Stakeholders and their interests on the organization Walmart is one of the firms that have the largest number of employees in the world. The organization is said to have approximately 2.1 million employees across all its branches worldwide. Walmart has established operations in about 14 countries. This means that the company has a relatively large number of stakeholders. The stakeholders include the top management, employees, customers, as well as shareholders.
Walmart has about 176 million customers who shop in their retail outlets worldwide (Hayden et al. 2002). Each of the organization’s stakeholders has their interests and claims in the organization. The top executives who include the CEO, the chairman and the Board of Directors, as well as the other senior officers are interested in coming up with correct strategies and decisions that will help the organization gain competitive advantage.
As a result, their scope of job focuses on long term organizational strategies and decisions. The Board of Directors, which is elected by the shareholders, is supposed to act in the interest of the organization’s owners (shareholders). The major interest of the shareholders is to maximize their wealth (Jones, 2010).
The other interest for Walmart stakeholders is to ensure that the organization has a good reputation in the society. This can be achieved through corporate social responsibility. Having a good reputation is important for the organization since it has the ability to attract more customers as well as other personnel, and ensure organizational success.
Customers claim to get the best services from the organization at a relatively low price. On the other hand, employees would want to be treated in the right way and have a good working environment, as well as get good remuneration for their services (Hayden et al. 2002).
Stakeholder’s authority and responsibilities to the organization The main responsibility for Walmart managers and employees is to make decisions. Decision making involves deciding what is right or wrong for the organization. Stakeholders decide on ways through which organizational performance can be improved. It is important to ensure that the right decisions are always made. In addition, ways through which decisions are made should be improved constantly.
This will go a long way in ensuring that managers and employees of the organization learn new ways of performing their duties. It is imperative to note that the current business environment is constantly changing, owing to advancing technology. At Walmart, the authority and responsibility to make decisions mostly rests in the hands of managers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, employees can also be involved in the process (Jones, 2010). The other major responsibility of the stakeholders at Walmart is to innovate and ensure creativity within the organization. Innovation and organizational change go hand in hand. Innovation is one of the most effective ways to ensure change in the organization.
The organization will change from the traditional ways of doing business to modern ways that can help it gain competitive advantage in the current business environment. Employees and managers are responsible for organizational change, as well as innovation (Jones, 2010). It is the managers who are expected to stir up organizational change.
Managers communicate the same to the employees using the right channels, then to the rest of the stakeholders who include customers and shareholders. On the other hand, creativity is the responsibility of all the stakeholders. Creativity will enable the organization to improve on the quality of its services and products, and gain a competitive edge.
References Hayden, P., Lee, S., McMahon, K.,
Outsourcing and In-sourcing IT Service Component Research Paper online essay help
Introduction The Emirates Airways is the leading airline company in the entire Middle East region. This firm was started on October 25, 1985 by the government of United Arab Emirates. The government was keen on transforming this country into a business hub, and a tourist’s destination. The government had improved the infrastructure of the country and the city of Dubai was first turning into a global business hub.
The government was therefore concerned that there was no national airline that would travel from this city directly to other parts of the world (Sandhusen, 2008). The leadership of this country decided to start this company to take care of the national interests. The government therefore, funded this firm and offered it an enabling environment to prosper in this industry.
The Emirates Airways has made a lot of effort to ensure that it meets the expectation of the government and that of the customers. With the increasing market competition, the management of this firm realized that the only way it could prosper in this market would be through coming up with ways through which it could emerge as the preferred firm.
The management therefore, developed various strategies that would meet the expectations of customers. In its quest to attract customers, the firm became the first airline to install entertainment facilities in all its planes in the entire Middle East region (Liew, 2009). Most of these technical activities were initially outsourced.
However, the firm changed this strategy to in-sourcing after the realization that it had the capacity to build its own workforce. This has seen the firm become the leading airline in this region, and the fourth in the entire world.
Specific Business Unit and Component to be outsourced In every project, there must be a clear schedule that should be followed to ensure that it achieves its objectives. Emirates Airline was concerned of the state of the IT within the firm. Some of the delays were experienced in the process of booking, and there was need to improve the system in order to enhance efficiency of the firm.
The management therefore, developed a project that would ensure that it improves its internal communication and the inter-departmental connectivity within the firm (Lamb, 2012). This was the reason why the management decided to outsource external labor to work on this project as it was apparent that the available labor force lacked the capacity to perform this activity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the firm acted prudently by making their employees work alongside the hired technicians. The firm soon developed a workforce with the capacity to handle this activity. This allowed it to revert to in-sourcing of the activities internally. The Gantt chart below specifies the activities that were carried out in this project
Time: 2012 January February March April Project Activity: Improving IT of the Firm Project Planning Project proposal development (Outsourcing) Project proposal approval Selecting an appropriate external workforce to undertake the project Implementation and Internal Learning Detailing requirements of the components of IT to be improved within the firm. Development of prototype by the outsourced firm. Approval of the prototype by the top management of Emirates Airline. Development of a version by the outsourced firm Test the version by both the outsourced firm and employees of Emirates Airline in the It department. Apply the correction on the version Approve and implement the final version In-sourcing Train all the users Using the internal workforce to improve this project. The above Gantt chart demonstrates all the activities that were accomplished within a specified duration. The firm started out by outsourcing the services, and when its workforce had developed understanding of the facts, the firm then tasked its employees with the duty to improve the project.
An Overview of the Business and Business Model Emirates Airways is currently the leading airline in the Middle East. The firm has its headquarters in Dubai, at Dubai International Airport. This firm operates in to four largest destinations across the world. The firm operates in more than 100 destinations in 74 countries. The company has managed to overcome stiff competition that is in the current market.
According to Charantimath (2007), the airline industry is very competitive. This scholar notes that this competition has been rising in the past decade with the entry of new airlines into the industry. It becomes a big challenge for a firm to operate in such a competitive market if it lacks proper competitive strategies. This scholar notes that the aviation industry has been consistently on the rise in the past one decade.
The emerging technologies have brought in a lot of changes in this industry, and firms are forced to adjust their operations in order to meet the market demands. The emerging trends in the aviation industry cannot be ignored. It would force a firm to embrace these changes in order to realize the benefits that this industry has to offer. This is what the management of Emirate Airline has been keen on.
This firm has received enough financial support from the government to enable it manage the emerging trends in the aviation sector. Some of the technological inventions always demand that the firm gets experts to handle various aspects of technology. It sometimes forces the firm to look for this expertise outside the firm. Effective marketing has seen this firm become the largest airline in this region.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Outsourcing and In-sourcing IT Service Component specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Bissoondoyal (2006), marketing has changed from what it used to be in the past. Marketing was considered as part of production about 50 years ago. By then, competition was low, and the main concern was to increase production of the firm. The market was readily available in the global world. However, this has systematically changed over the years.
Firms have come to realize that customers have various options to choose from when they want to make a purchase. Given such independence of the customers, firms have come to realize that they have to come up with strategies that would enable them attract customers. This has resulted in a scenario where every firm is struggling to come up with appealing strategies through which they can capture the attention of the customers.
This competition is very stiff in the aviation industry. Such leading airlines like the British Airways, the Virgin Atlantic, Air France among others; the Emirates Airways is forced to come up with a strategy that would enable it capture the market in the best way possible. IT plays a central role in enhancing success of the firm in the market.
Service Components Outsourced As stated above, the aviation sector is very competitive. Firms have come to embrace technology as a way of managing this competition. The top management of Emirates Airline was concerned of the time that it takes to process details of customers while booking a flight with the firm. Other major airlines like the British Airways and even Qatar Airways had developed mechanisms that allowed them to reach out for the customers easily.
They had improved their system in a way that their customers could easily book for the plane through online means. These IT leaders of this firm appreciated the fact that its workforce had no capacity to develop a system that will enhance communication between the firm and the customers, and even within itself (Hartman, 2002). The system that was in existence was weak and could not be relied upon to deliver the expected results.
The management of this firm therefore had to outsource external skills in order to improve the IT department of the firm. The management of this firm hired expects to help improve the system to enhance booking of the plane online. The system was developed to allow all the booking offices to have instant communication amongst themselves and with the customers. The management decided to improve the internal workforce in the process of developing this system.
The Rationale for Outsourcing Outsourcing is one of the new trends in the current world. Initially, a firm would be involved in all the activities within the firm. The management would determine all the activities that should be undertaken within the firm. The management would then assign the activities to various departments within the firm to accomplish. This was working well in those olden days, especially after the Second World War.
Firms did not have to struggle looking for the market. The global market was very large, but firms that were doing mass production for various products were very few. There was therefore no serious competition in the market (Handlechner, 2008). The main focus of most firms was to increase their production capacity because of the readily available market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Outsourcing and In-sourcing IT Service Component by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this was changing as the world was getting globalized. Various firms were coming into existence from various corners around the world. With the emerging technologies, the world was fast turning into a global village. Many countries also considered opening up their markets for foreign firms. This brought about serious competition as firms had to convince the market that their products are the best.
Outsourcing was first witnessed in the aviation industry. This industry still remains the leading outsourcing industry in the world. The airlines in many countries across the world realized that most of their employees did not have the capacity to offer quality service to the planes for maintenance purposes. These airline firms struggled to look for employees with the capacity to take care of the maintenance of the planes.
The process of looking for such experienced individuals was not only costly, but also very tiresome. It would take a lot f time getting an individual with enough knowledge in this area, and retaining them within the firm was another problem. This condition was worsened by the fact that such tasks would require a number of individuals to work as a team. The following are some of the justifications of outsourcing by Emirates Airline.
Increasing of the Operations Efficiency Outsourcing is one of the best ways of increasing operations efficiency. It is common to have cases where a firm lacks proper expertise to undertake certain activities. This is very common when dealing with the emerging technologies. It may take a very long time for a firm to train its employees on certain activities within the industry (Gerber, 2008).
Outsourcing therefore comes out strongly as the best strategy that allows the firm to operate with the highest efficiency level even if it lacks expertise in some fields. Employees who have knowledge and experience will be retained in their departments to increase their efficiency. Those tasks that the firm lacks proper expertise will be assigned to other firms with enough capacity to deliver good results. This way, the operations of the firm will be very efficient.
Increasing Time to Focus in Other Core Activities According to Ferrell (2011), it is always a strenuous and time consuming process trying to undertake a task that one has limited knowledge in. Such an individual will be performing two tasks at a time. The first task will be learning how to perform the task, while purporting to perform the task.
This takes a lot of time that would have been used to undertake other activities. When such activities are outsourced, it allows the firm more time to focus on activities that it can perform best. This way, the management, and the employees will be left with ample time to focus on other core activities of the firm.
Improving Management of Information Information is one of the key components of a firm that always dictates success or failure in the market. A firm that is able to develop an information flow has the capacity to succeed, unlike another with disrupted information strategy. Information management is always very important.
Outsourcing enhances information flow. When a firm outsources another firm, it would mean that the firm will have a reduced number of employees. Coordinating the reduced number of employees is much easier. The management will use the leadership of the outsourced firm to ensure that its employees work within its expectations.
Reduced Cost of Operations Firms are currently fighting to reduce costs of operations. Customers are demanding more for a lesser cost. The suppliers are demanding more money for lesser suppliers they deliver, citing increased cost of operations. Emirates Airline is pressed between these two forces.
It has to find a way of meeting the needs of the two forces. Outsourcing offers firms this opportunity. When a firm outsources another to perform certain tasks, this would mean that the firm will not need to hire individuals in these departments. This reduces the cost of labor for the firm.
Reduced Risks The process of outsourcing reduces the risks of errors in performing certain activities. This is very common in the aviation industry. When these tasks are assigned to experienced individuals, chances that the activity will be done in a faulty way are minimized. This reduces risks that would be met if the activities were done by inexperienced employees within the firm.
Quick Implementation of New Technologies The emerging technologies are very important in the modern world. It is important that the management of Emirates Airline ensures that it has the capacity to manage the emerging technologies. Outsourcing other firms in various departments within the organization helps in quickening the implementation of new technologies.
To implement new technologies as quick as may be desired, there is always need to ensure that there are individuals who have an understanding of such technologies (Evans, 2012). The management f this firm will only need to go for a firm with experience and knowledge of the new technologies. Outsourcing their services will enable the outsourcing firm to implement new technologies at a faster rate.
Compliance to Security In most of the industries, there are some rules and regulations set by relevant authorities to protect the public. In the aviation sector, there are safety and security rules set up by various aviation bodies. The same case applies to various other departments.
Some sensitive industries like the aviation industry would require individuals with a deep understanding of the requirements put forth by the regulators. When a firm outsources such sensitive tasks to other firms, it makes it easy for the firm to comply with the security and safety rules. This would eliminate any possible cases of litigation.
Staffing Flexibility One of the biggest tasks that human resource department and the IT unit have to handle is the flexibility of the staff. The staff of any given organization must be flexible. It must be able to approach the emerging trends in the market and be able to come out successful. However, this is not very easy because of specialization that comes with division of labor.
When an individual is assigned a specific task, it would be difficult to make them perform other activities that are different from their current tasks. However, there must be flexibility of the workforce to enable the firm withstand the emerging trends. Outsourcing is the best way to enhance staff flexibility.
A firm will only need to hire individuals with understanding of the emerging trends as and when needed. Employees will be given time to develop understanding of these new trends and master them, before they can start performing such tasks.
Development of the Internal Staff It is import to develop the internal workforce. Development of the staff can come in various approaches. One of the most common ways of developing the workforce is through in-service learning. In this strategy, employees’ capacity is improved while they are at work. Outsourcing is very vital in this strategy. The management will outsource a firm with the desired skills in a particular sector.
The management will then select the workforce that should learn the desired strategy and assign them to work alongside the outsourced firms. The employees would be expected to learn how to handle certain tasks by getting involved in doing them (Ferrell, 2011). The outsourced firm will not only be helping the firm in performing that particular activity, but also in teaching and developing the local staff.
The firm will therefore develop a strong workforce that has the capacity to handle various activities within the firm. The above are factors that made the firm consider outsourcing the services of external workforce in improving the communication system of the firm.
The Decision Makers in Outsourcing The decision of outsourcing some activities within the firm is always an involving activity. It is always important that various senior management officials get to agree on some of the factors to be considered when outsourcing. When Emirates Airline made the decision of outsourcing the services of external workforce in the IT department, the recommendation came from the head of the IT department.
Following complains that were received by customer care unit from the customers over the inefficiency of the firm, the management instructed this department to adjust the system to reflect on the emerging trends in the market. The IT department admitted that it lacked the capacity to improve the system to the levels that were expected. The department recommended hiring firms that had the capacity to improve the system to the world’s standards.
The IT management team played a major role in bridging the communication gaps between top executive. The executives had to be convinced that the firm lacked the capacity to undertake these duties by itself. The IT head therefore, had a huge responsibility of ensuring that all the officials who were responsible for giving a node to the project were convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that the best way was to outsource these services.
The Decision to In-source the Activities and Role of IT leaders in improving communication and rapport
The management of Emirates Airline was keen on ensuring that the contract for the activities lasted for about three months. The above Gantt chart clearly demonstrates this. The reason why the management was forced to outsource for these activities was due to lack of a proper expertise internally. One of the terms of the contract was that internal workforce would be working alongside the outsource workers.
It was therefore a decision of the top management that after some time, the internal workforce would assume the activities that were carried out by the outsourced labor. The internal workforce therefore, took the responsibility of maintaining the system on the run, and making improvements whenever this was necessary. The IT department has fully resumed all the activities that involve communication and coordinating information within the firm and also with customers.
Booking is now mostly done online, and customers have registered satisfaction with the services they receive from the firm. The process of moving from outsourced services to in-sourced services did not raise a lot of concern. This was because the IT department had stated initially that they only needed support from the external firm on how to adjust the system to reflect on the emerging trend.
It was agreed that the outsourced firm would only take about two and a half month, after which their contract with the airline would expire. It was therefore, not a big challenge for the IT leaders to inform other members of the department that they had decided to use the internal workforce to carry on with the activities that remained.
The Current Status of the Firm
Emirates Airline current status can be analyzed from various fronts. The move by the firm to outsource the IT services only to change the decision later on has had a number of benefits to the firm. The current status of the firm can be analyzed from a number of fronts. The following is an analysis of the current status of the firm from a number of fronts.
The Current Marketing Strategies of Emirates Airline
The move by the firm to outsource the IT services has had a massive impact on the firm’s marketing strategies. The team formulated a strategy that involved technological advancement in various departments. The firm then moved to the implementation strategy before coming up with evaluation and control procedures.
Emirates Airlines is one of the current success stories in a group of companies that have managed to be successful in the face of increasingly competitive environment. This is attributed to its strategies that have helped it manage the competition in the aviation industry. The world is getting transformed with the emerging technologies. One of the defining technologies that are transforming the world into a global village is the communication technology.
The phones and the internet have made communication very easy. The firm has made it possible for the customers to make bookings through internet irrespective of their location. This has seen this firm expand its operations to regions beyond this country. As such, this has seen this firm expand its customer base and the number of routes it takes.
The strategies are very important because in such a market, any misstep by a firm may lead to automatic fall of the firm and therefore, every step must be calculated very keenly. According to Hartman (2002), the current world market is very competitive. This scholar notes that this competition is not only created by the fact that there are several firms producing the same product, but also the fact that customers are informed.
The current customers are very knowledgeable and know exactly what they want. They have the knowledge of where to get that which they need and at what price. They know the alternatives that are available and this makes them more demanding. As such, turning these individuals into loyal customers of a firm is not easy. It forces a firm to develop a strategy that would enable it remain relevant in the market
The Current International Marketing Campaigns used by Emirates Airlines around the World
In the current market, customers are very demanding. This firm is constantly under pressure to perform exceedingly well in order to manage the competition in the market. It faces a lot of pressure from the suppliers. The jet fuel is constantly on the rise. The airline firm has to otherwise but to pay the increased price of fuel. The cost of maintenance is also high.
This increases the cost of delivering products to the customer. The firm also needs to improve on the quality of the products in order to ensure that they outmuscle other competitors. When the product is delivered to the customers, the customer will demand reduced prices simply because they have other alternatives. This would force the firm to find a way of generating profits in such a harsh environment.
The outsourced services helped a great deal in overcoming this challenge. The Emirates Airways has come to realize that it has to develop means through which it can develop promotional campaigns for its products in the global market. The Emirates Airways has developed a brand in the local market, and the entire region of Middle East.
The region appreciates the fact that this company offers the best travel services in the region. However, there is a very strong competition from another regional airline, the Qatar Airways, which is posing threat to this firm. It forces the firm to come up with strategies which can enable it attract the customers in the region. Regionally, this firm has positioned itself as a company that takes care of comfort, safety and security of the passengers.
One of the leading concerns of most passengers is the comfort of the plane. This is because the distance is always very long. This would require some comfort for the passengers in order to reduce fatigue. The passengers are also concerned with their security once on air. This is because of the rising insecurity in most cities. Terrorist attack on the airplanes has become very common in the current globalized world.
Passengers want reassurance that they will be safe when they embark on such journeys. This market proposition has seen it win trust of the local market. This firm has also made concerted effort to attract travelers of other nations. In order to reach out for the customers, this firm has tried to use both the social media and mass media to communicate their message to the customers.
The firm made the decision to use social media marketing after the management decided to outsource the IT services. Locally, the firm has actively engaged in promotional campaigns in the mass media. It has developed television commercials that help it reach the local market. The social media has been very vital in reaching out for the international community.
The YouTube has helped this firm in airing its television commercials to the international community. The Facebook and Tweeter have also been very vital in communicating to the customers in the international market. When the firm decided to stop outsourcing the services, the internal workforce has been able to manage this strategy.
The Impact of the Decision Stop Outsourcing IT Services When the management decided to stop outsourcing the IT services, it was a little challenging for the employees of Emirates Airline to run the system on their own. They did not find it easy to take full control of the new system especially because of technicalities involved. The top management did not have issues with this change of approach because they were informed before the project was started.
The head of IT department had a little challenge filling the gap which was left by the technical team that was hired to improve the system. The head of this unit had to convince the employees in this department that they had the capacity to handle this project on their own. The employees in this department also had a big challenge trying to adjust to this new system.
It was difficult for the employees to take control of a system where most of the bookings and paying the fare was done online. The top management also exerted a lot of pressure on this department to come up with advanced strategies that would ensure that passengers are entertained while they are on air.
The Financial Status of the Firm The decision by the firm to improve its IT system by outsourcing the services from external experts has had direct positive financial impact on the firm. There have been an increased number of bookings per day. This can be attributed to the fact that customers can now make bookings online. Online booking has made it possible for customers to book for flight irrespective of their locations. The IT department has also improved entertainment services for the customers, further attracting them to the firm.
References Bissoondoyal, U. (2006). Total quality management: a practical approach. London: New Age International.
Charantimath, C. (2007). Total quality management. New York: Pearson Education.
Evans, D. (2012). Social media marketing an hour a day. Indianapolis: Wiley.
Ferrell, C. (2011). Marketing Strategy. New York: Cengage Learning.
Gerber, K. (2008). Marketing communication. Cape Town: Pearson Education.
Handlechner, M. (2008). Marketing Strategy. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Hartman, M. (2002). Fundamental concepts of quality improvement. New York: ASQ.
Lamb, C. (2012). Marketing. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Liew, J. (2009). Employee training: a study of education and training department in various corporations. Sydney: General Books.
Sandhusen, R. (2008). Marketing. New York: Barron’s Educational Series Inc.
Description of the Research Process – The Montessori system Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
This action research began with the definition of the problem to be studied and the formulation of the research questions.
The problem statement focused on the analysis of the extent to which an authentic Montessori mathematics environment is compatible with the regular mathematics classes in order to fulfill the needs of all students.
In this regard, the research involved comparing the Montessori system with the conventional education system in order to identify the model that best suits learners’ needs.
The research was done in a privately owned Catholic school in Campbell, California. The school’s learning program promotes intellectual, emotional, and physical development of students. Thus, it provided the best setting for conducting an action research in Montessori education.
The participants were recruited from a class that consisted of 12-year-old students. They were mainly from middle and upper upper-middle class families.
Even though, most of them came from families with relatively stable financial backgrounds, nearly 5% of them depended on financial aid. Overall, fourteen students participated in the study.
Several methods were used to collect data concerning learning activities in the class. The methods include the following.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, I used the results of formative assessments to collect data concerning students’ performance. The assessment results were retrieved from mathematics worksheets and students’ homework.
Second, formal and informal observations were used to collect data. This method was used to collect data concerning students’ participation in class activities, as well as, the suitability of my instructional methods. In particular, is used videotaping to observe my performance in various lessons.
The aim of these observations was to enable me to identify the strengths and weaknesses of my instructional methods. The observations concerning students’ performance were recorded in teaching journals.
Consequently, it was possible to evaluate students’ performance and the suitability of my instructional methods.
Third, focus group discussions were used to collect data from the participants. The participants in these discussions included teachers and students. Through the focus group discussions, I was able to collect data concerning students’ knowledge, opinions, and class experiences.
Concisely, the discussions gave the opportunity to collect data concerning the instructional methods that the students were familiar with, as well as, the challenges that they faced in the process of learning. Furthermore, the discussions enabled me to obtain feedback concerning my teaching methods.
The data collection methods that have been described in the foregoing paragraph were used to collect information through learning activities that took place in the class. Verbally administered questionnaires and interviews were also used to collect data.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Description of the Research Process – The Montessori system specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concisely, the questionnaires and interviews were used in the evaluation of students’ understanding and performance in each activity. This involved asking students questions that were related to the learning activities.
The learning activities or the lessons that have been completed and from which data has been collected include the following.
The first, exercise involved evaluating the students’ knowledge and skills in mathematics. The tests focused on skills such as ability to write numbers from 0 to 9, applying, and number concepts. The evaluations were conducted through written tests and the scores are indicated in appendix A.
Having tested the students’ math skills, I proceeded to the next exercise, which involved evaluating the learners’ sensorial skills. The evaluation was done with the aid of Montessori sensorial items such as flowers. The students were expected to classify the flowers into different categories.
The assessment for this exercise was done through verbally administered questionnaires. Each questionnaire had ten questions with 10 points each. Red and blue Montessori rods were used to assess the students’ ability to apply the concept of more than and fewer than.
The students were assessed individually using 10 questions, which focused on testing their ability to compare numbers between 1 and 10. Numeral counters were used to demonstrate the concept of odd and even numbers.
The evaluation involved asking the students to place the counters under each number in order to illustrate the odd and even arrangement, as well as, to demonstrate the concept of less than or more than. Students’ scores in these activities are recorded in appendix B.
The students’ ability to apply the concept of addition and subtraction was tested using California state standard curriculum content and Montessori materials. Colorful illustrations are often used to attract students’ attention.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Description of the Research Process – The Montessori system by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though the pictures distracted students from their work, they were able to visualize math concepts after the Montessori addition and subtraction materials were presented to them. Appendix C shows the students’ performance in this assessment.
Students’ mathematical skills were also evaluated through positive sake games, the hundred board, the hundred chains, and teen board. The test strategy and questions that were used for this assignment are listed in appendix E. These assessments were done in the first and second quarter of the year.
The second phase of classifying objects involved the use of drawings, photographs, graphic organizers among others. These items usually motivate students to learn. The exercise involved a problem solving process in which the students asked themselves questions regarding the things they did and how they did them.
The students’ performance was reviewed on a weekly basis. The conclusion on these activities is that Montessori sensorial materials enable children to understand fine details.
Additional lessons included the study of fractions, money, and clock (time). The faction lesson began with an explanation of the importance of studying fractions. The students were provided with pieces of paper, which they were required to fold into half in order to understand the concept of dividing things equally.
They were also expected to identify the shapes that they created by folding the papers. Additionally, the students completed the dotted paper and shape-drawing exercises, as well as, dividing shapes equally. The evaluations were done using 10 questions with 10 marks each.
Using Montessori material involved dividing an apple into smaller parts in order to demonstrate the concept of the whole, half and quarter. I also made various shapes and divided them into equal parts.
The students were expected to explain why they thought the parts were equal or unequal. Evaluations for this assignment were based on a standard formative matrix plan and rubrics.
Using money to teach number concepts improves students’ understanding. The money lesson was meant to enable students to use their math skills to count coins. The concept of one cent was presented with the aid of red and blue number rods, as well as, number cards.
The classroom was setup as a shop so that children could practice the concept of buying. I dollar, half a dollar, and a quarter dollar were used to represent the concept of one whole, half and quarter.
In the clock lesson, the concept of one whole was used to explain the rotation of the minute hand from 12 to 12. Assessments were done using scoring rubrics. Additionally, anecdotal evidence was measured using a scale of 1 to 4.
Having completed these exercises, the next stage will involve using Montessori materials to evaluate students’ ability to apply concepts such as the decimal system, addition, subtraction, division, and geometry.
The materials that will be used to demonstrate the decimal system include introduction tray, building tray, large numerical cards, 45-tray, nine-tray, and the change game. The concept of addition will be illustrated using bank materials, stamp game materials, and bead frame.
The materials will be used to create and solve mathematical problems by the students. Subtraction exercises will also involve the use of bank materials, stamp materials, and bead frame. These materials will be used to construct subtraction problems and answers.
Multiplication exercises will be presented with the aid of bank game, multiplication board, and bead box. Bank materials will be used to illustrate multiplication operations. The concept of division, will be illustrated with the aid of bank game, division board, stamp game, bead frame and dot board.
Bank materials will help in illustrating division operations. Students will slide down their fingers until they meet the answers in the division board. Finally, geometry exercises will be demonstrated using cylinder grid, geometric solids, and cards, as well as, constructive triangles and other shapes.
References California State Board of Education Sacramento. (1999). Mathematcis Content Standard for California Public Schools. California: California State Board of Education.
Har, Y., Segaran, N.,
Learners with Down Syndrome: A Handbook for Teaching Professionals Critical Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Article Information
Purpose or Problem Statement
Article Information Down Syndrome Victoria (2009). Learners with Down Syndrome: A Handbook for Teaching Professionals. 1-21. Web.
Lemons, C. J., Mrachko, A. A., Kostwicz, D. E., Paterra, M. F. (2012). Effectiveness of Decoding and Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with down Syndrome. Exceptional Children, 79(1), 67-90.
Purpose or Problem Statement The purpose of the research consists in highlighting the challenges that disabled children face, particularly those who have Down syndrome, as well as how these challenges could be surpassed by implementing new educational programs.
The main problem is that the existing strategies fail to address the educational issues of disabled people efficiently (Lemons et al., 2012).
In addition, school counselors should take greater responsibility for this category of people to improve conditions and introduce new reforms. This is of particular concern to reading intervention programs.
Design/Procedure The research premises on a set of research studies to provide experimental evaluation of current programs that address education of children with disabilities. Three programs have been selected to research the problem due to deep empirical base of the studies.
The rationale for selecting these programs is also predetermined by cost-effectiveness and availability of the programs. The research design and methodology involve an experimental and evidence-based approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dependent variables involve reading interventions whereas independent variables focus on assessment of reading skills.
Each study is premised on different intervention strategies, which allows the researchers to assess which one is the most effective. In order to check the reliability of the programs 15 children have been chosen from age 3 to 15 (Lemons et al., 2012).
Children have been engaged in different programs with regard to their grades at school, as well as their reading skills. The interventions have been delivered both individually and at a group level.
All observations have been carried out through recording and transcribing. The procedure has also involved screening and participant selection, as well as training and implementation.
All the stages have been conducted through series of multiple baseline design studies to define whether there is a functional connection between reading interventions and measurement of reading skills among disabled children.
Data Analysis The main purpose of the selected programs consists in enhancing immediate word identification and improving reading comprehension skills among disabled children.
The instructors should provide background information about the main sounds and phonetic pronunciation of words for children to grasp the main approaches to reading. The analysis of the result has been premised on performance test and scale evaluations to define the degree of phonological awareness.
We will write a custom Article on Learners with Down Syndrome: A Handbook for Teaching Professionals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusions/Implications The proposed experiment has approved the hypothesis about the evident connection between students’ development and intervention strategies. Over 30 % students have managed to improve their reading skills by means of the proposed programs whereas 70 % were not that good at mastering reading comprehension.
Despite the failure to achieve greater results, the research could serve as a foundation for other studies in the sphere of developing intervention programs for students with Down Syndrome.
More importantly, the proposed study contributes greatly to increased awareness of parents and school counselors who should be more concerned with designing efficient intervention programs.
Due to the fact that the research focuses on learner-centered approach in study, the scholars have managed to provide accurate numerical study and reliable information on the problem.
With regard to the research, being a special educator teacher implies continuous improvement of special education programs and services in an academic environment. Understanding social and cultural diversity is vital to highlight learner differences and develop an individualized approach under CEC Advanced Standard 3.
Critique/Evaluation In conclusion, the article under analysis discusses urgent issues and develops a consistent framework for analyzing the influence of intervention on the degree of students’ reading comprehension (Down Syndrome Victoria, 2009).
Continuous exploration of current programs dedicated to the analysis of disabled students’ skills and abilities can significantly improve the quality of education in this particular field.
Therefore, the article presents an extensive overview of approaches and techniques that teachers and professionals could employ while dealing with children with Down syndrome.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Learners with Down Syndrome: A Handbook for Teaching Professionals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Business Expansion: A Case of Wal-Mart Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Current Strategy at Wal-Mart
Technology used at Wal-Mart
Recommendations on the Organizational Strategy in China
Introduction Global organizations continue to expand their physical borders as they venture into the international market in search of huge revenue and profits.
With the advent of globalization, most international companies find it easier to coordinate and control their operations as they target the achievement of bottom-line organizational objectives. However, challenges continue to influence the extent of success that organizations record in their international market operations.
Organizational culture, organizational transformations, and conflict management, for instance, are important aspects that managers must address as they pursue their expansion plans and programs.
This paper seeks to discuss the topical issue of business expansion comprehensively, especially by paying close attention to Wal-Mart. The analysis evaluates the ability and possibility of Wal-Mart expanding and successfully establishing its operations in China.
Current Strategy at Wal-Mart Wal-Mart mainly focuses on localization as its main strategy of expanding into international markets. Through localization, the retailer acquires establishments through buy-out or enters into a merger with the locally existing and already established firms (Jones, 2010).
Because the local firms already understand the market better than Wal-Mart itself would do, the firm seeks to enter a foreign market through an already existing venture.
This gives it the necessary competitive advantage over other rival firms because it does not begin its operations in a new international market from a new start, but continues with what already exists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the international market strategy by the firm involves maintaining the local brands exactly as they existed before. Even after buying or forming a merger with a local enterprise, Wal-Mart does not re-brand it with its own symbols, logos, and colors.
This is an important strategy in international market operation because local consumers often feel comfortable with local names and brands, which they view as representing their true beliefs, lifestyle, and attitude (Jones, 2010).
In the UK, for instance, Wal-Mart operates in the market under the brand name Asda, while in Japan the company operates under the brand name Seiyu (Walmart, 2013).
Maintaining the local connection is an important factor for any market, and the retailer achieves this through adopting names that are well recognized by the local market. The organizational structure adopted by the company is also crucial in its performance.
Centralization is pursued partly, where the retailer manages its sales, marketing, as well as materials management at the company’s headquarters. Store operations, on the other hand, are divided and distributed according to regions that are headed by regional managers (Jones, 2010).
Technology used at Wal-Mart From an organizational point of view, Wal-Mart relies on the capabilities of information communication technology to help in the formulation and implementation of decisions. Part of the retailer’s technology innovation in the business model focuses on reduction of operation time and the related cost.
The radio frequency identification technology, abbreviated as RFID, is particularly used for communication and exchange of data between the organization and other external organizations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Business Expansion: A Case of Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The RFID tags help Wal-Mart to communicate effectively with its suppliers concerning stock levels to avoid stock-out situations (Roberts
Case Analysis Report: Management Issues in Mergers Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Executive Summary Performance of an organisation may be enhanced in a variety of alternatives. Formation of mergers is one of these alternatives that can help to increase the trading price of organisational shares, efficiency ratios, and increased value of a company in share markets. Bancolumbia utilised this strategy to enhance its organisational transformation. Mergers bring different organisations together with different organisational cultures and ways of accomplishing tasks.
Consequently, various management issues arise during mergers. This paper utilises Bancolumbia as the case study to analyse such issues, discuss key decision criteria, prescribe alternatives, provide recommendations, and prescribe an action and implementation plan to handle management issues associated with the formation of mergers.
Problem Statement Bancolumbia conducted two of the largest mergers that had been experienced in Columbia with a period of less than 10 years under the leadership of Jorge Londono as the CEO. The success of these mergers as an organisational transformation strategy was dependent on the roles played by the persons charged with the entire process, factors such as organisational communication, and the leadership strategies deployed to enhance the overall collective transformation process. The main problem was to utilise organisational communication through leadership strategies to enhance the success of the new merger, which brought together persons who were inspired by different organisational cultures.
Supporting Evidence Bancolumbia merged with Corfinsara and Conavi in 2004. The rationale for this merger was based on the argument that a merger can exercise competitiveness based on the advantages associated with economies of scale (Richard Ivey School of Business 3). In Columbia, this case was perhaps crucial since the era of 1990s saw the country experience an economic downturn resulting to decreasing financial entities to about 37 percent in 1995 through 1999 and to 62 percent in 2006 (Richard Ivey School of Business 2).
The reduction evidences that the only organisations that would survive the impacts of economic downturns were the prominent ones. Consolidation was a strategy that would see the organisations acquire more clientele levels. Consequently, a new trend emerged in the banking industry focusing on having fewer but bigger banking institutions. The success of this strategy for the case of the merger between Conavi, Bancolumbia, and Corfinsara was realised through communication to shareholders about its value in enhancing the success of the company.
Key Decision Criteria Conavi, Bancolumbia, and Corfinsara’s merger decision criteria was based on the slogan “being one, we are more” (Richard Ivey School of Business 5). Realisation of this slogan led to the convening of a meeting by top executives of the three companies at Sata Marta. The main issue at hand was to determine the values, mission, and vision of the merged entity. Training and performance team did the facilitation of merger.
According to Richard Ivey School of Business this entangled offering technical advice to all parties involved in the merger on how to “ generate dynamics that would make people think on how to build a new organisation” (6). Arguably, the decision-making criteria on the approaches adopted in making the merger effective were based on communication strategies that would help to resolve a stalemate that would arise in case the parties, which perceived their organisational culture, would be eroded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatives Analysis Although the analysis of a merger is based on the impacts that it would have on the overall performance of the merged organisation in terms of market divide and efficiency ratio, management needs to consider other issues that would to make the merger successful. Such issues include how to respond to questions that would emanate from workers who would be subjected to the changing working environment, new working processes and procedures, and addressing issues of layoffs and degrees of contributions of every company on the daily business of the merger.
Richard Ivey School of Business Reports, “Bancolumbia accounted for 75.5%, Corfinsara 12.7%, and 11.8% for Conavi” (7). Resolution of the challenges associated with change of work environment requires effective organisational communication. Analysis of the legal implication of a merger is also a critical alternative analytic aspect in the evaluation of decisions to form a merger.
For instance, in the case of the merger between, Conavi, Bancolumbia, and Corfinsara, employees were concerned that the merger would result in their layoffs. Such unsatisfied employees would file legal petitions against the merger decision made by their respective organisations. Consideration of how this effort would influence the performance of the merger both in the short and in the end is essential.
Recommendations In the resolution of dominant challenges associated with organisational changes encountered in mergers such as those experienced in the merger between Conavi, Bancolumbia, and Corfinsara, it is recommended that, amid consideration of any other effort to enhance the success of the strategy, the merger should treat employees as the most crucial resource available for enhancing the success of the merger.
This provision would put more emphasis on the organisational communication through adopting a communication strategy having the following elements:
Incorporating the needs of different organisations’ stakeholders such as employees, managers, customers, and investors among others
Providing information on who would be making decisions that would influence customers and employees either directly and indirectly
Help in monitoring issues and needs handled during the integration process
Prepare employees for new roles that would arise following the mergers
Action and Implementation Plan In the implementation of organisational transformation strategy through a merger, an effective action plan is required (Galpin and Herndon 23). As argued before, since a merger involves many organisational changes, communication of such changes is an immense challenge. As evidenced by the merger between Conavi, Bancolumbia, and Corfinsara, to resolve this challenge, the following action and implementation plan for effective organisation communication strategy is proposed.
The implementation of the plan entails linking various integration alternatives with various strategic plans. The alternatives should reaffirm to the different organisations forming the merger about equal adaptation of organisational values in the merger and communication as advised by Harrison (Para. 3). They should touch issues such as equal participation of the each organisation’s management coupled with the support of the merger so that stakeholders of one organisation do not feel disadvantaged.
We will write a custom Report on Case Analysis Report: Management Issues in Mergers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Merger Status
This action plan is organisation-specific. It seeks to demonstrate the participation of senior organisational management in the merger process in the effort to bargain for better rewards for each organisation’s stakeholders forming the merger (Watson 16). It also ensures that the rationale for the merger is reaffirmed to all organisation stakeholders besides creating a bigger picture of the merger in the minds of all the stakeholders.
The scope of this plan is integration-specific. Its implementation entails the provision of specific information of the likely changes in the work environment showing how such changes would influence workers in the merger organisations. This strategy helps in avoiding situations in which employees would be caught unaware by the changes.
Works Cited Galpin, Tim, and Mark Herndon. The Complete Guide to Mergers and Acquisitions: Process Tools to Support M
The NSW Government Strategy on Education: Identification of Gifted and Talented Students Analytical Essay essay help online
Introduction Gifted and talented students have skills that set them apart from the other average students.
Gifted students have superior intellect and academic performance above average while talented students perform above average in more than one area of human performance particularly in physical, creative, intellectual, and social areas.
However, these students fail to achieve their full potential because of lack of an appropriate policy, curriculum challenges and lack of appropriate identification procedures.
Prior to the NSW policy, the education of the gifted and talented students had low priority and the existing curriculum could not meet the needs of these students. In this respect, the Australian Government undertook considerable changes towards promoting the education of gifted and talented students.
In order to attain high quality educational outcomes for the gifted and talented students, “the NSW government committed itself to developing an appropriate curriculum that could cater for the needs of these students within educational settings” (Braggett, 1985, p.28).
The gifted and talented students are diverse and come from different cultural and socioeconomic groups making the identification of such students quite a challenge. These students are easily identifiable in school settings where their natural abilities are evident.
The identification procedures should be inclusive involving the input of all the people who interact with these students including their teachers, fellow students, professionals and parents (Gagnés, 2003, p.12). The identification procedures primarily involve the use of nomination, screening, and monitoring of the students.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Off-level testing is also another way of identifying the individual student’s ability in school settings. Effective identification of the gifted students involves a multifaceted approach, which includes both objective and subjective procedures.
Qualities of Gifted and Talented Students Gifted and talented students have distinguishing intellectual and personal characteristics that set them apart from the rest of the other students.
According to Babad and Budoff (1994), these students have exceptional reasoning capability, which is associated with intellectual curiosity of their surroundings and a passion for learning new things (p.53). Intellectually, they have higher learning concentration and analytical skills.
They also possess a high level of creativity characterized by divergent thinking and endeavor to challenge the existing concepts coupled with a higher rate of learning new ideas and concepts in addition to keen sense of abstraction and imagination.
In addition, they also exhibit moral concern in their actions and have a deep sense of justice. Even though not solely, the gifted and talented students portray such rational traits largely as compared to ‘normal’ or average students.
In addition to the intellectual qualities, the gifted and talented students also exhibit peculiar personality traits that do not exist in other students. They possess a greater tendency towards introversion as opposed to extroverted personalities.
They are also insightful relying on their own exceptional reasoning capability to analyze situations (Babad,
Karam Pizza Case Study essay help: essay help
Strengths Strong reputation
The reputation of the business as the only restaurant that offers unique and best quality is amongst the strengths of Karam Pizza business. The reputation ensures increased clientele as well as helps in building the business brand loyalty. The strong reputation the business has built in the last three years will help it retain its customers. It will also aid the business gain the needed competitive edge.
Outsized client base accruing from the operational environs
The large pull of customers is a strength to the business. The customer base consists of the delivery businesses alongside the increasing number of the office workers. These large pools of customers will result into the increment in pizzeria sales revenues. This will eventually be used for its global expansion and growth.
Quality foodstuff and remarkable menu choices
Along with the provision of unique menu, the pizzerias are also committed to providing quality products to its customers. Given the fact that the competitors are capable of copying and introducing the pizzeria exceptional menu, the only way to set apart its food is through quality. This will make certain the customers sustainability.
From the time when it was instituted, Karam Pizza has seen an incredible growth because of the extraordinary menu choices its clients have. Karam Pizza brings together an assortment of Italian and Indian cuisines. This amazing menu is amongst Karam Pizza’s biggest strength that augments its competitive advantage.
Weaknesses Centered on producing particular food products
Karam Pizza has various weaknesses. One of the weaknesses of the restaurant is that Karam Pizza is facing lack of diversification. The restaurant specializes just in one of its pooled cuisines. Different form its market competitors that have diversified offers, the restaurant only offers one best combination.
This would lead the restaurant into losing its competitive edge across the global markets. This is because some independent competitors are adding favorite food items into their menus. Thus, they lure more customers in their restaurants compared to Karam Pizza.
Inadequate financial resources
Karam Pizza appears to lack funds and this is perceived as a hindrance to its rapid global expansion. Karam Pizza is just a mere one-shop restaurant but faces strong antagonism from other entrenched restaurants. As a result, Karam Pizza has not generated enough pool of capital to expand on its business and market operations. Moreover, the restaurant is not large enough to benefit from the economies of scale. Lack of enough capital or financial resources has a negative effect on its capacity to deliver services to its global clientele.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inability to service the arriving clientele
The pizzeria limited, Karam Pizza’s capacity to service a large pool of walk-in customers contributes negatively to its sales revenues. As the restaurant reputation grew, its capacity to serve customers especially during dinnertime was very limited. The limitations were seen in terms of the quantity of food as well as efficiency in delivering services. Order delays together with low food productions have made the restaurant lose some of its loyal customers who made it succeed.
Opportunities The prospective to enlarge the business
Karam Pizza has numerous promising opportunities for it to expand its business operations particularly into new areas. Moreover, the business can expand its services on the business-to-business (B-2-B) basis. Other areas where the business can expand its restaurant services are the business functions including sales meetings and birthday lunches.
Improved demand for take-away
The Karam Pizza restaurant should take advantage of the increasing demand for take-away. The increasing number of take-away customers that throng the restaurant during evening hours offers an incentive for the growth of the restaurant. The restaurant should increase its capacity to meet the rising demand that will eventually provide revenues for expansion.
Innovative menus that are exclusive of direct rivals
The restaurant has an opportunity to offer new menus that are not presented by other market competitors. Offering an original menu that is different from those in the market can provide the Karam Pizza restaurant with an increased competitive edge. The opportunity to offer a new-fangled menu with no direct competitors will increase the demand for its food items thereby increasing the consumer base.
Tremendous development reported in the pizza market division
From the case, it is apparent that there is growth potential in the restaurant business, as additional cuisines are needed. Moreover, the growing number of the working class in the community where the restaurant operates provides a new opportunity for business growth. Besides the growing number in the walk-in customers, there is simultaneous growth in the number of business within the area. This also presents a growth opportunity for Karam Pizza.
Threats Market rivals are prone to implementing identical menu
The pizzeria offers a combination of foodstuffs that can easily be imitated by other restaurants. Currently, the Independent Restaurant is already offering some of its combinations luring some of its customers to their businesses. This results into the reduced number of its customers and sales revenue. Besides, the pizzerias are facing the threat of increments in prices of inputs as well as the cost of doing business.
Rivalry budding from entrenched restaurants
From the case study, the biggest threat facing the restaurant is competition from large and well- time-honored food restaurants. These restaurants already have networks around the town where Karam Pizza is operating. Moreover, self-governing contenders that offer some of its combinations also pose serious threats to Karam Pizza business.
We will write a custom Case Study on Karam Pizza specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Enlarge the efficiency and capacity of the pizzeria
From the case, Karam Pizza has the alternative of increasing its capacity to meet the needs of all its customers. In essence, the restaurant should thrive to ensure that both the walk-in and business customers are serviced as required. The advantage is that Karam Pizza will continue to expand its sales while building its reputation and global brand image.
Another advantage is that the business will not continue to lose its customers, but instead amplify its client base. However, increasing the capacity can be costly to Karam Pizza business. The other disadvantage is that the pizzeria will be forced to charge different prices. For instance, lower prices will be charged to the individual walk-in customers while higher prices will be charged to business deliveries.
Enlarge operations into the business-to-business ventures
Though the business-to-business deals might not be potential now, it offers the best opportunity for future growth. As the number of business increases, the business-to-business deliveries are viable for future growth. The advantage of business-to-business deliveries is that they are highly priced thereby increasing the revenue generated by business enterprises.
Another advantage is that such deliveries are undemanding since they only require a few staffs to accomplish. The disadvantage with these kinds of businesses is that they are prone to competition. Furthermore, they may take long before making any payments.
Curtailing the charged prices
Given the increased rivalry from independent pizzerias offering comparable combination of cuisines, Karam Pizza can opt for price reductions. However, to attain the reduced prices objective, the business must offer large quantity of food while increasing its operational efficiency.
Mass production will cover the costs incurred while ensuring that the business enjoys economies of scale. However, in situations where the customer base reduces, price reduction might not be feasible. Finally, the competitors may equally curtail their prices and this might negatively affect Karam Pizza business plans.
Reflection on Neo-Confucian Discourse Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Evolution of Neo-Confucianism
Behaviors and Appropriate Relationships
Introduction Imperial western powers led to the unprecedented alteration of traditions of the Confucianism religion that existed in Asia. Consequently, no other tradition of the Asian continent was profoundly affected as the Confucian notion. Adler’s work on Varieties of Spiritual Experience: Shen in Neo-Confucian Discourse points out how the notion suffered “the potential risk of built-in biases caused by projecting foreign concepts onto the subject matter” (2004, p.1).
The idea was to make Chinese traditions reoriented with concepts of globalization, westernization, and modernization as the main paradigms for fueling the spreading of imperialism that was championed by western nations. The merger between the western religious teachings and Confucianism introduced a paradox that was resolved by scholars through the articulation of the two religious beliefs, core values, and goals.
The results were the enrichment of the Confucian tradition to assume a new paradigm of neo-Confucian. Consequently, Confucianism is no longer taken as an ancient philosophic, political, or religious tradition but a concept that is open to the future and modern world. The idea of neo-Confucianism is to promote healthy interactions between the culture of China and other cultures interplaying in the modern world.
Evolution of Neo-Confucianism Ren is among the qualities that link with Confucianism that explains the role of selflessness coupled with humanness for various people in the society. From the Confucianism view, humanness is well explained through the ethics of reciprocity. The concept of humanism is an incredible tool to understand how concepts of neo-Confucianism relate with the development of political pedology that is inspired by the Confucianism culture.
Indeed, Confucianism humanism is built on the pillars of humanness, integrity, propriety, and knowledge. Confirming the argument, Adler (2004) says, “the fundamental Confucian belief that human values are rooted in the natural world, and that it describes a form of religious life best characterized as a system of ultimate transformation and ultimate orientation” (p.2).
These pillars help in the construction of society that is both just and fair to all and hence the reason why neo-Confucianism proponents disregard the treatment of Confucianism philosophical paradigm as irrelevant in the modern globalized world. Neo-Confucian innovations and syntheses in the development of ‘mysterious learning’ are fostered by the spirit as an aspect of mind, which enables Sage’s mind to penetrate to the most difficult and deep mysterious things.
This role aids in the detection of incipient changes and principles coupled with a total comprehension of moral order. However, this exposition does not mean that all people can become Sages. Nevertheless, according to Confucianism, cultivating spiritual clarity can transform people and those who surround them thus helping them to embrace proper behaviors and appropriate relationships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Behaviors and Appropriate Relationships Nations where Chinese have settled are tremendously influenced by Confucianism culture. Such nations include Vietnam, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea among others. Recognizing these immense impacts, Clart and Pao (2003) question whether there is a popular Confucianism.
In the Neo-Confucianism culture, despite these nations being inspired by Confucianism, no single person identifies himself or herself as Confucius, but the concepts of Confucianism serve as complementary ethical aspects that help in guiding beliefs and ideologies such as Marxism, Islam, Buddhism, democracy, and capitalism among others.
Therefore, the central concern of Clart and Pao’s article about the Confucianism culture is to prescribe some fundamental guidelines for promoting good cultural behaviors during interactions as prescribed by key icons of the concepts of Confucianism. For instance, different people undertake some chores at different ages in the society.
Here, one sees the divisions of work within all members of the society. For instance, at the age of six, boys learn how to write while girls are given ordinary women’s task. While divisions of tasks are crucial, Confucianism culture faces critics for its failure to accord equal rights to all people particularly the accessibility of education for women and confinement of women to home-based chores.
For example, at the age of 10, girls need to fully get involved in household chores among them being weaving, cooking, and breeding silkworms since they are the best duties for women. This argument is a departure from the concepts already learnt in class, which are effective in encouraging an embodied and lived understanding of proper behaviors and appropriate relationships among people.
Conclusion Confucianism culture has manifested itself in a variety of forms in East Asia from responses to hierarchical issues, ritual practices, and gender roles. Li, translated as ritual, moral, or etiquette is used in the Chinese language to refer to various secular functions encountered in the daily life of people.
While using the concept of li to explain how people ought to interact, Clart and Pao (2003) argue that, although it is loosely translated to mean rituals, it does not mean that it refers to “arbitrary practices but the routines that people engage either knowingly or unknowingly in the due course of execution of their daily chores” (p. 12). The principle tied within Confucianism culture that facilitates the realization of such a society is the interplay between emotions and its impacts on composition of people’s character.
We will write a custom Essay on Reflection on Neo-Confucian Discourse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, according to Clart and Pao’s article, cultivation of harmony within individuals makes them virtuous. Doing contrary to this principle destroys the character of people. In this sense, harmony is an essential virtue that is effective in encouraging an embodied and lived understanding of proper behaviors and appropriate relationships among people.
Bibliography Adler, Joseph. Varieties of Spiritual Experience: Shen in Neo-Confucian Discourse. New York: Cross Road, 2004.
Clart, Philip, and T’oung Pao. “Confucius and the Mediums: Is there a ‘Popular Confucianism’?” JISC 89, no.1 (2003): 1-38.
Community Mental Health Research Paper essay help online
Community mental health services are reserved for the people who are suffering from mental illnesses. Health care facilities such as specialized hospitals for people with mental disorders initially provided the services. The coming of reforms in this sector has led to the closure of many mental hospitals because of violation of patients’ rights.
Most mentally ill persons were neglected in mental hospitals (Atkinson, 2006). It is perceived that the ignorance in mental hospitals was caused by the sudden increase of patients. Besides that, Richards and Campania (2010) explain that the mental hospitals were not serving their intended purpose of meeting the needs of the mentally ill, but one expected that for every mental hospital that is closed a community-based center replaces it.
This would bring the services closer to the people who need them the most. The establishment of mental hospitals may have been a noble idea, but there are many people who continue to suffer in silence because they cannot afford the required money to send their loved ones to such institutions.
Similarly, the quality of service delivered in mental hospitals was very poor probably due to congestion. According to Golightley (2004), prior to the implementation of the changes many mentally retarded person could not get access to medical services because the insurance companies had barred them from taking medical cover. This means that unless friends and relatives help such persons, their health will continue to deteriorate.
It is in this regard that insurance companies are being encouraged to streamline their requirements to make insurance cover affordable to many people. This is because currently it is mostly the employed who are able to buy insurance products. This implies that governments have to combine efforts to assist the people who are in extreme poverty by paying for their mental health services (Power, 2010).
Weare (2000) contends that the reforms in mental health services require the government to hire more medical personnel. This is because lack of enough personnel has been sighted as one of the core reasons for the decline in the quality of mental health services. This suggests that governments have to borrow more money because as new experts are being hired there is also technology and infrastructure, and all of these are to be carried out by governments.
That is why non-governmental and private entities are required to help in improving the delivery of mental health services. Among the approaches employed in improving service delivery in this sector is the incorporation of mental health centers with existing general health care centers and establishing new ones at the community level. When services are brought closer to the people, there is no excuse of not accessing them (Atkinson, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major hurdle in implementing changes in mental health services has been lack of money to facilitate the construction of new facilities and recruitment of more personnel. It is expected that once these measures are put in place the quality of mental health services will go up because there will be many service providers, and thus there will be stiff competition (Golightley, 2004).
This means that mental health service providers will have to improve their work and reduce their service charge rates. Presently, people are simply taking what is available because they do not have alternatives (Segal
Terrorism Handling in Our Life Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Strategies for Defeating Terrorism
Introduction Terrorism is one of the most serious criminal activities and it has greatly jeopardized world peace and safety. Defining terrorism is not very easy and its meaning has been subjected to a lot of debate by many scholars. “Terrorism can be defined as a tactic used by a small set of extremists to fight against an overwhelmingly powerful opponent while surrounded by a large population that mostly just wants peace”.
The use of military is not the only way of dealing with terrorism. It is possible to defeat terrorism through these strategies. “First, it is important to understand how terrorists are kept away in the best case, then how terrorists can fight against this mechanism”. Finally, in order to foil those aims, it is imperative to determine the strategies that can work, and those that cannot.
Defeating Terrorism Terrorism can be defeated if many people in the society can trust the authorities in their work. If people have faith in the authorities, they will inform them about terrorist activities. The Unabomber who killed many people through mail bombs was finally forwarded to the F.B.I. In this case, it was his brother who identified his writings and informed the authorities about his actions.
He took that step because he believed in the authorities. “Terrorist acts can never be totally eliminated, but a cohesive community that trusts its authorities can defeat a continuing terrorist movement”. A more complicated situation in dealing with terrorism arises when a society has not been civilized, and they also do not trust their authorities.
In this regard, terrorists find support from sympathizers, who might not want to be part of the terrorists, but are against the authorities. One of the best tactics employed by terrorists is creating misunderstandings between people and the authorities. Terrorists become stronger when they erode that trust. They do this to weaken the thin blue line. “The ordinary people, or at least some of them, support those they see as fighting for freedom, religious faith, or patriotism against overwhelming odds”.
Strategies for Defeating Terrorism The important question is how to defeat terrorists after understanding their tactics? When people begin to isolate them as criminals, by reporting them to police authorities, then they have defeated them. What weapons can be effective in fighting them? It would be naïve to think that terrorists can only be eliminated by killing all of them. Such a naïve strategy cannot work in the real world.
In an attempt to find and kill terrorists, many innocent people will either be injured or killed. This can make some of their friends, and siblings to contemplate joining terrorists as away of retaliating. Moreover, this will produce more terrorists than those destroyed. Therefore, if military confrontation is used most of the time, it will lead to genocide, and it will also recruit more terrorists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The ‘weapon’ that is need is the trust and cooperation of the general population of the country where the terrorists are based”. Secondly, the authorities dealing with terrorists should avoid using overwhelming power even if they have it. They should try to demonstrate justice, and avoid using massive retaliation.
A good example is the case of U.S troops in Iraq. Terrorists strike them in order to provoke retaliation from them. When they retaliate, they end up damaging people’s properties, and they also cause unnecessary deaths. This weakens the trust Iraqi citizens have in U.S troops.
Conclusion Terrorists should be handled carefully, but not through the ordinary military tactics. If soldiers have to be used in this process, they should be trained differently so that they can handle terrorists properly. The use of military force requires rethinking because it has largely been abused by the authorities. “The “simple” strategy above for defeating terrorism requires great knowledge, cleverness, and wisdom to put into action”.
Works Cited Netanyahu, Benjamin. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists. London: Wiley, 2001.
Sageman, Mark. Understanding Terror Networks. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Scheuer, Michael. Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror. New York: Potomac Books Inc, 2004.
Socio-Economic and Educational Characteristics of Appalachia-KY Essay college essay help online
Introduction The term Appalachia refers to distinctive-cultural counties, which are located, in the eastern part of the United States of America. The Appalachian regions include various states such as; Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Virginia, among others.
The inhabitants of the Appalachian regions were seen as illiterates, who accounted to high levels of poverty despite the regions vast natural resources.
Socio-economic characteristics, which influenced the, population density in the Appalachian regions included; unemployment rates, urban and rural population, families below poverty level, racial and ethnic minority population, household income data, and number of children per family.
Educational characteristics included school enrollment, high school dropouts, numbers of private and public schools, public school expenditures, high school graduates, numbers of secondary and post-secondary schools, minority student population, numbers of school personnel and adult illiteracy rates (Langman, 1971).
Socio-economic characteristics of Appalachia in Kentucky Kentucky State used to be a very poor region, with a vast number of its localities living below the poverty levels mark. Despite the rich agricultural land, the inhabitants were very illiterate and therefore, could not convert the available natural resources to their own advantage (Langman, 1971).
Therefore, the communities lived in abject poverty levels. The introduction of coal mining and large scale mining activities aided the natives to earn a basic salary. These activities supplemented their livelihood, but due to poor management methods, the activities did not help them much.
Much later, the federal government sought alternative ways of eliminating the existing poverty levels in the Appalachian regions (Billings and Blee, 2000). The government introduced new and better farming methods, and ensured cheap electricity was facilitated through the construction of numerous dams.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the enactment of the Appalachian regional commission (ARC) which had a mission to eliminate poverty levels provided educational opportunities and improved health care services to the natives (Billings and Blee, 2000).
Social Characteristics Religion
The need for independence led to the dire need to establish religious movements in the Appalachia. These religious movements originated from England and have been undergoing various changes with the changing times (Williams, 2000).
Among the common current religious practices are; congregational applauding, preaching and baptism, which are practiced with different religious forces such as catholic and protestant (Leonard, 1999).
The Appalachia settlers were mostly from the Anglo- Scottish border regions such as Lancashire, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Berwickshire, and Cumberland, among many others. Europeans and Italians were attracted to Appalachia due to booming manufacturing and coal mining activities (Billings and Blee, 2000).
Americans are the native inhabitants of the Appalachia regions while the Melungeons are all over eastern Kentucky. The ARC regions are mainly inhabited by African-American communities who live in the urban areas while the Germans settled in the southern mountains.
The Appalachia dialect is strongly influenced by the Scottish dialects although it boasts of a rich and unique American origin (Keefe, 2009). The Appalachian dialect is grouped into the northern midland dialect, Pittsburgh English and the southern Midland dialect.
They comprise a mixture of European, Native American and bible influence. The natives taught the European how to plant corn and squash, and knowledge of medicinal herbs and roots.
We will write a custom Essay on Socio-Economic and Educational Characteristics of Appalachia-KY specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They used the biblical signs to know the time to plant such as the phase of the moon (Keefe, 2009). Their fork tales comprised of the Irish fairy tales, Scottish and English. They also told tales of the wild animals, short stories and murder stories.
It is the most known of the Appalachia culture. Traditional music is both a composition of English and Scottish ballet tradition with some aspects of Irish and Scottish fiddle music ((Keefe, 2009). English and ballet songs were passed down from generation to generation.
In the 1920’s, commercial recording of Appalachia music had a great impact on the growth of country music. Appalachia music is preserved by holding a dozen of music festival in the region every year.
The financial stability in the Appalachia was greatly enhanced by various activities which included manufacturing, logging, mining and agriculture.
With the changes in technological advancements, international and domestic tourism practices led to an increase in the economical level in the Appalachia territories.
Economic Characteristics Timber harvesting/logging
Vast areas of Land in the Appalachia region is covered by numerous forests that provided enough jobs in the timber milling sector to feed the families (Henry, 1986). However, local people did not benefit much from it as most profits went to outsiders and the locals only got the wages.
As Myles Horton, a local Appalachian resident describes it “Appalachia is rich in resources but poor in people. All riches go to out and we must find a way to take it back some of the riches that belong to the people” (Henry, 1986).
Coal mining provides a source of employment to the Appalachian people. Mining is being replaced by oil use which in turn has caused the region economic hardships (Weise, 2001).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Socio-Economic and Educational Characteristics of Appalachia-KY by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The key indicator of mining depletion is low employment rate which is a third of what the coal mines of the initial work force; no new investment is being channeled to the mines and production being moved to the western American seams (Weise, 2001).
Tobacco farming is one of industries that have boosted the Appalachian economy. Tobacco is one of the major crops grown in the region. It is grown by small scale farmers in the southern and central Appalachia regions (Yarnell, 1999).
In the 20th century the government introduced the allotment system which allowed the farmers to grow a small amount of tobacco for better prices. This system has helped farmers to generate stable and regular income which is supplemented by other farming activities (Yarnell, 1999).
According to Starnes (2005), tourism is also the oldest economic activity in this region, and it dates back to 18th century. It brings close to 30 billion USD and offers over 600,000 jobs. The mountainous terrains are the major tourist attraction sites (Wilson, 2009).
It also has the world known hiking trails like the great smoky mountain park, which is the most visited the park in the region. Other tourist attraction sites include: the Biltmore estate and the Eastern Band of the Cherokee, which are in the Northern Carolina.
Many tourists also visited the mountain springs which was believed to have medicinal value in the 18th century (Wilson, 2009).
The ranges provided cool escapes for the elites from the lowland sides and which beautiful hotels were built. Today the states are focusing on how they can promote tourism in the region and at the same time conserving the local communities (Wilson, 2009).
Education has lagged behind due to struggle with funding from the government and people failing to recognize its importance. In early years, education curriculum was based on Christian morality and learning how to read the bible (Polakow, 2004).
Learning was done in small rooms and children came to school when they were not needed in the farms. After the war, education became compulsory and the state helped in the building of the new schools. In that time, many higher learning institutions were established.
During the 19th and 20th era, amenity organizations formed settlement schools mostly in the rural areas (Polakow, 2004). The settlement schools contributed to promotion of culture legacy of Appalachian.
From 2001, many public schools have been losing funding as they try to make sure that every child gets an education (Keefe, 2009).
Conclusion Appalachia has strongly undergone modern changes, which have made the states to become developed. However, compared with other non-Appalachian’s states show they still lag behind, as most non-Appalachian states are far more technologically advanced.
Reference List Billings, D. B., and Blee, K. M. (2000) The Road to Poverty: The Making Of Wealth And Hardship In Appalachia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Henry, D. (1986) Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920, Massachusetts: Shapiro Publisher
Keefe, S. E. (2009) Participatory Development in Appalachia: Cultural Identity, Community, and Sustainability, Tennessee: Univ. of Tennessee Press
Kiffmeyer, T. (2008) Reformers to Radicals: The Appalachian Volunteers and the War on Poverty, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky
Langman, R. C. (1971) Appalachian Kentucky: An Exploited Region Selected Studies in the United States, New York: McGraw-Hill Ryerson
Leonard, B.J. (1999) Christianity in Appalachia: Profiles in Regional Pluralism, Tennessee: Univ. of Tennessee Press
Polakow, V. (2004) Shut Out: Low Income Mothers and Higher Education in Post- Welfare America, New York: SUNY Press
Starnes, R.D. (2005) Creating the Land of the Sky: Tourism and Society in Western North Carolina: The Modern South, Alabama: University of Alabama Press
Weise, R. S. (2001) Grasping At Independence: Debt, Male Authority, and Mineral Rights in Appalachian Kentucky, 1850-1915, Tennessee: Univ. of Tennessee Press
Williams, J.A.(2002) Appalachia: A History, North Carolina: UNC Press Books
Wilson, G. S. (2009) Communities Left Behind: The Area Redevelopment Administration, 1945-1965, Tennessee: Univ. of Tennessee Press
Yarnell, S. 1999. Southern Appalachians: History of the Landscape, Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing
Social and Political Philosophy Critical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Plato’s critics on Athenian way of life With the conviction of Socrates, Plato, one of the great Socrates’ supporters, sees Athenians as prejudiced people who convict the innocent freeing the guilty. He observes “…his conviction resulted from his unwillingness to address the Athenians the way they would have liked him to do” (Plato 245).
Plato criticizes the way of arriving at judgment upon hearing the evidence set forth by the accusers who, though many hardly say anything true.
In support of his argument that paints the Athenian jury of 501 persons, as prejudiced, Plato prophesies, “the history will come to see his conviction as shameful for Athens” (Plato 386).
As reflected in arguments by many historians, Socrates’ death was voluntarily by mere fact that he did not intend to sacrifice his beliefs and political aspirations that he strongly subscribed to for the sake of acquaintance. Socrates’ arguments were solid and rigid.
Even in the light of death punishment, Socrates opted to die rather than honoring people with blurred and victimized capacity to reason. He could not have imagined sacrificing his moral principles that dictated his concerns in teaching about “the nature of virtue” (Plato 397).
It seems intriguing to arrive at a conclusion on how Athens jury arrived at a decision to execute an old man on impiety accounts initiated by a poet linking his teachings as catalysts of corrupting the youth.
Plato also worries about the capacity of the Athenians to change charges from one nature to the other, as it was difficult to determine whether Socrates’ charges were purely impiety, political in nature or a combination of both.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plato’s concerns on Athens’ way of life stand out in the republic. Plato postulates an argument seeking to determine whether just people are happier than unjust people are.
To arrive at the premises of his argument, attempts are made to define what justice is in the first place from a philosophical perspective and literal dimensions, both of which are subjected to introspection to determine loopholes in the weight of thought.
The proposition of a just and perfect republic model in his argument, in a big way, reflects modeling a society that would seem completely opposite to that of Athenians. He indicated that, “Pleasures which are approved of by the lover of wisdom and reason are the truest” (Plato 441).
A jury from such a society should have treated Socrates case justly and without prejudices. In ‘The Republic’, he tries to compare a city ruled by independent thinkers-philosophers for instance Socrates, and dependent thinkers like the Athenians.
In addition, he also examines the roles of poets and philosophers in the society. Conflicting roles, as observed from ‘The Republic’, endow poets and philosophers with different approaches in reasoning and therefore the two never concur in arguments.
Plainly, these stand out as major reflections of concerns encountered in his former teacher’s case before the Athens’ jury.
The Laws’ Argument in Crito The arguments of the laws in the Crito are persuasive. Laws form the basic guiding principles of any city. Since the people make the laws, they stand out as subject to the laws. The question therefore comes concerning who is greater between the laws and the people who make them.
We will write a custom Essay on Social and Political Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Oscillating around the anticipated consequence of disobeying the laws of the land, results to doing what is right, as expected of a law-abiding person. For example, the scenario of Socrates features Crito comforting him with ideas of how to escape from prison.
Socrates reasons that doing as it subverts the force of law does not pass for the best thing to do as law-abiding citizens of Athens. Supposing Socrates had the ability to escape from the prison and exile in what he referred to as “well governed cities”.
What makes the cities well governed? If it were the laws of the cities, then what would be the perception of the dwellers of the cities towards Socrates?
As a coward of the action of the law, he could have avoided it in the first place by acting in a manner that pleased his accusers not by violating his rationale of being guided by reason: not force of masses.
Escaping from the prison amounts to disobedience of the laws: made by people. How then would he possibly articulate with people by the fact that he disobeyed the very laws that binds the people together? Certainly, this appears like retuning injustice with injustice: what Socrates refrains from as a just and reasonable person.
In ‘The Republic’, people regard democracy as “the most beautiful constitution (politea)” (Plato 327). However, Socrates criticizes the actions of a ‘democratic man’. Laws measure up to the will of the people.
In this context, as opposed to Crito, what worries Socrates is the distinction between the city and the laws since laws remain confined within particular cities. Democratic actions by a democratic person are tantamount to obeying the laws of the land/city.
The relationship between the two accounts of Socrates is that, democracy translates to a person acting in accordance to the expectation of thoughtful members of the society. In one way or another, laws serve similar objectives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social and Political Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Can unjust man be truly happy? In ‘The Republic’, there appears a tale of a man who supposedly possessed a ring, which conferred to him invisibility powers.
The argument emanating from the story is that, a man who lives a life purely worth to pass him for a just person would fall into unjust traps and individualistic acts and yet evade punishment if at all he possesses such a ring.
Plato subdivides soul into its constituent parts: desires or appetites, reason and indignation, further referred to as spirit. Whether a just man is happy or not, is a function of the manner in which he orders the three constituents of soul.
He notes, “…a just man is happy because his soul is well ordered, with reason ruling all, indignation supporting the rule of reason, and holding the desires in check” (Plato 191). A happy man is analogous to a society, which has gorgeous rules of law in force.
Military functions to support it while because of its support to the rule of law, the public enjoys the final product: peace and happiness. Supposing desires come first? Civil wars mushroom.
If any of the constituents of the soul takes the place of reason and becomes the propeller, the more the internal fights within a man takes place. Consequently, the man becomes unjust. The more the man conducts himself in unjust manner, the unhappier he becomes.
The worst of the predicament is the situation of tyranny. Many would consider tyrant the happiest person of all. He/she has a power sufficient to surpass all other people and share amounts, in almost everything, beyond his fair share.
Unfortunately, according to Plato, the person passes for the, “most miserable man. Far from being a ruler without equal, he is actually more a slave and a prisoner than anyone…” (Plato 194).
His desires imprison or enslave him. Outer physique of a person does not matter based on the deceptive nature of people’s perceptions. The tyrant never experiences happiness: he remains the only one who knows that.
The just man is not even recognized leave alone people getting an opportunity of scrutinizing his justness. However, while in that unknown myriad vast land, he remains happy.
Justice, Metaphysics and Epistemology In ‘The Republic’, Crito Plato explores what justice means as portrayed in all of the rest of his earlier work. The aim of doing this is to demonstrate philosophically that, “the best part of a human being life is the one devoted to virtue and knowledge, for such a life will result in happiness” (Crito, and Plato 290).
Virtuous people have all their constituents of soul working in harmony and in an ordered manner as priory discussed. Towards the end of book IV, Plato depicts justice as psychic harmony, a state only realizable based on the existence of knowledge subject to metaphysical reality.
For administration of justice, the administrator must accept that justice itself exists. Such a person is perceived to have knowledge. On the other hand, a ruler who denies existence of justice but admits the existence of its forms does not have knowledge. Rather, such rulers have only beliefs.
Knowledge rests on platforms of what is true while on the other hand the objects of belief can be set out on what seems true or false. From a metaphysical approach, “one can have only beliefs about the particulars and particulars only beliefs, and only knowledge of forms and of forms one can only have knowledge” (Plato 306).
Such an argument suggests that the knowledge of justice differs from any justifiable belief. Plato argues, “Since one can only have knowledge of forms, one cannot have any false belief about forms” (308). Therefore, justice prevails in situations of adequate knowledge of the existence of various forms of justice.
The subjects to whom justice is ought to be administered to, will consequently get satisfied with the applicability of the various forms of justice.
Beliefs to the objects over which justice rests intermediates what completely justice is on one extreme with the other extreme showing what it is not. Accepting existence of justice forms the starting point of seeking and executing it.
Plato’s Concerns about Deterioration of Good Government in Book VIII Socrates addresses the concept of disintegration of good governments by starting with an ideal state: Aristocratic state. The ideal state disintegrates into the first form characterized by corruption: timocracy. Such states function as the least unjust. Undying ambitions characterizes the timocratic man.
The next form of government in the disintegration process entangles a form of government whose rulers are avaricious sons of timocrats. “They are wealthy property owners” (Plato 92). Later a class, midway between the poor and the rich comes into being.
Through alliances comprising of the members of that class and the poor, revolutions initiated targets to overthrow oligarchy. Unfortunately, democracy characterizes disorderly states represented by a man with “unbridled appetites tamed only by enfeebled moral sense” (Plato 120).
Insatiable internal urges and unquenchable thirsts for freedom slowly convert democracy into its newborn form: tyranny. Ruthlessness acquired from the descendants of the tyranny man, makes him strain to establish his niche to survive. The man encounters a dilemma demanding a choice between ‘being killed’ and ‘killing’.
Individualism, emanating from his character, forces him to make the killing choice, an act he does till his opposition erasure takes place. The repercussions follow ranging from an enslaved state through escalated death threats and/or expulsion.
The ultimate effect of disintegration of good governments, according to book VIII, is excessive freedom, which Socrates associates with the worst kind of slavery.
From book VIII, lessons for the US modern day politics are incredible. The US inhibits politics of democracy. No political campaign fades away without a mention of the word ‘democracy’. Drawing from the repercussions of excessive freedom, the US needs to evaluate the direction headed by her politics.
The issue on whether democracy heads the politics of the US towards integration, a guiding based on reason, or toward emergence of a leadership dominated by individuals with undying appetites and avarice, as Socrates predicts in the disintegration process of good governments, needs a second thought.
Works Cited Crito, and Plato. Republic. Oxford: Oxford paper backs, 1981.
Plato. A Defense of Socrates. Oxford: Oxford paper backs, 2008.
Project Management: Sydney Water Company Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The essay is a case study analysis for project management of Sydney Water Company. The company decided to develop a project that would improve its customer services.
The first section entails the pre-contract planning, business and functional requirements. The second part highlights the tracking of the project against the business case. The third part is on project planning and key milestones. The final part is a table on PMBOK knowledge areas.
Pre-contract Planning, Business Requirements and Functional Requirements With regard to pre-contract planning. Sydney Water unveiled the importance of the Customer Information Billing System (CIBS) project to its operations. The project would make the customer services better, supplement the existing information systems and provide efficiency in business.
This is how important the CIBS project would have been to the organization. The company did not carry out sufficient planning and specifications regarding the project. This later on resulted to numerous requests for changes and eventually led to colossus extra costs and delays.
Prior to getting into the contract with Price Water Coopers, a competent project team should have been set up to do the work. This should have comprised of one member with intimate knowledge in the subject of the project.
However, the selected team lacked competencies in handling the work meaning there were no proper mechanisms put in place to select a capable team to do the work.
Although Sydney Water realized the significance of a business improvement process, it resorted to the utilization of a computer system during the project. The project was not implemented via a company information technology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After coming up with the project, they realized that the computer architecture of the CIBS project was incompatible. Consequently, a functional requirement was not met. It was a business requirement for the company to continue with a project requirement that was integrated. However, this did not materialize.
Although testing was a functional requirement, it really delayed and was not done adequately. Relevant documentation was not provided by Sydney Water which made it difficult to have a full access to the selection of a contractor.
Nonetheless, apparently, Sydney Water was able to select and evaluate the contractor in a thorough manner. The administration of the contract was inadequate resulting to single variation to the contract leading to a transfer or roles and risks to Sydney Water from Price Water Coopers.
Some business requirements were not available for the project. These include important contingencies, hard ware and soft ware that were not included in the initial budget. Besides, from the start of the project, there were unclear procedures on how the project was to be reported to the board of directors.
The information given was not clear enough to make the board of directors make a decision or assess the position of the project. Such insufficiency made the board not to be fully informed regarding important aspects and risks pertaining to the project.
Management of risks is a very important aspect in any business venture, and more so, in a business project. It is a critical business requirement prior to beginning any project. This is because every project or business is always susceptible to risks.
It was therefore a requirement for the project team to identify main risks to the project and come up with sufficient mechanisms of managing the risks.
We will write a custom Essay on Project Management: Sydney Water Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, it did not happen by both the company and the project team. The culture of this organization reveals that all project risks have to be transferred to the contractor when outsourcing of the organization’s key projects.
The Tracking of the project against the Business Case A business case is a document whose purpose is to provide the project’s baseline by elaborating the benefits of the business as a result of the project (Gregory, 2009, p. 138). Apparently, there was no support of the CIBS project from a strong business case.
The company did not provide a version of the business case that had been endorsed by the board of directors. Even though it was an obvious fact that costs were escalating and benefits were reducing in the course of the project duration, the board never asked for the preparation of a revised business case.
The board had the mandate of overseeing the project including making some directions for the business case to be revised. However, the board did not direct the GM-Finance to do a review on the business case of the project and to be responsive on the project’s fiscal matters.
The evidence of choosing CIBS project over other alternatives was not adequate. For instance, there was a discrepancy between the cost of upgrading the existing system in comparison to the budgeted cost of the CIBS project.
There are changes that were made on the contingency cost by both the DMR and the board. The business case was not revised accordingly to reflect these changes.
This was in spite of prompts from several parties alluding to the revision. For example, in 2001, after the DMR findings, the GM – customer services realized the necessity to make some revision on the business case.
The director of Sydney Water project made inquiries with respect to the duration required to complete the project and a budget that the board could accept. Within the same year (2002), the internal audit suggested a formal revision of the business case.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management: Sydney Water Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was a reflection of the project management’s belief that what really mattered was the successful implementation of the remedy and that costs were flexible.
For example, the recommendations to access the business case from the internal audit to the Sydney Water management were embraced and addressed after six months. This did not materialize and the management reported that it was more concerned with the positive results from the project.
An increase in costs seems to have been accompanied by a reduction in benefits during the time the project has been in progress.
At almost the close of the project, there were ninety people from the CSD performing several duties on CIBS. This required adoption of several strategies for maintaining business services. These would include outsourcing functions, hiring staff temporarily and beginning business improvements.
The extent at which staff reduced due to CIBS was less in comparison to the benefit outlined in the business case.
After a multiple revisions on the R3 benefits realization, still the stakeholders failed to approve it. There were some areas of benefit that varied from the initial business case. These include for instance, e-commerce, closure of some offices and ownership changes.
One of the views held by the Sydney Water people was that in the public sector, it was possible for projects of this nature and size to not only go over budget, but to also delay. This could be one of the reasons behind not updating the business case.
Project planning This is a task that should be done by the steering committee. Their role should be to assess the feasibility of the project, develop the project’s business plan and take responsibility regarding the project outcomes.
The steering committee also ensures that there is an alignment between the scope of the project and what the stakeholders require.
The scope of the project is supposed to be defined by the business plan of the project which should be owned by the steering committee.
In the project undertaken by the Sydney Waters, this was not adequately captured. This is due to the absence of the steering committee to devise a business plan which should outline the project scope.
Second, the CIBS project manager did not come up with a specific Project Execution Plan which should have outlined the responsibilities of the project team.
The project manager should plan for the project effectively by forming sub-projects to help in the delivery of the project. This took place since the CIBS project was sub-divided into three: release 1 release 2 and release 3.
Third, effective project planning requires the presence of a competent project team. The team should work according to what has been laid down in the Project Execution Plan. Representatives from different units affected by said the project should be part of the project team.
The team should also comprise of members with requisite skills. The project team for the CIBS project did not have all the required skills to handle the job meaning that there was no plan in place regarding the selection of the members of the team and their specific qualifications. These skills should be part of the process of project planning.
The Sydney Water project fell under the customer services division. However, this division did not have a clear channel of communication with the project team. Also, during the project planning in 2000, input was not sought from Sydney Water by PWC.
Moreover, due to the dissatisfaction by PWC’s general project plan, Sydney Waters insisted on improvements. This negatively affected the project success. Thus, there was inadequate project planning in this respect.
Key Milestones A milestone is a mark of progress that indicates when important points in a project have been attained. Milestones are embedded within the project’s time frame and show the important path towards the ultimate output. It is the end of a certain stage that shows a work package or phase has been completed.
It is often marked by a high profile review meeting, endorsing of some documents and a completion event. There are several aspects in the CIBS project that point to the way in which the management of the project milestones was conducted.
The CIBS project was mainly subdivided into three phases: release 1 (R1), release 2 (R2) and release 3 (R3). R1 and R2 were fully implemented even though R2 was not fully functional. R1 had been scheduled to be completed in August 2000 but it took longer than this.
The implementation date for R2 was also changed due to technical issues and phased roll out. Implementation of R3 was also delayed from March – September 2002. This was due to requests for change in closure of price negotiations. All these delays were due to inadequate project planning and specifications
Another key milestone in the CIBS project was the testing of the solution. It ended up taking a longer time than was anticipated. This made the project to take longer than was planned. Testing also produced numerous errors.
Correction of errors took longer than expected because changes were to be sent to the STS in the UK and the feedback was not immediate. The management ought to have known this in advance and use another system that would be in line with the project’s time frame.
PMBOK Knowledge Areas Process Group Section Evident Not Evident Comments Initiating Develop Project Charter
How has Internet Changed the Workplace and Organisations? Essay college essay help online
Since its inceptions in the early 1990, the worldwide web has dramatically changed the landscape of many organizations and the workplace. Although in many cases, the workplace and the organization culture do influence the use of information technologies in organizations, the influence is greater in the other way round.
The use of the worldwide web significantly influences many aspects of the work process in organizations. The use of the World Wide Web influences many aspects of the business like business strategy, organization culture, workplace structures; communication in the workplace and the management processes of organizations (Andrew, 2004.p35).
This paper outlines and reviews the impacts and the implications the World Wide Web has had on organizations and the workplace since its inception.
The World Wide Web made its debut in the early 1990s and triggered a wave of changes that affected many aspects of organizations and their workplace around the world. The internet has changed the way organizations operate in the modern world.
The internet technologies have changed the basis of organization structures from a basis on the use of manual labor to the use of knowledge management (Claire, 2004 p100). The use of the internet in the workplace has also changed the social systems of organizations.
The internet has also become a key factor to the competitiveness strategy of organizations (Barbara, 2003, p75).
The organizations that will not adapt to the rapid change in internet technologies cannot survive well in the modern or the future marketplace.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dramatic effects of the internet on organizations and the workplace have captured the headlines of the media and organizations have been experimenting with the ways of exploiting the internet for the maximum advantage (Jason, 2005, p332).
The modern workplace has therefore become a netcentric environment in which the capabilities and the influences of the World Wide Web have permeated the working environment on a very big scale (David, 2003. P.270).
Net centricity has triggered many changes in the workplace. One of the major changes netcentricity has been making the desktop or the personal computer a gateway to the world for communication using email and the social networking websites.
With the internet, it is now possible for organizations to use the internet to share information or exchange ideas with other organizations at nay part of the world (Kate et al 2001, p 360).
The internet has changed work context in organizations, the nature of organizations in general and has became a catalyst for new strategies for organization structures (Jackson, 2007, p. 114).
The internet has brought new factors that affected the competitive landscape of organizations, has created new competitors and rivalries and in the process creating new pressures for organizations, that many organizations find it hard to address.
The internet has changed the way people think about running organizations and has led to a change in the roles that people play in the value chain process of the organization. The World Wide Web has also made the organization landscape very competitive and has made the workplace very fast moving (Laura, 2001 p50).
We will write a custom Essay on How has Internet Changed the Workplace and Organisations? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The World Wide Web has enabled twenty-four hour connectivity through technologies such as cell phones, wireless devices and the social networking media (Linda, 2004.p220).
All these factors have resulted in a re conceptualization of what constitutes a workday or worksheet. For example, twenty-four hour connectivity has led to development of work at home professions where people work at the comfort of their home anytime for twenty hours (IDG, 2003, P34).
The internet has also led to the growth of outsourcing business. Organizations now have the chance of outsourcing their work to third parties in any part of the earth significantly changing the nature of the workplace nowadays (Lynn, 2004, p115).
The netcentric nature of the today’s workplace has changed the concept of work balance because of the highly competitive nature of the netcentric workplace that makes each worker accessible any time at any place (Information Gatekeepers nd p1).
Employees of organizations can share data with colleagues from just anywhere on earth using the internet. The internet has introduced a concept where people are always connected and always on the mode for work are both a disadvantage and a drawback the internet has brought to the workplace (IRRA, 2002.P20).
The internet has also brought many changes to the organization management and leadership structures. The management of people in the netcentric age has both opportunities and drawbacks for organizations.
The managers of organizations nowadays must learn how to use their management skills not only in the face to face environments of the traditional workplace but also acquire managerial skills that makes them to manage their workers through interaction via networks (Muragan, 2006, p100).
The employees of today now include their managers more often in their conversations through internet technologies like the social networking websites.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How has Internet Changed the Workplace and Organisations? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern day leaders and managers of organizations must therefore learn how to use and take advantage of the World Wide Web to effect change and communication in the workplace (Pavel, 2005, p24).
The World Wide Web has also brought quick access to information in the workplace. This quick access has had enormous influence of the nature of information that an employee can access on their desktops.
Intranets, social networking websites and email and blogs provides employees with the huge information that provides the workers with huge information and update information on just anything they need for in their work (Mehdi, 2006.p234).
Organizations that take advantage of this wealth of information available to employees can make use of the knowledge to make the employees able to solve problems easily and increase their productivity in the workplace (Paul, 2001, p307)
The internet has also enabled distant education and electronic learning and this changed the way many organizations provide professional development training to their employees. Distance education programs have grown at alarming rates since the advent of the internet.
The advantages of these distance-learning programs in the workplace are very powerful because they cut travelling costs for employees and the time employees spend out of work. These distant learning programs offer flexible learning opportunities for the modern day employee (Peacock, 2008.p112).
The internet has also changed the way organizations hold their employee meetings for brainstorming or organizational briefings. In the traditional way, face-to-face briefings were the main way organizations carried out these meetings.
The advent of the internet has brought innovative technologies take advantage of the internet to allow holding of these meetings virtually via the internet. Examples of these technologies include video conferencing technologies (Paul, 2001, p309)
The internet has also changed the nature of employee privacy in the modern organizations.
With the internet it is easier for organizations to servile their employee by the employers the netcentric environment of the modern day worker has greatly increased the scope and the ease in which the employers can perform surveillance of their employees (Stein, 2007 p410).
Many digital documents remain accessible for years in the internet while software that track internet surfing are very common in the workplace nowadays. Today these issues raise may ethical and legal issues in the workplace because of the violations of the privacy of the employees in the workplace (Weckert, 2010, p40).
One of the negative aspects the introduction of the internet has had on organizations and the workplace is the effect it has had on employment and displacement in jobs. The rapid rise of the internet has generated a wave of many job displacements and changes in the remuneration packages for employees (Wallace, 2004 p8).
For example, in some organizations some employees trained in certain aspects of information technology are placed in privileged categories in the workplace because of shortage in the workforce. Some types of information technology staff continue to remain in vey high demand because of short supply of these workers.
Mostly these specialized workers are placed in special compensation plans by their organizations.
In areas where there is no shortage of employees, some jobs and whole business departments in organizations have became victims of disintermediation, restructuring and phasing out leading to job losses in some organizations (Winter
Sustainable Tourism and Market Economics Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Values and ethics of sustainable tourism
Introduction As socio-environmental and economic consequences of tourism persist, there has been increasing need for the tourism industry to adopt sustainable approaches in its management of protected areas.
Sustainable tourism refers to putting in place measures that ensure that tourism activities have low impact on the region’s environment, economy as well as the local culture while generating economic benefits to the people (Mowforth and Munt 17).
It aims at providing positive experience to tourism firms, the local people as well as the tourists themselves. They also come to understand the local culture as well as the significance of conserving tourism resources.
Business management approaches have continued to dominate tourism institutionally as well as philosophically (Hall and Lew 199). The study therefore is built on market-driven approaches and strategies based on socio-environmental as well as economic strategies aimed at achieving financial sustainability.
Values and ethics of sustainable tourism Sustainable tourism advocates for inclusive and sustainable community commitment. Tourism development has to involve the community that is seeking to achieve positive benefits from tourism.
Sustainable tourism takes into account the Whole Place Development theory which advocates for development of sustainable communities.
According to Billington, Carter and Husain (5) Whole Place Development refers to the dynamic process of creating public as well as private spaces by utilizing the input of the stakeholders who are the community to develop a desirable place with good living environment where the community is able to sustain itself and prosper.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whole development helps utilize community partnerships in harnessing strategies, finance, science as well as narratives and cultures in creating socially and economically attractive, vibrant and efficient tourist destinations.
Sustainable tourism also involves balancing economic, environmental as well as social goals of tourism. This should include imposing limits and restrictions on specific tourist activities. There should be limits which are formally accepted by key stakeholders.
In addition, the carrying capacity needs to be clearly defined. Stakeholders in tourism are also obligated to provide tourists with honest information about their destinations regarding travel, hospitality as well as stays.
It has to ensure partnerships as well as establishment of balanced cooperation between tourism providers and tourists in achieving sustainable tourism development plus equitable distribution of benefits.
It must aim at benefitting those who exploit tourism resources and those who neither exploit nor damage the environment in which they stay and earn a living from without direct involvement in tourism. The local communities should be able to share equitably the cultural, social as well as the economic benefits generated.
Tourism policies should be designed to help improve the standard of living of the local people. Socio-environmental concerns have to be effectively addressed as tourist operators and developers aim to attract tourists and increase revenues. Part of the revenue should be used to develop tourism resources.
Tourism infrastructure and activities have to be designed in a manner that helps protect and conserve the natural heritage. Finally, tourism has to promote mutual understanding as well as respect among societies and between people.
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainable Tourism and Market Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mass Tourism Mass tourism refers to the act of visiting tourist destinations with a large number of people at the same time. It is therefore important to understand the impacts of a large number of visitors on a particular destination or over-exposure of a destination to a single group of tourists.
Tourism operators usually construct physical facilities based on the mental images of the physical appearance of tourist destinations and also tailor images according to what they think consumers need. In most cases, the desired image of the physical facilities influences the services and activities offered.
This could in turn consistently attract a specific group of tourists. Mass tourism is encouraged by technological developments especially in the transport sector and other tourism facilities.
According to Weaver (57) mass tourism is likely to minimize tourist interaction with the local people.
On the contrary sustainable tourism aims at achieving places where tourists and the local community are able to involve in socio-cultural exchange. Meaningful spaces help create positive interactions between the community and tourists.
Tourist operators should also define the limit of social, economic as well as ecological usage of resources to avoid adverse mass tourism impacts. The aspect of carrying capacity is very important and helps define mass tourism.
An increase in the level of mass tourism without adequate control measures put in place could damage the natural environment and the habitats for wildlife thereby interfering with the future capacity of the region to attract tourist.
For mass tourism in natural environments, the tourist operators have to provide a certain timeframe which is enough for recovery. Mitigation measures should be put in place to help avoid or recover from environmental damages attributed to mass tourism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable Tourism and Market Economics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Market Economics Market economics refers to a situation where economic decisions as well as prices of goods and services are less controlled by the government but are instead left to be determined by the interactions of citizens and businesses (Dwyer, Forsyth and Dwyer 21).
Under market economy, it is assumed that market forces like supply and demand best determine the country’s well-being. The government therefore less engages in intervention measures like price fixing, industry subsidizations as well as license quotas.
In tourism, market access and economics ensures that the tourism management works hand in hand with the regional destination management units as well as key stakeholders in order to ensure that the industry maximizes global and domestic transport systems to the tourism resources (Bull 64).
They also have to consider accommodation and intermediaries as key components of tourism (Sinclair
History of British Empire Argumentative Essay custom essay help
Introduction The European empires had common characteristics that marked colonial relationships including the importance of trade and extraction of wealth by the colonizers.
The Great Britain or the British Empire conquered vast lands in Southeast Asia and the Pacific including India after which it turned to Africa beginning with Egypt, Southern Africa, and Eastern Africa. This great accomplishment meant the colonies were forced or encouraged to venture into tradable goods thus it resulted to trade for the colony and forced labor. This marked the beginning of colonization of and these countries were placed under British rule and were not allowed to choose their own political leadership.
Colonization brought many good things to the colonies including education and other forms of civilization. However, the resulting social injustices, discrimination, and forced labor with low pay led to formation of liberation movements thus revolution by the colonies thus the beginning of decolonization in the period after the Second World War (Smith 92).
The pressure of liberation movements and other factors led to the British Empire’s decolonization of its former colonies. Given that, the British Empire was one of the most successful in capturing colonies around the globe, various historical landmarks that were beyond the Empire’s ability to contain marked decolonization.
Nevertheless, the question remains; what caused decolonization and what were the effects of the same?
Well, as exposited in this paper, the Second World War, anti-colonial movements, the United States, the United Nations declaration, the Cold War and the USSR were the main forces behind the decolonization while the end of British Empire and formation of the common wealth coupled with the bearing British legacy are some of the outstanding results of the decolonization.
Decolonization Decolonization may mean different things depending on the perspective from which one looks at it from. On one hand, it is regarded as the obtaining of independence and self-governance where the colonies could determine the form of government that they wished to rule them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the colonizers point of view, decolonization meant the giving away of political dominance of the colonies translating to loss of world power, which came after a series of historical events that discussed later (Shunhong 4).
Decolonization is the process by which a colony, in this case an oppressed country, is determined enough to demand self-governance or the right to determine the political system of their respective country.
The fact that there are many cultures in the world means that there are different ways to live thus the need for the people to determine how to live. Determining ‘how to live’ may range from how to take care of their well-being, manage their expenditure and how to express their human rights.
Though not globally accepted, decolonization is the source of today’s emphasis on democracy, good governance, and human rights activism (Hunt, Martin, Rosenwein, and Smith 8).
To some extent, the imperial retreat of the British Empire was not determined by their own will though they could manage to whom and how they would transfer power to their now enlightened colonies.
The British decolonization mainly took part after the Second World War ended in 1945 that took a general direction of confrontation between the local nationalists and the British imperialists.
It consisted of different forms and sometimes, peaceful negotiations were carried out between the colonizers and the colonies like the emancipation of the British India in 1947, while sometimes it was the result of bloody liberation wars and violent protests.
We will write a custom Essay on History of British Empire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in most cases, there were departures of the nationals and confiscation of their goods and weapons.
The British Empire’s Stages of Decolonization The Great Depression had a big impact on the industrialized world as much as it had on the rural colonies due to the fall in agricultural prices faster than those of industrial goods did from around 1925 to World War II. International trade flows were damaged because the colonial powers shifted focus to domestic issues.
While some colonies like British Malaya retreated to small-scale farming, others like India and Africa, diversified leading to industrialization and as a result, they could no longer fit into their colonies systems.
The colonizers owned and run plantations were more susceptible to deflation compared to the natives, which led to reduction in their dominance and finally their retreat back to indigenous elite.
Later in 1930s, colonial efforts made only hastened their end; most notably, they changed from collaborative systems to creation of genuine bureaucratic governments. Political nationalism sprouted all over colonies and the British Empire appeared less capable of dealing with it.
The Government Act of 1935 was the culmination of reforms in the British Raj and direct control was reduced in Egypt. The World War II was followed by post war chaos and it presented a loophole for colonies like India in mid 1940s.
India’s leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi led the masses in a peaceful resistance against the British Empire.
He became an icon of peace in comparison to the British imperialism leading to giving people a sense of nationalism. Indian citizens viewed their colonizers as the cause their violence and miseries leading to an independent India in 1947.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of British Empire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Malayan Emergency began in 1948 and lasted until 1960 and its main origin was anti Japanese movements who after the defeat of Japan in the Second World War turned to the British Empire in hope that independence would be granted.
The Malayan Muslim collaborated with the British to overcome the guerilla attacks largely made up of Malayan-Chinese. It was not until 1957 when through independence a consensus was finally reached to give independence under commonwealth.
Britain continued to dominate as a world power and established her presence in the Middle East despite losing India because of the base at Suez Canal. The Suez Crisis engineered by Britain and France in a bid to regain it from the powerful Egyptian government that had nationalized it only served to expose Britain’s hidden cracks.
It was in such agreements that followed the Suez crisis that Sudan was decolonized followed by the Gold Coast in West Africa.
The Wind of Change Speech by the British Prime Minister Macmillan marked the last stage of British decolonization.
The Prime Minister wanted to avoid a ‘colonial war’ like the one France was fighting in Algeria resulting to Britain decolonizing most of its African colonies. However, the British white settlers in Eastern and Southern Africa only served to complicate the withdrawal.
Causes of British Empire’s Decolonization The Second World War
Britain and its Empire did win the Second World War but it could not shy away from the devastating effects that the war had left both at home and in her colonies. Although Europe had previously dominated the world, it was now a limping continent because it was in ruins.
Britain was almost bankrupt because of the high cost of the war except for a negotiation of a $3.5 billion loan by the United States that helped to prevent insolvency. The loan was been repaid to the United States and the last of its installments was repaid in the year 2006.
Anti-colonial movements increased in the European nation’s colonies in the period after the Second World War.
The British considered the African colonies as immature and only introduced democratic level at the local levels or in the villages, forgetting that they had educated a number of Africans in the Western education system in the 1930s.
The leaders mentioned include Kwame Nkrumah of Gold Coast, Senghor of Senegal, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, and Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cote d’ivore. These people came back to their home countries only to begin a revolt and lead their respective countries in the struggle for independence.
The nationalistic movements arrived at different times in different territories of the empire and this explains why independence was obtained at different times. Generally, India and Malay got independence almost immediately after the Second World War while most colonies in Africa had to wait until the 1960s.
The movements used different approaches in their struggle for self-determination and independence. Some used violent protests and guerilla wars while others like Gandhi in India used non-violent protests.
The Role of the United States
The then President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 12 February 1941 in a discussion on the world matters after the war, which resulted to the Atlantic Charter.
Roosevelt was keen to introduce a provision in the charter, which stated that the imperial colonies would become autonomous implying self-governance.
The United States had the power to do impose such a clause for she was emerging as the new world power considering she had given Britain a loan to enable participation in the war. When the war ended, the African colonies and the United States exerted pressure on Britain based on these particular provisions.
Churchill had no option but to introduce the Charter in parliament, intentionally misinterpreting the term colonies to mean the ones they had captured from Germany during the war.
The Charter passed through parliament and it was on its provisions that most African colonies got independence through non-violent protests.
The Suez Canal Crisis came after the Second World War and presented another challenge for the government of the British Empire. The British wanted to maintain its wading presence in the Middle East and maintaining its base at the Suez Canal was crucial.
However, the lack of support by the United States served to weaken the prospects of British advancements and her army left in shame and defeat that led to the resignation of the then Prime Minister Anthony Eden.
The Role of USSR
The Soviet Union was the main party against colonization. The Bandung 1955 Conference of the third word countries led by Nehru for India, Nasser for Egypt and Tito for Yugoslavia led to the creation of Non-Aligned Movements in 1961 and the movements were supposedly neutral because they supported neither the “first” nor the “Second” worlds.
However, the US refused to support decolonization fully against its European allies and this led to the nationalist movements, which were yet to win independence, lean more to the East.
China later appeared on the world scene led by Mao Zedong and created a conflict between the Soviet Union and other independent movements.
Although the non-aligned movement had a goal of being independent of both the US and the Soviet Union, they finally went the way of USSR and the smaller independent movements depending on their ideologies chose either U.S.S.R or China.
An example is the Cuban government that was neutral at first but later went towards Moscow and later sponsored other liberation movements itself in Angola and Mozambique.
The Cold War
Historians do not necessarily agree on the exact time that the Cold War began but a general agreement is that, it is the period between 1947 and 1991.
The period as shown relates to the period immediately after the Second World War, which was coupled with political conflicts and economic competitions between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies.
It was because of the tension between the West and Soviet Union that each of them went ahead to support decolonization to gain global support.
Although the US was neutral in the beginning, it had to change and support decolonization based on the Atlantic Charter of 1941 that emphasized on the right of all people to choose their own form of government.
It is important to note that the Cold War rivalry complicated the aspect of decolonization further because in principle, both nations were against colonialism.
However, America was opposed to communism while the Soviet Union was against imperialism and therefore, the United States would support existence of the British Empire if only to keep communism at bay.
The United Nations Declaration
The UN General Assembly voted in favor of the ‘Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples’ (“United Nations: Declaration on Granting Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 1960”).
The declaration said in part that it recognized the desire of the world to end colonialism and that the continued existence of colonialism was a barrier to achieving international economic co-operation.
The declaration stated that everyone had a right to self-determination and further declaring that any inadequacy whether social, political, or economic was not going to be an excuse for delaying independence.
The British Empire was a member state of the UN since its formation in 1945 and was required to implement faithfully and strictly the provisions of the Charter. The Charter was a serious step towards decolonization especially for Africa whose liberation movements was greatly out-numbered military power and few numbers.
The ‘Wind of Change’
The British Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan went for a tour across the African British colony for a month. He concluded his visit by addressing the South African Parliament in Cape Town on 3 February 1960 and it is on this day that he delivered the now famous ‘Wind of Change Speech.
The speech was the clearest indication that the Conservative party led British government was planning to grant independence to its colonies in Africa. This was a continuation of what the Churchill-led government had begun during and immediately after the Second World War.
The speech owes its name to a quotation in Macmillan’s speech that declared ‘The wind of change is blowing through this continent…’ (Myers, Frank 557). The speech marked the beginning of the last phase of British decolonization and most of the African British colonies won independence between 1960 and 1968.
However, this wind of change excluded Southern Rhodesia where racism had prompted the British colonial rule to supervise until 1980 when elections were held and Robert Mugabe became the Prime Minister of the newly formed state of Zimbabwe after winning the elections held in 1980.
End of the British Empire
By 1981 after granting independence to Zimbabwe, the New Hebrides and Belize in 1980 and 1981 respectively meant an end to the decolonization process that had began after 1945.
However, in 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Island one of the British overseas territories and the British were quick to respond in a bid to retake the island, which was seen as an opportunity to rejuvenate itself and prove as a world power.
Later, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand delinked their respective constitutions from Britain that meant an end to British involvement in constitutional changes of these countries. The last major British territory that remained was Hong Kong that British government had to negotiate a deal with China.
It was agreed that Hong Kong would be an administrative region of the People’s Republic of China and this remained so until the handing over that took place in 1999. This handing over ceremony according to some that marked an end to the British Empire.
The British Empire Legacy
The Great Depression of the 1930’s, the Second World War, and the decolonization period marked a downward trend of the British Empire from where it were regarded as a world power until the emergence of the US and U.S.S.R who came to undermine Britain’s superiority.
However, the British Empire has proved to be the most successful of all the colonizers of the world. Until 2002, Britain had 14 overseas territories spread across the globe although British sovereignty of some of these territories lies in dispute.
These territories still rely on the British government for foreign relations and defense although they govern themselves. Britain succeeded in passing to its former colonies several of their cultures, traditions, and institutions.
The English language is a mark of the dominance of the British Empire and spoken by approximately one and a half billion people around the globe today (Hogg 224).
Most of the former colonies used the format of the English parliamentary system as the starting point of their governments and most of their constitutions that they are still using today were drafted in the United Kingdom.
During colonization, the Empire drew boundaries some of which became sources of conflicts between indigenous people and sometimes between the indigenous and white settlers from its former colonies.
The British Empire exported among other things its sports for example, football and the idea of driving on the left hand drive.
The British Empire gave birth to the British Commonwealth, which was later to be known as The Commonwealth. The Commonwealth is an intergovernmental organization of fifty-three independent member states all of which are former colonies of Britain except Mozambique and Rwanda.
These member states work together guided by the Singapore Declaration on 22 January 1971 after the conclusion of the first Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting where they promote upholding of human rights, good governance, democracy and observing the rule of law among others (Shunhong 77).
Conclusion The British Empire had conquered the world with its economic and military power but it is important to note that it is on these same points of economic power and military strength that was its greatest undoing. The Second World War also exposed the colonies to politics empowering them through education.
Its passion to remain a world power made it to enter into debt and the British economy almost crumbled, which was the beginning of the process of decolonization by the British Empire that ended around 1980.
These reasons certainly caused the British Empire to give in to the pressure of the independent movements and decolonize its colonies.
The British Empire however, did not become extinct and the formation of the commonwealth is a testimony of the same. Continued partnerships and bilateral trade agreements between Britain and its former colonies go a long way to state the fact that colonization had a lasting effect to the colonized countries.
However, in today’s world, the effects of colonialism have continued to cause pain and suffering to former British colonies in the form of weak governments, civil instabilities, and human rights violations.
Talking of human rights violations, a delegate of former freedom fighters from Kenya accompanied by their lawyers visited the United Kingdom last month to present a case in court to be compensated for bodily harms caused during the colonization epoch.
It will be important to look into a form of decolonization that will involve new negotiations on the benefits the Empires got through contemporary trade and political relations.
Works Cited Hunt, Lynn, et al. The Making of the West Peoples and Culture. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008.
Myers, Frank. “Harold Macmillan’s ‘Wind of Change’ Speech: A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Policy Change.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 3.4 (2000): 555-575.
Shunhong, Zhang. The Collapse of the British Empire. China Social Science Documentation Publishing House, 1997.
Smith, Tony. A Comparative Study of French and British Decolonization. Comparative Studies in Society and History 20.1 (1978): 70-102.
Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia Essay college essay help near me
War historians and political analysts are in agreement that the ideological, economic and political conflicts between the Soviet Union and the United States immediately after World War 2 influenced, in large part, the formation and political orientation of many countries in Eastern Europe.
Indeed, the deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the two countries coupled with the Soviet’s Union’s gradual influence in Europe before the end of the war played a significant role in initializing the Cold War era (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).
This paper purposes to analyze how the former Yugoslavia regime functioned during the Cold War Era.
In particular, the paper will analyze the pillars of the regime’s support, the extent to which it employed the cult of personality or ideology, how it re-organized the nation’s economy and society, and how it fitted into the overall picture of European and International politics.
Under the firm control of Josip Tito, the former Yugoslavia regime central pillar of support came in the form of embracing a vigorous program of socialization that was deeply rooted in Marxist theories.
Although Tito leaned towards the socialist policies learned from his former training in the Soviet Union, he pursued an independent course in foreign relations and refused to be subdued by what he termed as the Soviet’s bureaucratic caste and the its attempts to subjugate Yugoslavia’s economy (Banerji, 1950).
This implies that the regime benefited from Financial, military and technology aid from the United States and other Western powers, who were keen on using Tito’s uncompromising stand on the Soviet’s socialist policies to nip its budding influence on Eastern European countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also imperative to note that the regime thrived on crushing opposition voices, executing leaders perceived to entrench a different ideological orientation other than communism, and limiting intellectual freedom (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).
Tito’s regime in former Yugoslavia was deeply rooted in communist and Marxist ideologies. Individuals like Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin were exalted for providing the art and the science through which the regime thrived, and any form of capitalism or revisionism was dispelled (Banerji, 1950).
A comprehensive analysis of some of Tito’s works reveals that Lenin’s personality cult was deeply entrenched in Yugoslavia in the form of a strict system of command as well the people’s unconditional obedience to the rule’s and demands of the regime (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).
Consequently, Tito, the regime leader, was able to overwhelmingly impose himself upon the national communist party and the state.
Tito’s regime in former Yugoslavia re-organized the national economy along the contours of redistribution of wealth.
The regime decried the economic model used by the Soviet Union, which it said perpetrated capitalism through selling commodities as high as possible to achieve as much financial gain as possible from other socialist countries (Banerji, 1950).
The regime re-organized the national’s economy by giving factories to the working class with the aim of strengthening this group of the population. This, according to Tito, was in line with the science of Marxism and Leninism.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In redistribution of wealth, profitable organizations were taxed to subsidize unprofitable ones, and employed workers were taxed to subsidize unemployed workers in line with the socialist policy of profit-sharing among community members (Vodopivec, 1990).
A national fund for capital accumulation was established, and each factory or organization was obliged to give a proportion of its accumulated funds – calculated in relation to its productivity – to improve the living standards of the workers and to promote general industrial development (Banerji, 1950).
The compression of personal income disparities within an organization was also encouraged for the purpose of achieving equality among the working class (Vodopivec, 1990).
This compression was also aimed at minimizing discontent among the masses that, according to the regime, could be triggered by unequal distribution of wealth.
Lastly, it can be argued that Tito’s national socialist regime was lukewarmly accommodated by western powers, mainly by Truman and Eisenhower administrations in the U.S., particularly in its conflict with Stalin and its blatant refusal to align its internal and overseas policies to the Soviet hegemony (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).
The two U.S. administrations were willing to ignore the ideological differences that existed between the former Yugoslavia and the Western world in order to attain potentially substantial geopolitical advantages (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).
However, other European countries had their reservations for an independent but still socialist Yugoslavia.
Reference List Banerji, K. 1950. “Interview with Marshal Tito.” Fourth International 11, no. 6, 188-192. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eskridge-Kosmach, A.N. 2009. “Yugoslavia and U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1960-1970’s of the 20th Century.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 22, no. 2, 383-418.
Marxists Internet Archive. n.d. “Josip Broz Tito 1892-1980.” Web.
Vodopivec, M. 1990. “How redistribution hurts productivity in a socialist economy (Yugoslavia).” World Bank. Web.
Advertising and Promotion Report essay help: essay help
Executive summary Advertisement plays a key role in business operations. The market position of a given product company will highly be influenced by the company’s ability to expose their products to their customers and how they prove their products to be well above the others in the market.
The medium that is used in the advertisement will affect its effectiveness, as it will reflect on the size of the audience reached. There has been a constant shift on the media that are appropriate for advertisement due to the technological advances that are registered daily.
With the increased technology and the increased competition in the current markets, many companies would want to produce products that have incorporated more than one function.
The convergence enables some kind of flexibility in the products and services that these companies can deliver to the market and will greatly contribute to their high position in the global market.
A key contributor to the current rapid technological advances is the increasing need to do away with the analogue system and adopt digital equipments. The shift from analogue to digital signal system is set to provide a more relaxed environment to the users in the technology world.
It will also be a basis for competition among various production companies. The conversion to digital technology is also positively influencing the sales of products as it reduces the cost of selling a given music product.
Introduction Music, movies, and games are liked by a good proportion of the UK population and thus the music industry is one of the major industries in the region. Music, in particular, is viewed not only as a local but also as a global culture (Brown, et al, 2000, p.2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rise in the modern technology has increased the individual’s access to these products. A good proportion of the population listens to music from their computers.
There is need by the companies that specialize in these products to find ways through which the products could be accessed easily by their customers. This calls for the service of an advertisement agency.
The agency considers the kinds of products that organizations produce and the target group for such products. It then examines the communication medium that is most popular among the identified groups and carries out the advertisements.
The industry has recently suffered great losses resulting from piracy. Despite the copyright acts that prohibit the vice, many users still obtain these entertainment products through illegal procedures. However, more legislation and strategies are being set that are likely to end piracy in the near future.
The principles underlying the roles of the Accounts Manager The account manager of any organization or agency will be charged with various responsibilities that are geared towards the success of the organization. As the accounts manager of the advertising agency, I had to establish and maintain good business relationship with our clients (Field, 2009, p.106; Ryals
The Success of Organizational Learning Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
The journal by Helen Shipton called “Towards a typology for organizational learning research,” compares and contrasts approaches to organizational management as there exists a close linkage between individual training and entire workplace training (Shipton, 2006).
This paper discuses the main issues and contributions brought about in the article.
The article gives reference to scholars who seems to have been the originators and first advocators for organizational learning, Cyert and March (1963) according to these early scholars, organizations respond to changes in the external environments and it is through the external environments that they align their organizations learning needs.
To some extent, the above observation of early scholars still holds however in modern times, strategic management approaches to business management puts less emphasis on need for organizational learning to have been initiated by an external influence (Kleiman, 2000).
They are of the opinion that the best approach to organizational learning is to have an ongoing program of learning, training, developing, mentoring, coaching and counseling to ensure that operations within an organization are well up-to-date.
In modern organizational learning theories, there exists a close relationship between organizational learning and performance in an organization; as brought about in prescriptive/normative theory literature, organizations that have well framed learning programs have higher tendencies of having higher outcomes; they make decisions that are responsive to the needs of business environment/industry.
Apple Inc. has become the world’s largest electronic industry because of its well planned organizational culture, the company ensures that there is a believing on the changes happening in the industry, as a response to the learning programs, staffs have come-up with new methods of reducing operating costs and have innovated new products (Henderson, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Zappo International Company has enacted policies that facilitate learning in the organization, they involve their staffs in decision making and keeps undertaking internal and external situational analysis to see the areas that employees needs training.
When appraising staffs, which takes place quarterly, the management leaves a section to be filled by staffs on areas they need training; this has facilitated training in the international apparels company (Muller, Maclean and Biggs, 2009).
How theories brought about can be advanced in the future and what challenges must be overcome
Though organizational learning has been taken as one of strategic management approach deeply in rooted in organizations, and undertaken by human resources management assisted with other line managers, in the future the area should be a full department and section within an organization.
It would yield better results if there were some people within an organization who can liaise with human resources, production departments, marketing, research and developing, business intelligence, and customer relation management teams to come up with policies and identify learning needs in an organization.
Such a department will ensure that an organization gets the right training, mentorship, and coaching to facilitate an improved business (Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003).
The success of organizational learning is hindered by internal and external factors facing an organization if the factors are not managed appropriately; internal factors include organizational culture, organizational politics, leadership and informal team in the organization.
To ensure that the practice is not hindered, management has the role of developing effective communication systems that facilitate sharing of information across the organization.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Success of Organizational Learning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture should be shaped to support training and mentorship programs; leaders should always have it in mind that organizational learning can only be effective if trainers and mentors are well informed and have good training skills (Hornsby and Warkeoczeski, 2000).
References Henderson, R., 2003. Compensation Management in a Knowledge-Based World. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hornsby, T. and Warkeoczeski, L. 2000. New roles for leaders: A step-by-step guide to competitive advantage. Franklin: Hillsboro Press.
Kleiman, L.,2000. Human Resource Management: A Tool for Competitive Advantage. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing.
Meinolf, D., Ariane, A., John, C. and Ikujiro, N.,2003. Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Muller, J., Maclean, R. and Biggs, H., 2009. The impact of a supportive leadership program in a policing organization from the participants’ perspective. Work, 32(1),Pp. 69-79.
Shipton, H.,2006. Cohesion or confusion? Towards a typology for organizational learning research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(11), PP.1468-2370
Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar Critical Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Falling angels is the third novel of Tracy Chevalier, an American born writer. It began in January 1901, which marked a new epoch since Queen Victoria had died. Her son, Dandy King Edward became an emperor. This novel presumes a wide cultural focus, looking at death and burial as shown hundred years ago.
This narrative is ruthlessly prepared with around ten first person voices all of them differing in age and societal position. Girls, looked upon maids, disturbed fathers and the gravediggers son form the main characters of this novel and help carry the story line.
This novel describes how fundamentally societies can transform within the space of ten years. Tracy Chevalier in her setting of this novel was motivated by her increasing interest in eras of change, moving from one array of values to another (Tracy 215).
Two incompatible families are obliged into contact by a condition of having elaborate family graves. One of the graves is triumphed by an angel while the other one is surmounted by an urn. The two tombs are besides each other.
One of the families is advancive of intellectual personalities and tastes while the other is firmly bourgeois, being totally spiritual and conventional.
Elements of lost arts of entombments and grieving in this narrative are fascinating and prompts us on how much peoples approaches to death has culturally detached us from our predecessors.
Tracy Chevalier in this novel investigates the injustice and faults of a changing time in opposition to a gas lit background of societal and political history. Tracy chevalier in her novel discusses a theme with a great effect to the society, which is the status of the female individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will discuss gender inequality as demonstrated in this novel and assess how post modernism has helped solve this problem (Mitchell 138).
Gender inequality and post modernism as illustrated in this novel Tracy Chevalier in this novel illustrates an actual division between male and female sexes. The female world functions nearly as a subversive movement with predicaments of sex and pregnancy being dealt with without discussing or complaining to the men folk.
Post modernism refers to a movement away from the perspective of modernism. It entails the conviction that noticeable realities are merely societal constructs and are vulnerable to change. Post modernism in this novel emphasizes sharp issues such as gender inequality, that is, males versus females (Benhabib 141).
In this novel, post modernism tries to problematise modernist boldness, by depicting how confident the females in this novel need to be in order to meet their theoretical purposes.
Women characters in this novel especially Kitty Coleman struggle to obtain self determination and overwhelm loneliness. It shows how issues faced by female characters in this novel differ with the issues faced by women today.
Post modernism in this novel is illustrated through feminism whereby the women in this novel get involved in movements headed for identifying, instituting and safeguarding equal political, financial and social rights. Its perceptions go beyond those of womens’ privileges.
Feminism is a post modernism aspect which mainly concentrates on womens issues. Since feminism tries to find gender equality, men’s freedom is an essential part of it.
We will write a custom Essay on Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feminism in this novel is seen through the surfacing of feminist movements such as the womens suffragettes association. It also entails the social creation of sex and gender.
Feminist campaigners in this novel are seen to be struggling for womens rights such as education, rights to vote and reproductive rights. Women are in opposition to domestic aggression and sexual harassment ( Hamilton and Jones 318).
Gorgeous and restless, Kitty Coleman and the plain religious Gertrude Waterhouse are the main female character in this novel.
Kitty looks forward to modernism while Gertrude sticks to Victorian customs.Richard Coleman, Kitty’s’ husband, initiates the novel as an open minded scientist devoted to his wife but towards the middle, he becomes an opponent and suppresses Kitty.
These matriarchs are completely opposed in nature yet they develop to a moving joint society reflecting its inflexible class distinctions. Supporting feminism in this story is the cruel ubiquitous truth of male power and the impediments of prudery. This makes actual interactions between both male and females impossible.
This is evident when Kitty’s husband instructs her to have sex with another man. She conforms to this with no complaining. In this case, Kitty falls under the enchantment of a drastic feminist. She even carries out an abortion at a time when this is frankly risky.
Post modernism in this case is shown where Kitty enthusiastically turns her concentration to the women’s suffrage movement. It is clear that discussing with these intellectual women gives Kitty some of the psychological sustenance she needs.
She gets drawn in womens rights and starts to dump the Victorian regulations. The woman’s suffragist movement played a very big role in the society. It was concerned with women who didn’t worry about politics or those uninterested in search of enthusiasm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender inequality in this novel is further demonstrated where bright adult women were not allowed to take part in public live and in nearly all intellectual undertakings. This is evident where early in the novel, Kitty stares at her husband go for work.
She feels a sense of enviousness just like she had felt before while young as she watched her brother leave for school. Girls were kept from going to school. She however cannot help this situation and only begins to cry. Kitty seems to be uninterested with her family and her way of living.
She craves of being back to her home with her fostering father and brother in order to be liberated to learn and make art. In this novel, men do not understand how education could fit women for any broadly extending responsibility until they came to an agreement of their true stable duty in the society.
Male chauvinism is also illustrated where the existence of young females at home is taken as a basis of anxiety. Families with daughters are not interested in seeing their daughters happily married but in the finances they get if marriage occurs. This novel plays a role in depicting promiscuity in females.
Fallen women including seduced maidens and remorseful maladies are portrayed as playing a didactic role to caution the female audience against the remunerations of sinful sexual satisfaction. Paradoxically, such tasks were played by the same women who had tentatively yielded to such enticements as actresses.
Tracy deems the actress and prostitute areas of work as parallel and not automatically convergent. She contrasts female musicians who present on the public stage with prostitutes.
Such women are in close immediacy since prostitutes were very common in concert halls. Daughters who chose these kinds of life were regarded dead in their families.
Due to this issue of gender inequality, Maude, the only daughter of Coleman, is seen to suffer devastatingly rather than declare her menstruation to her father.
She is not free with her father and cannot explain to him her menstrual problems. She therefore continues to perform her home duties at the expense of her suffering. These approaches are however shifting with the new century.
Gender inequality is also illustrated where women were not allowed to participate in elections. During this time, almost all men were allowed to vote discriminating only those who did not possess property, those living with their bosses, male illicit and lunatics.
This is so unfair since women have contributed so much to bring in peoples liberty and rights. Post modernism was however demonstrated in this novel since women started agitating for their rights to vote in 1906.
Tracy Chevalier in this novel is concerned with the continuing change in the role of women in the society. In reality, Richard Coleman has insignificant grounds for disapproving his wife’s’ conduct. The novel opens with a stint of wife swaps initiated by him.
Post modernism here is seen where Kitty denies Richard the right of entry to her bed from the time Maude, their only daughter, was born. Tracy Chevalier also illustrates how women have changed sexuality to their benefits in the twentieth century.
Women in this novel achieve a right to be heard at a very high cost. Feminine character is built and maintained through enduring pain and sacrificing. Kitty Coleman enrols in the womens suffragettes association so as to make an assertion before a traditionalistic husband and a dictatorial mother in law.
Kitty becomes a member of this movement hoping that she is doing so for her daughter Maude, to enable her to vote and go to institutions of higher education. This would allow Maude to be possibly free from the powers of any man. However, Kitty is slightly understood by Maude.
She relentlessly suffers from lonesomeness. Post modernism in this case is demonstrated whereby Kitty recompenses with her own life for preferring a path different from that designed by her mother in-law (Anderson 72).
Gender inequality is also portrayed whereby in the Victorians brains, women are perpetuated as sensualised, vulnerable and fallen. Money due to its shady influence is said to belong to a man’s world and not in a woman’s extra ethical world.
The base of the issue of women rolling up at the public stage was the tie in Victorian minds. This was between female artists and prostitutes who sanctioned to be employed for the amusement of anyone who could pay for the price. Female actresses were equittted with prostitutes.
Gender inequality is also portrayed where upper and middle category women were not permitted to work beyond their homes and in remunerative jobs. Their hypothetical idleness at their homes acted as a symbol of the male relative capabilities to sustain them in a manner applicable to their social status.
Cases where women played a role in the family income or were self accommodating were considered unfavourable on gender responsibilities. Social accountability was at risk.
Post modernism was applied in cases where the society recognized that some gentle women families were facing hard times from the demise of husband or father or from other monetary constraints. Women in this case were allowed to work until the financial crisis was resoluted.
Women were restricted employment chances due to lack of solid edifications or marketable skills. This predicament was especially common in spinsters who lacked sufficient funds. They therefore ended up doing dress making jobs or acting as ladys’ attendants. All these were carried out under a home environment.
In this novel, women were supposed to be satisfied with what men considered necessary for them. Men had all the authority in the world though they succeeded to women only a small segment of this power.
Women in this novel are encouraged to present their music in commission to others rather than for self enhancement. Young women equipped with a skill in music sought jobs as music governess in homes or as presenters in public appointments.
This was however opposite to the males who were allowed to present their music in national functions.
Conclusion Feminists believe that women are unrestricted to equal rights and respects. People are however not required to give a judgement on the fact that women are being treated unfairly in the society.
The causes of disagreements both with and within feminism are however hard to identify. As a result feminists should have certain goals for creating social change on the behalf of women.
The above explained novel focuses on the development of female characters. Women in the society should follow the character traits of Kitty so as to live a happy life.
They should join women movements that bring meaning to their lives. As such, women should struggle by all means to fight cases of gender inequality and male chauvinism which act as hindrances to their success.
Works cited Anderson, Elizabeth. What is the Point of Equality? London: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
Benhabib, Seyla. Situating the Self: Gender, Community, and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print.
Hamilton, Geoff and Jones, Brian. Contemporary Writers and Their Work: Literary Movements. NY: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.
Mitchell, Sally. The fallen Angel: Chastity, Class and Womens reading 1835-1880. NY: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981. Print.
Tracy, Chaveliar. Actresses as working women: Their social identity in Victorian Culture. London: Routledge, 1991. Print.
Guantanamo Bay best college essay help: best college essay help
In the light of the growing interest over whether the United States Administration is faulting with the rights and freedom of several hundred unlawful combatants still detained in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, it is imperative to critically evaluate if the notion of “jihad” has been overhyped by policy makers, the media and other stakeholders interested in the fight against global terrorism, and if majority of the detainees still held in the facility are indeed radical extremists or disaffected and confused men.
The knowledge that many of detainees still held in Guantanamo bay are Islamic terrorists focused on carrying out “holy war” under the banner of “jihad” is in public domain (Aaron, 2008).
To comprehend the US Administration’s attitude in the Guantanamo Bay case, one only needs to remember the brute and unwarranted killings of innocent civilians in the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Since that date, the U.S. considers itself to be in a constant state of war against international terrorism which is largely perpetrated by jihadis and other terrorist organizations. To therefore assume that the notion of jihad has been hyped is to miss the point.
The jihadis have avowedly sought “…the destruction of western democracy and the conversion of the world to their concept of Islam” (Aaron, 2008, p. 1).
It is important to note that not only do the jihadis perpetrate their murderous killings based on a largely misplaced notion of the ‘holy war’ as described in Islam (Aaron, 2008), but it is increasing hard for the U.S. to wage war against a common stateless enemy scattered throughout the world.
In addition, jihadis are extremely dangerous since they come from a culture and religious orientation that is largely incomprehensible to the U.S., not mentioning that they do not speak with one voice (Aaron, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, all necessary measures need to be put in place to guard against these extremists and to stress the real dangers posed by these stateless groups.
On this account, it is strategically wrong and politically irresponsible to assume that the concept of jihad has been overhyped since this amount to conferring on jihad terrorists’ greater legitimacy and will to attack than they already have.
There exist many reasons and influences as to why many unsuspecting young Muslims leave their homes and volunteer to join jihad.
Indeed, Curcio (2005) cites influence of imams, devotion to Islam, indoctrination with untenable religious beliefs and unemployment as some of the factors that influence young men to join the movement.
But however much one would want to sympathize with these unsuspecting minds, the damage they cause cannot escape mention.
What is perplexing is the fact that the adherents of jihadism believe that they can achieve their goals, especially the creation of a global fundamentalist Islamic State, through violent means (Aaron, 2008).
It is therefore of immediate necessity to put in place strong measures to quell this utopian line of thought, which is in essence not supported by mainstream Islam. In this perspective, the question of hyping the notion of jihad does not even arise; states must at all times be prepared about the possibility a terrorist attack.
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The Regulation of OHS in Australia Research Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Case of Miner’s Death
The Trapped Miner
The BHP Leinster Mine Case
List of References
Introduction The OHS regulation in Australia has undergone transformations owing to elevated levels of industrialization and material processing.
The “National Occupational Health and Safety Strategy 2002-2012” is operational in Australia since its adoption in 2002 by the Ministry of Workplace relations (CCH Australia Limited, OHS Industry and Legal Authorities
Creativity and Creative Industries Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction: Creativity and creative industries Creativity can be referred to as developing of a new substance that has never existed; it could be a solution or product. Creativity occurs if one invents something new that has never existed, or if it exists elsewhere, the creator is not aware of it.
Creativity can also refer to a new process of tackling something or inventing a new idea. One can also introduce an existing product into a totally different market.
With the emerging technology, upcoming industrious people are able to create their work and hence establishing outlets for their creativity as a way of promoting and distributing their creative work. The creative industries may include design, architecture, writing and publishing, music, photography, and performing arts.
The screen production such as in the television is inclusive. Hence, creative industries are economic activities that concentrate on the generation of knowledge and ideas.
These industries are usually as a result of an individual creativeness inclusive of talents and skills (Queensland University of technology, n.d). Nevertheless, the creative industries contribute widely in a country’s economy due to their uniqueness in their operations, thus attracting many clients from within and abroad.
Creativity yields creative industries, which in turn lead to employment, growth, and development in a country. Hence, creative industries contribute to gross domestic product (GDP), in distribution term and job creation (Henry, 2007, pp 9).
To build creative organizations, knowledge and leadership is required; therefore, the presence of an ideal leader is important. This is a person who has the capabilities of spotting an idea that suits well with the needs of an organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is an entrepreneur who finds ways of selling and guiding his/her through implementation. He is however conscious of how his ideas can be affected by contradicting actions of managers who are not keen.
However, creativity is challenged by several factors, for instance, it is not easy to demonstrate the value of a new service or product that is not in existence. New ideas may be threatening to the existing market; nevertheless, if they sail through, developing of these ideas in to tangible products may be an easy task.
There are a number of factors that an ideal leader should consider including the surrounding environment, which must promote idea generation. Scanning for new opportunities should be done continuously by clarifying the emerging problem.
Practical techniques should also be implemented to encourage the generation of new possibilities. When the idea is finally implemented, a follow-up should be done regularly to ensure that the idea follows the right track (Arnold, 2010).
Creativity can fall in many categories, for instance, the private health sectors. In is evident that private hospitals have more medical facilities as compared to public hospitals, which are limited to facilities.
This is most evident in developing countries where a patient has to be referred to a private hospital to be attended. This may be due to the fact that a certain machine is only available in a certain private hospital.
The profound point here is that, the management of such a hospital thought through how to attract patients or gain fame as a hospital. They then opted to import an expensive life saving machine form abroad, after surveying and discovering that such a machine does not exist in any of the hospitals in that country.
We will write a custom Essay on Creativity and Creative Industries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such an idea changes the lives of many people in the society, from the patient to the new employees / experts needed to operate the machine. Another example could be establishing a borehole in a community that has scarcity of water and by use of technology, pumping the water to taps.
The business can decide on how to charge for the water service, thus making a community’s life easier and at the same time making money.
Creativity is what gives sight to the blind, and what provides a better heart to the children with a heart condition. Through creativity, these surgeries are innovated, studied, and taught to medical specialists such that, when they perform the surgeries, they are a success.
Therefore, everything in our lives revolves around creativity, which develops into ideas that form creative industries that deal with different products and services.
Hence, creativity has contributed greatly to the community in that, it provides quality life for people in the society, and this is evident through a number of creative industries that surround us; architecture, designs, advertising, software, publishing, internet, electronics, infrastructure, among others.
With technological know-how, our live move a little fast, since we no longer have to send an urgent letter via post office – that task can be completed through an instant chat message or through yahoo-mail or face book.
Despite the importance associated with creative industries, the cultural industries are also of benefit to a country such as the museums. However, it is due to their tradition state probably shuns visitors away; nevertheless, creative industries can boost such industries technologically to revive their fame.
The creative industries can also contribute to the cultural industries via architectural services, thus improving the outward image of these heritages.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creativity and Creative Industries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internet has emerged as a result of creative industries, with its presence tasks are completed faster and communication is much easier due to the social clouds like facebook, my space among others.
Information can also be acquired fast due to the search sites such as; Google, wikipedia and yahoo among others which can be referred to as information clouds.
With the emerge of cloud culture, the internet has enabled exchange of information through chatting which enables one to express themselves and understand other peoples culture through interaction with other online communities.
Culture gives us a sense of belonging and identity and hence through sharing of information and interaction, through clouds such as facebook, twitter and my space among others.
Knowledge is the key to success, since it is through knowledge that one can be able to develop a generated idea. However, according to Arnold (2010), creativity may be faced by obstacles if the organization’s culture, does not entertain new ideas, but instead it criticizes them.
Management may not be willing to take risks, thus hindering implementation of ideas. In organization where workload is routine and unrealistic expectations are required, it proofs difficult for the creativity to occur, since employee are always occupied with work.
New Zealand’s creative industries According to a journal by Fritsch (2008), creativity is seen as a process mostly, other than a product – in the earlier years, people used their own skills and to expand.
In addition, with the presence of creative process, it leads to creative production and if creative output is emphasized, definitely a creative outcome results, hence leading to an economic success.
The creative industries in New Zealand lead to the creation of goods, services, and knowledge in the textile, design, fashion, production, art and even in the photography sector.
According to Grants et al (2009), the New Zealand creative industries led to 121,000 jobs in 2006; nevertheless, this sector led to increase of incomes, such that, as in 2006, the employee earned about $52,000 per year.
A community creates a relationship that encourages the exchange of ideas and risk taking in a business environment. Nevertheless, the relationship in creative industries included a number of elements among them being an idea, which resulted to a process, experience, innovation, and collaboration.
Creative industries are a part of Auckland, which is in New Zealand. According to Bruin (2005, pp 143), the creative industries in New Zealand are well acknowledged since it is believed to be a major contributor to the country’s economy.
The New Zealand film industry is an example of a creative industry, which has over the years, attained recognition internationally by participating in movie production. For instance, the return of the lords, the whale rider, resulted to winning of an award like the Oscar for the actors, directors, screen artist, and digital animators in 2004.
Due to technology, New Zealand has special effects on their productions, hence producing award-winning films for their international clients. Some other movies that have generated from New Zealand are king-Kong, the lion, the witch, and the wardrobe, X-men, the last samurai, among others.
The New Zealand’s government in 2000 contributed $22 million to the filming production fund, whose aim is to build experienced talents, which will be needed to aid in the development and growth of the filming industry, hence providing jobs opportunities (Bruin, 2005 pp145).
Indeed, this country’s location provides amazing sceneries, thus making it appropriate for filming.
The country’s infrastructure is a plus hence it has been effective in terms of transport and communication networks, which are inclusive of broadband connections, hence effective while coordinating film shooting between new Zealand and another country.
Digital content industry is another creative industry that has grown rapidly in New Zealand, such that, the country is rated among the leaders in this sector. It includes internet animation, game software, digital publishing, and television commercial production.
This industry includes the hallmark production, which is a creative innovation, and has the ability of meeting the world’s demand. The New Zealand multimedia industry serves over 20 countries, and seeks to find other emerging markets.
Some of these industries include sunshine brook, which concentrates on publishing of literacy materials, such as animated CD-ROMs. Another company is the Sidhe interactive, which produces games, and is trending on up-to-date technology with outstanding designs, thus producing original and licensed titles (Anon, 2011).
In addition, New Zealand produces a high level and quality crossbred wool in the world. The favorable farming environment has been a major contributor to the quality production; nevertheless, the country’s wool is regarded as uniform, white, and free from dark fibers and contamination.
This wool yields carpets, beddings, textiles, and even winter jackets, hence earning itself a large market share globally and also providing employment, thus boosting the economy.
In 2008- 2009, New Zealand produced about 154,000 tones of wool ranging as the third highest producer worldwide, hence being able to earn $731 million from its wool export globally. Therefore, this evidently shows how these creative industries are worth in a country and to the community at large.
The relationship between the creativity and community According to Hagoort
NO TITLE Essay college admission essay help
Large corporations and businesses introduce new products and services in order to fulfill a market need and make profits. The new-product development process is discussed in your text. Using this as a basis, research product failures that have affected companies in the past and have cost them a substantial amount of money and may also have adversely affected their market reputation, tarnishing their brands.
Research the web and pick one such product failure for a Fortune 500 company and describe this failure. NOTE: A product failure, not a “company” failure such as Blockbuster and not a “discontinued” product because of a failed part, such as the Ford Pinto which was in production and sold for 10 years but was discontinued because of a faulty fuel system and placement of its gas tank. And, not a service failure.
At a minimum, you are expected to provide:
Information about the company
The rationale for the introduction of this product
The costs associated with the product (development and losses)
Synthesize your position on 3 – 5 reasons or specific factors you believe most likely contributed to the product failure, using the product development process in the text
Offer your analysis.
This is a one to two paragraph exercise – do not go overboard, concise description of the company, product, and major reasons you believe it failed.
Suggested Failure Examples For Review (that you may use)
McDonald’s Arch Deluxe Burger
Coors Rocky Mountain Sparkling Water
ESPN Mobile Phone
Not Considered Failures
Samsung Galaxy Phone (battery failed)
WOW Chips (profited from the product)
Heinz Colored Ketchup (profited from the product)
Use three or more references and citations, in APA format, to support your position.
Holy Farm Management Evaluation Essay best essay help
Executive Summary The core business activity of Holy Farm was production and sale of milk and cereals. However, the revenues generated from these activities have since declined. In order to increase revenue, the farm was opened to the public. Members of the public were allowed to visit the farm at a fee. The main attraction at the farm includes the milking parlor where the visitors watch the milking process. The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day.
However, the owners of the farm have not been able to receive the required 250 visitors per day. Thus, their main concern is to increase the number of visitors to the farm. This objective can be achieved in the following ways. First, the farm can be opened for a longer period. In particular, it can be opened in all months instead of closing it from November to March.
The farm can also be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. Second, the number of visitors can be increased by organizing educational trips and special events such as dance and coach parties. Finally, more revenue can be generated by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. These can be opened through outsourcing.
Managing Processes Introduction
Holy Farm initially focused on the production and sale of milk and cereals. Following a decline in profits from their core business activities, Holy Farm was opened up to the public in order to generate more revenue. Consequently, the owners of the farm constructed car parks. They also constructed a safe viewing area where the visitors can watch the milking process. Currently, the farm targets schools and the local community with its new services.
The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day. However, the owners of Holy Farm are yet to realize the expected returns on their new venture (opening the farm to the public). In general, the number of people visiting the farm has been fluctuating. The demand for visits to the farm is high from April to October, and remains very low in other months. Consequently, the farm is often closed from November to March.
The number of visitors is also very low during the week days. As a result, the farm is usually opened from Friday to Monday. The number of visitors received on Sundays and Saturdays is usually double the number of visitors who tour the farm on Monday and Friday. In light of these fluctuations, the owners of the farm intend to increase the number of visitors by 50%.
However, the farm faces financial constraints and, thus, cannot depend on capital investment to increase its capacity. Consequently, the owners intend to increase the number of visitors through sales promotions and advertisements. In this paper, the current capacity of Holy Farm will be analyzed. The optimal ways of achieving the targeted capacity will then be discussed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current Capacity
The productive capacity of a firm is the total amount of output in terms of goods and services it can produce within a given time period (Nigel, Alistair and Robert, 2011, p. 299). Potential capacity is the maximum amount of output that can be produced by the firm’s installed equipment and human resources (Clark and Robert, 2008, p. 45).
Actual capacity is the actual amount of goods and services produced by the firm within a certain period. Thus, capacity utilization “is the percentage of the firm’s total possible production capacity that is actually being used”.
Holy Farm’s owners invested in a milking parlor in which 150 cows can be milked using a slow-moving turntable. They also constructed a gallery to enable visitors to watch the milking process. 80 people per hour visited the gallery from 4.30pm to 7.00pm. This means that the milking parlor was open for two and half hours per day.
Thus, the capacity can be calculated by multiplying 80 (visitors per hour) by two and half hours. The result which is 200 is divided by 80% to get 250 as the capacity or the maximum number of visitors who can tour the farm in a day. Thus, the farm’s monthly capacity can be illustrated in the graph below.
The figures for each month are obtained as follows. In April, the total number of visitors is 1,200. By dividing 1,200 by 4, we get the number of visitors per week to be 300. In order to get the number of visitors per day, we divide 300 by 6 and get 50. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 50, while the number of visitors on Sundays and Saturday is 100. This is because the number of visitors on Sundays and Saturdays is double the number on Mondays and Fridays.
In May, the total number of visitors is 1,800. Dividing 1,800 by 4 we get the weekly number of visitors to be 450. The number of visitors per day is obtained by dividing 450 by 6 to get 75. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 75, while the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 150.
In the month of June, the total number of visitors is 2,800. The number of visitors per week is obtained by dividing 2,800 by 4 to get 700. The number of visitors per week is obtained by dividing 700 by 6 to get 116.6. Since we can not get a fraction of a visitor we round off 116.6 to get 117. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 117, while the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 234.
We will write a custom Essay on Holy Farm Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The total number of visitors in the month of July is 3,200. By dividing 3,200 by 4 we get the number of visitors per week to be 800. By dividing 800 by 6 we get the daily number of visitors to be 133.3. This can be rounded so that we get 134 visitors per day. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 134 and the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 268. In August, the total number of visitors is 3,400.
By dividing 3,400 by 4 we get the weekly number of visitors to be 850. The daily number of visitors is obtained by dividing 850 by 6 to get 141.6. By rounding off 141.6 we get 142. Therefore, 142 visitors are received on Monday and Friday and 284 visitors are received on Sunday and Saturday. In September, the total number of visitors is 1,800. The weekly number of visitors is obtained by dividing 1,800 by 4 to get 450.
The number of visitors per day is obtained by dividing 450 by 6 to get 75. Hence, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 75. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors rises to 150 since the number of visitors for Sunday and Saturday is double the number of visitors for Monday and Friday. Finally, 600 visitors were received in October.
The weekly number of visitors is obtained by dividing 600 by 4 to get 150. The daily number of visitors is obtained by dividing 150 by 6 to get 25. Hence, 25 visitors are received on Monday and Friday, while 50 visitors are received on Sunday and Saturday.
The rate of capacity utilization has a direct bearing on the firm’s revenue and costs. In particular, the capacity utilization rate determines the amount of fixed costs per unit of a product or service (Betts, Meadws and Walley, 2000, pp. 185-196). The fixed costs per unit reduce as the firm increases the rate at which it uses its capacity.
Thus, Holy Farm is likely to have the lowest cost of hosting visitors in August when demand is very high. Since the fixed costs are low and the revenue is high due to the increase in the number of visitors, the firm is likely to make high profits. From November to March when demand is very low, the fixed costs per unit are likely to be very high. Thus, the Farm is likely to make low profits or even loses since the fixed costs remain constant while the revenue reduces as the number of visitors reduces. The result of the capacity assessment shows that the farm has not been able to receive 250 visitors per day. Consequently, the owners of the farm must use available resources to increase the number of visitors to 250 per day.
If the number of visitors is increased by 50%, the number of visitors touring the farm on monthly basis will increase as illustrated in graph 2 below. The number of people visiting the farm on a daily basis is calculated as follows. We multiply the daily number of visitors (current capacity) with 150 and then divide the result by 100. Thus, in April, 75 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. The number of visitors will increase to 150 on Sundays and Saturdays.
In May, 112.5 visitors will be received on Friday and Monday while on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 225. In the month of June, 175 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 350. In July, 200 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. On Sunday and Friday, the number of visitors will increase to 400.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Holy Farm Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In August, the number of visitors received on Monday and Friday will be 212.5. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 425. In September, the number of visitors will be 112.5 and 225 on Monday and Friday, as well as, Sunday and Saturday respectively.
Finally, in October, the number of visitors will be 37.5 and 75 on Monday and Friday, as well as, Sunday and Friday respectively. The number of visitors can be increased through demand management since actual capacity is a direct function of the level of demand (Clark and Robert, 2008, p. 143).
Demand Management Demand management involves influencing the level of demand for a given product or service in order to meet the sales target or the desired capacity utilization (Armistead and Clark, 1994, pp. 5-22). In the context of Holy Farm, demand management will involve increasing the demand for visits to the farm in order to meet the desired capacity utilization.
Demand can be influenced through advertising and sales promotions (Croxton, Lambert and Rogers, 2002, pp. 51-66). Currently, the owners of Holy Farm intend to intensify their marketing initiatives. However, they face difficulties in identifying the customers to target with their advertising initiatives. The farm can focus on a specific market such as schools and reach them using the adverts and sales promotions.
Capacity Management Capacity management involves planning for and controlling the existing capacity in order to achieve the desired level of operation (Coughlan and Coughlan, 2002, pp. 220-240). Planning and controlling capacity is the process through which effective capacity is set so that the firm’s operations can respond to changes in demand (Taylor, 2006, pp. 163-186). Planning, as well as, controlling capacity occurs both in the long-run and in the short-run (Diaz, Torre and Garcia, 2002, pp. 286-302).
The full capacity utilization can be achieved in the following ways. First, the farm can be opened to the public for a longer period in order to increase revenue. For example, the farm can be opened from November to March instead of closing it during this period. Second, the farm owners should strengthen their relationships with schools. This can be achieved by organizing educational trips in the farm during the school days.
The educational trips are likely to attract more customers since they are not only for entertainment, but also for learning among the school students. Additionally, the educational trips can help in increasing the midweek capacity utilization since the trips can always be organized on week days.
Third, the firm can also increase sales to coach firms by organizing coach parties in the farm. Special events such as wedding parties can also be organized to attract more visitors. Fourth, the farm should be opened during special occasions and holidays. For example, the farm can be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. Special events such as dance parties can also be offered during the holidays in order to attract more customers.
Many people are likely to visit the farm during the holiday seasons since they have more time. Additionally, many people prefer to spend on leisure activities during the holidays (Taylor and Fearne, 2009, pp. 379-392). Finally, the farm can generate more revenue by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. Since the farm has no resources for capital investment, the souvenirs shop and restaurant services can be outsourced.
Queuing Queuing theory involves using quantitative techniques to analyze waiting lines and arrival at queues (Voss, Tsikriktsi and Frohlich, 2002, pp. 195-219). It enables mangers to analyze the efficiency of serving customers in a queue (Klassen and Rohleder, 2006, pp. 527-548). The rate of capacity utilization has a bearing on the waiting time or the time required to deliver services. In general, the waiting time increases as the rate of capacity utilization tends towards 100%.
In the context of Holy Farm, queues are used to access services at the milking parlor. The milking parlor is often opened at 4.30 pm. However, the visitors normally arrive at the gallery before 4.30 pm to watch the milking process. Consequently, queues usually build up at the gallery. The queues can be reduced or eliminated by opening the milking parlor earlier. The queues can also be reduced by reducing the waiting time. This can be achieved by reducing the time spend by each visitor to watch the milking process in the gallery.
Conclusion Holy Farm was opened to the public after the revenue from milk and cereal production declined. The objective was to allow members of the public to tour the farm at a fee. This would enable the owners of the farm to generate more revenue. The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day. However, the farm has not been able to operate at the full capacity of 250 visits per day. Additionally, the farm is only opened to the public from April to October.
Thus, the farm’s facilities are not used from September to March. In order to achieve the objective of generating more revenue, the owners of the farm intend to increase the number of visitors to the farm. This objective can be achieved by opening the farm for a longer period.
For instance, the farm should be opened from September to March instead of closing it. Additionally, the farm should be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. More revenue can be generated by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. However, these services should be outsourced since the farm lacks resources for capital investment.
References Armistead, C., and Clark, G., 1994. The ‘Coping’ Capacity Management Strategy in Services and the Influence of Quality Performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(2), pp. 5-22.
Betts, A., Meadws, M., and Walley, P., 2000. Call Centre Capacity Management. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(2), pp. 185-196.
Clark, G., and Robert, J., 2008. Service Operations Management. New York: Prentice Hall.
Coughlan, P., and Coughlan, D., 2002. Action Research for Operations Management. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(2), pp. 220-240.
Croxton, K., Lambert, D., and Rogers, D., 2002. The Demand Management Process. International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(2), pp. 51-66.
Diaz, A., Torre, P., and Garcia, V., 2002. A Capacity Management Model in Services Industry. International Journal of Services Industry Management, 13(2), pp. 286-302.
Edgar, D., 1997. Capacity Management in the Short Break Market. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 9(2), pp. 55-59.
Greasley, A., 2007. Operations Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Klassen, K., and Rohleder, T., 2006. Demand and Capacity Management Decisions in Services: How they Impact on one another. International Journal of Operationas and Production Management, 22(5), pp. 527-548.
Nigel, S., Alistair, B., and Robert, J., 2011. Essentials of Operations Management. New York: Prentice Hall.
Pyscraft, M., 2000. Operations Management. New York: Pearsons.
Stevenson, W., 2009. Operations Managemnt. New York: Routledge.
Taylor, D., 2006. Demand Management in Agri-Food Supply Chains. International Journal of Logistics Management, 17(2), pp. 163-186.
Taylor, D., and Fearne, A., 2009. Demand Management in Fresh Food Value Chains:A Framework for Analysis and Improvement. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 14(5), pp. 379-392.
Voss, C., Tsikriktsi, N., and Frohlich, M., 2002. Case Reserach in Operations Management. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(2), pp. 195-219.
Barclays PLC Investment Decision Research Paper essay help: essay help
Brief history Barclays bank PLC was founded in 1690 in the City of London, which has remained its headquarters to date (Berclays Bank PLC). From a meager start, the company has gradually but steadily grown to become a key player in the banking industry. Through its parent company and a host of other subsidiary companies, the firm has diversified its services to investment and corporate banking, retail banking, credit cards, and wealth management.
Currently, the bank’s reputation is universally acclaimed, with a customer base of forty eight million customers in fifty countries. In 1902, the bank made a significant stride towards success when it became listed in the London securities exchange. The journey to the top has been long fought, but staying on top against the prevailing market competition is the company’s primary objective.
Current problem The ever-increasing competition in the bank’s traditional markets has let its management exploit other investment opportunities to ensure that the firm remains competitive. The bank’s management is considering investing in the Middle East market. Even though all the top managers support this decision, the option to pursue has proven hard to choose.
Investing in the Middle East market is suggested to take either direct foreign investment or mergers. Making a choice between the two options is not easy. As such, it is prudent to carry out a complete company analysis to see its ability to pursue either of the two options.
The bank’s long-term objectives The population in the Middle East is approximately 246 million people (Kublin). The bank plans to hold at least 10% of this population in 10 years. By doing so, the bank also plans to develop savings culture among its clients. It will also extend loan services to women groups to empower women in the region as a part of cooperate responsibility. The Middle East region has hit media headlines frequently for gender imbalance and male chauvinism. Other objectives the bank intends to pursue includes
Outreach: To reach many disadvantages people, especially women, who may find it hard securing loans through formal financial services.
Impact: To provide add-on services such as investment awareness campaigns and entrepreneurial training.
Inclusion: To provide tailored services which are accessible to the marginalized groups to ensure their financial security
The bank’s Investment options With little resources yet so many strategies to implement, evaluation is essential to ensure that only the most viable strategy is selected. In fact, evaluation of strategy options is the most important and complex part in the strategy process. This process focuses on the future of the firm, not the past. In view of the challenges Barclays is facing and the desire for a better future, the company considers implementing either or all of the following strategic options.
Exploit the Middle East market as a Foreign Direct Investment
Pursue mergers and acquisitions
Before making any decision on the best strategic option, the company’s analysis must be done. This will ensure that the chosen option is one that the company can finance. It will also help in eradicating the possibility of choosing a less viable investment option.
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As an international firm, Barclays Bank faces stiff competition on the international platform. Most of its competitors are firms well endowed with financial might such as HSBC, Standard Chartered, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, and Lloyd Banking group. Remaining profitable in such a market is a formidable challenge that requires excellent strategic measures.
This far, the bank has been able to grow its customer base, thereby increasing its profitability, through offering relatively lower interest rates on loans, and more personalized customer experience. The table below gives a brief financial position of the bank in relation to competitors.
Table 1. Market value of competitors and their assets
Bank Headquarters Market Value As of 24 February 2011 $billion Assets As of 31 December 2008 $billion HSBC Canary Wharf 122.4 1,736 Lloyds Banking Group City of London 44.3 1,195 Royal Bank of Scotland Group Edinburgh 49.9 2,508 Standard Chartered City of London 37.1 299 Barclays Canary Wharf 38.3 2,320 Source London securities report 2008/2011
Resources and competencies
As shown in table 1, the bank’s assets were valued at $2,320 billion in 2008. Despite this being a considerable amount in the banking industry, the bank still trails other banks such as Royal Bank of Scotland Group, which has an asset base of $2,508 billion. With no financial dominance in the market, Barclays’ principal focus is in the quality of services rendered to its customers. This is a survival move aimed at remaining competitive. Other areas of the bank’s competence include
Provision of cheaper loan facilities
Concentrated branch networks easing accessibility
Well trained and groomed employees
Wide ATM network and online banking services
Efficient wealth management programme with a fast growing market base
Expectations of stakeholders
The company’s stakeholders include its creditors, shareholders, employees, government, customers, suppliers, community, and trade unions. These groups have an interest in the business operations, which must be fulfilled.
The government expects the company to comply with tax obligation and to operate within the constitutional confines, which it has adhered to so far. Last year alone, the group remitted $1,928,000 as tax (Berclays Bank PLC).
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Employees expect competitive salaries, job security, honest communication, and safety concerns. Barclays employs approximately 146, 523 people globally. At the high of the economic depression of 2008, when many banks chose to lay off employees to cut down on their expenditure, Barclays instead chose to retain most of its employees but instead stopped expansion programmes. Together with a host of other incentives, Barclays has indeed put the interest of its employees at heart.
Barclays bank has an extensive branch network spread all round the globe. In areas where branches are located, the local communities expect much from the company. The company’s obligation is, however, limited to offering job opportunities, environmental protection, and conservation, allocation of shares, and involvement in company’s decision-making process.
Creditors expect renewal of their contracts, and liquidity.
Barclays bank has excellent prospects for future success. Over the last few years, the bank’s profits have been on the increase. Even after the housing bubble burst that crippled many financial institutions, Barclays has remained stable financially.
Frankly, it can hardly get worse than that. Just when other financial institutions were still shaking off the effects of the housing bubble bust, Barclays posted a “staggering” $11.6 billion profit in 2009 (Wilson 12). Despite the grave effects of the Debt Evaluation Accounting Rules (DVA) to financial institutions, Barclays still has a lifeline because of it has a strong asset base, which it can dispose to settle some of its debts.
Review of company’s current position In the backdrop of the company’s current success lie many weaknesses and challenges. First, the bank has been issuing loans easily, which has resulted in numerous loses. In 2010 alone, the bank lost $1.2 billion in bogus loans (Wilson 14). The bank has also lost the favor of a few persons who feel it recklessly issued loans resulting in the global depression witnessed in 2008/9.
Worst still, the bank’s exclusive markets in Africa and South America are now prime targets for its competitors who have already cut a sizeable chunk of its UK market. Additionally, many markets have become price sensitive, thereby discouraging new products considered expensive. Lastly, the firm’s overreliance on European markets has proven a hindrance to considerable success.
Despite these challenges, the bank will still prevail. This is because most of these challenges cut across the banking industry and, therefore, spares no firm. Secondly, most of the bank’s strategic plans are already a step in the right direction, and if reinforced further, the results can be marvelous.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Barclays PLC Investment Decision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the bank’s decision to invest in china was a step in the right direction since Chinese market is growing rapidly. Further, the economic depression that shrunk the company’s profits is easing, which means that the firm could do much better.
Analysis of the company’s investment options The viability of exploiting the Middle East market
The Middle East banking and capital markets authority are among the fastest growing in the world. This is backed by favorable banking rules, and growing population comprised primarily of the middle aged. The increased democratic space is another boost for interested investors.
The stringent rules that discouraged Direct Foreign Investment (DFI) in the region are slowly easing. This has opened up the Middle East for direct foreign investment and mergers. Barclays bank management should, therefore, grasp the presented opportunity and invest in the region.
Change in behavior trend among wealth business people in the Middle East is another reason to exploit the market. Many Arab investors, who until recently preferred investing in European countries have now chosen to invest, at least part of their money, in the local investment markets.
This has increased the customer base for the banking industry. As such, the bank will out rightly lose the withdrawn funds meant for local investment by continuing to have a strong presence in the European markets only. Therefore, by investing in the Middle East, the bank will still benefit from funds invested locally hence growing its capital and customer base.
In 2008 after the great economic depression that sunk many businesses and crippled many more, the UK government introduced an economic stimulus programme to bail out affected businesses. Being one of the affected businesses, Barclays was expected to receive the funding, but failed to accept the offer.
Instead, the company opted to seek its funding from the Middle East to offset its $ 6.5 billion debt (Davidson 32). This move sparked wide outcry from competitors. Nevertheless, it was a revelation for other businesses and investors. It showed that it was time to look up to the east not only for funding, but also for investment. Barclays has ties and links in the region and shall encounter few obstacles in its operations there.
Lastly, the projected growth of the Middle East is another compelling reason for investing in the region. The economies of many Middle East countries are predicted to grow considerably. A geographic segmentation analysis on Jordan and Saudi Arabia showed the countries’ robust growth in the next few years. Increased economic growth brings many marvelous things to businesses such as social amenities, improved security, and extra capital for citizens to spend. These are attractive to any business establishment.
The key challenges that the organization may face by investing in the Middle East market
Barclays faces a stiff competition in the European markets that finding alternative market is welcome news. However, this fantastic opportunity comes with a host of challenges.
Securing sufficient capital for investment
Many companies are still dusting themselves after the enormous economic depression of 2008/9, and Barclays is no exception. The firm is yet to recover fully from the effects of that devastating crisis. The crisis led the bank’s management to take drastic measures such as stopping of expansionist programmes and borrowing of colossal sums of money. The company is still repaying the borrowed funds, which has narrowed its finances.
Therefore, venturing in a new market will be a challenging task. As a bank, venturing in the Middle East will require capital for building banking halls, hiring employees, and installing security details. These are costs not easily met by any investor especially when many branches are to be built.
The Middle East market has a considerable number of potential customers, but there are some banks already operating in those markets. This may prove quite a challenge. Small banks are known for developing a closer relationship with their clients than established ones.
Leahy claims, “The increasing sophisticated number of products available means that clients sometimes contact banks they know well for impartial advice, regardless of whether the bank is offering the product” (31). This is an indication that breaking customer loyalty may prove hard.
Trade laws and policies
The legal requirements of doing business in a country are the regulations set by the country’s government for investors to abide by to avoid arrest or business fines arising from noncompliance. Breaking some of these laws may even lead to complete closure of business. Countries such as Taiwan have strict rules and trade regulations, which discourage foreign direct investment.
Venturing in such markets may require other alternative methods, which could be limited. Worst still some countries have trade laws in place that are international accepted as just, but their application is selective. Such countries are strict on foreign companies operating with their borders, but slow on locally owned businesses.
Culture is extremely valuable to business because it influences individuals buying behavior, affects demand for specific products, and brand image. Every business must be able to understand the cultural orientation of its customers to maximize on its sales. As the company scramble for the Middle East market share, its management must realize the need to understand and embrace the culture of the Middle East people to win their trust and make sales.
The prospects of doing business in Middle East may be hugely attractive, but investing in the region could be disastrous due to political uncertainties. Political environment has an enormous impact on distribution, sales, and promotion of a company’s products. Therefore, every company that desires to invest in a foreign country must keenly monitor the political climate of the country and consider the possible effects of change in government.
This is because business policies and attitude towards foreign investors change with a change in government. These changes can be either in favor of foreign investment, thereby offering attractive opportunities, or against it thereby introducing stringent measures such as import quotas and increased taxes. Therefore, investing countries such as Syria could be great risk taking.
Possible ways of countering the challenges
The company should issue more shares to raise the required funds to solve this problem. Chances are high that if shares are floated, public participation will be marvelous considering that the company’s dividend per share was six in 2011 (Berclays Bank PLC).
There is no one certain method of beating the competition. However, with the right approach such as providing free ATM withdrawals, the bank may make penetrations and win customers.
The business in the Middle East is mostly relationship driven. Business in the Middle East demands developing a good relationship with the people of the region understanding their culture. It is hard to make a sale by simply presenting a product to potential buyers without developing the relationship first.
This is contrary to western cultures where businesspersons make sales first and then develop relationship later. Understanding of culture and its influence on business operations require analysis of cultural elements such as ethnic language groups, social structure, religion, education, economic philosophy, and political philosophy.
Pursuing mergers and acquisitions
The business environment is dynamic. Mergers and acquisitions are usual occurrences in the life of any growing business. The decision on acquisition or merger is often undertaken to pool resources together in order to improve the quality of service delivery and products. Mergers and acquisitions are distinct.
When a company purchases another company, in cash or shares, it is an acquisition. The acquired company is viewed as a potential source of benefits such as new customers, technology, or patent. Mergers on the other hand, involve joining two or more companies into a larger one. However, the assumptions and expectations of forming a merger are the same as those of acquisitions.
Policy Setting in Job Training Programs Analytical Essay online essay help
Introduction Employment and Job training program is a valuable tool for ensuring organizations, and even nations at large, gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. From the dimension of the workers, employment and the on-job training programs are beneficial in the sense that, they result to investment in workers’ abilities and careers, often improving them in the course of execution of such programs. For fresh graduates, employment and job training programs provide them with an amicable opportunity to both learn and work.
For the purposes of realization of these benefits, it is critical that organizations, in both public and private sectors, develop effective policies that guide proper and smooth running of employment and job training programs. The question is, thus, how should it be done? Assuming the position of an external policy analyst, the paper seeks to answer this interrogative.
Akin to development of employment and on job training programs policies, within organizations, is the need to distinguish between two technical terms learning and training. Friedlander and Robbins argue, “Training’ suggests putting stuff into people, when in essence we should be developing people from the inside out, so they achieve their own individual potential – what they love and enjoy, what they are most capable of, and strong at doing, rather than what we try to make them be” (923).
Based on this argument, it is perhaps plausible to argue also that training is the province of organization’s concerns while learning is the concern of people working for the organization on an individual basis. This infers that learning is chiefly an outcome of training, which can be achieved or fail to be achieved, depending on the trainee’s levels of interest and intellectual abilities.
Consequently, the paper proposes that employment and job training policies need to be formulated and implemented, in such a way that, such peculiar differences, amongst the target persons, are well addressed in the attempt to achieve enormous success of employment and job training programs.
While formulating employment and job training policies, it is critical that substantive flexibility is provided. The paper argues that flexibility in policies development and enactment is relevant in the sense of making sure that mechanisms of incorporating dynamic changes, in terms of technological innovation in the programs, are provided.
This implies that, problems should be redefined whenever an attempt is made to derive a new approach in deploying job training programs, in seeking to improve the productivity of the organizational workforce. However, any employment and job training program policy needs to be structured such that, it always defines the problem at hand, considers philosophical and cultural perspectives of the organization (guiding principles, values, ethos, and visions among others), and people (their abilities and financial limitations).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, it should define legal contexts (in terms of discrimination, safety and health); methods of career development, recruitment, succession and selection; financial planning; and social responsibility perspectives (diversity, environment, ethics, sustainability and social corporate responsibility among others).
Training program timing, scale and geographical factors, methods of measuring and evaluating policy achievements, and system tools, among others also need factoring in the policy formulation, implementation and evaluation phases.
With this in mind, this paper focuses on policy development in the area of employment and job training programs. The paper begins by considering problem definition, followed by policy goal setting, then policy tools, and finally, consideration of probability of the proposed policy ability to get into an agenda.
Problem definition Upon passing of the 1961 area redevelopment act in the U.S., policymakers embanked on reshaping and also endeavoring to upgrade skills coupled with employment prospects of people who garnered low income via employment and job training programs that were highly publicized. Many of these programs kicked off their concerns, by availing vocational training opportunities to people, who were displaced and dislocated before shifting in covering people who lived in poverty.
Many of the persons, regarded as weak in the vocational training programs, were largely economically disadvantaged in the sense that, they had a long history that was ideally poor. As Friedlander and Robbins note, “during the 1960s the menu of services provided to economically disadvantaged people expanded, but since that time their variety and content have not changed very much” (927). However, the goals and orientations of employment and job training programs in the U.S. policies can be argued as having shifted incredibly.
For example, within the last four decades, training programs policymakers have indeed changed their emphasis with regard to low costs as opposed to services that are high cost in nature with regard to the extent in which they serve the interests of the unemployed people who often are economically disadvantaged. Much change has also been realized, in the context of such programs capacity, to serve youths in comparison to adults, particularly dropouts of high schools.
The main problem is that such programs fail to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths. This problem is widely supported by the results of non-experimental evaluations coupled with alternative social experiment program models with the exception of findings of Job Corps program. Friedlander and Robbins reckon, “Some evaluations, including one experimental evaluation, report that Job Corp programs services modestly increase participants’ employment rates and earnings” (933).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The services provided by Job Corps are, however, expensive but comprehensive in nature. The ability of the Job Corps’ employment training program to produce positive results is indeed, however, impacted by the fact that cost benefits analysis show that earnings increase derived from Job Corps training fails to justify the costs incurred in conducting the trainings. Ideally then on margin, chances are that the society may be better off in case the employment training resources could have been channeled to adults other than youths.
Statistically, expenditures on employment training program in the U.S. amount to 0.1 to 0.2 of the GDP depending on the nature of the program being implemented (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 43). Almost all other OECD member countries spend much more than the U.S. on employment training program as a share of their GDP (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 47).
By considering the magnitude of poverty in comparison to wages inequalities among economically disadvantaged people- who are often targeted by employment and job training programs, it becomes challenging and often sheds light on why training program produces little impact on wages structure and or output. Employment and training programs, with regard to the policies establishing them, they ought not to affect the well-being of participants, on average.
Apparently, based on evaluations, existing programs fails to integrate participants in the realm of the economic mainstream. Indeed even though job training programs may be primarily argued as effective in conducting training, from the workers dimension depending on the differences existing between various people especially their learning abilities, they may fail to ensure that workers indeed learn as intended.
Consequently, amid making people disadvantaged economically less poor, the programs may fail to reduce poverty levels substantially, yet this aim is their noble role. Surprisingly enough, majorities of the programs are executed under lower costs per participant, than the annual cost of normal schooling.
Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith exemplify this point by asserting, “In 1997, programs operated under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) spent on average about $3,000 per participant” (82). Arguably then, anticipating employment and training program to hike productivity output per participant to a sufficient level so that yearly earning escalate, by for instances thousands of dollars, infers that social investments need to have internal return rates that are extraordinary.
In the modern-day, technologies deployed in organizations incredibly change virtually almost overnight. It is thus almost impossible to anticipate that, skills transferred to the population, through formal schooling, would do much such dynamic. Evidently, a mechanism of ensuring that workers remain updated with the emerging innovative technologies and methods of production, especially the ones that reduce production costs, is indispensable.
Essentially, such knowledge is more likely to be transferred to people through employment and training programs that to date forms a concern of every organization that seeks to remain competitive. Reforms of employment and training policies are thus not an option, but a must for embracement by organizations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This aspect is perhaps largely significant by considering that, the question of effectiveness of employment and training program are likely to attract large public interest, especially by noting that, creativity and innovation are the key drivers of modern economies. Arguably, continuous training is the core of workers productivity output improvement. One of the most plausible ways of ensuring that employees continuously learn is the deployment of vocational training in every sector of production-something many nations have ardently embraced.
However, change of policies governing vocational training is essential to make the current vocational training program more effective. To resolve the problem of failure, of employment and training programs to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths, calls for change of the vocational training programs from being voluntary to mandatory.
However, these trainings consume money and hence, the government essentially needs to either fund them on differed payment mode or treat then as part of essential services it provides to the citizens free of charge. Where charging is necessary, then, temporary assistance to needy families needs being considered.
Policy goal setting The goal of developing vocational training policy by declaring that, it is mandatory for every student to attend mandatory vocational education and training program, in the due course of his or her education, is pegged on the idea of improving chances of students being considered for jobs upon clearing their formal education.
Students, who have attended technical and vocational training programs, have experience on their line of specialization and hence are better placed to handle responsibilities delegated to them with minimal on the job training. Additionally, the goal of making such a policy is based on the belief that by placing students on mandatory vocational training program, they would get a lid of stereotyping associated with their careers.
This has the consequences of making them develop impression that is realistic in relation to their careers of choice. Moreover, students would get acquaintance with their specialties’ “culture of industry and commerce, to develop the students understanding of the role and functions of different employees within an organization and to provide the discipline of employment” (Conger 30).
Making technical and vocational training mandatory is necessary, especially by considering that, experience has shown that technical and vocational training institutions have an immense opportunity of having their students placed, as compared to other students who do not attend such programs. In this essence, the goal of making technical and vocational training mandatory is to ensure that students become demand-driven, dynamic, competitive, at both national and international levels, and quality conscious.
Ensuring that students develop abilities to respond to work environmental dynamics would apparently mitigate the challenges previously encountered in training programs over the first two decades of the last four decades in which upon conducting on the job training, minimal results were obtained in terms of increased workers productivity outputs in comparison to the costs incurred during the training forums.
Even though setting the goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory may sound as having the capacity of providing students with mechanisms of being recruited for jobs quick enough upon completion of the formal studies, several nations experience a number of drawback towards institutionalization of technical and vocational training programs. For instance, in India, technical and vocational training has been widely acclaimed as having the ability to improve the output of new job entrants.
However, technical and the vocational training program policies have experienced immense challenges, because in India, there exists low priorities amongst the citizens for vocational training, insufficient industries for linkages, inadequate trainers and teachers, and non-existence of vertical mobility.
Moreover, India boasts inflexible curriculum, non-agreement of various agencies, and absence of overall social appreciation of the roles of vocational education, among others. Application of the policy declaring that technical education and vocational training are mandatory needs also to embrace certain aspects in its formulation if at all the goals of vocational education and training are to be meet precisely.
These aspects include; expansion and upgrading of vocational training and education, expansion and upgrading of technical and higher education, promotion of research in institutions of education and also redesigning patterns of education at school levels to ensure that skills development is facilitated.
Government being the primary organ charged with ensuring the successful implementation of policies applicable at national fronts, on its part needs to ensure that vocational training and education program polices are fully implemented by declaring its roles precisely. Within the broader goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory, a government needs to strengthen, reinforce, and reform vocational training and education.
It also needs to enact extra policies that ensure the capacity of technical and vocational training is expanded, by incorporation of the private sector coupled with promotion of academia and industry interaction, in the endeavor to ensure that, the gaps that may exist between skilled labor demand and supply is magnificently narrowed.
Policy tools Policy tools are essentially engineered to serve as a variety of various evaluation approaches often applicable in the broadest probable application. The main objective of putting in place tools for policy evaluations is to derive the fundamental foundation of basing possible reforms on the proposed policy. In education policies formulation and implementation, there exist several reasons as to why policy tools need being set in place.
One of the reasons is “to assess the nature and magnitude of the opportunities and constraints that face the systems that provide education and training” (Fetterman 18). Secondly, policy tools enable both private sector and the government to establish priorities in the allocation of resources for implementation of resource-constrained policies that are of national interest.
This reason is enormously crucial while determining the capacity of likelihood of success of a policy seeking to make technical and vocational training mandatory and part of educational curriculum in the U.S. This move is particularly significant, since as argued before, for success of such a policy there needs to be heavy channeling of resources to according temporary assistance to needy families.
Upon identification of the constraints, mechanisms of dealing with the constraints are enacted, and hence providing the basis for weighing possible options. Tools and instruments essential for implementation of the policy, stated herein as, “every person shall undergo mandatory technical vocational and training program as part of her or his qualification requirement”, must have cost elements ingrained in them.
This means that justification of costs for running such a policy in relation to the anticipated economic gain is relevant. Therefore, in this context, policy tools are indeed not only mechanism of reflecting outcomes of a given policy, but also a way of providing informed guidance in an attempt of categorization of a policy as relevance or irrelevant both in public and private domains.
Bearing in mind the cumbersome process of making policies in the U.S., providing the platforms of classification of the policy this way, may provide a more competitive edge for resulting in the consideration of the proposed policy in the agenda. Apparently, if the policy is not included in the agenda, it cannot proceed to the next phases before it is approved. In attempting to push for the implementation of the policy, desirability and affordability are somewhat critical elements for consideration.
The argument for desirability is that, technical and vocational training follows systematic procedures, just like any other form of education, and thus it could have myriads of benefits and desirable effects. Reforms in polices are intended to ensure improvement of outcomes from the contexts of quality and quantity of outcomes.
Data providing evidence of investments, in technical and vocational training capacity to result in enhanced economic growth and increment, in employment rates could, in this end, support the desirability of making technical and vocational training mandatory. However, as previously argued, this endeavor would call for substantive government funding.
Ideally then, pegged on the need to contemplate on the aspects of opportunity cost incurred if the policy is negated from inclusion in the agenda often would provide a coercive force to the policymakers who are mindful to the welfare of the society especially while choosing between beneficial and most beneficial policies for inclusion in the agenda.
On the other hand, consideration of costs as a critical tool for ensuring successful implementation calls for taking into account valid dimensions of costs attributed to making technical and vocational training mandatory. These costs are either direct costs, for example, payments of salaries of technical and vocational trainers and teachers, and the costs of financing temporary assistance to needy families’ kitty or indirect costs.
Indirect costs would entail aspects, such as costs for failing to provide financial incentives to needy families and or reduction in total payments payable at technical and vocational training institutions, as reflected in the in economic indicators, such as levels of unemployment and living standards of people.
More importantly, analysis of costs needs to go beyond financial costs and involve political and social capital, among others. Consideration of costs as a tool for promoting the relevance of the policy, arguably entails putting policies makers in conditions of substantive evaluations and considerations of various possible policies for inclusion in the agenda which if not addressed would translate into increased indirect cost in future. This means then that the policy tool relies heavily on information availability and persuasions.
Assessment of likelihood of incorporation of the policy in the agenda Getting an issue into a plan is one of the essential steps in policy development to address certain perceived social problems. This implies that unless an issue appears on an agenda, addressing it in a policy becomes a nightmare (Birkland 59). In fact, a lot of research has been done, by scholars, to determine the processes of getting issues into an agenda, coupled with issues that make an agenda and when such issues deserve to form part of an agenda.
Despite the fact that numerous conditions that impair people’s abilities to contextualize issues relating to justice and fairness exist, evidently, not every condition is a problem requiring government interventions through policies. Unemployment is indeed a social challenge not only in the U.S. but also across the globe. Particularly, during recession, organizations prefer retaining workers who are highly productive to have high levels of output, while ensuring that cost of production is maintained as low as possible.
With the conceptualization of this economic argument, and with justification of the fact that unemployment constitutes a social problem and that vocational training and education may increase chances of job selection coupled with hiking economic growth, getting the policy into an agenda is widely possible.
However, challenges may be encountered, especially considering the cumbersomeness of policymaking process of the U.S. This aspect is perhaps significant by considering that, in some situation, some issues are considered as issues, while others are treated as non-issues, and hence hardly make it to the agenda list.
Some issues are more likely to get into the agenda than others are. Among the reasons, why some issues do not make it to the agenda level includes problem definition, crowding an issue with other issues; the problem may be an illegitimate concern of the state, non-decision making and issues irrelevancy.
The seriousness of issues is expressed in their definition. Poorly defined problems would consequently end up neglected in the agendas. However, even though the problem may have been defied properly, its concerns may be irreverent to the state. However, it is anticipated that in the attempt to make vocational education and training mandatory in the U.S., the link between it and increased productivity indeed would make the policy being considered as an issue.
Perhaps, by considering the concept of non-decision-making issues raised by a Bachrach and Baratz, it is apparent why some issues end up as being agendas while others do not. As Bachrach and Baratz reckon, “non-decision making in a power context is based on the presumption that political consensus is commonly shaped by status quo defenders, exercising their power resources and operated to prevent challenges to their values and interests” (901).
A social condition, which attracts keen interests from the wider society, constitute a social problem, which needs solution often arrived at, after the issue of concern is incorporated in a public agenda. However, some issues that attract immense public interest are non-issues, perhaps because the concerned population may lack the ability to site solution as they may lack the power to do so (Birkland 87).
Even if solutions are available, they may largely violate the interests and the status quo of those influential figures that would set the mechanisms of enabling the incorporation of the issue into an agenda. This implies that, though a social condition may be an agenda issue, the larger population may be forced to embrace it as part of their lives since they are incapacitated to push for likely solutions to it.
A fear is also expressed that, the concerns of vocational training and fostering placement of fresh graduates may be treated as non-issues, and thus produce an impediment for the policy being incorporated in the agenda. Several reasons would account for this fear.
In the debate of whether it is relevant making vocational education and training mandatory or not, it is anticipated it would derive many disagreements among policymakers especially considering the hefty costs that go into it in terms of provision of temporary assistance to the needy families to meet its costs, and this scenario breeds fear.
However, taking a condition entailing “actual disagreements in preferences among two or more groups” (Bachrach and Baratz 904) as comprising an issue is confusing. The question is, even if disagreements exist, do they attract the attention of the wider society.
If so, does the wider society have the power to solicit suggested solution? In addition, if so, is the power limited to the extent that it does not violate the status quo of those in power? Any precondition for compliance with the two queries may make an issue end up being a non-issue and in the context of making vocational training and education mandatory, hinder it from getting into the agenda.
Conclusion In the paper, it has been argued that employment and job training programs are a valuable tool for ensuring organizations and even nations at large gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. Research proves that employment and job-training program raises the probabilities of job recruitments among people.
Investment in technical and vocational training is arguably one of the ways of enhancing employment and job training programs in the U.S. From this assertion; the paper proposes that in the U.S., a policy that makes technical and vocational training mandatory needs to be enacted. However, the success, of putting such a policy into an agenda, is challenging, considering the cumbersomeness of the policymaking process in the U.S. Hence, substantive tools need to be put in place, for ensuring that the proposed policy gets into an agenda.
Apart from clear and concise problem definition in a manner that it amounts to a social problem and hence worth public attention, consideration of elements such as cost and benefit of making technical and vocational training mandatory may indeed play a crucial role in facilitating articulation of the policy into the agenda. For these reasons, the paper has paid incredible attention in problem definition, goal setting, and the examination of policy tools by assuming the position of an external policy analyst.
Works Cited Bachrach, Peter, and Morton Baratz. “Power And Its Two Faces Revisited: Reply To Geoffrey Debman.” American Political Science Review 69.3 (1975): 892-904. Print.
Birkland, Thomas. After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, And Focusing Events. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008. Print.
Conger, Stuart. Policies Guidelines for Educational and Vocational Training. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. Print.
Fetterman, Martins. Foundations of Empowerment Evaluation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2000. Print.
Friedlander, Douglas, and Paul Robbins. Evaluating Program Evaluations: New Evidence on Commonly Used Non-Experimental Methods. American Economic Review 85.4 (1995): 923–937. Print.
Heckman, Johnston, Duncan Lalonde, and James Smith. The Economics and Econometrics of Active Labor Market. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1999. Print.
Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries Proposal college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction The Ministry of Islamic Affairs in Kuwait accurately notes that the reading culture has declined in Kuwait. In past centuries, Middle Easterners dominated the world owing to their knowledge –seeking culture. However, this is no longer true; few Kuwaitis have cultivated a reading culture, let alone young people. Several issues could have led to this situation, and one of them is the underuse of public libraries. This paper will concentrate on the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait.
Background and statement of the problem Public libraries play an important role in furnishing a nation with knowledge and information. If citizens do not use these invaluable resources, then the consequences will be felt across all industries. Not only will such a culture impede development, but it can also affect the social and political climate in the country. Citizens from countries with poor reading cultures tend to engage in unconstructive and immature discussions; they are less likely to vote wisely and may even start civil conflicts.
It is definitely in their best interest to expand their knowledge base by using public libraries. Young people should be given particular attention because they will eventually become leaders or persons of authority. Besides, it is easier to influence or teach young people to love reading than it is to do the same for an older generation. Once the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries are found, then stakeholders can address those concerns and move towards the creation of a reading culture.
In Kuwait, various reports indicate that the general public has a poor reading culture. Furthermore, few of them use public libraries in order to expand their knowledge base. The situation is particularly alarming because of censorship laws that exist in the country. The Kuwait Times reports that local bookstores and other public forums provide Kuwaitis with minimal options. The kinds of books found are narrow in focus and they rarely offer new perspectives on life (Al-Qatari, 2010).
This could be part of the reason why young people are not flocking to public libraries. Alternatively, different categories of readers require different types of genres. For instance, very young readers may prefer comic books or well-illustrated narratives.
On the other hand, college or university attendants may look for mentally-stimulating material, yet these may be hard to find in public libraries. Sometimes, logistical issues may impede the youth from using these facilities. They may have difficulties in accessing the libraries, or may find minimal assistance when they get inside them.
In other instances, young people may avoid public libraries owing to external factors that have little to do with them. The mass media has a large role to play in this regard. Few outlets nurture the country’s reading culture by promoting and interviewing authors. Additionally, state-sponsored book fairs are few and far-between. Alternatively, the education level in several learning institutions could also contribute to this fact.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some students may prefer to use their school libraries for research. On the other hand, others may not have been taught about the importance of using these facilities or may lack knowledge about their existence.
Some may even suffer from reading deficiencies, so it may prevent them from using the libraries. Since all these issues exist in Kuwait, it is imperative to determine which ones directly affect the use of public libraries so as to provide a solution to the problem. Once an explanation of a problem has been found, then it is quite easy to solve it.
Research questions and objectives The main research question will be “Why are young people reluctant about using public libraries in Kuwait?”. This research question can be paraphrased as a research objective, that is, “To assess the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait”. The main research objective will be divided into the following specific objectives:
To asses whether proximity of public libraries causes reluctance to use the facilities among Kuwaiti youth.
To investigate the relationship between limited book collections in Kuwaiti public libraries and students’ reluctance to use them
To assess whether ignorance about existence of public libraries causes young people’s reluctance to use them
To determine if perceived self-incompetence about the use of public libraries in Kuwait prevents young people from going there.
To examine whether the use of the internet as a source of information makes students unwilling to use public libraries.
To determine the extent to which young people substitute public libraries with university or school libraries.
To assess whether poor reading abilities lead to young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait.
To analyze the relationship between poor public library assistance/ services and reluctance to use public libraries among young people in Kuwait.
Study design This will be a correlational study. It will seek to determine the degree of correlation between a dependent variable and an independent one. The dependent variable in all the specific research objectives is reluctance to use public libraries among young people in Kuwait.
The independent variables in the specific research questions are: proximity of public libraries, low diversity of book collections, ignorance about existence of public libraries, perceived self-incompetence about the use of public libraries, preference for school libraries or university libraries, preference for the internet and poor library assistance or services. The aim will be to establish whether there is a relationship between these parameters.
No manipulation of the variables will be done, as in an experiment. Only information will be obtained from participants about the existence of these relationships. After the correlations are established, then only the independent variables that show a positive relationship with the dependent variable (reluctance to use Kuwaiti public libraries by young people) will be considered.
These independent variables will be identified as the main reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait. In other words, the paper will be a quantitative research. Responses will be quantified and analyzed in order to determine the strength of the relationship.
We will write a custom Proposal on Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Most studies on reluctance of young people to use public libraries have been carried out in western countries. Few of them look at this problem in Middle Eastern nations, let alone Kuwait. Therefore, this paper will attempt to bridge that gap by looking at the contextual and geographical issues that may be causing this low use of public libraries among young people.
Since most of the papers on this topic have been carried out in western states, then most of them make a series of assumptions about the social and political context of the situation. For instance, few of them have cases of book-censorship; therefore, diversity of book genres is never a challenge in their public libraries. Alternatively, their public libraries may be better-stocked than their school libraries so few of them may prefer the latter over the former. This is the reason why it is necessary to look at the topic in the local context of Kuwait.
When one analyses the researches that have been carried in this area, most of them focus on one aspect of library use such as information seeking. A paper written by Lee et al. (2004) wanted to find out why students are reluctant to ask questions in libraries, and it found that they are afraid of exposing their inadequacies.
Another one carried out by Dee and Stanley (2005) wanted to assess the patterns of library use among nursing students. It was found that most of them preferred print resources and common internet websites due to their lack of database-related computer skills. These two studies are useful in understanding patterns of library use but one of them is overly inclined towards electronic sources (Dee and Stanley, 2005).
The other one already assumes that students use public libraries and only concerns itself with patterns of use inside the public libraries (Lee et al., 2004). This research will bridge the gap by analyzing why young people do not go to public libraries in the first place. One particular research that was done in Kuwait concerning public library use only focused on the use information technology in those libraries and did not address why users may not visit them in the first place (Al-Qallaf and Al-Azmi 2002).
This research, however, provides information about some of the possible reasons behind reluctance such as poor services in the libraries. The lack of IT in public libraries in Kuwait indicates that the services are still wanting in Kuwait. A report made by Al-Qatari (2010) indicated that censorship was one of the reasons why people had a poor reading culture in Kuwait. The source provides a social explanation for the poor use of public services, but this research will attempt to look for other personal reasons behind this pattern of use.
Other papers have focused on how to attract reluctant readers in general. Some of them include Crawford (2004), Krashen (2005) and Haugaard (1973). These researches suggest the use of comic books as possible solutions to the problem of having a poor reading culture. The above papers can be inferred to this research by using their suggestions. One can deduce that poor book choice or the limited collections in public libraries is the problem being addressed in the latter studies.
That reason will be utilized as an independent variable in the proceeding research. Other analyses have found that poverty is an important determinant of book accessibility and hence reading (Feitelson and Goldstein, 1986 and Duke 2000). One can deduce from these analyses that ill-equipped libraries or accessibility of public libraries is another determinant of underuse in public libraries. The above findings will guide the research project under discussion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Study population and sampling. The study population will consist of young people in Kuwait between the ages of 18 and 30. These young people will be located in shopping malls, restaurants and eateries, cyber cafes and other entertainment centers. The other source will be universities from all over the country. Since this is a relatively large number, then it will be necessary to narrow down the number of participants through the use of sampling techniques.
It will be quite difficult to know the total number of young people that visit eateries, restaurants and other entertainment centers. Therefore, participants will be selected using haphazard sampling. No statistical method will be used, so only the most convenient people will be used. Here, willing subjects will be asked to get involved in the research, and the research will be administered. 30 participants people will be randomly collected from this segment of the population.
However, young people from universities will be selected through stratified sampling (Horn, 2009). In this process, the number of persons between the ages of 18 and 30 will be obtained from each of the universities, then their names will be arranged in alphabetical order. The total population size in each university will be divided by the desired sample size: In this case it will be 30. Thereafter, the ratio will represent the nth element; this may be 100 or 40. If n is 100, then every 100th person will be contacted for the research.
Data collection This research will use structured questionnaires. The method was selected because it will ensure uniform responses as no subjective selection of responses will be necessary (Babbie, 2005).
The questionnaires will be personally administered so as to increase response rates and also to clarify possible misunderstandings about the questions. The questions used in the research will be complemented using the Likert scale. Each question will possess five items: Agree, Disagree, Strongly agree, strongly disagree and neutral (do not agree or disagree).
Data analysis All the nine specific objectives will have corresponding questions in the questionnaire form. The responses will be analyzed through their central tendencies. In other words, their modes will be found through percentiles. They will be represented on bar charts so as to nullify or confirm the hypotheses inherent in all the research objectives.
Ethical considerations The use of Likert scales always creates biases in central tendencies, where subjects refrain from extreme responses. Alternatively, others may give responses that make them appear more rational. In order to avoid these challenges in questionnaire responses, it will be necessary to combine both negative and positive statements in the form (Burns and Burns, 2008).
Issues about getting equal representation from the group in the social settings will be a problem. To deal with inefficiency, all the thirty subjects will be selected from 30 different locations and all of them will come from different towns in Kuwait that have public libraries.
Not all the subjects will understand the questions in the same way, they may act like they understand and select an answer when they do not fully grasp what the questions mean. To reduce this problem, respondents will be approached when alone so as to minimize the tendency to impress other individuals. Besides that, the researcher will observe their body language so as to assess whether they understand things.
Conclusion This research aims at determining the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait. It will solve the problem of having a poor reading culture by offering. For data collection, personally administered structured questionnaires will be used so as to ensure uniformity, higher response rates and question clarification for participants.
References Al-Qatari, H. (2010). Of sense and censorship. Kuwait Times. Web.
Al-Qallaf, C. and Al-Azmi, H. (2002). Information technology in Public Libraries in Kuwait. The International Information and Library Review 34(4), 289-308.
Babbie, E. (2005). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Former Conflict Style
Current Conflict Style
Conflict is a major subject in the world and its effects are very diverse in the society causing crisis and other effects. Conflict can be viewed as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns (About Conflict, 2012). In this definition, the key terms are parties, perceive and threat. In any conflict, there must be people or entities involved who have interest in a particular thing like political power, mineral resources and other socio economic activities.
This conflict is said to be from a perceived threat which may be a real threat or something that is imagined but because of lack of understanding of the real situation. Threat in this way means a feeling that what they think is theirs may be taken away or they feel that once certain people get something, they will treat them unfairly.
In the lifetime of a human being, there are situations that lead one to disagreements and struggle in getting something they need in their lives or at the work place. Because of the demands of life and the desire for self actualization, people tend to avoid impediments. If a person or anything is perceived to be an impediment to the journey of self actualization, then a conflict arises. This not only experienced by human beings but also in the animal planet, it’s only that they may not be having a conflict resolution mechanism but the jungle rule.
Another situation is when wild animals and human beings are living in bordering pieces of land as in the boundary between a national park and the general public land. In a number of cases of the world, animals are not checked and controlled by the national park management, which implies that animals may destroy or even kill human beings around that area. This is also a conflict.
However, in this paper, the discussion on conflict is based on the social world and how it is handled. That is why concentration is on conflict resolution styles. Conflict styles are patterned responses that people use in conflict. They can be viewed as having two dimensions which are assertiveness and cooperativeness (Picard, 2002).
In this manner, one can be able to assess the extent to which people attempt to satisfy other people’s needs to avoid or resolve their conflicts. These styles are pegged on personal satisfaction while making a decision of whether one has wronged the other.
Former Conflict Style There are various conflict styles that a person can adapt. In these styles, there is one that comes naturally in a human being and it can be referred to as the default conflict style. About conflict website (2012) lists four styles of conflicts namely “avoidance, collaborating, competitive, comprising and accommodating. In a number of cases it and be necessary to apply all of them in different situations.” For the case of this paper, avoidance and collaboration are discussed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Runde (2007) asserts that avoiding involves a low level of interest in meeting the needs of either person. An example of this type of conflict situation is when a husband asks his wife to cook for him and the wife assumes that she has not heard. The husband repeats the same question while the wife tells him that the food is in the kitchen. The husband decides to go and cook for himself and avoids confronting the real issue.
He does not ask himself why the wife does not want to cook for him. Instead, he avoids her and continues with life normally. The problem might have been solved at that point when the conflict started and could be due to some underlying issues.
However, this conflict style may look okay because everybody is for himself hence, nobody disturbs the other but it is what one may call a time bomb. The problem remains unresolved until it becomes too big to handle. A time comes when the bomb explodes and everything is exposed. It could be a better idea to confront the issue in a different way so that the problem is solved.
The reason for adopting this type of conflict style be based on a family upbringing whereby, the parents are always in conflict and the children have nothing to do about it. Therefore, the best way is to avoid the scene where mum and dad are quarrelling and move to your room.
You will definitely be back when they finish. This way, you will learn to avoid the situation unknowingly and this may be part of you. In a leadership role, this conflict style does not work well because at the end of the day, the problem has to be solved. Applying this style is very dangerous like a detonative device.
A personal experience is illustrated below. A teacher was teaching in a class of forty five students. Every time at the middle of the lesson, a student clicked and the teacher ignored because he didn’t want to get involved in finding out why somebody could click in the middle of a lesson. This went on for quite some time coupled with murmuring. The teacher still ignored his students.
This act finally degenerated to a more embarrassing and disgusting event to the teacher because the students walked out of the class while he was teaching. Later on, he realized that he was losing most of the students while he was teaching or rather delivering his content. It would have been wise for him to try to find out why the students were clicking in class. Maybe, he should have created rapport with the students so that he can get feedback so as to avoid such a situation.
We will write a custom Essay on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current Conflict Style Collaboration is a conflict style which if well used, will enable both parties to be satisfied. Lussier (2011) asserts that the key to collaborative style is agreeing that the solution picked is the best possible one. Thus, a win situation is achieved. Harmony is achieved when this approach is used, thus encouraging people to work together. In most cases, work place communication does not tickle down properly to the work force that is the lead.
Because of this conflict, usually arise from the workers and the management. The worker may decide to use avoidance conflict style and thus, affecting their performance. The management has to give notice that it needs to communicate well and in time to the employees so as to avoid a bad situation.
Through delegation of duties to the junior staff, one can be able to identify the problems that may be in the lower cadres of the work force. For best performance of the company, an agreement has to be reached by both the management and junior workers (Lussier, 2011).
In this case, the worker will be able to know what they are limited to and what their rights and responsibilities to the company. If a manager will be in a position to work with the workers and see him/herself as the team leader and not the boss then collaborative style may not work well. And this is the style to adopt in leadership.
Resolution The above conflict styles tend to explain how to handle situations before they degenerate to a crisis. If a conflict is persistent, then it needs to be resolved. And there are various ways of resolving conflicts. Depending on when and where the conflict is, the use of tools like mediation and assertion may help.
Think of a situation whereby, employees have gone on strike, the employee will first try to use assertion to make the employees go back to work. However, employees have a right to withdraw their services for better work conditions. When the strike persists, mediation technique may be used to resolve the conflict. Trade unions and the labour ministry may try to mediate between the workers and the employers.
Finally, there may be a situation whereby, the conflict cannot be resolved after applying different mechanisms of resolution. Zastrow et al. (2010) explains that when the strategies fail then, one can probably conclude that the parties involved in the conflict are not willing to resolve it.
References About Conflict. (2012) Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lussier, R., (2011). “Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill Development”. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Picard, C., (2002). “Mediating Interpersonal and Small Group Conflict”. Ottawa: Dundurn Press Ltd.
Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! Case Study online essay help
Introduction The case study focused on the emergence and growth of the market for canned iced-tea while laying much attention on the Western markets. Basically, the development of these markets made the Taiwan Shin Shii and Unilever (also known as the USA Unilever Best foods) to further exploit such markets by employing efficient marketing strategies with the newly developed brands namely Kai Shii and Lipton.
This study intends to assess the effective market segmentation strategies as well as the prospective markets that companies which produce iced-tea could enter. Besides, factors which iced-tea companies could use when forecasting their future demands are underlined and consequently described.
Thus, this study objectively aims at:
Understanding the types of markets which drive the elevated iced tea demands in addition to the eminent motivations that cause them to occur.
Offering market entry strategies and market coverage strategies for both Shin Shii and Unilever.
Tendering the viably recommended brand positioning strategies for Kai Shii and Lipton as well as an alternate ready- to- drink, but hot tea beverage to Unilever.
Case study background Basically, the Unilever Group is globally recognized as the leaders in supplying the fast moving consumers’ products or goods (FMCG) (Unilever 2010). The Lipton brand of these suppliers dominates the United States markets and also has an imperative worldwide presence.
The Unilever Group seems to have equally established the canned hot ready to drink tea products using the Brook Bond PG guidelines which according to this case is dubbed as the Brooke Bond. As a small corporation that is situated in Taiwan, Shin Shii proved to have already been triumphant in Taiwan with the famous beverage drink known as oolong iced tea. The company has enjoyed market dominance in Taiwan and currently has a target of joining the feasible and promising Western marketplaces.
However, to properly respond to this case study questions, the following assumptions have to be made.
The iced tea markets have not endured some everlasting changes be it negative or positive, on either the supply or the demand sides.
The iced tea market depicts a steady growth which will move along way prior to reaching its saturation point.
Both the oolong Kai Shii iced tea and the Lipton iced tea are perceived to be primarily similar or very close and could be categorized under identical products categories.
In this case, the entire North America markets are what are deemed to constitute the Western markets.
Despite being a narrative case study, there are some accruing limitations that might hinder the chances of properly answering the prevailing case questions. First, the Kotler and Armstrong (2001, p.302) text that is used as the main reference emanates to be somewhat old-fashioned since it might have failed to incorporate the business portfolio or corporation’s profiles alterations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the alliance formed between Pepsi and Lipton might not be inexistence any more. Furthermore, obtaining the decisive information on Shin Shii was rather be difficult given that the corporation is still very murky and internationally less known.
Methodology and the theoretical framework In trying to answer the case study questions, there are methodologies and theoretical frameworks that are drawn on. For example, to properly analyze the case study, theories of marketing which relates to strategic SWOT analysis planning as well as marketing planning was used.
Kotler and Armstrong (2001, p.302) critically described each of these theories and both appear to have various components which were well-defined and critically deliberated on. Further research was similarly performed particularly those that pertain to the forecasting of corporations demands. The provisional non-numerical statistics was adequate to support the offered marketing strategies recommendations apart from the situations where the market shares were to be deliberated.
Strategic analysis of the case study The FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) market presents the market supply and demands trends which habitually fluctuate and are extremely volatile. When such circumstances materialize to be the case, it is advisable that corporations that enter this market ought to have well stipulated purpose and objectives in their strategic planning to guarantee their sustainability.
The Unilever for instance, universally aspires to accomplish the individuals every day’s requirements (Zhao et al. 2009, p.378). This is to be achieved through competitively and creatively responding to such needs with services and products that are branded and tailored towards augmenting the quality of people’s lives.
Since the strategic planning have been laid out, it now becomes significant to conduct the SWOT analysis for this corporation prior to embarking on the strategic market planning and a detailed evaluation of the brand positioning factors. The following matrix table highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that Kai Shii and Lipton faces in the global market operations.
Parameter Kai Shii Lipton Strengths a) Is a well-established Taiwan market dominant or leader having a total of seventy percent of its market shares in the oolong segment a) Is currently well known to the market leader due to its popular brand reputation. b) Has an all-embracing experience with respect to triumphant brand advertising. b) Has an extensive acquaintance to the domestic or local tastes and cultures. c) Has a broad range of products that depict hi-tech preeminence including products such as the canned hot tea for Brooke Bond. Weaknesses a) Has inadequate Westernized consumers experience a) Since it has different brand extensions, this might confuse and equally dilute the perception of the consumers. As a result, it might end up giving new market entrants and fresh competitors a chance to capture its global market share. b) Is completely unfamiliar to the Westernized consumers Opportunities a) Has recently introduced a new-fangled iced tea known as oolong. This might help it to generate inquisitiveness and emerge as the first corporation to bring such an iced tea into the market mainstream. a) Can form an alliance with reputed brands like Pepsi so as to have admittance into the substantial supply networks. Furthermore, the market demand could further be driven by the presence of the recognized market dominant partners. b) Appears to be much aware of the health benefits that tea provides. b) Is greatly aware of the health benefits that tea provides to the consumers. c) Can seize the declining markets that soft drinks and beverages seem to be losing. c) Has the opportunity to capture markets that brews like the soft drinks tend to loose. Threats a) Faces major rivalry from other big tea manufactures and market leaders such as Lipton. a) The market seems to be very congested while the alternatively available small markets have over two hundred different brands that may cause substantial reductions in Lipton brand demand. b) Might be probably be rejected while it tries to find the distributing partners. For instance, the retailers might be very reluctant to take newly introduced products like the Kai Shii. b) There are various other key market players including Nestle and Coca-Cola which the canned iced tea market through hard-hitting competitions. Bases for market planning strategies To enter into the emerging and the already existing markets, companies must first assume proper market planning by determining the types of bases or factors that could be used in apt market segmentation. Basically, market segmentation entails the division of customers or consumers into some distinctive groups that may require different marketing mixes or products (Krider et al. 2008, p.2).
We will write a custom Case Study on Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each of these groups must have behaviors, characteristics and different needs. Companies might similarly have their iced tea market segmented according to the consumers’ perceptions or the apparent trends depicted when they purchase similar products.
Therefore, to succeed in such a very competitive market environment, companies can use the following bases in segmenting the market for the iced tea.
Geographic segmentation base including taking account of factors such as towns, villages, city suburbs and urban centers.
Demographic bases which entails incorporating factors like the apparent consumers age groups.
Behavioral bases which include taking into consideration the consumers who seek and hassle for fresh and convenient iced tea refreshments.
From these iced tea market segmentation base factors, it is clear that prices might not be deemed as a key factor that influences the perception of canned iced teas consumers. This is because such products are less or more similarly priced with identical products like iced coffee and soft drinks (Zhao et al. 2009, p.379). Nevertheless, for companies that compete in the production of similar product sets, pricing is considered to play a very critical role.
The identified potential market segments After identifying the market segmentation bases for iced teas products, companies must target particular market segments that provide certain differential potentials which a company might use to gain the competitive edge or advantage over other market rivals (McCarthy, 1993). The selected market segment ought to assist the corporation to craft enduring clients’ values and consequently prop it up for a long time.
The designated market segment might however vary according to the resources possessed and the company size. Shin Shii for instance, has few resources which may force it to have few market segment targets as compared to the Unilever that might yearn for bigger market coverage as it targets various market segments (Greg 1992, p.46). The latter company has ample resources that could help it to meet market segmentation targets.
In the domestic Taiwanese markets, Shin Shii can exceptionally perform given that it has well established and aggressive advertising techniques that might help it create completely novel markets for the new product, iced tea oolong that was practically nonexistence (Sutherland, 2009).
These make the company to stand a chance of targeting each and every age group including the customary bound aged generations who previously enjoyed the consumption of hot tea and never showed any sign of relinquishing their habits.
The Kai Shii drinkers’ selling point should be the new breeds of individuals who consider themselves to be in a newfangled globe. The health benefits and natural ingredients that the product brags of should be made appealing to each consumer in the Far East not excluding the aged populace who very health cognizant.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the Shin Shii emerged to be different and unique, it became appealing to the youthful generations. In contrast, the iced tea seems to have therapeutic benefits which lured the middle age working classes that are stressed up in addition to offering a convenient canned drink that complemented their respective tiring routines (Grossman, 1994). The companies can also consider the geographical market segmentations even though the penetration levels could be difficult in some rural market areas.
While targeting specific market segments for Lipton, the Unilever Groups based their segmentation on identical factors including the iced tea health benefits. The company could nonetheless further narrow down its market segmentation by focusing on industrial workers and athletes who partake physical activities that are extremely mentally exhaustive (Krider et al. 2008, p.4). Most population in America is geographically situated within towns or urban centers which materialize to be well linked.
It therefore makes more sense if Lipton restricts its markets segmentation to appropriately serve the American town centers. Nevertheless, given that there are busy metropolises such as Chicago, Boston and New York City which pose unlimited potentiality for the working classes, Lipton iced teas need to be targeted to accomplish the demands of consumers in these areas because they always require quick refreshments amid lunch or snacks.
Conversely, for the Unilever Group, it becomes imperative to note that modifying the iced tea Lipton to serve the various demands within the country would be practically impossible. This follows the fact America is renowned to be a homogenously large market and barely has any assorted beverage tastes. On the other hand, Shin Shii may opt for the modification of oolong Kai Shii iced teas in order to suit the American consumers’ tastes and to equally counter the stringent market competitions through claiming it exclusiveness and superiority.
Forecasting the iced tea market demand Currently in America, iced tea is hugely demanded to an extent that it constitutes nearly eighty percent of the total consumed tea in the American environs. In fact, it has exceptionally emerged to be the Americans habit regardless of the fact that it has a comparatively shorter participation time span in the marketing and trade of teas.
Whereas the ready to drink beverages and iced teas attract the emerging tea consumers, it is anticipated that an upturn impact might take place in the demands for different kinds of teas, particularly those that are specialized. This will eventually cause the demand for tea such as the iced herbal tea to increase.
Thus, companies might employ different factors while forecasting the iced teas demands for their chosen diverse market segments. A great chunk of these factors relates to the current market segmentation base growth rate including certain nationality groups, income and age.
Variations in both socio economic conditions and lifestyles are among the decisive development factors which could significantly influence the iced teas demand particularly in the long-run. For instance, specific to the market for iced teas, when the working class proportionally decreases as result of the ageing populace, the demand for iced teas might be hindered in the metropolitan cities specifically within the commercial regions.
The iced tea beverages outlook generally is still however considerably optimistic with the emergence of instant tea which has become additionally essential in some global markets (Altman, 2002).
While studying the producing nations commodity supply management between the fiscal 1951 and 1970, Goradia showed that the universal liquid tea consumption steadily increased by approximately 145.07% but the tea-leaves consumption increased by just 92.01%. There is absolutely no doubt that these fast progressions will still continue even in the prospective future (Krider et al. 2008, p.6).
Market coverage strategy that Pepsi/Lipton should adopt Pepsi/Lipton has already differentiated the type of the market segment they want to enter into. Identifying and entering into the segment market depends on the company available facilities and resources. The problem of identifying and the segment market can only be sorted out by the market coverage strategy that the company utilizes to penetrate the market.
Normally the market coverage strategy is the method companies use to assess the various market segments in the marketplace (Boone
The War On Drugs Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The war on drugs as the war against black women
Introduction The war on drugs is often associated with controversy. Issues of gender and race have been raised on numerous occasions in the war against drugs. The war on drugs was declared in the United States over three decades ago, and individuals of color have been greatly affected by this war.
The policies that have been put in place in the war on drugs have exhibited a discriminatory element. In particular, black women and individuals from the minority groups have been targeted in this war. In this case, such individuals are predisposed to harassment from the state officials.
It can be noted that black women have been made to bear the brunt of police cruelties in the name of war on drugs. Considering the plight of black women in the war on drugs, this paper discusses the concept of war on drugs as the war against black women.
The war on drugs as the war against black women The period between 1986 and 1991 was a critical time for the African American community as a whole. At this time, the community was facing a high amount of oppression making them take out their frustration on the use of drugs. Essentially, top of the list of substance abusers were the black females who recorded twice the number of drug offences compared to their male counterparts. Despite the high number of black women incarcerated for drug abuse, authorities do not place emphasis on this issue.
Criminologists often focus on male oriented cases ignoring the plight of the female community. Feminists specialized in criminology have thus dubbed the exclusion of black female drug offenders as discriminatory policies. This has given rise the campaign that accuse criminologist on the war on drugs as the war against black women (Bush-Baskette, p. 5).
The legislations on drugs have been known to affect the black women more than any other group. It has been established that the black women form the rapidly expanding population that is arrested on drug related offences.
Notably, from the late 1980s, the number of black women who have been arrested on drug related offences increased by 800%. This was double the rate of women from other racial groups. In New York, the percentage of black women arrested on drug offences was over 90% while they make barely a third of the women population in the state (Bush-Baskette, p. 43).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The early form of the war on drugs constituted of the arrest of low level drug users and dealers, as opposed to high-ranking people in the trade. This removed the attention from the drug lords who control the dynamics of the industry across the globe.
Another issue regarding the control of drug use was the misrepresentation and improper recording of the people arrested. Fabricated statistics saw the Increase in the number of blacks arrested for the use of drugs and the decrease in the arrest of whites. This triggered a national out raw which advocated for the equal treatment of all races regarding the eradication of drugs.
Women may get involved in drug dealings due to similar reasons as the male culprits. Nonetheless, there are certain gender-specific aspects that should be considered. It can be observed that black women are faced with various forms of oppressions and thus find it difficult to support their families.
In this case, they are forced to engage in street crimes for survival. Most of these women become involved with males who are drug traffickers and find themselves using the prohibited drugs. These women are often threatened with violence and abusive relationship if they refuse to cooperate with their male partners in drug activities (Bush-Baskette, p. 14).
Though the drug trade is said to be profitable, it can be observed that women do not accrue the benefits associated with this trade is equal measure to their male counterparts. Indeed it has been established that women are likely to spend more time in prison on drug related crimes compared to the male dealers. This is because women are likely not able to reveal their male accomplices to earn shorter sentence. On the other hand, males are known to reveal their female counterparts in the trade when required to do so (Chesney-Lind, p. 37).
Heroin was mostly abused by blacks as opposed to whites faring differently from marijuana which was consumed equality by both blacks and whites. The term the war on drugs as the war on women is used to display the level of disregard the society has for the welfare of the black women.
Women associated with drug use recorded fewer cases of the application of force and violence during their consumption or purchase. Poverty and unemployment are the leading factors for the reason of drug on both male and female cases (Stevens and Wexler, p. 28).
We will write a custom Essay on The War On Drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The state of Florida recorded drug peddling as the single most recurring primary offence in the years of 1993-1994. Drug peddling was the main offence reported in the criminal files and records. These records only represent the cases concerning drug use, as opposed to drug use accompanied with lesser charges (Nelson, p. 184).
An analysis of the statistics of the incarcerated women lists black women who take the lead representing 51% of the population. Black males take the second slot recording 49% of the country’s population. In the third position are white women who record a competitive 43%. White males take the last slot recording 38% representing the lowest group in reference to the consumption of drugs (Gartner and Kruttschnitt, p. 29).
The police and state authorities are often accused of racial profiling when it comes to war on drugs. This is because there are significant racial disparities observed in arresting, convicting, and incarcerating black women. Arrest, conviction, and incarceration depend on the discretion of the law enforcers in their war on drugs. It is assumed that black women are vessels for prohibited drugs. In this case, the black women are often perceived by the law enforcers as couriers in the drug trade (Stevens and Wexler, p. 19).
Consequently, these women are targeted by the state and federal officers for strip search aimed at identifying drugs. Therefore, black women have been stereotypes as possible drug dealers. It has been established that black women are most likely to be subjected to X-rays after being frisked than white women. On the contrary, the chance of finding black women with contraband products is half compared to white women who stand a high chance of carrying contraband products (Bush-Baskette, p. 45).
Black women are often exposed to regular and offensive strips and searches by the law enforcement agents in the war against drugs. The war on drugs has gone to the extreme. Enhanced surveillance and policing of the reproduction of black women has been reported in the fight against drugs.
Essentially, discriminatory testing of black women who are pregnant to establish drug use is carried out by state officials. Also, there is enhanced surveillance and policing of poor women of African descent under the guise of monitoring child abuse and neglect. This can be argued as being part of a wider scheme in the protracted war on drugs (Bush-Baskette, p. 32).
It is estimated that about two hundred women in over thirty states have faced prosecution on drug related crimes. In some instances, child or fetal abuse is associated with the use of drugs when the woman is pregnant.
In South Carolina State, there is legislation that women who use drugs during while pregnant can be charged with child abuse. In this case, such women are reported to the state authorities by their doctors. Instead of offering rehabilitation services to such women, they are arrested and prosecuted based on child abuse laws (Bush-Baskette, p. 51).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The War On Drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the fight against drugs has come a long way for the time of its rise in the ten years ago. The U.S. has the greatest number of consumers owing to a number of factors. This rate has been on the rise due to the political, social and economic factors experienced today.
Top of the list are black women who are notorious for the frequent consumption of the substance. This is not ideal because a large number of the same culprits are single mothers. It is thus ideal for authorities to place more emphasis on black women so as to tackle the bulk of the problem.
Works Cited Bush-Baskette, Stephanie. Misguided Justice: The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Black Women. Bloomington, IN: Universe, Inc, 2010. Print.
Chesney-Lind, Meda. Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. London [u.a.: SAGE, 2004. Print.
Gartner, Rosemary, and Candace Kruttschnitt. Marking Time in the Golden State: Women’s Imprisonment in California. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Nelson, Jennifer. Women of Color and the Reproductive Rights Movement. New York [u.a.: New York Univ. Press, 2003. Print.
Stevens, Sally J. and Harry K. Wexler. Women and Substance Abuse: Gender Transparency. New York: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Roles of an International HR Manager to Identify Possible HR Issues, Which Have Led to Crisis Report (Assessment) college essay help
Critical evaluation of roles of an International HR Manager (IHRM) to help identify possible HR issues, which have led to this crisis International HR (IHR) management aspects have numerous roles influencing operations of any given multinational corporation (MNC). Similarly, it can affect the financial performance of any given country; however, this varies from one state to the next. Contextually, it is possible to unveil the HR issues that led to the crisis (evident in the case provided) upon critical evaluation of IHR Managers’ roles.
Financial meltdown, recessions, and inflations are some of the crisis evident in the case. IHR manager’s roles in any MNC might eventually affect the prosperity and financial aspects of the concerned organization and the country of operation. There are HR issues that have led to the noticed economic meltdown (Davies 2010). Firstly, IHR managers should ascertain the nature of international operations that the business intends to assume.
This means that IHR manager must recognize the international labour demands, focus on the available human capital, create more employment opportunities, and provide lucrative working conditions to increase the productivity of the workforce, reduce unemployment cases, and help in averting the localized and globalized economic hitches witnessed in the case provided. This forms the roles of IHR helpful in identifying the possible HR issues evident in the case provided.
HR has the role of sourcing viable employees who can propel the operations and growth of the concerned companies in order to realize remarkable economic results. It is from this context that an IHR can contribute massively to an economic crisis or flourish. It is evident that the aspects of international labour market similarly contribute to the ultimate global production and financial stability. Failure to manage such international human capital properly has a devastating impact on the national and international economic downturn.
In this context, it is the mandate of IHR manager to ensure that he or she sources cheap and competent labour that will help in propelling the productivity of the concerned MNCs (Forrest 2011). For example, the mentioned internationalized banking corporations like Bank of England, European Central Bank, and Halifax Bank of Scotland among others (MNCs) can utilize their IHR provisions in order to avert the witnessed economic meltdown (Ferrell