamlessly into the sound and images but on the narrative events.
The narratives of classical Hollywood are usually characterized as quite tightly organized sequences governed by rules of cause – and – effect. Each development in the story is meant to be given careful motivation and explanation.
A post – classical style in New Hollywood has been described in terms of departure of both levels, some films of the Hollywood renaissance are characterized at both levels. Some films of the Hollywood renaissance are characterized partly by breaches of the continuity editing regime of classical Hollywood, inspired largely by thee films of the French New Wave of the late 1950s and early 1960s, some also undermined aspects of classical narratives such as the clear motivation f the actions of the hero.
A different set of departures from classical style has been identified more recently as a result of developments such as the contemporary corporate blockbuster format and the growing importance of video and broadcast media to the Hollywood economic equation. Traditional editing regimes are said by some to have been undermined by the importation into feature films of the rapid cutting and ‘shallow’ imagery advertising or MTV.
The concern of the contemporary blockbuster to offer a spectacular big – screen experience and to generate profitable spin – offs in other media, ranging from computer games to theme parks, has lead others to heralds the demise of the narrative coherence said to characterize classical Hollywood.
The Hollywood Renaissance A giant pair of red lips fills the screen. The face turns away and we see the reflection in a mirror. The distinctive arched features of Faye Dunaway half a smile as she peers into the glass before turning away. Cut to amid – shot in which Dunaway continues to turn and rises. But the match between shots is not quite right.
An instant of transition is missing. The cut is abrupt, disarming, Dunaway pouts, naked to the waist but framed above the line of breasts. She looks around her, moves to lie down on a bed. Cut to the final movement from a lower angle and a different position. Again she is not quite what we expect. Jumpy. As if a number of frames have been omitted.
Dunaway’s character grabs at a passing insect. Thumps the bedstead in frustration. She pulls herself up, head framed through the horizontal bars. A sultry pose. The camera lurches awkwardly into a big close – up on her eyes and nose, focus is lost momentarily in the process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Post classical Hollywood by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus begins Bonnie and Clyde (1967) and with it, arguably, the version of New Hollywood that became known and widely celebrated as the Hollywood ‘Renaissance’. The jump cuts and other disorienting effects are direct borrowings from the fuels of the French New wave, but used here to potent and specific effect. The impression created is one of restlessness, edginess and a palpable sense of sexual hunger and longing.
These are expressions of the state of the fictionalized character played by Dunawat, the depression era bank robber to be Bonnie Parker, but also perhaps of the moment in which the film appeared.
Parker is presented, in a few bold stylistic strokes, as a figure as barely contained by her humdrum surroundings as the opening off the film is constrained by the ‘rules’ of classical Hollywood style. She is bursting with desire to escape. So it seems, were some of the filmmakers coming to the fore in the late 1960s, along with a whole stratum of American culture and society.
The same year saw the release of The Graduate. Dustin Hofman is Bejamin Braddock, a brilliant student and track star, newly home from college and also imprisoned, if in a wealthier suburban milieu. His parents buy him a diving suit to celebrate, in which he lurks at the bottom of their swimming pool.
Another expressive image of youthful alienations and incipient rebellion. Both films were box office hits, although Bonnie and Clyde was not initially given a very wide release, two years later, in 1969, two unkempt figures high on drugs and laid back on motorcycles dispelled any doubts about whether these films were part of what was becoming significant shift within the Hollywood landscape.
The period from the late 1960s until the mid or late 1970s has gained almost mythical status in the annals of Hollywood, its advent marked usually by thee appearance and success of Bonnie and Clyde. It is remembered as an era in which Hollywood produced a relatively high number of innovative films that seemed to go beyond the confines of conventional studio fare in terms of their content and style and their existence as products of a purely commercial or corporate system.
For some, this period represented the birth (or rebirth) of the Hollywood ‘art’ film, or something very like it. For others, it was a time when Hollywood made a gesture towards the more liberal or radical forces in American society. The period if often taken as a benchmark for measuring the state of Hollywood in subsequent decades. The products of the 1980s, 1990 and early 2000s are generally found wanting by comparison. Occasional signs of intelligent life in Hollywood today are often referred back to this earlier period.
But what exactly happened in the Hollywood of the late 1960s and the 1970s, and why has it gained such resonance? A distinctive group of films did appear in this period, although exactly how far they stray from more familiar Hollywood themes and forms remains subject to debate. It was, quite clearly to some extent a product of a particular social and historical context: form the fervid of 1960s radicalism and counterculture to the icy paranoia of the pots – Watergate period.
The ability of this context to become translated into the cinema was conditioned to a large extent by developments in the industrial structure and strategies of Hollywood from the 1950s onwards. The distinctive nature of the Hollywood Renaissance also needs to be considered at the level of film style, this us related in part to the social dimension.
To question dominant myths and ideologies entails at least some departure from the formal conventions that play a significant part in their maintenance. The stylistic innovations from the Renaissance also have their own dynamic, however, traceable to sources such as the European ‘art’ film.
Characteristics of the New Hollywood films There are several aspects which made the new filmmakers to have a major characteristic. In this era, most of them were school educated. Furthermore, they were young and counterculture – bred. This team of new filmmakers who were known as the New Hollywood brought to the fore a new perspective of filmmaking. This included energy, sexuality, and an obsession for passion for films as a medium which was artistic in nature.
The emphasis of this as it is depicted in the movie Bonnie and Clyde was an emphasis on what many scholars called realism. This realism was based on character, the infusion of rock music and sexuality when it came to shooting of the films. It is worth noting that the Hollywood Renaissance films reflected what was happening at that’s particular point in time in terms of social changes which were taking place. The social context
The civil rights movement, race riots : ‘black power’. The counterculture, hippies, drug trafficking: ‘flower power’. Youth, popular music and fashion. Protests against the war in Vietnam. Student radicalization and the ‘New Left’. A new wave of feminism and demands for gay rights.
Political hopes, dreams and nightmares. Kennedy, the Kennedy assassination. My Lai, Cambodia and shooting of students at Kent state. Battles on the streets of Chicago. Nixon. Watergate. Humiliating withdrawal from Vietnam. The oil crisis and a reduced scale of global American economic power. Making connections between Hollywood movies and the times in which they appear is not as straightforward business as it might often appear.
Sometimes, however the case seems more clear cut; the times are such that they appear to be impose themselves forcefully on our consciousness, unmistakably invading the terrain of popular entertainment such as Hollywood cinema. The late 1960s and early 1970s appears to be such a time.
These were years of quite extraordinary upheaval and drama in American society. Far for everyone in America was directly involved in the events sketched above. Many probably continued to live their lives more or less unchanged. But these events had an undoubted impact on American culture, if only through their pervasive courage in the media. Single issues such as Vietnam and Watergate were potent enough in themselves.
What is most striking about the period, however, is the sheer number of crises and upheavals. Their cumulative impact in a relatively short period of time is what gives grounds for assuming a further – reaching challenge to some American values and assumptions. Images of America as a place of freedom and democracy were dented, if not more seriously damaged.
How, though, were these events reflected in the films of the Hollywood Renaissance? A major ingredient of many f these films are a foregrounding of youthful alienation and or rebellion. Bonnie and Clyde is essentially, the story of two handsome, if rather mixed up, people who seek escape from the limitations of small town life.
Their chosen pursuit, bank robbery, appears to be a means to this end, rather than an end in itself. Neither seems to be in it for the money, little of which appear to be accumulated. They do it for the hell of it, for the freedom, celebrity and sheer style offered by a life of crime. Nods are made in the direction of a ‘robin Hood’ agenda.
The point is made that Bonnie and Clyde rob the banks that are foreclosing against poor farmers. They become popular heroes but more for the fantasy of escape they enact than for any very specific action. Relevance to the youth rebellions of the 1960s is implicit rather than explicit, thee upheavals of the 1930s and the depression a loose surrogate for these of the later decade.
It is possible, at the risk of some simplification, to divide the social context of the Hollywood renaissance into two main currents. One celebrates aspects of 1960s rebellion. The other explores or manifests elements of a darker mood in which alienation leads towards fear and disillusion.
If the counterculture, ‘flower power’ and 1967’s proclaimed ‘summer of love’ represents one side of the equation, Vietnam and Watergate are pervasive reference points for the other. The two are not entirely separate, of course, ether in the history of the period or in its reflection in Hollywood.
Vietnam, especially, was a major catalyst for a host of oppositional currents, a key factor in whatever coherence is found in the various strains of 1960s alienation and radicalism in America landmark films such as Bonnie and Clyde contain elements of each, appearing almost on the cusp between one mood and the other.
The analysis The foregoing analysis should suggest some of Bonnie and Clyde’s intricate architecture. To watch this movie three decades after its premier is to be stuck by the film’s emotional generosity towards its character, its unflagging sense of the gangster’s existential absurdity, and equally, its visual panache.
Reviewers noted from the outset how the film continually throws the spectator off guard – and not just because of the sporadic outbursts of violence that confound its conception of Bonnie and Clyde as engaging, glamorous, overgrown children. The film’s fusion of American can d European “art” filmmaking was another source of spectator disorientation, albeit one Arthur Penn had previously explored in Mickey One (1964).
Although critics and devotees of the film have acknowledged Bonnie and Clyde’s complex, hybrid visual style from its premiere until the present day, it has never been documented with the benefit of a close analysis. Arthur Penn’s earlier comments suggest, the film’s visual style is closely linked to Bonnie and Clyde’s personal traits, their quirks of personality. Visual style is also, as always, a vehicle for the film’s narration.
Before considering visual style proper (editing and camerawork), it is worth pausing over the gang members’ characterizations and the way the film conveys information to the audience. Bonnie and Clyde’ varied film style is related to the contradictory traits of the gang members in the script. The script opposes Bonnie and Clyde against unusually comical representatives of convectional morality.
Essentially, this movie’s combination of amorality and childlike innocence is the major paradox of the film, and the one most closely keyed to the film’s visual style; but they also display other traits worth noting. Clyde has acute insight into people’s circumstances, but he is utterly oblivious to their thoughts.
He cannot, for example, understand why a butcher would want to kill a robber, or why Bonnie is upset with his regret over the gang’s impractical bank robbing routine rather than over their outlaw life, as they recuperate in the Moss home. Bonnie’s style consciousness (and repeated mirror checks) makes her a fashion plate (with or without a cigar in her mouth), yet she remains rooted in her poor southern milieu and is perfectly comfortable with the earthy, burping.
Like the opening sequence, this remarkable shot combines various motifs that have informed the entire film: the prevalence of rural landscapes that connote both dreariness of impoverished lives and the potential for freedom; the constricted visions and viewpoints of characters who live on the run and on the road, who contend with the advantages and limitations of mobile domesticity (the car as a dining room when they eat hamburgers with Velma and Eugene; the car as recovery room after the ambush in which Buck is fatally shot).
When the gang captured Homer, we saw him, his nose pressed to the rear window of a car, from the back seat. Now, at the conclusion of this elaborate shot, we see him from a reverse angle, looking down at his former tormentors. For all of Bonnie and Clyde’s stylistic variety, however, the film’s editing and pacing are its distinguishing features.
The building up of scenes out of quickly edited shots begins with the credit sequence; the ambush sequences in Joplin, Platte City, and Dexter pick up and extend the intense fragmentation of space and time that marked the film’s opening scene in Bonnie’s room, increasing the pace of cuts with each attack.
In the current learning dispensation, it is worth noting that teachers and students are used to thinking of letters, diaries, and newspaper editorials as primary sources, but any product of popular culture – music, magazines, television shows, commercials, websites – is potentially a primary source for the historical and social moment in which it was created. Each is a historical artifact of that particular context, influenced by and influencing the braider public consciousness and popular culture at the time.
It is no mistake that Bonnie and Clyde could have been made in 1967 but not 1947 – the film emerges from the confluence of conflicting attitudes about sexuality, violence and civic authority in 1960s America that were not part of the public consciousness in the 1940s. Hence, Bonnie and Clyde is a primary source reflecting a particular perspective on the cultural conflicts and social changes in the society and time in which it was created.
Recognizing that Bonnie and Clyde is a specific, if partial, perspective is essential to its educative value. It is not a neutral detached commentary about American society. The film sympathizes with its gangster protagonist against the establishment figures who hunt them down.
They are rebels against an exploitative American social order, in which banks and conservative elements hold all the power. Perhaps only through violence can humble people hope to claim any power and control. Early in the film, Bonnie and Clyde come across an impoverished Dust Bowl farmer whose home is being reposed by the bank that owns his mortgage. They lend him one of their guns to shoot up the house, as it is no longer his home and is instead now bank property.
When the Barrow gang is finally caught at the end of the film, the death of Bonnie and Clyde is not depicted as the triumph of justice or law over criminal recklessness: it is an ambush led by resentful authority figure, a brutal assassination of two young renegades who resisted the establishment forces of their society.
From this point of view, Bonnie and Clyde is a historical fantasy using events and characters of the 1930s to comment on the 1960s. Much like most letters or diaries, the film expresses just one perspective on its time, the perspective embraced by the film creators. Hence, the film includes only personal details about the protagonists that advance their roles as rebels against authority but not historical details that would interfere with expressing the filmmakers’ social critique.
Briely’s careful guided instructional use of film positions his students to recognize historical themes reflected by a film such as Bonnie and Clyde. He took care to mentally equip his students to watch the film in a particular way observing its distinctive perspective and not blindly accepting it as an accurate or authoritative account of Barrow gang.
This was possible only through Briely’s thoughtful planning, reinforcement through multiple sources, and scaffolding of student activities. In the Rebel without a Cause, we find a wholly different feeling associated with onscreen violence. Underlying the confrontation and the fight, called the “blade game,” which occurs after the visit to the planetarium, is atonal music, marked by odd time signatures and dissonant blaring brass.
The use if the timpani and horns, along twith the timing, give the music a Stravinsky – like flavor, as well, the music is sometimes recorded low, and, then abruptly, the recording level is raised. The dissonance imparts a brooding feeling to the scene, a sense of latent, almost muscular violence that flashes out when the brass blares or the recording level shoots up. The uneasy, unstable quality of the music serves to characterize the psychological turmoil – the play of repression and explosive release – with which the scene is concerned.
In 1956 Rebel Without a Cause had been among the most popular films at the box office, while many critics choose it as one of the best movies of the year. This had much to do with the Dean cult, which in Europe might have been less spectacular than in the United States of America, but whose long term influence on youth culture cannot be underestimated.
It remains difficult to speculate about the influence of one single cultural; product or a star, certainly upon the influence of one single cultural product or a star, certainly upon the audience. But it is astounding how the movie had been successfully released in the 1960s, and again in the 1970s, while Dean’s mood and attributes were largely taken up – as well as commercially exploited. Rebel without a casus takes place in a Los Angeles suburb.
The director, Nicholas Ray, and the scriptwriter, Stewart Stern, set off to portray the life of a contemporary American teenager. The story is organized around Jim Stark, recently arrived with his parents in the hope that their son will conform and lose his rebellious streak and take “a right step in the right direction.”
But Jim manages to get into trouble quickly. After being challenged by Buzz, the popular kid in town, to a “chickie run” (two drivers of stolen vehicles drive toward a cliff; the one that jumps out first is considered to be a chicken, that is, a coward or not a man), Jim finds himself surviving while Buzz plunges off the cliff and dies. Against his parents’ advice, Jim goes to the police to report the event, but, not finding Ray, the sympathetic officer, he knows, he leaves.
At the same time, Buzz’s friends fear that Jim has reported the event to the police and pursue him. Jim hides in a deserted mansion with Julie – who had been Buzz’s girl but couples with Jim after the chickie run – and Plato, a younger marginalized teen. Running towards the safe haven turns out badly. When Buzz’s friends and the police discover the three, Plato shoots and injures one of Buzz’s friends before running to the planetarium to hide, fearing that the police will shoot him.
Jim and Judy run after Him, and the police surround the planetarium. An alternative approach in locating the movie’s influence is to put it into a wider flow of cultural products. If we look at the European cultural debate of the 1950s, and even later, it is astonishing how important the trope of America has been. Dean’s attributes – as portrayed in its purest form in Rebel without a Cause – were often identified as another clear example of the further Americanization of Europe.
In the 20th century, America played a key role in European cultural criticism and in its theoretical mapping of art, popular culture, and modernity. Exemplifying the wider American cultural industry, Hollywood embodied ever since the 1920s the “America – as – threat” paradigm.
In many European countries, intellectuals, politicians, and cultural critics from different ideological origins were unanimous in their negative consensus around the influence of American mass culture. This debate was intensified after the Second World War and into the 1950s, when the reconstruction of Europe was accompanied by an increasing flow of U. S movies and other cultural symbols.
However, in the postwar cultural debate on Americanization, some dissenting voices were raised. The latter strongly denounced the pejorative and ideologically inflected character of the traditional elitist views upon the American popular culture, while for many young working class people and critics, American culture represented a “force of liberation against the grey critics of (British) cultural life.”
Writing about the postwar cultural development of Italy, David Forgacs argued that “from the mid – 1950s rock ‘n’ roll music……..and films like rebel Without a cause…helped give shape to a new model of youth autonomy and rebellion.” Among young people cultural symbols of Americanism were increasingly associated with modernity and a loosening of traditional authority, hence underlining its potential for models of resistance.
From this perspective, it remains interesting that throughout Western Europe, this type of controversial material from the U.S was able to whip up a vivid debate. Not only on American social and moral issues, but also on local forms – in this case – delinquency, juvenile rebellion, and so on.
Although official censors, religious classifiers and conservative parts of the press tried to resolve the ambiguity or to flatten out the critical engagement in ray’s movie, one is struck by the persistence of counter voices in the public debate – defending Rebel Without a Cause in its mood and analysis of youth’s essential rebellion and identity crisis.
It also remains astonishing how mainly European filmmakers later claimed to be influenced by this type of American movie, Rebel Without a Cause in particular. Especially in France where anti – American feelings have been so high on the cultural and political agenda – sadly, up till today – it is hard to underestimate the importance of Ray’s movie. Dean’s performance in this case can still be admired through French performance such as Johnny Halliday.
Teen films Teen films were nothing new when they enjoyed a renaissance in the 1980s. During the 1930s, Hollywood had promoted teenage stars like Deanna Durbin, Judy Garland, and Mickey Rooney. Aware of the Americans’ concern with juvenile delinquency during the 1950s, Hollywood produced a number of youth films, all of which had sexual under – or overtones. At one end of the spectrum was Rebel Without a Cause (1955).
Starring Dean, Natalie Wood and Sal Mineo as discontented middle – class suburban teenagers, the film clearly implicated the youths’ repressed sexuality in their rebelliousness. At other end the youths’ repressed sexuality in their rebelliousness. At the other end of the spectrum were pseudo exposes.
By the early 1980s, sexuality intimacy had become a convectional narrative for viewers that two characters had cemented their relationship. Either they were a couple and they were in love, or they were intensely attracted to one another physically, which could lead to either love or disaster, depending on the story.
The correlation of nudity and sex with frankness and cinematic realism that had once been associated with European films and independent American films in the 1950s and 1960s had become a Hollywood convention in PG 13 or R rated films by the end of the 1980s.
Throughout the 1980s, films consistently revealed a plurality of sexual attitudes and quite a bit of naked (especially female) flesh. Nudity or non marital sex featured in films ranging from comedies to the other genres. The substantial Americans who saw these films revealed that a lot of Americans had or were comfortable with a liberal attitude toward representations of nudity and sex, even the sexual antics of teens.
While Hollywood films could arguably be said to reflect the liberalization of attitudes towards sex in clear when a specific form of non normative sex – adultery – is an element of a film’s narrative. While majorities Americans have never expressed approval for adultery, they have not shied away from films with adulterous main characters. In conclusion, the time between 1967 and 1982 a generation of filmmakers came to the fore in America.
This generation gained prominence in this town as it was regarded as the new generation in the American film industry. The classic example was the 1967 movie Bonnie and Clyde. The introduction of this move led to a new way of producing and marketing the Hollywood movies.
Historically speaking, the advent of television and the court decisions which led to the end of studios’ which were near monopoly control, Hollywood studios had to find a new way of producing films and maintain the kind of profits that they had been used to.
Some of the new advances which were made during this time included technical advances such as Cinemascope and the famous stereo sound among others. This was done with the intention of ensuring that the audiences did not dwindle from their productions. Essentially, the 1950s and 1960s film production had a major characteristic which was musicals, historical epics among others.
Reference List Friedman, LD 2000, Arthur Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde, illustrated edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
King, G 2002, New Hollywood cinema:an introduction, illustrated edn, I.B.Tauris, New York.
Marcus, AS 2010, Teaching history with film:strategies for secondary social studies, illustrated edn, Taylor
Comparing Sweden Immigration Policy with German Immigration Policy Compare and Contrast Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Immigration policies in Germany and Sweden
Introduction Among the many policies established by various nations, immigration policies are some of the states’ laws that have many biases attached to them. Aristide defines immigration policy as “any policy of a state that deals with the transit of persons across its borders into the country especially those that intend to work and remain in the country” (2006, p.23).
A country may choose to prohibit the transit of people across its borders or rather permit free movement of people. However, as priory mentioned, even in situations of free immigration, the state must establish some criterion of distinguishing people who fit from those who do not. One of such biasness may entail the issuance of a directive to permit the admission of citizens belonging to a given multi or bilateral form of an organization such as commonwealth amongst others.
More often, scholars have criticized immigration policies based on what characterizes them: religious or even racial prejudices. As Herrera and Moualhi posit, “In liberal-democratic polities, the question of ‘who makes immigration policy’ evokes the question of the extent at which those policies mirror the preferences of a majority of citizens, or rather those of small interest groups” (2004, p.1).
The most preferred answer being to foster multiculturalism attitude in the formulation and implementation of the immigration policies within a country. With this in mind, the paper scrutinizes the Sweden and Germany immigration policies. The focus lies on unveiling the imminent racial inequalities that characterize these two countries coupled with conducting an examination of how recent social policy contributed to maintaining or reducing the inequalities.
Immigration policies in Germany and Sweden Over the years, immigration has constituted a global phenomenon worth regulating by enacting various state policies. While not negating permanent immigrants, the immigrants’ population constitutes both temporally, frontier and seasonal workers. Disguised as one of these legally acceptable immigrants, the immigrant population also comprises of illegal immigrants and asylum seekers who may or may not be legally recognized.
As Luciani Posits, “In Europe, new flows into the traditional countries of emigration such as Italy, Spain and Portugal have supplemented the long established migration patterns from ex colonies to the UK and France, and of Turks to Germany” (1993, p.59). Over the decades, both eastern and central Europe have experienced ardent political changes that have in turn resulted to the creation of magnificent immigration pressures among the citizens.
Whether Sweden or Germany, most of the immigrants come from developing nations. The developing nations faced the challenges of the high population growth rates, which outweigh the rate at which their governments can create employment opportunities. Consequently, immigration acts like a safety valve, which has significant advantages in terms of provision of employment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this end immigration is somewhat influential in that “Remittances can be a significant source of foreign exchange, while returning migrants may bring capital and skills to foster economic growth” (Luciani 1993, p.57). In this context, immigration stands as a critical mechanism for ensuring free movement of capital and skills across the globe: something that is necessary for maximization of global welfare.
However, the maximization of global welfare through encouraging immigration faces critical challenge since as Esping-Anderson argues, “”labor is unable to withhold itself for long without recourse to alternative means of subsistence” (1990, 37). Unfortunately, economic forces are not the only determinants of immigration policies: politics plays significant roles in setting of immigration policies.
“The receiving countries’ immigration policies determine the scale of immigration flows…it is their national economic evaluation of the costs and benefits that is central to understanding this phenomenon” (Luciani 1993, p.70).
West Germany had made incredible endeavors to make a rotation of the immigrant labor policies through the “guest workers” system. This system had experienced a remarkable failure since, as Krauss and Baumol (1979) reckon, it did not “prevent the emergence of a permanent immigrant community which exceeded 10% of the workforce one quarter of which was Turkish” (p.37). The year 1967 through 1968 saw Germany experience a recession.
When Germany encountered an oil prices shock in 1973 through 1974, a reason for alteration of its policies including immigration policies was necessary. One of such a wave of changes entailed increment of permits for the primary immigration coupled with conduction of foreign labor recruitments by November 1973. At around the same time, “the number of permits for relatives of existing migrants was increased effectively recognizing the failure of the rotational system” (Luciani 1993, p.67).
Recessions constituted one of the rationales behind the implementation of more rigid immigration controls in Germany then. However, as Hansen posits, “the available evidence of unemployment rates amongst unskilled workers (approx. 0.1%) suggests other political considerations were of greater importance than the state of the labor market” (1993, p.90). In this context, the forces of demand and supply never influenced the inflow of immigrants.
This is perhaps shifts from believe that “Within the market, the liberal dogma of freedom appears justified: the worker can freely choose between alternative utilities, jobs, employers, and leisure trade-offs” (Esping-Anderson 1990, pp.36-37). There were jobs opportunities that emerged with the onset of high industrialization.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing Sweden Immigration Policy with German Immigration Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigrants were required to fill these job opportunities and not those held by the natives. Tantamount to Germany, in 1970s, Sweden also faced the dilemma of whether to permit free immigration or not. In 1972, Sweden had deployed strategies that ensured the reduction of the emigration permits. It also heralded foreign labor immigration recruitments.
Arguably, the need to reserve employment opportunities for the native population may not have amply explained the initial early 1970s immigration controls, followed by maintenance of the same. The evident increment of the unemployment at around the same time in West Germany is a sufficient justification of the claim. Consequently, an alternative explanation of the alteration of the policies may lie on the concerns confined to social repercussion of the immigrant community.
Additionally, the immigrant population exerted immense pressure on the limited social amenities such as health, social, education and the security services. As Hansen (1993) posits, “Pressure from trade unions feared that immigrants would depress wages, consequently, displacing their members in employment” (78). These two latter concerns rely on the economic concerns for permitting free immigration.
On a larger extent, the early 1970s strategies to curtail immigration were somewhat successful. Unfortunately, a substantial drawback was evident in maintaining the population of the immigrant communities within certain prescribed levels. The natural reproduction rates for the immigrant communities were much larger in relation to the native German communities.
In this end, Molle and Mourik (1988) note that “while the European fertility rate is approximately 1.6 children per woman below the replacement ratio of 2.1, that of Tunisian women resident in France was 6.19 and by 199210% of all births were to parents of foreign origin in Germany, Belgium, France and the UK” (p.79). This scenario was much similar to what was happening to Sweden. It was then necessary for the immigrant communities to adjust their birth rate to match that of European nations.
Sweden is the largest country that forms the Nordic countries in terms of population. Westin (2006) notes that “with a population of nine million it is one of the smaller members of the European Union, which it joined in 1995” (Para 1). The rapid extension of the public sector in the 1950-60 was widely necessitated by the by the immigrant labor recruitments which give an extra advantage in that it provided extra tax base.
In this extent, it is perhaps ample to pose a query as to whether the immigrants are equal citizens to the native citizens. With the need to foster multiculturalism and shunning from racism, many nations would argue that their immigration policies are free from these negatives.
However, as evidenced by Sweden, “a number of social indicators show that people of migrant origin have considerably higher rates of unemployment than native Swedes and that they are more heavily dependent on social welfare benefits” (Westin 2006, para.2). This gives an indication of state accepted inequalities between immigrant communities and the Swedes, though amplified by historical social policies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparing Sweden Immigration Policy with German Immigration Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The time 1949 to 1971 marked an essential period in the emergence of Sweden immigration policies. During this period, there were policies that permitted free entry of people from Finland and southern Europe nations. At his time majority of the countries in the Western Europe were out looking for additional labor.
The massive growth of the Swedish export market by 1940s perhaps signaled the issue. In 1950 to 1960s, Sweden had permitted large-scale migration of people of Finland origin. Westin (2006) approximates that “a total of 550,000 Finns migrated to Sweden during this time” (Para 10). Unlike Germany in 1970, Sweden never set up guest workers program to curtail immigration. Rather rate of immigration was at the peak in the 1970 in Sweden.
In fact, Westin (2006) adds, “Unlike other Western European countries, Sweden had a policy of permanent immigration that treated these labor migrants as future citizens” (Para. 11). In 1970s, the government dedicated a lot of time to dialogue with Swedish trade union (LO) on the significance of conducting recruitment of foreign labor. However, the immigrants were to get a Swedish-like treatment.
Westin reckons that “the LO and the government struck a consensus that “importing cheap labor would not be allowed and that foreign workers were to enjoy the same wage levels and rights as Swedes, including access to unemployment benefits” (2006, Para. 13). In this regard, the government wanted the most ideal situation free from prejudices based on race or any other social discriminating trait against the foreigners as compared to the native Swedes.
Apart from the labor recruitment executed by industrial based companies, an increasing number of immigrant flowed into Sweden. This was not a problem to the nation in as much as these immigrants found jobs. Lack of solid policies to contain and controlled immigration in 1960s made Sweden authorities unaware of expanding immigrant flows.
However, by 1967, immigration law was underway with the intension of slowing down the immigration rate especially where recruiting companies did not directly sponsor it.
Brubaker (1990) adds that “Many Western European countries began to consider curbing labor migration in the early 1970s, with most programs stopping around the time of the 1973 oil crisis with Sweden officially ended labor migration from non-Nordic countries in 1972” (p.340). However, the Sweden immigration polices continued to permit free entry of the asylum seekers in the period starting from 1972 to 1989.
Sweden is perhaps one of the nations that have arguably endeavored through its immigration policies to guarantee equal treatment of immigrants and it native residents. As a way of example, in 1972, Idi Amin expelled from Uganda people of Asian origin who went latter seeking asylum globally.
While Canada and the US accepted some of the well-educated refugees, they accommodated the rest in the European countries of which Sweden had its share of about 1000. To reinforce this argument further, Westin (2006) notes that, in 1973, “some 5,000 refugees from Chile were accepted after the coup against Chilean President Salvador Allende in 1973…Approximately 6,000 refugees from Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru also came to Sweden” (Para 15).
Still, on religious grounds, Sweden never prejudiced the immigrants who sought refuge. Refugees from Middle East: mainly Islamic in origin, between 1970s and 1980s found sound homes in Sweden. Additionally, Christian Syrians ran for asylum in Sweden in fear of religious persecution.
In 1990s, in fear of persecution and humiliation of the Saddam Hussein dictatorial regime, Sweden also accommodated many Iraqis. However, this immigration rate was alarming making the government make certain provisions in the immigration policies to help curb and or reduce the immigration rate.
One of the changes was only to give asylum based on humanitarian grounds. Such an approach “allowed the immigration authorities to appease liberal critics who felt that Sweden was not doing enough to live up to its commitments to the UN” (Aristide 2006, p.47). Through not appreciating the asylum seekers as being refugees as defined in the UN convection, the refuges did not get certain rights including protection rights.
Amid the immigration controls of 1972s, recruitment of laborers from countries not belonging to the Nordic regions were tremendously dwindled. Nevertheless, refuges, coupled with their family members, had permanent residence permission into Sweden. This resulted into a chain migration.
The flow of refugees into Sweden was critical. Hence, a policy was to be in place to control the flow rate. The government did not put its intents to curtail the inflow of refuges into the country.
All it did was “to rule that political asylum applications filed in December 1989 or later would be treated strictly in accordance with the 1951 Geneva Convention; humanitarian grounds for asylum would no longer be used” (Taguma, Kim, Brink
The Formation of the TSA and the Effect on Air Travel Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction The famous terrorist attack on the Twin Towers on September 11 of the year 2001 in the US was a key event that heighted the security awareness concerning the susceptibility of the transport modes especially the air travel. As a result, airport security came out as a very significant aspect of the overall discussion of global security as specifically the US homeland security. Millions of cargos reach various places through aircrafts every day.
Without air travel, the world might come to a halt. The aviation security addresses all the potential threats like unlawful acts affecting civil air transport. The September 11 attacks resulted to a huge loss in all aspects: loss of lives, crushed economy and transportation threat. This paper offers a perspective of the formation of the transport Security Administration (TSA), as well as its impact on Air travel. It also highlights the evolution of TSA in conjunction with the laws that empower it to function effectively.
Evolution and Impact Air Security before TSA
Before the formation of TSA, private security contractors were the only managers of air travel security. The performance of these contractors was doubtable long before the 9/11 attack, which saw 19 hijackers get on board with knives and box cutters seizing control of the plane to cause the fateful tragedy.
In only two months, TSA came into being to allow the government to have more oversight on national security after the incidence (U.S. General Accounting Office 3). The federal government also listed all the items that were henceforth not worth carrying with planes. Before then, the private security contractors would bid on the security jobs at airports and then conduct the screening to detect threats once given the job. In 1980s, these private contractors introduced dogs because of increased drug trafficking.
This heightened the war on drugs. However, the private security systems had many loopholes. For instance, they were to make a 100% check of cargo on passenger planes according to the US policy (U.S. General Accounting Office 3). The belly cargo on the same plane, however, did not undergo major screening.
Before the famous 9/11 incidence, the United States of America had a relaxed and reckless security process. The security personnel only relied on simple means of questioning and looking for security threats. The ticket agents would only ask the passengers for the tickets. They would interrogate whether the passenger packed the bag him/herself or whether the passenger had obtained any item form a stranger or not (U.S. General Accounting Office 3). After that, the passenger would go through the metal detector machine after emptying their pockets. They placed keys, coins, pens and probably a pocketknife on a tray, which goes through the screening machine.
Simply put, the main tools for security detection were X-ray machines and metal detectors for domestic flights. Only the international flights luggage was x-rayed. Otherwise, the rest of the luggage once inspected was not to go through the X-ray machines (U.S. General Accounting Office 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, meals served on the planes had a metal dinner knife accompanying them. However, the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers was a shock, exposing the security loopholes in the then existing system (Sweet 34). There, the US congress had to intervene very urgently, and, consequently, issue an order to the Transport Security Administration to enhance the security screening to check luggage and even conduct impromptu searches.
The terrorist attack caused few critical changes (Sweet 34). The security system then ruled that it was necessary to ban all items that could serve as weapons. Consequently, it banned box cutters, pointed knives, screwdrivers and other cutting tools on both local flights and international flights. Security was intensified. By the end of 2002, X-ray machine screened all bags checked at the 450 Nation’s airports for explosives.
In 2004, another progressive law came requiring that passenger jackets, even those without metals, to go through an X-ray machine (ATSA 1). Some passengers would undergo a random secondary screening. The new measures permitted the security officers to conduct pat-down searches on the passenger whenever necessary based on the observed opinion (Sweet 34). This search was only for the passengers selected for the secondary screening.
It was to boost the checkpoint screening. The TSA approved the procedures as part of its effort to enhance and expand the technology use for screening for explosives across the country (ATSA 1). Even though it was not obligatory to remove shoes during these checks, passengers could remove shoes for x-ray screening especially when they trigger magnetometers because of steel shanks.
Formation of TSA The Transport Security Administration (TSA) is the United State’s Official security agency handling the security system in all ports. It enforces transport security laws. This agency saw its dawn following the passing of the Transport and Aviation Security law by the congress in 2001.
This followed the incidence when the US’s security exposed itself to be in jeopardy following the attack on Twin Towers (ATSA 1). On November 2001, the congress responded urgently to security breach by establishing the law that created the Transportation Security Administration. At the time of its formation, the TSA was under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transport. Later on in March of 2003, the agency moved to the docket of Homeland security (Sweet 42).
The US internal security enhanced its security by tightening the transport system laws. This was an issue of great urgency since 2001. The law enacted by Congress is famously known as the ATSA, the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001. Following its formation, the roles and responsibilities of TSA were making sure that all the transport modes were secure from any potential terrorist threat.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Formation of the TSA and the Effect on Air Travel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While still under the department of transport, TSA continued strengthening its procedures and administrative strategies (ATSA 1). It also organized its structure and laws to deal with the long-term challenges of improving security measures to a level that does not inhibit commerce and convenient travel, or even not to hamper with other important missions by the same agency.
On 25 November 2002, the congress passed another law, which saw the TSA transferred from the Transport department to the Department of Homeland security. It still assumed the overall responsibility it had under the transport department (U.S. General Accounting Office 4).
TSA now works to ensure travel security in every transport mode. Because people consider airport transport security as the most risky and a target by terrorists for attacks (ATSA 1), TSA focuses on air travel. The security system was tightened because the attack on the US was something unanticipated, though it happened.
The event proved that terrorists were ready to go any length to fight the US and cause deaths of innocent citizens (Sweet 56). The act gave the agency the power to oversee all transportation security details. Because of its risky and vulnerability state, TSA focuses on the aviation security. It remains responsible for security in all other modes of transport like maritime, rail, and highway among others. The act also gave the agency powers to hire and organize federal passenger screeners (U.S. General Accounting Office 4).
Since the creation of TSA, security has improved a great deal. Before its employment into the airport security, the TSA had to conduct a backround search for criminal record of the potential employee. This measure is applicable to all the employees at the airport, as well as the police officers. The cockpits have undergone fortification, as luggage undergo double-checking (ATSA 1). Today, there is a full-body search.
However, this has inspired controversy because it is demeaning when the security people take, store, and use a nude picture of the traveler. Besides, refusal to that can cause the person to face a pat-down search. This allows the security personnel to pat down the passenger’s buttocks, inner thighs and even breasts using its hands (U.S. General Accounting Office 4).
The other important act related to the TSA security system is the Patriot Act of 2002. The 107th congress introduced several legislations following the attacks. Together with the ATSA, there was also the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act. This law required the State department and the Department of immigration to share visa information and immigration data between the two institutions (ATSA 1).
The patriotic act gave America the opportunities for sharing information. This forms the basic instruments that the government can use to connect the dots, identify American air travel risks, and appreciate liberty. After the loss of many lives at the world trade center, it is evident that prevention is necessary and effective. The Patriot Act gives Americans the technology necessary for anticipating, adapting and outthinking the terrorists (ATSA 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Formation of the TSA and the Effect on Air Travel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How TSA Accomplishes its Mission Grants: As the terrorist threat continues to increase, the need to offer safer public transport has also increased. TSA offers security grants to all the modes of transport. The grants help in maintaining the high-end security processes with efficiency, thus, reducing the risk considerably.
Law enforcement: The basic mission entails protecting air passengers and the aircraft crew. Under the entity of the TSA, the federal air Marshals work as the main law enforcers extending their services to the homeland security. They also work in liaison with other law enforcement bodies. The federal air marshal crew is committed and properly trained. It has a great potential of keeping the aviation travel safe and secure.
There is a department of specially trained personnel often deployed on board in each aircraft (U.S. General Accounting Office 5). They offer security protection to the passengers and crew. In order to detect some dangerous things that passengers can hide such as baggage, TSA has a program of training canine dogs for detecting explosive. Besides, TSA trains most of the crewmembers in self-defense and panic management skills (U.S. General Accounting Office 5).
Layers of Security: As national security is of greatest significance, there are several lines of security measures run by TSA. Transport security officers work at front end in the airport checkpoints.
This forms merely one of the security lines. The measures are also very rigid: able to block potential threat (U.S. General Accounting Office 6). As there are several lines of security, safeguarding experiences some reinforcement forming a formidable structure. Gathering of intelligence and analyses, checking travelers, and random canine searches are examples of these convoluted security systems.
Security Screening Partnership Program: TSA has introduced a program where the security screeners can request private contractors to conduct screening under the watch of the federal authorities (U.S. General Accounting Office 5). This is the Opt-Out or simply the screening partnership. This breaks the monotony of TSA security doing the same thing repeatedly, as they can lose some clues because of routine. This also exploits new TSA technology combined with private sector knowledge.
Screening: each year, over 600 million passengers use air travel with millions of bags. It is the role of TSA to screen all these passengers with their luggage. Since all the local and international passengers are screened when they use the US airports, the screening manages to avert any threat of terrorist activity (U.S. General Accounting Office 6).
Changes that TSA has effected After its (TSA) formation in 2001, the threat of terrorism became more real than ever. The US government conducted a number of changes in its air travel system, especially the processes of screening passengers and their baggage.
For instance, the aircrafts instructed all their passengers to report to the airport two hours in advance of the departure time of the local or domestic flight. After going through the security checkpoints, the passengers are normally selected at random for the additional screening (U.S. General Accounting Office 7). This secondary screening includes searching their luggage, and carry-on items in the boarding area.
In December 2001, there was an incidence where one of the passengers tried exploding a bomb from his shoe while on the plane. This caused panic. Since then, security screeners have asked passengers to take off their shoes for screening at the checkpoints (Fredrickson, and Laporte 33). Numerous changes have taken place.
They are already evident in the preceding paragraphs. This part focuses on two major changes that are pertinent in security screening changes effected since 2001. These two items include the federalization of the passenger screening processes and the second screening of checked luggage for explosives (Fredrickson, and Laporte 33). Essentially, these two changes are the most notable of the changes in regulatory policy that came after 9/11. The goal is to improve airline security for safe travel and commerce.
Federalization of Passenger Screening Transport Security Administration officially took the mantle of handling the airport security in February 2002. When TSA took over, it maintained the private security screeners from the previous contractors.
Nonetheless, after seven months, TSA hired its own employees who began conducting these screening activities immediately (Fredrickson, and Laporte 33). The changes began taking effect in the Baltimore-Washington International Airport on 30 April 2002, reaching a conclusion on 19 November 2002 having covered all the US commercial airports.
TSA instituted three main changes to attempt to improve the effectiveness of security screening practices. The first measure was to increase the staff so that waiting time could register a reduction since this screening process caused congestion. Before these changes, the US airports had only employed 16,200 private security personnel for screening (Fredrickson, and Laporte 33).
All these screeners only screened passengers. After initiating the changes after the formation of TSA, over 56,000 new screeners were employed to screen both passengers and luggage. The second change made was the increasing of the compensation for the screeners.
Regardless of the changes instituted by the new agency, the operation of this new system encountered many problems in the resource allocation in the TSA’s operations of screening the passengers and baggage. Previously, TSA allocated screeners in various airports based on the volume of travelers that each airport handled, as well as the number of screening lines (Fredrickson, and Laporte 35).
This queuing led to thousands of passengers standing around in the main connecting airports. The passengers did not go through the screening lines fast enough because of the shortage on screeners in some airports.
Other screeners were idling. In reaction to the concerns about imbalance and the overstaffing issue, TSA had to reduce its screeners to only 45,300 by the beginning of 2004. Nonetheless, the reduced workforce and the problems of hiring other screeners have resulted to understaffing causing airport to have long waiting queues, flight delays and even some passengers missing their flights.
Baggage Screening Contrary to the process of screening passengers before the 9/11 incidence, there was no clearly designed system for screening luggage. Because of these problems, only about 5% of the luggages carried on the planes were screened. The creation of TSA brought about critical changes where screening took place in two stages. Effective from 16 January 2002, all airlines had to adopt positive bag matching where each luggage checked was matched to a passenger boarding the plane. To screen-check luggage for explosives, the following methods came in handy:
the explosive Detection Systems EDS,
explosive trace detection – ETD
bomb-sniffing canines and
physical search of the luggage
The size of the EDS machines is comparable to an SUV size. It can process 150-200 bags per hour. However, its probability of generating false positive is about 30% of the screened bags. The ETD machines are smaller. They are labor intensive because the screeners have to place a swab from every bag in another machine that conducts the analysis.
The congress mandated the TSA to install the EDS machines in every commercial airport in the US by the end of the year 2002. Most of the airports could not manage installing these machines by the deadline. However, they had the permission to use the alternative methods of screening. However, in January 2003, about 90% of checked baggage was checked through an electronic checking system, not the manual process. The remaining percentage was checked by matching passenger lists, sniffer dogs or by hand searching.
Today, the TSA baggage screening process occurs in three different ways. Most of the checkpoints have a design that lets passengers to check in first, proceed to the ticket counter and then pick up their baggage from the screening area after passing through the EDS machines.
In many of the other airport checkpoints, the passengers take their baggage for screening before proceeding to the ticket counter to check-in (Fredrickson, and Laporte 35). In every case, when the electronic screening technology indicates explosives or other prohibited substances, the luggage goes through manual screening.
This takes more time. Many people have recently complained that it took a lot of time, even destroying passengers’ properties. With whichever system, the luggage screening procedure needs extra time and the effort of the passenger’s part (Fredrickson, and Laporte 36).
Very few airports have the ‘in-line EDS’ in place or already installed. This does not require extra time neither does it cause much inconvenience to passengers. With the in-line EDS, the passengers take minimal time because they need to simply walk in and hand over their ticket and luggage to the airline agents, as it is already checked when the agents pass it through the EDS machine.
The passenger does not see when the checking of the luggage is dome. He/she proceeds to the passenger screening area and wait for a short while to pick his/her luggage (Lawrence 19). TSA had already distributed over one thousand and one hundred EDS’ machines in the main checkpoints across the country and over 7,200 ETD machines in major airports.
The Impact of the Security Checks on Travel The effects that the new laws brought in by the formation of the famous TSA are numerous. The impact that the security process has had on air travel demand is vague. On one side, the stringent measures implemented have made air travel very inconvenient because of the queues and checks that some people deem very intrusive.
However, some people claim that there is safety in air travel and that it is very satisfying when traveling on a plane with an assured safety (Lawrence 21). The terror attack on the US in 2001 resulted to the worst inconvenience where the passengers have to report two hours before time of departure even for the local or domestic flight. In the same line, the random searchers often carried out by the security personnel on selected travelers and their baggage is unfair.
Some critics view the banning of certain items on the place like nail clippers, which are seemingly harmless as exaggerated measures (Lawrence 25). The overall repeated scrutiny reduces the convenience of taking a flight since the bad people or terrorists form only a very small fraction for travelers- in fact negligible. These arguments by some people have been countered with the idea that anyone feeling that the inconvenience is too much to bear must be blind, and must have not learnt valuable lessons from the twin tower attacks.
Increased security checks could be inconvenient. However, they are for a worthy cause because people’s lives and property damage that can come from reckless security checks could be dire. Millions worth property could be damaged with hundred losing their lives. Airliners also complain that the delays in security check has cost them millions of money especially for the lost ticket revenue since business people can opt to forego the check and stay home (Fredrickson, and Laporte 42).
On the opposite side, it is possible that the passengers are overjoyed by the security measures. A number of studies conducted since the initiation of TSA indicate that passengers are willing to endure more time or higher ticket prices to feel safe after the security scrutiny. Furthermore, there are studies, which have supported the TSA claim that security measures put in place since 2001 have increased the passengers confidence in taking flights.
They consider them safer than before. With the increased confidence in the domestic and international airline’s security, the demand for air travel will gradually grow (Fredrickson, and Laporte 42). Addressing the issues more specifically at the screening of the luggage, the ex-Ante implications are vague.
When the safety of the passengers is increased, the demand air travel will increase. Nonetheless, by demanding extra time, input of the passengers, and increasing the chances of loosing items or damaging some properties, the baggage screening cuts down the demand for air travel, as it is inconvenient.
The impact of luggage screening changes with the size of the airport. When the passengers are many, congestion results and their luggage are numerous also. The reports from the capacity of the machines to handle numerous bags are not encouraging. These machines often fail to cope with the flow of the baggage in most big airports.
On the other hand, the large airports are more flexible. They have the resources for minimizing passenger disruptions. Looking at the busiest airports, the TSA screening is ambiguous. TSA is considered more rigorous than the previous private contractor system (Fredrickson, and Laporte 41). These processes need more time and are inconvenient for passengers to go through at the checkpoints.
On the other hand, with the enhanced screener quality and the more staff employed by TSA, the issue of nuisance may have been greatly resolved. Moreover, there are some evidences showing that the idea of federalized airport security search has boosted passengers’ confidence in the air security. A considerable number of travelers prefer the TSA screeners instead of the private contractor screeners. It is agreeable that current passengers feel safer when taking flight across America or even outside America.
Challenges Facing TSA Several effects that TSA has had in Air travel have sparked a great deal of criticism. One is the idea of profiling the clients. This remains a subject of discussion with majority of public opinions claiming that profiling of air travel is unethical and that it violates their privacy rights.
Many who held such views before the 9/11 have since changed their minds on it (Lawrence 23). People have applied several other approaches like matching the luggage to a watch list that bears the list of passengers.
There has also been the use of computers in computer-assisted pre-screening. However, it was shut down because of intrusion of privacy. Airlines have even come up with No-fly list, which prohibits certain individual from travelling by air. However, the problems have been that, different people have similar names.
They can be denied flight inappropriately. Senator Ted Kennedy has suffered this problem once (Lawrence 23). There are some cases when the TSA could have the right name on the No-fly list but end up with the wrong person. This is an abuse of the human rights by being intrusive and causing public humiliation.
Privacy issues: most of the travelers are unhappy with the screening process. Sometimes the TSA personnel conduct very aggressive searches on certain individuals. In 2004, the new TSA policy for random searches on selected individual, in some cases leading to pat-down in full public view, has been very inappropriate. Some female clients often burst into tears following thorough frisking.
Customers could have already initiated lawsuits against this if TSA was a private body rather than a federal agency. This has made the agency unaccountable to the people (Lawrence 23).
Long queues: Because of the long process of screening, it requires early arrival at the checkpoints. This results to long waiting lines, as people undergo the screening together with their baggage. For advance checks, the passenger has to apply if she/he is a frequent flyer. He/she pays a fee for that in advance.
This individual then fills an application form and gives biometric data including iris identification and fingerprints. The person’s information then undergoes crosschecking with the federal law enforcement and intelligent database. This process is like dealing with a suspect already. At the end of the day, they are waiting on the queue. Trying to avoid it is similarly hectic (Lawrence 23).
Conclusion Overall, the big question still remains, is America safer today? The ability of the Transport Security Administration systems to prevent crucial crimes of terror in the air travel industry has been better than the period before 9/11. Therefore, the position of the American air travel security, as it stands today, is that the country is much more secure and safer than it was before the 9/11 incidence.
Following the millions and millions of expenditure on the new technology, policies and processes of bettering security, the country is more secure (Lawrence 23).
Today, the US has better intelligence, better technology, better coordination, and improved communication. The airports are prepared to alert the travelers of any threats while at the same time prepared to deal with the threat. However, this does not take away the main vulnerabilities, especially the cargo, mass transit and general aviation (Lawrence 23). Therefore, there is the need for risk analysis to address these vulnerabilities.
Works Cited ATSA. Aviation and Transportation Security Act, Pub. L. 107–71, 115 Stat. 597. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.
Fredrickson, George and Todd Laporte. “Airport Security, High Reliability, and the Problem of Rationality.” Public Administration Review 62.1(2002): 33-43.
Lawrence, Harry. Aviation and the Role of Government. Orlando: Barnes and Noble, 2003. Print.
Sweet, Katherine. Terrorism and Airport Security. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2002. Print.
U.S. General Accounting Office. Aviation Security – – Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges, GAO-02-971T. Washington, D.C.: Word Press, 2002. Print.
Psychological Tests Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of tests
Users and uses of tests
Reliability and validity
Introduction Psychological testing is sampling an individual’s behavior with the aim of determining characteristics such as attitude, enthusiasm, interests, needs and value. Psychological tests are strictly controlled and scored according to fixed set of rules that give numeric classification. From psychological tests it is possible to establish the knowledge one has on a particular subject.
Types of tests Mental ability test: This relies on cognitive functions such as intelligence, memory and creative thinking. It is divided into individually administered tests and group administered tests.
Achievement test: This is aims at determining an individual’s level of knowledge in a specific subject. This test is classified into five: The batteries test, single subject test, government sponsored test and individual achievement test. Only the latter is individually done while the others are done in groups.
Personality Test: This is measures human character or disposition. Personality tests are grouped into two, the objective personality test and projective personality test. The objective test has direct answers as the respondent only has to answer either true or false. The projective test on the other hand is ambiguous and the respondent has to answer unstructured questions.
Interest and attitudes tests: These include the vocational interest measures which aid in searching of employment opportunities. The attitude scales measure an individual’s attitude towards issues such as capital punishment (Hogan, 2007).
Neuropsychological Test: this is health related and yields information about brain functioning. This test is widely applied in these aforementioned tests as the brain function is a major cause of personality.
The speed vs. power tests: This analyzes how an individual performs simple tasks in a specified amount of time. A power test involves complicated material that is delivered with no limitation on the time.
The individual vs. group tests: An individual test is administered to one person at a given time. The response of the person is recorded and used to evaluate his or her psychology. Group tests, conversely, are discussion questions given to groups of people.
The maximum vs. typical performance tests: Maximum performance test looks for the best the individual performs a given task. Typical tests on the other hand test for the personality of the person without them trying harder to maximize their ability.
Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced tests: Norm-referenced tests use a generalized percentile. The criterion-referenced tests emphasizes on individual performance as indicated by set standards and not how the performance compares to other people who sat the test.
Users and uses of tests There are four categories of uses of tests: Clinical use, educational use, personnel use and research use. In clinical use, tests are employed in clinical counseling or neuropsychology by psychological counselor or a neuropsychologist. A clinical test helps in identification of psychological problems of patients and determines the most efficient way solving the problem.
Educational uses are applied by teachers, educational administrators and parents, primarily to determine the efficiency of the learning process. Achievement tests show students’ competence and grades the students (Hogan, 2007). They may also be used to predict the success of the educational measures applied to a student.
Personnel use is common with users such as the military and businesses. Initial tests are done to select the most qualified individuals i.e., the individuals most likely to be successful in fulfilling the institution’s requirements. After selection, tests are done to assign the selected individuals to tasks they are likely to perform best.
The use of psychological tests in research is divided into three. First as a definition of the dependent variable, wherein, the tests are used to define specific features of research. Secondly, tests are used to describe the samples collected in research. Thirdly, they are used to test the validity of the research tests themselves to ensure that they provide reliable information on social-behavioral characteristics (Hogan, 2007).
Reliability and validity Reliability is the stability of the test. A reliable test will give approximately the same result if taken repeatedly. Validity of a test is the assurance that the test is actually measuring what it is supposed to measure. The indices of validity and reliability range between zero and one, good indices are above 0.75. Valid tests have significant concepts and predict future performance of the concept.
Conclusion All good psychological tests have these three things in common: They have a sample of behavior, standardized conditions of operation and a standardized scorecard. The tests have to be reliable and valid for the results to be considered significant. Reliability is dependent of validity since an unreliable test cannot be said to measure anything.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological Testing. A Practical Introduction, Second Edition. Virginia: John Wiley
Types of Carbon Sequestration Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Humanist theories of environmental ethics
Conclusion and recommendations
Introduction The world is suffering from effects of environmental damage; as people exploit natural resources, the environment is damaged. Other than overexploiting or misusing natural environment, individuals and companies are disposing their wastes in appropriately resulting to further damage to the environment.
Environment conservers have advocated for different methods of protecting the environment and restoring its natural form; the approach used include use of conventions and protocols that recommend and commit countries to abide to the recommendations.
The effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were noted in early 20th century, the realization resulted to the signing of Kyoto Protocol by 37 industrialized countries and the European community. One method that has been advocated for to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, is carbon sequestration (Baker, 2006). This paper discuses carbon sequestration in relation to its environmental impact and its potential to resolve environmental problems.
Carbon sequestration According to Wilson and Gerard in their book called “Carbon Capture and Sequestration,” carbon sequestration refers to geo-engineering process through which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and deposited into a reservoir. In lay-man’s language it is the process through which carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is removed to clean up the air then used for other economic activities.
Other than removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the carbon sequestration engages in capturing, storage and enhancing natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon. In whichever the approach taken, carbon sequestration aims at cleaning the atmosphere that the right amount of carbon remain (Ernesto
Business Process Management Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Company’s background information
Change management and IT
Implementing business solution
Implementation in the organization and outcomes
Company’s background information Agility Logistics originated in Kuwait in 1979. By the year 2004, the company was the largest logistic company in UAE. The company uses merger strategies in acquiring global brands for its competitive advantage through a provision of a seamless global network.
Agility has developed efficiency in its supply chains in a tough environment through the provision of personal and customised solutions to its customers. These approaches reflect the company’s mission and vision statements, which strive to meet the global trade challenges and use innovative systems in its supply chain.
Agility Logistics thrives on customer management and satisfaction. The company believes that its customer support department can tackle customers’ challenges and uncertainties in today’s market. Agility Logistics has established a reputable personal service as a value proposition for their customers. The company staffs assume personal responsibility for their customers’ jobs.
Agility Logistics coordinate all its supply chains through tracking systems. Management of supply chain processes in Agility Logistics has contributed to the company’s success and repeat businesses. The company’s strength lies in its concentration on areas that support a modern supply chain system, such as knowledge of emerging markets, personalised services, social responsibility and environmental sustainability, services in specialised industries, among others.
BPM concepts Business Process Management (BPM) refers to comprehending, visibility and taking management and controlling business processes. Business processes have a long discrete chain of activities that cut across individuals, applications, business procedures and organisations. BPM concerns itself with the improvement of the organisations’ processes.
Firms that use BPM rely on a framework of prescriptive methods and tools. This framework includes information technologies (BPM Platforms) for controlling, modelling, measuring and improving methodologies such as TQM, Six Sigma and Lean for analysing and understanding applications in the processes and principles of business.
Change management and IT Managing change in an organisation is not a simple task. The fundamental change management principle states that “things are the way they are because they got that way” (Smith 2). This means that it is essential to comprehend how current conditions evolved in order to be effective in changing the existing situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Changes in the onset of a BPM process create more roles and responsibilities. Therefore, organisations should be able to adapt quickly and exploit the benefits of BPM. However, IT department does not want business leaders to test a new BPM system on their own. Likewise, business department does not want to leave their IT counterparts to run their businesses.
Therefore, before an organisation starts the process of implementing BPM, there should be some established guidelines separating the roles and responsibilities of departments involved in the project. As such, is critical that business and IT department share responsibilities in the project.
Agility Logistics believe in best practices. The new roles of the executives changes with the IT. Senior executives lead large-scale BPM by interchanging roles/job rotations, where the IT executives and finance people work together to drive business-cases and approval processes.
The combination of these departments aims at aligning the company with its IT adoptions. Combination of IT language into business processes changes as more employees begin to understand the value of business. Lack of a common language between IT department and business units have been a stumbling block in implementation of BPM.
There are terms used in business units and IT departments, but they have different meanings. Leading software vendors in BPM have noted the need to focus on the business unit of the firm as an essential end user of the application. This approach enables the business team to understand IT vocabulary in a business-oriented manner.
IT professionals in the BPM have straightforward roles. They need to enhance the performances of BPM suites to work better in order to drive business goals and customers’ satisfaction. At the same, business unit must also figure out how to align themselves with IT adoption in the organisation.
Agility Logistics identified the need to improve its supply chain and operations in constantly changing world of logistics. Some of the factors that influenced the management decisions were both internal and external. The company applied deliberate, quantifiable, goal-oriented, principled and tightly scoped changes to compete globally. The company implemented changes slowly in a timely manner in its global supply chain management.
We will write a custom Report on Business Process Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the core values of Agility Logistics is to be efficient and scalable. Implementation of the BPM system has enabled the company to collect complex data for decision-making logic. The rule engine enables the company to make complex decision quickly, repeatedly and reliably. Elimination of manual processes has improved efficiency to produce facts for business actions. A rule engine scales works well and linearly with increased rules and facts.
Complex interplay in logistics chain operates to influence the outcomes of crucial company’s decisions. The aim is to improve productivity and maintainability. In most cases, the decisions are difficult and seem impossible to make and implement. IT techniques in BPM look at logic separation to make the process easy and manage complex decision making processes.
IT systems in BPM have created centralised knowledge repositories. The systems facilitate knowledge-transfer and help to eliminate the loss of crucial decision-makers and other executives due to turnovers or aging employees. Therefore, the use BPM prevents crippling of business as a result of knowledge loss.
Implementing business solution Implementation of new processes in the organisation involves several employees, facilities, organisations, capital, and materials. BPM ensures that the system and human elements involved in the process are individually and collectively integrated to avoid conflicts and frequencies of human errors.
Agility Logistics has optimised business processes through BPM. Managers have gained insights in the successful implementation of new processes and management. IT departments have learnt to take advantages of BPM conferences in order to learn new technological innovations and how implementing them can benefit the company.
BPM and new technological instruments are significant in scientific management. Agility Logistics management has moved with the current management practices. Knowledge and skills upgrade have enabled management to play a decisive function in relations to consolidating and elevating the best practices of BPM in technologies and other methods.
BPM requires that the implementation process is consultative in order to strengthen the understanding of the management team to the whole business process. Implementation processes must unite the perspectives of each member of the team to the business process in order to avoid misunderstanding and wasteful process of implementations in the company plan.
Implementation tools should capture relevant data and information on the company’s current business processes in the supply chain and logistics management practices. Modelling process must create alternatives to be able to accommodate the existing procedures and be flexible enough for existing processes. There should be a standard requirement for revision in cases of exceptions in the implementation process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Process Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This ensures that there is vitality in BPM implementation process and the stages do not experience stifling due to rigid and dogmatic implementation required. However, the exceptions should be deemphasised. The implementation process should just focus on the required business process model.
Customer service Agility Logistics has focused on its customer’s well-being and satisfaction through its BPM. The application of IT in its operations has led to the creation of customised products and services. For instance, Agility Logistics has used its rules in IT systems to help design customised services such as freight forwarding, specialty services like chemicals and project logistics.
This focus on the individual basis, has distinguished the company in global logistics. The company has been able to centralise the behavioural, and execution logic in its commercial processes in order to tailor its products and services to meet the demands of the ever-changing markets (Clark 198).
Organisations have realised the value of customers. Modern customers are demanding value. Markets have decreased tolerance for defects and wastes, wasted efforts and lost time, services and products that do not satisfy their needs. BPM helps the company to align itself with the demands of diverse customers and markets. Customer value occurs as a result of appropriate changes happening in processes in order to achieve desirable results. Customer satisfaction has become key in the success or failure of business ventures.
Organisations’ measurement procedures should focus on the customer, and not on the organisation. Successful companies must relate their processes through customers’ satisfactions. Measurements that look into internal company’s operation might be misleading. Measurements should focus on both internal and external processes for it to give a true account of the company’s success. The final measurement of success must measure the overall objectives of the company.
BPM must address all the common areas and understand different aspects of business processes. Agility Logistics has been able to experience robust business because of its ability to use business software in the supply chain. As a result, the company has experienced increased customer satisfaction, which has contributed to its competitive advantage in the global logistics industry.
Companies have adopted the use of software, such as supply chain management systems (SCM) and customer relationship management systems (CRM). The management has realised the basic functionality in the SCM systems and incorporated them in its resource planning systems.
There are also new challenges emerging due to ever-increasing market dynamics, which have led to the creation of dedicated supply chain management systems in most organisations. The primary aim of these software applications is to support operations, planning, and command of supply chains, which covers inventory management, warehouse, suppliers and distributors’ management, and planning demands all for the ultimate benefit and satisfaction of customers.
Implementation in the organization and outcomes BPM focuses on the concept of organisation’s continuous improvement as its value proposition. The fundamental ability of BPM system is to improve continuously processes and get incremental return on investment (ROI) on a consistent basis. This is what defines and sets apart BPM systems from other processes of driving business improvement.
Consequently, any case of BPM must consider the iterations of processes and the value that the process will bring to the company. Companies must focus on incremental value, which will accrue overtime rather than short-term values (Menken 191).
Agility Logistics process analysis in its implementation of the BPM systems confirmed several changes needed in many areas. BPM had to consider improvements in both internal units and external partners that were part of the process. The implementation process noted that a full account of the process as it progressed through various processes was difficult to obtain. Agility Logistics have had short window of opportunities to save logistics process.
Therefore, task completion, work priorities and problem escalations were crucial for successful resolutions. The company had little data and often too late on its processes. Agility Logistics needed real-time alerts in order to save shipments and other movements. The impacts of the implementation of the current process give outstanding results. The company has been able to move its key metric of percentages on saving, which has enabled it to continue experiencing global growth and competitiveness.
Agility Logistics noted efficiency before deploying the BPM systems. Initially, the company experienced significant wastes due to manual procedures, uncoordinated hand-offs between business units, and general inability to monitor overall progress. Agility Logistics eliminated these challenges with initial deployment of a BPM solution. The company experienced benefits in terms of full-time equivalent time saved in supply chain processes.
Agility Logistics experienced the benefit of agility in implementing BPM system. Service-oriented and on-demand processes have created the concept of agility in BPM. Agility Logistics is able to change quickly on its process management. This depends on the changing needs of the customers.
The company identified the drivers of change to be both internal and external factors. Agility Logistics saw new opportunities in emerging markets, new partners and customers, which needed it to support them in different ways of conducting business. For instance, the company’s exposure to international markets must be aligned with the regulations of different countries. BPM has platforms to enable the company change its process fast and in a controlled manner.
Challenges Change management in adoption of IT systems to support BPM must start from the top. However, some key business executives do not want to adapt to changing business environment. Therefore, organisation must identify key participants for a given process to ensure that these participants carry out changes and tasks.
IT units and business units are in constant squabble during the implementation of the BPM systems. Business units do not want IT department to experiment their procedures with their job. Likewise, IT department does not want to leave the process to business units. The point is that both departments should learn to share responsibilities.
Another challenge is the lack of common language to support both the IT and business departments. This has been a stumbling block for BPM implementations. The changing business environment and IT innovations create new terms that apply both to business and IT but with different meanings. BPM suites vendors have noted the need to incorporate business-oriented vocabulary in their applications.
Recommendations BPM works better in an organisation where executives understand the need to share responsibilities between IT department and business units. At the same, both business units and IT department should learn the vocabularies in both environments. Business units must also create new roles to meet the challenges of technology.
Before taking any BPM initiative, a company should establish guidelines delineating responsibilities for members participating in the project. That is, both business units and IT personnel, must share responsibilities.
A company must consistently train its new recruits to learn how the entire system of BPM works. The process must ensure that the recruits master the key terms for smooth operation of the company. The recruits must also learn how to use the BPM systems to lead the company to success.
Works Cited Clark, George J. Quality Matters: The Decade of Quality 1989-2000. London: Spire City Publishing, 2000. Print.
Menken, Ivanka. The Business Process Management Guide:Practical Methodology and Guidelines to Successful BPM Implementation and Improvement. Brisbane : Emereo Publishing, 2009. Print.
Smith, Ralph F. Business Process Management and the Balanced Scorecard: Using Processes as Strategic Drivers. New Jersey: John Wiley
The Role of the Human Resource Manager in providing quality products and services to customers Expository Essay college essay help near me
A Human resource manager is famously known for his major responsibility of looking after the welfare of the company’s personnel. But as global market competition increases, the role of human resource manager has diversified to an extent of supervising the quality of a firm’s products so as to enable the products to compete in the world market.
The emergence of the importance of quality as a tool for competition has lead to the existence of aspect of total quality management in any company. Total quality management is aimed at satisfying the customers by making sure that the products and services released to the market are free of any defects (Walker, 1998, p. 7).
This trend of assigning the human resource department with the responsibility of managing quality is due to the fact that this department is majorly respected for its ability to train and develop human resource. Therefore, for successful implementation of total quality management in a firm the Human Resource Manager must play a pivotal role as an agent of change.
The Human Resource manager can promote the improvement of quality of services and products of a firm in many ways. From his known responsibilities of sourcing for high quality personnel, training and development of these personnel and development and maintenance of systems of rewarding well performing employees (Stoner, et al. 2003), the Human Resource manager controls important processes that can be a driving force for the realization of a firm’s total quality management.
These enable development of the culture of total quality. The Human Resource manager has a role of linking the employees with the senior management (Yuki, 1994). In this way the HR manager establishes avenues of communication between the employees and the senior management. This enables the HR manager to enlighten the employees of their importance to the organization in achieving total quality management.
The HR manager builds trust through dialogue and exchange of ideas. This helps to dispel fears to changes in their roles played by the employees. These changes in roles of different employees are needed by the total quality management. This can be the basis of offering training to all personnel to perceive their fellow workmates in other departments as immediate customers. The personnel can only realize this by being a role model to these workers. He can show this by instilling the attitude of customer first throughout the organization.
Since the HR manager is an expert in surveying and monitoring the attitudes of the workers (Melcrum, 2008), he gathers information on latest performance by the employees. This information on performance can be critical in starting off well. Therefore the HR manager carries out surveys to establish areas facing problems as far as operations are concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because failure to realize improvement in quality of product can affect the performance of the organization. To effectively implement the total quality management program, the HR personnel monitors the perceptions and attitudes of employees as far quality is concerned (Eliot and Turnbull, 2005).
Apart from campaigning for the culture of total quality management, the HR manager assesses the training and management needs. During this assessment the HR manager determines the kind of knowledge and skills to be taught, how they are to be taught, how they will be recognized in terms of performance and how they will be rewarded.
In conclusion, it is clear that the HR manager has a critical role to play as far as management of quality of a company’s products and services is concerned. He achieves this by instilling the culture of total quality management to the employees; act as a role model in perceiving people in the working environment as the immediate customers to the products and services being offered.
Finally, the human resource links the employees and the top management ensuring that all necessary conditions required enabling production of quality products and services are provided in order to meet customer needs.
References Elliott, C. Turnbull, S. 2005. Critical Thinking In Human Resource Development. London: Routledge.
Melcrum.com 2008. Special Report On Internal Branding. Web.
Stoner, J.A. F., Freeman, R. E, And Gilbert, D R. 2003. Management Sixth Ed. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall Of India.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Human Resource Manager in providing quality products and services to customers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Walker, J. W. 1998. Are We Using The Right Human Resource Measures? Human Resource Planning. 21(1),1-4
Yuki, G. 1994. Effective Leadership In Open Systems, Leadership In Organizations (3rd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, Nj: Prentice-Hall.
How could Wireless Communications be made more secure? Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Wireless communication is by far the most widely spread and fastest growing sector of the communication industry. It has mesmerized our civilization to a great extent. According to Brian Fling, “The telephone is undoubtedly one of the greatest inventions of mankind. It revolutionized communications, enabling us to reach across great distances and share thoughts, ideas and dreams with our fellow man, making the world a much smaller place in the process.” (Fling, 2009, p.1).
The telegraph network, invented by Samuel Morse in 1838 opened the path of wireless communication and was furthered by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895, when he transmitted the three-dot Morse code by the help of electromagnetic waves. Thus radio communication came into existence.
There has been a multifarious growth in this segment. Amongst the segments of wireless communication, cellular technology has been the most popular and widely accepted technology. The reason of the popularity of cellular technology is its simplicity in handling. Further in this paper, we shall discuss about the cell phone technology, our area of research.
The Cell Phone Technology Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. According to Ian Poole, “A number of people worked on transmitting sound over wires. In 1857 an Italian-American named Antonio Meucci developed a primitive telephone system but, coming from a poor background, he was unable to obtain any financial backing. The traditionally acknowledged inventor of the telephone was a Scot named Alexander Graham Bell.” (Poole, 2006, p.2).
Subsequently, radio telephones for cars were invented, in which there was a central antenna in each city that could cater to a maximum of 25 channels. Not many people could use this service. Moreover, it was a limited distance service, to be precise, for up to a distance of 70 km. After many modifications done over the years, we have the phone in its present shape. The market of mobile phones and cordless phones gathered pace and today these are one of the most sought consumer products.
Cellular phone, called cell phone in slang usage, also known as mobile phone, is a kind of telecommunication that uses short-wave analog or digital transmissions. The subscriber’s mobile phone is connected (wireless) to the nearest mobile tower (transmitter). A mobile phone should not be perplexed with a cordless phone because the latter has a very limited wireless connectivity to its base phone.
The ‘Mobile Telephone Service’ (MTS) was launched in St. Louis in the year 1946, with three channels and manual operation. MTS was launched by Motorola in collaboration with the Bell System. The services were very popular, but since they were limited, a new service namely, the ‘Improved Mobile Telephone Service’ (IMTS) was launched in the year 1964.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Simultaneously, ‘Radio Common Carrier’ (RCC) was also launched. During the 1980s, the ‘Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS) was launched that put an end to the IMTS and RCC systems. In all these systems, the phone user had to remain in a particular cell area while talking. He/she could not move out because the reuse of frequencies was not yet started.
Martin Cooper and some other employees of Motorola namely, Richard W. Dronsuth, Albert J. Mikulski, Charles N. Lynk Jr., James J. Mikulski, John F. Mitchell, Roy A. Richardson, and John H. Sangster, invented the first car phone in 1973. Motorola was the first company to launch a formal mobile phone, for public use, in 1983. The model was called ‘Motorola Dyna TAC 8000X, weighing 2 pounds and a battery that had to be recharged every half an hour of talk time.
The cost of this phone was $3,995. Motorola got approval for its phone from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Earlier, mobile phone was a luxury product owned only by a selected few rich people, but today mobile phone has become a necessity. Martin Cooper had said, “People want to talk to other people – not a house, or an office, or a car.
Given a choice, people will demand the freedom to communicate wherever they are, unfettered by the infamous copper wire. It is that freedom we to vividly demonstrate in 1973.” (as cited in about.com)
Modus Operandi of Cell Phones Now let us discuss how cell phones work. Let us take an example of any particular city. Supposedly, there will be many carriers in that city. Each carrier has around 830 different frequencies to use. The carrier divides the city into small cells which allow wide-ranging reuse of the frequency throughout that city.
As a result, numerous people can use the service at the same time. Normally, a cell is designed to cater about 26 km. Each cell can be portrayed as part of a huge hexagonal grid. A tower is placed at the centre of the cell so that it covers a vast area. The following diagram will further explain the theory:
Owing to usage of low-power transmitters, cells that are apart can reuse the same frequency. In the above diagram, the same frequency can be reused by the cells with red outline. A cell is supported by a tower and a room that has the required equipment.
We will write a custom Term Paper on How could Wireless Communications be made more secure? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In an analog system, seventh part of the available duplex voice channels is used by a cell. As a result, each cell has its own separate frequency and there is no chance of collision. In analog system, two frequencies are used per cal. Each cell has 56 available voice channels.
The use of digital transmission increases the number of available channels and as such, more people can talk at a given time. A typical example is the ‘Time Division Multiple Access’ (TDMA) system that increases the available up to three times. Other examples of digital transmission system are the ‘Code Division Multiple Access’ (CDMA) and the ‘Global System for Mobile Communication’ (GSM).
The transmissions emitted by a cell phone and a base station are low-powered. Low-powered transmissions have a dual benefit. Firstly, the transmissions of a particular cell are so adjusted that they remain within their cell’s limits. As a result, as we can see in the above diagram, the cells with the red outline can reuse the same frequency over and again. Secondly, cell phones consume less power which requires small batteries. This very fact has made the cell phone a reality.
Inter cell communication Each cell phone has its own typical code that is used as an identity of the owner. This code also provides details about the phone and the network provider. Following is the sequence of happenings when someone tries to call.
When a phone is switched on, it first searches for the System Identification Code (SID) through the control channel. SID is basically a five digit number that is unique for each mobile phone. Control channel is the frequency at which the phone and the base station connect to each other and communicate about the call set-up and channel changing. In case the control channel is not found, it means the phone is out of range and a message of ‘no service’ will be flashed on the mobile phone screen.
Once the SID is communicated, it is compared to the preset SID of the mobile phone. If both the SIDs are same means that two mobile phones of the same home system have been connected.
Simultaneously, a registration request is also transmitted by the mobile phone. The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) keeps a record of the mobile phone’s location so that it knows the particular cell in which the mobile phone is located and can call the mobile phone when it needs to.
When someone calls on the mobile phone, it is first received by the MTSO. In turn, the MTSO tries to locate the mobile phone by looking into the database for its location.
Once the cell has been identified, the MTSO then matches the frequency of the mobile phone with the available frequencies so that it can pick the right one.
Then once the mobile phone and the tower switch on to that frequency, the call is supposed to be connected. Consequently, the conversation starts.
While on the move, when the mobile phone reaches the edge of its cell, the signal strength starts diminishing. But at the same time, the cell towards which the mobile phone is moving starts receiving its strong signals. The base stations of these two cells communicate with each other and at some particular point, the frequency is changed and the mobile phone is automatically switched on to the other frequency.
While on Roaming A mobile phone is said to be in roaming if its SID is not matching with the SID of the cell where it is located. The base station of this cell contacts the home base station of the mobile phone. Once the home base station confirms the validity of the SID, the local MTSO is communicated about it and henceforth that particular MTSO matches its frequency with that of the mobile phone and tracks its movements through its cells.
Comparing Mobile Phones with Citizens Band Radios Until we understand the difference between mobile phones and citizens band radios (CBs), we might as well not be able to appreciate the sophistication of mobile phones.
Well, there are two kinds of devices; simplex and duplex. Walkie-talkies and CBs are examples of simplex devices. It means two people communicate with each other using the same frequency. This means that only one person can talk at a time. Once he finishes his talk, only then the person on the other end can talk. But a mobile phone is a duplex device where two frequencies are used at the same time. So persons at both the ends can speak at the same time and listen as well.
There is only a single channel in a walkie-talkie, forty channels in a CB radio, but a mobile phone has more than 1664 channels on which it can communicate.
The range of a walkie-talkie is one mile, that of a CB radio is five miles, but for a mobile phone, there is no limit if it keeps on getting frequencies while on the move. This is possible because of the cell theory that we discussed earlier in this paper.
Components of a Mobile Phone The following are the main components of a mobile phone:
Liquid crystal display (LCD),
The circuit board in considered to be the heart of the mobile instrument. It consists of several chips that do different functions. The analog to digital chip converts the outgoing audio signals from analog to digital, and the digital to analog chip converts the incoming audio signals from digital to analog.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How could Wireless Communications be made more secure? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The digital signal processor (DSP) does the signal manipulation calculations at very high speed. The microprocessor is designed to deal effectively with the base station and also to co-ordinate other functions. The storage for the phone’s customized features is provided by the ROM and flash memory.
The RF and power section deal with the FM channels and recharging, respectively. The signals coming to and going from the antenna are managed by the RF amplifiers. The liquid crystal display (LCD) is the screen where all the information is displayed. During the years, the size of this LCD has become bigger and bigger due to the incorporation of games, internet facility, calculator, etc. in many of the new generation mobile phones.
Access Technologies In order to transmit information, the following three technologies are used by mobile phone networks:
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA),
Time division multiple access (TDMA), and
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
It is not difficult to understand the meaning of these technologies. The last two words in all the three of them are ‘multiple access’. This means that multiple people can use the services at the same time. The first two words tell us the access method based on which the calls are split. In FDMA, each call is assigned a different frequency.
An example of FDMA is a radio station. In TDMA, some portion of time is assigned to each call on any particular frequency. TDMA is more commonly used by the Electronics Industry Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association. The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) also uses the TDMA as its access technology. In CDMA, each call is given a separate code.
Future Trends in Mobile Technology It is difficult to keep up with the pace of development in the mobile industry. We buy a latest mobile phone today and in a few days we see a newer model, with better features, being launched. According to Ron Schneiderman, “With the number of mobile phones approaching one billion globally, the opportunities for equipment manufacturers, service providers, and users are tremendous.
Market projections vary widely, but most analysts agree that at least half of all mobile devices used for Internet access will eventually also be used for mobile commerce.” (Schneiderman, 2002, p.3). One cannot predict the exact future of the mobile technology, but based on studies, following are the future trends.
Mobile Projector The initiative in mobile projection was taken by Samsung by launching its Beam model. Although the features were primitive, yet it has paved the way for more advanced projector phones. This kind of development will be helpful for conferences and meetings where projects are to be discussed. People will not have to wait for the plugging in of laptops. They will be able to view the presentations instantly. Seeing the pace of inventions in mobile technology, the day is not far off when we shall have video conferencing over the mobile phone.
Three dimensional imaging
In future, the architects should be able to make holographic projections of their designs. It will prove to be a boon for the designing industry. The medical professionals also will be able to do holography of the complete body. But this feature might take some time.
Crystal clear imaging
Today also we have mobile phones that have great clarity in the pictures taken. But in future, there might be even better options. An example is the Nokia N8 smart phone which has an eight megapixel camera and Carl Zeiss optics. All these features are bound to increase the price of the handsets, but people, who can afford, are more concerned about the features than the price.
In near future, we can expect to trace victims of any accident, by the help of the signals from their mobile phones. This will enable the authorities to save their lives by reaching at the accident spot in time.
Won’t it be nice to have such a phone where, while driving, we’ll be able to eye-dial a number with the help of a display that is fixed at the level of our head? Well not only this but even projected keyboards and touch pads are going to be a reality in the coming years.
Full fledge computer
During the years, the processors have become smaller and smaller but powerful. So in future we might expect a mini processor that could be fitted into our mobile phones and then we won’t need our desktops anymore.
The launch of 4G is not far away. When 3G was launched, people thought what more could they get in a mobile. But there is no limit to the technology. After 4G, there are very bright chances of 5G to hit the market by the year 2020. The speeds will be even faster.
Finger based security
Fujitsu is working on a security system for mobiles, based on the fingerprints and it won’t be long enough for this new technology to be launched. This will save professionals from the embarrassment of losing company information.
Download based on identity
This is also a feature that is being developed, where any personal downloads will be possible only after the identity of that person is established.
Eco-friendly mobile handsets
This feature might not be of concern to most of us but Sony Ericson has already taken an initiative by launching Green Heart. It has lower carbon emissions and recycled plastics have been used in the production.
This is another eco-friendly feature that we can expect in the near future. Instead of the usual electric charging, the battery will have inbuilt solar cells.
“The mobile phone would appear to be the preferred personal communications device for the foreseeable future although it will most likely develop as a hybrid of other information communication technologies rather than replace them.” (Hamill et al, 2005, p.103).
Companies Engaged in Mobile Technology
Mobile technology has a bifurcation. On one side are the handset manufacturers and on the other are the service providers. But both are inter-related and dependent on each other.
Following are the top handset manufacturers
Other manufacturers include Motorola, Sony Ericson, HTC, Micromax, Nexian, Blackberry, Siemens, Alcatel, Philips, Panasonic, etc.
Following table shows the top five manufacturers of mobile handsets by market share in the second quarter of 2011.
Manufacturer Percentage of share according to survey by Gartner Percentage of share according to survey by IDC Nokia 22.8% 24.2% Samsung 16.3% 19.2% LG 5.7% 6.8% Apple 4.6% 5.6% ZTE 3.0% 4.5% Others 47.6% 39.7% Source: Wikipedia
Following are some of the mobile service providers in the world
China Mobile (China)
Vodafone (United Kingdom)
America Movil (Mexico)
China Unicorn (China)
Telefonica – Movistar (Spain)
France Orange / France Telecom – Orange (France)
Norway Telenor (Norway)
Bharti Airtel (India)
It has been almost 35 years since mobile technology was developed. Since then, there has been a lively relation between the industry and the regulators. Initially, it was thought that forcing more regulations will hamper the competition amongst the industry. So for many years, there were no regulations.
But the unexpected vigorous growth of the mobile industry has forced the governments of different countries and at different levels, to initiate certain directives for the functioning of the mobile industry as a whole. According to Cellular, “The huge growth in subscribers and services over public mobile networks has set new challenges of establishing technical and ethical standards for provision of services as well as ensuring compliance with regulations that directly apply to mobile industry.” (Cellular)
A majority of the regulations have been centered on the spectrum that the federal government has channeled to the commercial wireless industry. A change in the FCC administration has been welcomed because the new administration has come out with a new agenda in order to remodel the telecommunication industry.
One of the major manufacturers of mobile phones is Ericsson. According to Ericsson, “The mobile broadband revolution is putting regulators under pressure to license new spectrum. However, spectrum is a scarce resource – and distributing it on a piecemeal basis without a comprehensive plan for the whole band could lead to fragmentation and country-specific allocations.” (Ericsson)
Mobile phones are controlled by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by way of certain regulations. Following are the some of the recent regulations surrounding the mobile industry
The National Broadband Plan – Spectrum According to this plan, the available broadband services across the country are to be expanded. According to Dan Meyer, “The FCC’s audacious plan to unlock up to 300 megahertz of new spectrum over the next five years and 500 megahertz over the next 10 years has drawn considerable interest. The plan recently received backing of President Barak Obama.” (Meyer, 2010)
Freedom of Spectrum
The underused spectrum that is currently under the control of television giants is to be freed. The government has already earned tens of billions of dollars by spectrum and now it plans to gain more by auctioning the available spectrum.
Regulations on Broadband
A Notice of Inquiry was recently passed (3-2 vote) by the FCC in order to develop a guideline of new regulations for the broadband services.
Differences between small and large operators
It has been observed that certain big companies have special access to the government programs. The FCC plans to regulate such practice.
The Telecom Act
This act was an amendment of the Communications Act of 1934. It was signed by President Bill Clinton in the year 1996. There were two important regulations included in this act. Firstly, the internet was also included in the broadcasting and allotment of spectrum and secondly, cross ownership of media was allowed.
Global implications Radiation
Today we can see a mobile phone in the hands of almost everyone. Studies have proved that the waves emanating from the mobile phone are hazardous to the human health. In this regard, Amy Rosenthal wrote, “Recent research shows long-term cell phone use associated with a higher risk of health effects, so the current standard may not adequately take into account the potential effects of a lifetime of cell phone talking, especially for those who begin at a young age.” (Rosenthal, 2009).
The following are the acceptable radiation levels for different parts of human body
Head – less than or equal to 1.6 W/kg
Whole body – less than or equal to 0.08 W/kg
Hands, wrists, feet, and ankles: less than or equal to 4 W/kg
Misappropriation of information
From past experiences we have noticed that some people with wrong intentions match the frequencies and get information that is being transmitted. This information is then misappropriated and used for the disadvantage of the human race.
Sensitive data in wrong hands
Mobile phones have come a long way as far as the features are concerned. The operating system and huge available memory allow people to store company information so that it can be retrieved at times of urgencies. But such acts can prove to be dangerous if the handset is lost or misplaced.
If it falls in wrong hands, it can be used against the company. According to an article in Smart Data, “A lot of sensitive information is easily accessible on your phones these days, especially with the trend of using personal devices in workplace environments. Corporate emails, social media accounts, and bank apps are on our phones to check at our own convenience on a daily basis with most of our passwords saved on each account for easy access.” (Smart Data, 2011)
References About.com. Martin Cooper – History of Cell Phone. Web.
Cellular. International Legal
What Entrepreneurs Should Do to Become Successful Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Success in Entrepreneurship
Introduction An entrepreneur is an extremely crucial element in the contemporary business world. He or she is an individual who puts into effect initiative through organizing a given activity in an effort to take benefit of an opportunity. An entrepreneur is also a decision maker and settles on what to be produced, the manner of production, and the quantity of a good or service to be produced.
An entrepreneur is also a risk taker. This piece of work gives a critical look at the concept of entrepreneurship and the aspects that surround it. Much emphasis will however be given to the issue of how success could be achieved in the field of entrepreneurship. Research shows that there are common qualities and characteristics that can be depicted in entrepreneurs who have been successful. However, the most significant factor that contributes to their success is their dedication and commitment in their work.
Success in Entrepreneurship There is much that is contained in entrepreneurship. It is more than just starting a business. Entrepreneurship entails a process through which people discover opportunities, allocate resources, and create value. Creation of value is an incredibly crucial aspect in business. It could be achieved through the identification of the unfulfilled needs or thoughts, the identification of opportunities that are aimed at bringing positive change.
Entrepreneurship also entails taking business problems as opportunities and identifying ways of solving the problems, as well as the customers who pay to have the problems solved. Success in entrepreneurship is determined by the capability of an entrepreneur to identify opportunities that exist in the marketplace, initiating change, and creating value through provision of solutions to problems (Collins 17).
To become a successful entrepreneur, an individual has to possess some characteristics or perform some certain activities. For instance, the individual should be enthusiastic and action oriented. Creativity and dedication are key factors that enhance success in entrepreneurship.
According to Branson (102), it is not right for an individual to enter into a business venture with the main aim of making money or profits, but rather a business ought to be engaging, enjoyable, and allow for maximum input of creativity. However, despite the fact that successful entrepreneurs should not necessarily be motivated by profit, they should regard it as a standard through which achievement or success is measured.
To be successful, an entrepreneur should value the virtue of self reliance, and to be always in a move to strive for distinction through excellence, as well as favor challenges that are of medium risk, that is, those that are neither too ruinous nor easy. Above all, an entrepreneur should be highly optimistic and committed to ensuring that everything is undertaken in the best manner possible, thus achieving maximum success in various business ventures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Setbacks should be viewed as a bargain priced tuition that helps in getting valuable business lessons through firsthand experience. Shortcomings and failures that have been experienced in the past should not be brought into the present since they are capable of hindering success, and they may even affect the future negatively. Success in the business, on the other hand, should be taken as a driving force towards attaining greater accomplishments (Collins 101).
Entrepreneurs should also do the following in order to become successful. One should think about success. There is a need to dream positively be successful. One should have a clear vision of what is supposed to be achieved. Entrepreneurs should also be passionate with what they do. Passion is crucial in attaining success in everything that an individual does. It is relatively easier to achieve success if one loves what he or she does.
It is natural that human beings are more persistent in their pursuit of goals and objectives that regard things they love. Passion in a business venture cultivates patience and hard work which in turn allows for overall success in business. It is a good idea for an entrepreneur to be gregarious. This is because business is all about dealing with people, and thus the need to be able to handle them in an appropriate way. One should therefore be free to share ideas, products, and services, as well as have fun in doing business.
An entrepreneur should also be confident. This will allow for effective handling of challenges, and thus coming up with solutions to various problems. Confidence also fosters risk taking and identification of opportunities, an aspect that would not be possible in its absence.
To be successful, an entrepreneur should also have a sense of ownership. This entails taking responsibility for getting things done with appropriate care and attention. An entrepreneur should take pride of getting a solution to a problem rather than seeing it as someone else’s. An entrepreneur should be in a position to teach other people how to take charge. The entrepreneur should use individual accountability as an element through which teamwork, profitability, and overall success is to be achieved.
As a leader, an entrepreneur should learn to be good at communication. This is because the most significant element in a business is the human element and communication should be used as a tool through which successful relationships with people can be established. As part of communication, an entrepreneur should also learn to listen to what others say.
This can be seen even in Branson’s leadership where he considers every idea he gets irrespective of the position of the individual or the circumstances surrounding the conversation. To be successful, an entrepreneur ought to focus on his or her strengths, work hard, and have the willingness to learn (Collins 12).
We will write a custom Research Paper on What Entrepreneurs Should Do to Become Successful specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Successful entrepreneurship entails a combination of a variety of aspects. Identification of an opportunity and coming up with ways of exploiting it in an appropriate manner is essential. Branding is, for example, a crucial aspect in business. We find Branson taking his time to come up with an effective brand name, Virgin, not as an instant source of profit but as an aspect that is able to bring a considerable level of success in the business.
Branson believes that business is a win-win venture. Successful entrepreneurs should go an extra mile in the course of carrying out their business activities. Corporate social responsibility is an example of a concept that is worth investing in. A good example is the involvement of Branson in the process of curbing global warming.
Although this aspect would not be beneficial to his business initially, it could contribute to the company’s profit margin in future. Commitment and dedication are key attributes to a successful entrepreneur without which some opportunities would remain unexploited and some problems unsolved (Anonymous par 3).
Although all the above named factors are significant in allowing entrepreneurs to achieve success in their ventures, dedication and commitment remain to be the overall factors that drive all other success factors. To be successful, entrepreneurs should dedicate themselves to the realization of their plans, dreams as well as visions. This idea of being purpose-driven allows success to be achieved in all spheres of an organization and thus there is an overall success.
Dedication allows entrepreneurs to target a goal, determine the objective, refine the brand, and more so, narrow the margin of error. An entrepreneur should be dedicated to attain a positive outcome and be ready to do whatever it takes to achieve the desired result. An entrepreneur should be ready to act beyond the call of duty for the purpose of attaining success that will be beneficial for all the parties involved.
Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that the concept of entrepreneurship is extremely crucial in the field of business. It is through entrepreneurship that success in business is achieved through identification of problems, opportunities and determination of the best ways to deal with them in an effort to create value.
Despite the fact that there are various common behavioral traits and similarities that exist among successful entrepreneurs, it is clear that the most significant reason for success in entrepreneurship is the dedication and commitment exercised by the entrepreneurs. This is an element that is associated with a lot of benefits, both short term as well as long term. This, therefore, follows that without dedication of the entrepreneurs, achievement of maximum success in a business would not be possible.
Works Cited Anonymous. “Branson Bets Billions to Curb Global Warming” msn.com, 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What Entrepreneurs Should Do to Become Successful by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Branson, Richard. Losing My Virginity. London: Virgin Publishing Ltd, 1998. Print.
Collins, Jim. Good to Great. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2001. Print.
Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) Report college admissions essay help
Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) is a firm that manufactures diverse products such as plastics, fertilizers, chemicals, and metals. It is ranked among the best 10 petrochemical companies worldwide (SABIC para. 6). SABIC is considered by the Fortune magazine as the fifth largest petrochemical company, while Simba Financial Group ranks it as the sixth largest petrochemical firm worldwide (CNN Money para. 3).
The company has succeeded in its mission because of its ability to prioritize its objectives. The firm‘s approach entails improving its productivity by ensuring that it sustains high technical and exceptional quality standards. In addition, the company is also devoted in improving its marketing efforts in order to make its products perform well in the competitive petrochemical market. SABIC has been able to position its products strategically in every region it operates.
For instance, SABIC has succeeded in establishing a very effective market for its methanol product in China. China is famous in the production of wines and spirits for both local consumption and the export market, mainly in the European nations and the United States of America (Gulbase para. 4). For example in 2008, China imported from SABIC methanol worth $ 2 billion. This was approximately 14% of the methanol that was manufactured by SABIC in that year.
Although the company is ranked among the 10 leading petrochemical companies globally and the leading petrochemical company in Asia, nonetheless, it requires positioning its products more appropriately in order to enhance the sales of its products within its established markets and in the new regions the company aspires to penetrate (Gulbase para. 4).
The company’s products are noted to face very stiff competitions from other rival petrochemical firms from Europe, U.S.A. as well as other Asian nations. For instance, the company faces very stiff competition in the European markets from the BASF a Germany petrochemical company that is considered as the worlds leading producer of chemicals. The company is estimated to possess more than 160 subsidiaries and joint ventures.
The company has succeeded in establishing the markets of its products in over 200 countries. The firm employs over 96,000 people (Gulbase para. 4). Most of its markets are concentrated with the European region. The company has been able to command a bigger market share particularly in the European region because it has been in existence for a longer period of time compared to SABIC.
Similarly, BASF has succeeded in its quest to establish a stronger brand than SABIC in the European markets. Another petrochemical company whose products compete stiffly with SABIC products is the Dow Chemical Company. This company is considered as the second largest petrochemical firm in the world. It is a US- based firm that has established its operations in more than 175 countries. Its workforce is estimated at more than 46,000 (A1 Saudi Arabia para. 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the company has been able to dominate the Unites States petrochemical market. Sumitomo Chemical which is regarded as the 8th petrochemical industry in the world with approximately 25,000 employees gives SABIC’s products a stiff competition within the Asian markets (Bloomberg Businessweek para. 5).
The recent global economic crises affected the market served by SABIC in a negative way. The effects were mainly felt in its Asian markets where the prices of key products such as high-density polythene as well as ethylene dropped by 60% and 80%, respectively. Similarly, the demand of SABIC products decreased considerably, and this resulted in SABIC recording a loss of SR 937 million in the first quarter of 2009.
The performance of SABIC has started to improve especially in the Asian markets (Bloomberg Businessweek para. 5). The opening up of more petrochemical industries in the Middle East that manufactures high density polythene has affected the sale of SABIC’s high density polythene negatively in the Europeans and the United States markets. These markets are still reluctant to buy more high density polythene as they speculate a drop in the price as a result of an increase in the supply.
China as well as the Far East regions are considered prime markets for SABIC products. SABIC should put a lot of effort in expanding its market to other potential regions such as Africa. Since the company is well positioned to get cheap raw materials from its petroleum, it should use this opportunity to build its markets in many other regions in order to strengthen its brand.
The company should offer its products at a lower price in order to help establish a competitive edge over its rival companies (MMC Learning. Distribution channels para. 4). This will enable the company to establish new other markets that will eventually become its prime markets. SABIC should stop overlying on the successful China market that it has established.
There, is a possibility that China’s petrochemical industries will eventually become SABIC number one rivals in the Asian markets (Bloomberg Businessweek para. 6). Although, SABIC has the advantage of receiving cheap raw materials for manufacturing chemicals, China on the other hand has an advantage in that it has highly skilled and cheap labor. Thus, China has the capacity to expand its petrochemicals industries in a position to become SABIC’s threats in Asian markets in future.
SABIC should launch appropriate awareness programs in the regions it operates in as well as in new markets that it intends to penetrate. The company should set aside considerable amount of money that it intends to use in marketing its brand. The ads should involve renowned celebs in order to help convince the consumers that SABIC products are of very high standards.
We will write a custom Report on Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of celebs in the advertisement acts as a psychological persuasion that helps help consumers to perceive a company’s products with good quality (Kotler and Keller 88). In order for the company to be more effective in penetrating new markets by overcoming cultural barriers, the film should expand to new regions through acquisitions as well as through Direct Financial Investments.
Through these processes those people that live in the regions where the SABIC opens their businesses will tend to develop positive perceptions towards the companies products. Through this process the company will increase its performance as more people will tend to prefer its products over the available substitute products from competing firms.
SABIC should embrace appropriate distribution channels in order to increase its performance locally as well as in the other regions it has ventured into (Miles 94). Distribution channels are the means that firms use to sell their products. SABIC should intensify its B2C as well as B2B strategies. The company should employ multiple teams that specialize in selling different company’s products or customer segments.
For example, SABIC marketing team should establish diverse sales teams that will be assigned the tasks of selling the company’s diverse products in all the areas it operates as well as the new regions it aspires to expand to (PRLOG para. 6). The teams should be well informed about the products they will be assigned to market in order to be in a better position to respond to any query from the consumers (Aaker 106).
Because SABIC manufactures several products, it will be very challenging for the sales people to have all the details about the products SABIC manufactures. That is why the company’s marketing department should consider grouping its sales people into different groups and assigning every group a product to market.
In addition, the marketing department should make sure that it assigns different sales people to market same products in different regions. This will help the sales people to study its market niche appropriately in order to enhance their effectiveness. When preparing the teams as well as when deploying the sales people, the marketing department should make sure that the teams are strategically formed in order to make sure that they are well represented to overcome cross-cultural barriers.
SABIC should increase the sale of its products through e-commerce. The company should use the internet infrastructure to intensify the awareness of its products considerably (Kotler and Keller 89).The internet will help the firm to create awareness of its products in the regions where it has not succeeded to expand to.
Similarly, the internet will also help the company to sell its products to foreign consumers that are not in close proximity to the company’s products. The company’s IT department should make sure that the company’s website is secured appropriately in order to prevent exposing the customers’ credit cards to hackers who can make unwarranted purchase. Through this process the company can offer a lot of negative publicity that will adversely affect the sale of its products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another strategy that SABIC can adopt is to expand the market of its products in Europe and the United States by acquiring other petrol chemical industries that operates there. SABIC is well known for using the acquisition strategy as its expansion approach. Therefore, the company should use the same strategy to augment its operations in Europeans and the American region.
By buying other petrochemical companies that operates in U.S. and Europe, SABIC will be in a position to extend its market in these regions. Consecutively, the company is in a better position to expand its operation and become the leading petrochemical company in the world ahead of BASF.
SABIC should also try to extend and develop its other line operation in order to avoid it relying mostly with the production of High-density-Polythene as well as ethylene. It’s over relying on these products that have very high demand in China are the one that contributed greatly to the company experiencing considerable losses during the previous economic recession.
The economical downtown of 2008/2009 forced many companies that depend on petrochemical products in China and Far East to cut down their operations considerably and others closing their operations completely in order to avoid experiencing huge losses.
Subsequently, the performance of SABIC was greatly compromised that resulted to the company witnessing substantial losses. Thus, the company should invest most of its resources to develop its other line of production such as the production of fertilizers. The company should make sure that they carry out thorough researches in order to manufacture better quality fertilizers that possess very minimal side effects.
Moreover, the firm should equally invest a lot of their resources to market their fertilizers to consumers Africa as well as farmers in America. The development of the company’s other lines of production will help to assists the company from not over- relying on the sale some of its products, but to distribute its revenues appropriately such that the failure of some products will not affect the performance of the firm significantly especially during recessions.
SABIC has a very bright future in the petrochemical industry, the company is should consider positioning its products more efficiently by improving its promotional strategies as well as the distribution channels adapted. SABIC should use appropriate ads to promote its products.
The use of celebs is its ads is a good approach it can opt. equally, the firm should capitalize on the presence of e-commerce to increase the awareness as well as the sale of its products within as well as outside Asia. Similarly, the company should consider venturing into new markets such as in Africa, the United States and Europe, to avoid limiting most of its market in Asia and particularly, China which may end up becoming SABIC’s greatest rival in the near future.
The company can adopt Direct Financial Investment as well acquisitions as its expansion strategies. Moreover, SABIC should extend its operation in order to avoid over-relying on the sale of high quality polythene as well as ethylene. This way, the company shall have diversified its operations and by extension, increased its income revenue. This is because in case the market that it has been over reliant on fails, SABIC can focus on the other markets that it has identified and concentrate its marketing efforts in it so as to realize its goal.
Works Cited A1 Saudi Arabia. Kingdom leads the way in petrochemical exports. N. d. Web.
Aaker, David. Strategic Market Management. London: Sage, 2008. Print.
Bloomberg Businessweek. SAUDI BASIC INDUSTRIES CORP (SABIC: Saudi Arabia). 2011. Web.
CNN Money. Global 500. 2011. Web.
Gulbase. Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (Sabic). 2011. Web.
Kotler, Phillip, and Keller, Kevin. A Framework for Marketing Management (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.
Miles, Raymond. Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003. Print.
MMC Learning. Distribution channels. 2009. Web.
PRLOG. Global Petrochemical Giant SABIC Sponsors London Sukuk Summit 2008. Web.
SABIC. SABIC is a leading global petrochemical company and ranks among the world’s market leaders. 2011. Web.
Children diagnosed with Down syndrome Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussions and Results
Introduction This paper seeks to establish information on the mechanisms, which parents apply in handling children diagnosed with Down syndrome. This is in connection with teaching and educating children with Down syndrome. For some time now, there has been little awareness to parents with children suffering from Down syndrome on how they can deal with their children especially when it comes to teaching and educating.
Most parents will leave these duties to specialists and other supervisors in this field because they do not know their contribution towards such cases. Down syndrome is a chromosome disorder characterized by an extra chromosome number 21(Trisomy 21). Down syndrome, which is a relatively widespread birth defect, causes multiple malformations, mental retardation, and a characteristic face.
Objectives This study aims at showing people and especially parents with exceptional needs solutions and options to broaden their choices in providing a healthy normal life for the child. The focus of this research will be on children with Down syndrome, show how perfectly it is to raise and educate a child who is diagnosed with this disability at home with no need for a specialist’s supervision.
This also outstanding by clearing a misconception that educating and taking care of children with this disability starts from home, not at school as some people may think. With only a little bit of awareness about this disability parents can raise children with Down syndrome just like normal children? The question this research is aiming to answer is how could parents teach and educate children diagnosed with Down syndrome.
Literature Review Parents with disabled children have always faced anxiety and coping struggles with their exceptional children, it is already hard, raising children but to have a child with particular needs requires resources and a healthy positive mental state to make the lifestyle less anxious for both the child and the parent.
However, in reality when research was conducted coping with disabled children and keeping that healthy attitude is not as easy, so this research aims to understand the stressful reality of families with disabled children in the Saudi mainstream with the different factors and limitations that make this experience more stressful than parents who live in other regions.
Research tells us that parents have a high level of distress found up to 70% in mothers and 40% in fathers for severely disabled children, in addition the general psychological literature, and specific studies of disabled children show that the parental distress and family lifestyle affects the child’s behavioural, social and cognitive functioning and development to the worse or better, also levels of stress are related to how the family surrender to the limitations of their child and let it control and dominate their life, on the contrary optimistic attitude tends to show lower stress levels (Byrne
Leadership of a Consultancy Group: Project Planning and Organising Essay college essay help
Introduction Background Information
Effective coordination among the group members of a consultancy team is indispensible for working out effective strategies for managing change within an organisation. Being a leader of a consultancy group, the rational allocation of responsibilities and obligations among the team members was highly important to facilitate the problem identification aspects and understand the drawbacks of the organisation’s performance.
While preparing the group for the project accomplishment, I realized that being a leader implies possessing a wide experience in allocating roles within a team and making important decisions connected to planning and organising subsequent steps of project accomplishment.
Identifying the Key Concept and Rationale
Judging from the above-presented evaluation of our team performance, specific reference has been made to the importance of roles allocation, the conceptual framework presented by McClelland Need Model – introducing the basis for exploring the main needs of a manager. Hence, greater analysis of the model guides effectively the group members to understand the people’s driving force, including their behaviors and different situations.
The model greatly contributed to understanding psychological needs of group members. Apart from the above-presented framework, the team cooperation and interaction was achieved through understanding the 5 key variables of team performance, which are team leadership, mutual control of performance, back up behavior, adaptability, team coordination and orientation, and mutual trust.
Main Body Introducing the Basics of Corporate Strategy and Analyzing Techniques and Strategic Options
It is important for a leader to learn the main aspects of effective performance management within a project team. In particular, specific psychological, ethical, cultural, and motivational theories and backgrounds should be carefully considered to achieve the highest results.
Regarding the team functioning, it should be stressed that a team leader should provide approaches “…to improve strategic focus and organisational effectiveness through continuously securing improvements in the performance of individual and teams” (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006, p. 289).
While working within a team, the diversification strategy has been introduced, which is also an important element of effective team performance because can significantly foster the goals accomplishment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, “…establishment of priorities between projects, periodic review of project team members’ performance and the existence of planning and control processes” are among the main attributes of fruitful cooperation within the team (Saee, p. 261). In this respect, the strategic options proposed by the Project Board were not fully directed at optimizing the work of the organisation’s team, which hampered the process of option implementation.
Introducing Theoretical Frameworks
Discussing McClelland Need Concept
While applying to McClelland Need concept, I was able to evaluate the motivations and needs of each member of the team, including my abilities and needs. Judging from the results, most of the group participants had higher need for affiliation, but less need for achievement. In contrast, my achievement need was higher than the affiliation which struck the balance between the team members.
More importantly, greater control of performance was carried out through a strong need of power, a tool necessary for enhancing behavior of other people. In the course of project management, I realised that fruitful cooperation within a team was possible to achieve if appropriate behavioral limits were established (Chapmoux, 2010, p. 160). However, a team leader should be more oriented on expressing personal dominance through interpersonal influence and persuasion.
“Big Five” of Team Functioning
While taking into consideration the framework within which the main team leadership variables were identified, there were five key components of successful team functioning, which are team leadership, mutual performance monitoring, back up behavior, adaptability, and team orientation.
Looking from the perspective of team leadership, the team motivation was sufficiently developed through introducing a competition element within a team. At the same time, the team worked toughly in cooperation with each other. According to Zaccaro et al. (2001), “a team failure may reside not only in member inability, but also in their collective failure to coordinate and synchronize their individual contributions” (p. 451).
We will write a custom Essay on Leadership of a Consultancy Group: Project Planning and Organising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this respect, team management should first be considered as a process, but not as an event. Apart from team interpersonal communication, teams should pay closer attention to external factors revealing dynamic and complex environments. In this respect, the need for member coordination was the core for successful accomplishment of team goals.
Back up behavior and adaptability are closely connected concepts. Porter et al. (2003) believe that a back up behavior model should be based on team inputs focused on the nature of team’s goals, as well as the team composition. Being involved into the decision-making process, the team introduced effective collaborative techniques to make important decisions and solutions to the existing problems (Marks et al., 2000).
Adaptability, in this case, is one of the techniques contributing to fostering the decision-making because it enhances the group ability to modify behaviors. Because a team is a group of individuals undertaking specified roles and interacting dynamically and adaptively toward a common goal, the matter of adaptability contributes to recognizing changes within the team and defining the team member roles.
Team orientation is more associated with the analysis of individual efforts within a team. Being a team leader, I realized that I could not effectively manage the team project without assistance provided by my team members. In this case, the effective allocation of roles contributed to greater effectiveness of the project accomplishment.
Evaluation of Team Working and Decision Making Capacity
Judging from the result of project management, our team has succeeded in producing sound solutions to the problem through effective cooperation. The effectiveness of the team’s work was marked by the rational allocation of responsibilities. In particular, because the main project perspectives were identified, I believe that our team corresponded to the existing requirements.
It also implied that I managed to effectively allocate the responsibility and give orders to the group participants. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the decision-making process during the project accomplishment, the team managed to analyze the interview materials to define the gaps in management and identify the problem by the rational decision-making model.
Conclusion An overall evaluation of team performance has revealed that our team has succeeded in implementing its decision-making models and strategic management concept. While leading the group, I have also realized the major shortcomings of leadership. In particular, more emphasis should be placed on striking the balance between coordinative working and individual efforts implementation.
On the one hand, project management requires effective coordination and monitoring of effective team functioning. On the other hand, a leader should provide other group members with a space for creating and analytical thinking. In such a manner, it is possible to creative a sound competition within a group and foster goals accomplishment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership of a Consultancy Group: Project Planning and Organising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Chapmoux, J. (2010) Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. UK, Taylor
How does Oedipus exhibit weakness of character? Essay online essay help
Oedipus, the King of Thebes was married to Jocasta. At the start of the play, he was not aware that he had slept with his mother or that he had murdered his father. Eventually, he came to terms with the fact that he was the one who was betraying his kingdom and felt very guilty, to the extent of blinding himself using a brooch.
As a tragic hero, Oedipus had an apparent tragic flaw which resulted into his humiliating and sorrowful fate. Through his pride, he disbelieved the gods and looked after the source of plague rather than his inside self. However, Oedipus tragic flaw was not very evident- since it was reported that his sins took place before the onset of the play.
In a vigorous tempter, one of Oedipus’ sinful acts happened when he killed a man in cold blood. Eventually, Oedipus weak character that saw him dismiss Teiresias’ judgment together with the case of the Oracles’ prophesies led to punishment from gods. He suffers because of a blasphemous act which was reported by Sophocles as follows:
Ha! O dear Jocasta, why should one believe in prophecies? Why look to the birds screaming overhead. They prophesied that I should kill my father! But he is dead and buried deep in the earth. And I stand here never having raised a hand against him. The oracles, they are worthless (930).
In the play, the main character was presented as someone who thought of himself as better than someone else or rather better than something else. When he wanted to make certain decisions, he often committed an error in judgment. These attributes are also known as tragic flaws, which lead to overconfidence, excess pride, and weakness in making verdict.
It is such attributes that led Oedipus into self-destruction and downfall. He often plunges himself into situations that he can hardly escape from. Furthermore, when he chooses to get angry, he ends up choosing to kill (Hogan 255).
In another incident, Oedipus decides to free from his homeland and deserts his father and mother. He also turns a blind eye to the city and fails to recognize the reality. Incidentally, Oedipus is portrayed as a very tempered character, something that lands him into destruction and downfall.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More No matter the challenges he undergoes, Oedipus does not seem to be perturbed by his fate. He is instead quick to make unwarranted judgments and is very quick to get angry. He convinces himself that Teiresias is ignorant to the city and lacks feelings. This is evident when he says “Indeed I am angry. You must be a conspirator in the deed. If you had eyes, I would have said that you alone murdered him!” (Sophocles 780).
Oedipus is symbolized by the importance of family and governing power. That is actually why he refuses to listen to the prophet Tiresias’ warning, something that made him discover the awful covert that resulted into his blindness, and on the worst, cursing his children.
His fate resulted from his adamant silencing of the words of the prophet. His tragic tale shows that his mighty as a king does not elevate him above the gods. Indeed, all his life is full of doom, since the time he killed his father and wedded his mother. He is completely unable to defy his fate and hence unable to succeed in most of what he does.
Apparently, Tiresias can be understood as a very righteous character as he is a servant of the gods, and has the ability of seeing what others cannot be able to see. Considering that Oedipus had denied Tiresias prophesy and frustrated his efforts, then it can be concluded that he is the villain in the play.
Oedipus is warned by Tiresias, “you are the curse, the corruption of the land” (Sophocles 787). That is how the tragic fate is assigned to Oedipus for his villain character. Oedipus uses his family as the price that occasions his disastrous defiance. In a bid to find out the person who had killed Laius, Oedipus sent his children to disgrace and his wife to grave, though unknowingly.
Weber puts forward, “Oedipus Tyrannus reminds us that the family has always been a significant framework more through its fragility than its stability” (par. 1). Oedipus destroyed his own legacy through his mistakes. This is because the society considers continuation of family trees as the developers of legacy.
Essentially, it can be argued that it was folly for Oedipus to have ignored the power of Apollo, and worse still, having continued his pursuit unstoppably. After discovering the reality about his complications, Oedipus realized where he had gone wrong. His case was rather a very disturbing twist of fate.
We will write a custom Essay on How does Oedipus exhibit weakness of character? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of waiting for the gods to punish him, Oedipus demands voluntarily “that he be cast from the city, self-cursed and loathsome to himself, his countrymen, and his family” (Hogan par. 1). The manner in which Oedipus seals his own punishment even after creating his own tragic fate is extremely ironical.
Works Cited Hogan, James C. “A Commentary on the plays of Sophocles.” Galileo: University System of Georgia Libraries, GA, 2005. Web.17 Dec 2011.
Sophocles. “Oedipus the king” Literature and writing process (2002): 776-818. Print.
Weber, Samuel. “Family Scenes: Some Preliminary Remarks on Domesticity and Theatricality.” South Atlantic quarterly, summer 3(1998): 335-66. Web.
Oedipus Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
“Oedipus is punished not for any fault in himself, but for his ignorance. Not knowing his family history, unable to recognize his parents on sight, he is blameless; and in slaying his father and marrying his mother, he behaves as any sensible person might behave in the same circumstances.” I agree with the above interpretation.
This is because were it not been for his ignorance about his family history, Oedipus would have known his family. As such, he is blameless on account of his ignorance. I would therefore not be so quick as to blame Oedipus because if I were in his shoes, I would probably have acted in the same way. Although the death of his father signifies his own downfall, nonetheless, one could argue that Oedipus acted in self-defense, in that he was attacked unexpectedly while travelling alone and out of fear of losing his life, he kills them all but one.
These were violent times and as such, a man was expected to defend himself in case of an attack, and more so while travelling alone in far off lands. Any sensible man would have done the same, under the circumstances. The punishment that Oedipus receives largely stems from his ignorance.
Oedipus should have been wiser enough to heed the warnings of Teiresias. We can therefore say that Oedipus somehow pursued his own death. For example, he had been warned a couple of times to desist from attacking people who were ready to surrender but he could hear none of it, for his desire to be a man.
Although Oedipus was a brave, wise man who sought the truth relentlessly, of sound judgement and had the capacity to “see beyond the obvious” (Regal 19), nonetheless, all these assets proved worthless as he fell victim to a heinous fate-he killed his own father without his knowledge and later on married his mother.
Despite the many dimensions taken by the play, it has a central moral dilemma in which we are called to question whether we are in a position to shrug off the responsibility bestowed upon us when short-sightedness and avoidable ignorance forces us to do great harm.
For someone who little knowledge about the play, there is the possibility of presuming that Oedipus had improper lust. However, he did not kill his father out of lust for his mother. He was brought up by foster parents, the queen and king of Corinth. He never knew that he was an adopted child, or that his true biological parents were Jocasat and Laius.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A lot of stigma was attached to patricide and incest in the culture where Oedipus lived and when the truth dawned on him, he was extremely distraught. All this time, however, Oedipus was innocent. One might argue that he portrayed unacceptable motives but on the basis of the Judeo-Christian moral standards, he was morally innocent because he was not aware that the men on the road were the king (his biological father) and his aides.
To him, they were nothing more than a band of rude, ordinary men, and he had to defend himself. Even if we assume that Oedipus’ actions were morally innocent, can we also assume that he was also blameless for our practical purposes? One might argue that Oedipus could and should have done better. This is because he had received warning on several occasions. It had been prophesied that Oedipus would kill his own father and that he would later on marry his mother.
Oedipus chose to ignore the prophecy. Instead, he fled to Corinth as a way of escaping the predicted misdeeds. Even while escaping, Corinth thought that the King and queen of Corinth were his birth parents. In a way, he was uprooting his life from the culture he was used to, to that of Corinth.
On his way to Corinth, he encountered with and killed his own father, against his knowledge. If Oedipus had taken the prophecy seriously, he could also have wished to question his own view of reality and this might have prompted him to further interpret the unfolding events. He even ignored the prophecy of Teiresias, the esteemed blind prophet whose revelation had indicated that Oedipus would indeed kill Laius, his real father, and then marry his mother.
Although he acted violently by killing his own father, among the Greeks, the most admired heroes were expected to put on a brave face even when facing death in the eye. According to the description provided regarding the killing, neither party could be accused of being strictly guilty of the brawl that ensured, in which Oedipus murdered his father.
Oedipus is not a damned, stupid, cursed, or afflicted man, and neither did he have a complex. He was nothing more than an ordinary man blessed with an extraordinary passion to know the truth. He was also caught in an inherently deceptive and intricate situation in which an exceptional ability and good intentions to see through riddles were not enough to overcome an increase in misdeeds.
Works Cited Regal, Philip. The anatomy of judgment. Minnesota, Canada: University of Minnesota Press, 1990, Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Oedipus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Report essay help
According to the report conducted by Eurobarometer, mobile telephones are considered as mobile communication masts (65). About 59 % of respondents recognize that mobile handsets contribute to creating electromagnetic fields (EMF) (Eurobarometer 67). Specific threat constitutes mobile phones antenna and stations that expose radiation (Krawczyk 255).
Eurobarometer has fixed that about 58 % of the participants consider power lines as the main source of EMFs (64). Power lines transmission exposes non-ionizing magnetic radiation which is harmful to people. If a high-voltage power line has a positive polarity, the human body can develop a negative charge, which can distort field lines, making those highly intense (Krawczyk 56).
Microwaves can penetrate the tissues of humans and other living beings within a 0.3 mm – 300 mm range, depending on the intensity (Krawczyk 264). Microwave ovens and radiofrequency phones are among the potential sources of electromagnetic radiation.
It is a well-known fact that X-rays expose an ionizing radiation which has a dangerous impact on human health. In particular, morphological distortion of cellular structure of the organism is one of the effects of X-ray radiation (Krawczyk 71). Therefore, irradiation decreases chances for survival. Medical X-rays, therefore, can be the main sources of radiation and it has a serious impact on human health.
One of the major sources of infrared radiation is the sun because this kind of waves is produced under high temperatures. Exposure, therefore, occurs from such heat sources as lamps, furnaces, and molten metals (Office of Technology Assessment 97). Overall, infrared radiation increases the function of temperatures and, therefore, it has a potential threat to humans.
AM And FM Radios
It has been assumed that AM and FM radio transmit high rates of RF energy (Office of Technology Assessment 98). Though the radio antennas expose high levels of radiation, they are set predominantly on high towers. Nevertheless, human absorb some amount of radiofrequency energy.
Wireless applications, particularly Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, have potential threat to the human organism. Harmful energies emitted by these devices negatively influence the normal functioning of an organism. Hence, because our organism contains about 70 % of salt, which increases the electric conductivity (The Center for the Future, n. p.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects Short Term Effects
Headaches and fatigues are the main shortcomings of non-ionizing radiation. They are often caused by AM and FM radio stations emitting microwaves. Microwave ovens are also among the sources causing headaches.
Hair loss can occur as a result of MRI therapy where a significant doze of radiation is consumed by human organism (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). Because of cellular damage, radiation therapy has a number of side effects and hair loss is among those.
The use of infrared radiation and magnetic resonance imaging do not officially recognize the possibility of harmful impact on human health. Nevertheless, inappropriate use of MRI therapy can lead to RF burns because of induced currents being placed on skin surface accidentally (Zamanian and Hardiman 22).
Tissue heating and burning can also be the result of optical radiation. The point is that an intense level of optical radiation can lead to electron excitation. Electrons on the body surface absorb energy from the optical sources resulting in tissue burning and heating. In addition, abnormal redness and retinal injury are among other effects of optical radiation. Finally, solar radiation is also the main reason for skin burn, cataract formation, aging, and retinal degeneration (Zamanian and Hardiman 23).
While comparing different extents to which human health can be influenced by magnetic fields, stress is among insignificant changes. In particular, harmful effect of human health can be caused of microwave radiation, which leads to stress formation and neurological diseases (Krawczyk 86).
Vomiting can be caused by an extreme influence of gamma rays emission. Overexposure of radioactive substances can cause significant distortion of digestive system (Zamanian and Hardiman 20).
Long Term Effects
Microwave communication chains generate energy within 60 GHz (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). They can cause tissue heating due to RF exposures. In particular, a human eye is sensitive to microwave energy. As a result, the influence of microwave radiofrequency on eyes can lead to cataracts, especially when the exposure is of extremely high frequency (Zamanian and Hardiman 22).
We will write a custom Report on Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tissue damage can also be caused by Ultraviolet radiation due to overexposure or excess duration of radiation on skin. Because of significant biological effects, there is an assumption that Ultraviolet radiation belongs to ionizing radiation.
Due to the increased use of mobile handsets, human health is under the threat of radio-frequency emissions that have a negative influence on blood pressure, hear rates, and capillary perfusion. In the course of research studies and empirical observations, Lucking, et al. have defined that the impact of mobile phone radiation on the right hemisphere contributes to increased activity that has a negative impact on blood pressure (1857).
According to Krawczyk, “electromagnetic field energy absorb directly in human body included in body electric currents and heap up of tissue” (63). In this respect, blood pressure disturbance is the main consequences of the presented instabilities.
Cellular damages are usually caused by ionizing radiation, such as X-rays (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). One of the mains threats to human threat is caused by ionizing radiation. It contributes to chemical change of the human cells. This is of particular concern to X-ray radiation.
The impact of electromagnetic fields on human health can also be in the form of cellular damages leading cancer diseases. The probability of skin cancer, therefore, can be the result of solar radiation. Aside from solar energy, the threat of cancer can be associated with x-rays radiation.
Specifically, it has been defined that x-rays can cause skin cancer and leukemia because of radioactivity exposure (Zamanian and Hardiman 23). RF exposure concerns are also associated with negative effects on human health, particularly on the development of brain cancer. A number of researchers have defined that a cancer risk can be connected to EMR in increased wattage levels.
Despite the presented beliefs, it has been defined that some types of wireless communication, such as radio stations do not have sufficient power to cause threats to human health (Zamanian and Hardiman 21).
Ruiz-Gomez and Martinez-Morillo have reviewed two types of researches – epigenetic and genotoxic – to define the harmful effect of magnetic fields on DNA structure (202). Judging from the results, genotoxic studies revealed DNA strand breaks caused by magnetic fields.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A higher degree of threats has been presented in epigenetic studies proving the negative impact of magnetic fields on DN (Ruiz-Gomez and Martinez-Morillo 203). In addition, the studies have also involved the conditions under which magnetic fields cause DNA damage, including duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, and its intensity. Despite the difference of exposure conditions and other criteria, the impact of magnetic fields on DNA structure is still evident.
Government and Industry
According to the policies introduced by U.S. federal and state governments, all facilities and equipment emitting magnetic radiation should correspond to the existing exposure guidelines (Eurobarometer 86). In addition, the role of public authorities should be increased in handing the issues of public safety and protection. In Europe, significant emphasis is placed on national authorities that should work out effective strategies aimed at preventing the exposure of electromagnetic field radiation (Eurobarometer 88).
Proper Power Lines Locations
With regard to the above, the location of high-voltage power lines should be far from the population aggregate to minimize the hazardous influence on human health (Zamanian and Hardiman 21). Workers working with electricity should also follow the accepted rules and wear specific clothes protecting them from radiation.
Proper Cell Phones Towers Locations
Regarding the use of cell phones, it is purposeful to introduce generally accepted recommendations for establishing safety standards for products (Eurobarometer 88). The development of international guidance for public protection and health promotion is also indispensible to minimizing the threats of electromagnetic fields influence.
To Reduce EMF Exposure
It is important to provide a strong financial support for research aimed at measuring the effects of EMF exposure and introducing strategies for minimizing its effect on human health. Research practice, therefore, can also be beneficial for working conditions and increased reliability of scientific evidence. Overall,
To Reduce Extremely Low Frequencies Exposure
The studies dedicated to the analysis of harmfulness of low frequency exposures are also important for defining its potential threat to human health. Because low frequencies exposures are produced by microwaves, it is rational to introduce studies dedicated to this field.
Minimizing Cell Phone Usage
The use of cell phones should be minimized to an acceptable extent. This is of particular concern to people who have cardio implants that can be significantly damaged by frequent use of mobile handsets. In this respect, Krawczyk states that mobile communication technologies are connected with the “…possibility to appear interference of external electromagnetic fields from UMTS mobile phone with the function of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator” (255). In addition, tissue heating, headaches, and stresses can also be avoided to reduce the impact.
Measuring EMFs Levels at Home
Electromagnetic fields can be easily measured. They can be found near the wiring cables, sockets, and switches. Higher levels of electromagnetic field can be detected towards the ceiling (Earthcalm n. p). These areas can be measure EMF around the cables. In order to reduce the influence of electromagnetic fields, screened cables installation can be the right solution. By covering the walls with a screening paint, it is possible to earth the electromagnetic fields.
EMF Protection Devices
Scalar home. Scalar home is a device that protects homes from EMF emissions (Earthcalm n. p.). The protector, therefore, creates a peaceful and calm atmosphere at home.
Quantum Cell. The Quantum Cell is a radiation protector (Earthcalm n. p). The working principle of the device consists in grounding the nervous system into the electromagnetic field of the Earth while restoring the natural resonance.
Omega Wi-Fi. The Omega Wi-Fi is another effective device that can ensure the protection throughout the house. Once you have plugged the device into the network, everyone within this network is also protected (Earthcalm n. p). As a result, the Omega Wi-Fi decreases the frequency of headaches, reduces probability of brain cancer and creates a favorable setting for restful sleep.
Conclusion It should be stressed that electromagnetic fields emissions have a potential influence on human health. However, little studies have been designed to provide strong evidence to harmful effects. In particular, no specific evidence is found concerning long-term effects of microwave radiation and radio impact. The existing studies have still defined that radiation therapy and natural resources of radiation have short-term effects on human health.
The hazards are confined to tissue heating, headaches, nausea, stresses, and sunburn. In order to remove the effects, specific products can be used. In particular, the devices introduced by EathCalm producer can be used to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields and reduce the influence of emitted radiation.
In addition, public awareness of the existing hazards should also be increased to introduce specific polices aimed at preventing radiation emission and introducing the corresponding measures. Personal awareness is also important and it will contribute to solving the problem.
Recommendations Despite a great number of researchers dedicated to the study of electromagnetic fields, few ones are dedicated to the study of their harmful effects on human health. In particular, no evidence has been found concerning the relationship between EMFs emission and DNA damage. The point is that there is no a unanimous opinion on this issues, which does not provide sufficient grounds for further research. In this respect, further studies should continue to provide accuracy and reliability to the above-presented findings.
Works Cited Center for the Future. 3-Hole Resonator- Wireless Appliances. n. d. Web.
Earthcalm. EarthCalm Scalar Home EMF Protection System: An EMF Protector for the Family. Earthcalm. 2010. Web.
Eurobarometer. Electromagnetic Fields. Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs. 2010. Web.
Krawczyk, Andrzej. Electromagnetic Field, Health and Environment: Proceedings of EHE’07. US: IOS Press, 2007. Print.
Lucking, Charles.H., et al. “Resting Blood Pressure Increase During Exposure To A Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field.” Lancet 351.9119 (1998): 1857. Print.
Office of Technology Assessment. Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace. US: DIANE Publishing, n. d. Print.
Ruiz-Gomez, Miguel J., and Manuel Martinez-Morillo. “Electromagnetic Fields And The Induction Of DNA Strand Breaks.” Electromagnetic Biology
How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction This paper seeks to establish information on how orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of War on Terror. The subject of terrorism is widespread in the entire globe, and most people have come up with varied ways and techniques to fight terrorism. In this paper, we focus on these methods with emphasis on the constructions of Muslim bodies either in the Muslim regions or outside their regions, which aim as rescuing the innocent Muslims.
We will look at how these Muslim bodies establish, and the role their founders expect them to play in regards to the War on Terror. For the purposes of this paper, we will look in depth in at the Muslim religion, their practices, and any other activities that are strictly in line with the religion. In addition, the paper will analyze the contribution and impact of the Muslim religion on the war on terror and the effect this will have on the whole world.
The mention of terrorism sparks the thoughts violence, murder, bombs, and many other inhuman actions, which are taking place in the current world. Terrorism is an international matter that all countries seek to address irrespective of whether they have been victims or not. The subject of terrorism goes back in time, and it is not a matter that can be said to have started recently. Many countries have been victims of terrorism with most innocent people losing their lives and properties.
Terrorism is a counter reaction from the people of the East in regards to the west having power all nations in the world. The population of the Eastern region is majorly Muslim who oppose to the Western power and in this case establishing ways in which to retaliate to the western powers.
Terrorism gave birth to the ideology of war on terror, which is a Western technique of eliminating the terrorism activities. War on terror is a term, which most people use while referring to the international military campaign whose members include the United Kingdom, United States, and other North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s commonly abbreviated as NATO. The main origin of war on terror was for the purposes of wiping out al-Qaeda and other supporting militant organizations.
In describing the war on terror, it encompasses all aspects of life as it aims at eliminating the terrorist groups, which are led by the al-Qaeda, and other extremist groups. Most people describe war on terror as a global military, legal, political, and ideological fight back against terrorist groups and any regimes linked to such groups. These regimes support the terrorist groups by providing them with financial and technical support in their terrorist activities against other nations.
Discussion The issue of terrorism is an international affair affecting all countries and its occupants from Europe to Africa to Asia. We will briefly look at the origin of war on terror and the basis of these operations. The al-Qaeda network which is the backbone of terrorism around the world was started Afghanistan in the period of December 1979 to 1996 February, and its main aim was to train their operatives in destroying the West powers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Later on the group WIFJAJC- World Islamic Front for Jihad Jews and Crusaders started spreading their manifestos in Afghanistan, which its considerable population are Islamic extremist- Taliban. The leader of the group, Osama bin Laden, declared war on Israel, the American states, and the west. These were not empty threats as it followed with bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, which targeted the US embassies of the two countries in Africa.
The then president of United States Bill Clinton launched an operation against terrorism targeting the al-Qaeda groups. These did not deter the terrorist groups from accomplishing their mission as their followed significant attacks on different countries with the notable September 11th attack, which left several people dead. At this point, the then sitting president- George Bush launched the war on terror in an effort to wipe out the terrorist groups.
War on terror has several objectives the main one being conquering terrorists like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Osama bin Laden by destroying any organizations under their leadership. In addition, the war on terror aims at stopping any sponsorship towards countries taking part in terrorist activities or hosting terrorists, protecting United States citizens abroad or at home, and reduce the nourishing conditions that terrorists take advantage of in attacking people and countries.
In an effort to achieve the above objectives, the United States and other supporting countries and organizations had to come up with techniques and ways in which their missions could come true. Apart from negotiations with other countries there had to be a method in which the war on terror can get wind of the plans that these terrorists group had.
The network of these terrorists groups had expanded, and it was not possible to be a fighter from the outside. One had to fight from inside and that meant understanding most of the things about these terrorist groups. the United States government had deployed its military in the regions where the terrorist actions had origin but this was only causing more deaths and violence than eliminating terrorism.
As indicated earlier in the paper, these terrorist groups and people comprised of people who profess the Muslim religion. There are several religions in the world, and one of them is the Muslim religion. Each religion has its principles and rules and so does the Muslim religion.
As Muslim, there are certain things that they believe in which makes them participate in the terrorist activities. One of these beliefs is that the more a person murders many people the more his or her chances of going to heaven. It was a sign of martyr Dom when sacrificing one’s soul and life in an effort to fighting the enemy. For this reason, we have heard of many suicide bombings carried out by Muslims in airplanes, trains, vehicles, and buildings.
We will write a custom Essay on How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To the participants they believe by so doing they will go to heaven and it makes them pure. The Muslim religion has followers all over the world with many of its followers being in the Middle East, part of Africa especially at the horn of Africa. During the formation, of its networks the al-Qaeda group managed to get a grip of almost the entire world having links in every part of the world. This was wide spread, that it was difficult to locate the masterminds of the terrorist activities, which were taking place in the past times.
Under the Muslim religion, we have different categories depending on the devotion of people to the religion. Notable is two categories of extremists and the flexible ones who both profess to the same religion-Muslim. It is believed that the extremist Muslims form a substantial part of the terrorist groups, which engage in the terrorist activities. This fact has led to several arguments concerning the connection between Islam as a religion and terrorism, which has grown in to a political affair.
This issue is so widespread that it can be seen in places of work, travel areas, and many other areas. For instance, in an airport a Muslim will be subjected to serious scrutiny as compared to any other person just because of the link between Islam and terrorism. The situation is so inept that people fear being on a plane, or vehicle with any person whose dress implies he or she is a Muslim (Butchart, 1998, p. 62).
The war on terror has in the recent past come up with ways in which it can get in the Islam community and understand its undertakings. For this reason, there has been a widespread of orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies, which inform the rhetoric of war on terror. Basing on the aspect of being an insider fighter the war on terror proprietors opted to forming Muslim bodies, which in turn will inform them of the undertakings of the terrorist groups.
The main aim for the formation of these Muslim bodies is to be part of the activities of the terrorist groups, which have Muslims as their members. When talking about Muslim bodies we mean the organizations and groups, which seem to be promoting the Muslim, human rights, and interests.
These bodies can vary from region to the region, and from time to time as long, the proprietors of the war on terror achieve their mission. The most common element in these Muslim bodies is that they all act as informers of the people behind the war on terror.
Orientalist construction of Muslim bodies means the formation of organizations and groups, which have the culture or character of peoples of the western, central, eastern, or Asia region. This representation in these Muslim bodies eventually portrays the stereotypic and colonialist character because the founders of the war will majorly lead the members of the bodies on terror.
The principles and guidelines of these Muslim bodies depict the Islamic following but with all the wrong intentions of wanting to get hold of the masterminds of terrorism in the world. These bodies can be varied and most of them maybe promoting peace in Islamic regions, fighting for the rights of the innocent Muslims, speaking on behalf of the Muslim people and many other roles. These are done at international level so that the entire world can have a view of their intentions and missions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The bodies may comprise of both the moderate and extremist Muslim, and they strictly subscribe to the religion’s following. The major role of these Muslim bodies is to inform the people acting on the war on terror. In this section of the paper, we will analyze the methods and techniques employed in establishing these Muslim bodies of war on terror informers. We will also analyze the formation of the bodies, its members, their guidelines, and their area of coverage (Ayotte
Reflective paper on Human Resource Management Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Human Resource is a term used to describe all the people working in an organization. Human resource management is the function within an organization that emphasizes on hiring and recruitment of employees, managing employees and giving them direction. Human resource management can also be preformed by various sectional/departmental heads also known as line managers.
Therefore, the human resources manager oversees numerous issues touching on the employees and their welfare. Other issues handled by human resource department include compensation; performance management and appraisal; organizational development; motivation of employees; staff development; grievance and disciplinary; and communication among others (Banfield and Kay, 2008, p. 3; Gronn 2002, p. 425; Cappelli 2000, p.104).
Human resource management is also a tactical and all-inclusive approach to managing individuals and the organization culture and environment. Effective human resource management makes it possible for workers to contribute effectively and efficiently to the overall wellbeing of the organization and to the achievement of goals. Human resource management is currently moving away from the traditional methods of personnel management.
It is now integrating changes in the global business environment and the increased competition for human capital. Therefore, Human resource management is currently expected to add value to the employees to enable them cope with the present challenges and improve the competitive advantage of the company (Gilmore and Williams, 2009, p. 5). This essay aims at exploring a portfolio of subjects related to human resource management and reflecting them with the seminar activities.
Developing the practitioner In order to maintain a competitive advantage and retention of high quality staff, companies must ensure that training and development of the human resources is given high priority. Investing in professional training guarantees stability and productivity in organization.
Training and development is the main instrument for breaking new ground; hence, bringing changes in an organization. One of the most significant aspects of human resource development is helping employees to become more effective in their work and to be able to adapt to other jobs within the company (Wexley
Demand and Supply of Apple iPod Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The Law of Demand
The Law of Supply
Supply and demand are one of the most elementary concepts of economics and it is the stamina of a market economy. Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a merchandise or service is preferred by buyers. The amount demanded is the quantity of a merchandise people are prepared to buy at a definite price.
The correlation involving price and quantity demanded is branded as the demand correlation. Supply represents how much the market is able to tender. The amount supplied refers to the quantity of a certain good producers are ready to supply when getting a certain charge. The relationship connecting price and the amount of good or service supplied to the market is known as the supply correlation. Price, hence, is an indication of supply and demand.
IPod, the focus of the study, is a streak of moveable media players produced and marketed by Apple Inc (Hesseldahl, 2005, November 1). The merchandise line-up at present consists of the hard drive-based iPod archetypal, the touch screen iPod Touch, the compact iPod Nano, and the ultra-compact iPod Shuffle. IPod classic models stock up media on an inside hard drive while all other models use flash reminiscence, in order to facilitate their smaller size.
As by many other digital music players, iPods can also serve up as peripheral data storage devices. While the iPhone and iPad have basically the same media-player capabilities as the iPod line, they are normally treated as separate products. In the previous few years, iPhone and iPad sales have overtaken those of the iPod. Studying the trend of demand and supply for IPod is necessary in marketing.
Again, it enables managers at Apple IPod to make suitable pricing decisions. This study seeks to explore the demand and supply of Apple IPod through the use of the laws of demand and supply. We selected Apple IPod in this case since its demand overshadows the supply.
The Law of Demand This law stipulates that when the price of a product increase, the amount demanded will decrease, all other factors held constant (Hubbard, 2008). Some factors that may control demand include income, tastes and preferences, price of related products and expectations.
As income rises, we gain the power to purchase extra products. As the demand for a product increases with a rise in income, we describe that product as a normal good. As demand for a product reduces with an increase in income, then we describe that product as an inferior good.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Related products may appear in two forms, which include substitutes and compliments. Substitutes are identical goods, which can be used as substitutes to the good. Some examples of substitute products include butter/cheese and Pepsi/Coke. People, in many occasions, take substitutes of products that are less costly. Complements are products that are used hand in hand (Blackwell, 2006). Some examples of compliment products include sugar/tea, eraser/pencil and radio/batteries.
Tastes and preferences play a key role in determining the demand for goods, although, they have less impact in the short run. Lastly, when people expect the price of a product to increase in prospect, they tend to purchase that product at that time, thus increasing current demand (Blackwell, 2006). This is a different example of the law of substitution, as a person substitutes ahead of the projected, comparatively costly future use.
Demand curves separate the association between the amount on demand and the price of the good, when holding all other pressures constant. The curves demonstrate the different prices that a good may cost. As the cost of the good shift, quantity demanded changes, but demand does not adjust. Price changes entail a movement alongside the existing demand arc.
Market demand is the outline of all the entity demand curves of those in the market. It is the straight sum of entity curves and adds all the quantities demanded at each value. The major concern is in market demand curves, as there are averages of entity performance tend to be dutiful.
When any pressure other than the cost of the merchandise changes, such as earnings or taste, demand change, and the whole demand curve will change (either up or down). A move to the right (and up) is called an raise in demand, while a move to the left (and down) is called a reduce in demand. For instance, there are two ways to depress smoking: increase the cost through levy or make the flavor less attractive.
The Law of Supply When the price of a good increases ceteris paribus, suppliers present additional products (Hubbard, 2008). This means that price and amount supplied are positively linked. The cost of production is the key factor that controls supply. It comprises input prices, expectations and technology. When the prices of inputs, for instance, raw resources, capital and labor augment, production is apt to be less gainful, and less production takes place. This results in a reduction in supply.
Technology links to techniques of changing inputs into outputs. Enhancements in technology will decrease the costs of manufacture and make sales further gainful. Hence, it tends to augment the supply. Also, if companies expect prices to increase in prospect, they may attempt to manufacture less at that time and further afterwards (Volkmann, 2010).
We will write a custom Report on Demand and Supply of Apple iPod specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The connection amid the price of a product and the amount supplied, slopes upwards, when all other factors are at constant. The whole curve represents supply, but not just a single point on the arc. As the price of the good changes, the amount supplied transforms, although supply does not vary. As the cost of production transforms, supply varies, and the whole supply curve changes.
Market Supply is the addition of all the entity supply curves, as well as the horizontal summation of the entity supply curves. It is controlled by the aspects that control entity supply curves, for instance, the quantity of suppliers in the market and cost of production (Hubbard, 2008). In other words, the larger the number of companies producing a commodity, the bigger the market supply.
As the amount supplied at a particular price reduces, the entire curve changes to the left as there is a drop in supply. This is usually caused by an augment in the cost of manufacture or reduction in the quantity of sellers. An increase in wages, cost of capital, cost of raw resources and ceteris paribus, will reduce supply (Hubbard, 2008). At times, weather may as well influence supply, if the raw resources are fragile or inaccessible because of transportation issues.
Equilibrium Equilibrium is the meeting point of the demand and supply curves (Hubbard, 2008). The price where the amount on demand equals the quantity supplied is the equilibrium price. The amount where price attunes in order that QD = QS is the equilibrium quantity (Hubbard, 2008). The amount that buyers are ready to buy exactly equals the amount the producers are enthusiastic to sell, at the price of equilibrium. Activities of sellers and purchasers are apt to shift a market in the direction of the equilibrium.
Excess Supply/Demand Excess Supply occurs when the amount supplied is greater than the amount on demand, and outcomes in surplus at the existing price. In the circumstance of excess supply, price becomes extremely high. Hence, inventories rise and suppliers respond by reducing prices, up to when the price drops to the equilibrium.
Excess Demand takes place when the amount on demand is greater than the amount supplied and consequences shortages at existing prices (Hubbard, 2008). In instances of excess demand, purchasers cannot acquire all they desire at the going price. Hence, sellers discover that their inventories are lessening and they can increase prices with no loss in sales. Prices rise until market arrives at equilibrium.
Every aspect of this literature on demand and supply is essential in our case study as it enables us to understand how demand and supply shifts, factors that stimulates shifts and how prices are constructed.
Methodology The study depends on the compilation of primary information from usual agents of the value chain consisting of traders, producers and retailers as well as secondary sources, which have previous reports and statistical information regarding Apple IPod. From the over 1 million video downloads, it is evident that demand is outpacing supply of Apple’s IPod. In the month of October, Apple’s share price, by market, shifted from $3.12 to $57.59 (Hesseldahl, 2005, November 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Demand and Supply of Apple iPod by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supposing that every new iPod holder has downloaded from 5 to 10 videos, we may approximate the quantity of IPod units sold, in the earliest weeks in market, to be 100,000 and 200,000. After considering this, we try to represent the relationship of various factors that affect demand and supply in a demand-supply curve.
Research Results This graph shows the supply and Demand for Apple’s IPod.
The subsequent is an explanation of what happens to the demand and supply arc as well as equilibrium price and quantity in different circumstances. Once the cost of earphones and IPod cases fall, cost of compliments drop, demand raise and supply settle the same as Q and P increase. When the cost of downloading music on-line raise, the cost of compliments raise, demand reduce and supply settle the unchanged as Q and P drop.
Whilst innovative, a rival of Apple IPod decreases the cost of all their mp3 players, the cost of stand-in decreases, demand decreases and supply settle the same as Q and P drop. Assume Becky and Bridget show their baby toddler on TV and name their child after “IPod”, the partiality l changes, demand raise and supply settle the same as Q and P increase (Volkmann, 2010).
Assume IPods are made in China, and Chinese regime choose to cut levy for foreign companies in order to draw more venture, the capital for manufacture increases, demand stays the equivalent and supply increases as Q rises and P drop.
Then, presume that in China, the price increases so stern that the industrial units have to raise workers’ wages, wages for employment in manufacture raise, demand stays the equal and supply decreases as Q drop and P increase presume the industrial unit used to labor for Apple now understand that it is more lucrative for them to labor for innovative and resolute to split up with Apple, the work for manufacture reduce, demand settle the equivalent and supply decreases as Q decreases and P increases.
In case the cost of headphones and IPod cases fall and IPods are prepared in China and Chinese administration make a decision to decrease levy for overseas corporation in order to draw more investment, supply and demand raise as Q increases and P is in determinant. Indeterminacy arise when the adjustment in cost or quantity might increase or drop, depending on the extent of alteration. Alteration in supply and demand, mutually, increases the state of indeterminacy.
In conclusion, exploring demand and supply is vital as it aids in marketing and making price decisions. Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a merchandise or service is preferred by buyers. The amount demanded is the quantity of a merchandise people are prepared to buy at a definite price; the correlation involving price and quantity demanded is branded as the demand correlation.
Supply represents how much the market is able to tender. The amount supplied refers to the quantity of a certain good producers are ready to supply when getting a certain charge. Hence, price is an indication of supply and demand.
The law of demand stipulates that when the price of a product increase, the amount demanded will decrease, all other factors held constant. Some factors that may control demand include income, tastes and preferences, price of related products and expectations.
Demand curves separate the association between the amount on demand and the price of the good, when holding all other pressures constant. The curves demonstrate the different prices that a good may cost. As the cost of the good shift, quantity demanded changes, but demand do not adjust. Price changes entail a movement alongside the existing demand arc.
The law of supply states that when the price of a good increases ceteris paribus, suppliers present additional products. This means that price and amount supplied are positively linked. The cost of production is the key factor that controls supply. It comprises input prices, expectations and technology. When the prices of inputs, for instance, raw resources, capital and labor augment, production is apt to be less gainful, and less production takes place. This results in a reduction in supply.
Market Supply is the addition of all the entity supply curves, as well as, the horizontal summation of the entity supply curves. Equilibrium is the meeting point of the demand and supply curves. The price where the amount on demand equals the quantity supplied is the equilibrium price.
Excess Supply occurs when the amount supplied is greater than the amount on demand, and outcomes in surplus at the existing price. Inventories rise and suppliers respond by reducing prices, up to when the price drops to the equilibrium. On the other hand, excess demand takes place when the amount on demand is greater than the amount supplied and consequences shortages at existing prices. Prices rise until market arrives at equilibrium.
Some of the factors affecting the demand of Apple IPod include income, tastes and preferences, as well as price of related products. There is an excess demand at Apple IPod because the amount on demand is greater than the amount supplied and consequences shortages at existing prices. Conversely, the key factor affecting the supply of Apple IPod is the cost of production.
References Blackwell, R. (2006). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
Hesseldahl, A. (2005, November 1). I want my video IPod. Bloomberg Businessweek. Web.
Hubbard, R. (2008). Economics. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Volkmann, C. (2010). Entrepreneurship in a European perspective concept for the creation and growth of new ventures. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
JN Bentley Limited Industrial Management Report essay help online: essay help online
Introduction This report is about JN Bentley Limited, a civil engineering company based in Skipton, North Yorkshire with over 40 years experience in the construction industry. It presents the history of the company, its current operations and a SWOT analysis. Towards the end, recommendations are given regarding the short, medium and long term strategies that may be adopted by the company as it looks ahead into the future.
History of JN Bentley JN Bentley limited was established in the year 1972 and ran its operations in Skipton and North Yorkshire. During its early days in business, the company offered water and sewerage services for the water authorities in Bradford and Craven and also did civil engineering works for the local authorities in Yorkshire and East Lancashire.
With this start, the company managed to lay its foundation for civil engineering services and create a strong link with the water industry (Bentley, 2011). As the company continued to expand its horizon, it later added building construction to its range of services with quite a number of building construction projects being completed successfully in the 1980s. Gradually, the strength of the company grew to the point of it becoming a pioneer in the provision of excellent design as well as building services to clients.
Two high profile and very ambitious residential projects were later completed in the years between 1985 and 1995. One of these was at Linton, near Grassington, in North Yorkshire and the other one was at Cowan Head, close to Kendal, in the Lake District (Bentley, 2011). In 1990s, the company’s focus shifted towards civil engineering. This saw the company strengthen its relations with Yorkshire Water as well as developing strong skills in offering solid waste management services.
Around this time, the company’s operations were extended to cover the northern side of England with a focus on blue chip and local government clients. JN Bentley Limited ‘s expertise continued to grow especially in the water industry. These include process, mechanical and electrical design, installation, and commissioning of water projects.
Later, in the year 1999 JN Bentley Limited entered into a partnership with consultant Mott MacDonald with the sole intention of offering an integrated feasibility, design, construction and commissioning of services. From the time it was formed, Mott Mac Donald Bentley has grown tremendously to such an extent that in its thirteenth anniversary, it now represents close to half the turnover of JN Bentley Limited (Bentley, 2011).
In the 2000s, JN Bentley Limited diversified its operations to cover a much wider geographical area with new company offices being opened in Durham in the year 2005, and later in Shifnal, Shropshire and Edinburg in the year 2009. The company also established a Yorkshire Water Contract Office in Leeds and a Cambridge Water Contract Office in the year 2010.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, JN Bentley Limited operates long term capitals in both the water and wastewater sectors and also enjoys long term relationships with a number of blue chip commercial clients. The company also works for local government clients and continues to offer services both in the building sector and in civil engineering. With it rich knowledge and expertise in development and design in the renewable energy and hydropower sector, JN Bentley Limited has gone ahead to establish a hydropower team (Bentley, 2011).
Current Operations Over time, JN Bentley Limited’s operations have expanded to cover quite a number of services to the public. These services include:
JN Bentley prides itself in providing high quality craftsmanship to aerospace clients. Some of these clients are Leeds Bradford International Airport and Multiflight Ltd. The company has outstanding experience of carrying out concrete paving works that include runway aprons and taxiways with very minimal disruptions to customers (Bentley, 2011).
The company’s commercial and industrial projects include office design and construction. With the vast expertise in building and civil engineering, the company is able to perform excellent construction of production and warehouse space. The company serves a variety of sectors that include fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), manufacturing and distribution as well as health and education (Bentley, 2011).
At the core of the operations of JN Bentley Limited is the environment work. Throughout its history, much of the work done by the company has been closely linked to water and the environment (Bentley 2011). The company has in the past been able to complete flood defense schemes in tidal as well as in non tidal waters. It has also constructed fish passes and gauging stations for the Environment Agency.
The company also has vast experience of land drainage works for the Internal Drainage Boards and has also built surface water storage systems and pumping stations below the natural ground water level. Recently, the company has been able to apply sustainable urban drainage (SUDS) techniques to projects for some of its clients. The company is very keen on applying its knowledge and expertise on the renewable energy sector (Bentley, 2011).
Health and Education
From the early 2000s, the company has gained value added experience of working directly with schools and hospitals as well as local authorities in delivering health and education projects. JN Bentley Limited does understand the seriousness of projects in these sectors and is committed to deliver high quality services within the specified timeframes and in a cost of effective manner. Always, the company puts the clients’ needs first (Bentley, 2011).
We will write a custom Report on JN Bentley Limited Industrial Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Highways
The company has a dedicated workforce of individuals with a great experience in building high quality highway structures. Besides, the company’s construction team is very familiar with the Department of Transport specifications regarding highway works. LN Bentley Limited is experienced at working with local authorities in road renewal, refurbishing of bridges, and other enhancement program (Bentley, 2011).
As pointed out earlier, the move by JN Bentley Limited into the renewable energy sector, particularly the hydropower market grew through a natural process as the company gained expertise over the years through partnerships with clients and other like minded organizations such as the Environment Agency (Bentley, 2011).
JN Bentley Limited is a member of the British Hydropower Association and has also established various supply chain relationships in the renewable energy market to facilitate its delivery of hydropower schemes. These include collaborations with companies like Spaans Babbcock and Zeropex (Bentley, 2011).
Solid Waste management is a key construction market for JN Bentley Limited and its subsidiary company, Mott MacDonald (MMD). Together, both Mott MacDonald and JN Bentley Limited have gained a great deal of experience in long term agreements as well as individual contracts with clients in the solid waste sector.
Among them are Waste Recycling Group, Sita, and Yorwaste (Bentley, 2011). The company is very keen to make good use of its expertise gained from the water sector to support solid waste operators in designing and constructing process plants to handle waste and recycling treatment (Bentley, 2011).
Water and Wastewater
Given that the company’s extensive experience in this area covers its entire history, this is probably one of those areas where the company’s reputation speaks for itself throughout the construction and engineering industry (Bentley, 2011).
Although Yorkshire Water is one of JN Bentley’s biggest customers in the water sector, the company also does work for Anglian Water, Northumbrian Water, Severn Trent Water, Scottish Water, Cambridge Water, Essex, Suffolk Water, and United Utilities. Most of the work undertaken by the company in the water and wastewater sector is done on a feasibility, design and construction basis by its subsidiary, Mott MacDonald (Bentley, 2011). In all these, the company is able to meet clients’ expectations with projects completed to the highest standards.
JN Bentley’s SWOT Analysis A company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis is a powerful tool for reflecting on a business’s internal and external position (Ryan, 1995). As can be seen from figure 1 below, strengthens and weaknesses are linked to the organization’s internal position while opportunities and threats look at factors that are external to the organization. An organization must seek to maximize on its strengthens and look for ways of minimizing its weaknesses (Ryan, 1995).
Not sure if you can write a paper on JN Bentley Limited Industrial Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 1: Elements of a SWOT analysis (Ryan, 1985)
From discussions in the previous sections, JN Bentley Limited’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are as follows:
Strengths include the fact that:
The company has a long standing history of excellent performance and its experience speaks for itself
The company has a huge pool of staff with varied skills and expertise acquired over time
The company offers a wide variety of services
The company also has a stable financial base
The company has a good network of collaborators
Weaknesses that can easily be spotted at JN Bentley include the fact that:
A Lack of capacity building programs for employees
Although there is an advantage in offering more than one service, the danger involved is that it may be a challenge to maintain high standards unless the company makes deliberate efforts to do so.
Notable opportunities include:
Services such as solid waste management and water waste management the company offers are quite unique and very few companies will think of venturing into them. For such services therefore, there is no competition.
The company also has quite a number of partnerships that can be used to its advantage.
JN Bentley is also a highly respected company in the eyes of the general public.
Opportunities to merge with other like minded companies.
Some threats to JN Bentley Limited include:
First, there is the existence of other companies that are offering similar services. JN Bentley therefore, has to work really hard in some areas to make sure it can stand out from the rest.
There is also a danger of partners and other collaborators stealing JN Bentley’s trade secrets.
Once the boundaries of an industry have been identified, the task that faces a manager is to analyze the competitive forces in the industry environment and to identify opportunities and threats (Hill
Problem Solving Process in Mathematics Essay argumentative essay help
Problem solving is the practice of working through the “facts” of a problem or situation to get a solution. Problem solving entails the systematic use of “operations” to measure thinking abilities and skills. Problem solving practices help children to develop cognitive skills.
Polya’s model offers four principles for solving different mathematical problems. The first principle is to “understand the problem”. At this stage, the learner thinks of the best “strategy” to find a solution. The second principle is “devising a conceptual plan”.
The stage helps learners to consider the best strategies to get a solution. The third stage is “carrying out the plan”. This stage entails using the selected plan or choosing a better strategy. The fourth principle is “looking back”. At this stage, the learner examines what he or she has done to obtain the “solution”.
Problem solving in mathematics is vital because it helps learners develop high-order thinking and analytical skills. The learners also become critical thinkers and address the problems encountered in life.
Learners use various strategies to solve mathematical problems. The first one is “model drawing”. The strategy involves the use of visual effects. For example, learners required to add 5 to 2 would draw 5 and 2 cars to get 7. The other strategy is “drawing a picture”.
A learner can draw pictures when adding numbers. For example, a child can draw three and two pens to get five. The third strategy is “making a systematic list”. Systematic “lists” can help learners memorize numerical numbers. For example, a child expected to write numbers 1 to 10 could make a systematic list of items from one to ten.
The fourth strategy is “working backwards” as explained in this example. Jimmy spent five dollars to remain with five dollars. How many dollars did he have in total? The child will work from $5 and add 5 to get $10.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Learner in different grades will use these strategies differently. The first strategy is “drawing a picture”. A second grade science learner can use the method to solve mathematical problems as follows: A carpenter makes four pieces from a wood. How many cuts does she make?
The learner will draw a piece of wood and divide it into four pieces. The child will get three “cuts”. A sixth grade learner can use the strategy as follows: In a party, there were three couples. Every person shook each one’s hand once. What was the total number of handshakes? The learner will draw letters to represent the couples and handshakes made.
The second strategy is “working backwards” as presented below. A child had saved some money. His father gave him 10 dollars. He spent 13 dollars to remain with 7 dollars. How much had he saved? From this problem, the learner will begin with 7 dollars. The next thing is to add 13 to get 20. The learner will then subtract the $10 obtained from the father to get 10 dollars.
A sixth grade learner can work backwards to solve the problem below. Agnes, Ann, and Angel had some coins. Agnes gave Ann 12 coins. Ann gave Angel 10 coins while Angel gave Agnes 4 coins. They all had 20 coins. What is the number of everyone’s coins at the beginning? The learner can work backwards from 20 coins to get the answer.
In conclusion, teachers should incorporate problem-solving activities into instruction because they help sharpen the learners’ skills and competencies. The methods can also make the learning process easier. The learners can use these strategies to achieve mastery and proficiency in mathematics problem solving.
These general heuristics for problem solving are important because they can help people become critical thinkers. Such activities can help learners develop the best interactional and decision-making skills. They also provide skills for dealing with challenges in life.
Importance of teamwork, cohesiveness, consensus decision Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Teamwork and Cohesiveness
Introduction Organizations should establish ways of ensuring that their employees perform their duties without conflicts. It is necessary to explain that employers form an important part of an organization because they combine and use other factors of production to ensure their companies achieve their objectives.
There is the need to promote unity and understanding among all stakeholders in a business to ensure it does not experience conflicts. This paper examines the importance of teamwork, cohesiveness and consensus decision in an organization.
Definitions Teamwork is an initiative established by employers and employees to ensure people work together to achieve the objectives of their organizations (Henderson 13). This practice involves deliberate efforts by employees and employers to ensure they help each other in various processes of production.
Teamwork is important because it enables workers to save time; therefore, they will perform their duties and deliver their results before their deadlines expire (Salas, Tannenbaum, Cohen and Latham 33). In addition, it encourages sharing of information among workers and this enables them to acquire new skills of doing their work.
Moreover, it portrays a positive public image because it shows that a company is focused to achieve its objectives (Goldstein and Ford 41). Lastly, teamwork helps managers to maintain order in their organizations.
The operations of a company will run smoothly when there is teamwork among all stakeholders. Therefore, teamwork is an indispensable aspect of an organization that plans to attract investors, widen its market and motivate workers.
Teamwork and Cohesiveness Cohesion is the ability of employees and employers to work together despite their differences. Most organizations employ workers from different backgrounds and this means that it is not easy to bond them (Henderson 65).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, organizations establish programs like retreats and training to promote interaction among their employees. Cohesiveness refers to the level of understanding and integration among workers from different backgrounds. This ensures employees use their skills and experiences to help others to improve their performance.
In addition, cohesion promotes unity and teamwork and ensures employees work towards achieving a common goal (Goldstein and Ford 86). There is the need for managers to ensure there is cohesion among employees to promote teamwork in their organizations.
Teamwork cannot exist if employees do not understand and appreciate the contributions and efforts of their colleagues (Salas, Tannenbaum, Cohen and Latham 65). Therefore, cohesion promotes understanding among workers and ensures everybody appreciates the presence and roles played by stakeholders in organizations.
Consensus Decision A consensus decision is an agreement made by all parties involved in a project. This means that it is a resolution made and agreed upon by all stakeholders and it considers all the views and suggestions of everybody involved in a discussion (Henderson 71). Consensus refers to an agreement between two or more people regarding an activity.
For instance, workers may decide to help others, even if this is not stipulated by the policies of an organization. This resolution becomes a consensus decision if nobody has a different opinion regarding the agreement.
A decision becomes consensus when all stakeholders are notified and participate in making the agreement and nobody should have a different opinion (Goldstein and Ford 114).
Consensus decisions promote teamwork because they compel workers to follow their agreements and pledges. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that organizations consult all stakeholders before making decisions that affect them.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of teamwork, cohesiveness, consensus decision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Teamwork is important in all organizations because it promotes efficiency, saves time and ensures workers help each other to perform their duties properly. In addition, it ensures the operations of organizations ran smoothly and reduces conflicts in a company.
There is the need for a company’s stakeholders to make consensus decisions to ensure the interests of all members are considered. Moreover, cohesion among members must exist to ensure they understand each other and appreciate their differences.
Works Cited Goldstein, Irwin L. and Kevin Ford. Training in Organizations: Needs Assessment, Development and Evaluation. California: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Henderson, Darryl. Cohesion: The Human Element in Combat. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. Print.
Salas, Eduardo, Scott Tannenbaum, Deborah Cohen and Gary Latham. Developing and Enhancing Teamwork in Organizations: Evidence-Based Best Practices and Guidelines (J-B SIOP Professional Practice Series). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2013. Print.
Princess Cleves and her Psychical Statues Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction According to Snowden, Freud established various concepts to distinguish between the attributes and personal concepts that characterize individuals (Snowden 113). Essentially, this establishment has been reviewed and applied by a considerable number of individuals who have given credit to this renowned father of psychoanalysis.
His arguments lay the basis of technical support for three prevailing and chiefly availing characteristics of a functioning mind under three aspects termed as id, ego and super-ego. Freud described id as a presence of instincts that are largely separated from their succinct collaboration allowing logic analysis before making decisions (Freud 16).
On the other hand, the ego was described as a coordinated and pragmatic individuality without complex analysis and critical evaluation of life aspects and arguments. Lastly, Freud identified the rearmost stage as the super-ego that had decisive evaluation tactics and argumentative justifications determined by moral principles.
In this light, Freud’s ideas and arguments have been used widely to evaluate the characters of individuals in the real world, and the visualized fictions and stories made by people. For instance, the novel titled as the Princess de Cleves can be analyzed through the psychological principles of Freud in order to reveal his conceptual characterization.
In a bid to perform this task, the essay will review the traits of the Princess de Cleves in accordance to these points of view and her personality, motivation, mental struggle and reactions.
Personality Tentatively, the personality’s trends of Princess de Cleves follow three concise levels of intellectual development described by Freud. At the initial stages, the princess is subjected to matters that she cannot digest and make personal decisions probably because she was in the id level at that tender age (Lyons 34).
Subsequently, her mother helped her in the decision-making processes because she took the guidance to marry the middling suitor referred to as the Prince de Cleves. However, the princess developed some organization within her thinking capacities and identified that her id was pulling her towards some true love.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the princess was attracted to Duke de Nemours whom she fell in love with but did not betray her husband. In this case, it can be argued that the princess attained some critical organization enabling her to realize she was married to another man.
Therefore, the princess felt in love with the duke but avoided all instances that could make her unfaithful to her husband. This depicts high values of super-ego characters shown through adequate critiques and related moral attributes.
In order to expound about the ethical principles applied by the princess, it is apparent that the immorality is an outrageous and discouraged attribute within the society because people have to marry and avoid the unfaithfulness. In the other instance, the princess is deprived for her perceived unfaithfulness to her husband who died due to this realization.
This makes the princess to blame herself for the actions that she attributed towards wrong choice of the heart. In this regard, the princess develops an outstanding principle against caring for her love of life. Essentially, this decision is outright realistic and seems organized per say.
Probably, the princess would have changed her mind towards remarrying and forgetting the dead husband and her last wishes. These characterized the ego personalities. The actions pleased the id’s perceptions of the mind through avoiding the only person who could bring joy and grief to her life.
The ego has also been depicted from the characters of the princess when avoiding unfaithfulness to her husband where she seeks long life benefits instead of grief. Probably, this was the reason she avoided revealing the relationship with the Duke de Nemours.
Furthermore, the princess could be described as secretive but not a liar because she revealed everything as soon as she was asked by the prince (Lyons 39). Finally, the princess refuses love relationships until she died due to her principles. Therefore, she is seen as a principled woman for carrying such a stigma throughout her life until death.
We will write a custom Essay on Princess Cleves and her Psychical Statues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Motivation There are several instances inspiring the princess through her life. In the id section, the princess has not made any decision on choosing a husband. Probably, this explains why she agreed to her mother’s directions on choosing a wealthy and recognized husband.
At this level of motivation, the princess has a tendency to accept all forms of endowment to avoid other forms of striving to achieve. Therefore, the princess is not patient enough to wait for the right and loving husband she wishes or loves in her life. Probably, the princess would have got the Duke of Nemours if she had waited a little longer.
In this regard, the hunger drives the princess into accepting a chosen husband for her husband until she realizes that she does not love him. The id deprives the moral principles that would have prevented the young girl from falling in love with another person. Instead, the id motivates her toward other people regardless of the marriage status.
On the other hand, the principles of the ego are core to the development of love feelings and rights to choose a husband. Even though the princess felt bounded to her husband, the reality was that she was definitely in love with another person.
In this regard, her subconscious actions drive the actions towards revealing the hidden love within the id. Other attributes of id promoting motivation were the long living tolerance, the loving reality, ability to think intellectually, and information analysis that advised her actions.
Finally, the super-ego motivates the princess after she was determined as unfaithful. Societal rules of unfaithfulness and implicit understanding of wrong actions bounded her towards these norms.
In this respect, the repercussions displayed by this section include the guilt that motivates the princess to live alone until her death. Essentially, this was the most appropriate way that could not approve the immorality of the princess to the society.
Mental Struggle The initial decisions of the princess were incoherent and unreliable since they were in the id’s description of Freud (Snowden 45). Who is responsible for the decisions made at this time? Who suffers or gains from these decisions? Primarily, the id is quite unpredictable when it comes to decision making.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Princess Cleves and her Psychical Statues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are no concise reasons that the princess can give to explain why she did something. In fact, she does not understand why she had to marry the Prince of Cleves. She wished she had met and married the Duke of Nemours.
The mental struggle continues to hope that this could happen with no promising strategies without encountering the society and the husband. Under the ego, there are instances of regrets and reactions attributed to wrong decisions. These are accompanied by the urge to act against the norms and moral principles as envisaged in the super-ego.
It reaches its utmost when the husband makes the last wish. In this light, she had to act in accordance to the wishes and retain the guilt associated to the husband’s death.
Reaction The id depicts actions of instinctual drives where the princess acts to fulfill her desires. The desires are fulfilled through attaining another husband and getting another relationship. The cases are characterized by unlimited desires of attributes that are featured by happiness and enjoyment.
However, the ego is much more cautious than the id. She hides the relationship from the husband, avoids the progress of the immorality, and discloses the relationship to the husband eventually. It was expected that the princess would deceive after the prince asked about the relationship.
Conversely, the response was contrary to this expectation since the princess reveals the relationship. Finally, the super-ego was preceded by grief for killing a husband due to her irresponsible actions.
Conclusion The arguments of Sigmund Freud are far much outstanding in the development of perception and analysis of logistics. Primarily, the human life is based on this ability to perceive, disintegrate, and analyze information in order to make decision and understand issues.
Therefore, Freud has made a contribution that will continue to characterize people’s psychological behaviors. In this respect, various manipulations will be enacted in the education system to teach people in accordance to decision making during this time.
In fact, raising children will have some bases, including protecting the children who have not attained the age of making right decisions. In respect to this aspect, most governments have initiated age-related decision making rights where people below a certain age cannot be held solidly responsible for their actions.
Works Cited Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino, 2010. Print.
Lyons, John. The Princess of Cleves. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Print.
Snowden, Ruth. Freud the key ideas. New ed. London: Teach Yourself, 2010. Print.
Student’s Mathematical Errors Essay college application essay help
Misconceptions and errors are common in mathematics. Teachers can find it hard to deal with a misconception because it arises when a student misinterprets or misapplies an existing mathematical idea. This is a critical challenge especially when the teacher fails to promote the best learning activities and interactions in the classroom.
Teachers should understand that a learner is an active participant in the construction of new mathematical ideas and knowledge. A misconception occurs when a student uses an extant idea in the wrong manner. For example, a student may always expect to get a “larger” number after multiplying two whole numbers.
A misconception can occur when a learner uses the above idea to multiply two fractions or decimals. This scenario explains why teachers should use the best instructional activities. The approach can help teachers deal with errors and misconceptions.
There is a strong relationship between student and teacher misconceptions and instructional activities. Teachers should use the best ideas to identify misconceptions and errors in the classroom. Every teacher should provide the best support to his or her students.
It is the teachers’ duty to use the best instructions whenever there is a misconception or an error. The strategy will help the teacher to address such an error or misconception. The example below explains how errors and misconceptions occur in the classroom. A seventh grade teacher observed that several students made this error: (-5) x (-6) = -30
Several misconceptions can cause this mathematical error. As mentioned earlier, misconceptions occur when a student constructs new mathematical knowledge through interaction or perception. This situation occurs when the learner decided to apply an “extant” to a mathematical problem.
To begin with, the students might have used the idea that the multiplication of two numbers will give a “positive number”. This explains why the students obtained a negative number after multiplying (-5) by (-6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other possible misconception is the use of “BODMAS”. This misconception might have occurred after the students applied the algorithm for multiplying “brackets” to the question. The other possible cause of this misconception is lack of proper “instructions”.
Several things must have led to this error. The teacher might have adopted the wrong approach during the initial instruction. This explains why the students were unable to avoid this “error”. Learners accommodate new concepts within their existing mental knowledge or framework.
The teacher failed to intervene in order to ensure the learners’ conception was within the “intended instruction”. The teacher might have given improper examples to the learners. As a result, the teacher was unable to identify this error from the beginning. Teachers should understand that take time before accommodating new ideas.
Several ways of teaching the multiplication of “signed” numbers can help the learners avoid these misconceptions. The teacher should begin by identifying the students’ existing knowledge. The teacher will easily identify how the learners multiply whole numbers.
The teacher should go ahead and show the learners how to multiply “signed” numbers. It is also important for the teacher to provide numerous examples. An interactive approach will also help the teacher to identify any misconception.
The teacher will then address the misconception accordingly. Teachers should also resolve any “cognitive conflict” in order to have an effective learning. Tutors should also use extensive discussions and examples. The approach will challenge and “ameliorate” any misconception in the learning environment.
Capstone: General Motors Company Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
When asking a random person about the most influential, most innovational and overall most famous American companies of all time, one is likely to hear the General Motors Co. being mentioned at least in the top five. A publicly traded corporation that has been around for more than a century, GM has stood the test of time successfully.
Certainly, the company had its ups and downs since September, 16 1908, when it was founded by William “Billy” C. Durant (General Motors, 2014a, para. 2) up to the present days; however, it is not the persistent success that fascinates me about firms, but their capacity to accustom to an unceasingly changing environment, and GM is a graphic example of such a company.
Being a manager in General Motors (GM), which nowadays takes the eleventh place in the top stock list (Investor Guide, 2014, para. 2) is truly a fantastic opportunity for a person that would like to become an influential leader, and an analysis of the GM’s priceless experience is the first step towards getting to know the company and its leaders better.
Analyzing GM’s success, one must admit that a lot of its recent triumph can be attributed to the company’s mission, vision and attitude towards its stakeholders, as well as the choice of the primary stakeholders in general. As the official company’s statement says, the company’s leaders put a strong emphasis on the company’s policy of expansion into the global market and the fact that GM is a multinational corporation.
Thus, GM’s mission concerns engaging into “socially responsible operations, worldwide” (Mission statements, n. d., para. 1) and providing “products and services of such quality that our customers will receive superior value” (Mission statements, n. d., para. 1), as well as welcoming the company’s employees and business partners to share the company’s success and making sure that the stockholders “receive a sustained superior return on their investment” (Mission statements, n. d., para. 1).
The given mission statement shows that GM has taken all major stakeholders into account and aims at satisfying their needs and meeting their interests. While such a complex task is going to be rather difficult to perform, the very fact that GM has a very stringent set of ethical principles is worth appreciating.
These principles will help the company not only gain weight in the target market and among the future partners, but also maintain positive relationships among the staff, therefore, creating perfect environment for the company’s economic performance and evolution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it comes to evaluating the effect that porter’s five forces of competition have on GM, one will notice inevitably that of all threats listed, the rivalry among existing firms (Schahter, 2012) seems to be the one of the greatest concern.
Indeed, taking a single look at the rest of the forces is enough to realize that GM has little to fear in terms of competing with new entrants; neither is the company afraid that the product in question will be ousted by its alternative.
True, the popularity of hybrid cars has grown considerably; however, GM has also pointed at the change of its vision towards a more environmentally friendly one and has launched the vehicles that run 30 mpg at the very most (GM, 2014).
GM SWOT Analysis Strengths Global delivery model;
(GDM allows addressing customers’ needs in a more efficient manner, since the language barrier and cultural differences are of no issue any longer);
Focus on stakeholders’ interests as the basis for the company’s mission and vision;
Positive company image within the Asian (Chinese) market;
Domination in the home market (16% of the total home market share belongs to the GM Company);
Widely recognized brands that sell well among the target audience.
Weaknesses Brand dilution
Because of several flaws in the recent updates of GM’s famous brands, the company has lost a considerable about of loyal customers.
Bureaucracy within the company
Because of a set of very rigid standards and principles that the company’s transactions a carried out and general actions of the company’s managers are taken, the company has become notoriously slow in its reaction towards market changes.
Unreasonably high pricing policy;
As a brand that has become a household name since the beginning of the XX century, GM has the right to value its brand high. However, in the light of the recent quality issues, its price setting strategy has to be redefined. At present, the prices for the company’s production are shockingly high. While in 2006, the company’s “no haggle” policy (Valdes-Dapena, 2006, September 24) worked for the benefit of sales, attracting more customers and earning their trust, the current pricing policy clearly contributes to shrinking the number of customers down.
Intolerably frequent recalls.
As the recent data shows, the company had to recall “nearly 300,000 Chevrolet Cruze cars” (because of the technical issues, particularly with the transmission line and brakes (O’Toole, 2013, August 16)). The given issue has had its toll on the company’s popularity.
Opportunities Promotion of hybrid cars and other types of environmentally friendly choices;
Using the increasing prices for the fuel;
Shaping customers’ needs by introducing new features into products and conjuring a successful promotion campaign for new brands;
Adopting the acquisition policy and merging with other companies.
Threats Unstable fuel prices;
Increased competition (Ford, Chrysler, Toyota, etc.);
Increased prices for raw materials (in 2011, the price for raw materials made $3,500 per car sold at $28,000 (Suttell, 2011, January 17); in 2014, the estimated price for raw materials will rise by 5% (Suttell, 2011, January 17).
Judging by the fact that GM is suffering from the increases in costs for supplies and a nonetheless rapid decline of its products popularity among the target audience, it will be reasonable to suggest that the GM should switch to a more efficient manner of advertising its product, at the same time increasing the rates of products quality by introducing better quality evaluation systems.
Seeing how delivering high quality results demands that company’s costs and, therefore, prices for the product should rise, it will be highly recommended that the GM should cut the costs for inbound and outbound logistics (i.e., transportation of raw materials) and spend sufficient amount of money on a new advertising campaign in order to cement the GM brand in people’s memories.
The leadership issues within the GM Company should be touched upon. In many ways, the path chosen by the GM leader has defined the unique organizational culture of the company, in which the principle of shared knowledge, customer satisfaction and commitment to the company prevail.
Because of the use of transformational leadership, the company leader manages to motivate employees for better performance (Ishikawa, 2011), at the same time changing their attitude towards their job, customers and product quality.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Capstone: General Motors Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, because of the need to relate to the target audience and address customers’ individual demands, GM should also adopt the principles of laissez faire leadership in that the company’s leader should give the leaders of the GM affiliates the freedom of choice on a local level (Kierulff
Winter in Prince George: The Colors of the Snow Essay online essay help: online essay help
“Winter in Canada” is one of the few phrases that make even inveterate tourists cringe. Indeed, even in its warmest seasons, Canada is definitely far from being the hottest spot on Earth. However, there is an exception to every rule, and the City of Prince George is the Canadian one. Perhaps, the only spot in Canada with truly mild winters, this place strikes with its beauty when the rest of the world remains freezing cold.
The scenery is truly gorgeous. Even the elements of the urban life sit well with the amazing views of trees covered in snow. Whenever crossing the line between the urban area and the one where the wilderness takes its toll on the landscape, one cannot help but gasp in awe.
However, the stellar beauty of the landscape is not the only notable feature of the Prince George climate. The humidity rates are unnaturally high here, which makes the climate much milder than in other parts of the state. The given detail is rather important for defining the specifics of the local climate, since it points at relatively high humidity rates and the following precipitations. The given fact, however, does not cancel severe and lavish snowfalls, which Canada is so famous for.
The fact that the natural physics of the Prince George city is defined by unusually high humidity rates has been taken into account by the local residents for its further efficient use for the benefit of the community. For example, the minor precipitation, such as occasional snow, which comes in far lesser quantities than in the rest of the state, predisposes creation of the so-called snow operations.
Designed to make neighborhoods cleaner, the given activities contribute to cementing friendly relationships between the members of the community and encourage cooperation between the people living in the same neighborhood.
More to the point, the given operations allow for making the community cleaner and neater. According to the official statement, “Operators reduce windrows of snow at the end of driveways in areas, with curb and gutter, to allow for reasonable access” (City of Prince George para. 5).
In addition to establishing stronger bonds between the city residents by assigning them with teamwork, the local authorities encourage the team spirit in the local residents by letting them care about the well-being of all the people living in the vicinity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the local climate has defined Prince George City’s identity as the venue for numerous winter sport contests. Canada Winter Games are held every year in the city, which means that the community is busy with the preparation for the winter show several weeks before the event.
Thus, the bonds that are created in the course of working for the well-being of the community members grows even stronger as the residents of the Prince George City get the latter ready for the event.
A place where unique climate dictates its own rules and shapes the life of an entire community, the City of Prince George is clearly worth visiting at least once. It will shatter the traditional stereotype of Canadian winters to pieces, leaving a bunch of pleasant memories instead.
With its unique views, incredibly colorful landscapes and a weird yet rather witty manner of the local residents to use the specifics of the season to their advantage in terms of social life of the community, Prince George is clearly worth visiting in winter.
Works Cited City of Prince George. Transportation Division – Snow Operations. n. d. Web. .
Risk Management, Its Methodologies and Standards Report essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Health and Safety Risk Management
BIM as a Tool for Risk Management
Risk Management of Infrastructure
Introduction Risk management is an integral part of any organisation. The efficiency of risk management determines organisational success. The construction industry is where risk management is applied widely as a principle.
According to Chapman and Ward (2003), risk management can be viewed as the process of risk identification, assessment, and prioritisation. During a risk identification process, people who are responsible for its control in organisations can proceed with the process of mitigating the hazard.
Risk minimisation or management is only successful through a well-coordinated process that involves maximisation of the available resources (Vose 2000).
There are different sources of risks in any market such as financial uncertainty, failure in the undertaken projects, and accidents in the line of work (Vose 2000). Other risks in organisations include legal liabilities within the project and the possibility of natural and fabricated disasters (Bennett 2003).
These risks can cause negative effects on the organisations if they are unpredicted and/or unplanned for by the concerned parties. Organisations need to ensure that they have adequate risk management strategies in place to ensure that they are able to curb the threats posed by any possible risk.
Through many studies in risk management, several standards have resulted such as the ISO standards (Harris
Compare and Contrast Shakespeare’s Othello and the Blind Owl by Sedayat Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Shakespeare’s Othello and the Blind Owl by Sedayat can be compared and contrasted in several ways. For instance, it is evident that the characters and plots in the two books are different. Also, some themes such as, love, gender culture and murder are common in both works. However, The Blind Owl includes suicidal incidences, which are missing in Shakespeare’s Othello.
The creation ‘Othello’ is one of Shakespeare’s latest works and one of his ardent misfortunes, penned for a moment amid ‘ King Lear’ and ‘ Hamlet’. The production ardently presents cultural pressures – race, femininity, and religion. The play, perhaps more carefully than any of his other plays, relies on the strength of opposition and divergence, the characters.
He polarizes the characters into white and black. Othello is a general and a Moorish that has saved Venice. Here, is a man who, regardless of his alien origins, is the savior of his society, a person who is widely respected and well-liked, excluding by his lieutenant, Lago. The basis of Othello’s achievement is his immense love for his lady, Desdemona.
On the other hand, in The Blind Owl, the storyteller, a pen-case decorator, falls in love with a naive woman who is virtuous and demonic at the same time. Afterwards, the young woman shows at his front doorstep, goes into his residence, and lies on his sofa, where she dies. In a past life, the storyteller gives an account of his physical and emotional come down following his matrimony to a woman who has numerous lovers, but rejects to have sex with him. He unintentionally kills her.
In Lago, Shakespeare thrashes out with blacksmith rhythm, one of his extraordinary creations, a guy fired by jealousy, tempered by nausea, a person whose bravery is engraved into a form and devilishly, expresses himself in duplicitous twists and wrong turns sufficient to bring down Othello.
It is the essence of Shakespearean tragedy that the male protagonist should plunge from the transcendent heights to utter impoverishment, anguish, and demise. Winning her hand, securing her affection is his remarkable mastery and lifts him up to unimagined contentment. However, in this precise essence, Lago demoralizes, with the seed of envy. As atheism is a key aim, the whole structure of Othello’s supremacy and wholeness collapses.
He murders his spouse, visages the apprehension of what he has done, and distinguishes that everlasting damnation is the least chastisement than enduring life conscious of his own guiltiness. The play “Othello” symbolizes Shakespeare’s oft-repeated thesis of obligation and love as the mortar mix which connects the social order.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is in Othello’s misfortune that he should contaminate mutually, divulging them as weak spots rather than strong points, the alchemy of his passions reducing them to acids which will consume his heart and crook his exact character. On the other hand, Sedayat presents a menacing piece of writing that looks at ideas of lunacy.
Shakespeare has taken characterization to a new height. His achievement is not simply in his invigoration of the English literature, but in his psychosomatic consciousness and approaching to get inside the brains of his characters long before social science envisaged. The characters in Othello contain a pragmatism which distinguishes them from the theatrical character as a representative for word and medium for accomplishment.
Shakespeare’s characters breathe; their predicaments and tragedies are devastating human. Othello and Lago are two of Shakespeare’s supreme mortals. Wickedness we learn can be as engrossing and considerably vibrant as any laudable task. A play that pits such characters alongside one another is a play that offers lasting loot for both its spectators and its performers.
Shakespeare’s works have delighted and motivated actors for centuries, they keep on doing so, and each cohort of actors wring new explanation and perception from the performance. On the other hand, time, characters, and space are all in an uncontrolled region where linear progression does not take much concentration.
Measures in the commencement lack explanation until the focal point, and there’s no way precisely to count the number of characters brought in the play. They may be a dozen, or possibly only two. In The Blind Owl, it is significant to comprehend the narrator’s imagery of his insight of the women characters.
A deep study of such imagery reveals that the narrator is instinctively treating the women of his formation, as blank screens onto which he is portraying different aspects of his characters that he cannot deliberately admit. To infiltrate to the heart of the narrator’s tribulations of distinctiveness and being, the knowledge of mothering and women is related to tribulations of reliance and self-esteem weakness of one capacity.
It is likely to imply that the storyteller is suffering from a split mind and is trying to assimilate a split off female factor. In reality, he is foretelling a fear of his own female factor. In such cases, the whole crisis of women is connected with one’s individual viewpoints at oneself, and it is always the feminine factor that dissociates to both men and women.
We will write a custom Essay on Compare and Contrast Shakespeare’s Othello and the Blind Owl by Sedayat specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They seek out for the idyllic woman continues. His companion becomes one and the same as the biological mother and the wraithlike woman. The expedition is figurative; the narrator wants to find the mother in the globe of the bereavement, thus restoring significance to existence. Losing his mother has left him conscious of the need of sense in his reality. He ought to find her to complete the existential procedure.
Shakespeare hammers out with blacksmith tune, a man blazed by envy, tempered by detestation, a man whose willpower hammers into form and whose iniquity expresses itself in treacherous twists and cruel turns enough to oust Othello. It is the character of Shakespeare’s tragedy that the leading actor should thrust from the inspirational heights to utter impoverishment, hopelessness, and death.
Conversely, in the Blind Owl, an insubstantial girl appearing all through offers optimism. She is the portrait, which the storyteller paints on his account, a mental image that he loves, and the picture on an old jar. However, the young woman has a “double nature,” coming back as the narrator’s crafty mother, and, afterwards, as his immoral wife.
In Shakespeare’s plays, the basis of Othello’s victory is his immense love for his lady, Desdemona. Winning her hand, securing her affection is his greatest accomplishment and elevates him to unimagined contentment. However, it is this precise basis that Lago undermines with the seed of envy. As distrust takes the core, the entire structure of Othello’s supremacy and comprehensiveness, in relation to him, collapses.
He kills his spouse, visages the awareness of what he has committed, and realizes that everlasting damnation castigation that endures life alert of his own guiltiness. Although both books have incidences of suicide, The Blind Owl appears to be extremely influencing as even the author in the Blind Owl commits suicide, by gassing, an occasion that has outshined his work.
In conclusion, Shakespeare’s Othello and the Blind Owl by Sedayat compare and contrast themes in several ways. For instance, the themes of love, murder and gender are prominent in the two works. The play “Othello” symbolizes Shakespeare’s oft-repeated thesis of obligation and love as the mortar mix which connects the social order.
On the other hand, in The Blind Owl, the storyteller, a pen-case decorator, falls in love with a naive woman who is both virtuous and demonic. Othello murders his spouse, visages the apprehension of what he has done, and distinguishes that everlasting damnation is the least chastisement than enduring life conscious of his own guiltiness.
Conversely, in the blind Owl, the storyteller gives an account of his unintentional killing of a woman who rejects to have sex with him. Shakespeare’s Othello, perhaps more carefully than any of his other plays, relies on the strength of opposition and divergence, the characters.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and Contrast Shakespeare’s Othello and the Blind Owl by Sedayat by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The characters, in Othello, contain pragmatism which is distinguished form the previous task of the theatrical character as a representative for word and medium for accomplishment. On the other hand, in The Blind Owl, the narrator treats the women of his formation, as blank screens onto which he is portraying different aspects of his character that he cannot deliberately admit.
“Organizational Communication and Conflict Management” by Kenan Spaho Essay (Article) custom essay help
The article “Organizational Communication and Conflict Management” by Kenan Spaho explains the importance of internal and external communication in an organization. Lack of proper interaction or communication affects performance. The author goes further to explore the relevance of conflicts in an organization.
During communications, people’s opinions tend to differ. The situation calls for new ideas to resolve such conflicts and have a common playing ground. Conflict management becomes a critical subject for managers. Managers should encourage teamwork, embrace dialogue, and make communication much better.
According to Spaho (2013), conflicts are normal because employees will always differ. It is the duty of managers and supervisors to deal with all types of conflicts in their organizations. All managerial levels should use their experiences to address all the conflicts in an organization.
Organizational managers have a role to play towards fostering better organizational strategy and conflict management practices (Spaho, 2013). The author goes further to explain why proper conflict management strategies will promote organizational effectiveness.
Top-level managers are not the only ones to address such problems and disagreements. These managers are busy and might not tackle most of the conflicts. This might also result in negative influences.
Article Critique The peer reviewed journal article identifies the issue of conflict as something that can affect the effectiveness of an organization. The author has acknowledged the presence of disagreements or conflicts in every organization. The important thing is to have proper measures to deal with such conflicts.
Sometimes the problem becomes a major threat when there is no good external and internal communication at the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor communication will usually result in poor performance (Spaho, 2013). The author uses various examples to explain how managers can apply their competencies in order to address most of the issues affecting their organizations.
The author also presents a clearly defined literature review. In this review, the author examines in details some forms of communication in an organization. This analysis makes it easier for the reader to understand some of the causes of disagreements in many organizations.
As well, the article explores some of the major types of conflicts in a business organization. For example, vertical conflicts occur mainly when managers dictate their employees without letting them know what they should do. Horizontal conflicts are common when employees encounter challenges in their departments (Spaho, 2013).
This information is necessary because it helps managers identify the conflicts in their organizations. The author identifies some other causes of misunderstandings such as limited resources, personal differences, poor communication, and lack of motivation among others.
It is impossible to identify conflicts in any organization. The author supports this assertion using the major stages of organizational conflicts. That being the case, managers should have proper conflict management strategies.
Managers should examine the communication strategy in the business and then focus on the best styles to manage his or her employees. Every managerial level should play a unique responsibility towards promoting the best communication processes.
The approach helps managers deal with conflicts and promote organizational effectiveness. This article is relevant because it offers useful insights and ideas that can help many organizations deal with conflicts and ineffectiveness.
We will write a custom Article on “Organizational Communication and Conflict Management” by Kenan Spaho specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management is a critical process that calls for dedication, analysis, involvement, and motivation (Spaho, 2013). Personally, I believe this article is meaningful to the field of management or conflict management. Managers and supervisors will benefit significantly from the concepts and ideas explored in this article.
Reference List Spaho, K. (2013). Organizational Communication and Conflict Management. Management, 18(1), 103-118. Retrieved from https://www.efst.unist.hr/en/
Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. Essay custom essay help
About Yahoo, Inc. Yahoo, Inc. is a multinational company that operates in the internet industry. It is a publicly held company that was established in 1994. The headquarters of the company is based in California, USA. The company offer products and services that comprise of communication, search and content tools.
The products and services are offered in a variety of languages. A significant amount of revenue for the company is generated from advertising. The company also generates revenue from other sources such as royalties among others. The paper seeks to analyze the performance of the company for the between 2010 and 2012.
Analysis of trend Income statement
Analysis the trend of various values and ratios of a company gives information on whether the performance of a company is improving or deteriorating. Analysis of income statement of the company shows that the revenue declined from $6,325 million in 2010 to $4,984 million in 2011.
The value slightly improved in 2012 to $4,987 million. This shows a decline in the amount of revenue earned by the company over the period. The cost of revenue also declined from $2,628 million in 2010 to $1,503 million in 2011. In 2012, the cost of sales increased to $1,621 million.
These changes resulted in a decline of gross profit over the three year period. The value declined from $3,697 million in 2010 to $3,482 million in 2011. The value further declined to $3,366 million in 2012. The operating expenses changed in the same trend as cost of revenue.
The value declined from $2,925 million in 2010 to $2,681 million in 2011. In 2012, the operating expenses increased to $2,800 million. The resulting operating income increased from $773 million in 2010 to $800 million in 2011. However, in 2012 the operating income declined to $566 million.
Analysis of income statement reveals that the company made a number of sales of its investments. For instance, in 2010, the company sold Zimbra, Inc. and HotJob. In 2012, the company sold Alibaba Group Shares at $4,603 million.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These sales boosted the value of net income. Net income declined from $1,232 million in 2010 to $1,049 million in 2011. The value increased to 3,945 million in 2012. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values.
The total current assets declined from $4,346 million in 2010 to $3,453 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $5,653.The increase was attributed to the increase in the amount of total cash. Despite the sale of total investment, the value of non-current assets declined increased from $10,584 in 2010 to $11,330 in 2011.
The value further increased to $11,451 in 2012. The value of current liabilities, total liabilities and shareholder’s equity declined between 2010 and 2011. The values increased in 2012.
Finally, the value of total assets (total liabilities and stakeholder’s equity) declined from $14,928 million in 2010 to 14,783 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $17,103 million. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values.
The profitability ratios are presented in appendix 1. Gross profit margin and net margin show that the profitability of the company improved over the period.
However, return on assets and return on equity indicates that profitability declined in 2011 and improved in 2013. Finally, asset turnover indicates that the company reported a decline in efficiency over the period.
Conclusion During the dot-com bubble a number of companies reported a significant increase in the value of the company. However, after the bubble burst, the companies reported a significant decline in performance and some companies did not survive the burst.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The results above indicate the bubble burst affected the operational performance and efficiency of Yahoo, Inc. However, the company used a number of turnaround strategies such as sale of investments. These strategies resulted in the success of the company after the dot-com bubble burst.
Appendix 1 Profitability 2010 2011 2012 Gross profit margin % 58.46 69.85 67.5 Net Margin % 19.47 21.04 79.12 Return on Assets % 8.25 7.06 24.75 Return on Equity % 9.83 8.36 29.12 Asset Turnover 0.42 0.34 0.31
Corporate Philanthropy Argumentative Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethical Frameworks for the Evaluation of Philanthropic Motives
Can Philanthropy Really Make a Difference?
Introduction Corporate philanthropy or corporate social responsibility is a commitment to improve community well being through discretionary business practices and contributions of corporate resources (Aras
Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness Essay argumentative essay help
During a long period of time, researchers intend to find the answer to the question of how much women and men talk in comparison to each other. Furthermore, it is also important to answer the question about the criteria according to which the conclusions should be made (Tannen and Alatis 12).
From this point, the article “Who Does the Talking Here?” which is written by Deborah Tannen and published in the Washington Post in 2007 can be discussed as one more attempt to respond to the developed debates.
In her article, Tannen proposes to discuss the relation between the concepts of gender and talkativeness from the large perspective because these relations are rather complex.
Tannen claims that it is irrelevant to count words spoken by women and men without references to the concrete situations and speakers’ purposes, and although many popular researches are based on the principle of counting spoken words, Tannen’s position seems to be rather persuasive because the author not only provides a range of arguments to support her vision but also discusses the weaknesses of counterarguments in detail.
Tannen starts her article with drawing the audience’s attention to the controversial idea which contradicts with the public’s traditional visions. The author states that a group of researchers found the evidences to support the view that “women and men talk equally” (Tannen par. 1).
Tannen focuses on this research’s conclusion as the basic argument to state the necessity of re-thinking the visions of men and women’s talkativeness. Thus, the author continues presenting her idea while discussing the opinion about the females’ talkativeness which prevailed in the society during a long period of time.
The popular opinion is based on counting the words, as it is in Louann Brizendine’s study, according to which women speak 20,000 words a day, and men speak only 7,000 words a day (Tannen par. 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To oppose this idea, Tannen refers to the other researchers’ numbers which are 16,215 words spoken by women during a day and 15,669 words spoken by men (Tannen par. 2).
Paying attention to numbers which cannot appropriately reflect the real situation in the society, Tannen chooses to focus on the other approaches and criteria as more important in comparison with the method of counting the words.
Having stated the impossibility of the other researchers’ approach to discuss the situation with men and women’s talking in detail, Tannen presents clearly her own vision of the problem while asking the questions about the correlation between gender and language.
According to Tannen, “to understand who talks more, you have to ask: What’s the situation? What are the speakers using words for?” (Tannen par. 4). To support the importance of these questions, Tannen provides the vivid example to illustrate the role of the situation for men and women’s talking.
The example of a man who speaks more at the meetings than at home is effective to support the author’s vision of types of talking. Tannen states that women talk more when they want to focus on the people’s personal experience and feelings. This type of talking is the ‘rapport-talk’.
On the contrary, men prefer to provide people with some information, and it is the ‘report-talk’ (Tannen par. 7). The author’s discussion of these types of talking seems to be rather rational because the purposes of females and males’ speaking are explained clearly.
While developing the connection between the situation, purpose, and length of speeches, Tannen provides different real-life examples to support her conclusions.
We will write a custom Essay on Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to the purposes of speaking because women are inclined to be more talkative than men at home, when men are inclined to demonstrate their knowledge at work (Speer 23-25).
In her article, Tannen tries to focus on all the aspects of the issue and to discuss all the associated stereotypes. From this point, referring to the research by Campbell and Ayres, Tannen states that “women’s rapport-talk probably explains why many people think women talk more” (Tannen par. 11).
Moreover, people prefer to focus on others’ talking when they speak little (Tannen par. 12). As a result, Tannen leads the reader to understand the fact that in reality, women and men talk equally, but there are more situations when men can concentrate on women’s talkativeness.
In her article, Deborah Tannen builds a strong argument to support her vision of the problem of women and men’s talkativeness. While discussing the importance of gender differences to influence the males and females’ talks, Tannen chooses to focus on the causes for revealing numbers traditionally presented in the scholarly literature.
The author claims that the concentration on counting words cannot provide researchers with the appropriate results. It is important to know when and why women and men speak more.
This information is necessary to conclude about the connection between the concepts of gender and language. As a result, Tannen’s position can be discussed as correlated in a way with the idea stated in the article’s first paragraph according to which women and men talk equally.
Works Cited Speer, Susan. Gender Talk: Feminism, Discourse and Conversation Analysis. USA: Psychology Press, 2005. Print.
Tannen, Deborah. Who Does the Talking Here? 2007. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Deborah Tannen’s Opinion on Complicated Relations between the Concepts of Gender and Talkativeness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tannen, Deborah, and James Alatis. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond. USA: Georgetown University Press, 2003. Print.
“Fashion retailing, marketing, and merchandising” by John Major Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Women’s clothing industry generates huge revenue worldwide. Starting from procurement to production, women’s clothing industry has creative designers. Garment designers stay in business because of sales. The goal of every designer is to make profit while maintaining brand reputation.
The sale of a firm’s fabric requires fashion marketing strategy. The author defined fashion marketing as the management of a firm’s merchandise. The customer’s buying behavior and desire influence fashion marketing strategy.
Business managers use sales records, social media, customer feedback, and media attention to develop design patterns. The quality and durability of products motivate the customer. Thus, marketing managers are responsible for new designs to suit customer’s preferences.
The industry sells its products to customers or retailers. The business operation of a firm may regulate the sale of products directly to customers or sell the products as wholesale merchandise.
The method used for marketing depends on the company’s business policy. Public promotions and the social media network provide direct channels for the clothing industry. The channels create awareness of brand names and the company’s reputation.
The article described another marketing strategy which induces customers to buy a firm’s product. The marketing strategy is called merchandising. This strategy involves direct sales to a target customer at the right price and place. The strategy utilizes fashion trends about the customer to produce and stock fabrics at the right price.
Fabrics merchandizers require information technology to update rapid demand for trending garments. For example, a stock agent in Dubai can place an express order for the production of summer suits in China if he or she sees the demand. The stock agent will use data collected to forecast future demand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Internet has increased the retail channels of many fashion industries. Products are displayed on the company’s website while the online order platform is installed. Customers can purchase garments without waiting for the counter check and balance.
Although Internet use has its challenges, the point of sale method remains the best marketing strategy for fashion designers. Some challenges include the customer’s inability to verify the quality of the garment before purchase and the hurdles of garment return after purchase.
Fabrics merchandising provides customers with an easy method of purchase. Customers can buy products directly while saving transportation cost.
In the past, fashion specialists invited customers to view trending garments. Today, fashion designers organize events to showcase garments and fabrics. The designer invites artisans, journalist, celebrities, models, musicians and customers to view trending fashion. The event, though expensive, helps the organization in different ways.
Fashion shows give the customer a chance to meet the designer. The designer collects customer feedback during the show to make adjustments on its products. The event strengthens the firm’s brand name while sustaining its competitive advantage.
The competitive advantage of a firm will influence customer perception about the product. The firm can introduce discounts on excess products to promote brand recognition and reputation.
The article recognized fashion shows, merchandising and social media, Internet, wholesale and retail as channels of sale. The aim of the designer to sell ready-made garments can be achieved with these marketing tools. Customer perception, marketing strategy, and trending fashion control the production pattern in women’s clothing.
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Female genital mutilation Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Rationale
Approaches to the study
Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization as a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for no medical reasons. It is carried out without anesthesia and may involve injury of the genital area. This practice is usually carried out on girls who have just reached puberty or are a few days old into puberty.
The practice is usually carried out by a traditional circumciser or a person who is experienced in doing the mutilation in a traditional non-medical setting. The cut is made using a knife, scissors or razor blade. This practice is common in Western, Northern and Eastern parts of Africa and some parts of Asia and the Middle East.
It is also practiced among some immigrant communities in Europe, Australia and North America. It is estimated that approximately 100-140 million girls around the world have undergone female genital mutilation. Out of the 140 million, 92 million are from Africa (Gruenbaum, 2001).
There are four types of female genital mutilation. However, only three of the four types are commonly practiced. Type I involves removal of the clitoral hood. Usually this also involves removal of the clitoris itself. Type II involves removal of the clitoris and the inner labia while type three involves removal of the inner and outer labia, the clitoris, and stitching of the wound leaving a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood.
The stitches only come off during sexual intercourse and child birth. This usually involves tearing and bleeding. Type III is the most common of the procedures and is usually practiced in several countries such as Sudan, Somalia and Djibouti. Type IV involves symbolic pricking of the clitoris or labia or cutting of the vagina to widen it (Gollaher, 2000).
Rationale Female genital mutilation is considered to be a violation of the human rights of the girl child hence the reason for choosing this topic. Issues that have been raised about the practice focus on the human rights violations, lack of informed consent and health risks. Health risks include issues such as recurrent vaginal and urethral tract infections. In addition, complications during child birth are likely to occur. Several countries have made efforts to stop the practice following health concerns and medical risks associated with the practice.
Previous studies An observation that 90% of Eritrean women had undergone circumcision in 2002 sparked an interest in understanding the trends, factors that lead to female genital mutilation and its consequences. This study used data collected from the 2002 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation to determine factors that influence mothers to take their daughters through the practice and attitudes towards the practice (Woldmicael, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The findings of the study found that female genital mutilation was more common among older women than it was among the younger ones. The younger women were less likely to take their daughters through the female genital mutilation process than the older women.
The study also revealed that 89% of Eritrean women had undergone the practice. 39% had undergone the type III genital mutilation which is the most severe of the 4 types. When it comes to religion, neither Christianity nor Islam seems to have any significant influence on the practice (Woldmicael, 2009).
The findings show that even the least severe form of genital mutilation leads to complications during birth and puts the victim at risk of other health complications. This study also showed that social acceptance also favored the practice. The practice is considered to be an honor and earns the family respect. It also increases the girl’s chances of getting married. The society also believes that genital mutilation controls sexual promiscuity, protects the girl from potential seducers and rapists and also preserves her virginity (Woldmicael, 2009).
The study shows that female genital mutilation is being practiced in parts of this world and therefore strategies to combat it have been put in place. However, for a practice that is considered to be a violation of human rights of the girl child, it is still being practiced among some communities. Governments have been urged to implement laws that incriminate this practice in regions where it is being practiced.
However, it is very difficult to implement the law if the practice is a widely accepted vice. Very little research has been done in trying to establish why the practice still exists even when those who practice it have been educated and sensitized on the issue. Therefore this study will investigate further on the existing socio-cultural dynamics of female genital mutilation.
Approaches to the study The most common question is why those who practice female genital mutilation actually do it. Some people have condemned the practice while others simply have tried to understand the practice.
It is however important to understand the cultural history of the practice if one is to be able to understand the cultural dynamics. Most people attribute the practice to Islam but it has been shown that religion does not play a part in the practice. Several customs and beliefs contribute to female genital mutilation and these customs are often hard to get rid of.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Female genital mutilation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Sudan, for instance, it is believed that the campaign against FGM was a sure way of changing women’s consciousness. If a woman allowed her genitals to be removed, a heightened level of motherhood is achieved because it would not be tainted by sexuality. As a result she earns respect in the community. She also becomes empowered because by going through the process, she gets to earn respect from society (Shell-Duncan
Evolution of Fire Protection Codes Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fire protection and building codes
The origin of fire protection code and building regulation
The growth of fire protection codes
Personal protective equipment and their effects
Introduction The development of fire protection codes can be traced back to Rome in 64 AD, where fireproof building materials were first used. This is the first fire protection code known to man. Currently, fire fighters employ sophisticated technologies which greatly enhance fire disaster management.
The development of modern fire protection codes is as a result of response to catastrophic fires rather than in anticipation of such fires. Regardless of these developments, success in fire management seems elusive due to a number of factors. The greatest hindrance towards successful fire disaster management is noncompliance with existing fire protection codes.
From the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911 to the Station Nightclub Fire in 2003, investigations reports are consistent; business owners largely ignore basic fire protection and building codes. Additionally, the investigators report that disaster response time has gradually been reduced due to the improvements made on the fire alarms system.
Despite such developments reduction in response time, noncompliance with fire protection codes hinders effective managemt of fire disasters. Regardless of the fact that fire management has improved tremendously, new challenges continue to face fire disaster management. Such challenges include fire started by non traditional causes such terror attacks such the 9/11. This requires fire disaster managers to continuously evaluate the effectiveness of existing fire protection codes..
Fire disasters have led to some of the most horrific property damage and loss of human life. Recurrent fires disasters have led to gradual changes, amendment and improvements on fire protection codes. However, these gradual changes have not led to achievement of success in management of fire disasters.
With regards to the findings in this research paper, the following hypothesis seems relevant: despite the gradual improvements made to fire protection codes, noncompliance and the challenge of dynamic nature of fire disasters continue to hinder the attainment of successful fire disaster management practices. From this hypothesis, questions arise on why successful fire disaster management is elusive. To answer these questions, it is imperative to evaluate the circumstances that have led to evolution of fire protection codes.
Fire protection and building codes The management of fire disasters evolved from the use of rudimentary methods in ancient Europe to sophisticated methods employed in management of fire disasters today. The result of such gradual development is evolution of a complex life and property safety codes. Generally, life safety codes are developed to minimize or totally eliminate the loss of human life as well as damage to property in case of a major outbreak of fire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditional fire protection codes mainly addressed a wide range of issues concerned with management of fire disasters. Such issues range from the ability of materials used in construction to withstand and prevent spreading of fire, adequate means of exit as well as the use of fire protection tools such as smoke detectors and alarms. Additionally, the evolution of fire protection codes incorporates proper planning procedures as well as tenancy elements.
These allow quick evacuation of people in case of fire emergencies. While the development of detection and prevention methods as well as quick response systems help to significantly minimize the effects of fire, disaster managers emphasize on absolute compliance with existing fire protection codes. In this regard, compliance with fire protection codes greatly rely on latest technological advancements combined with historic codes.
This is aimed at improving disaster management practices. It is imperative to state that with time, NFPA has successful separated building codes from fire protection codes, both of which combine to ensure improved efficiency in management of fire disasters.
While NFPA building codes aim at enhancing the building architecture to avert a major fire disaster, fire protection codes aim at enhancing early warning, response, fire detection and prevention, preventing fire from spreading and evacuation of victims (Alderson, Artim and Allen 1, 2).
The origin of fire protection code and building regulation Even though there is little documented evidence on the origin of modern fire protection codes, NFPA codes trace their origin from 19th century Europe. Evidence indicate that the earliest known fire protection methods were used in 64 AD Rome after the great Roman fire, which gutted Rome and left a trail of devastating effects on both human life and property. As a result, Emperor Nero instructed the Roman architects to develop building regulations, mainly focused on the building materials.
As a result, Roman buildings had to be built with fireproof materials. Thus, Rome was rebuild using fire proof building materials. This is first recorded case in the application of scientific principles in enhancing safety in buildings. The fact that there is no previous mention of building and fire protection codes implies that prior to 64 AD there was no effort to manage fire disasters professionally (Cote n.pagn).
There are no records of any improvements on fire protection codes between 64 AD and the 17th century. This is largely attributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. It isn’t until the renaissance that any major improvement is done. Existing records show consistency with these assertions since it is only after the great London fire that improvements on fire prevention standards developed in 64 AD Rome is done.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Evolution of Fire Protection Codes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1666, the Great London Fire gutted London destroying more than 80 % of the City as well as resulting to massive loss of life. In response to the fire, architects in London adopted the standards developed in 64 AD Rome, with minor improvements made. Other than building the outer walls with fire resistance materials such as bricks and stones, house partitioning was also done with fireproof materials.
This indicates that houses made in 17th century England had improved ability to withstand fire than those build in 64 AD Rome. Additionally, the Great London fire spurred the development of fire suppression techniques. As such, hand-pumper fire apparatus, the first fire prevention equipment to use water, was developed.
Hand-pumper fire apparatus was a heavy hand drawn water carrier that sprayed water over a fire, thus extinguishing it. Thus, before the industrial revolution, the only recorded use of fire prevention codes involved the use of fire resistance building materials combined with the use of hand-pumper fire apparatus (Cote n.pagn).
The advent of the industrial revolution in 18th century England marked tremendous developments in fire protection designs. This was necessitated by numerous industrial fires which gutted most of the new industries in London. To avert the loss of lives and property, records indicate that concrete, steel and hardened rock were the primary building materials.
Other than strengthening buildings, engineers at the time combined these three materials and provided English engineers with suitable solution to prevent rampant industrial fires. Additionally, to enhance the effectiveness of fire protection codes in 18th century England, the first public fire department was formed, underground water mains were installed as well as ready to use fire hydrants.
Moreover, between 18th century and early 19th century, fire protection codes mainly focused on specific buildings and the contents therein. This new approach seemed to have been necessitated by the existence of numerous industries, each having unique industrial processes as well as materials under storage.
This approach however, gained prominence in the later stages of 19th century after the outbreak of numerous fires within London’s paper and textile industries. Due to poor storage of paper and lint debris and waste, disaster managers faced a new challenge not possible to manage using fire protection methods existing at the time. As such, engineers developed the first ever recorded fixed fire suppression system.
This involved the use of manually operated water pipes. However, the hazard posed to fire fighters using manually operated water pipes gave rise to the idea of automatic water sprinklers. This is one of the most useful innovations in fire protection engineering ever developed (Cote n.pagn).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evolution of Fire Protection Codes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The growth of fire protection codes As mentioned earlier, NFPA fire protection codes borrow heavily from those developed in ancient Europe, especially Rome and London. Additionally modern fire protection codes are not only developed in response to occurrence of major fires. Some of the most vital fire protection codes have been developed out of critical thinking. For instance, a meeting held in Boston in 1895 involving several parties affected by fire disasters led to the development of improved fire protection code.
These authorities included insurance companies, municipal authorities, engineers, property owner and businessmen as well as property insurers. In this meeting, extensive discussions were held, the outcomes of which was the development of Americas fire protection codes. Most significantly, businessmen and property owners adopted automatic water sprinklers as a significant fire protection technique.
The adoption of water sprinklers came as a result of increased pressure from property underwriters who felt that they were loosing a lot of money from fire disasters. As a result, underwriters realized that by involving engineers and business owner in active management of fire disasters, not only would the risks be evenly spread but also losses minimized.
As such, underwriters required engineers, business owners as well as local authorities to take more responsibility in managing and prevention of fires by installing automatic water sprinklers. Within this period, the National Fire Protection Association, NFPA was formed and mandated with the responsibility of overseeing fire protection activities within the entire country.
European influence in America fire prevention methods was rekindled in 1904 when a London fire insurer, John Smith joined NFPA membership. Such a move is perceived as the first effort in building consensus on the use of science based fire protection codes (NFPA 1 to 3).
There are notable improvements in fire protection codes for the period leading up to the 20th century. It is imperative to note that before the 20th century, fire protection codes focused on managing and suppressing fires, with little effort made to prevent the occurrence of major fires.
This implies that, before the 20th century, the concept of fire prevention was largely perceived as any effort assisting fire fighters to prevent and suppress fires. However, the beginning of the 20th century marked a critical period in the evolution of fire protection codes in America.
From this period onwards the concept of fire prevention assumed a different perspective. In March 25 1911, a fierce fire broke out in The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory located in New York. As a result of this fire, 146 garment workers lost their lives instantly and hundred others fatally injured. Additionally, property worth millions of dollars was destroyed. The damage resulting from The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire seems negligible compared to previous fires such as the great London fire and the great Roman fire.
However, the rise of human rights activism especially concerning the plight of workers magnified the need to improve fire protection methods in factories. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire attracted the attention of not only the state and federal authorities but also human rights activists, scholars as well as labor unions. This contributed to the significance that this fire had towards the evolution of fire protection codes (NYCOSH 1).
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire exposed various failures of not only the fire protection codes but also building codes existing at the time. As mentioned earlier, prior to this catastrophic event, NFPA’s concept of fire prevention focused on fire suppression rather than fire prevention. Additionally, the condition at The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory reveals lack of precautionary and fire disaster management measures.
It is assumed that the fire started as a result of a cigarette stump dumped in garbage heap containing two months accumulation of garment waste. While smoking was prohibited inside the factory, most of the workers were known to sneak in cigarettes and smoke during while working. This indicates noncompliance by both the workers and company owners.
Moreover, the accumulation of two months worth of flammable garment waste portrays noncompliance and ignorance of fire hazards on the part of the company’s administration. As a result of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Fire Prevention Act of 1911 was drafted and enacted. The Act enabled the setting up of the factory investigation commission whose primary focus was improvement of fire protection techniques, routine safety inspection and the general improvement of factory conditions (NYCOSH 2).
Even though previous fire protection codes required that buildings be fitted with automatic fire sprinklers, the Fire Prevention Act of 1911 made it mandatory for all factory buildings to be fitted with automatic sprinklers. Additionally, the Act made it mandatory for regular maintenance and inspection of fire protection mechanisms within factories and other public buildings.
Investigators reports indicate that most of the 146 deaths from The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire occurred due to lack of an alarm system within the building. At the time of the fire, an office telephone was the only means of raising public alarm incase of a disaster. However, Fire Prevention Act of 1911 required that all factories be fitted with a working alarm system.
With regards the existing building architecture at the time of the fire, the NFPA code for means of egress required that all buildings have safe and prompt escape routes for occupants in case of a major disaster, all clearly marked with exit signs readable in heavy smoke. However, despite the presence of adequate doors for worker to use as exits, company owners had made the exit inaccessible by locking all doors during working hours.
Additionally, the stairways and safety exits were made of flammable materials. As a result, they crumbled under fire making exit impossible. However, as required by the Fire Prevention Act of 1911, NFPA building codes made it mandatory for all buildings to have exits made of fireproof materials. Additionally, not only should buildings have safe and adequate means of egress but also easily accessible as well as allow for prompt escape from the building (Gerber 2 to 4).
After The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, fire disaster managemt was almost obscured by the two world wars. However, within this period, there were significant improvements on fire alarm systems. During this period of time, the fire alarm systems improved from a simple bell with a thermostat connected to water flow switches to sophisticated fire and smoke detectors.
However, one of the most historic fires in the US history, the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire which occurred in 1942, casts doubts on efforts by business owners to comply with exiting fire protection codes. While the building had stairways and walls made of nonflammable materials, the Coconut Groove Night Club had not complied with exit requirements. After The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, NFPA required that engineers provide adequate and prompt emergency exit routes.
However, the analysis of the conditions prior to Coconut Groove Night Club Fire indicate no adequate and prompt exist routes available. Investigators found only one revolving door as the only means of exit. Additionally, investigators found that few escapees used toilet windows and a concealed back door to escape. Moreover, the use of highly flammable decoration materials aided the quick spread of the fire.
Even though the alarm system worked well and alerted the fire response team in due time, investigators report that more than 300 lives would have been saved if club owners had completely complied with existing safety codes, especially on the provision of adequate means of exit (Moulton 5 to 8).
As a result of the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire, NFPA amended the its building codes that had been developed after the infamous Iroquois Theater fire of 1903 (which had banned the use of flammable decorations in public buildings).
NFPA amendments required two separates means of egress, in form of swinging doors that swings with the crowd as opposed to against the crowd. NFPA also required revolving doors to be flanked by swinging doors as well as adequate rails to provide support and prevent people from falling over each other (Moulton 13 to 16).
30 years after the Coconut Groove Night Club Fire business owners had not fully complied with NFPA fire protection code and building standards. In 1977, a wild fire burned Beverly Hills Super Club, and with it more than 160 patrons and workers. The construction of Beverly Hills Super Club took many years to complete.
The club’s walls, stairways, roof and floors were made of noncombustible materials such as steel and concrete bricks. However, interior decoration was done using plywood, lumber, wood and drapery, all highly combustible materials. Additionally, investigators found water pipes as the only available form of fire protection at the time of the event. Engineers had not installed automatic sprinklers, alarm systems or standpipes.
Despite having eight means of exit, many people died as a result of inadequate exit arrangements, overcrowding, use of flammable building materials, lack of fire sprinklers and alarms, as well as delayed discovery and response of the fire outbreak. As a result of such failures, NFPA 1981 amendments categorized night clubs as places of assembly occupancy.
In addition, NFPA amendment required place of assembly occupancy holding 300 people installed with automatic sprinklers as well as voice message enabled alarm systems. Such an alarm would be connected to the local fire station and thus reduce response time (Duval 8 to 16).
Yet, despite NFPA’s requirements, later fires expose ignorance of NFPA building and fire protection codes. In 2003, the Station Nightclub Fire exposed widespread ignorance of NFPA building and fire protection codes. Investigators found that engineers had used combustible materials in the construction of the Station Nightclub, including interior decorations. Additionally, egress arrangements largely violated NFPA building codes.
Despite having illuminated exit signs only few outward swinging exit doors were available. Moreover, an obstructing rail corridor ran against the main exit making quick escape impossible. With regards to fire protection, investigators found portable fire extinguishers instead of automatic water sprinklers. The club also had been installed with working alarm systems as well as heat and smoke detectors, yet not connected to local fire stations.
As a result of the Station Nightclub Fire, NFPA code 255 required building materials to be tested for fire propagation abilities. As such, Class A materials, which have no ability to propagate fires, were highly recommended for use in assembly occupancy buildings which hold more than 300 people.
Additionally, NFPA 255 code banned the use of pyrotechnics in places of assembly occupancy as well as construction of obstruction free exits. This is in addition to the expansion of the main exit point to accommodate at least two-thirds of the total occupancy load.
Places for assembly occupancy were also required to have trained crowd control managers at the ratio of 1:250, to aid quick exit during emergencies. Since all previous cases involve violations of NFPA building and fire protection codes, NFPA 2008 amendment made it a felony for business owners to violate these codes. Additionally, the amendment empowered access to buildings for fire safety inspectors at anytime (Duval 24 to 32).
The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire spurred extensive investigations, the result of which is the evolution of performance based fire protection designs. This approach was motivated by peculiar findings at the scene of The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire, in which most of the fire burned the roofs and upper parts of the walls, while leaving much of the floor and fallen chairs totally undamaged. Investigators found very high air temperatures inside The Coconut Groove Night Club due to overcrowding.
Additionally, the combination of flammable alcohol fumes hovering over the crowd fueled the fire. These findings by NFPA investigators corroborate assertions by doctors who responded to the emergency that many people succumbed to inhaling hot toxic air and related respiratory problems (Beller and Sapochetti 86 to 92). As result, NFPA required that public buildings have proper ventilation as well as standby respiratory protective equipment (Commission for Occupational Safety and Health 13).
Personal protective equipment and their effects By 1930s, records indicate the impossibility of fighting fires from inside a burning building due to lack of personal protective equipment, PPE. However, as Hasenmeier (n.pag) explains the earliest known PPE was a leather helmet used by fire fighters in the 1830s. However, this type of clothing did not insulate fire fighters from extreme heat conditions, and thus less effective.
Events at The Coconut Groove Night Club Fire highlighted the need for improved protective fire fighting equipment, especially to protect fire fighters from heat stress and intoxication.
This assertion corroborates FEMA‘s findings on cases such as 1990 Sedgwick County fire, the 1999 Santa Barbara fire, California wild forest Fire in 1990 and 1997 La Cima Fire, which indicates that almost half of fire fighters fatalities are as a result of heat stress, intoxication and exertion, emanating from bearing much weight from PPEs especially clothing, during fire fighting events (FEMA 6 to 10, 26 to 28).
As a result of these fires, fire protection codes have been amended to incorporate the use of appropriate PPE to protect fire fighters. Fire protection codes require fire fighters to be equipped with adequate PPEs such as helmets, boots, overalls, gloves, inhalers, face masks among others. NFPA requires that these equipments be made from fire and heat resistant materials. The main purpose is to allow fire fighters to enter burning buildings and extinguish fire from inside.
However, as evidenced from 1990 Sedgwick County and other fires, fire and heat resistant clothing has negative effects on fire fighters. Fire fighters are not able to loose heat through the natural heat loss mechanism. In strong heat conditions, much heat is trapped inside the cloths and not lost to the surrounding atmosphere. Thus, the fire fighters easily succumb to heat stress.
Therefore, NFPA’s “Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting” requires all fire fighter to use PPE’s that meets all thermal regulations as well as minimum weight requirements. However, in non-fire events, such clothing seems unable to facilitate normal body heat loss since the cloths are made of non-breathable moisture and heavy thermal materials, which increases body temperatures to dangerous levels.
Thus, NFPA 2000 and 2007 amendments require limited exposure to extreme heat conditions combined with regular interval rotation of fire fighters during fire fighting events. Additionally, NFPA 2000 and 2007 amendments demand the manufacture of PPEs with material that has high total heat loss value to minimize the chances of heat stress (FEMA 30).
Conclusion The elusive success in management of fire disasters should however, not take anything away from improvements made to fire protection codes. Valuable improvements have been made to traditional fire protection methods resulting to sophisticated fire protection codes. However, success in the management of fire seems elusive due to the combination of noncompliance and the challenge of complexity and dynamic nature of fires disasters.
The evolution of fire protection codes and the use of latest technologies significantly improve combating major fires. However, fire disaster managers continue to face the new challenges that cannot be addressed through already existing codes. Such challenges include the threat of terrorism and fires that might start as a result of such causes as terror attacks.
Additionally, each fire occurs under unique conditions and thus needs unique solutions to combat. This makes the development of new fire protection codes before a fire breaks out a near impossibility. Therefore, the management of fire disasters is a continuous process with no concrete solutions.
Works Cited Alderson Caroline, Nick Artim and Rick Allen. Fire Safety Retrofitting. n.d. Web.
Beller, Doug and Jennifer Sapochetti. “Searching For Answers To The Cocoanut Grove Fire Of 1942”. NFPA Journal (2000): 86 – 92. Web.
Commission for Occupational Safety and Health. Codes of Practice First Aid Facilities and Services Workplace Amenities and Facilities Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment. 2002. Web.
Cote, Arthur. History of Fire Protection Engineering. Fire Engineering. 2011. Web.
Duval, Robert. NFPA case studies: nightclub fires. NFPA. 2006. Web.
FEMA. U.S. Fire Administration. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation. 2008. Web. Gerber, James. Fire Prevention in the Wake of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of 1911: the Role of Fire Chief Edward Croker. n.d. Web.
Hasenmeier, Paul. The History of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment. Fire Engineering. 2008. Web.
Moulton, Robert. “Cocoanut Grove Night Club Fire Boston, MA November 28, 1942” NFPA Journal. (2000): 5-16. Web.
NFPA. History of NFPA Codes and standards-making systems. n.d. Web.
NYCOSH. Don’t mourn –organize: Lessons from the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. 2011. Web.
Interview importance Descriptive Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Abstract
The screening criteria
Planning for the interview
Preparation for the interview
The introduction and conclusion
Abstract This interview package gives a reflection on the position of the Chief Accounting Officer. The package also provides the criteria which shall be used when interviewing the candidates for the position of the Chief Accounting Officer. It contains a series of areas which are going to be points of focus.
These areas include the role of the interview panel, the relevance of the interview process and the aspects of the interviewee which are going to be analyzed. This document is based on theoretical and scientific approaches which have been researched and utilized in the past. Thus, it is based on what scholars have identified as key areas which are fundamental within the interview process.
Introduction Interviews are critical processes which guide in the process of recruiting staff in organizations. This paper is based on the above premise. In this light, this paper presents a process which shall be followed when recruiting an officer for the vacant position of the chief accounting officer. This segment sheds light into the requirements of the task at hand. It clarifies on the issues which need to be put into considerations highlighting the important values which the position requires.
Behavioral criteria The behavioral aspect will focus on the following behavioral aspects the candidates. Communication, interpersonal capabilities, networking abilities, motivation abilities, administrative abilities and the intrapersonal abilities. It is worth noting that the stated post requires a person who is able to manage oneself as well as others.
Due to the fact that this position is administrative, it is important for the candidate to be in a position of building links and managing the team members who one is working with. It is therefore central to this position that the candidate display high degree of self awareness. In addition, this person ought to be able to engage people in a manner which is logical and persuasive.
This is because this will enable the company to use this person as the central person with regard to the organization of financial records as well as mobilization of personnel to work in stated accounting fields when called upon to do so.
In this category, there is going to be an emphasis on intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Due to the fact that this position requires an accountant who will assume the leadership role, it implies that the person to fit this position should be able to understand the organizational accounting dynamics as well as work with people from diverse background.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because as a multinational company, the chief accounting officer will have to work with accountants who hold similar positions in organizations which are across the globe. Secondly, one will have to be able to understand how to establish teams which will deliver results. Thus this calls for a person who is able to articulate a vision and state the objectives of that vision in a clear manner such that the subordinates will pursue it in a clear fashion without any confusion.
In addition, due to the fact that this position forms a central position within the organization, the holder of this position will have to be able to form links with other departments and offices within and without the organization to ensure that the needs and objectives of the organization are realized within the stipulated time.
This position will require someone who can be able to work under pressure. This is because it will entail working with people as well as ensuring that the results are achieved. Furthermore, it will need the holder to be conversant with the demands of accuracy and the international dynamics which are associated with commerce.
Thus, the employee should be a person who is aware of oneself in terms of ability to perform and at the same time should be able to communicate well when the occasion arises. This should be both in a written format and verbal form. Background and work experience
The candidate should bear a string background in organizational management with a bias in accounting. This will be in line with the organization’s objective of nurturing independent and hardworking employees. Furthermore, the applicant should highlight some experience in the field of management and accounting, preferably five years in a multinational organization.
The applicant should also illustrate depth in a variety of computer applications which will be needed in establishing digital accounting standards within the organization. Any qualification in computer applications will be an added advantage to the applicant.
The screening criteria The applicant must within the following criteria in order to considered for an interview; first, the candidate must have at least one year of professional work and experience in accounting and organizational management. The applicant should have served in active leadership positions and exhibited the drive to accomplish based on the achievements realized during the term of leadership. The applicant must possess at least a bachelor’s degree in business management.
We will write a custom Essay on Interview importance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interview: Types of interviews There are several types of interviews. These include, the selection interview, the performance interview, the career development interview, information gathering interview and the problem solving interview. The process of interviewing among other things relies heavily in applying one of the stated approaches. In this case, the objective of the interview process is to get the right candidate for the stated post.
Thus, the interview panel is going to apply the selection interview. During this interview process, there are several techniques which might be preferred. In this case, the interview panel is going to consider the screening interviews, traditional interviews, behavioral interviews, the panel or group interviews and the case interviews.
This is because the objectives of the interview panel include weeding out any unqualified candidates who might turn out for the interview process, to evaluate the candidate’s ability to communicate, to match the candidate’s past performance to the job requirements basing the candidate’s ability on the past performances in similar positions, ascertain a candidate’s skills and approach to problem solving, problem diagnosis and communication.
Planning for the interview This process entails several steps of analysis. First and foremost, it is important to establish the legislation governing the interview process. Determine the objective of the interview is also important. This is because this will enable the panel to find out which approach or combination of approaches will work.
Based on this, the panel should be able to formulate questions reflecting on each agenda which has been set. Developing an interview guide is an important aspect of this process. This is because it ensures that the objectives set are realized within the limits which have been set. The interview process
The interview process can go on for quite a while. First, the applicant will be asked to come in for a screening interview. The screening interview is the first interview with a particular candidate. In some cases it may even take place over the telephone. During a screening interview, the person interviewing you will usually be someone who works in the human resources department, and he will want to verify items that are on your resume, such as dates of employment and schooling.
These questions will pertain to the interviewee’s skills and abilities, accomplishments, education, and work history. Furthermore, the applicant will also be asked questions about one’s strengths and weaknesses, interests and hobbies, and likes and dislikes, all of which will enable the panel to learn about the applicant’s personal traits and characteristics. The goal on a job interview is to give the candidate an opportunity to express oneself through the best answers one can possibly give.
The applicant should be prepared to give detailed answers to job interview questions. The interviewer, for example will ask about skills. The applicant should know what skills one has and should be able to discuss how they acquired them. The interviewer will use the applicant’s resume to guide him through the interview. The applicant should be conversant with their personal; resumes and they must be prepared to talk about and elaborate every item on it since a resume, by definition, is a just a brief summary of the applicant’s work.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Interview importance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Preparation for the interview This should be a process that should be completed before the actual interviewing process begins. During this phase, the organization should have established the persons who are going to seat on the panel and the steps which are going to follow in line with the interview. In this case, the preparation of the interview should ensure that the fundamental aspects which are necessary during the interview are adhered to.
These include; the questions, the location, the date and time for the interview to take place. It is also important to give the interviewer’s time to seat together and reason together as they come up with a team which will ensure that the process runs smoothly. We are going to look at the aspects mentioned above in detail in the next section;
Questions: these should be clear and statements which are aimed at bringing to the fore the actual meaning of the subject at hand. The questions should be stated in line with the position at hand and they should free from any ambiguities which might confuse the interviewee.
It is also important to ensure that the questions which are going to be put across to the applicant are questions which have been agreed upon by the panel. There are cases whereby the applicant might be allowed to have a look at the questions, in this case, that should be done early in advance to ensure that there are no delays.
The venue: it is worth noting that the location of the interview has got a major impact on the outcome of the process. It is vital to ensure that the environment where the interview takes place is place which is away from any form of distractions. The furniture should be comfortable both to the interviewers and the panellists.
The candidates: it is important to ensure that the candidates have knowledge with regard to the interview process. They should not be ambushed on the last day, rather they should be given a prior notice to enable them prepare in advance for the interview. In cases where there are special considerations, it is also important to communicate the same to the candidates. Legal requirements for interview process
There are several aspects which need to be put into consideration with regard to interviewing. These are aspects such as discrimination based on race, sex, marital status, religion, sex, and sexuality. These are factors which the interview panel will seriously need to put into consideration when they are carrying out the interview.
In addition to this, ethics should be maintained. That is, there are various issues which need to be put into consideration during the interview process. These issues which are known as the ethical codes vary from one organization to another. This implies that the interview panel should consider the organizational procedures that are governing the given profession. The universally held ethics include the UN declaration of Human Rights.
The introduction and conclusion The interview should commence with formal introductions. That is both the panel and the applicant are given an opportunity to introduce themselves before the panel. Secondly, the chair of the panel should give the objective of the interview in light of time allocated and the expectations from the interviewee or candidate.
The panel should give the client an opportunity to state their expectations and special requests, if any exists before the interview. The chairperson of the panel should guide the panel and the applicant during the conclusion and bring the process to an end. It is during this time that the applicant will be informed on when and how to get the results from the interview.
The introduction which is recommended for the interview is;
Good morning sir/madam,
First and foremost we want to thank you for taking your time to be part of this process. We highly appreciate the fact that you have chosen to take part in this interview process for the post of chief accounting officer. My name is Mr. XYZ and I am the chairman of this panel as well as the head of the human resource in this company.
The other panellists will introduce themselves as they put across their questions. The process will take approximately one hour. It will entail a series of questions from the panellists and they will expect responses from you. In case of anything, just let us know and we will be willing to step in and assist in any way possible.
The recommended conclusion should be;
Well that question marks the end of this session. We are grateful that you took your time to respond to our questions carefully. Unless you have any questions or comments, we shall get back to you in the next five days via the email address to notify you on the results. Thank you.
In conclusion, the preferred theoretical approach during this process will be the behaviourist approach. This is because this approach monitors progress in quantifiable terms. This is important when it comes to establishing tangible results which have been achieved and which are likely to be achieved by a person within a given duration of time under certain conditions.
Reference List Burns, D 2009, The First 60 Seconds:Win the Job Interview Before It Begins, Sourcebooks, Inc., London.
Catano, VM 2009, Recruitment and Selection in Canada, Cengage Learning, California.
Dale, M 2004 , Manager’s guide to recruitment and selection, Kogan Page Publishers, London.
Dale, M 2006, The essential guide to recruitment:how to conduct great interviews and select the best employees, Kogan Page Publishers, London.
Fontes, LA 2009, Interviewing Clients Across Cultures:A Practitioner’s Guide, Guilford Press, New York.
Gatewood, RD, Feild, HS
The Whole Foods Market: 2010 Case Study college essay help online
The retail grocery industry has increasingly become very attractive in the recent past. Many firms have realized that this industry is lucrative given the increase of the number of people looking for healthy foods. In order to understand the attractiveness of this industry, Porters five forces will be used.
The first force is the risk of entry by other potential competitors. This risk is relatively low because most firms these products highly perishable and therefore, prone to high risk if customers are not accessible in time. The bargaining power of the buyers is relatively low because they are convinced that such healthy foods are worth high prices.
They are always willing to pay such high prices. The bargaining power of the suppliers is also low because they are always striving to release these products while they are still fresh. They would try to avoid situation where they stay with the products for long because they can go at serious loss.
The threat of substitutes in this industry is extremely low. It is not easy for the customers to find a perfect replacement for these products. This makes retail grocery industry very attractive. Whole Foods is one of the leading firms in this industry.
The macro environment has a number of factors that affect the retail grocery industry in general, and Whole Foods in specific. The Political environment would dictate ease of doing business in this country. With political stability, the industry will have the needed security to conduct business.
The economic environment may also affect players in this industry. With economic recession, the industry may experience low sales because consumers will have less disposable income. As shown in the case, the economic environment is a main factor that has been considered to affect players in the industry.
The social environment may dictate the nature of products that players in this field may stock. Technology is coming out strongly as another important factor in the external environment. Environmental concern is another important factor. The Green Movement is a clear indication that consumers expect firms to be environmentally friendly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the legal environment is a factor that must be considered in the external environment. In the internal environment, the financial position of a firm heavily affects its operations. A firm must understand its sales and the net income. The figure below shows the sales and net income of Whole Foods.
The figure above shows the sales made by this firm and the net income from the year 2005 to 2010. From the figures above, it is clear that this firm has been experiencing a steady increase in sales over the years.
Although the net income was a little unsteady, especially in 2008 and 2009, it started rising again in 2010. The slow rate of income in 2008 and 2009 can be attributed to the 2008/2009 economic recession in the country.
Based on the above findings, the main recommendation that the management should consider taking seriously is the need to increase its sales volume by going beyond its current market.
The management should consider moving to other European markets besides United Kingdom. China and India can also make very attractive market for this firm given the huge population they have. This will help in increasing their net income.
Significance of neural plasticity on visual perception Proposal essay help free
Neural plasticity as concept describes the process through which the brain adapts itself and rewires to the environment. Such a process is manifested in both the physical and chemical nature.
Against traditional psychologists who previously opined that the brain is developed fully in the infancy period, the contemporary psychologists have demonstrated that the brain is an organ that has actively altered the older neurons for new ones with the changing environment for adaptation while learning new information and creating new memories (Simons and Chabris, 1999).
The environment in which the brain is related is its nature, and is largely defined by what the brain gets exposed to. Thus, this research proposal attempts to explicitly establish the significance of neural plasticity on visual perception.
The independent variable is perception while the dependent variables are neural plasticity and personality. The study will adopt direct participation and secondary approaches.
The level at which the brain gets adaptable to the environment is dependent on the critical periods on which it is susceptible as it develops its basic network. In its neural plasticity, the brain develops ability to adapt to changes in environment as stimulated by nerves which connect it to the external environment to images.
As a process, neural plasticity entails three major brain mechanisms; anatomical, metabolic and neuron chemical process. This process is useful in strengthening the existing connections to visual images. It is thus necessary to explore the relationship between neural plasticity and perception of visual images.
In attempting to orientate the arguments in this paper to practicality of neural plasticity, the paper highlights experiments in which neural plasticity has been evidenced. The first of such examples was performed on rats.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The experiment demonstrated that postnatal or prenatal stress on specimen produced a range of variations in the levels of neurotransmissions in the brain. Such levels were observed on the catecholamine, serotonin and the opiate.
When a similar experiment was performed on pregnant rhesus monkeys, the ones that were pre-exposed stress delivered offspring with permanent neurological changes.
Subsequent reports revealed permanence in the control and memory states that appeared impaired. Similarly, same survey conducted with pregnant women, suggested noticeable effects on the circumference of their babies’ heads.
Methodology This research will use secondary data since a lot of research has been carried out on the dependent and independent variables. The observers will be requested to randomly pick images from the research materials and offer a brief description in terms of color, texture and size.
The participants will be expected to answer the questions in the shortest time possible after observing ten images. The relationship between the dependent and independent variables will demonstrate the process of neural plasticity by aligning the discussion to development of image perception.
Besides, the variables will also be tested for their relationship to repetitive occurrences and constant change of images with different themes. The relationship that might exist between the dependent and independent variables is that perception is directly dependent on neural plasticity.
The social influence takes course with the rationality to identify and classify visual images. This is dependent on neural plasticity and the personality of a person.
We will write a custom Proposal on Significance of neural plasticity on visual perception specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research implications
This study is necessary to establish the correlation between the actual images and visual perception in the external environment. The findings of this study will seal the research gap which currently functions only on the influences of the external environment on perception.
Psychologists might use the results of this study to learn the neural plasticity and its relationship to visual interpretation of images.
Reference Simons, D.,
George Appo’s Autobiography Essay (Book Review) college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Appo’s Life
Why Appo Became a Criminal
Why Appo Wrote His Autobiography
Appo’s Solutions for Prison Reform
Appo’s Life In his memoirs, George Appo made startling revelations about his criminal life and NYC’s criminal underworld in the 19th Century. Born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1858, Appo’s early exposure to crime and drug abuse in Manhattan turned him into an accomplished pick pocket and a swindler.
Appo’s father, Lee Ah Bow, was an immigrant from China, whose violent outbursts saw him in prison for murdering his landlord after a protracted argument (Appo 2000). Around the same time, Appo’s mother and sister perished after their California-bound ship was destroyed by a storm.
At age three, Appo found himself destitute. A poor family residing in Donovan’s Lane, a crime-ridden street in Manhattan, accepted to adopt him. Appo describes the Five Points area in Donovan Lane as a multi-cultural, overpopulated and impoverished neighborhood in NYC (2000).
While growing in Donovan’s Lane, Appo learnt to steal from unsuspecting people. He joined criminal gangs, and begun abusing drugs (opium) and alcohol. All through his life Appo embraced the ethics of a “good fellow” by being generous to his underworld friends in the opium dens and “dives” he patronized (Appo 2000, p. 4).
It is at this point that Appo began his pick pocketing and prison stints at various prisons. In 1891, Appo joined a con game called the “green goods game”, which was very lucrative (Appo 2000, p. 3). It is while participating in this lucrative game that a victim shot him in the face. As a result, he became partially blind after losing an eye.
Appo was tried and imprisoned at different institutions for his crimes, but “never howled for the police for satisfaction in the courts” when wronged (Appo 2000, p. 8). At the ‘Sing Sing’ prison, where he served most of his sentences, Appo describes the brutality and torture he and the other convicts experienced at the hands of the guards.
He lost his teeth and had several scars on his body because of the beatings. His numerous trials and prison stints brought him a lot of notoriety and fame. In his autobiography, Appo gives insights into the corruption and brutality that characterized the prison system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After his reform, Appo advocated for an overhaul of the justice system as one step towards ending corruption in prisons. His revelations to the Lexow Committee regarding graft that dogged the American justice system underscore his stance towards the American justice system.
Why Appo Became a Criminal Appo, at a tender age of 3, was forced to live with a poor foster family, named Allen, after his father was imprisoned and his mother killed in a shipwrecking incident. His foster family resided in Donovan’s Lane (Five Points), an area inhabited by “poor people of all nationalities” (Appo 2000, p. 7).
The area where Appo spent his childhood was densely populated and crime-ridden, which exposed him to other delinquents at an early age. He started picking other people’s pockets in this neighborhood at age 15. Thus, the neighborhood’s multi-cultural nature, drug (opium) use in saloons and crime-driven economy influenced Appo’s criminal activities.
As Appo writes, as a newspaper vendor, he “learned how to pick pocket” from “two boys who always well dressed and had plenty of money” (2000, p. 5). Thus, the deplorable social conditions of this notorious neighborhood propelled Appo into opium abuse, heavy drinking and crime.
Appo’s memoirs give insights into the social differentiation apparent in the 19th Century American society. Notorious neighborhoods such as Donovan’s Lane were inhabited by immigrants of all cultures and the “all Chinamen of the city lived” in the Lane (Appo 2000).
According to Stephen (2007), race, in the 19th Century, influenced relationships, identity formation and social inequalities that defined the American society. The people’s lives and relationships were influenced by hierarchies such as gender, class and racial backgrounds.
The upper class white families lived in mansions while the poor immigrant communities lived in over-crowded neighborhoods in cities such as New York. The effects of the social exclusion emerge in Appo’s autobiography as crime and drug abuse.
We will write a custom Book Review on George Appo’s Autobiography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Appo did not represent any particular social hierarchy, his childhood encounters with his compatriots portray the alienation that was present in the American society. Appo portrays the 19th Century urban neighborhoods as poor and lawless, which allowed the underworld to thrive.
He narrates how corrective institutions, including the Sing Sing, Blackwell Island and the Eastern Penitentiary were crippled by corruption (Appo 2000). Police corruption and the social hierarchies in NYC, allowed crime and drug (opium) abuse to thrive in neighborhoods inhabited by immigrant communities.
Why Appo Wrote His Autobiography Appo, in his memoirs, exposes the widespread drug abuse by the immigrant communities, the organized crime in NYC, the brutal prison punishment, the deep-rooted graft in prisons, and the attempts of a congressional committee to fight this vice (Appo 2000).
In this way, Appo criticizes the American society’s attitude towards corruption, crime, justice system and drug (opium) abuse. Gilfoyle (2006) describes Appo as being “cognizant of the prison aristocracy, privileged inmates and the inmate economy” (p. 67) because of the many years he spent in prison.
Furthermore, Appo (2000) narrates of the thriving trade in contraband goods and the corrupt and inefficient guards. This shows that the prison warders and administrators at prisoners such as Sing Sing were poorly trained as some were illiterate and relied on inmates for information.
Appo also criticizes the organization of the inmate work programs. Private contractors paid prison administrators to get access to ‘cheap inmate labor’ for their factories and businesses (Appo 2000). Although the inmates acquired new skills such as hat-making (Sing Sing) through this program, it was “impossible” to find a job outside prison where one can apply such skills (Appo 2000, p. 9).
As a result, many ex-convicts went back to crime, which made rehabilitation of prisoners difficult. For instance, Appo’s “efforts to go straight by setting up an express business with Tom Lee” was rather short-lived because he could not find a stable job (Gilfoyle, 2006, p. 308). For this reason, Appo went back to crime (pocket picking and ‘green goods’ swindle).
The Long Depression (1873-1878) led to a decline in social welfare and massive unemployment due to decline in consumer prices (Stephen 2007). This increased in corruption in public institutions, promoted crime and stimulated the growth of neighborhoods in major cities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on George Appo’s Autobiography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Appo’s Solutions for Prison Reform Appo mentions that reforming the convicts cannot be achieved through “brutality and tyrannical discipline”, but a “kindly act from any person of influence” can help reform the convicts (2000, p. 8).
He notes that this approach should replace the tyrannical approach used in state penitentiaries in the U.S., which only succeeds in ‘hardening’ innocent convicts due to the inhuman punishments (Appo 2000).
Moreover, the 19th Century justice system was dominated by “immoral tyrants” who did “all sorts of graft and practiced immorality on young innocent victims” (Stephen 2007, p. 307). Appo recommends that prison administrators should focus on rehabilitation of the convicts.
Appo also decries the “inhuman treatment and cruelty” meted on convicts (Appo 2000, p. 11). Proper training of prison keepers is another solution that Appo offers that would reform the justice system. He attributes the keepers’ brutality to lack of training and corruption.
Moreover, the placement of the keepers in the 19th Century prisons was done “through political influence” (Appo 2000, p. 4). He implies that the penal system should be run without political influence. As Appo puts it, “the brutal discipline only makes convicts to be worse criminals”, which makes them to return back to crime (2000, p. 5).
Such brutal treatment does little to reform criminals. Instead, Appo recommends that counseling would go a long way in reforming prisoners. Moreover, an overhaul of the criminal justice system would help stem out corruption from the prisons.
Appo’s stance on prison reform won him many admirers. The Lexow Committee interviewed him to get his perspective on corruption in prisons and penitentiaries in the U.S., including the Sing Sing prison.
Also, the “Society for the Prevention of Crime”, a Christian organization, facilitated Appo’s integration into society. The organization offered him a stable job and supported him throughout his life.
Despite being labeled a dangerous criminal, the society embraced him and ensured he leads a normal life. This implies that social support and counseling can help reform and integrate prisoners into society.
On the other hand, Appo’s memoirs show that brutality and inhumane treatment do not reform convicts. Instead, inhuman treatment only turns innocent convicts into dangerous criminals.
References Appo, G 2000, ‘The Autobiography of George Appo’, Penguin, New York.
Gilfoyle, T 2013, ‘The Urban Underworld in Late Nineteenth-Century New York: The Autobiography of George Appo with Related Documents, St. Martin’s Press, Boston.
Stephen, D 2007, ‘Review of A Pickpocket’s Tale-The Underworld of the Nineteenth Century New York’, Journal Of American History, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 307-309.
Critical Challenges Operations Management Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Abstract
Supply Chain Management
Abstract The management of the supply chain, inventory management, establishment of strong customer relationship, and strategic planning are critical challenges related to e-commerce which leaders face in the field of operations management.
Introduction The following discussion focuses on the critical challenges operations managers in the field of operations management face to improve the productivity and efficiency of operations.
Supply Chain Management According to Lee, Krajweski and Ritzman (2005) one of the critical challenges operations managers face include creating effective procurement aggressiveness to enable suppliers meet the objectives of quality, quantity, continuous quality improvements, effective pricing, and excellent service delivery.
Managers need to overcome human, organizational, and cultural barriers when determining the type of information to share with suppliers, manufacturers, retailers, and distributors and to overcome the bullwhip effect on their e-commerce site to avoid information moving away from the point of use.
Sehgal (2013) argues that a leader has to ensure that innovation, relationship, and process capital are effectively planned and controlled to ensure effective logistical coordination, control, and communication.
Sehgal (2013) argues that an effective framework for interactive and collaborative work and comprehensive understanding of the inner working of the transformation processes are critical to eliminate non-value adding activities and conflicts (Barnes, 2008).
Customer relationship Sehgal (2013) argues that a manager faces the challenge of establishing positive relationship between a firm and its customers on an e-commerce platform to compel them to buy the moment they log into the firm’s site. The features enable the manager to establish strong customer loyalty, which influences them to be committed to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), a well formulated e-commerce site influences customers to develop the propensity to switch to that site for better deals. It becomes critical for a manager to put a framework in place for responding effectively to external problems if they occur to avoid the threat of customers complaining to regulators or costly legal actions.
Inventory management According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), managers face the critical challenges of acquiring, delivering, and maintaining inventories for executing internal and external production activities.
When management tasks are effectively executed, customers readily understand the inventory which is available which helps them to reduce on-hand inventories. It is important for a business to ensure effective inventory tracking, better inventory logistics, and to implement inventory reduction capabilities.
Strategic Planning Operations managers have to plan effectively to achieve and increase a company’s market share to enable the firm achieve and maintain industry leadership for its products. According to Slack, Johnston and Jones (2011), the main challenge is to achieve competitive advantage through effective strategic planning efforts (Sehgal, 2013).
Managers have to decide on how to effectively coordinate different functional areas which support e-commerce transactions using information technology (IT) and information systems (IS).
Studies by Leseure (2101) show that managers have to effectively coordinate different functional areas of an organization with different e-commerce strategies by partnering with others to overcome problems associated with competitive advantage because of missed opportunities (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2010).
Conclusion In conclusion, operations managers’ tasks in the field operations management have to overcome a number of critical challenges discussed above to improve processes, the productivity and operational efficiency of firms in current dynamic business environment to competitively position their firms in the dynamic market environment.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Critical Challenges Operations Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Barnes, D (2008). Operations Management An international Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill
Lee, L., Krajweski, L. Ritzman, P. (2005). Operations Management: Process and Value Chains, 8/E. Pearson – Prentice Hall.
Leseure, M. (2101). Key Concepts in Operations Management. New York: Sage
Sehgal, V. (2013). Leaders in E-commerce. Web.
Slack, N, Chambers, S, Johnston, R, (2010). Operations Management. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall
Slack, N, Johnston, R.,
Pros and corns of traditional and flexible benefits plan Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction The reparation management of benefit policies might incorporate innumerable components. In fact, the compensation management schemes range from the insurance of health statues to the redeemable accounts of retirement. A good rapport between the company and the employees augment from such plans.
The employees feel a sense of belonging since the compensation policies positively entice and encourage the personnel to leave or stay at a specific organization. However, the compensation benefits plans may be either traditional or flexible.
The flexible subsidy policies are believed to lay spell on the customary benefit strategies. Interestingly, the flexible benefit plans may not be as moral as they sound. In essence, flexible policies may be referred to as the plans of smorgasbord, superstore, or restaurant.
Despite the fact that flexible benefit procedures emanate from different scopes and characters, the customary subsidy plans convey exclusive benefits and characteristics.
However, not all business dealers or dealings are entitled to these benefit schemes. The traditionally distinct benefit plans suit business proprietors yearning to donate approximately fifty one to fifty six thousand dollars.
Similarly, organizations having appropriate and reliable revenue patterns and subsidized compensation to the employees at any rate not less than five percent (5%) are liable (Martocchio, 2011). The associates who are eager to escalate delays of tax and have more than 40 years of age are entitled to the traditionally defined benefit plans.
On the contrary, flexible benefits policy originates where an employee is capable of developing his/her overall benefits and wages (compensation mix) within the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, both the flexible and traditional benefits plans possess a number of pros and corns under commerce. This paper thus highlights the pros and corns of the comprehensive traditional benefits and the flexible benefits plans.
The pros and cons of traditional benefits and flexible benefit plans In any organization, a significant contributing factor to the employee satisfaction is reimbursement. Unluckily, the contemporary benefits policies when compared to the customary plans prove to be adverse with respect to worker’s sovereignty. As an alternative, concern has been put to the employees’ uniqueness in regard to their compensation.
A number of guidelines are also instituted to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency in managing payroll (Galinsky, Bond
After the 2007-2010 Financial Crisis: Across the Chaos and Destruction to the Universal Order Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: The European Policy
2007-2010: The Financial Crisis
Concerning the Main Issues: Count the Losses
Conclusion: Dwelling on the Issues
Introduction: The European Policy There can be no possible doubt that the crisis of the 2007-2010 has brought the most devastating changes to the world economics, changing the life of all countries across the world. Induced by the political inconsistencies and the lack of efficient strategies that could provide an efficient integration into the Eurozone, the crisis was actually the result of the unreasonable actions undertaken by the political leaders of the countries involved. Because of the half-baked decisions concerning the integration in the Eurozone had been taken, the Great Britain had to sign the agreement with Brussels concerning the further economical steps, which is likely to drive to the most unpredictable changes in the stability of England economics (Russo and Katzel).
2007-2010: The Financial Crisis Because of the shift in the world politics, economics and the financial policies, certain problems have been revealed, which questioned the reasonability of the world integration. Like any other major change in the world policy, the globalization process dragged certain negative effects, among which the split between the countries is the most essential one. As Charlemagne explained,
In an effort to stabilise the euro zone, France, Germany and 21 other countries have decided to draft their own treaty to impose more central control over national budgets. Britain and three others have decided to stay out. (Charlemagne)
Hence, the split between Germany, France and Britain can be observed. Obviously, Britain is likely to suffer considerable changes. Moreover, Britain may even be under the threat of isolation. Comprised with the losses that the country takes as a result of the financial crisis, the aftermath of 2007-2010 is rather deplorable for the country. On the other hand, Britain will avoid the instability that the creation of the Eurozone will induce on the countries involved, which balances the aftereffects of the crisis for the United Kingdom.
Concerning the Main Issues: Count the Losses Judging by the results of the crisis that took over Europe in 2007-2010, one must claim that Europe has to reconsider its ideas about the globalization process. Despite the initial inspiration and delight concerning the world integration, numerous countries are starting to express concerns about the ways in which the integration process can possibly backfire.
According to what Nicolas Sarcozy said, the integration process is doomed, at least from the economical viewpoint: “The bigger Europe is, the less integrated it can be. That is an obvious truth.” (Charlemagne). Hence, it can be considered that, because of the crisis, the entire globalization process is under considerable threat.
Conclusion: Dwelling on the Issues Therefore, it cannot be doubted that, due to the crisis that gripped the world in 2007-2010, Britain is most likely to break its long-lasting relationships with France and the rest of Europe, which is highly undesirable and is likely to lead to the most deplorable effects on the economics of both countries, as well as the global economics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the concern about the single currency that is growing increasingly high at present, can possibly resolve in the unwillingness to maintain the stability of euro, which will put at stake the entire idea of the global integration.
Hence, the Great Britain should develop the strategy that would allow it to conduct its own economical and financial policy which does not conflict with the one of the Eurozone. With the help of the given compromise, the Great Britain will be able to participate in the world economical affairs, which the rest of the European countries will also benefit from, and keep trustful relationships with France.
Works Cited Russo, Thomas A. and Aaron J. Katzel. The 2008 Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath: Addressing the Next debt Challenge. Washington, DC: Group of Thirty. 2011. Print.
Charlemagne. “Europe’s Great Divorce.” The Economist, 9 December 2011. Web. .
Harlem Renaissance Poets Essay essay help online
Claude McKay’s poem, “If we Must Die” talks about tensions between African Americans and Whites and paints a gloomy outlook about the future of race relations in the U.S. The poet is incensed by the restrictions that make it difficult for African Americans to live free, in a country that they call home.
It must be noted that this poem had a special role to play in the Harlem Renaissance because it encouraged African Americans to fight against incidents of injustice and oppression.
The poem typecasts the author as a champion for equality and human dignity, who is not willing to stand by and watch his people getting persecuted (Sayre, 2012, p. 1174).
McKay adopts an angry tone in the poem to show his frustrations concerning constant harassments of black people by Caucasian lynch mobs in different parts of the country.
Langston Hughes’ poem, “The Weary Blues”, talks about how blues music helps black people reconnect with their heritage. The persona adopts a melancholic tone yet the power of blues makes him forget about his problems in a short while to help him convey inner feelings about his existence.
The musician described in the poem is a representation of all black people in general that struggle with a conflicted sense of identity, in a strange land they are supposed to call home. The poet describes how the musician sways to the rhythm of the blues and the emotional uplifting he gets out of the experience (Sayre, 2012, p. 1208).
Through the musician, the feelings and experiences of all black people are revealed. The persona and descriptions used in the poem epitomize the Harlem renaissance era, when blacks were free to express their artistic abilities without restraint in a hostile social environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McKay talks about hopelessness, violence and retributive justice in his poem. The element of double consciousness comes out when he insists that the black man’s will to survive will always prevail against any form of oppression.
His poem connects the past and present by asking African Americans to use any means to fight against their oppressors to ensure they gain a high level of respect which they deserve.
Additionally, McKay’s poem has dark imagery and speaks about blows, open graves and shedding blood (Sayre, 2012, p. 1174). These elements are symbolic of the struggles African Americans have faced from the days of slavery and how these struggles have shaped their destiny.
The poet seems to be resigned to the fact that African Americans must be willing to make sacrifices to earn the respect and dignity they deserve in the country. The omniscient narration in the poem has an aggressive tone which shows that African Americans are willing to settle scores to safeguard their racial pride.
Hughes consciousness’ is inspired by a strong cultural heritage and inbuilt strength; attributes that define African Americans’ existence in the U.S. He uses a somber mood in his poem to describe the seriousness of his themes and their relevance to ordinary people’s lives.
In a way, the poem seems to be communicating a message of self- appreciation to all African American people living in the country encouraging them not to despair.
His poem seems to be calling upon African Americans not to dwell too much on the past but to focus on having a better future in a country where they are still treated as inferior beings (Miller, 1989, p. 69).
We will write a custom Essay on Harlem Renaissance Poets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hughes calls upon black people to take time and reflect about what they ought to do to overcome different forms of oppression they are subjected to (Duplessis, 2001, p. 118).
McKay’s poem portrays themes of self –belief, valor, suffering and indignity. The title, “If We Must Die”, is a symbolic clarion call to all African Americans to be ready to shed blood to safeguard their pride and dignity.
He insists that collectively, they will remain defiant to their tormentors and they will use all their efforts to fight them, regardless of the consequences. The combative and aggressive tone used in the poem serves as a collective voice telling all African Americans to do more to protect themselves from white lynch mobs (Maxwell, 1999, p. 53).
Elements of pride and dignity are worth protecting and McKay insists that it is better for a person to die a hero than to live a miserable life. He adopts a defiant persona by claiming that all African American men need to show their masculinity by retaliating against their attackers to show that they are proud.
In the end, McKay comes out as a crusader for retributive justice and warns perpetrators that their actions will no longer be condoned.
The illustrations used in the poem demonstrate themes of resilience, tranquility and communal identity and strong cultural attachments. Hughes uses the poem to express black sorrow in the wake of strong discriminative practices that subjugate African Americans.
The blues offer resilience to African Americans encouraging them to forge ahead and make something positive out of their existence. Hughes’ description about the black singer’s hands pressing white keys of the piano, exemplifies the struggle African Americans have to endure, before they are accepted by the mainstream white society.
Moreover, singers and listeners alike are able to forget about their tribulations momentarily, because the rhythm is able to provoke their inner emotional sentiments (Gabbins, 1999, p. 115).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Harlem Renaissance Poets by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The blues is a representation of the collective black soul because it continues to echo in the musician’s head even after he has gone to sleep. Therefore, the suggestive message brought out by the powerful lyrics of the blues makes the singer appreciate his heritage and all it represents.
Poem: There was a Time Stanza One
The Harlem Renaissance was a time,
When black artists were conscious and their ideas flowed freely,
Provoking minds of men and women, suffering from similar fates,
Yet, amidst all this doom and gloom, they stood out from the rest,
And they overcame their fears, limitations and hopelessness,
By writing and narrating powerful words, that nourished and uplifted the soul.
One acted as a crusader, beseeching all black men and women,
To regain their dignity, pride, self-respect and honor,
That had been taken away from them by their oppressors,
By fighting back viciously against the oppressor,
Because that was the perfect time for retribution and heroism,
That would redefine racial relations and attitudes in the country.
Another one, encouraged African Americans,
To look back at their heritage with pride and nostalgia,
And reminisce about both the good and the bad times,
To reflect about their purpose and true destiny,
To improve their attitudes about their own existence,
By listening to the soft and evocative rhythms of the blues.
References Duplessis, R.B. (2001). Genders, races, and religious cultures in modern American poetry, 1908-1934. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gabbins, J.V. (1999).The furious flowering of African American poetry. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
Maxwell, W.J. (1999). New Negro, Old Left. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Miller, R.B. (1989). The art and language of Langston Hughes. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.
Sayre, H. M. (2012).The humanities: culture, continuity and change. New York, NY: Pearson.
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Major challenges Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) encountered many challenges as it developed the Delhi Metro. About 6 people were reported to have died, and 15 to have sustained serious injuries following the collapse of the transit under construction.
This was one of the accidents that negatively impacted the organization in its endeavor to complete the project awarded by the government. The accidents were caused by failure of the contractor to address technical issues affecting the construction of the bridge.
The corporation also faced the challenge of public criticism due to its low quality public works. The media cited that the business organization was negligent and could not meet construction deadlines.
DMRC was encountering growing bureaucratic pressure from the government that aimed to fire the DMRC engineering specialists who managed the construction of the Delhi Metro.
The organization was not covered by law, and it did not have land for expansion during implementation of the project. In addition, the firm faced the problem of shortage of experienced engineers who could steer the completion of the remaining part of the bridge before Commonwealth Games started.
Strategies used to address the challenges The challenges faced by the organization required it to formulate tested strategies in order to complete the project and rebuild its corporate image. First, the corporation realized that it would benefit from the services of general consultants who would ensure that the project at hand would adhere to international, technical and professional standards.
DMRC invited tenders from general consultants. Highest bidders with sound technical and financial resources were selected. To deal with the issue of non-standard materials, the corporation adopted a broad gauge that could allow better speed and safety.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The idea was also supported by the Ministry of Railways. DMRC was previously operating without legal cover for the project. This exposed it to many types of litigation from different people and/or organizations.
Later, the management approached the Prime Minister of India to seek important legislation to guide the construction of the bridge. DMRC also requested to be exempted from tax on important imported materials that were used in the project.
In addition, the firm took an initiative to take land from persons near the construction site and compensated them. Through the initiative, it obtained land for expansion.
The factor (phase I) Corporate culture is the factor that enabled the firm to successfully complete phase I of the project. Culture is a crucial factor in all organizations because it shapes the way people behave within and outside the workplace. Sound corporate culture positively correlates with improved performances of companies.
It is documented that all employees of DMRC worked without delays to avoid a loss of about 0.3 million dollars for each day of delay. Therefore, the personnel worked within the time set and cost. In fact, it is presented in the study case that this was a way of life for the staff.
The leader, Dr. Sreedharan, spent about half an hour to explain to every new hire what would be expected of him or her. The sound culture of the firm helped its personnel to work honestly and without being corrupt. The firm was involved in many contracts, which were not characterized by any form of corruption.
The corporate culture of DMRC ensured that professional competence was valued within the firm. It engaged the services of general consultants to lead the completion of the first phase of the project.
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Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help
Introduction It is normally the duty of most governments of states to finance almost all sectors of their economies such as health, sport, and education just to mention a few. However, there are international and local organizations that come in to help the government ensure that the society acquires all the essential needs.
Most of these organizations are not for the aim of profit making but for the help of the society. One such organization is UNESCO, which stands for United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
This organization seeks to ensure the sustainability of security and peace in the society through the provision of education and other important agents of success such as science and culture. There are about 197 member states of UNESCO throughout the globe together with eight Associate members. As such, regional offices of UNESCO are distributed in various parts of the world.
UNESCO has several objectives, with the main ones including poverty eradication, promotion of education, peace enhancement, and intercultural dialogue among others (UNESCO 1). In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, UNESCO has put in place programs that initiate their attainment.
The programs include communication and information, education, culture, social, and human sciences, and natural sciences. In addition to this, UNESCO has initiated projects as well as sponsored them in a bid to ensure that its goals as an organization are obtained. Some of the UNESCO sponsored projects include “the promotion of cultural diversity; technical, literacy, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects” ( UNESCO).
Having looked at a summary of the functions and objectives of UNESCO, the rest of the paper will analyze the application of consumer behavior literature and theories on this organization. Later on in the paper, the specific application of this theory on UNESCO will be discussed, as well as, how UNESCO as an organization attempts to influence its clientele.
Analysis The consumer behavior literature and theories of learning and memory
All organizations (both the profit and the non-profit oriented) have ways through which they encourage the society learn of what they do. In order to succeed in this, all organizations are entitled to be aware of consumer behavior literature, as well as the theories of learning and memory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Using these strategies organizations are able improve their marketing skills therefore, reaching a wide scope of consumers. According to the consumer behavior literature and the theories of learning and memory, organizations play with the psychology of the consumers hence making them like and prefer their services and/or goods to those of other organizations offering the same (Westbrook and Oliver 84).
Secondly, the organizations will be able to adopt strategies that put the consumers in the first position. For instance, the organization should ensure that the messages they convey through advertisements will be able to woe the consumers and make them potential customers.
Concisely, consumer behavior could be described as those qualities that potential consumers look for in a product or service before making the buy decision (Alba, Hutchinson, and Lynch). This behavior differs from individual to individual. As such, organizations have to make effective decisions during advertising to reach a wider scope of the society as its consumers.
As for the case of UNESCO, it ought to understand the scope of its consumers before implementing any marketing strategy. For one, UNESCO has several objectives, which are all driven towards a larger part of the society. Therefore, to ensure that the society is well receptive of their functions, projects, and aid, UNESCO as an organization has to apply the marketing strategy of consumer behavior literature and theories of learning and memory.
In doing this, the organization will attain the trust of the people in the society as they will be able to see the good work UNESCO is doing. First, UNESCO should ensure that its objectives are well defined such that the people in the society clearly understand its functions.
For example, when implementing one of the UNESCO projects mentioned earlier in the paper, the organization ought to describe in a clear manner the procedures and the aims of the objectives. This will not only help in gaining the cooperation of the people in the society, but will also ensure easier attainability of the objectives.
Application of the theory
As discussed in the previous section, the application of the consumer behavior and learning memory theory is through the objectives of the organization, in this case UNESCO. One of the main application methods is through proper marketing strategy, whereby the organization ensures proper and effective advertising of the functions and objectives of the organization to the society (Hawkins, Best, and Coney).
We will write a custom Assessment on Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can be through marketing campaigns that are widespread to reach a wide scope of consumers (Alba, Hutchinson, and Lynch). For instance, UNESCO could facilitate marketing campaigns especially to regions and nations that are not member countries to drive them to becoming members. If this is effectively managed, UNESCO will be a global organization and thus, its objectives of poverty eradication, as well as the others will be achieved globally.
Another way through which this theory could be applied is through social marketing (Hawkins, Best, and Coney). In this, the organization ensures that the consumers get the idea of the organizations’ products and services before they are sold to them. This way, consumers are able to make realistic decisions thus making them gain the trust of the marketing organization (Oliver 465).
UNESCO could apply this strategy, for instance, issuing of proposals of the projects they would like to develop in certain regions. This gives the society the chance to determine the genuineness and capability of the organization before having them start projects in their regions and then they fail in future.
Public policy is another way of applying the consumer behavior and theories of learning and memory (Hawkins, Best, and Coney). Given the publicity that UNESCO has gained through its service to the society as well as through collaboration with other non-profit making organizations such as UNDP, it has been able to apply effectively this policy. It is true to say that only a small percentage of the world’s population have no information concerning UNESCO.
Even those who do not know of its objectives and mission are aware of its existence. As such, convincing people is not a hurdle for UNESCO as an organization. From this, it can be said that UNESCO has a competitive advantage over other non-profit organizations in the same scope more so over the upcoming ones. This is because, most people are already aware of what it is and what it deals with hence, winning the trust of majority of the people.
In my own opinion, I would consider that these application methods are efficient if effectively implemented by UNESCO. In fact, implementing these strategies will create a greater influence of UNESCO as a non-profit organization.
Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that UNESCO is one of the important non-profit organizations in the world. Having looked at the objectives of UNESCO, it is by no doubt that this organization carries out functions that are of dare need to the people in the society. However, all the objectives revolve around poverty eradication and peace enhancement, which are the needs of every society.
In order to achieve these objectives in an effective manner, UNESCO just like other organizations has to ensure that its marketing strategies are efficient. From the analysis, it was noted that a clear understanding of consumer behavior literature, learning and memory theories are essential for the success of UNESCO.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer Behavior-Individual analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The various ways through which these theories could be applied were also listed in the analysis section as being market strategy, social marketing, and public policy (Oliver 465). If all the aforementioned application techniques are efficiently applied on UNESCO, it is true to say that it will lead to its success.
In addition to this, the plan of consumer strategy for UNESCO is certainly not a big issue for the organization given the great influence and publicity that it has all over the world. It can thus be concluded that, only a little enhancement is required on the marketing strategy of UNESCO in order to ensure the win of more members from all regions of the world.
Works Cited Alba Joseph, Hutchinson Wesley, and Lynch John. Memory and Decision Making. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991. Print.
Hawkins Del, Best Roger, and Coney Kenneth. Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 7th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1998. Print.
Oliver, Richard. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.” Journal of Marketing Research 17.4 (1980): 460-469. Print.
UNESCO. “Living and Learning for a Viable Future: The Power of Adult Learning.” CONFINTEA VI. 1995. Web.
Westbrook Robert and Oliver Richard. “The dimensionality of consumption emotion pattern and consumer satisfaction.” Journal of Consumer Research 18.1 (1991): 84-91. Print.