Utilitarian And Retributivist Theories Of Punishment Essay Essay Help

Table of Contents Theories of punishment

Utilitarian theory of punishment

Retributivist theory of punishment

Merits of Utilitarian Theory

Merits of retributivist theory

Utilitarian versus Retributivist

Effectiveness of the Approaches


The aim of the philosophy of punishment is to understand the reason behind administration of punishment and the procedure used in determining the suitable punishment. Punishment refers to authoritative deprivation of people’s freedoms and rights or inflicting pain to an individual or group of people because of engaging in activities against the laws of the society or some group of people.

Punishments are administered informally within the society for instance within a family set up or formally through the system of justice in the country. The main aim of punishing wrong doers is to correct them so that they do not go back to the same crime. Punishments are also administered to prevent the victim from influencing other innocent citizens and shy off some who may be intending to commit the same crime (Corlett, 2006).

Theories of punishment Governments apply several theories to support the use of punishment so that the society maintains law and order. A society without punishment would be disorderly because the rate of crimes will be very high. Crimes like rape, theft, kidnapping, robbery, murder among others would be on increase.

This would end the society into a dangerous state. Punishments are used as control measures to people’s behaviors. Involvement in crimes is minimized by punishments because people are aware of the strict measures to be taken against them. Utilitarian and retributivist are the two major theories used in support of punishments (Corlett, 2006).

Utilitarian theory of punishment This theory is based on the assumption that offenders are punished to prevent and discourage them from engaging in crimes in future. According to this theory, maximization of laws contributes to society’s happiness. Law enforcement minimizes crimes and punishments and therefore people lead happy and comfortable lives. The proponents of the theory agree that a society free of crimes does not exist but try as much as possible to punish offenders to deter them from committing crimes in future (Murphy, 2007).

Murphy (2007) argues that utilitarian theory is naturally consequential. This means that the effects of punishment are felt by individual offenders as well as the larger society. They therefore believe that the benefits of the punishments should outweigh the disadvantages it has to both parties.

The theory requires that laws are specifically designed to prevent individual criminals from future destructive activities as well as effects on other members in the society. There are two basic levels of deterrence, general and specific levels of deterrence. General deterrence means that punishment administered to a criminal prevents other people from committing crimes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The punishment is meant to help others understand that criminal behavior is punishable and therefore the person serves as an example to other people. Specific or individual deterrence means that the punishment is meant to prevent its bearer from committing further crimes. One way of punishing offenders is confining them in a jail where they are under exposure of unfavorable conditions. The experiences in jail discourage them from repeating the crime.

Another argument put forward by utilitarians is that punishment changes the moral values of the offender. Punishments make wrong doers realize their mistakes and change for the better so that similar mistakes are not repeated again. In addition, they believe that punishment involves isolation of the offender from the rest of the society members.

Society members are now secure because the person cannot cause any more harm to them. For instance when criminals are confined in jails, their movements is closely monitored within the institution. They also believe that punishments should both be administered to offenders and innocent people if the society is to benefit from the act (Murphy, 2007).

According to Murphy (2007), rehabilitation measures are useful methods of instilling punishment to offenders. Offenders are taken to rehabilitation centers under the control of law where necessary steps are taken to help them out of criminal activities.

Treatments of pain like chronic violent behavior and mental disorders are some of the applicable rehabilitation measures taken on criminals. Educational programs are also offered in rehabilitation centers which equip them with knowledge and skills in various courses. This enables them to earn a living.

Retributivist theory of punishment The theory puts its major emphasis on the crime.Its proponents believe that criminals deserve punishments because they committed certain crimes. The reason for being punished is because they deserve it.

People should be responsible for their deeds and actions and therefore should bear the consequences of such actions. Proponents argue the guilty and not innocent should be subjected to punishment. The theory is based on violation of laws (transgression) as the reason for administering punishment (Murphy, 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarian and Retributivist theories of punishment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Retributivist theorists argue that people have free will and can make rational decisions. The thinking capacity of normal human beings is high and it makes it possible for people to differentiate between the right and wrong.

They should make sound decisions before acting. If an act affects other people negatively, it should be avoided. People with mental disorders like madness should not be subjected to punishments because they may not be aware of their actions (Murphy, 2007).

According to this theory, punishment is a form of revenge. Punishment is meant to let offenders suffer like they caused suffering to other people. The theory is based on the same principle applied in the Christian Bible during the Old Testament. The bible encourages revenge by using phrases such as “tooth for tooth”, “fracture for fracture” and “eye for eye”.

The bible in the Old Testament encourages peoples to cause as much pain as they caused them. In addition, the theorists argue that individual and societies legitimate rights are protected in effect with the punishment.

Through the punishment, the offender pays the debt to the society after which the offender joins the community back without any guilty. It’s a kind of respect to the offender because other society members do not discriminate against them. According to this theory, the main determinant of the punishment is the level of crime. Judging how much one is to be punished is the problem (Murphy, 2007).

Merits of Utilitarian Theory Murphy (2007) argues that utilitarian theory of punishment has several advantages. For example, it helps in changing the morals of the person. Immoral people change to responsible citizens after they have been subjected to punishment. Offenders realize that what they are doing is not accepted by the society and adopt acceptable values.

The standard in which societies maintain law and order is high because the effects of punishment will be felt by the whole society. Society members try as much as possible to avoid engaging in crimes which may lead to them being punished. In many cases, offenders are triggered by a particular issue to engage in crimes like theft.

Rehabilitation centers are of great help to such people because they come out of the centers with knowledge and skills which they can depend on to earning a living. Incarceration acts as a way of preventing further crimes in the society by isolating criminals. Sufferings caused by criminals are reduced too minimum. Harsh and severe punishments in jail help in molding criminals into useful citizens.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarian and Retributivist theories of punishment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Merits of retributivist theory The theory discourages people from engaging in crimes because they will be held accountable for their actions. Offenders receive back what they do to other people. The punishment that an individual receives is equivalent to the crime committed. Application of the theory enhances justices because there is no way in which all crimes will be judged equally.

There are those crimes which cause severe and long lasting suffering to the victim like rape. Individuals convicted with such crimes should receive a different judging from that of another person who stole minor items if justice is to be maintained. The theory encourages fair judgment.

Unlike Utilitarian, the theory does not allow innocent people to suffer for actions they did not participate in or things may not be aware of. If the laws of a society allow innocent people to suffer on the basis that the results will be overall gain to the society, this is fair (Yadav, 1993)

Yadav (1993) states that mentally unfit persons should not be subjected to punishments. Such people commit crimes out of their knowledge and should not be held responsible for them. In some cases, they also engage in activities which endanger their own lives. Instead of punishing them, they should be taken to rehabilitation centers where necessary treatments are administered.

Finally, proponents of this theory believe that people are punished because they went against the laid down instructions. After, the punishment, the offender is welcomed back to the society.

Utilitarian versus Retributivist It is difficult to determine which of the two theories is superior because they are all based on strong arguments. The aim of the utilitarian theory is to prevent the offender from committing crimes in future while retributivists strongly believe that offenders must pay back to the community their bad deeds. These are all valuable arguments. It is difficult for societies to perfectly follow the theories but they act as general guidelines to them (Yadav, 1993).

According to me, utilitarian theory of punishment is superior to retributivist theory. This is because some of its arguments are subject to criticism. For instance, it is difficult to estimate appropriate punishments for crimes. How will a judge determine the punishment for rape and murder cases which are equally serious crimes? Secondly, there is a likelihood of offenders getting used to punishments because they are sure they will be absorbed back to the society comfortably after completing their punishment.

Some criminals may change it into habit. Some people may pretend to be mentally unfit in order to evade the punishment. Out of ignorance, some people may get involved in crimes. Finally, making criminals suffer like they did to other people is not solution to the problem. They will continue engaging in crimes (Zaibert, 2006).

Effectiveness of the Approaches Both approaches are not effective because the kinds of punishments imposed on criminals in the modern world do not effectively rehabilitate criminals. For instance, criminals who are fined do not feel the pinch of what they do to other people. Such forms prevent crime for some period of time.

If criminals are to change, they should be exposed to financial, emotional and physical suffering. Although it is difficult for a society free of crime to exist, societies should have laid down instruction to help them in maintaining law and order (Zaibert, 2006).

References Corlett, A. (2006). Responsibility and punishment. New York, NY: Springer.

Murphy, C. (2007). Philosophy of law: the fundamentals. New York, NY: Blackwell Pub.

Yadav, D. (1993). Law of crime and self-defence. New York, NY: Mittal Publications.

Zaibert, L. (2006). Punishment and retribution. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.


Role of Women in Society Definition Essay essay help online

A woman is opposite sex of a man. Women have been of great importance for many generations. Women play the role of wives and mothers in any society. Some religious principals such as the Christians do believe that a woman was created out of man and was given the mandate of giving companionship to the man.

This principal has some truth in the fact that in our society we see women giving companionship to men by being their wives. Apart from this, the woman is the one who gives new life. She posses a womb that a man does not posses. The womb was specifically created for the development of the baby. After this, she gives birth and becomes the mother to the baby.

Women are more responsible when it comes to matters related to the family; they have to ensure that every thing is running smoothly as expected. Not only are women concentrated on matters of the family but in today’s generation, they are also a key player of the economy in different ways.

In the past, the woman was seen as an inferior person who was only expected to remain at home, do the household chores, and take care of the babies. The man was the one to go to work and provide the daily bread for the family, which made men mistreat their wives because women had no power to raise their views or opinions but rather they had to submit to their husbands’ orders. Nevertheless, in today’s world, women go to work and earn money that they join with that of the husband to keep up the family.

In addition, the small girls were also gender biased in the fact that they were expectected to remain at home and help their mothers in the house chores while the boys went to school to get education. This left the female child with no option but to remain uncivilized in her entire life. However, in today’s generation, the female child goes to school and acquires the same education as the male child.

It is considered unethical if the parents of the female child fail to take the female child to school and in some countries it is punishable by law. This has led the female child to develop into a very civilized woman that is well updated with the current matters that surround her.

Today it is not a shock to see a woman driving good cars, building modern houses because they have become capable to do so. They benefit the economy of a particular country as stated earlier in the fact that they become tax payers which adds a certain percentage of revenue to that particular country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are also helping to solve the problem of unemployment because they are day by day becoming more innovative and establishing new businesses and companies that create job opportunities. This stance is really helping the respective state and that is why the government of a particular country is protecting the rights of the women in their countries.

The woman of today has been given the freedom to exercise their views and opinions concerning political matters. They can even try themselves for any parliamentary seat as long as they meet the legal requirements as stipulated by the constitution of that particular country.

This has really contributed to the development of countries because men in power are aware of the present competition and criticism if they fail to deliver their mandate effectively. Women are also becoming key players in technological advancement all over the world, they possess innovative minds, they are developing machines and other related gadgets to reduce the manual work of human labor and increase the use of machines. This creates employment to the people that will be handling the machines.

Women are also human beings that are identified by beauty. it is said that a woman can take 50 percent of her time to look appealing. If a woman does not look beautiful, she faces discrimination in the society. This makes the women all over the world place their beauty as a priority and not as an option.

Every man in the world desires to marry a woman that is envied by the society, therefore, the woman who does not maintain her beauty is at the risk of being left unmarried. It is important that all women should ensure that they maintain their inward and outward beauty if they have to be considered as beautiful and responsible in the society.

Being a woman also has its disadvantages in various ways such as in the birth stage. Some women hate when they are pregnant so they try to avoid this stage and prefer an operation, which is costly and dangerous. Women also are disadvantaged when they are undergoing menstrual cycle because it is accompanied by some specific features.

Another disadvantage that the majority of women hate is the issue of being submissive to their husbands. Although they may prefer to remain independent, they have no option but to get married because they need a man to bear and have a child. Even if they decide to get a child out of marriage that will affect their child or children lacking a father being part and parcel of normal upbringing.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Women in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Being a woman is full of responsibilities because they did not elope from household chores even though they live in a civilized society. In fact, their responsibilities have increased because they have to perform their household chores as they still have to perform their household responsibilities. They also have to leave some spare time for spending with their families. That is why a research that has been conducted demonstrates women as people who can multi task unlike men who can only do one thing at a time.

From the above essay, it is evident that women are creatures of great significant in our society today. They should not be prejudiced by anyone in the society. Women are continuing to establish roots and fight for their rights by developing their organizations that do fight for their rights. It is my hope that each woman in the world will embrace the traits discussed in the above essay to ensure that they truly know the value of being a woman.


A Contract by a Construction Firm in the United Arab Emirates Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction A contract is an agreement between two or more persons, which becomes binding on them once they consent to its terms and conditions. The companies are regulated by rules and terms of engagement, which are spelt out in the agreement. Penalties for failing to adhere to the rules are also clearly defined in the contract agreement.

Each company wishes to benefit from any given contract and will, therefore, endeavor to ensure that the other company in the contract does not derail its activities. This calls for strict rules and tough penalties for delinquent parties as outlined in most contracts.

Background of the Study The Mirage Resort (MGM) is an exquisite hotel in Las Vegas, USA. Dubai World, on the other hand, is a global construction company in Dubai specializing in the areas of transport and logistics, urban development, investment and financial services.

On 21st August 2007, MGM entered into a contract with Dubai World (DW) to build a gaming center for the hotel.

Purpose of the Study This study aims at analyzing in details the components of a contract. It shall study obligations for each party, remedy for failing to honor the obligations, division of responsibilities between the parties and methods of solving conflicts whenever they arise.

Methodology This study gathers information from secondary documented sources. These are available in print and electronically on the internet.

Literature Review Parts of a Contract


Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parties to a contract have specific responsibilities and obligations that they must meet in order to achieve the contract goals. These vary depending on the nature of the contract, but strict measures are outlined to deal with parties that fail to perform their duties (Gido, 2006).


While each party has duties to carry out, they also have rights that defend them from malicious intentions of other parties so that each side enjoys equity in the share of the benefits of the contract (Gido, 2006)


A contract should have the dates of commencement of the contract and its ending. The start date of a contract is usually known, but the termination date is determined by factors like the death of a party and breach of duty by either party among others. Clear guidelines to indicate the end of a contract are necessary in order to avoid ambiguity and conflict among members (Plimpton, 2007).


Periods, mode and rate of payment are clearly indicated in the contract. Interests, fines and rates of units are all included so that parties are able to control and determine the amount they get (Gido, 2006).

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Details of the contract should be kept within the parties alone. Third parties should not be included in the agreement. In case of conflict, appropriate ways of arbitration should be sought to avoid speculation by third parties (Plimpton, 2007).

MGM and DW


Within five days of signing the agreement as written, members will have to establish a limited liability company. This is the company referred to in the agreement. This company shall be formed in accordance with provisions of the companies act in Nevada and those in the agreement (Kohn et al, 2007).

Upon formation, the company shall immediately enforce the legal requirements as outlined in the agreement forming the company. These shall affect all rights and obligations of the member companies that are relevant to the formation certificate (Kohn et al, 2007).

The two companies agree to contribute specific amounts of money to the company formed. MGM will contribute to the project while DW will contribute to the initial capital, according to the terms set in the agreement (Kohn et al, 2007).


The two companies agree that the resultant company shall be called City Center Holdings, LLC. In this regard, all business transactions by the company shall be conducted under this name henceforth. In case of the need to use a different name, such will be agreed upon by the board of directors representing both companies (Stutz, 2007).

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The place and location of business are yet to be selected and approved. This shall be done by the managing members who will agree on the appropriate location. In case of disagreement, voting will be done in order to reach an acceptable consensus. Change of this location will have to be agreed upon by the board of members through open deliberations (Kohl et al, 2007).

Business of the Company

The company will deal in the business of acquiring and owning assets of the project. Besides, it will design, develop, construct, finance, own and manage all operations of the project. In addition, the company may, in accordance with the laws of the state of Delaware on limited companies, engage in related business activities by initiation of accidental occurrence.

The related activities may include owning and operating subsidiaries in accordance with the rules in the agreement. These subsidiaries may be wholly owned by one or more individuals. The capacity for engagement in such venture is not limited as stated here. Deliberations on more ventures are open for discussion by the board members whenever a need arises (Stutz, 2007).

Purposes Limited

The company shall not take part in any other business activities unless as stated in the agreement. Members shall not carry out such activities in the name of the business or serve as representatives of other members in such activities. Such actions shall be dealt in accordance with the legal specifications as outlined in the agreement (Stutz, 2007).

Individual Obligations

Members are bound to use the company assets for the company’s needs and benefits alone. Company assets will not be used to settle individual members’ obligations such as debts or pledges. Exceptions can only occur when such use is set forth in further Additional Agreement.

This means that the company shall have considered the case and given authorization for such use. When this happens, regulations outlined by the company additional agreement shall bind the benefitting individual (Stutz, 2007).

Statutory Compliance

The company shall exist and be subject to the laws of the state of Delaware. The agreement, therefore, shall be enforced in line with the laws and all necessary adjustments and amendments shall observe the laws of the state.

This shall, however, exclude conflicts that shall emerge on matters of law. In such cases, both contexts as applicable in the UAE and the state of Delaware shall be incorporated in case solving (Kohn et al, 2007).

Title to Property

All property accrued to the company shall be owned by the company. The property may be real, personal, tangible or intangible. There is no person who shall have the right to claim any such property for personal use (Kohn et al, 2007).


The company shall begin to exist from the date it is formed according to the agreement. It shall exist indefinitely until it shall be dissolved and liquidated in accordance with the provisions of the agreement (Kohn et al, 2007).

Conduct of the Business

The company shall exist and operate as a holding company. It will conduct its business operations and own property by a single purpose limited liability that is wholly owned (Kohn et al, 2007).



MGM and DW shall be the rightful members of the company. Persons not belonging to the two companies shall not become members of the company. Exclusions are made for transfers if persons are outlined in the agreement. Such transfers must be done openly, with both relevant members of the two parties informed in good time and appropriate procedures (Stutz, 2007).

Services of members

Members of the company shall be required to dedicate the necessary time and effort in order to meet the requirements of the company and those of the members. The members are not obligated to devote full time to the company operations beyond the required time. They are free to engage in other business activities and ventures in as long as they do not contradict the requirements of the company.

In such ventures, members engage as private persons and shall not use the name of the company nor represent the company. Members can also partake in ventures that are competitive to the company business. In such cases, the business or members of the company shall not demand of the member any dues from the venture (Stutz, 2007).

Reimbursement and Fees

Members shall not be compensated or reimbursed expenditure on the management or running of the company. If a member uses his own money to settle administrative expenses, such shall be considered charity. Exception exists when such expenditure is authorized expressly or by additional agreements. In such a case, the member shall be refunded the amount spent or as otherwise agreed (Kohn et al, 2007).

Transaction with Affiliates

Upon the approval of the board of members, the company may engage a member, employee or affiliate member in the business operations. Unless stated in the additional agreement, the member engaged under these conditions shall not receive any favorable treatment unlike that of unrelated employees. Engagement in this case, therefore, is at the member or affiliate’s cost (Kohn et al, 2007).


Members, employees, agents or affiliates of members of the company shall not be liable for compensation or damages to the company and members of the company in case of loss or injury while on duty. Such an act, however, has to be ascertained to have occurred in good faith and while carrying out operations of the company.

The manner of occurrence must be shown to be within the scope and authority of the company and proven that due care was taken to avoid the occurrence.

The Instances of gross negligence and voluntary will to hurt disqualifies the act from the omission of indemnification. As a result, the person guilty of the commission or omission is liable for damages to the company or the individual hurt (Kohn et al, 2007).

In case of viable case for indemnification, the indemnified party shall not be held accountable for any loss or damage incurred by the company or any member. The company shall defend the party from actionable cases arising from the actions of the indemnified person.

Such action should not, however, include fraud, malicious intentions and gross negligence on the part of the indemnified person. Whatever decisions the company takes, to indemnify or not to, it should reflect the best and good faith intended by the company (Kohn et al, 2007).

The indemnified act shall be compensated by insurance or proceeds thereof. In the event that the act cannot be paid by insurance, compensation must be made through the company assets in manners appropriate. No individual member shall be obligated to settle the cost, unless as voluntarily and expressly agreed or by any such additional agreement. The indemnified person is by no means bound to settle the costs (Stutz, 2007).

Capital Contributions

Issuance of Units

The hundred members shall each receive a unit upon formation of the company. If any member shall find appropriate to make additional contributions, there is freedom to do so and the necessary documentation should be done.

The clause on units is open for frequent revision to reflect units issued to members at any one particular time. The units represent the ownership and voting capabilities of each member. The more the units a member owns, the more the rights. This, however, does not necessarily apply to distribution of profits (Stutz, 2007).

Initial Capital Contributions by Members

Each member should contribute initial capital as required by the agreement. MGM shall, in the close of the project, contribute all assets of the project to the company.

In order to legitimate the transfer of title for MGM to the company, MGM shall have to surrender a bill of prove for the sale, assignment intangible products such as leases, contracts and intellectual property. It shall also transfer tax forms that will have to be up to date (Stutz, 2007).

For MGM to become obligated to make the initial capital contributions, DW shall have to comply with its obligations as stated. The company shall have to have been formed, DW shall have obtained authorization to run the company according to legal procedures, DW should prove not to be a default member, the period for waiting for the surrender should have expired and no legal action should have been commenced on the details of the agreements. This means that the agreement must be lawful for the surrender to be legitimate (Stutz, 2007).

Upon MGM meeting these requirements, DW shall become liable to make its initial capital contributions as agreed in the agreement. DW must verify and be fully satisfied that no major changes were made to the project from the original expectations. MGM must have met and fulfilled its requirements as outlined in the agreement. The company too must have been formed in accordance with the agreement and DW received survey results of all assets of the project (Stutz, 2007).

When all the requirements will be met, the county officials need to approve the project and verify the premises that will be legally owned.

Failure to Make Capital Contributions

When one company fails to honor its obligations and does not meet its initial capital contribution, the other company may issue the delinquent company with a notice and take legal measures to obtain the contributions. The expenses incurred during such an undertaking are settled by the delinquent member.

The amount sought in this case is the total original contribution by the delinquent member, plus interest accumulated. Interest is calculated from the day the contribution was due to the time they are actually availed. Besides, the delinquent member is obligated to pay the other a 10% of total unpaid capital as inconvenience fees (Kohn et al, 2007).

Capital Accounts

Each member shall have a capital account. This account shall be maintained for as long as the business shall exist. The account shall be increased in proportion to the amount as increased by the member’s contributions. Any amount of money that a member shall incur as loss or liability to the company shall be decreased from the account (Kohn et al, 2007).

Return of Capital

Unless stated otherwise in the agreement, no member shall withdraw company capital for personal use. Members shall not be paid interest on capital contributions they may make toward the company.



The company is allowed to employ unlimited legal efforts to seek its funding. The terms for seeking such funding shall be outlined by the board of directors (Kohn et al, 2007).


Each member shall, upon formation of the company, employ reasonable commercial resources to obtain the various licenses as required by the business by relevant authorities. Each member shall be obligated to cooperate with authorities in pursuing illegal gaming practices. In the event that a member or member of the company obstruct efforts to get the right documents for gaming, then MGM shall be empowered, at the expiry of a ten day notice to DW, purchase to own all rights of ownership from DW (Stutz, 2007).


Each member and their affiliates agreed not to disclose company information to the general public without prior approval by other members. Secrets of trade shall be kept from non-members and only disclosed carefully to members and affiliated parties. Such information can, however, be disclosed freely when it is already in the public domain.

This way, it helps the members to give accurate information that is not distorted by speculations. It can also be disclosed when needed by a supplier or client, or when the information is needed by legal bodies for actionable reasons (Kohn et al, 2007).

Intellectual Property

Trademarks, service marks, logos, trade names and copyrights shall be legally owned by the company. Re-use of the items by another company or individual shall be treated as illegal and will require legal action. DW and its affiliates shall not have the rights to use the company’s signs elsewhere for activities besides those of the company, except as may be expressly implied in additional agreements (Stutz, 2007).


It should be agreed by both members that MGM is a corporation of Nevada. This gives it powers to exist as a valid entity within the state’s laws and has the power to execute the terms of the agreement. All benefits accrued to MGM are owned directly by MGM MIRAGE. MGM approves the terms of the agreement and agrees to be bound by them by signing the document (Stutz, 2007).

It is also vital that members should not hold criminal records with regard to their businesses. DW should agree to the terms of the agreement being subject to rules and regulations of the state of Nevada.

The knowledge and acknowledgement of the agreement means the same for the company owners Abdul Wahid Al Ulama and Kar Tung Quek. Members should also acknowledge that DW is a government decree of Dubai, solely owned by the government of Dubai and existing legally and in good will of the laws of Dubai. DW too has given its consent to the agreement and agreed to be bound by its requirements (Stutz, 2007).

The Entire Agreement

The agreement is superior to individual members and needs. It is a complete and inclusive statement of a contractual agreement binding the two parties by its specified terms and conditions. Each of the two parties has agreed to be bound by the terms of the agreements and accept liability for failure to observe the terms (Kohn et al, 2007).

Conclusion This study analyses the components of a contract by a construction firm in the United Arab Emirates. It outlines the major parts of a contract, the terms of agreements that bind the two parties of the contract and remedies for failure to honor the terms.

In the case above, the two parties, DW and MGM are treated as legal entities, whose actions can be actionable before a court of law. The interests of the contracting parties take precedence over those of individual members and efforts of the members are in line to achieving the goals as outlined in the agreement.

Recommendations The study on contracts is a wide one that requires deep and critical analysis than the one allowed in this study. Because of limited time and space, a lot about contracts has to be left out as even the included sub-headings are in summary. I would, therefore, recommend that another study be formulated, which will gather sufficient information on the process of contracting so that the study findings can be more useful to interested parties.

Reference List Gido, J.


Peculiarities of Leadership, Gender, and Communication in Movies According to Gender Lives Essay (Book Review) argumentative essay help

THESIS: Analyzing gender aspect within the communicational process and indicating the differences between men and women attitude to a number of the aspects of life, Julia Wood emphasizes the passive role of females and their engagement to male’s behavior in movies.

I. The various social roles of genders are reflected in the culture, including movies

II. The differences between language used by men and women

III. The attitude of men and women to their physical conditions and appearance

Gender factor plays a significant role in the communicational process between heroes of the movies. Men and women provide the different responses on the same situations. Analyzing gender aspect within the communicational process in culture, including movies, and indicating the differences between men and women attitude to a number of the aspects of life, Julia Wood emphasizes the passive role of females and their engagement to males’ behavior in movies.

The concept of book states upon statement of the various social roles of genders that are presented in the culture. Therefore, those roles are obviously reflected in the movies. Wood says that females’ leathers outfits are usually engaged to males (2010, p. 267). Girls and boys in the movies play the different sport games.

Most of the time, we can see boys playing a contact sports such as football, basketball, baseball, while girls are the members of cheerleading teams or take part into competitions of athletics, figure skating or gymnastics. Besides, Wood indicates the difference between father’s and mother’s attitude to the topic of sexual development of their child (2010, p. 168).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Emphasis on context of a communication for example illustrates difference in communication between men and women. Analyzing the communicational process of genders, Wood provides the theory that the language used by men and women differs. While men are more interest and attachment on facts in a communication, women’s major interest is development of a more passionate and long term relationships.

For women, the most helpful approach is to use their feelings and make conversation emotionally deeper. Such concepts can be found in the movie through its major characters, Joe, Jerry, Kane and Osgood. For instance, females’ intention for developing relations is presented by Kean’s response to Joe’s revelation of his identity and gender.

She remains passionate to him. On the other hand, Osgood tries to impose marriage on Daphne and dismisses the whole encounter when Daphne’s identity is revealed (Paludi, 2008; Thoeren and Logan, 1959).

Moreover, the author describes the personal comprehension and attitude of men and women to their physical conditions. Women are more interested in the analysis of their body. Obviously, such questions as “Am I fat?” or “Am I looking good?”, most of the time, rise in the females mind.

In every movie, such attitude of women can be easily noticed, while men care less about their appearance and more about the professional success and career. Although Wood generalizes the social aspects of genders, her arguments can be related to the particular situation. The author provides a description of the struggle over genders at the various areas.

It is possible to result that Wood’s attitude seems feministic due to her emphasizing of the females as the oppressed gender which needs protection and have more benefits as the result of the appearance. In the episode when Jerry and Joe are afraid of becoming victims of subsequent gang’s attacks they change their identities, being sure that they can be protected due to such appearance.

As the result, Wood says that men in a given society have a defined communication approach that is from women in the same society because of factors such as gender roles (Wood, 2010). As those roles are reflected in the culture, they can be found in the behavior of heroes of the movie. Analyzing Wood’s book, I realized that the social roles of genders are always reflected in the movies. Therefore, the heroes’ behavior can be considered as an example of the different approaches of genders.

We will write a custom Book Review on Peculiarities of Leadership, Gender, and Communication in Movies According to Gender Lives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Paludi, M. (2008). The Psychology of Women at Work: Career liberation, history, and the new millennium. West Port, CT: ABC-CLIO

Thoeren, R. and Logan, M. (1959). Some like it hot [DVD]. US: MGM

Wood, J. (2010). Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning


“Hip Hop” Subculture Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Terms that forms the subculture

How they dress and look

How they act


Culture refers to elements of a society such as arts and other expressions among people. It is defined as a set of manifestations of a group of individuals who share common characteristics. Differences within a culture lead to further classification of individuals into subcultures.

A subculture consists of members of a larger culture who have specific characteristics, distinct from other members of the parent culture. This paper seeks to discuss the ‘hip hop’ subculture. Based on an interview with a member of the subculture, the paper will discuss some of the terms used in the subculture, how its members dress and look, as well as how they act.

Terms that forms the subculture Language is one of the elements that distinguish ‘hip hop’ from other subcultures that are based on music. The subculture has specific diction and vocabulary that are attributed to its origin. The subculture that originated from the United States had racial roots that greatly influenced the terms used in communication.

Having developed from African American and Hispanic American races, most of its terms are a corrupt integration of the languages. The terms, though closely related to English, are modified with additional letters either within the original English words of at the end of the words. There are terms such as ‘dis’ instead of the term ‘this’ or words such as ‘homie’. Other terms are derived from the regular English language but are given special meanings in the ‘hip hop’ culture.

The term ‘old school’ is for instance used to mean the early period of time in which the ‘hip hop’ music developed. A regular consideration of the English language would offer a different meaning to the term. The subculture also uses the term ‘biting’ to refer to a person who infringes other peoples’ rights over proprietary musical styles and forms. The subculture therefore has terms that distinguish it from main artistic culture, of music, that involves other subcultures such as rap and rock and rhythm.

How they dress and look Like its language, the ‘hip hop’ culture has a distinct dress code that distinguishes it from other sub cultures. Though a number of transitions have been witnessed, there has been a uniform trend of loosely fitting clothes among the group’s members. The initial dressing style of the group was a set of lose cloths with generally bright colors.

Tracksuits and jackets were also common. Developments in the subculture also witnessed acculturation of hairstyle designs and specially designed caps. Currently, the subculture is characterized by sports wears that are specifically loosely fitting. At the same time, specially branded jewelry known as ‘bling bling’ have been adopted by the subculture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dress code is also defined by special brands of products that are attributed to the subculture’s music legends. Members of the subculture are therefore distinct in the way they look and they can be distinguished by their appearance.

How they act A ‘ghetto’ form of behavior identifies the ‘hip hop’ subculture. This particular set of attitude and reaction is attributable to the origin of the subculture. Having originated from minority races that were lowly regarded in the United States’ New York, the subculture still exhibits an inferiority complex based behavior with elements such as rudeness, arrogance, and violence. There is also a high level of peer influence.

Conclusion The ‘hip hop’ subculture, derived from ‘hip hop’ music, is a subset of a major culture that is defined by the music industry. The sub culture has distinct characteristics in its language, dressing style and behavior.


Watershed river basin management Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A watershed is one of the units discovered to play a role in conservation of the environment (Carlsen 44). It is through watersheds that water is regulated ensuring sufficient water for the present need and the future to come. The watershed has a joint role of preserving the environment and also maximizes its use by encouraging the flow of resources (Blake 2).

Watershed management programs have been encouraged across states to support the environment and improve the standards of living for the people around (Carlsen 44). Developing a watershed is an effective strategy in water management and animal conservation.

A watershed sustains water management cycle, for instance the Columbia River basin around the Pacific Northwest. The Colombia river basin management program covers Idaho, Washington and Oregon. The river basin through the Washington department is able to regulate the quality of water and the distribution of water to the surroundings.

The watershed is highly favored because it is able to optimally distribute the flow of the natural resources (Ffolliot 76). It is able to satisfy the great demand for water and still ensure plenty supply in the future. The Columbia River basin covers approximately 10,000 acres of land and through it water is regionally supplied to the towns and firms around it.

The river basin is an efficient unit to sustain the towns with water because it routes quality water to the people sustaining nature and its resources. The Columbia River basin also enables water planning because it unifies the need to meet the demands of water and still conserves the natural habitat of fish and plants around it (Ffolliot 77).

The Columbia water basin distributes water to the various states and still conserves the natural habitat of animals and plants that live in water. It is lastly a good unit because it allows decentralization of responsibility in water management (Carlsen 45). The Columbia River basin has a lot of stakeholders like the Washington department of fish and wildlife, the public utility district and the department of ecology.

There are several benefits and challenges that come up once the watershed is created. A watershed is able to protect the environment because it is able to strike an aquatic ecosystem balance (Ffolliot 78). The Columbia River basin for instance is able to supply sufficient water to the people and also preserve enough water for the other surroundings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It protects the disruption of water flow and helps in water management (Ffolliot 78). The unit is able to increase the water supply and enhance it through the water cycle management. This assists in water regulation for production of electricity, everyday usage and for the natural environment (Ffolliot 79).

Regulation also sees to it that the wildlife is not threatened. The unit is able to supply quality water, which improves the standards of living and healthy living. It ensures that there are enough water supplies for the present demand and the future. This prevents water shortage during long spells of drought and flooding during heavy rain.

The water management system is efficient due to data collected and predictions done beforehand to prevent natural disasters (Ffolliot 79). However, watersheds still encounter certain challenges such as funding. The cost of water management is huge and requires many donors to contribute for the various watershed overheads. Pollutant reduction to zero can prove to be a challenge during the implementation process.

Water management alternatives such as state or national boundaries are exercised; however the watershed is far able to conserve the farms, towns and the wildlife’s habitat (Blake 5). It can regulate the water ensuring quality and enough supply of it to meet the great demand. The state of national boundaries may not be as effective as the watershed program, due to accumulated state interests.

Using national boundaries is bound to bring in conflicts among states based on resource management. Watershed system is able to combine the several stakeholders instead towards one mission. The Columbia River basin for instance has several stakeholders such as the department of wildlife and the department of health in Washington working together. A watershed would stand best than an eco-region as a result of resources employed.

The chances of an eco-region being more successful could be low due to the large budget involved to maintain the program. The Columbia River basin along the Pacific Northwest is an effort of more than three states, which makes the funding less burdening. The watershed is an effective water manager due to its ability to preserve the environment and still utilize its resources.

In summary, society ever growing needs for water requires watershed management to meet this need and also prevent natural resource drain. It is a challenge to meet this needs everyday and not causes an imbalance of nature.

We will write a custom Essay on Watershed river basin management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Efforts however are been placed to come up with new technological ideas to ensure water is well regulated for future supply. The increase of usable water can be managed by employing various water management policies ensuring constant water supply. The watershed policy emphasis is on quality water supply and preservation of the environment despite the demand.

Works Cited Blake, White. Development of a watershed for the lower river basin. New York: The Cadmus group, 2007. Print

Carlsen, Williams. Watershed dynamics. New York: NSAT press, 2004. Print

Ffolliot, Peter. Sustaining the flows of natural and economic resources from watershed lands. Journal of the Arizona academy of science 35(1). 76-80, 2003. Print


Big five personality dimensions Essay college essay help

Personality of individuals has been described using many theories in the past years. However, today the big five model of personality has been adopted and is widely used by many people.

As cited in Hofstee (2003), research in many cultures on personality traits has found the five dimensions of the model present (Nevid, 2009). The big five model dimensions are urgency, agreeableness, adjustment, conscientiousness and openness to experience. This article will evaluate this model as used by one of the world leading managers Donald Trump.

Urgency is also referred to as extroversion in the model. It is a character trait exhibited by extroverts. According to Nevid (2010), extroverts are people who are friendly, cheerful, tolerant, sympathetic outgoing and enthusiastic. This personality dimension “captures ones comfort level with relationships” as said by Robbins (2009).

As a leader, Donald trump is said to be a very competitive person who creates an environmentally competitive surrounding for his employees in the workplace (Ramanaidu et al., 2010).

This dimension is strongly used by Donald Trump especially in his show “The Apprentice” where a strongly extroverted trait is dominant through creating a strongly competitive environment for the contestants. Also as an extrovert, he promotes public events and initiatives like competitions by encouraging participants to strongly contribute.

Agreeableness is the second dimension of the model. According to Robbins (2009), it is the tendency of an individual to yield to other people’s opinions. Therefore, this dimension explains how individuals respond to other people’s views. When an individual conforms easily, he is said to be agreeable.

According to Nevid (2010), individuals strong in this dimension tend to be sensitive, cooperative with others, sympathetic, confident with others and are concerned with the feelings of other people. As suggested by Ramanaidu et al. (2010), Donald Trump has a low degree of agreeableness that demands detailed statements and proves of concepts before making any confirmations and acknowledgements. He particularly insists on performance measures using goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conscientiousness is the third dimension of the model. Robbins (2009) states it “is a measure of reliability” (p 94). People who exhibit this are meditative, organized, pay attention to detail, ethical, ambitious, time conscious and reliable. Using this dimension, as suggested by Ramanaidu et al. (2010), Donald Trump is an optimistic and self confident person who used this dimension to build his Trump International Hotel.

As an example, Trump is dependable in his directions and vision and despite obstacles, is centered on goal achievement. As a manager, Donald Trump is said to be strong in this dimension since he says that one should do what it takes to achieve his or her goals lawfully without shortcuts (Ramanaidu et al., 2010).

The fourth dimension is adjustment which is also referred to as emotional stability or neuroticism. According to Robbins (2009), it is “a person’s ability to withstand stress” (94).

These people are self confident, secure and they are tranquil. Ramanaidu et al. (2010) suggest that as a manager, Donald Trump is emotionally stable especially during contentious discussions where he concentrates on the end achievements. In his opinion, he is strong in calming his nerves during many situations.

The last dimension is openness to experience. According to Robbins (2009), it relates to how people are open to change through accepting new thoughts and concepts. In this dimension, the individual traits are curiosity, imaginative, creative and sensitive to art (Robbins, 2009). Ramanaidu et al. (2010) suggest that Donald Trump is a strong person in openness to experiences throughout his career. This is seen through his many business ventures where he learns from the past and focuses on the present (Ramanaidu et al., 2010).

References Nevid, J.S. (2010). Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.

Ramanaidu, M.N., Zain, S.M., Nor, N.A.M.


Community Hazard Analysis Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Community hazard analysis is essential for mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery planning. In the process of creating a disaster program analysis, this reflective paper identify and characterize disasters, evaluate each on frequency and magnitude scale, and estimate overall risk.

Besides, the paper determines potential, direct, and indirect social and economic costs, effects, acceptable risk level, and identifies appropriate risk reduction opportunities in the city of Georgia. Besides, the treatise measures these hazards on the risk assessment model and classifies each in its quadrant on the facets of probability (Haddow, Bullock,


The Individual and Game Theory Criticisms and the Evolutionary Theory Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction The individual choice/game theory uses a very strict definition of individual rationality. On the contrary, the evolutionary game theory does not make any rationality assumptions. In this paper, the focus is going to be on commenting on whether the evolutionary approach is successful in addressing the criticism that, in neoclassical economics, the profile of the rational individual is not very realistic.

Evolutionary Theory Provides a Satisfactory Answer to the Criticism In my view, the evolutionary game theory, which is a dynamic process, possibly offers the coordination mechanism which aligns beliefs with behaviour. It brings the game theory closer to economics by looking at economics as the product of an adjustment process instead of being looked at as a thing that simply springs in to existence.

The classical game theory, which was a standard theory until the 1980s, is set up on the assumptions of ideal rationality as well as common knowledge (Hodgson 2007). However, it is without a doubt that not only an assumption is made that each individual makes an effort to maximize utility, there is also need to make an assumption of common knowledge of rationality and consistently aligned beliefs (Griine-Yanoff and Lehtinen 2010).

According to my judgement, the evolutionary theory has offered some sort of solution to problems that are associated with the classical game theory. By making the relaxation of the perfect rationality assumption legitimate, the revolutionary turn overcame the hurdle which the refinement programme could not overcome.

The issue was in the fact that “classical game theory facilitated generation of predictions were disconfirmed by evidence” (Sugden 2001, p.116). Economists had interest in game theory for the reason that they had hopes of utilizing it in explaining the actions of the “real economic agents”. Therefore, in the setting, there was an assumption that ‘real economic agents’ like the perfectly rational players of the theory, must possess some explanatory strength.

However, the evolutionary theory is not confined to prescribed actions of ‘ideal’ agents as it focuses on the agents’ behaviour which is predetermined by successful actions of other agents.

In other words, the evolutionary theory focuses on specific behavioural patterns which have already been checked and proved to be successful. Therefore, economists do not try to work out some patterns on the basis of certain assumptions. The economists can have more specific material. The evolutionary approach offers particular settings and particular examples to operate on.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the strengths of the evolutionary game theory is that it does not focus on individuals but on the strategies themselves. It is those strategies that are successful themselves which attract the agents and the individuals do not consciously make choices.

It is only that with time, in one way or the other, they learn to make choices of strategies which, in regard to expected utility, are better for them. This might come about for the reason that “individuals learn from past play, they copy the behaviours of other players that are successful, or they adapt” (Patokos 2011, p.3).

Therefore, the evolutionary theory addresses limitations of the game theory which is too ‘theoretical’. The evolutionary theory leaves behind certain theoretical notions like rationality to focus on more specific points like strategies used by the agents.

The individual choice/game theory offers models which can hardly fit the modern (i.e. real) world, whereas the evolutionary theory provides in-depth analysis of behavioural patterns and various strategies developed by agents. In simple terms, instead of theorizing (which is the case with game theory), the evolutionary theory is more concerned with analysis of situations which are true to life.

It is possible to claim that the evolutionary theory addresses the criticism that the neoclassical approach is unrealistic. The evolutionary approach verifies that it is possible to work out specific strategies which can be used in real life settings. The evolutionary approach enables economists to work out new ways to analyse various processes which take place in the business world. Finally, the evolutionary approach addresses one of the weakest points of the individual choice/game theory.

The evolutionary theory does not try to suggest some sort of rationality. The approach suggests that agents’ actions can be justified by previous experiences of agents. In other words, the evolutionary theory is not confined to analysing rationalities which influence agents’ choices. The evolutionary approach suggests a simple answer to one of the major questions concerning motives and stimuli. The evolutionary theory focuses on successful strategies agents develop.

Usefulness of the Evolutionary Approach

We will write a custom Essay on The Individual and Game Theory Criticisms and the Evolutionary Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The evolutionary approach is very useful in addressing the problems associated with the individual choice/game theories that have been pointed out by critics.

In an interesting manner, it is not that the evolutionary game theory does not need to make any assumptions on rationality; in the actual sense, it can be proved that the individual rationality assumptions as they are known must not apply for evolutionary theory to take off. Therefore, I view this theory as being a response to the criticism that rationality in neoclassical economics is too restrictive and it offers a very strong answer by leaving out all the rationality assumptions.

Furthermore, I assume that evolutionary approach is more applicable in the contemporary business world. Admittedly, game theory proved to be quite effective in analysing certain processes. However, it is too concerned with the concept of rationality. In the ideal world where agents are guided by ‘ideal’ rationality, this theory could be the best option.

However, the modern competitive business world is more like the animal world where species try to adopt and simply survive. Likewise, evolutionary approach can explain many of the on-going processes. I assume that modern agents tend to strive for success which presupposes fitness to certain conditions. Thus, evolutionary approach is more concerned with agents’ actions and choices which lead to some kind of development, rather than tracing agents’ choices based on specific rationality.

In the evolutionary game, agents do not work out strategies based on their rationality. Agents “inherit” strategies which have already proved to be effective under certain conditions (Vincent


Strategy of Google Company Case Study college essay help

Introduction Google Company was started in 1996 by two computer science graduates from Stanford University. The two graduates developed the search engine and named it Back Rub. One year later, the search engine had gained popularity among the Silicon Valley Internet Users.

They changed the name from Back and Rub to Google in 1998. Since then, this company has experienced a massive growth in the internet industry. It was ranked the best search engine in the world. The company recently launched a mailing system, G-mail, which would allow its users to send and receive emails, share pictures and many other services that other industry players had not come up with in this industry. It has the largest market share, with a market growth that has remained positively skewed for the last ten years.

Currently, the company has partnered with a number of mobile telephone manufactures to develop internet enabled phones. This has earned it a lot of revenue. In 2006, it acquired YouTube as a strategy to expand its market share and sources of revenue. Through this, the company has become the largest internet advertiser, earning it more income. The management entered into alliance with Logitech, Sony, Adobe and DISH Network to develop Google TV. This would provide users with television channels and recorded programs on demand.

SWOT Analysis This company can best be analyzed through SWOT analysis. Kotler and Armstrong (2010) note that this brings to focus a competitive advantage of a firm.

The company has several strengths that make it maintain its market lead. This company has had time to expand its financial base. As at December 31, 2009, the company had an asset base of $40,496,477. This huge financial strength makes it easy to effectively compete in the market. The company has the widest geographical coverage than any other search engine. It was rated the best search engine in 2010.

Its mailing system has been rated as the most reliable in the world, outsmarting some of the traditional players like yahoo. Its acquisition of YouTube has made it able to attract advertising firms, making it increase its market share. The company has a team of highly innovative employees. This has seen it develop some products that are widely accepted in the market.

However, the company has some weaknesses that have limited its ability to expand at a rate that had been predicted by the management. One major weakness of this company is its inability to control spammers. Through the advertisements made by the customers, a good number are fraudsters. This has seen many of the Google’s customers complain because of the loss from this. Its aggression into the mobile telephone sector may also jeopardize its ability to concentrate in other sectors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several opportunities that exist for this company in the world market. Its partnership with Logitech, Sony, Intel, DISH Network and Adobe to provide programmed television services introduces it into a new industry that will enable it attract more customers to its current base. It also has the opportunity to attract Smartphone companies in developing other new models of phones.

The main threat of this company is the competing firms in this market. Firms like yahoo, Ask, Facebook, Tweeter and Flickr are eating into the market share of this company. Other external threats include hackers who are able to hijack in the system and interfere with the normal operations of this firm.

References Kotler, P.,


Strategy of Goggle Case Study essay help online: essay help online

Analysis of Goggle Larry and Brinn founded this entity in the 1990s. However, the entity had a different name, Back Rub. The founders of the entity were undergraduates at Stanford University. The two students developed a search engine that could rate website relevance via examination of back links.

The above innovation would support the undertakings of countless entities in the Information technology (IT) sector. The founders later registered the entity in California. The entity generated its income only as search engines. Nonetheless, the entity currently has diversified its operations into an assortment of subsectors in the computer industry (Clay


Illinois’ Tax Problems Essay (Article) essay help

Table of Contents Macroeconomics

Tax Issues

Solutions from Taxpayers’ Point of View

Solutions from Selected Officials


Illinois Governor Pat Quinn was re-elected with a platform built on higher tax rates. According to many analysts, it was an improbable win because of the prospect of higher taxes. But to the surprise of many pundits, Governor Quinn was ushered into the office for another term.

The reaction can be understood if one takes a look at the figures. The proposed income tax hike amounted to a significant increase from 3% to 5.25%. In addition, the state would also impose a tax increase in personal property tax. As a result, the corporate tax rate would increase to 10.9%. It was a major upgrade and a burden to many businessmen.

The expected and unexpected outcome of the proposed tax increase was to initiate a chain-reaction of events that forced big businesses to search for a place to relocate. In other words, Illinois could no longer be considered as a practical place to conduct business. It triggered a panic reaction from the governor, and he offered tax breaks for companies like Motorola, Sears, and Caterpillar.

However, medium-scale enterprises were unable to avail of multi-million dollar tax breaks enjoyed by previously mentioned conglomerates. The tax problems prompted many to offer solutions to the burgeoning budget deficit of the state, and some said that it could be solved not by higher tax rates but reduction in expenses.

Macroeconomics The articles offered a good case study of macroeconomics. Roger Leroy Miller’s book provided a clear discussion of macroeconomics because it is one of the means to study the economy of a state or a nation.

In this particular case, the macroeconomic consideration for the state of Illinois examines the impact of the new tax laws not only on the giant corporations that can be found in the state but also on the economy of neighboring states. In addition, a macroeconomic view of the tax issue enables the analysts to see the cause and effect of certain policies. In other words, the macroeconomic view considers the wide-range effect on an area not just an individual.

It must be pointed out that when Governor Quinn increased the tax rate, he also considered the macroeconomic impact of his decisions. Although the tax hike could be seen as an additional burden to the families which saw their tax bill increase significantly, the positive impact of the said move should not be discounted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Governor Quinn made the argument that this move could narrow down the budget deficit and provide a better future for everyone. On the other hand, the neighboring states began to entice corporations to relocate. Viewed from a macroeconomic perspective, this means that unemployment rate in Illinois will skyrocket if Governor Quinn cannot stop the exodus from happening.

Tax Issues The proposed tax hike was a reaction to the problem of budget deficit that threatened to derail the state of Illinois. The current figures indicated that Illinois could not pay 40% of needed expenditures. In other words, there was no way to generate $15 billion. If this amount were not in the government coffers, then there would be no money to pay for pension and healthcare expenses.

It was a devastating prospect for the workers who diligently toiled for decades in anticipation of an idyllic retirement period. It was also a nightmare for those who depended on the state for employment benefits and healthcare. The public school system would be affected and other services that the government had to support.

As a result, Governor Quinn was forced to increase the tax rate. The people acceded to his request because he made it clear that there was no other way to solve the problem. The people voted for Quinn because he convinced them that he could solve the problems that buffeted the economy of the state of Illinois.

The main component of the campaign promise was to force giant corporations to fork out more taxes. It was a proposition that was easy to understand. Big profits could be translated to more tax money and, therefore, could increase the funds of the state. Unfortunately, the plan backfired when corporations like Caterpillar and Motorola threatened to relocate to another state where the tax laws were not as crippling.

When Governor Quinn began to offer tax breaks, the average tax payer began to recoil in dismay and unbelief. It came to a point when an expert weighed in and said that the decision of Governor Quinn to appease big businessmen with tax breaks was not only disturbing but could also create a dangerous precedent that could significantly erode public confidence. It could even create a major financial crisis in the said state.

Solutions from Taxpayers’ Point of View There were two major groups of tax payers. The first group was comprised of employees and entrepreneurs. The second group consisted of the multinational companies like Caterpillar and Motorola. From the perspective of the first group, the solution to the problem was to increase the taxes imposed on big corporations. They also proposed to lessen expenditures. A specific suggestion was to reduce the amount of money that the state committed to pay retirees.

We will write a custom Article on Illinois’ Tax Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second group, on the other hand, offered a one-sided solution to the problem. The solution came in the form of tax breaks. In other words, they were amenable to the idea of raising the tax rates, but when it came to the giant corporations, the amount that they had to pay was covered with the millions of dollars in tax breaks given by the state.

Solutions from Selected Officials The solution provided by Governor Quinn was to raise the income tax of the workers and to increase corporate tax. But at the same time, he turned around to offer a tax break for big business groups like Motorola and Caterpillar.

It should be made clear that government officials agreed with the proposal to cut government spending. As a result, the state legislature proposed a pension-reform bill. The purpose of the said bill was to reduce the commitment of the government to future retirees. Thus, the newly hired workers are not going to enjoy the same type of benefits received by present day retirees.

Conclusion The budget deficit forced Governor Quinn and the state legislature to increase the income and corporate taxes. The campaign promise was anchored on the idea that giant corporations located in Illinois would help shoulder the burden.

But when the new tax rate was announced, big corporations threatened to relocate, and this prompted another impulsive reaction from Governor Quinn. He offered tax breaks for these corporations. The people were dismayed with this new development and suggested other solutions that could help solve the tax problems faced by the state.


Evidence of Transformation Essay online essay help: online essay help

The declaration of Ka’bah and its surrounding as ‘forbidden’, attracted traders as the Qurayshite formed an oligarchy that extended its forbidden status geographically and made the region economically strong. The Queayshites established a socio religious center within the ‘forbidden’ region where Allah reigned supreme.

The centralization led to a selective observance of law according to kinship, attracting Arab tribesmen who wanted such privileges (Farah 32). Allah became the equalizing force among the different tribes.

However, merchants took over the control of political power from clans, and class brought division between the inner Quraysh and the outer Quraysh. The message brought by Muhammad would bring back this unity (Farah 34).

“But the organization of power among the aristocracy of Quraysh was not complete because their council of oligarchs lacked legislative force and the means to execute decisions without having to resorting to traditional methods. In a society now organizes around functional classes rather than tribal membership, the threat of a blood feud or a protracted vendetta was no longer an effective weapon of social restraint when friction developed within the society”. (Farah 33-34)

The above quote makes a critical point in providing the evidence of transformation. It concludes the description of the existing social order in Quraysh before Muhammad (Farah 31). In addition, it offers a narration of the imperfections that existed within the system, which made it inefficient and in need of a solution to the growing injustices.

The aristocracy of Quraysh became powerful by forming pacts that quashed clan affiliation in favor of kinship and trade interests. During this time, the socio religious function of Allah as the guarantor of rights outside family and tribal members increased (Farah 32). The prominence of Allah helped the Makhzum and Umayya clans to occupy the inner city (Farah 33).

However, economic ambitions came before religion and social order, thus the region’s legislation failed to develop at the same rate of its trade and industry development. The traditional methods of the legislature served the region, but did not match the transformed need of the society, which had moved from a classification of tribal affiliation into a classification of economic classes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second sentence in the above quote informs the reader of the preexisting socio religious condition that was full of injustices before the arrival of Muhammad. Without the imperfections, it would be difficult for the transformation to occur. Alternatively, if a transformation took place with relatively perfect conditions, then its impact would be negligible.

The annihilation of tribal affiliations was a major factor contributing to the co-existence of dissimilar tribes in the Quraysh. Moreover, the declaration and extension of the ‘forbidden’ status of Ka’bah laid a foundation for the assembly of different tribes and their subsequent transformation into the Quraysh. The cohesion allowed the ruling oligarchy to perpetuate social practices such as wage payment for economic reasons.

This created a new societal division of the inner Quraysh and their clients and slaves who were on the receiving end of the punitive measures. Muhammad belonged to the outer Quraysh and therefore, identified better with the oppressed (Farah 33). This affiliation would be important for his message to gain prominence.

The last part of the quote above is symbolical. Just as the organization around functional classes negated the need for a blood feud, Muhammad would not require the help of the existing political power to spread his message. The fermented state of Mecca already made his message appealing (Farah 34).

Works Cited Farah, Caesar. Islam Beliefs and Observances. Virginia: Barron’s Educaton Series, 1970. Print.


Rethinking the East Asian Miracle Essay (Book Review) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Book content

Critical Analysis


Introduction Stigilitz and Yusufs’ book ‘Rethinking the East Asian Miracle’, illuminates the vital facets of the East Asian economies. The book looks at the crisis that gripped the East Asian region during 1997- 1999. The catastrophe underscored the exigency for cross- sectoral reforms just as the strong revitalization of nearly all the region economies convinced, those who did doubt that, by no means, the East Asian miracle had gone through all stages, from worst to recovery.

Weaknesses in the corporate government and financial sector, trade policies and exchange rate, are discussed in the book ‘rethinking the East Asian Miracle’. The authors also informatively analyze the various aspects of the economy of East Asia. The intricate political economy of development in East Asia is looked at by the author as well as, the interaction among governments as a way of reducing the threat of the periodic disaster.

Book content Joseph Stigultz and Shahid Yusuf edited the book ‘Rethinking of the East Asian miracle’ from the World Bank report on the East Asian miracle. The book is a co- publication of the oxford university press and the World Bank. It was published in July 2001by Oxford university press in New York, ISBN 0-19-521600-8.

The book, ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle,’ was intended to, have a new look during the 1990s at regional experiences, extend and modify the findings of the World Bank East Asian Miracle, which had been published in 1993. Most countries in the Eat Asian region were operating on a positive note, with most of them registering improved economic growth rates. ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle’ revisits the rapid economic growth which persisted for five years, and afterwards in 1996, it began to decline.

This slowed down exports and there emerged excessive capacity in many commercial sectors, thereby, registering a decline in earnings. The authors of ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle,’ Joseph Stigultz and Shahid Yusuf, focus on the serious disaster or crisis that gripped the East Asian region during the year 1997 to 1999.

The book’s contributors offered varied and broad insights to the political economy of transformation, aspects of governance and vital organizations. These in-depth insights helped to offer an understanding to a deep, carefully nuanced and an analytically thorough East Asian Kaleidoscope.

The first chapter of the book is contributed by Shahid Yusuf, and focuses on the East Asian miracle by the time of the millennium. Yusuf reviews the economy of the East Asian region in the 1990s. There was a rapid economic growth from 1990 to 1995 which began to decline in 1996.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Questions and doubts began emerging about the capability of the East Asian tiger economies and, they got worse in the 1997. There were signs of stress in Thailand’s financial sectors and real estates, Korea’s several chaebol began failing, and there was constant stagnation in the Japanese economy.

A full- blown crisis was witnessed by the end of the year originating from Thailand, on to Malaysia, Korea and Indonesia. China, Singapore and Philippines were not largely affected, though there was slow growth in China and Taiwan. The book illuminates the crisis in East Asia, and how the impacts became apparent in other countries like the Russian federation and Brazil.

‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle’ looked at a panorama which was made unpopular by the impact of an unforeseen calamity and crisis, which had a chief impact on most economies. The chapters in the book look at vital factors, which determined the performance in the East Asia.

More light is shed on the experiences of the 1990s, and the changes and reaffirmation made on the mainstream overviews of the period, as expressed in the East Asian miracle. The book reviews the factors that contributed immensely to the East Asian miracle. The successive chapters in the book focus on the East Asian growth of the economy, followed by the crisis as well as on economic recovery. The changes in technology and its growth in East Asia are highlighted in the book, focusing mainly on the macro in relation to the micro perspectives.

China’s vast contribution to the East Asian miracle, through rural industrialization, is appreciated in the book although, it is pointed as having a redundant growth during the five years of the crisis. The crisis receded by millennium and the East Asian economy began recuperating in 2000. In 1998, the United States provided the momentum for the world’s economic growth.

The crisis started receding in1999, and the East Asia standard of dollar resurrected and began to stabilize. The book looks at the pegging of the exchange rate high frequency, and the interpretation that went with it. There was continuous control in the cooperate governance. The governments’ control in the transitional institutions and the firm relationship of countries contributed significantly to the recuperation of East Asia.

The book, ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle’ has vast information from eminent scholars, who shed light on the industrial policies that were put in place by various states and how these policies were implemented. This volume supplements the missing perspective from the East Asian miracle that was published in 1993.

We will write a custom Book Review on Rethinking the East Asian Miracle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Chinese experience is explained in this book, and it is put in light with other countries’ economies in the region. Import liberalization to economic growth is discussed in the book as having been brought about by export led policies. The book, ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle,’ clarifies issues concerning the decision about the exchange rate policies adopted n East Asia.

The roles played by the individual governments in the Southeastern Asia are looked at, and the effect the government policy had on the economy. Joseph Stiglitz, ends the book with his contributions about the period the miracle happened in the East Asia, followed by the crisis, and then to recovery. Stiglitz reviews the periods, and, give the reader an insight of the whole process from the miracle, to crisis and finally to recovery of the East Asian economy.

Critical Analysis The critical analysis involves interpreting and evaluating the author’s views presented in the book. It also presents work organization, work style, effectiveness, understandability, importance, usefulness and author’s focus on his objectives in solving the problems of East Asia. The review also aims at assessing the accuracy of the information the author presents in his book. It weighs the evidence the author presents and, with how much authority.

The authors start this book by presenting the key components of East Asian economies. These components are financial sector, corporate governance, exchange rates, trade policies and regulatory capability. The authors present their views with much accuracy and thoroughness using the current situation in East Asia countries.

The analysis of each and every component of the East Asian economies, identify the causes of the problems affecting the economies, as compared to the success achieved by western countries or rather, European countries. The authors present their work from different scholars such as, Ito, Urata, McKinnon, Okasaki, and Jomo.

This shows that the authors have extensively researched on the problems affecting the East Asian countries. They also present information which they have gathered from different East Asian countries. This shows accuracy on the authors’ work because, unlike other authors of different books, they do not concentrate on a single country for their research.

The authors present the true picture of the reasons why the East Asian countries could not compete with their western and European counterparts. This presents their audience with pertinent information to be referred to for their research, and, endeavors to solve the problems of East Asia or any part of the world with similar problems.

The authors’ main arguments are true because, they present them with a lot of evidence through extensive research, and analysis with regards to East Asian countries. The authors’ analyze each problem identifying its causes and present the solutions to the problem in their book. This shows how much authority the authors have in solving the problems affecting East Asian countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rethinking the East Asian Miracle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though the authors’ work was thorough, the evidence they present on financial crisis in East Asian countries is not enough. This will not help the stakeholders to solve such a problem currently, and in the future, if it will ever occur. They have overlooked crucial issues such as the global economic melt down.

This could affect all the countries leading to collapse of the world leading economies including those of East Asia. They also criticize the international monetary arrangement as used by the west countries; these arrangements include use of centralized and internationally recognized currencies such as dollars, Euros among others. These unified currencies make it easy to do business internationally, and increase revenue for the governments’ in the form of taxes from foreign transactions.

The authors’ emphasis on East Asia is not logical because, whatever happens in other parts of the globe, will affect the Asian policies. They also criticize and discourage use of foreign direct investment especially from Europe and western countries. This notion is not logical because no country has been successful in this world without foreign investment.

The information they present on corporate governance is not applicable in solving problems, and have successful corporate in East Asian countries. The authors’ explanation of Japan’s industrial sector and solution to extend it, are logical and applicable. The explanations can also be used even in European and African countries.

The authors’ views on corruption have identified the causes, but have not presented substantial information to solve the problem. They have not provided any new research on the matter of corruption, but have instead proposed the same solutions just as other authors.

Compared to other books, the authors have authority in solving the problems of East Asia. In regards to ‘what went wrong’ by Bernard Lewis the authors have overlooked the issue of religion. This is one of the main contributing factors to the problems of East Asia. Lewis’s approach is discriminative, and his views are that, the problems of East Asia were caused by the influence of European and other western countries.

Lewis adds the issue of military power as a solution to success, an issue which is not considered by the authors. The authors handle economic issues only, leaving out cultural and religion values. Lewis opposes civilization, because, he sees it as one of the issue affecting East Asia. The politics of globalization by Maurice Mullard, presents the principal problems, as lack of contact to the outside world, and how the East Asia countries have secluded themselves from European countries.

The authors of ‘Rethinking the East Asian miracle,’ only provide solutions to the East Asian problems, but Maurice provides the solution to the world, as a whole. Rethinking East Asia is a book which has identified problems affecting East Asia and provides solutions to solve them. The book ‘Rethinking the East Asian Miracle,’ complements other books in solving the problems encountered by East Asian countries.

Conclusion ‘Rethinking the East Asian’ is an excellent book which has presented the problems of East Asia as well as the various ways of solving them. The authors have analysed each and every problem identifying their root causes. This is helpful to the reader and any other person who will be interested in understanding and solving the problems of East Asia.

The authors offer information of key problems such as those related to the financial sector, corporate governance, trade policies, exchange rates and regulatory capabilities. The arguments presented are logical though, they have a few shortcomings which can be complemented by others.

This will be of use in arriving at the most successful ways of solving East Asian problems. The authors have taken advantage of professionals that are well versed with the issues they are handling and that could of help in giving solutions. This provides them with authority in such issues, a fact which makes their book reliable in solving East Asian problems.


Information Technology Infrastructure Library Term Paper college essay help

Thesis Statement Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a great platform for professionals in Information Technology (IT) to research policies and processes which can be implemented in an organization. Current business processes supporting IT should be flexible and changeable in order to stay competitive. ITIL has a framework that covers all the aspects of IT within an organization.

Executive Summary ITIL was initially created under the backing of the UK government through CCTA department, which worked together with office of government commerce (OGC). The library is effective in defining structure of an organization through provision of skills of improving organizational information technology. It embraces standardized operational management practices and procedures, which help organizations operate IY infrastructure (Steinberg, 2001) and achieve high quality service.

The fact that ITIL is an approved model of IT services, it helps in business performance. The improved performance is due to increased efficiency level in the operations and data handling procedures. Organizations will be able to implement the latest application systems in the business to improve company brand effectively.

The focus should be put on improving the infrastructure library so that the current IT challenges are diverted or minimized. The improvement will enable good service quality and reduce operation cost at all levels of business work. The improvement comes through design of new books that incorporate new management systems inculcated in the business sector (Orand, 2011).

More research on the management systems need to be done with the major aim of unlocking key development strategies in the business systems. The ITIL books are reevaluated periodically in order business management and operations to become successful at all times.

Introduction ITIL is an approach to the information technology management service. It helps in practical understanding, identifying, and effective framework for planning and delivery supporting IT services in a given business (Van Haren Publishing, 2007). ITIL was formed in response to increasing dependence of businesses on information technology.

The agency had set many recommendations to safeguard standard practices for both, government and private sectors in order to facilitate good IT management standards. The quantity of books increased from the initial publication in the year 1989 to about thirty volumes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More comprehensive books were published by the year 2001, which could match various aspects in IT management. The growth in various versions of ITIL books has been constant until the creation of edition of the year 2011. This progress ensured that proper and updated IT infrastructural management systems are implemented for better business service delivery.

The major advocacy for ITIL is that the IT should be in line with the business needs. It also strengthens the major business processes by giving proper guidance on the use of technological tools to most organizations, which results in transformation and general business growth. In its five core publications there is a provision for systematic and professional approach to IT services. The business goals and efficient delivery method are prescribed in the system. These form the basic role of facilitating the process at all the times.

The main reason for ITIL is for identification of needs of customers through managerial approach and good monitoring for improvement of work environment. Adoption of this program ensures improvement of many areas and aspects of successful business. These include IT services, reduction of cost and usage of skills with given experience. There is also improvement in delivery when using ITIL.

In addition, customer satisfaction is also emphasized in the information technology provision, hence this is much advantageous to the business progress. By implementing this process, the companies are able to understand managerial issues through better planning in ICT infrastructure design and management.

Implementation of ITIL also ensures security management systems and this assures investors and business managers to take appropriate actions. Implementation of this program also ensures that the business achieves its identified priorities in terms of fulfilling its strategic objectives.

Benefits associated with ITIL There are many benefits associated with ITIL that prove its usefulness. To start with, the business will be able to organize its finances and utilize them in areas where they are needed. In line with this, there will be good financial savings due to better resource management or services. The saving is due to reduced cost of operation in the business because of efficiency promoted by ITIL. There will be increased productivity in the business when this program is adopted.

The other important benefit is that change management is realized through ITIL. This change enables business enterprise to be updated on various operational changes and ensures that there is suitable approach to driving the implementation process (Steinberg, 2001). The benefit of improved customer satisfaction is also realized when information technology is implemented. In addition to that, there will be also improved brand image and general perception on the given products as required by the management.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Information Technology Infrastructure Library specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the various data collected, it is reflected that many organizations have benefited greatly from ITIL process (Steinberg, 2001).The specific cases show that retail organization with nationwide outlook made excess savings of about six hundred thousand pounds per annum when they adopted the practices of the service strategy for financial management.

The ITIL provided better approaches for information which was knowledge based on nature. This helped in the reduction of cost of support with about 75% approval. The reduction in support cost came about as a result of increase in user satisfaction and productivity level. This had counted as the most beneficial in the whole service delivery package on the information infrastructure.

Major areas of ITIL Framework The first framework is a Microsoft operations framework, which is a guide series whose aim is to help the IT professionals in establishing and implementing reliable and cost effective service. It was created to provide guidance on the entire IT cycle system in order to integrate the community generated governance, compliance and risk activities.

For effective application of the framework, the lifecycle of IT is divided into three phases namely the planning phase, deliver phase and operate phase. Planning phase in the IT involves strong focusing on the inception, reliability of the IT service requested, compliance with the policies in place, cost effective service and being able to adapt to continuous changing business needs.

The deliver phase ensures that the requested services are deployed effectively through building and stabilizing the necessary services. The last one , operate phase ensures efficiency in the operation by monitoring the services deployed to ensure effective IT application in the business operations in order to ensure that satisfaction of any service agreements in the business.

The legal doctrine framework ensues legal backing of the processes involved in the ITIL. Through this, there are set out rules and regulations that govern the performance of the system. The procedures to be followed are also set out with respect to the common law. The process is outlined in the legal provision and any judgment by all the judges applies the provided regulations when making ruling. This then became the doctrine of any cases since the naming was adopted as legal doctrine framework.

Software framework facilitates software development within a short period of time so that the needs of the business can be met effectively. With respect to this framework, there is use of web application framework as a away of developing banking website to facilitate the banking process with the latest technology.

In addition to this, as part of software framework, the programming team will be able to design purpose built in house framework with the purpose of fulfilling software needs in an organization. This will actually improve data processing and increase efficiency in business management and delivery process.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Technology Infrastructure Library by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other significant features include, control inversion which dictates the general flow of the overall programs. Control is majorly dictated by the framework because the set out procedures must be followed to the latter (Hary, 2005). There is also default behavior of the framework.

This is a useful conduct and it is in line with implementation of the required process. In addition, there is extensibility whereby the user can extend the framework selectively based on the specialized user codes in order to achieve specific application. The last distinguishing characteristic is non modifiable code. The framework code cannot be modified because users can only extend it, but not any modification. Thus, specifications can be met effectively without any alterations.

IT Service Support (Help Desk) This is the identification of IT items of configurations and its recording process in order to handle changes, incidents, problems that exist in the business operation process. It deals with management aspects in solving given business crisis at all the given times.

The service support helps to identify how the establishment and running of a service desk is situated at central point for all users to get in touch (Larry, 2008). This ensures smooth sharing of information at all times and problems are strategically approached. Named below are some specific management areas that exist at the service desk.

Incident Management: in situations where something is at a mess, there is great need for the normal operations to resume immediately. The strange incidents must be solved fast to avoid any delay in the business timelines.

Problem Management: the first approach is to find out the root courses of all cases that have been reported at the service desk. The immediate action is to arrange IT infrastructure in order to prevent any future recurrence.

Change Management: this ensures that appropriate discussion process and other procedures are done promptly and sufficiently in order to handle the changes that exist in the process of management (Larry, 2008). Handling controlled change procedure will enable the business to comply with the latest approaches in the system management and improvement of the IT conditions.

Release Management: this is the major planning in having new releases which should consider requirements of both IT and non IT compliant processes. This wide view and provision enable the business development at all times because it is non discriminative.

Configuration Management: this deals with how best the identification, maintenance and controlling records for the configurations of items and other services. This configuration management ensures uniformity in the area of operation.

IT Service Delivery This mainly covers ITIL aspects on the actual service delivery. These delivery aspects entail various management areas mentioned in their respective explanations, which are outlined below.

Service Level Management involves establishment, monitoring and report of IT achievements with the aim of identifying ways of eliminating poor service in the business. The service should be of high quality to achieve success.

Capacity Management involves best practices that are geared towards prediction of future needs of the IT systems.

Availability Management deals with ways of maintaining the available services to allow the effective function of the business.

IT Financial Management involves using of the appropriate accounting and budgeting with IT related tools that promote such services. This enhances better performance with good accuracy of information given by the business management.

IT Business Continuity Management is whereby there is emphasis on continuity after any other disaster or business interruptions due to unexpected circumstances. The IT enables the business continuity through provision of ways in which service delivery is promoted. Continuity is provided through ensuring agreement in various levels of operations in the business.

Implementing ITIL The business environment requires that IT should be more attentive in tackling the needs of customers because this will fulfill their request in most cases. In order for this to be achieved, there should be appropriate implementation process which should be strategically outlined. These include stage by stage implementation of the IT services in the business.

Vision: the first thing to be done is to state vision for the business on how the management feels about this in long term plans and the advantages that comes with it. Good vision facilitates better start point in the IT implementation process. The vision includes benchmarking all the IT needs of the organization. This will determine how far it is geared towards success.

Baseline: there should be some baseline of operation. The major identified areas that should be implemented in the organization which brings the success. There should be test line whereby the designed IT needs are gauged and assessed. It also involves the practice guidelines that reflect the nature of the exercise in the business operation.

Goals: they are mainly useful in identification of standardized level that the business requires so that IT implementation is fixed successfully.

Once the position of the organization is known, the extent of implementing the IT services is set. These set goals should be met by the business in order to fulfill the needs of ITIL best practices. They are the long term objectives in the implementation process used to determine the best application process in the ITIL.

Costs: the price of implementation of the process should be determined. For instance, the business clients may require that optimization be the business interest, but this may call for large financial backing in order to succeed in the process. The cost determines to what extent implementation can be done.

Once this is noted down, then the process can just be implemented to actualize the set needs of ITIL. Then, there should be need to do the gap analysis. This helps in identifying the cost effective ways of performance and select the best target practices.

Milestones help in determining which successful process has been realized in the implementation process. There is a need to restore any normal operations to the clients very fast. This ensures that incident management is implemented fully so that other milestones in management are be achieved successfully.

This also involves evaluation and measurement of how far a particular IT management system is brought out. This will also help in the delivery improvement process in order to employ ITIL fully in the business (Steinberg, 2001). All the changes in the IT process are adopted in the business operation process.

ITIL Improvement In order to ensure effective service delivery, there should be need for continuous improvement while the process testing is periodically done to ensure that it is technically sound.

The common challenges include common tendency in revising processes so that familiarity knowledge in operation newly improved service is adopted by the client (The Stationery Office, 2010). The other challenge likely to be faced is the need for culture change. The best practices may be unfamiliar to the clients, including any additional changes that are anticipated during the improvement process.

Success Stories Many organization are currently relying on IT to enable them achieve business vision, goals and best strategy. Information technology has been used successfully to revolutionize business operation and communication process (Steinberg, 2001). There has been a significant innovative market gain that has promoted many businesses through IT awareness.

This ensures that the business is kept closer to customers by communicating with the global marketplace. Through the wider market, productivity has been successfully increased hence improved business process, sales increase, application of economies of scale, and general business growth.

Conclusion The ITIL is very useful for professionals in IT for conducting good research policies that can be implemented in the organization. Many business processes support change as away of staying relevant in the competitive business world. ITIL has a framework that covers all the aspects of IT in an organization in order to achieve this objective.

There is clear demonstration of the processes and procedures for the best practice for the IT management of the business. The mentioned benefits in implementing ITIL are the major ways of ensuring good incorporation of IT in any given Business.

From the given history, ITIL was to give efficient business environment when it was initiated in the early years through various business processes. The implementation is done in line with the provided guidelines for business efficient performance so that the mentioned benefits are achieved.

The ITIL frameworks enable good implementation process. These frameworks, among others, included software framework and Microsoft operation framework. These must undergo continuous improvement with other legal doctrine frameworks provided. The operation process must actually inculcate service delivery management as reflected in the provided information.

The implementation process of ITIL caters for vision, baseline, cost and goals to be achieved in the process. In addition, there are milestones that enable efficiency in the improvement process. It is also possible for a suitable improvement process to be adopted as outlined in the research work. Finally, challenges like need for culture change are necessary.

The future of ITIL is very bright, as IT has become one major mode of operation worldwide. For instance, the stationery office has begun to update in the entire IT infrastructure Library version three.

This is in order to acknowledge experience and all the expertise in ITIL. Most businesses worldwide will be able to give a clear structure in the operation process regarding the ITIL and that the challenges will be greatly minimized. The scope and all development plans for new version is in progress hence the best ITIL practice guidance is in the offing.

References Hary, S. (2005). Management Metrics that Matter most to IT Senior Executives. Bloomington, Australia: Trafford Publishing.

Larry, J. (2008). Implementing ITIL Change and Release Management. India: IBM Press

Orand, B. (2011). Foundations of IT Service Management – The ITIL Foundations. Web.

Steinberg, A. (2001). Measuring ITIL: Measuring, Reporting and Modeling – the IT Service. New York, NY: Lary Publishers.

The Stationery Office (2010). Executive Briefing: The Benefits of ITIL. Web.

Van Haren Publishing (2007). ITIL® V3: A Pocket Guide (ITSM Library). Netherlands: Haren Publishing.


Metamemory: False memory Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Metamemory -False memory experiment






Abstract Memory is a very vital human tool without which many of cognitive processes cannot take place. Humans rely on memory to recount the past and help forge the future. However, at times the human memory is vulnerable to errors in that individuals can claim to report what they think took place when in reality it did not.

This could be as a result of outside pressures, great expectations or misleading perceptions. This essay presents a report on the controversial concept of false memory in which an experiment was conducted across a number of participants. Words were displayed and later the observers were expected to report what they recall.

The rate at which the observers included nonexistent words in their recollection of the initial study list was explored and represented in the experiment. This error was represented through percentages and tables. The idea that individuals are more often incapable of differentiating the memory of an actual happening from that of their perceived nonexistent one is also discussed.

This false memory is a result of machinations, illusions and metamemorial aspects. The consequences of such a procedure and their relation to the cognitive theory are also mentioned.

Metamemory -False memory experiment The most fundamental aspect of any cognitive theory is the accuracy of a recollection or a memory. This is due to the fact that to some extent, almost all dimensions of the cognitive process are based on memory (Brainerd


Industrial/Organizational Psychology Project Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction IOPP is a research organization, which deals with researching the problems that face different companies. The organization’s aim is to improve the general working environment of employers and employees, by identifying problems, and giving possible solutions to the problems (Kelley, 1992).

As members of the organization, we have been working with the retail chain, UNO Company, which approached us to identify the sources of several reported problems. The history of this company shows that it started with one store in Toronto, Canada, and up to date, the chain has expanded extremely, and has many outlets throughout the US and Canada.

The company has grown rapidly from a small retail to a large company with a board of directors and a multi-layered management structure. The company owns many employees, who belong to different levels of work. There are those employees who work at the corporate offices, and tend to stay a long time in offices, unlike the employees at the retail outlets who tend to have a short period of time in the work place.

The company is generally profitable and successful and intends to stay in the market for a long time, just as, it is the aim of many other business organizations. UNO retail chain has a website through which, a great deal of the company’s sales is conducted.

Although it also conducts its sales through actual stores, the company is focusing on expanding online offerings, and making the process of online shopping easy, and reliable to customers. Just like many other business organizations, UNO retail chain has different kinds of people for its management, and as employees.

Problems are bound to occur in business, since it involves actions of human beings. It has been reported that, the company exhibits male dominated working environment, gender and racial discrimination, as well as sexual harassment in different offices. The company has also received complains about poor management at the retail locations.

As members of Industrial Organizational Psychology program, we have researched on these problems, identified their causes and proposed possible solutions to the company. We used different reliable methods during our research, and the solutions that we have given are viable, and reliable. If the company will follow the recommendations of our research, the general working environment and management of the company will surely improve.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem one UNO had received reports regarding male dominated working environment, gender and racial discrimination, as well as sexual harassment. All this has been reported to have been taking place in the corporate offices and at the retail locations. The management authority of the company approached us to find the causes of these problems and try to find solutions to them.

Problem source identification

During our research, we used several methods to find the causes of the above problems. The first method that we used was analysis of the available reports. Several written reports had been presented to the management authority of UNO Company, by different employees. Most of these reports were not titled, as to who particularly wrote them.

They had been collected from the suggestion boxes around the company’s premise. It was then deemed necessary to analyze the data collected. The following chart shows the percentage of reports received on each problem mentioned above.

A chart showing the percentages of problems in the corporate offices as well as in the retail locations

From the above chart, it was evident that, the reports received about male dominated work environment were more in the corporate offices (60%), than in the retail locations (40%). This was also the case with the reports on the racial discrimination and sexual harassment. Considering the corporate offices alone, the percentage of reports on racial discrimination was highest with a percentage of 75%. In the retail locations, the percentage of male dominated work environment was highest.

The presence of these reports showed that it was true that, these problems existed. From the information contained in these reports, we concluded that, sexual harassment was done mostly to women, since many of the reports on sexual harassment were written by female works.

From the explanation they gave in the reports, many of them had acquired their jobs, with the help of those who had harassed them. Again, it was also evident that, black colored workers were being discriminated by the white workers. This is because; all the reports of racial discrimination were received from black workers. They complained about unfair distribution of facilities, and bad relationships with white workers. Women also complained on unequal distribution of job, with regards to promotions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Industrial/Organizational Psychology Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to verify this information, we talked to the management authorities. Each manager that we talked to, defended themselves against having harassed any of the workers sexually, but they would occasionally mention one another in connection to such actions. As we were surveying the managers, we found that most of them were male.

This was clear evidence that most of the top seats were reserved for men. This gave us a clue that, there existed male dominated environment and that there was gender imbalance in terms of promotions and employment. The information that they gave on this was that, female workers did not have enough education to earn them promotions to high seats.

They also said that, whenever jobs were advertised, only few women show up for interviews. About racial discrimination, only the managers at the retail locations gave some reliable information. They said that, blacks were insignificant creatures and would never be compared with whites. They also said that, their performance in work was not up to the expected standards, they were slow and dirty.

During our investigations we also visited the human resource department and analyzed the documented information on matters regarding employment and promotions. From the information that we obtained, it was true that more male workers were being employed every year as compared to women workers.

It was also evident that, few black workers were being employed each year. The number of those who had been sucked showed that, most of them were women and mostly the blacks. We also obtained records of top officials who had been charged in court of law, due to sexually harassing junior female workers. We talked to two of the male senior managers, one from the corporate offices and the other one from the retail locations, who had cases of sexually harassing female junior workers.

The two gave similar information. They said that, most of the female workers seduce the male managers, in order to get promotions, or for money, and when their intentions are not met, they forward the cases, as rape cases to the authorities.

Recommended Solutions

Considering this problem, it was found that, male dominated work environment, gender and racial discrimination, as well as sexual harassment existed in the company. To respond to this problem, we recommended two possible solutions to the UNO retail chain company. First, it would be beneficial if the company conducted cultural awareness days.

During these occasions, all the employees as well as the employers, would assemble together and have someone talk to them on the effects of the above issues to a company. It is during those days that men would be taught the effects that can befall them due to sexually harassing women at work. Information would also be passed across, that all workers at the same level are equal and should be treated equally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrial/Organizational Psychology Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Men would also get to know the value of women and would reduce their thoughts of them being superior to women. With all this information many would change their behavior towards others. This is because, most of the times human beings go astray due to lack of the proper information (Gatewood, Feild


Chinese Business: Why Beijing Consensus Has Become An Attractive Political Economy Paradigm Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Washington Consensus versus Beijing Consensus



Introduction During the past three decades China has quickly risen to become one of the key players in the global arena. Unlike thirty years ago, being the second largest economy in the world today has put China at the centre of major global issues, including economy and politics (Carmody and Owusu, 2007).

As will be seen in this paper, China’s power is attributable to a strategic plan aimed at dominating all the worth-controlling resources in the world. This strategy is based on a mutual partnership between China and its economic partners and has been referred to as the Beijing Consensus (BJC), usually contrasted from the Washington Consensus (WAC) as the US’s/the West’s economic plan for the developing world.

Although the term Beijing Consensus has been used to generally describe China’s economic development model, there’s hardly an agreement as to what it really entails. This is because it does not exactly set out clear goals for economic development. Instead it operates on three primary principles.

These will be discussed in the paper later. Equally, many have analyzed it by watching its manifestations as both an economic plan and a foreign economic policy. For instance, contrary to the Western strategy of democratic capitalism, the Beijing Consensus is generally characterized with notably “distinct attitudes toward development, politics and the balance of power” (Ramo, 2004).

This strategy is a combination of China’s internal economic policies, such as policy toolkit and corporate allegiance, and long-term plans, including control over large resources and China’s relation with the outside world, especially those countries that have something to offer towards its economic plan.

One study by Ramo (2004) observes that China “is marked with a ruthless affinity for innovation, emphasis on China’s belief in multilateralism and sovereignty, and ‘asymmetric projection of power”. The last two components have fostered and furthered good relations between China and the developing world.

China’s approach is explicitly marked by a refusal to meddle with the issues of other countries. An article by the The Economist aptly says that the “Beijing consensus is to keep quiet/shut up” (2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this good international relations China safeguards a peaceful environment and itself against the possibility of the US politics to turn it into a global outcast. Thus, in the aftermath of what is perceived as the collapse of the WAC, the BJC offers better hope of prosperity to the developing world (Ramo, 2004).

Already, China’s popularity in the world, especially in the developing countries, has been growing. A survey carried out by the Pew Research Centre in 2009 found that China was not only viewed favorably in Nigeria than the other major economies, but also found that its popularity has been growing.

For instance, the survey showed that “85 percent of Nigerians favored China; this was up from 79 percent in 2008” (The Economist, 2010). Also, China was viewed favorably by “50 percent of Americans and 26 percent of Japanese, up from 39 percent and 14 percent in 2008 respectively” (The Economist, 2010).

This paper will take a detailed look at two main issues. Explicitly, it will study the differences between these two approaches and explain how and why the BJC is viewed more favorably than the WAC.

Implicit within the latter will be the two ways in which the BJC is appealing to the developing world: one, as a better platform for economic partnership, and two, as a better alternative economic plan when compared to the WAC. As one study states, the BJC is not only an alternative development model/philosophy, but also a gauge for changing the international environment” (Turin, 2010).

Washington Consensus versus Beijing Consensus The term Western Consensus was coined by the economist John Williamson to refer to a given set of policy and economic recommendations. Initially it was accepted as the best and most effective model to spur growth in developing nations. It embraced the ideals of democratic capitalism characterized by a free-market.

These included policies for open trade, deregulation and privatization (Turin, 2010). The last three are mainly in line with the neoliberal ideology, otherwise known as “market fundamentalism”, which embraces free-market capitalism as its central principle (Serra and Stiglitz, 2008).

We will write a custom Essay on Chinese Business: Why Beijing Consensus Has Become An Attractive Political Economy Paradigm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the WAC has mixed outcomes; for instance, it led to many currency crises, economic stagnation and recession, especially during the 1990s financial turmoil (Harris, 2008). As a result, the economic systems of several nations collapsed. The recent recession that took place in 2007 is partly a remnant of its failures. This has made people even less confident in it and the general neoliberal economic model of the West.

In the developing world the WAC has been interpreted as “a new imperialism aimed at bashing the developing world, or that GDP is the only economic aspect that matters” (Williamson, 2004).

The development aid that has always been pegged at such financial aid has come to be seen as a way of holding the recipient countries at a ransom, and as a tactic to demand loyalty. The developing world has therefore come to develop great disdain for the WAC, seeing it as a tactic through which the developed West took advantage of them.

Much criticism has been directed at the IMF and the World Bank, the two world’s prime economic institutions, for adopting the WAC and imposing its policies on the developing world as a condition for fiscal aid (Serra and Stiglitz, 2008). These institutions are largely credited with a number of policies that in the end proved detrimental to many developing countries.

The effects of the Structural Development Plans (SAP) in Africa, as well as the case of Argentina are some of the most perennial examples. Argentina, for instance, strictly followed the advice of the IMF. However, the economy began to surge in the early 1990s, before it lost momentum and eventually collapsed completely by 2001 (Oniz, 2004). Serra and Stiglitz (2008) observe “from the early 1990s, a seven-year run of strong economic growth in Latin America suffered another seven-year run of economic stagnation and recession.

The failures of the WAC have been attributed, first and foremost, to the general assumption that the same economic policies could work in all parts of the world. Whereas the WAC insisted on applying the same rigid and homogenous reform policies to all developing nations, the BJC on the other hand acknowledges the unique challenges of every country, and seeks to tap into such peculiarities.

The BJC approaches other countries as partners, which is a deviation from the US’s big-brother approach. This approach ensures mutual benefit between the two countries. Unlike the west, China manages to evade the stigma commonly suffered by ‘the supplicant’ at the hand of ‘the donor’. China opts not to lend or give money to the beneficiary countries upfront since “the deals are mostly quasi-barter” (Mckinnon, 2010).This means that China always opted for give-and-take deal. Contrary to fears, this has not been a discouraging factor for the developing world. It turns out that they prefer a mutual partnership rather than aid for which they end up paying anyway.

The BJC is based on three ideals that generally suggest “how to organize the place of a developing nation in the world” (Ramo, 2004). These three principles are: Innovation, Pursuit of Dynamic Objectives alongside Rejection of Per Capita GDP, and Self-Determination (Ramo, 2004).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Business: Why Beijing Consensus Has Become An Attractive Political Economy Paradigm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Innovation principle emphasizes the need to actively innovate as a counter attack against challenging circumstances as caused by perpetually changing social and economic environment (Ramo 2004). Leonard (2006) refers to this as a commitment to “perpetual tinkering and change, and an acknowledgement that different situations demand different strategies.

To achieve this goal, China aims at gaining understanding on what the people in the partner countries want. Towards this end the Chinese government “carries out public opinion surveys to find out the public attitude toward itself” (Ogden, 2002). Then it uses this knowledge to actively promote the popularity and impact of its policies. It is a tricky way for getting what they want by offering what the other countries need.

In a nutshell, China does not wish to offend. As a result of this, China has been criticized for some of its policies; for instance, its policy of non-interference with the internal non-economic issues in their partner countries. This has been criticized for standing in the way of promoting democracy and human rights. In spite of the criticism, the developing nations prefer this approach and more than that, it has worked for China.

The second principle, Pursuit of Dynamic Goals/Rejection of Per Capita GDP, is the second biggest idea of the BJC. Unlike the case of the western nations, it rejects the notion that the GDP is the ‘only measure of economic development’ (Leonard, 2006). Instead, it increases focus on other measures such as individual equity and quality of life (Ramo, 2004).

Qualitatively, the Human Development Index (HDI) forwarded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is so far the most accurate method to measure the quality-of-life: “These standards”, writes Ogden, “provide an alternative means by which to measure economic development and growth, and helps one understand that poverty is actually ‘the lack of basic needs and not merely having low income” (2002).

Viewing development this way emphasizes the realization of discredits and substantive outcomes, such as the contexts in which income growth favors only a few of the whole population.

The key argument is that emphasizing on the GDP undervalues other substantive achievements. The BJC therefore emphasizes the need to pursue more different goals simultaneously.

As Wen Jiabao, China’s Premier, puts it, the BJC “puts people first and promotes reform and innovation in line with what he calls the ‘five balances’: balancing rural and urban development, development among regions, social and economic development, man and nature, and domestic and foreign development” (Yusuf and Nabeshima, 2006).

The BJC recognizes that emphasizing the GDP does not take care of basic problems of relevance in the daily lives of the people.

The Self-Determination principle emphasizes the need for the developing nations to actively seek and assert their independence and sovereignty from outside pressure as imposed on them by ‘hegemonic powers’, led by the US (Ramo, 2004). Of course this is notably an extension of China’s traditional loath of foreign interference.

China has always refused to submit to pressure from outside, instead, it has always fore grounded its own priorities. Gresh (2008) describes this policy as “valuing independence, sovereignty, self-determination, and rejecting the efforts of the western powers to impose their will”. The policy further insists that “each country can plan its own development” (Gresh, 2008), and not have to let unfavorable policies shoved down its throat.

This approach has won interest in the developing world, especially in Africa. Africa has a long history of invasion and exploitation by the western countries. As such, the idea of self-determination as an important aspect of development that China proposes is appealing. This good reception is seen in the increasing role of China in the continent.

On behalf of the Council on Foreign Relations, Princeton Lyman writes: “Africa finds China’s investments attractive because they do not come with any fiscal probity, governance and other conditions usually made by the Western donors” (Lyman, 2005).

Conclusion One of the most notable characteristics of the BJC is its malleability. It does not dictate any finite number of rigid policy points. WAC clearly sets out ten recommendations, which are relatively unambiguous. The BJC is essentially formulated around three ideas which are not as tangible as the WAC policies, but are more subjective (Turin, 2010).

Dirlik (2006) who is a China expert does not view the BJC as a model. Instead, he sees it as a notion. Still, he appreciates the BJC’s broad nature; that is, the fact that it is not specific. Although he points out that the BJC has not been flawless, he still recognizes its importance in certain areas.

This policy, through its emphasis on autonomy and self-determination, gives global relationship a multilateralism approach. This sharply contrasts with the U.S’s increasingly unilateralist approach to economic and foreign policy. This relationship seeks to open a leeway for a new global balance of power and order based on economic partnership based on recognizing cultural, political, national and regional differences within a shared global framework (Dirlik, 2006).

Surely, the Beijing ‘consensus’ is not to be viewed in the same terms as the WAC. That is not an ‘ideal’ model for development; instead, it should be seen as a new perspective for viewing the global structure of power. It proves the workability of alternative methods that deviate from dominant ideology (Turin, 2010).

In a number of ways, the BJC is a manifestation of a growing Chinese ‘soft-power’ allover the globe, especially in regions such as the Middle East and Africa (Turin, 2010). This furthermore stands in sharp contrast to the never-ending ‘hard-power’ employed by the U.S and other Western powers.

China, having spent a century in its revolutionary search for and assertion of autonomy, now basks in economic success. With China leading the pack of the countries that have embraced their uniqueness to achieve success, the BJC looks set to be an alternative global model for economic development. Indeed, the BJC will shape future development plans in the world.

Having been an underdog itself, and now standing at the top, China is a better example and partner for other underdogs.

References Carmody, P.


Memo for Presentation: Social Media Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The main idea of the discussion is to present the social media and its connection with the business. Many business people believe that social media is very helpful in business and they are right. It is important to use social medial appropriate and do not believe the myths which exist around social media in general.

One of the main organizational objectives is to make sure that more and more people are aware of the company and are familiarized with the company products. Therefore, the main idea of using the social media is to advertise the company and its products.

Body Social media has become an essential part of human life. This is not a secret that the use of social media in business may increase customers’ awareness about the company and as a result increase the income from sales. The world is changing, people receive the information from other sources and those who want to be successful in business should make sure that they are able to satisfy the needs of the audience.

Four steps should be followed with the purpose to meet the requirements and make sure that the social network strategy is applied successfully and may b realized in the nearest future. First of all, we are going to define audience our social network ingoing to be divided to.

Then, it is important to set clear goals as pursuing various purposes which are not connected to each other may lead to low interest of the visitors to the company social media. It is important to create an action plan according to which the company is going to develop. Finally, tools, techniques and tactics are to be developed as without these important for strategy aspects any blog or forum will die in a week.

Information blogs, twitters, and forums should be used as the feedback platforms. People should know that they can leave their comments which will be answered. Thus, we take care of our customers. At the same time, it is inadmissible to believe that all people are socially network active and the information presented at the forums is going to be delivered to each customer. The social networks are created for particular audience, mostly students and youth who spends much time on the Internet.

Recommendations One of the main recommendations which is really urgent for those who have decided to refer to social media as the advertising and informing aspect is the updating of the information. Having created a blog, forum, twitter or another specific social media, one should update the information there to attract more and more new visitors as well as continue to make other be interested. Additionally, people should feel responsiveness and it is important to answer to some comments o comment some posts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Therefore, it may be concluded that social media is really important for business if it is used appropriately. Having created the blog, forum and twitter devoted to the company news and products, the business may increase its purchases by means of customers’ awareness of the company news and innovations. There is no need to pay too much attention to the social media and spend hours online. Several minutes a day may be enough to make sure that the social media issues are supported.


Reinartz, W. essay help online free

Table of Contents Key points

Follow-on research



The article in question entitled “The Mismanagement of Customer Loyalty” is written by Reinartz and Kumar (2002). The article deals with a very important issue concerning developing relationships with loyal customers. The present research is well-grounded as it is based on the analysis of three companies: “large US mail-order company, a French retail food Business, and a German direct brokerage house” (Reinartz


Silwan Foods International and AGS Logistics LLC Contract Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction An agreement between two or more companies doing business together is called a business contract. Companies entering into an agreement must present their clear obligations, prohibitions and permissions.

The contract also involves penalties to the party that can end up failing to complete its part of the deal. The contract must be able to protect the parties’ interests by making sure that the contract is completed within the specified time (White, 2010).

Terms of contract Duties

Parties to the contract have duties that they must perform. They can be the obligations that each party must fulfill and also what parties are not allowed to do. For example, in a manufacturing company, the producer may sign a contract with the distributor to distribute the products for a price. Then the distributor may be restricted from getting another person to help him perform the duties since it might solicit the business (Plimpton, 2007).


This part of the contract gives the rights that each party is entitled to. For example, if the parties disagree with each other about the quality of the products, they should have stipulated rights of whether to get an arbitrator or whether the parties should sue each other. The parties may also disagree on the compensation rate. Therefore, a contract must state the right of the parties.


The contract must have the dates of stating and the dates of completion of the task. It also includes the dates when the payments should be made.


The contract must specify the terms in which the payments will be made. For example, parties can agree that full payments will be made upon completion of the work.

The agreement can also state that the payments will be made upon completion of every phase in case the work is done in phases. The payment terms also include the penalty charge on the performing party for not completing the work on time. The interest charged for late payments is also included in the term.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Payments can be based on the quality of the services that is provided by the company. Quality can be measured with regard to customer’s satisfaction.

This can also help the service providing company to increase the competitive advantage above its competitors. The companies entering into an agreement can agree on the metrics that will be used to measure the quality of the services provided. Efficiency and effectiveness of the services provided can also be a scale to measure the quality (Plimpton, 2007).


Confidential details about the contracts should not be shared with any third party who is not involved with the contract. For example, a manufacturing company hiring a distributor may need to share some crucial information about the company with the distributor. Similarly, a distributor needs to share some information with the company.

The term of the contract must indicate that there should be no disclosing of confidential information about each other. The disclosure of crucial information may, however, be required by the law. In case this happens, the disclosing party must inform the other party about the disclosure (White, 2010).

Silwan Foods International signed a contract with the AGS Logistics LLC AGS Logistics LLC is one of international companies that is based in the United Arab Emirates and provides logistics services to other companies. The firm provides logistics solutions to the companies based inside and outside the UAE. The company operates the best warehousing and transportation facilities in GCC countries.

The company has established good relationship with its customers and suppliers thereby winning the competitive advantage over competitors. The company also enters into contracts with its customers and the terms of the contracts are observed well in that they perform the duties within the stipulated time in satisfaction of customers (Plimpton, 2007).

Silwan Foods International is the leading company in supplying milk powder, dried nuts and fruits, cocoa, gear and other food product. The company is dedicated in its services to satisfy customers. The company has standards and quality services to their customers, therefore, maintaining the first position in the market. The company merges with other companies who believe on the customer’s satisfaction. The company also uses the logistics providers to transport their products to customers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Silwan Foods International and AGS Logistics LLC Contract specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An agreement for logistics services

The logistics contract was signed on April 25, 2005. The agreement was between the Silwan Foods International and AGS Logistics LLC.

The terms of contract

Silwan Foods International requires logistics services to transport its goods to its customers. The company needs the AGS Logistics LLC Company to provide the services. Therefore, the company enters into an agreement to be involved in this transaction. Silwan Foods International believes that its needs can only be satisfied through an agreement, which is also a contract.

The duties

The logistics services provided by the AGS Logistics LLC to Silwan Foods International must be of high quality and provided professionally. Companies will conduct the transaction guided by the industry’s standards. The services include movement of milk powder from producers to the warehouse then the firm will transport the milk to customers according to the orders given to Silwan Corporation.

The performance of the AGS Logistics LLC will be measured according to the following metrics. The target for the AGS Logistics LLC to deliver the goods in time according to Silwan Foods is 98% and the damages target at 0.5%.

If the AGS Logistics LLC performs the services in the expected manner, then Silwan Foods International would be able to save 11% on costs. “If by any chance the AGS Logistics LLC fails to perform as the two parties have agreed for two months consecutively Silwan Foods International will have the right to terminate the contract after giving a notice of thirty days” (Plimpton, 2007, p. 25).

The meetings

Silwan Foods International and AGS Logistics LLC schedule their meetings to be one in a year to discuss the progress of their agreement. These meetings will also be based on discussion of future plans of the two companies regarding their operations. Both companies agree on the dates, time and venue of their meetings.

The AGS Logistics LLC will be the single contractor and will not at any chance act as an agent. The company will be independent in the performance of the services. In the contract, the companies agreed that the logistics services will be provided by the employees of AGS Logistics LLC and no one of them will be regarded as an employee of the Silwan Foods Limited.

The company will be responsible for the employees that will be involved in providing the services under this agreement. AGS Logistics LLC will also be bound to observe rules and regulation regarding logistics services provided to Silwan Foods International. The AGS Logistics LLC employees have no right to the benefits that the Silwan employees have the rights to. Similarly, Silwan Foods International will not have the authority over the employees of the logistics company (Donald, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Silwan Foods International and AGS Logistics LLC Contract by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Payments

Silwan Foods International will have an obligation to pay all the payment within one month after completion of the services. The company agrees that the AGS Logistics LLC will subcontract some of the services to other subcontractors and the payments will be in-line with those of the subcontractors.

The companies agreed that the rates of the rates would be subject to change due to uneven variations imposed by subcontractors. The number of changes that Subcontractors would be required to make are only once within a period of six months and incase variations are to be made, a one month notice should be provided to the other parties.

The changes will be done in writing and there will be representatives from each company in this agreement. Both companies have the right to negotiate the payment charges on the logistics and other services that may arise before the end of the contract (Plimpton, 2007).

Silwan Foods International and the AGS Logistics LLC agree that the Silwan Foods Company will be bearing the burden of paying all the charges accrued in the stated in the agreement.

The invoices will be paid directly to the AGS Logistics LLC within 20 days of the date on the invoice. After Silwan Foods International has met all the obligations concerning the payments, AGS Logistics LLC will declare it harmless against any claims by other companies requiring its services or by customers for underpayment of non-payment (Donald, 2009).


After completion of the logistics services by the AGS Logistics LLC, it will hold harmless Silwan Foods International against fines, damage, loss and claims for injuries. It will also declare it harmless against the claims that may be laid against it by another company or customer regarding its services. This is except in the circumstance that the damages or the losses are caused due to the negligence of an employee of the Silwan Foods International (White, 2010).


It is required that AGS Logistics LLC will maintain the required insurance cover such as insurance against the death, property damages or injuries caused to different parties involved in the contract.

According to Gido and Clements, “in case there is any other extra insurance cover required by law under the agreement, the company will be obliged to uphold the responsibility of paying the cost and expense with the insurer” ( 2006, p. 45). The company will have to give the Silwan Foods International a copy of the insurance policy and the certificates of the insurance cover.

Term and termination

The conditions of the agreement start from the date that the agreement was signed between the two companies. The agreement will take a period of three years if the two companies do not a reason to terminate it. During those 3 years, there will be a meeting every first day of May to negotiate the charges.

AGS Logistics LLC will give a report on any increase in charges in 45 days before they meet to negotiate. The increase in warehouse charges will also be presented in writing to the Silwan Food International 15 days before the date of negotiation and at least 5 days before the transportation date. All notices required by this agreement will be made in writing. Any other parties under this agreement can file a request to terminate the agreement.

This may be due to default materials. If one of the parties writes a notice containing the details of the default and the other party ignores the complaint or fails to rectify the default within 20 days, the company can terminate the agreement and seek other reliable companies (Plimpton, 2007).

The termination of the agreement can also happen if one party fails to vacate the appointment of the other party within the agreed time in the contract. After the termination of the contract, the AGS Logistics LLC will return all the copies of documents, data, records which belong to the Silwan Foods International.

Silwan Foods International will have an obligation to return the document to the AGS Logistics LLC upon the termination of the contract. The notices which will be made with regard to this agreement will be delivered directly to the company not longer than one day. The addresses of each company are given in the details sheet presented with the contract document (Gido


UDL Solution Plan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) solution plan is a tool used by educators to reduce learning barriers. Today’s educators are supposed to provide their students with high standards of learning despite the fact that some of their students have learning difficulties such as Dyslexia, language barriers, emotional problems and physical disabilities. Through UDL, learner’s disparities can be addressed and their needs met. UDL takes advantage of digital learning resources, hence making the learning process more effective and efficient.

For my class I have to use several teaching methods to ensure that my students meet their individual needs. A universal curriculum has been designed to achieve the leaning objectives through the appropriate ways of presentation, means of expression and methods of engagement.

Therefore, all my teaching plans should be guided by these principles. Based on my experience with Nell, I am expected to use assistive technologies to help improve mobility, self-esteem, personal care and reading skills. To improve his mobility, a walker and braces are essential and mandatory.

A walker will help him in exploring his environment by indicating the location of different rocks, how to extract them and their economical importance in the society (Kleinert, 2001). Through active participation, his mobility as well as his environmental awareness will considerably improve.

Furthermore, it will not be easy for him to study either, so I have to offer him a wide variety of studying materials, such as textbooks and online resources that are beneficial to him. The study materials should precise and easy to use in obtaining information in order motivate readership.

Moreover, he might find it hard reading printed textbooks due to his low comprehension skills. Visual aids will be necessary to highlight key information like headings. In addition, the use of power point will serve the same purpose. An oral translator will be of significant assistance this would mean that difficulty in decoding text would be minimized. Words that appear too technical for him would be replaced by an oral translator with simple and understandable words.

Nell has a low self-esteem, which affects him negatively. To enhance his oral reading I should provide him with the appropriate support. Providing him with the project a week before the class lesson will help him in familiarizing himself with the content and hence he will be more comfortable with his classmates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Picture charts and cards would be essential as this will not only make the lesson pleasant, but also provide images of rocks as seen in the real world. For Nell to improve his social skills, student’s participation will be vital, as this will ensure that students appreciate his participation.

Nell’s inability to communicate in English presents difficulty in learning. Establishing a continuous feedback mechanism will be appropriate as this will ensure clarity and additional support. The provision of several resources will lead to access and evaluation of multiple examples. Samples of rocks will be of great importance as this will be used as practical examples during class work and students will be able to counter check their theoretical characteristics and the physical ones(Scherer 2004).

In conclusion students with spina bifida rely heavily on assistive technology. This necessitates more research to be done to identify their response on several UDL methods and impacts of these methods on their daily life. I think that with more research and support students with disabilities will be able to live independently and participate fully in the community. To teachers like me, assessments would be made more effective and efficient only by continuous research.

References Kleinert, H. L.,


The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction by Walter Benjamin as a Claim for Originality Essay a level english language essay help

The main idea of the essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction is that the traditional ritual meaning of art can be lost due to the modern technical facilities and chaotic print of the works. I consider this statement as a valid and well-grounded. For Benjamin, every work of art should be unique in order to create the spiritual connection with the audience. In the age of mass-products, the real value of art is neglected. Although reproducible works are popular and accessible, only original art has the ritual ground.

Although, in general, I agree with Benjamin, it would be wrong to insist upon the statement that all products of the mass-culture are empty and meaningless. The successful life of the reproductions, different interpretations of well-known works of art demonstrate a tendency of simplification of our life. It is the basic of modern civilization.

It is obvious that, seeing the authentic work, we can have more profound experience. However, in case if someone cannot visit the famous galleries, one has a possibility to become acquainted with the works of art by observing the reproductions. I think that the geographical distance is one of the key moments which should be taken into account, talking about the negative side of reproductions.

Benjamin says that all human artifacts can be repeated by other humans. However, the process of mechanical reproduction led to the enormous print. It is difficult to argue with the author, as today we are witness of the chaotic production of the famous pictures, for instance, Mona Lisa or Sunflowers of van Gogh on the paper, clothes, glasses, etc. But, also we can see that the mass-production became iconic for the whole population.

Therefore, it would be absolutely wrong to insist on the statement that modern art is something outlive and soulless. Perhaps, reproductions do not contain the same aura as the authentic works, but they still can inspire people.

I do not agree with the fears that reproduction can reduce a creation of the original works. In all times, people were appreciating the authentic works of great masters. Although, the mechanical print of the works of art have a significant influence, today, the originality is still essential and people of all nationalities admire the best examples of the world heritage that cannot be out-of-date, in spite of the world-wide prevalence of the secondary works and reproductions of the famous artifacts.


The Use of Imagery in Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

In the poems Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers, the poets Dylan Thomas, Theodore Roethke and Langston Hughes employ the poetic device of imagistic language to allow each poet to tunnel beneath the superficial meaning of the poem, and allow the poet to deliver an original view of each poem’s subject matter.

This essay will demonstrate how the poets Dylan Thomas, Theodore Roethke and Langston Hughes use the imagery in Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers to express deep-rooted themes of death, family and evolution respectively.

Dylan Thomas published Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night in 1951. The poem was written for his father, who was suffering from old age and illness. The Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night follows a rare poetic form known as the villanelle. This type of poem originates from the Italian word villan, which means peasant (Hochman 7).

In a villanelle, every first and third line of the tercet rhymes with the first, third, and fourth lines of the quatrain; in the case of Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night, this is occurs in the final stanza (Hochman 7). Villanelles historically were pastoral songs; however, Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night differs, as Hochman explains “the poem does not preach calm…but rage, rage against death, that event often equated with Nature as an ultimate physical force.

This is not a villanelle expressing the pleasure of nature’s cycles and seasons, a balanced acceptance of births and deaths, but a raging against what is, an acknowledgment that a life within nature—as all lives subject to life and death must be” (Hochman 7).

To affect this end, Thomas uses powerful imagery such as “Though wise men at their end know dark is right / Because their words had forked no lightning they / Do not go gentle into that good night” to highlight the contradiction between life and death, specifically, the point at which life becomes death (Thomas 239).

The power of the imagery lies in its ability to represent the paradox of life and death – including lines such as “crying how bright / Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay” (Thomas 239). Thomas uses imagery to reveal the deep meaning of life, that all deeds, regardless of whether they are heroic or mundane, must end.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theodore Roethke wrote My Papa’s Waltz in 1948. As a confessional poet, Theodore Roethke’s famous poem about a childhood waltz with his drunken father has prompted a number of critics to construe the meaning of the poem as indication that Roethke suffered abuse at the hands of his father as a child (Pagnattaro 2).

Certain imagery in the poem certainly supports this interpretation, particularly such lines as “The whiskey on your breath / Could make a small boy dizzy” and “At every step you missed / My right ear scraped a buckle” (Roethke 49). However, Roethke uses imagery such as “I hung on like death” and “My mother’s countenance / Could not unfrown itself” to further the deep meaning of family (Roethke 49).

In Theodore Roethke’s My Papa’s Waltz, imagery such as “We romped until the pans / Slid from the kitchen shelf” reveals the complexity of the relationships between children and their parents (Roethke 49). The child is actually having fun with his father; the fact that the father is intoxicated matters less than the close moment that the two of them share in the waltz before bed.

Theodore Roethke uses imagery in My Papa’s Waltz to encourage the reader to investigate their own deeply complex relationships with their family members, particularly their parents, and contemplate what these paradoxical relationships say about humanity, that a child can fear and love his father at the same time.

Langston Hughes published the poem The Negro Speaks of Rivers in 1921. In The Negro Speaks of Rivers, the poet Langston Hughes uses imagery such as “I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the / flow of human blood in human veins” to reveal the deep underlying structure of human evolution (Hughes 23).

Langston Hughes is best known as a member of the Harlem Renaissance, “one of the most important American literary and arts movements…which reached its height in the 1930s” (Hardy 2). His works stands out for its intense lyricism. As Hardy notes, “Hughes was…well educated [and] he drew inspiration for his poetry largely from folk forms, including, most notably, the African-American musical tradition of the blues” (Hardy 2).

The poem The Negro Speaks of Rivers employs intense imagery such as “I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young” and “I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it” to reveal the ancient patterns of human evolution and human civilization that have developed in close proximity to rivers such as the Nile and the Euphrates (Hughes 23).

We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Imagery in Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The imagery fuses the ideas of the blood of human civilization with the blood of time, and then further extends the metaphor to include the development of black history. The Negro Speaks of Rivers anchors the history of blacks within the creation of the planet, as underscored by the anthropological and archeological evidence that places the oldest evidence of humans and human civilization in the continent of Africa.

As Hardy notes, Langston Hughes “uses the central metaphor of the river to speak of a black history that flows fluidly from Africa to America. The speaker does not reflect Hughes as an individual, but rather his connection to a mythic and collective black soul” (2). Langston Hughes uses imagery to tie the evolution of the human species to Africa, and locates black history in the development and survival of the human species over eons.

In the poems Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers, the poets Dylan Thomas, Theodore Roethke and Langston Hughes successfully reveal and develop deep themes of death, family and evolution using the poetic device of imagistic language.

This essay set out to show how the poets Dylan Thomas, Theodore Roethke and Langston Hughes employ the imagery in Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers to express themes that are not obvious at the first read of the poem.

The imagery in each poem permits each poet to gain access to the deepest stratum of meaning and significance, far beyond the surface meaning of the poem, and allows the poet to penetrate unique, original and complex interpretations of each poem’s subject matter.

Works Cited Hardy, Sarah Madsen. “Overview of The Negro Speaks of Rivers.” Poetry for Students. Ed. Michael L. LaBlanc. Vol. 10. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 2001. Web.

Hochman, Jhan. “An Overview of Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night.” Poetry for Students. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 2012. Web.

Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Random House, 1994. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Imagery in Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night, My Papa’s Waltz, and The Negro Speaks of Rivers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pagnattaro, Marisa Anne. “An Essay on “My Papa’s Waltz”.” Poetry for Students. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 2001. Web.

Roethke, Theodore. The Waking: Poems, 1933-1953. New York: Doubleday, 1953. Print.

Thomas, Dylan. The Poems of Dylan Thomas. Ed. Daniel Jones. Vol. 1. New York: New Directions Publishing, 2003. Print.


Housekeeping in Marriott hotel Chain Report college essay help

Introduction: Presenting the Hotel Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile is one of the hotels of the Marriott chain. Being considered as the luxury hotel, it should correspond to top quality services and as a result being excellent both from interior and exterior aspects. Considering some statistical data, the hotel has 46 floors where 1 173 rooms are located. 25 of them are suites, 54 are the meeting rooms with 66,400 sq ft of total meeting space.

Ash Trays/Debris at Exterior of Property

The territory of the hotel is clean. There are many ash trays at exterior of property which are constantly checked for extra rubbish. It is pleasant to walk on the territory of the hotel as there is no debris at all. This is guaranteed by the hotel facilities and top quality services.

Cleanliness of Windows, Floors, Tables, Chairs and Other Surfaces

Looking at different surfaces on the territory of the hotel, one will not see them to be dirty. Windows are clean as well as all other glass surfaces which shine. It is impossible to see the dust on the floor as the service is on the highest level and there are people who are responsible for carpets and bars to be always clean. Chairs, tables and other surfaces are polished that is why it is even possible to see how they shine.

Repair/Condition of Furnishing-Wear and Tear, Scuffs, etc.

Looking at the furniture it is possible to say that it is new. One cannot seat on the threadbare chair or another piece of furniture as being a five star hotel which is considered to be the part of the Marriott chain of work known hotels, the Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile has to meet the level of furnishing. That is why their furniture is new or seems to be new as in case of its attrition it is just thrown away.

Ceilings, Walls

Walls and ceilings have expensive wall-papers. Additionally, ceiling and in some places the walls are decorated with expensive modeling items seems to be created specially for Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile. There is too much light in the hotel as the ceiling is also decorated with lamps of various design and style which is combined appropriately and adds to the design of the whole interior.

Any Dangerous Situations

The hotel corresponds to the demands of fire department. Having considered all the floors, the fireplugs were found at each of them. Additionally, there are no dangerous places which could intentionally harm human health. There a medicine chest in each room and at the reception. Even though it is impossible to save oneself from any particular situation, the hotel is considered to be safe and corresponding to the norm of particular departments.

Conclusion: Personal Observation Therefore, trying to express personal opinion about the luxury and beauty of the place, it is important to say that he hotel is built in accordance with the modern techniques. The decoration of the place is magnificent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everything is at its place even though it seems that here are too many sofas, tables, etc. Looking at the exterior of the place it impossible to make sure that there is a beauty inside as the exterior is not that pompous. But the interior is great. The hotel services are on the highest level that helps it remain deserving to carry the name of the world-known hotel chain.


Do the Essays “Arriving at Perfection” and “The Gettysburg Address” Provide the Reflections on the Essential Wisdom to be Deemed? college essay help near me

THESIS: Arriving at Perfection by Benjamin Franklin and The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln can be considered as the examples of reflections on the essential wisdom to be deemed.

I. The personal improvement and unity of nation as the basic aspects of the essays of Franklin and Lincoln

II. Literary techniques of the texts of The Gettysburg Address and Arriving at Perfection as a method of providing more persuasive and comprehensive narration

III. Personal experience in the essay of Franklin and history of the country in the speech of Lincoln as the argumentative ground

The Gettysburg Address is a speech of Abraham Lincoln dedicated to the soldiers of the Civil War in 1863. In the opposite, Benjamin Franklin wrote an essay Arriving at Perfection as in order to proclaim that everyone can try to be better.

Both authors emphasize the significance of the everyday reflection, learning, training of memory, respect of the history in order to the personal improvement. The essays of two greatest Presidents can be considered as the examples of reflections on the essential wisdom to be deemed.

Abraham Lincoln’s speech presented in the Gettysburg National Cemetery emphasizes an importance of the national memory, patriotism and bravery. This evocative message tries to consolidate the citizens and their patriotism. In spite of Lincoln, Franklin indicates the personal characteristics’ improvement as a basic method of cultural, social, career development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lincoln analyses a capability of the nation, summarizing the consequences of the Civil War. Thus, he writes about a significant characteristic of the nation to “resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain” (Lincoln, 2010, p. 216). The country was in the middle of the Civil War, and the President could understand an importance of the citizens’ consolidation.

For Lincoln, only future victory can be a real method to honor the fallen. In this case, the personal motivation and inspiration connect Lincoln’s speech with Franklin’s essay. Benjamin Franklin writes about his will to improve the personality.

Being a perfectionist, Franklin describes his methods of improving the memory, composing a book with the names and ideas. As Lincoln says about the historical lessons that test the nation, Franklin says about the personal experience and mistakes as a ground that should be analyzed by everyone. Franklin (2010) describes his method of analyzing:

I cross’d these Columns with thirteen red Lines, marking the Beginning of each Line with the first Letter of one of the Virtues, on which Line, and in its proper Column, I might mark, by a little black Spot, every Fault I found upon Examination to have been committed respecting that Virtue upon that Day. (p. 135)

Franklin believed that such planning as a method of progress can help for the self-improvement. Only the rational methods seem Franklin correct and appropriate.

Exploring the literary techniques of the texts of The Gettysburg Address and Arriving at Perfection, it is important to notice that both Presidents use eloquent language. Lincoln uses parallelism and contrast in order to emphasize the most important issues. Thus, he uses the contrast life-death: “The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract” (Lincoln, 2010, p. 216). It is an example of the successful use the literary method.

Franklin in his essay uses a range of methods that help arriving more persuasive and comprehensive narration. Trying to show everyone how to improve their lives, Franklin uses straight tone without vague or sarcasm. He knows his goals and says exactly what he means. For instance, he provides a list with the names of virtues and their precepts.

We will write a custom Essay on Do the Essays “Arriving at Perfection” and “The Gettysburg Address” Provide the Reflections on the Essential Wisdom to be Deemed? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Obviously, if one wants to show people how to live according to the high moral standards and motivation, it is necessary to use the strict and precise vocabulary and speech patterns.

In case of Lincoln’s speech, the comprehensiveness and precision are also the significant elements. As well as Lincoln wants to persuade people to unite and arouse their patriotism, he appeals to the emotions, using the literary methods as the tools of creating the poetic quality.

An example of the alliteration “poor power” is used in order to honor the brave heroes who died in the Civil War. The words choice such as use of us, we, nation helps Lincoln to show his will to unite the North and South. In ten sentences Lincoln effectively expresses his will to unite the nation, emphasizes a significance of the history and personal reflection, the wisdom to be deemed.

The argumentative ground of the texts is different. Thus, Franklin uses the personal experience, describing the methods created and used by him, while Lincoln’s speech is based on the history of the country. Franklin says that everyone must use one’s mind and talent, improving the life, learning and creating more.

The analysis helps understanding the mistakes and avoiding them in the future. Franklin says: “I wish’d to live without committing any Fault at any time; I would conquer all that either Natural Inclination” (2010, p. 133). Obviously, such way of reflection demonstrates a wise of the President and his reflections of the better results achievement.

For Lincoln, the historical events are the ground of inspiration. He emphasizes a significance of the history in case of the national integration. He supports the arguments connecting the current conflict with the history and indicating the future perspectives of the nation.

Two greatest American Presidents in their essays Arriving at Perfection and The Gettysburg Address provide the examples of reflections on the essential wisdom to be deemed. Using the different literary techniques, both authors emphasize the significance of the personal reflection in order to improve one’s life and to achieve the common goals.

Franklin emphasizes a value of learning, training of memory and analyzing all events, facts and ideas that rise around us. For Lincoln, wisdom can be achieved by learning the history and respecting the national heroes. Obviously, for both authors, wisdom to be deemed is the most important characteristic of the human being, and they provide a clear demonstration of this statement in their essays.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Do the Essays “Arriving at Perfection” and “The Gettysburg Address” Provide the Reflections on the Essential Wisdom to be Deemed? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Franklin, B. (2010). Arriving at Perfection. In R. DiYanni (Ed.), Fifty Great Essays (Penguin Academic Series) (4th ed.) (pp. 133-136). US: Longman.

Lincoln, A. (2010). The Gettysburg Address. In R. DiYanni (Ed.), Fifty Great Essays (Penguin Academic Series) (4th ed.) (pp. 215-216). US: Longman.


“Of Silence and Slow Time”: The Metaphor of Art as the Silent Witness in John Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

In the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn, poet John Keats uses an ancient Greek earthenware urn to represent the function of artistic objects as the silent witnesses of time and the vehicles through which their human creators achieve immortality. John Keats employs the metaphor of the urn to reveal to the reader how certain elements of art surpass death and become witnesses to all human endeavour.

In essence, the artistic product – in this case the urn – survives its creator and achieves immortality, not to mention the ability to absorb and encapsulate all of the human experience that existed at the time of its creation, as well as all of the human experience that has occurred in the interim.

As critic Wesley D. Sweetser notes, the experience of reading Ode on a Grecian Urn becomes an “experience [that] is at once felt and an indelible contrast etched between the transience of the human condition and the relative permanence of art” (10).

All tangible and tactile products of art – poems, paintings, and urns included – contain a permanence that their human creators will never experience. The poem therefore becomes a commentary on the impermanence of the human condition, and the means by which humans transcend their mortality through art.

John Keats employs the first two stanzas of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn to introduce the idea of the silent witness to time that the urn represents to the reader. The artistic object, though fashioned by human hands in time, immediately stands outside of time and outside of human experience, once it is created.

These first two stanzas of Ode on a Grecian Urn support John Keats’ notion that the concrete presence of the urn serves as a portal for the reader’s imagination, via which the past can be accessed. The physical proximity of the urn gives the reader proximity to all that the urn has witnessed over the course of its existence; in this regard, the urn absorbs all of the human experience that surrounded its creation, as well as all of the human experience that has occurred since that time.

The important lines that John Keats uses to purvey this idea are lines five and six from the first stanza, “What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape / Of deities or mortals, or of both,” and “Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard / Are sweeter (Keats 32). In these two lines, John Keats refers to the ancient Greek culture that created the urn, through the reference to Greek mythology, and also makes reference to the “unheard” melodies that the urn personifies, the past, of which the only record is the urn itself (Keats 32).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Keats scholar Bruce King notes, “the urn itself…has its own kind of eternity” (King 1). In essence, this particular piece of art bears witness to the past culture that created it, and simultaneously gives the reader imaginative access to that past culture, through its physical presence.

Once John Keats has established the metaphor of the time portal that the urn represents, he uses several important lines in the fourth stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn to extend the metaphor and bring the reader in to the poem and the imagined past to which the urn gives the reader access. John Keats uses imagery to move the reader through time and give the reader access to all of the epochs of human history that the urn has witnessed.

The most salient lines that achieve this end include lines 31 through 34, “Who are these coming to the sacrifice? / To what green altar, O mysterious priest, / Lead’st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, / And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?” a reference to the sacrificing of animals that was common among the pagan peoples (Keats 33). These lines are especially effective at bringing the reader in to the past and shaping his or her experience of it.

Several lines in Ode on a Grecian Urn also bear witness to the people that have died while the urn lives on. As King notes, as human beings, “our lives not only pass, but at the end we become waste. The urn, however, remains—a work of art that speaks to others” (1). This is perhaps the most relevant element of Ode on a Grecian Urn.

In essence, John Keats is “making his own claim to permanence” in Ode on a Grecian Urn, and arguing one of the key functions of art, as a tribute to human life and a record of human life (King 1). The urn becomes a testament to the lives of all the humans that its existence has touched; in so doing, the urn achieves a sort of immortality on their behalf.

The reader sees this in the fourth stanza in the lines 38 through 40, “And, little town, thy streets for evermore / Will silent be; and not a soul, to tell / Why thou art desolate, can e’er return” (Keats 33). The only record of these souls, according to the poem, is the urn itself and the memories that it represents.

Similarly, John Keats writes in the fifth and final stanza, “Thou, silent form! dost tease us out of thought / As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral! / When old age shall this generation waste, / Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe / Than ours, a friend to man” (Keats 33).

We will write a custom Essay on “Of Silence and Slow Time”: The Metaphor of Art as the Silent Witness in John Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The artistic product therefore functions as “friend to man” because it simultaneously allows human beings access to their own past and their own ancestors while functioning as a record of their lives and their accomplishments (Keats 33). Time may indeed “waste” each successive generation through death; however, the urn itself will ensure that these lives are not forgotten.

In Ode on a Grecian Urn, the poet John Keats employs the metaphor of an ancient Greek funerary urn to expand the role of artistic products beyond their aesthetic function to a function as a record of human existence. In Ode on a Grecian Urn therefore, John Keats relays to the reader the ability of artistic objects to transcend death; works of art such as the urn contain the power to go beyond mortality and bear witness to immortality.

The ability of the urn to exist over millennia ensures that its creator and all of the people it has come into contact with over the course of its existence are spoken for and remembered by successive generations. The poem speaks to the function of artistic products such as the funerary urn as testaments to the lives of their creators.

Works Cited Keats, John. Ode on a Grecian Urn and Other Poems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.

King, Bruce. “An Overview of Ode On A Grecian Urn.” Poetry for Students. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 2012. Print.

Sweetser, Wesley D. “Ode on a Grecian Urn: Overview.” Reference Guide to English Literature. Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. 2nd ed. Chicago: St. James Press, 1991. Print.


Greece’s Economical Crisis Research Paper essay help site:edu

Greece economical power has been deteriorating every year. Currently, the country is facing a major economical crisis and it has been reported that the current poor economical situation in Greece has affected day-to-day lives of the citizens. Most people are struggling in order to meet their basic needs.

Because of this severe economical crisis, many economical analyst and other economists have predicted that Greece will face major economical hurdles in the future since the current level of debts are devastating. In this paper, we shall provide a general overview of the Greece economical crisis.

Throughout the discussion, the paper will highlight the main economical problems faced by Greece, the major causes of economical crisis, how the current economical crisis is affecting other European countries, and the measures that Greek’s administration has put in place to address the devastating economical crisis.

Economy of Greece Before discussing the current economical crisis in Greece, it is imperative to provide a general understating of Greece economical status for the past few years. By providing such an overview, we will be able understand how the current crisis emerged and how deep the problem is.

According to the world trade organization and World Bank, Greece has been an economical powerhouse for a long time (Petrakis 12). According to another report released in 2010, the economy of Greece was ranked number 32 in the world in terms of nominal gross domestic product (GDP) (Charter 23).

According to the same report, Greece was also ranked as the 37th largest purchasing power in the world (Charter 23). Because Greece is an economical powerhouse as well as a well-developed country, it has earned a membership in the European Union, Eurozone, World Trade Organization, the OECD, and the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSECO) (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

On the other hand, Greece is one of the most developed countries in Europe and for many years, it has always been categorized as a high-income country (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to this, it has been reported that Greece’s service sector brings about 78 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), industry brings 17.9 percent, and agriculture brings 3.3 percent (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Other public sectors including tourism contribute about 40 percent of the total economical output (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

History and the decline Greece economy A study of the Greece economical history shows that Greece became economically stable during the 19th century due to the great industrial revolution (Lynn 4). Recent research on economical development reveals that Greece has had a gradual economical growth over the years, which can be attributed to development in shipping industry and agriculture (Lynn 10).

It has also been reported that Greece experienced economical hardships towards the end of the 19th century (Lynn 11). Other similar studies have also revealed that Greece became an economical powerhouse after the World War II. The Post World War II economical growth in Greece is popularly referred as “the Greek economical miracle” (Charter 31).

Looking at Greek’s history, it becomes apparent that Greece entered the Eurozone as early as 2001 (Charter 14). It is clear that economical development of Greece has been positive since the year 1961. For a very long time, “Greece has enjoyed a high standard of living and good Human Development Index (HDI) ranking top fifty in the world” (Lynn 15).

Over the years, Greece has enjoyed economical benefits from tourism, shipping, agriculture, textiles, chemical, metal products, mining, and petroleum products (Charter 32).

On the other hand, Greece economy has also faced many challenges slowing development in this particular country. Among the major challenges, include a number of significant problems such as rising unemployment, tax evasion, rapid corruption, and poor global competitiveness (Belkin 5). These among other factors have contributed to the current economical crisis in Greece today.

According to the EU data, Greece has been reported to have the worst corruption index (Belkin 5). In terms of corruption, Greece has been ranked second in Europe after Bulgaria and it ranks 80th in the world (Belkin 8).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Greece’s Economical Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to another report released by World Bank, corruption and tax evasion are the two major factors that have contributed to current economical crisis in Greece (Belkin 8). In fact, because of these two issues, Greece has not been able to overcome its ever-growing debts.

Emergence of economical crisis in Greece As already mentioned, Greece has been an economical powerhouse for many years and its economical position has been a positive one since World War II (Petrakis 43). After a long period of economical development and growth, Greece went into recession in the year 2009 (Petrakis 43).

A study of the past economical trends reveals that for some time Greece has had a behavior of over-lending, which has contributed to loans exceeding hundred percent mark (Petrakis 44). This trend became more pronounced in the year 2009. It has been reported that by the end of 2009, Greek’s economy began deteriorating rapidly.

In the same year, Greece experienced the highest budget deficit and the government recorded the highest level of debts in the EU (European Union). In fact, in the year 2009 alone Greece’s budget deficit rose high above 15 percent mark. Because of this and other problems inclding the rising debts, borrowing cost emerged causing a severe economical crisis (Petrakis 42).

Towards the mid of year 2009, Greece was accused of attempting to cover up its huge budget deficit during the time when the world was facing an economical crisis too (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Because of this particular issue, the new socialist government that was appointed in 2009 revised the budget and this saw a reduction in the budget deficit by significant figures (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Because of the continued economical crisis in Greece, there was a decline in shipping and industrial production, which was recorded to have dropped down by 8 percent (Charter 14).

Between the years 2010 and 2011, the industrial sector of Greece was the hardest hit. To be more specific, the garment industry and the housing sector were most affected and it is said that building activities recorded a massive reduction by 73 percent between 2010 and 2011 (Charter 41).

In addition to that, unemployment rates increased in a big way. It is estimated that unemployment rates skyrocketed by over 10 percent from as low as 7 percent to 20 percent (Belkin 9). This increase in unemployment rates saw over 900,000 people being laid off (Belkin 9). Because of this massive unemployment rates, the number of unemployed youths also rose up to 36 percent causing another major crisis in Greece.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Greece’s Economical Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main economical crisis in Greece Greece was accepted into the Economic and Monetary Union of European Union (EU) in the year 2000 after the European Council assessed the Greece economical crisis (Belkin 11). During this time, Greece had recorded high rates of inflation, budget deficit, increased public debts, and long-term interest rates (Belkin 12).

After an audit done in 2004 by the new socialist government, European statistics commission (Eurostat) revealed that the budget deficit was extremely high (Belkin 11). Today, Greek’s economical crisis is one of the biggest problems Eurozone is facing (Lynn 32). In fact, because of the economical crisis in Greece, the European Union has signed an agreement to use funds from both Europeans countries and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to help ‘financial-crippled Greece” (Lynn 42).

The main economical crisis in Europe has emerged as a result of years of unrestricted spending, cheap lending and lack of timely financial reforms (Lynn 22). These and other numerous factors left Greece stuck in a position of poor economical growth during the time when global economy went down too. Since the extent of the problems was beyond control, the level of debts in Greece exceeded the actual limits set by Eurozone.

It’s no doubt that the current debts are very high. In 2009 Greece debts was recorded to be standing at $ 413.6 billion (roughly about three hundred billion Euros) (Lynn, 47). Because of the decreasing economical trends in 2009, many financial analysts predicted that the debts would increase to 120 percent in 2010 (Charter 51). As per now, the current deficit is estimated to be standing at 12.7 percent (Charter 54).

Greece’s debt crisis

Graph: shows Greek debts compared to Eurozone Average (Petrakis 124).

The year 2009 is recorded as the worst financial year for Greece. It is said that in the year 2009, Greece faced major economical challenges resulting to the highest deficit ever (Charter 36).

Year 2009 marked the beginning of major economical crisis in Greece. At the end of 2009, Greek economical situation worsened and it experienced the most severe economical crisis (Telegraph Media Group Limited). This was caused by a number of factors such as the world financial crisis, uncontrolled spending and poor budgeting by the government (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

On the other hand, it is also said that Greek’s government was deliberately reporting false economical statistics in order to remain within the Monetary Union Guidelines (Eurozone) (Telegraph Media Group Limited). During this time, Greek continued to spend beyond its means.

Eurostat carried out another audit in May 2010 and the result revealed that the government deficit was around 13.5 percent, which is one of the highest deficit recorded in the world in terms of GDP (Petrakis 61). Because of the high deficit in Greece, there was a crisis in international community as it lost confidence in Greece’s ability to repay its debts (Petrakis 61).

However, after some consideration the international community including IMF and other Eurozone countries agreed to help Greece in resolving its financial crisis (Lynn 64). In order to receive a loan, Greece was supposed to meet some conditions. In May 2010, the IMF and Eurozone gave Greece a loan of about €45 billion (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

After being granted the loan, the Eurozone required Greece to develop strict monetary measures (Lynn 34). In addition to this, the European commission, European Central Bank, and the International Monetary Fund insisted that they must continue to evaluate the adoption and implementation of all the proposed measures (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Today, the financial crisis and the strict measures put forward by EU and the IMF has contributed to mass actions, chaos, and public riots by the citizens across Greece (Lynn 27). However, despite of the loan granted to Greece and the strict measures, the government deficit has not decreased as expected. According to different economists and financial analysts, the budget deficit has not been reduced due to the subsequent recession (Lynn 56). As a result, Greek’s debt has recorded a continued rise.

Effects of Greece economical crisis As already mentioned, Greece’s ability to repay its debts is one of the biggest problems the government is facing at the moment (Petrakis 112). After an extensive assessment of its ability, the Eurozone has reported that Greece’s potential to pay its current debts has been declared almost impossible.

Because of this issue, it has been viewed that Greece will soon become “a financial black hole” and people will shy away from making investment in this country (Petrakis 116). This means that the current financial crisis is likely to deepen since the country will continue struggling to repay debts as the interests rates also continue to increase (Petrakis 121).

The only solution that can really work is for the current government (The Greek government of Prime Minister George Papandreou) to implement harsh measures, which will reduce the national spending (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

On the other hand, it is very important for the government of Greece to make proper consideration that would not negatively affect other European countries. In its current economical state, Greece is already in a very bad financial position and it has already breached some of the Eurozone policies regarding deficit management (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Because of this, fears are emerging that the current economical state of Greece will have severe effects on other European countries. The main worry is that, the behavior of breaching Eurozone policies by Greece will be infected to other European countries that are also facing economical hardship (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Measures to curb the current economical crisis What is Greece doing to control the current economical situation? This is a question of whether Greece government is committed to restore its country back to a state of financial stability. Indeed, Greek’s government is committed towards restoring economical stability.

Foremost, the government has begun reducing spending and it is already implementing economical policies, which are aimed at reducing the current deficit by not less than €10 billion (Telegraph Media Group Limited). As such, the government has increased tax on basic commodities and products including fuel, alcohol, tobacco, developed tough tax evasion penalties, raised the retirement age, and forced public sector pay cuts (Belkin 13).

However, because of these measures by government, chaos has been reported across the country. In some of the big cities, people have staged strikes abandoning work and closing airports, offices and schools (Petrakis 113). The bad news is that this kind of mass action has been on the increase and is expected to become more rampant in the near future (Petrakis 110).

How European Countries are helping Greece to resolve its economical crisis Most of the European countries are committed to help Greece overcome the current economical crisis. Led by Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel, all the European countries (16 countries that make up the Eurozone) have signed an agreement to help Greece restore its economical status (Charter 67). This move by the European countries is being seen as the “last resort that will involve co-ordinate bilateral loans” from all countries in Eurozone which use the common currency (Charter 71).

In a move to help “the sailing neighbor”, most of the economically stable countries in Eurozone will contribute loan based on the GDP and population size (Lynn 71). However, all the 16 countries will contribute the loan once Greek’s government fails to access funds from international financial markets like IMF (Lynn 71).

According to EU and European Commission, based on the GDP and population size Germany will contribute the highest amount followed by France (Lynn 73). However, it is not clear how much each country will contribute but according to other sources (particularly, European Commission officials), it is estimated that each countries will contribute about € 20 billion (Telegraph Media Group Limited).

Conclusion According to the World Trade Organization and World Bank, Greece has been an economical powerhouse for many years. However, for the last few years Greece’s economical status has been deteriorating every year and today the country is facing a major economical crisis.

Recent research on economical development reveals that Greece has had a gradual economical growth over the years, which can be attributed to development in shipping industry and agriculture. In the past few decades, it has also been reported that Greece experienced economical hardships especially towards the end of the 19th century. Today, Greek’s economical crisis is one of the biggest problems Eurozone is facing.

According to Eurostat, 2009 is recorded as the worst financial year for Greece. It is said that in the year 2009 alone, Greece faced major economical hurdles resulting to highest deficit ever. Year 2009 marked the beginning of major economical crisis in Greece. On the other hand, Greek’s government and other European Countries are committed towards restoring economical stability in Greece.

To shows its commitment, Greek’s administration has started reducing spending and it has also began implementing tough economical measures which are aimed at reducing the current budget deficit. With the help of all Eurozone countries, there is hope that the current economical crisis in Greece will eventually be eradicated.

Works Cited Belkin, Paul. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications. 2011. Web.

Charter, David. Storm Over Bailout of Greece, EU’s Most Ailing Economy. Time Online: Brussels, 2010.

Lynn, Matthew. Bust: Greece, the Euro and the Sovereign Debt Crisis. New Jersey: Bloomberg press. 2011.

Petrakis, Panagiotis. The Greek Economy and The Crisis: Challenges and Responses. Indianapolis: Springer Inc, 2011.

Telegraph Media Group Limited. Eurozone Bail-out ‘Not Big Enough’ as Greek Debt Worries Grow. 2012. Web.


Chinese Culture Unchanged Despite Long Historical Period Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction China has been in existence for over 5000 years. It has developed in both philosophy and art over this period of time. Invention of products and technologies has taken place too. This includes silk, paper, gunpowder and moveable-type printing. China has fought fights, some of which it conquered, while some it lost (Thorp 56).

Thesis The Chinese culture over its long history; how it has remained constant throughout as seen from the Silk Road and Opium Wars, by the evidence of artifacts.

Chinese Artifacts Museum

It is a museum that is located at the lower level of Culture Center. It receives students and tourists since it showcases rare replicas of different kinds of Chinese artifacts. Situated at the Award-winning Exhibit Hall: “Our Chosen Land: 100 years of development of Chinese community in Calgary”.

The exhibition is divided into two main parts: “History of Chinese Canadians in Canada” which showcases the life of the Chinese immigrants in Canada. The other part: “Evolution of Chinese Community in Calgary” which shows and illustrates the development of Chinatown. At the museum, one can look for replicas of horses and soldiers in different postures, replica sets of handcrafted furniture among others (Dingbo 78).

The use of cowry shells was used in China as a monetary value, about 1800BC. By 400BC bronze coins had replaced cowry shells. There is no evidence whether this change was brought about by the Chinese people or by the interaction with the West Asia. These coins were made by being shaped out of clay and Chinese characters painted on them. They also had squared holes in the middle for easy storage.

The existence of the Silk Road boosted trade. It was a 5000 mile stretch that linked Asia to Europe and to Africa. At this long stretch, the Chinese exchanged their coins and other products for others. Today people still travel through the Silk Road and have found evidence of goods, bronze coins included, that were traded during those times. This clearly shows that the Chinese culture remained unchanged during a long period of time (Wei 80).

The Opium Wars took place in two phases. The first was between 1839 and 1842 while the second was between 1856 and 1860. The first was the Great Britain against China. British merchants smuggled opium into China so as to balance their trade with tea. China’s prohibited this kind of trade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to this, the British sent gunboats to attack several gunboats to attack several coastal cities of China. The second Opium war involved the attacking of Beijing by British and French troops during which China lost. All along during these wars, trade drastically dropped and the bronze coins lost value.

Conclusion Communal art was created alongside other tools. Shelter and appliances necessary for basic life were created too. The emergence of social classes separated the art. However, the parallel growths of these arts have been the main factor in the driving of the Chinese national art.

The life of fork art for example, brings out the idea of the emotional and psychological attributes of a country that has been through major periods in its history. Hence, the Chinese culture will remain unchanged. The Museum trip shed light on the nature and historical facts that are unknown by most people. Traditions and culture play a big role in shaping today’s society.

Works Cited Dingbo, Wu. Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture. Shanghai: Chao ta Publishers, 2009, Print.

Thorp, Richard. Chinese Art and Culture. London: Liturgical Press, 1991, Print.

Wei, Francis. The Spirit of Chinese Culture. Taiwan: Shengdu,2008, Print.


Digital versus Traditional media in advertising Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


The shift from print to online media

Analogue to digital television

Digital interactive media



Introduction A radical change in the media industry is totally transforming the whole meaning of advertising. In light of this, advertising has grown from a mere sub-industry to a very critical sector in the business world. Changes in technology have drastically transformed the manner in which operations are conducted in the world.

This new wave of change has seen a rapid growth in the digital media as a way of advertising. The digital interactive forms of advertising have been availed at the very appropriate time considering the amazing rate at which globalization is affecting business operations across the world (Langdon, 1996).

This essay is an attempt to explore into this field and see how the digital interactive media is transforming the whole concept of advertising. It seeks to delve into the commonalities and the differences that characterize the traditional forms of advertising and the digital interactive forms of advertising. This essay will therefore delve into these issues while paying greater attention to the manner in which the whole aspect of advertising is changing.

Body Firstly, the traditional forms of advertising that dominated much of the last few decades include television, print and radio. These forms of advertising are considered traditional in the sense that newer methods of advertising have actually come up rendering them close to being obsolete.

But really, can the digital forms totally take over the process of advertising without back up from the traditional forms? Well, that is subject to a whole range of debates. Nevertheless, it must be stated from the onset that the traditional forms of advertising cannot in any way be relegated into the dustbin of history as they really supplement the digital media advertising.

The digital media technology has availed many options in the field of advertising that had not been seen before. Today, more than merely watching an advert on the television, one can download the information they have watched and even store it for future use.

It is in light of these varieties that one feels the urge to dissect the whole concept of advertisement to see the realities that have characterized the field and recommend options to anyone seeking to launch any advertisement in the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any advertisement should be designed taking in mind that consumers are inundated with a flood of information at their disposal. The modern digital forms of advertising have therefore an upper hand in this aspect compared to the traditional methods which may not reach many people as expected (Langdon, 1995).

The shift from print to online media Secondly, the world has continued to become much global as time progresses. This has seen multinational companies establish branches all across the world. The goods and services produced are therefore targeted for not only the local markets but for the whole world.

This has created the need for advertisement forms that reflect of the diversity of the world and can reach all corners of the world where the goods are supposed to be utilized. The print media industry has for a long time been dominated by the newspapers as the major forms of advertising.

Newspapers, however, have the disadvantage that they cannot be supplied across the whole world. A paper published in New York for instance may not be circulated past the United States. They are therefore limited by reach. However, with the advent of the internet and the radical shift that characterizes the whole sub-sector, most of these materials can now be accessed online by the consumers.

Mobile phone technology is currently extensively used as an advertising media. The number of people reached in this case is very large considering that majority of people own cell phones. Major newspapers have today introduced online versions where readers can access all the information at the comfort of their mobile phones or personal digital assistants (PDAs).

It is a common trend today for most people in the developed world to read their newspapers online other than buy the hard copies on the streets. The printed papers may therefore go out of market in a few years if the rapid adoption of technology across the world is anything to go by.

It is interesting to note that the world’s population is mainly dominated by young people who are below 25. It is this same young population that extensively uses the internet. This is a clear indication in the great potential that lies in the field of online advertising.

We will write a custom Essay on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Newspapers, however, still continue to enjoy a large readership especially among the educated and in the developing world where internet is still expensive. Research shows that educational levels are a great determinant of the readership of newspapers.

People who have spent much time in school tend to read newspapers more than those who have not. It is normally quite hard to change people’s behavior patterns and this has the implication of limiting advertisers on the amount of population they would wish to reach.

Magazines are very popular all over the world and have become a very rich ground for reaching many consumers. They also have the advantage of reaching specific groups of people in the community. For instance, beauty magazines mostly target young women and could therefore effectively convey adverts relating to such women.

Like in newspapers, magazines have also managed to create an online presence and most of the popular magazines are presently read online in addition to the conventional printed versions. However, the online media in the case of magazines has not gained much root as in newspapers.

Many people still prefer to buy their magazines in the streets and shopping outlets as opposed to reading them online. This provides a suitable ground where the advertisers can harness many opportunities (Australian Interactive Media Industry Association, 2009).

Analogue to digital television Thirdly, a radical change has been seen the world of television where operations have totally been transformed. Television has been use for decades as method of advertisement. Much of that use began in the later part of the 1950s when television sets were available in entirely the whole world.

Televisions sets have for a long time been in the analogue form that availed viewer with various options such as the free to air TV cable TV and pay-tv. Currently a shift is occurring from the analogue to the digital television, which has come with various modifications to the interest of the viewers.

The digital form enables the viewers to access many channels and interact more. This allows people to control their viewing and hence the advertisements they get. Advertisers have seen a great opportunities in the digital television that were hitherto unavailable in the analogue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is estimated that by 2014, 80% of television viewers in the world will be using the digital television sets (PRC,2006). This can provide a glimpse on the amount of information that will be conveyed to the people in the form of advertisements.

Radio as a form of advertising is not left behind in light of the new changes that characterize the advertising industry. Even though the digital radio is still limited to only metropolitan areas in the world, it is forecasted that by 2014 it will be within reach to over half of the population in the world.

Digital radio like digital television, offers interactive capabilities to the listeners. It is not just audio as in the analogue case as it combines visual abilities to provide the listeners with additional features such as graphics, animation and slide shows. Digital radio will therefore be used to offer better advertising services to the listeners.

Presently, however, the analogue radio will continue to reign supreme in advertisements. It can be seen that both the traditional and the digital forms of advertisements are actually merged up. They continue to operate as a unit by supplementing each other (Commercial Radio Australia 2009).

The dissatisfaction realized from television advertising comes from the fact that at any given time, the advertiser is not sure about who is actually watching. It therefore heavily relies on a matter of chance such that if the advertiser is lucky, then the intended target will be watching.

Otherwise the whole advert becomes useless. Another problem also arises out of the fact that the interests of people who watch television are not usually the same. A discomfort therefore arises when an advert that only favours a particular category of people comes up. Advertisements by television costs more than the interactive forms of advertising. Their use is therefore becoming more and more limited to specific products.

Digital interactive media Digital interactive media is used to refer to the modern digital systems that are computer based that offer various options to the users. Such options include animation facilities, audio-visual, text and graphics (Lane, W R, King, KW


Nuclear Program in North Korea Essay best essay help

The nuclear program in North Korea has left its neighbors and the whole world in general concerned about the North Korea’s intentions. The program has led to a lot of controversy with many people wondering whether the nuclear weapons are for defensive purposes or are majorly instruments of coercion (Pollack, 2010).

A lot of questions have been asked to establish the real intention of North Korea’s nuclear program with no clear answers being found. This paper will try to unravel the mystery behind North Korea’s nuclear program.

There has been a lot of pressure from the international community to stop North Korea from going ahead with its nuclear program but the efforts have not borne any fruits for almost two and a half decades (Pollack, 2010).

North Korea claims to possess plutonium that is popular for making nuclear weapons and uranium that the country claims to be an alternative source of reactor fuel. According to North Korea, the United States is a threat to its security and the nuclear program is a strategy to counter the threats.

The U.S and North Korea have engaged in diplomatic talks since the year 2009 but the engagement has proved futile to this far. The U.S mission is to see North Korea become a completely non-nuclear state. North Korea insists that it will continue to retain its nuclear programs and weapons as long other nations in the world continue to do the same (Pollack, 2010).

North Korea clearly demonstrated their defiance in May 2009 by conducting its second nuclear test. It is believed that North Korea went ahead to officially announce its new status as a nuclear weapons state. These actions have completely stopped diplomatic engagements in recent times. North Korea has also lost the political support it used to enjoy after its latest actions.

The South Korean president has completely changed nuclear program policies and the engagement between the North and the South is very cautionary with the South completely resisting the influence from the North. The attempts to restrain North Korea have been reversible making the whole process frustrating (Pollack, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North Korea has constantly disrupted all the efforts made by allies and adversaries to make it comply with non-proliferation obligations. International Atomic Energy Agency has terribly failed in trying to make North Korea comply with its regulations. North Korea was the first nation to withdraw from the Nonproliferation Treaty in the year 2003 and it has since then continued to violate its promises to stop the nuclear program.

During the first nuclear test, long-range missile ranges were tested and subsequent tests saw the introduction of new nuclear weapons that North Korea claimed were for defensive purposes. The international community has been putting some measures in place to compel North Korea to stop the nuclear program but these strategies have not been working.

To begin with, the international community and other security agents have been trying to mitigate all the perceived threats by North Korea’s nuclear program. The second strategy was to place both political and economic sanctions against North Korea. The other strategy was to interdict all weapon shipments to and from North Korea and complete isolation (Pollack, 2010).

Illicit technologies were to be interdicted but all these efforts have been in vain since North Korea has never been deterred by all the attempts aimed at frustrating it to stop its nuclear program. North Korea sees the approaches employed by the U.S as coercive in nature and uncooperative.

All the denuclearization efforts by the international community have been failing and any new attempts are bound be skeptical. North Korea has set up unimaginable conditions for it to stop its nuclear program (Pollack, 2010).

The external powers and the current policies have been constantly rejected by North Korea making a non-nuclear future very unrealistic (Fitzpatrick, 2008). Making North Korea to be fully committed to denuclearization has been the greatest test the U.S and the international community has failed to pass.

The conditions and strategies set up by North Korea are aimed at protecting its interest and nuclear weapons development (Cimbala, 2005). The diplomatic talks between North Korea and the U.S under the Obama administration have been associated with mistrust on both sides.

We will write a custom Essay on Nuclear Program in North Korea specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The negotiations have been faced with a lot of obstacles with North Korea going ahead to consolidate its nuclear program and declare itself a nuclear weapons state despite the negotiations that had just been revived in 2009.

North Korea’s possibility of changing its nuclear policies has been greatly hampered by the changes in leadership. Leadership succession process plays a crucial role in the way a state makes major decisions (Cimbala, 2005). North Korea has heavily invested in the nuclear programs for over two decades and dismantling that is actually unimaginable.

Reversing all the nuclear programs in North Korea still remains a mirage. The whole world waits to see the kind of strategy the Obama administration will use to break the deadlock. The North Korean leadership seems to value the nuclear program so much to an extent of it being one of the major focuses of its policies.

The leadership in North Korea claims that its policies are meant to protect its population from external attacks and influences. The nuclear program is one of its strategies of strengthening its military capabilities. The nuclear program is seen as a survival strategy by the current regime.

The regime has continued to develop the program disregarding the economic implications and the diminishing relationships with the Republic of Korea, Japan and the United States. The country has been faced with economic crisis over the years forcing it to entirely rely on external support.

China has been the only source of refuge with South Korea and Japan withdrawing their support because of North Korea’s refusal to change its policies regarding the nuclear program. What surprises many people is North Korea’s refusal to sell or exchange its nuclear weapons for economic aid (Bishop, 2005).

The efforts of nuclear diplomacy by the Republic of Korea have seriously failed since North Korea has never been ready to exchange its nuclear capabilities with anything. In effort to defend its system, the North Korean leadership has continued to develop its nuclear programs and most importantly nuclear weapons.

North Korea has lately shown utmost defiance by declaring that it would do everything possible to boost its self-defense. All the weapon inspectors have been expelled with renewed efforts to strengthen the weapons section.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nuclear Program in North Korea by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, North Korea has clearly stated that its nuclear weapons are for defense purposes. Efforts of nuclear diplomacy have always failed because of North Koreas refusal to change its nuclear policies (Alagappa, 2009). With past diplomatic efforts having failed, convincing North Korea to dismantle its nuclear program is still unimaginable.

References Alagappa, M. (2009). The long shadow: Nuclear weapons and security in 21st century Asia. New York, NY: NUS Press.

Bishop, J. et al. (2005). Dismantling North Korea’s nuclear weapons programs. New York, NY: Strategic Studies Institute.

Cimbala, S. J. (2005). Nuclear weapons and strategy: Nuclear policy for the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Taylor


Multi-National Companies Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Functional Performance A multinational company is one that has several branches in different countries around the globe. Examples of such companies are Toyota, Sony, and General Motors. However, this paper analyses the performance of Japan’s Toyota Motor Corporation.

Firm’s Background

The Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) was founded by Toyoda Kiichiro of Japan in 1937. It is a multinational corporation with its headquarters located in Japan, and the larges automaker by sales. In Japan, Toyota is also the largest manufacture with a current market share of 50% (Rowley, 2007).

In the global market, however, the motor corporation holds a third position in the market share. The market share of Toyota in Japan is as shown in the table 1a in appendix 1. The logo and contacts for Toyota Motor Corporation are as shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Label for Toyota

Toyota-Cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan Phone: (0565) 28-2121

Introduction to International Accounting System

International accounting is a broad topic that generally focuses on issues relating to multinational companies. In addition to that, the topic also deals with the study of various functional areas of accounting in a global perspective. International accounting tries to provide solutions to the issues facing multicultural companies when engaging in foreign direct investment and international trade.

The world economic situation is quickly changing momentum and more exporting and importing companies being incorporated into the system. This trend appears to move in the direction of normalising international trade as much smaller firms are now participating in the trade as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the last 20 years, there has been substantial growth in the foreign direct investments which is attributed to globalization effects that encouraged countries to liberalize investment laws.

With such investment capabilities, countries and multinational countries have to employ better ways of ensuring profit maximization and value is attained. Therefore, special accounting systems that can help in achieving such goals have to be developed and applied in their models.

Type of Accounting System Used by Toyota

Toyota Motor Corporation utilizes the Just-in-time (JIT) model of accounting system in running its businesses worldwide. “In this approach, companies attempt to modify the process of manufacturing so that the non-value-added activities are completely removed fro the process” (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).

By doing this, companies are in a position to determine weather the cost involved is high or low. Therefore, this provides a company with the benefit of monitoring itself. The JIT evolves as a result of the need to meet demand just in time rather than having inventory at hand just in case.

“The characteristics of this system include: Minimization of defects in goods; minimization of raw material; simplification of the process of production; and the creation of timely multi-skilled workforce” (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).

Impact of the Accounting System

Other than having a number of positive implications, the JIT also has some negative implications on a business. Below are the advantages and disadvantages of using the JIT accounting system in a multinational company.


We will write a custom Term Paper on Multi-National Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of JIT helps in lowering costs that would come as a result of space needed for inventories and production;

It reduces costs that would arise from inventories being obsolete.

It leads to reduction in handling and transporting inventories.

It lowers the cost of investing in inventories.

It leads to less paperwork as records of purchase, storage, and used inventories are cut low.

Finally, it leads to reductions in the total costs of manufacturing goods that would be compromised by better coordination required between departments to achieve run at limited levels of inventories (“Just-in-Time, n.d”).


The introduction and actualization of a serious Just-in-time procedure can prove to be very difficult and expensive for a start.

Furthermore, JIT exposes a business into more risks with regard to the business’ supply chain. “A production line can quickly come to a halt if essential parts are unavailable” (Shawn, 1994).

Justification of the System – Case Analysis

Business Example: Dell Computer

Del Computer Corporation is a multinational company which utilizes the Just-in-Time system in it operation. At the moment, the JIT system in Del has been improved to a level that a delivery for a customized computer can be made 12 hours after customer places his or her order via the internet (Shawn, 1994).

Application of this system has led to the reduction in production cost of Dell computers by a significant factor. The low production costs has since enabled Dell to maintain a competitive edge since it values its products 10-15% lesser than its business rivals.

In addition, the effectiveness of the JIT system has led to an increased growth rate of Dell at 5 times more than the average growth rate of that industry (Shawn, 1994). The lower costs are achieved in a very simple manner.

“While machines from Compaq and IBM can languish on dealer shelves for two months Dell does not start ordering components and assembling computers until an order is booked.” (Shawn, 1994). This works effectively for Dell since the price of computer parts can take a very short period to drop by significant figures. This mean while other manufactures will be making losses due to lower prices, Dell does not participate in such losses.

Basing on the case of Dell, it is evident that the benefits of the Just-in-Time system are much more than the possible disadvantages. This is true because by implementing the JIT system; Dell has experienced lower production costs, more sales, minimal losses, production efficiency, and general growth of the company. Therefore, the Just-in-Time system is very effective and should be adapted by other multinational companies for better results.

Recommendations for Improvement of Accounting System

Judging from the Dell case, it is conclusive to say that the JIT system is more effective in maximizing a firm’s productivity as compared to other accounting systems. This is due to many benefits that it yields for a business as compared to the risks. It is a recommendation that more multinational companies should implement the system so as to enjoy the same benefits. However, companies engaging in the implementation should be aware of the accompanying risk and work against it.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Multi-National Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Business Performance Nature of the Business: Product

Toyota is a major car manufacture with its headquarters in Japan. Therefore, it is purely a product-based company manufacturing various types of cars. The vast variety of automobiles produced by the multi-national ranges from mini-vehicles to huge transport trucks.

Apart from the common brand (Toyota), several other brands are produced such as Lexux, Hino, and Daihatsu. In the year 2005 alone, these brands sold over 6 million units in almost all parts of the world. Apart from manufacturing millions of cars to meet the local and global demand, Toyota has values that guide its service to customers.

These values are in line with their mission to serve ethically, uphold quality, and create an eco-friendly company in harmony with nature and society. In order to meet their mission and goals, Toyota has adapted a favouring marketing mix as described below.

Marketing Mix

The 4Ps marketing mix blending for Toyota; product strategy, pricing strategy, promotion strategy, and places strategy are discussed under the subtitles below.

Product Strategy Anything that can be offered in a market with an aim of satisfying a particular need or want is referred to as a product. Toyota has used various brands like name, sign, symbol, term or design to identify and differentiate the finished goods from their competitors.

For example, the well known brand in Japan is TOYOTA which also sells and is known in various parts of the world. Also, labeling has been used by the company by creating simple tags that are attached to the finished product. The mark containing the three ovals (as shown in figure 2) is identified as the label or logo for the company.

Figure 2: Label for Toyota

Price Strategy Generally, companies adapt their pricing strategies and change them depending on the conditions of the market. In the international market, a new marketing strategy through collective action is being organized by emergence of commodity marketing organization.

However, Toyota employs a value-driven pricing method for its commodities. With this method, value is given to the customers in terms of quality, warranty, and customer support. Therefore, the company wins loyal customers by providing an affordable price quotation for a quality product.

This process enables the company to reinvest in its operations making it a low-cost manufacturer without sacrificing the quality of offerings. This process results in attraction of more value-conscious customers.

Depending on the region, Toyota cars will be sold at different prices. Therefore, a differentiated pricing is also adapted. This is referred to as location pricing where different states get the same model for different prices. This is due to different insurance rates and road taxes from one state or country to another.

Promotion Strategy Generally, Toyota uses various techniques to advertise its products because most of the printed adverts are usually individually targeted.

These promotions are usually customized according to factors like power, comfort, driving pleasure, performance and leg room. Toyota conducts its product promotions through various methods such as advertising, brochures, bill boards, display signs, bulletins and television broadcast.

As such, advertising is a type of communication which has the intention and effect of convincing an individual into purchasing a certain product.

In this type of promotion, for example, Toyota uses pictures of models posing next to best selling brands so that one may be easily interested in the brand.

Also, brochures, leaflets, and posters are produced with picture of brands like Prado, Innova, and Toyota Corolla on them so as to attract more influence.

In India, Toyota uses billboards at various expressway and highways to advertise Innova and Toyota Corolla. Other methods that are used by the company in promotion include; sales promotion, public relation, personal selling, direct marketing and over the internet/Pioneer Toyota website.

Place (Distribution) Strategy This involves the selection and management of channels and product flow to customers. It represents the pre-determined locations where a company’s products can be bought. This may refer to the physical location such as showrooms or actual geographical locations where one can place a purchase order.

Appendix 1shows a sample picture of a showroom and a map showing various destinations for purchasing Toyota cars. The company employs a vertical marketing system in its distribution process as indicated in the figure 3 below.

Figure 3: Vertical Marketing System

Competitive Analysis/PEST Analysis In this section, an analysis of the political, economical, Socio- cultural and technological factors affecting Toyota Motor Corporation in relation to the current global market condition shall be conducted.

Political factors

“Foreign direct investment policy in foreign governments has major impact on the company; for instance, the Chinese regulation is not easy to follow in case of a joint venture” (Hurley, Norton


Global Accounting Standards Research Paper essay help online free

How changing world environment is leading to an increased focus on international accounting Saudagaran (2009) says, “The purpose of accounting is to provide information that is useful for making business and other economical decisions.”

The growth for businesses from small companies to multinationals has raised the need for international accounting since the accounting information is needed by the stakeholders for making business and economical decisions. (Saudagaran).

In the capital markets where capital is graded, listed companies need to apply international accounting standards especially if the market is experiencing a steady growth.

This will make it easy for foreign investors to make timely and well informed decisions on investing in the market without undergoing the consultation cost or learning the new accounting standards.

(Saudagaran, 2009). In 2008, during the sub-prime loan crisis in America, financial institutions and investors worldwide experienced massive losses from the meltdown. The crisis provided evidence that in a global financial system, national borders are porous. (Saudagaran)

Difference in accounting method as they are applied internationally There are two types of accounting methods the cash and the accrual method. According to Rich et al 2009, cash method mainly deals with incomes.

Under cash basis accounting, revenue has to be recorded when the cash is received regardless of when it is actually earned. Similarly, an expense is recorded when cash is paid.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, by recording only the cash effects of transactions, cash-basis financial statements may not reflect all the assets and liabilities of the company at a particular date. For this reason, most companies do not use cash method. (Rich et al, 2009).

Accrual method is an alternative of cash method and transactions are recorded when they occur. (Rich et al 2009) He further says that “the reason why accrual accounting is superior to cash method is because it ties income measurements to selling which is the principle activity of the company.”

So this means that all revenues are recognized as they are earned and all expenses are recognized when incurred. Accrual method also has a more complex system that records both cash and non cash transactions. (Rich et al).

Time period assumption Most stakeholders usually demand timely information from companies so companies have to frequently produce financial report like the quarter year report, half year report and end year report to satisfy information users (Rich et al, 2009). Since companies are involved in different activities every time, there is great need to record every transaction on time for proper accountability.

Revenue recognition period This principle is used to determine when revenue is recorded and reported. Under this principle, revenue is to be recognized or reported in the period in which these two conditions are met; the revenue is earned and collection of cash is reasonably assured.

According to Rich et al (2009), the requirements are met when goods or services have been delivered or performed to the customer since at this point the risk of ownership has been transferred from the seller to the buyer regardless of when the cash is received.

Matching principle In matching principle expenses are incurred regardless of when the cash is paid. (Riahi, 1985) Expenses of an accounting period should include only those costs used to earn revenue that was recognized in an accounting period and exclude cost used to earn revenue in early or later periods thus the key to expense recognition is matching the expense with revenues. (Rich et al, 2009).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Global Accounting Standards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Classification of accounting models used in different geographical regions Bhattacharyya 2005 states that, “accounting model is a key that unlocks the mystery of double entry accounting”. Accounting models are based on two major parts; the T model, the five ledger accounts model which are also the accounting models.

Accounting models include asset account, revenue account, liability account, equity account and the expense account. The accounting model used in a particular geographical region basically falls under either of the above mentioned depending on the preferred model and business.

Role of International Accounting Standards Committee and International Accounting Standards Board The role of International Accounting Standards Committee through committees and consultations with the International Accounting Standards Board in establishing International Accounting Standards is issuing interpretation of standards since was replaced by the International Accounting Standards Board. (Mattessich, 2007).

The International Accounting Standards Board’s role is to regulate and amend International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards and also to create new standards if possible. They essentially oversee the application of the standards to ensure uniformity.

Examination of different accounting standards and determinants of national accounting standards Political and economical ties

Countries which are geographically close usually create trade unions for free movement of goods, services and capital between them. Political and economical ties play a major role in the formation of these trade unions which relatively affect the accounting standards used by the union nations. (Riahi, 1985).

Nations like Germany have adopted the cash method since it’s a communist government and its main focus is the welfare of every individual.

Britain, a capitalist government has adopted accrual method since in a capitalist government the main focus is about competition which will in turn influence growth. Therefore, all the nations allied to the two countries tend to have similar accounting practices. (Riahi, 1985).

Level of inflation

During inflation firms tend to choose a different accounting policy for stock keeping, either LIFO or FIFO, to ensure maximum profitability. (Mattessich, 2007). The governments usually try to cub the level of inflation by employing both scholars and professionals to try and regulate inflation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Accounting Standards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Zimbabwe, a country that has the highest level of inflation, very minimal growth can be achieved so the government tries so much to fight inflation. In developed countries like America, inflation has very minimal effect so the two countries are forced to adopt different accounting standard for the welfare of the people.

Level of economic development

Germany is a major producer of goods and low producer of services since most of its population comprises of the elderly. This means the government receives more taxes from exports. The government has adopted the cash accounting model since this model ensures that the welfare of the people is well catered for.

In Britain, the government has adopted both the accrual and the cash model. This is because Britain is a major producer of goods and services. They have adopted a capitalist kind of government which encourages people to work hard.

National culture

The national culture is usually carried down from one generation to another. Germany colonized most of the African and European countries.

Germany has adopted a communist kind of government. Such countries adopted a similar kind of government and accounting practices that were carried down to the subsequent generations.

Relationships between business and capital providers

This is especially important if the capital providers are foreigners. This is because the capital providers will need accounting standards that they best understand.

This is mostly experienced in the capital market especially when a steady growth is noted and most investors are foreigners (Bhattacharyya, 2005).

Both Brazil and India have been forced to change their accounting standards to influence capital inflow from foreign investors which is healthy for growth. This is because the two countries have had a steady growth.

Therefore, in conclusion, these various determinants impact significantly in the determination of a country’s accounting standards. Thus such factors should be put into consideration in understanding the reasons of adopting one accounting model over another.

References Bhattacharyya, U. (2005). Municipal accounting: concepts and practical issues. Mittal Publications: India.

Mattessich, R. (2007). Two Hundred Years of Accounting Research. Routledge: Britain.

Riahi, B. (1985). International Accounting: issues and solutions. Quorum Books: California.

Rich, J., Mowen, M., Hansen, D.


The Issue of Obesity: Epidemic and Complications Essay college application essay help

Statistics have been keen to show that the issue of obesity has become more of an epidemic and due to the various complications that come about when government fails to regulate food industry. There is a dire need for the government to regulate the food industry, to avoid problems associated with the epidemic that arises due to lack of control.

Regulation of food would help to solve some problems that some foods bring to the society. For one, there is the issue of obesity. To start with, obesity causes an estimated 30,000 deaths every year. It is also evident that the problem does not occur to grown-ups only but also, children as little as three years have also been faced by the epidemic.

Being obese also brings so many problems to the people in the society. For one, it results to diseases that cause death amongst the people. Diabetes is one of the diseases that is caused by obesity. Children at a young age also become victims of the disease, as they face the likelihood of being affected by type II diabetes.

Statistics have also shown that per every year, the government is increasing the budget of diabetic patients as more and more of them are increasing. The cost is also increasing when it comes to the deaths that are reported every year due to the epidemic. The cost is not only a financial one but it is also a social one as the society is losing a big number of workers every year due to this epidemic.

The government also needs to control the food business so as to avoid any contamination of food that is meant for public consumption. The recent scare of food contamination can only be dealt with when the government is keen on ensuring that the food business is well controlled.

To avoid contamination the government needs to set up standards that ensure that the foods that are meant for human, meet a certain standard that is not likely to cause any harm to the health of the consumer. Not only does the government need to set up the right standard, but also the responsibility of enforcing it follows under them.

As a way of ensuring that organizations do not suffer the redundancy cost, the government may feel the need to regulate the food business. The government is able to reduce the cost that some organizations may incur, by ensuring that each and every organization observes a certain set of standard.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When every organization has a defined standard, it is usually cheaper for other organizations, since there is no fear that certain products that they get do not meet their standards. In turn, they do not need to hire experts to check the standards.

The call for the government to control the food industry raises various feelings among the interested parties. There are those who feel that the already set rules about food are already adequate and that there is no need to have others, since it might increase the cost of production and in turn, make the products expensive.

However, there are those who feel that the various risks that come with lack of control for the food industries are so much and need to be reduced. Either way, it is important for the government to have adequate control of food industry, to ensure that the health of the citizens is not compromised. It is also important to ensure that imports are adequately controlled to avoid any contamination.


What Makes Hamlet such a Complex Character? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In William Shakespeare’s literary works, Hamlet, Hamlet is the most fascinating character. Shakespeare concentrates on Hamlet’s emotions, dilemma as well as inconsistency to achieve his heart desires especially revenge. Hamlet’s questionable sanity and captivating character contributes to the success of the play. The inability to decide and sentient his actions signifies the complexity in his character.

When the reader first come across Hamlet, he is sad and mourning his father’s death, King Hamlet. On closer analysis of Hamlet’s appearance, his emotional state signifies something strong or mysterious connected to his mourning.

Furthermore he tells his mother, “for they are actions that a man might play; But I have that within which passeth show – These but the trappings and the suits of woe” (Shakespeare Act I, Scene 2). Hamlet is unable to speak out his mind; therefore, he expresses his feelings in form of parables. Hamlet’s is unhappy because his father’s death is fading away fast.

His mother remarries Hamlet’s uncle, King Claudius, immediately after his father’s death. Therefore, instead of exclusively mourning his departed father, he mourns his mother and uncle’s betrayal to his father. Hamlet’s emotional turmoil turns to hatred and questionable madness especially towards women including Ophelia who he had once confessed his love for her.

When Hamlet’s father requests him to avenge his death against King Claudius, he is unable to carry out his revenge. Although he is vengeful, his emotions, anxiety, and morality drag him behind his mission. He is unable to fulfill his actions even if the opportunity avails itself.

More about topic name Where does Claudius send Cornelius and Voltimand? Why? 5 62 What’s the meaning behind “…for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” in Act 2, scene 2? 5 82 What is “get thee to a nunnery” meaning? 5 175 What is the Meaning of “There Are More Things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are Dreamt of in Your Philosophy”? 4.7 1660 When Polonius says, “brevity is the soul of wit,” why is it ironic? 5 335 What best describes how Laertes feels about his father’s death? 5 200 For instance, when he encounters Claudius meditating, he spares his life because he thinks the gods will forgive him. Unfortunately, his ability not to act makes him rational where he carelessly kills Polonius thinking it was a rat after, which he hides the body.

After the second appearance of his father, he secretly starts to plan on how to kill Claudius but his actions are impounded. When King Claudius, discovers Hamlet’s plan to kill him, he (Claudius) plans to kill him (Hamlet) first; unfortunately, Hamlet escapes the trap eventually killing him.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the inability, to avenge his father’s death, his mission leads to the murder of Polonius, Gertrude, Claudius, Laertes, Ophelia, Guildenstern, and Rosencrantz. However, the author’s mission in delaying Hamlet’s revenge is to emphasize on the complexity in his emotional state and psychological well-being.

Hamlet’s return from hiding raises eyebrows especially on King Claudius who becomes uncomfortable with his presence. The confidence and moral attitude with which he presents himself is a sign of his secret plan to kill King Claudius.

Shakespeare’s ability to change Hamlet’s character from a rational, anxious, and emotional person to a cool, confident, and moral person presents him as a round character. Hamlet is unable to kill his uncle until he proves that he is guilty. Through a play, he is able to ascertain that Claudius killed his father but he is unable to revenge. The turning point of his actions comes when he returns from exile and eventually executes his mission.

In summary, Hamlets’ ability to change from an emotional, hateful, rational, vengeful and insane to cool, friendly, confident, and moral person enables him to execute his mission of killing King Claudius. Shakespeare’s description of Hamlet’s character categorizes him as a round character. In addition, Shakespeare mission to delay Hamlet’s plan to avenge his father’s death highlights the complex nature of his (Hamlet’s) emotions and psychology.

Work Cited Shakespeare, Williams. Hamlet, 2003. Web.


The market of video games Essay college application essay help

Admittedly, nowadays the market of video games is developing at high speeds. The major rivals (Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft) try to create new products and attract as much buyers as possible. The new product presented by Nintendo this year has enabled the company to achieve really high rates of sales. Nintendo has used the principles of Just Noticeable Differences (JND) and Just Meaningful Differences (JMD) theory, which are still relevant in the contemporary society.

Interestingly, the theory was developed by Karl Weber long ago (Yeshin, 2006: 61). The principle of JND is based on Weber’s assumption that consumers “detect differences between stimulus value” (Yeshin, 2006: 61). Thus, to attract consumers’ attention it is necessary to make them see the difference in the product to buy it instead of some other goods. It goes without saying that the difference should be noticeable and meaningful, otherwise the consumer simply can fail to notice it.

On the other hand, it is not enough to make some minor change in the product to attract consumers. The change should be meaningful. For instance, it is not enough to start producing goods of different color, but it is important to understand what color can suit consumers’ needs and longings. Every change should address certain needs and possess special meaning for potential consumers.

For instance, nowadays 3D technology has gained popularity among consumers. Watching 3D movies at home has become a kind of breakthrough in the market of various devices. Companies producing video games rapidly responded to the needs of customers.

Notably, Nintendo managed to understand what modern gamers, living in the times of 3D technologies could want. The major JND and JMD which Nintendo 3Ds suggest are that while enjoying playing 3D games people do not need to wear the special glasses which are regarded as one of the major drawbacks of contemporary 3D technology (Buckleitner, 2011).

Apart from this the new product meets some more desires of consumers. Reportedly, Nintendo 3Ds are easier to use, parents can control their children’s games buying, there is possibility to play with other people having Nintendo 3d (which is a meaningful value for contemporary gamers) (Buckleitner, 2011).

All these advantages or JND and JMD did attract the necessary attention to the new product. Reportedly, Nintendo 3Ds sales reached about 400 thousand units during the first week of sales in the United States (Sherr and Becker, 2011). Admittedly, being the first company to present such video games makes Nintendo a leader in the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It goes without saying that there are still many things to improve to attract even more consumers. One of the most valuable JMD for customers will become lower prices (Sherr and Becker, 2011). Hopefully, the company will work out the way to respond to this eternal longing of the majority of consumers.

On balance, it is possible to point out that Nintendo 3Ds is one of the latest evidence that the principles of JND and JMD work though being introduced long ago. Nintendo understood what contemporary gamers need and responded to these desires.

It is possible to claim that when trying to attract attention of consumers it is essential to change the product somehow. However, the changes should be thoughtful. In the first place it is important to know what changes would be noticed and valued by customers and then change the product in the necessary way.

Reference List Buckleitner, W. (2011) ‘A Closer Look at the Nintendo 3DS’, The New York Times, 01 March.

Sherr, I. and Becker, N. (2011) ‘New Nintendo, Sony Gadgets Buck Slump in Videogames’, The Wall Street Journal, 16 April.

Yeshin, T. (2006) Sales Promotion, London: Cengage Learning EMEA.


Cinemaplex Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of macro environment analysis

Summary of industry environment analysis

Other critical factors for the movie industry

Future directions/recommendations

Reference List

Introduction The movie industry has seen it all: Both best moments and worst moments. Some few years ago, movies could only be watched at the theatres and people loved watching them in big screens and with theaters and studios being the only place where big screens could be afforded, people really enjoyed.

However, with technology advancements and visual and audio systems becoming cheaper, the movie industry has been experiencing lagging growth because few people nowadays visit the theaters and studios and those who visit these places do it with other motives in their minds for example being away from their parents, dates among other things. This means that if there could be alternatives most people would not go to watch movies.

Summary of macro environment analysis There exists several macroeconomic factors which influence the way managers or leaders in a certain company make their decisions. These macro environment factors include issues such as changing laws, government policy, and demographic issues among others.

They are analyzed under a model called PESTE. The model seeks to analyze what factors influence the performance of the industry and if these factors are threats or opportunities to the industry (Bensoussan


Societal Structural Order and Change Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Social structures keep changing day in and day out and there exist not one but many contending sociological theories that attempt to clarify why individual and societal lives exist as they are and why they keep changing. Sociological theory has continuously developed with time from classical to contemporary sociology with the recently evolved theories capable of dealing with today’s relevant societal matters.

Some of the hypotheses can be traced back to the ideas of classical theorists as Durkheim. Though slightly superannuated, his works have not ceased containing significant theories that when expounded upon relates to the ever changing contemporary society.

As a matter of fact, contemporary theory is filled with the developed ideas of outstanding classical theories. According to the perspectives of some social theories, which mainly center on societal transformations, various critical arguments have emerged.

Society is viewed as an organization through which every interconnected component fits together to make a whole. Society functions as a unit basing on norms and values, satisfactory behavior as well as social ties.

The purpose of social structures and institutions within the society, the connection between these structures, and the way in which they restrain the activities of persons within the society is well defined by the social order.

With the emerging changes, individuals have tended to stray away from the customary rules that govern their behavior thus creating some sort of deviance in the society. Therefore, things that had once been unacceptable, or considered aberrant, are now part of cultural norms.

In order to understand the society, this essay aims to look at the societal order and changes that take place within the society and how they are manifested in the works of some famous sociologists; Durkheim, Parsons and Merton.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Structuralism is a thought established in the hypothesis that human behavior is structured by the societal environs. These structures shape human behavior. With the assistance of his student, Robert Merton, Talcott Parsons came up with the idea of structural functionalism during the 1950s.

This, he developed basing on the sociological theory of Durkheim, a French sociologist, who is truly regarded a founder of the present day sociology. Durkheim and Parsons both considered the individuals within the society as inactive players in the continually varying societal structures (Parsons, 2011, pp. 51-53).

In his book, The Division of Labor in Society, Durkheim dwells upon the specialization in labor as a function of the process that contributed to solidarity and social density in the society. He examines how social order is kept within the various societies.

He views the division of labor in the traditional society as different from that of the modern society. He argues that conventional societies were ‘mechanical’ and were joined by the fact that everybody was somewhat equal and thence had mutual things.

He continues to debate that, in conventional societies collective consciousness completely colligates the personal consciousness; societal rules are firm and social doings are substantially controlled. In modern societies, the extreme complexity of the division of labor results in ‘organic’ solidarity.

Various differentiations in work and social functions create dependences that tie individuals to each other since individuals could no more depend on meeting all of their requirements on their own (Durkheim, 2005, pp. 105-107).

This theory however, presented a problem; it collectively combined the contradictory issues of the economy and social organization which would lead to social disintegration and not solidarity. In an effort to resolve this, Parsons came up with economic and social stratification systems thus enabling each system to conduct its own issues separately and consequently moving toward its own structured demands and objectives.

We will write a custom Essay on Societal Structural Order and Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his Sex Roles in the American Kinship System, parsons explains that during the medieval times families acted as the foundation for social organizations and functions. This, he argues, has changed with the development of the division of labor in the passage to the present times which is characterized by several chores and functions previously performed by the family; social segregations have occurred.

As industrial and business enterprises flourished, production progressively took place beyond the family into an economy. Additionally, some social functions were freed from the household and relocated to institutions of education.

Parsons states that this separation of roles is important as it enhanced specialization such that separate social structures and positions became responsible for executing certain roles. This differentiation also meant that tasks could be better executed (Parsons, 2011, pp. 52-53).

This is what Durkheim referred to as organic solidarity in his work (Durkheim, 2005, p. 108). A family serves two major functions according to Parsons; socializing children and stabilizing the personality of an adult in a society.

This simplification enabled parsons to avoid unneeded combinations of varying problems. This provides a good description of how the society has evolved from traditional to modern era and the changes that have taken place (Parsons, 2011).

Similarly, Merton also developed his theories basing on those of Durkheim. Merton’s major contribution was his investigation into the connections betwixt culture, structure and anomie. Durkheim had in his earlier writing concentrated on the direct consequences of specialism increase upon a person.

He discovered that in a society with mechanical solidarity, the law in general is repressive; an individual who goes against the rules suffers a penalty that in reality would even collective conscience overlooked by the offense- the penalty serves to uphold the oneness of consciences.

On the contrary, the laws of a society with organic solidarity are normally restitutive; its objective is not to penalize but rather indemnify ordinary actions of a complicated society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Societal Structural Order and Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rapidly changing society is because of the rising division of labor hence producing states of muddiness with respect to social rules and neutrality in social life that finally contributes to the collapse of societal rules that regulates doings. Durkheim marks this situation anomie which from it arises all kinds of aberrant behaviors, particularly suicide (Durkheim, 2005, pp. 107-111).

Profound changes have been produced in the structure of our societies in a very short time; they have been freed from the segmental type with a rapidity and in proportions such as have never before been seen in history…., the functions which have been disrupted in the course of the upheaval have not had time to adjust themselves to one another; the new life which has emerged so suddenly has not been able to be completely organized,… (Durkheim, 2005, p. 111)

He made a conclusion that anomie is the outcome of deteriorating strength of the usual ethics in the modernistic society In an assay to counter this problem, Durkheim developed the notion of corporate moral sense that he stated as, “The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society forms a determinate system which has its own life; one may call it the collective or common conscience” (Durkheim, 2005, p. 106).

He saw the rise in the ‘division of labor’ as a reason for this change; the decline but not vanishing of the collective consciousness.

Hence, missing in this counsel, an individual would fail to maintain their general conscious awareness in their conception of good or bad thus becoming disoriented and permitting anomie to kick in; “If, in certain cases, organic solidarity is not all that it should be, it is certainly not because mechanical solidarity has lost ground, but because all the conditions for the existence of organic solidarity have not been realized” (Durkheim, 2005, p. 108).

Durkheim’s notion of anomie was expounded upon by Merton who to a greater extent developed them into a contemporary edition. Merton, in Social Structure and Anomie stated that culture was an “organized set of normative values governing behavior which is common to members of a designated society or group” (Merton, 1996, p. 16), and that social structure was “that organized set of social relationships in which members of the society or group are variously implicated” (Merton, 1996, p. 21).

Drawing out from this, Merton reasoned out that anomie came about when particular conflicts arose betwixt the cultural norms and goals, and the socially integrated statuses that group’s members concur with.

Through the expounding on this theory, anomie is no more related simply to deficiency of moral counsel in today’s world but also due to the fact that people are being pushed to consider their social statuses first in place of moral values so as to pull through adversity (Merton, 1996).

Merton conceives that society influences the behaviors of an individual by setting ambitions and the way those ambitions are to be achieved. He believes that there is a connection between anomie and the difference that exist between the vehemence laid upon the ambitions and the means of achieving them in the society.

Thus, society is the root cause of crime and it represents how poorly the society is organized. The perspective of Merton is therefore similar to that of Durkheim in that both see a person’s life as a making of the society (Merton, 1996).

However, while Durkheim considers that the key societal principles and values are accordant, it is only during the beginning of a stage in societal development that he conceives the aspirations of individuals to be the same (Durkheim, 2005).

Merton on the other hand, asserts that the society as a whole strives toward similar goals and only some persons prefer not to comply with the rules that the society has set in reaching their aspirations. Durkheim is of the opinion that society creates criminal offenses so as to ameliorate and keep order within the society whilst Merton’s opinion is that society is the cause of an individual resorting to offense on account of it failing to serve its administrative purposes (Merton R. , 2008).

The social structure produces a strain toward anomie and deviant behavior. The pressure of such a social order is upon outdoing one’s competitors. So long as the sentiments supporting this competitive system are distributed throughout the entire range of activities and are not confined to the final result of “success”, the choice of means will remain largely within the ambit of institutional control.

When, however, the cultural emphasis shifts from the satisfactions deriving from competition itself to exclusive concern with the outcome, the resulting stress makes for the breakdown of the regulatory structure (Merton, 1996, p. 151).

He further goes on to argue that the society sets goals which are unattainable and urges an individual to pursue them and often not supplying the means of lawfully attaining them. In the process, it fails to order the society and provides a militant environment in which criminal offenses flourish (Merton R. , 2008).

It is only when a system of cultural values extols, virtually above all else, certain common success-goals for the population at large while the social structure rigorously restricts or completely closes access to approved modes of reaching these goals for a considerable part of the same population, that deviant behavior ensues on a large scale (Merton, 1996, p. 143).

From the discussion it can be seen that the writings of the three sociologists pertains to the issues within today’s social organizations such as crime and morality, economy, as well as the social justice system. Various elements of a person’s life such as work, marriage, and children have been analyzed as well hence providing a great understanding of the social structures.

It has been made quite clear that in order for a society to progress; structural separatism of work related roles is a requirement. In conclusion, deviance can be viewed as an illumination of moral value limits, avouchment of social order, and a booster of social integrity and social change. It has also been showed that we live in extremely specialized societies that are divided along lines of work, social classes, and cultural structures.

References Durkheim, E. (2005). From The Division of Labour in Society (1893). In S. Appelrouth,


Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The Curley Effect

Curley’s Political Policies


Works Cited

Introduction James Michael Curley was elected for four times as mayor of Boston. He was also elected as a Governor of Massachusetts. His mission was to care for the poor people especially the Irish immigrants. He distributed wealth to them.

However, he detested the richer citizens and made them to emigrate to the nearest cities and lands. The rich citizens were from England. There were also American’s Yankees and Brahmins (Gamm 10). Despite this, he kept being elected as a mayor for four terms by the Irish immigrants.

He was corrupt and was often charged with fraud cases. Curley saw that the rich in Boston were a threat to him in his political career and made a way to eliminate them by sending them to other places. One way that he used was to introduce different taxation to different groups.

He heavily taxed the natives who opposed his rule and policies. Those that supported or were in favor of his rule were taxed less. This ensured that he got majority votes from his supporters. In short, the number of those that supported him was increased and the number of his enemies was reduced.

The rich and local people always opposed his rule since he was corrupt. He was hated for his policies and the native people worked to ensure that he was not elected.

Boston city was having a lot of Irish immigrants. Their population increased and hence their power. Curley, who was an Irish immigrant, took this opportunity to head over them. One of the effects of Curley political influence was to increase the Irish mob’s power in Boston. This he did by incorporating the mob in the Boston’s defense industry.

The Curley Effect We can see the Curley effect on his strategy. He increased his voting, political base by caring for the poor Irish immigrants who voted for him. He cared for the poor Irish people because his family was poor. His neighborhood was poor and his father had died while he was young.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He ensured that they were the largest group. He then encouraged emigration of Native Americans who opposed his rule. This reduced the numbers of Native of Boston and hence their voting power. Curley had a deep hatred for English people who were among decent of Boston because of the wars that were fought between the English and Irish people (Gamm 12). This led to discrimination between English and Irish people.

Curley saw them as his enemies and hence sought to reduce their numbers. He didn’t care if the rate of poverty was going to increase due to sending away the rich natives who influenced the economy of Boston. The rich controlled the agricultural sectors, offered jobs to the poor and led in exportation. By sending them away, his economy was slowing down. His interest was gaining political power in Boston.

We can see that the Curley effect produced leaders that practiced dictatorship in Boston. Curley dictatorship was seen when he sent away his political opponents who protested his rule. This ensured that his political oppositions were eliminated. There was an opposition that was weakened. This was as a result of their reduced numbers. Their voting power was reduced.

Another way that Curley influenced the politics of Boston is by introducing different taxes to different groups in Boston (Fiorina 46). As discussed above, he heavily taxed the native people of Boston to encourage emigration of them.

Those who favored his rule and policies were less taxed. Curley made sure that the number of those people that supported him remained higher than the ones that opposed him. This slowed down the economy.

Curley only cared for reelection. That’s why he was elected as a mayor for four terms. The poor Irish people didn’t mind if he was charged with fraud cases as long as he represented them. Curley was known to give even money to the poor Irish people.

Curley brought his effect on politics of Boston by encouraging leaders to rule people who were poor so that they could be reelected while enriching them. Curley enriched the poor by creating and offering jobs to them.

We will write a custom Essay on Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike many leaders, Curley did not want to rule an area that was rich. Many leaders like to rule rich people because they think that they comprise the largest group and they have wealth. However, Curley brought his effect on politics of Boston by increasing his voting power.

Curley’s Political Policies Curley had policies that favored his Irish people and others that did not favor his opponents. These are the same policies that made the Brahmins, Yankees and English people to migrate (Fiorina 52). One area of his policies where he practiced favoritism was sharing out of public wealth.

There was also giving out of finances. Curley built public buildings for the Irish people. He sold public property like Boston garden so that he could build parks for the Irish people. This act angered the Yankees who protested with a lot of force.

Another example is constructing playgrounds in Irish wards. The Irish wards were Dorchester and Roxbury. He also used public places in favor of Irish people to be used as entertainment places. Scollay Square was turned into tattoo parlors.

Curley created jobs for Irish people by initializing constructions which employed people. A good example is a hospital which he had expanded. It was Boston City Hospital. It was a big project which offered employment to many supporters of Curley (Fiorina 56).

He also made sure that the hospital offered low cost medical services to his supporters. They were given a lot of medical facilities compared to their opponents. Curley made sure that his supporters got the majority of public jobs.

He was also involved with the financial affairs of people of Boston. He increased the wages of those that were paid poorly like police patrolmen. He lowered the wages of those that were paid well like higher officers and doctors.

Curley spoke badly of English people as being hypocritical and not being patriotic. He accused them of exhibiting political chicanery. We can see the Curley’s effects in his policies. His policies favored his supporters so that he could be reelected. His political agenda was to satisfy those who voted for him by constructing buildings for them, creation of jobs, and offering medical services at a low cost.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Curley Effects on the Politics of Boston by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Curley was a leader who cared for his people that elected him as a mayor for several terms. During his time, he changed the politics of Boston by sending away of his opponents who did not support his policies. This he did by imposing heavy taxes on his enemy, unfair distribution of wealth and this led to the emigration of his opponents. By doing this, he reduced the voting power of his opponents.

Works Cited Fiorina, Matthew. Special Interest Politics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981. Print.

Gamm, Patrick. Curley’s Political Effects. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Print.


Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction A floating exchange rate is “an exchange rate regime whereby a currency’s value is allowed to fluctuate according to the performance of the foreign exchange markets”. This means that the exchange rate is flexible and can change from time to time in response to the dynamics of the foreign exchange markets.

The floating exchange rate has been adopted by several countries since it helps them to dampen the effects of shocks and predict the possibility of having a balance of payment crisis. Besides, it adjusts itself to the changes in the market.

Despite these benefits, the floating exchange rate has in several cases failed to ensure stability in the financial markets and to promote economic growth. Consequently, proposals have been formulated in response to its weaknesses. This paper analyzes such proposals in terms of their merits and demerits.

Limitations of the Floating Exchange Rate Regime The floating exchange rate regime has failed to ensure stability in financial markets and stimulate economic growth due to the following reasons. First, a flexible exchange rate limits a country’s autonomy over its national macroeconomic policies.

This is attributed to the high international capital mobility associated with the world economy. According to the Mundell-Fleming model, a floating exchange rate limits the extent to which fiscal policies can be implemented in a country thus lowering economic growth.

Second, liberation of monetary policy at domestic level is often illusionary under a floating exchange rate. This is attributed to the open nature of financial markets and the fact that central banks are usually attached to monetarist targets.

Thus under floating exchange rate, “the monetary policy becomes exchange rate policy”. This means that the ability of an expansionary monetary policy to stimulate domestic demand is determined by the exchange rate depreciation and the resultant impact on trade balance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also difficult to depend on monetary policy at international level when using floating exchange rate. In most cases, an expansionary monetary policy in one country leads to a deflationary shock in another country especially if the aggregate demand is strategically composed of export-import balances.

Third, the use of floating exchange rate leads to uncoordinated macroeconomic policies. “Shocks from foreign exchange markets are usually transmitted to domestic markets”. Consequently, each government develops its own defense mechanism in response to the shocks and this complicates the process of coordinating macroeconomic policies. Lack of coordination is likely to cause more volatility in the economy especially in the employment sector.

Fourth, the floating exchange rate regime is likely to worsen speculation and volatility associated with foreign exchange markets. Investors normally sell their stock of a given currency if they expect its value to depreciate in order to make profits.

Speculation normally results into high exchange rate fluctuations in the long run as investors respond to changing economic trends. High fluctuations in exchange rate is likely to cause great instability in the foreign exchange markets as investors lose their confidence in the market. Besides, investors who are not able to sell their stock of currencies may incur huge losses as the currencies depreciate.

Reform Proposals Due the above limitations, several reforms have been proposed to help in ensuring stability in the foreign exchange markets. Even though the proposals are expected to address the weaknesses of the floating exchange rate regime, they are also associated with limitations and this can be explained as follows.

Target Zones This is an exchange rate system whereby “wide margins are devised around adjustable sets of exchange rates and are meant to be consistent with a sustainable pattern of balance of payment”. Under this system, the authorities are under no obligation to formally make commitments to intervene so that the actual exchange rate is maintained within the zone.

However, they are allowed to intervene and suggest the optimal level of exchange rate. The target zone system differs from managed exchange rate since it targets a specific area and has a greater influence on monetary policy. The system is characterized by both ‘loud zones and quiet zones’.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public announcement concerning the exchange rates are made in the loud zones. However, confidential information is only revealed in the quiet zones. This is meant to facilitate joint intervention and surveillance on exchange rate.

The Merits of Target Zone System First, it promotes effective supervision of the activities of member countries. If a country breaches the rules of the zone either through inappropriate fiscal or monetary policies, it will be subjected to multi-lateral reviews by its peers.

Such a country will then be put under pressure by its peers to adjust its policies accordingly to enhance coordination. Second, even if the target zone is changed instead of the fiscal policies, the “domestic political costs accruing from regular adjustment of the exchange rate will impart its own discipline”.

Finally, the target zone system aims at providing an anchor for expectations on exchange rates in order to minimize volatility and misalignment. The anchor is attributed to estimated exchange rates as announced by the authorities and the expected course of the monetary policy among the member countries in future.

Demerits First, for the target zone to be effective, it must be “wide enough to reflect the uncertainty concerning equilibrium central rate”. It should also be wide enough to cushion the member countries against transitory disturbances that can not change long-term rate.

Besides, it should provide better protection against speculative bets. Thus the target zone will not be able to achieve its objective if it is narrow. Second, the effectiveness of the target zone is determined by the frequency with which it is revised.

While frequent revision of the zone is good for stabilizing the economy, it might reduce the credibility of the zone. Finally, the zone will achieve its goals only if the authorities are committed to implementing polices that will help them realize their exchange rate forecasts. This means that the zone is likely to fail if the authorities are not committed or are not able to effectively implement the policies that will help in achieving equilibrium exchange rate.

Stronger Institutional Coordination of Economic Policies International coordination refers to “a significant modification of national policies in recognition of international economic interdependence”. Coordination is necessitated by the fact that, economic policy measures taken by one country usually generate externalities for other countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomic Policy under Floating Exchange Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, such externalities must be taken into consideration in order to achieve economic stability at the international level. Thus coordination offers a framework for internalizing the externalities. The success of the coordination process is assessed by several indicators which include the following.

It can be assed based on growth in domestic demand, changes in GNP and the level of inflation. Other indicators used to assess the coordination process include monetary conditions as well as balance of trade.

The coordination process should be implemented as “a regular, ongoing process” for it to be effective in achieving its objectives. This is attributed to the following reasons. First, the possibility of multi-period bargaining increases the chances of completing policy bargaining.

This means that the countries involved in the coordination process have ample time to bargain on the consequences or the expected benefits of the policies to be implemented if the coordination is done on a continuous basis.

Besides, it gives them an opportunity to adjust their policies accordingly in response to emerging challenges. This would not be possible if the coordination exercise is done through periodic episodes. Second, it enables countries to take advantage of the recurring bargaining strengths and considerations on reputation during coordination.

As countries coordinate their policies over time, they tend to realize their strengths and weaknesses. Thus they are able to take advantage of their strengths to enhance stability while reducing their weaknesses.

Besides, the countries with a reputation of cooperation during the coordination exercise can be rewarded through special considerations. Finally, implementing coordination as an ongoing process enables the participants to have more freedom to maneuver on policies than when negations are done only during crisis situations.

Merits of Coordination Coordination of economic policies is associated with the following benefits. First, misalignment and excessive volatility is usually caused by inappropriate policies and inefficiencies in the market. Consistent coordination over time helps to deal with the above mentioned causes of volatility and misalignment and this has been achieved as follows.

First, coordination specifies the commitments expected of each and every participant. Second, coordination ensures better cooperation in implementing intervention policies in exchange markets. Besides, it enables the participants to have a fair view on the actual exchange rate patterns.

Second, a wide-ranging multi-issue coordination method is likely to enhance the chances of concluding bargains that are beneficial to all parties. The coordination process leads to the generation of favorable spillover effects which benefits all the countries involved in the coordination and negotiation process.

Demerits of Economic Policy Coordination Despite its benefits, achieving effective economic coordination has proved to be difficult. The difficulties in achieving economic coordination are attributed to the following factors. First, international policy bargains characterized by objectives that are common among participating countries can be frustrated in the event that the policy instruments are considered as objectives in themselves.

For example, in 1980s President Reagan of US was committed to increasing expenditure on defense while reducing taxes. Under such circumstances, it would have been very difficult to realize “target zones for exchange rates”.

Second, the implementation of the coordination process is likely to be derailed as countries disagree on the impacts of policy changes on the goals of the policies. Agreeing on jointly developed policies has always been difficult since participants in the coordination process interpret the functioning of the global economy in different ways. There has never been a universal view of how the global economy functions.

Finally, most countries usually compromise on their growth and inflation targets due to their domestic financial or economic crisis. Consequently, their ability to compromise further on demand measures during coordination remains limited. T

he global inflation rate is likely to increase if deliberate attempts are made to stabilize a given pattern of exchange rate. It is for this reason that the US Treasury Secretary and UK Chancellor made proposals in 1987 for the introduction of “commodity-price-basket indicator as an early warning signal of emerging aggregate price developments”.

Taxes Critics of the floating exchange rate system have proposed the introduction of “internationally uniform tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another”. The tax that is expected to correspond to the size of transactions is meant to prevent “shot –term financial round-trip excursions into another currency”.

Each government will be responsible for implementing the tax under its jurisdictional area. The tax revenue can be deposited in international financial institutions such as World Bank or IME. All financial instruments purchased in foreign currencies will be subject to taxation.

Merits First, the international tax will help in reducing fluctuations in exchange rates. It aims at limiting the margins over which the exchange rates can fluctuate. Second, the international tax system will enable governments to have more autonomy to pursue their domestic macroeconomic polices.

Demerit The main problem associated with the international tax system is the difficulties related to its administration and enforcement. Due to inefficiencies or lack of political commitment, some governments might fail to implement the tax system thus leading to its failure. Besides, dishonest traders can take advantage of the weaknesses of the tax laws to evade taxes.

Conclusion Floating exchange rate refers to an exchange rate regime whereby the appreciation or depreciation of a given currency is determined by the dynamics of the exchange market. Even though it helps countries that use it to dampen the effects of shocks, it has been criticized due its limitations as discussed above.

Consequently, various reform proposals have been developed to stabilize the foreign exchange market. The proposals include introduction of an international tax system, stronger coordination of economic policies and adopting target zone systems.

Works Cited Blanchard, Oliver. Macroeconomics. Pearson Prentice Hall: New York, 2008.

Frenkel, Jacob and Morris Golstern. Excgange Rate Volatility and Misalignment: Evaluating some Proposals for Reform. New York: International Monetary Fund, 2004.

Tobin, James. “A proposal for monetary reform.” Eastern Economic Journal, 29(4) (2003): 519-526.


The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit Essay best college essay help

Introduction Discriminatory practices and frustration of employees at their employment place is not a novel practice. In multinational and low level companies, the employees continue to live in fear because of persistent harassment.

Employees suffer for varied reasons including, work place discrimination, employee harassment, persecution, and reprisal. As a rejoinder, the EEOC, designed laws aimed at curbing employee mistreatment.

These laws, set to protect employees, can be broken either through prejudice or through unawareness. Breaking the decree therefore puts an organization or a company in court tussles. This piece identifies one such grievance in which EEOC sued Georgia Military College for discriminating against an employee on racial grounds.

The paper discusses compliance failure in this particular case and its ramifications on the college. In addition, the paper summarizes the functions of the U.S. EEOC and its role in the lawsuit. Further, this piece confers to the contribution of the lawsuit to social change and compares the two sources of this news. Finally, to conclude, the paper presents author’s suggestions on ways of avoiding such compliance negligence in an organization.

Lawsuit Chosen: “Georgia Military College Sued by EEOC for Race Discrimination” The employee lawsuit picked hit the news bulletin on 21 January 2011 stating that EEOC had sued Georgia Military College for disregarding federal laws by transgressing upon an employee racially. According to EEOC, the college had allegedly subordinated Solomon Mosley of African – American origin to an employment surrounding that was racially intimidating for a period of four years.

The proceedings undeniably have consequences on the college. The college stands a big chance of experiencing a slump in its significance. With news of the discrimination against employees being a public domain, the college will be under scrutiny. It will lose its image and standard may go down because of unrestricted confession of intellectual wealth.

The college may invest time and finances on litigations at the expense of building the college. The case will ensure that the institution spends on appointing an attorney to handle the case on behalf of its authorities apart from satisfying other standing court charges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lawsuit may also invite unconstructive stakeholder rejoinder, hurting a range of other participation. Furthermore, the institution’s management may let shareholders down who might close it in any case; overheads of litigation threaten fiscal expectations.

Functions of EEOC The U.S EEOC is a government agency in charge of implementing federal laws illegalizing the practice of employers’ intolerance against staff and potential workforce. EEOC seeks to protect employees against bias on issues including origin, color, belief, sexual category, ethnic origin, disability, singling out, and bias at their employment places.

The agency also provides practical aid, plans, and creates awareness to thwart abuse of works before they arise. Furthermore, EEOC, offer help to federal agencies regarding equal employment prospect initiatives apart from faculty building on decrees, compliance, and adjudication of appeals on opinions provided on its complaints. Finally, it scrutinizes charges of oppression leveled against companies applying its regulations.

The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit In the lawsuit against Georgia Military College, EEOC observed that the college enhanced prejudice tendencies against an employee on the grounds of race. This offense attracts litigations for compromising “Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act”. The initial role of the watchdog was to settle the allegation by assuaging the management, though it reports this flopped.

Therefore, EEOC took the issue to the next level, filing a suit at the U.S District Court on behalf of the personnel. Further, it made request that the court take punitive measures against the college and pay costs for hurting the employee. Finally, it requested a ruling on alleviation of future occurrences of comparable maltreatment. In principle, the commission worked to help the employee.

Contribution of Lawsuit to Social modification Reflecting that, racial oppression negates the interest of multicultural appreciation of people we meet, this lawsuit was vital. In my scrutiny, the world is changing too fast and globalization is contributing to integration of economy, labor market, technology, and knowledge, discrimination is therefore uncalled-for. In addition, people need to embrace one another and exist in accord.

However, some people reduce these desires by perpetrating intolerance having far-reaching consequences on social harmony. Therefore, a lawsuit of this nature would believably improve relations among races. Achieving this would be a great boost to building and strengthening social transformation to enable a better world where everyone is liberated. This lawsuit advances societal change.

We will write a custom Essay on The EEOC’s Role in the Lawsuit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison of the EEOC Press Release to GpB News The news as relayed to the public on GpB News and released on press by EEOC, a few comparisons is tenable. Initially, I noted the news agency reported, the college administrators were uninformed of the complaint while the commission’s press release indicates it tried to settle the case through reconciliation method, which flopped.

Both news contradict and confuse people. In addition, the news title in GpB News is much shorter and leaves out certain details. However, on EEOC newsroom press releases, the title is detailed and undemanding to comprehend. In addition, the newsroom reduced the words used by EEOC but retained the meaning.Conclusion

Employee sufferings at work place have constituted the news headlines. Employers subject their workforce to varying prejudicial service conditions. Workers protection endeavors in the U.S are fronted by EEOC. EEOC works vigorously with some organizations and companies, which have subscribed to execute the outfits regulations on workers protection.

This piece discussed a lawsuit filed by EEOC in which a training college violated rights of an employee to work in a safe working situation. Further, it recommended activities to avert any mistreatment of workers in an organizational setting.


Diplomatic Protocols and Privileges Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Barston (2006) defines diplomacy as the administration of interstate interactions. Other variables that may affect any of the states are also included in the interaction. A diplomat therefore promotes their country’s national interests by representing the country in negotiations and doing tasks that promote national interest.

The ministry of Foreign affairs in most cases has a department that trains and equips the diplomatic employees. It is also concerned with their welfare as they conduct missions abroad. Consequently, diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges have been designed in pursuit of their good conduct and their welfare (Berridge 2002 p. 201).

The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges apply to both the diplomats and the supporting staff working in the embassy. The top ranking diplomats enjoy more privileges than the supporting staff. Their families who accompany them also enjoy such privileges.

The diplomacy contributes to the states’ implementation of foreign policy. The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges vary from one state to another and vary in the way it applies (Melissen 1999, p. 12) This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges.

The advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges Advantages

In accordance with Berridge (2002 p. 10), diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges ensure that diplomats are catered for in their social lives. There are provisions for the diplomat where the family is catered for. The diplomat is allowed to live with members of his family.

There are situations where there are severe hard ships. These provisions enable the diplomat to perform his duties better than they would without such support. For instance, diplomats send abroad are send with their families where they live. They are provided for housing and are taken care of in case of emergency. The ministry of finance where they belong must give adequate support.

The United States ministry of finance has to offer maximum security to its diplomats in foreign states. This is as a result of past attacks on American embassies. Whenever there is a security threat, there are arrangements made to protect them. In some cases, in warring countries, they are flown back to home country as soon as possible (Hamilton


Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Background Information on Behavioral Differences of Mutual Fund Managers Algorithmic Trading and Mutual Funds

It should be stressed that algorithmic trading is frequently used by mutual funds because it allows the managers to calculate securities in large amounts with the help of sophisticated mathematical formulas. In particular, this form of trading includes the division of larger amount of shares into smaller groups to provoke quick selling and buying.

Therefore, algorithmic trading is used by mutual funds to successfully manage opportunity cost, market impact, and risks (Bergan and Devine, 2005). Automated trading is also used to initiate orders premised on date received electronically to define such aspects as timing, price, and final income.

With regard to the above-presented considerations, Chaudhuri (2004) and Khnadani and Lo (2007) state that algorithmic trading enable the mutual fund managers to identify whether their profits can be forecasted in terms of risks and returns obtained at mutual funds.

Particular role in defining the connection will be played by random and autoregressive models proposed by Friedman and Shachmurove (1997) for defining the future values of mutual fund performance. Beside greater accuracy of prediction, the risk adjustment rate can be calculated in a less time consuming mode providing more valid results.

Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior

It has been commonly recognized that processes of forecasting and modeling are intrinsic, challenging, and fluctuating. These processes are closely associated with a random walk process implying that these correlation series are statistically and economically insignificant (Malkiel, 2003).

Such an assumption is premised on the studies of Eugene Fama (1970) who believes that stock markets were significantly efficient in presenting data about individual stocks and about stock market in general. With regard to this theory, there is a close relation between the information available and the extent to which future outcomes are predictable.

However, financial researchers and statistics are more inclined to believe that stock prices as well as returns are to an extent predictable (Malkeil, 2003). In particular, Adaptive Market Hypothesis has emerged in an effort to reconcile behavioral and predictable models of stock prices identification.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduced by Andrew Lo (2004, 2005), the concept applies evolution principles , those of adaptation and natural selection to financial operations. Predictability of mutual fund returns can be analyzed from different perspectives. On the one hand, predictability enables investors to earn extra returns whereas unpredictable processes prevent them from achieving this goal.

One the other hand, results base on predictability do not necessarily imply that profits is connected with unfavorable risk; at the same time, unpredictable calculations can lead to profit if their expected risk is favorable (Hallahan et al. 2009). One way or another, the estimated results are uncertain because the forecasting is based on measuring the extent of uncertainty.

This means that probability theory should be introduced to define the number of probability to each particular event where the highest certainty is applied to number 1 (Lo, 2004). The assessment of probability level is aimed at achieving Sharpe ratio that reveals the way the return compensates the risk taken. In this respect, the higher the ration is the more return is obtained for the same risk, in case risk free rate benchmark is a constant.

The above information presents how scheme according to which expectations are identified. In this respect, Khandani and Lo (2007) and Chaudhuri (2004) believe that short-term mean reversal model of algorithmic trading allowing the mutual managers to define whether their profits can be predicted with reliance on random model of forecasting accuracy of risks and returns at mutual funds.

Methodology Before applying specific algorithmic trading models, it is necessary to state that “fund managers who are interim losers are likely to increase fund volatility in the latter part of the assessment period to a greater extent than interim winners” (Hallahan et al., 2009, p. 14).

This tournament behavior can be predicted within the risk adjustment ration (RAR) model: (σ2L/σ1L)>(σ2W/σ1W) (1), where σ1 and σ2 are identical to the portfolio risk levels at the first and the second stages correspondently. L and W letters refer to lose and winner respectively. The presented equation provides a solid basis for further analysis and prediction of tournament behavior in mutual funds with the help of algorithmic trading models (Alonso, 2010).

As it has been mentioned before, computational tools contribute greatly to the analysis of risk-return ratios based on a risk shifting behavior. In case the risk is not a constant indicator, the Sharpe ratio will look as follows:

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More where R is the return the investor will get, Rf – free rate risk, and σ – is fund volatility. With regard to the assumptions made by Alonso (2010), Fama (1970), and Friedman and Shachmurove (1997), free rate risk can undergo shifts in the course of time.

Consequently, algorithmic trading, particularly linear autoregressive model, can provide more accurate results while presenting calculations of predictability and changing values of stocks in future (Wilson and Banzhaf, 2010).

First stage regression, therefore is needed to evaluate the amount of the information obtained: Mit=αi ۷i βQit εit (3), where Mit is dependable variable, Qit is the autoquote set, αi is fixed effect on stock and ۷t is a set established per day (Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld, 2011).

Tournament behavior also presupposes regime switching, which is strictly adhered to Adaptive Market Hypothesis proposed by Lo (2004, 2005). Tournament behavior of mutual funds, therefore, is often predetermined with the desire to predict those switches and gain a competitive advantage.

In this respect, algorithmic trading models and strategies can assist in defining achieving the highest Sharpe ratio with the help of high-frequency trading (Butler, 2007). This approach is quite effective if attached to the Sharpe ration because the more bet the mutual fund manager place, the smaller standard deviation from the mean they will experience.

Another theory of algorithmic trading is Game theory that is applicable to capturing behavior in making specific choices (Alonso, 2010; Aumann, 1987). Being initially introduced for evaluating competitions where one individual is competitively stronger than another, the model contributes to better understanding of changing prices in the efficient market.

The model for understanding the changing behavior is simple. For instance, if the rise today is higher than the expected rise, than it is predicted that the rise tomorrow will be lower than the rise today. The probability model can be presented as follows:

where Pt is the rise per a particular unit of time, which is an independent variable (Alonso, 2010). Hence, the two unite events embracing the probability statement are associated with the action defined in informal prediction model presented above.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While moving on with the analysis of spread and probability, high frequency model is placed within the context of presenting risk management techniques and trading rules.

With reference to trading rules, it is imperative to consider the marketing position in pair that enables to avoid magnitude of mean reversion and minimize the standard deviation. Hence, we should choose a return rate and portfolio weights to diminish the overall fluctuation of the portfolio (Chiu et al., 2011; Gatev et al., 2006). All these calculation can be presented in accordance with Markowitz model:

While presenting a pair selection scheme, it is imperative to analyze those pairs for stationarity and reversion. In order to assess the risk taken by mutual fund manager, it is necessary to avoid market risk through presenting pairs of assets as ∆β≤0.1 (Chiu et al. 2009, p. 6).

The pairs will be selected from the same sectors to avoid misconception and industry risk. Here the main risk encountered by managers is regime switching (Alonso, 2010). In other words, the pairs spread no longer takes place and the time span for mean reversion has been radically changed.

Conclusion The above presented models offered by Alonso (2010), Chui et al. (2009), Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld (2011) contribute greatly the analysis of tournament behavior of mutual fund manager in terms of timing, risk management, and liquidity.

The theories proposed by Aumann (1987), Lo (2004, 2005), and Wilson and Banzhaf (2010) are greatly elaborated by above-presented computational tools. In particular, the reliance on autoregressive model and reversion mean support the theory offered by Fama (1970) about the risk-changing behavior at the investment market.

Reference List Alonso, N. M. (2010). Statistical Arbitrage and Algorithmic Trading: Overview and Applications. UNED. Available at: http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv.php?pid=tesisuned:CiencEcoEmp-Mnoguer


The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework Report best essay help

Article Summary The paper presents a sociological theory on the cause of a steady mental disorder. Although the evidences in support of the theory are based on previous formulations, Scheff develops a precise sociological theory that attempts to explain the cause and path of a stable mental disorder.

Using the concepts of the social institution of insanity, residual deviance, the societal responsibility of the individual with mental illness, and the divergence of the societal response such as denial and labeling, Scheff constructs a theory of mental disorder in which the psychiatric signs are thought of as violations of social norms, and stable “mental illness” to be a social role (Scheff, 1999).

Essential to this theory are 9 proposals that require experimental processes.

By restricting the forms of behavior that are to be covered, by basing the paper on previous findings, and by applying an entirely sociological approach (such as the theory of residual deviance), the author proposes a methodology in which the dynamics of mental disorder take place within the system consisting of the person exhibiting deviant behavior and those responding to it.

According to the theory designed here, the basis for the initiation, maintenance and end of the deviant conduct referred to as mental disorder are parts of the social system, and cannot be separated, hence, from endopsychic forms of behavior.

Fat is a Sociological Issue: Obesity rates in late modern, ‘bodyconscious’ societies This paper surveys the factors involved in the current spiraling of obesity rates in the contemporary society, focusing both upon the causes of the high prevalence rates and its effects. Crossley contends that rates of obesity have risen rapidly in the last two decades, causing some people to talk of an imminent crisis and compelling governments and health institution to react (Crossley, 2004).

Many studies in the sociology of the body are centered on the social belief that certain ‘bodies’ are more acceptable than others, for example, slimness, fitness, and good health are socially acceptable practices. Proof of this assertion exists in the steadily rising number of health clubs in the UK and the corresponding number of subscriptions in the last decade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another trend that exists next to exercise is that of dieting. Diet books are among bestseller listings, besides, food consumption in response to recommended diets are very significant. A large number of persons ascribe to weight watching clubs and associations, known as ‘body-conscious society’ (Crossley, 2004).

Body fat affects the BMI and a value of 20 -25 BMI value is deemed normal, a value less than 20 is deemed underweight while a value of 25-30 is considered overweight, with a value greater than 30 considered obese. Obesity varies with age, and narrowly with age and social class, with women at a higher risk of becoming obese.

Due to the social concern, the author contends that the steadily rising rate of obesity is a social fact. This is evidenced in two ways, first, the statistics relating to obesity are normally given in societal perspectives, for example, obesity varies between individuals, and across societies, that is, it is a social variable. Secondly, the causative agent for the variation of obesity rates is social. Individual differences in levels of obesity, biological or psychosomatic, cannot be used to explicate on the variations in obesity rates.

There are two broad causes of obesity: lifestyle and modernity. We do less physical exercise, live a sedentary lifestyle and use several labor saving appliances at home and at work, consumption of high-calorie foods has increased both in frequency and quantity.

It worthy to note that social changes leading to a rise in obesity are related to class and gender variations, this is proven by the fact that obesity is lower among the lower class. The latter sections of the paper attempts to explain the relation between body and society and how fluctuations of the rate of obesity affect the society (illness and early death).

This paper targets a general population, especially one that is at a higher risk of becoming obese. This is derived from the fact that it informs of the causative agents of obesity and prevention. It may also be useful to sociologists trying to understand the link between body and the society.

Fat Ethics’ – The Obesity Discourse and Body Politics The paper examines how facts about obesity are presented and availed to the public, and the ethical concerns arising from the public’s comprehension of obesity. Public understanding of obesity is frequently based on various sources of information that focus of cause and prevention of the disease, however, other health problems such as cancer do not receive similar coverage on the public domain, particularly relating to the ethical and moral elements.

We will write a custom Report on The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information availed to the public on the ‘obesity epidemic ’ through various media focuses on the grave effects of being obese, the scientific facts about obesity are restated to give authority and sureness to the allegations of the growing rates of the ‘epidemic’ (Rich


Diageo and The Recession Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Successful management in today’s business environment requires that managers understand that the concept of management involves various function and that these functions are interrelated. As such successful managers need to understand how to combine and apply each of these functions in the organization they are running.

Boddy (2002) explains that management is a wholesome process that incorporates several function such mapping, arranging, directing, controlling and learning in the process.

Mapping a management plan involves the act of clearly establishing the available organization resources and allocating them to achieve the set objectives.

This means that setting desired objectives is part of management (Ghosh and Ghosh 1991). Because managers manage people as well as resources they have to establish the best relationship with this people to establish best support mechanism.

Management is also intended for the achievement of certain objectives and as such there has to a strict monitoring process. The monitoring ensures that there is an established mechanism of control that provides learning opportunities on management.

Ghosh and Ghosh (1991) also add that since not all management is form the benefit of man, then special consideration can be given to this perspective to include the attainment of a prior set objective.

There are various approaches to management each of tem having unique characteristics. Despite the fact that these approaches have varying propositions they all congregate around Quinn et al (2003) Competing Values Framework, CVF (See appendix 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This model is frame work that describes the management functions as driven by a number of competing factors. It is quite a difficult task to create employee satisfaction by enhancing cooperation, unity, flexible job roles, team work cohesion amongst is maintained while maintaining rational goals.

This is because setting of rational goals is an individualistic and such destroys team work. Goal setting also involves a lot of instructions thus becoming an unreceptive and demoralizing to employees (Quinn 1988; Quinn et al 2003).

This is because internal control involves a lot of tracking and rationalization of the team as well as employees’ roles and tasks. Internal controls are characterized by skepticism and cynism that may affect employee Morales.

Moreover it also becomes difficult to have an open system in a work place that encourages innovation. Open systems require a lot of negotiated brokerage in problem solving. Internal controls do have the tendency to conflict with open systems.

Diageo Plc Diageo plc, registered in London is the biggest alcoholic drinks company in the world in terms of sales, market capitalization as well as products range (Diageo 2011a; Wakely 2001).

The company motor is to provide an opportunity to make merry during any of the merry making occasions at any location in the world.

As such the company prides itself in having some of the world’s most famous alcoholic brands. Among many popular brands, the company brand portfolio includes Johnnie Walker, Crown Royal, J


The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change Rhetorical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Overview


The sociology of work

Cultural changes

Social changes


Overview The Industrial Revolution is the era of massive enormous technological advancements and social changes, which affected people to the extent which is often contrasted to the change from hunter and gathering to agriculture. Development of machines increased production and enhanced the economy that had initially relied on skilled labor.

The exact dates are an issue for a heated debate about this period because different historians examine and study it from their own point of view. The most spirited debate was held in the period from the 1760s to the 1840s. The origins of this dispute can be traced to Great Britain from where it then spread to the rest of the world, including the United States.

The term industrial revolution was employed to depict the era by the 1830s, but contemporary historians progressively term it a ‘pioneer Industrial Revolution’. It was influenced by advancements in textiles, steam and iron, which were implemented first in Great Britain.

These facts distinguish this revolution from a subsequent one of the 1850s which was marked with the innovations in steel production, automobiles and electrics and arose in Germany and the U.S.

A number of things changed both economically and industrially. The innovation of steam power was deployed to provide energy to transport and factories, which allowed deeper mining. Advancements in iron making methods caused large and high production levels.

New machines, like jenny and spinning, changed the textile industry and other related industries, thus permitting increased production at reduced costs. Enhanced machine tools appeared due to additional and improved machinery. The industrial revolutions enabled the creation of novel and faster transport networks through railways and canals.

Swift urbanization led to building new cramped houses and adapting to changing circumstances and environment. Emerging factories and city cultures affected peer groups and families. There emerged laws and debates concerning public health, child labor and working conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Firstly, industrial revolution was caused by the end of feudalism, which changed relationships in the economy. Secondly, the increase in population due to reduce in the level of the diseases and numbers of infant deaths permitted of a massive mechanized work force. Thirdly, the agrarian revolution freed individuals from the lands and drove them to the urban places and manufacturing industry.

It was also caused by proportionally vast amounts of extra money for investment. There were discoveries in the technical development giving rise to a new machinery. Colonial trade systems and the existence of all the necessary resources also caused industrial revolution. Finally, the culture of working hard inventing new ideas and taking risks promoted the industrial revolution.

Debate Historians, like Craft and Clapham, debated that there was a slow evolution in the industrial divisions as opposed to a prompt revolution. It is not certain how the revolution worked because historians are still attempting to separate some very interconnected inventions.

There were corresponding developments in a number of industries and other related spheres; these innovations, for example, production of cotton, surged and motivated the others. Debate is still conducted about the reason why the industrial uprising commenced at that time and why it began in Britain.

The sociology of work Moreover, if a fundamental division of labor was significant to resourceful production in definite forms of productions and inventions, this did not justify the transition to massive numbers of industries. A number of domestic productions assumed the new technological and organizational methods prior to the multiplication of industries.

There is the need to expound why a dramatically resourceful method of production centered at home, generating a conversion to factory organization. The answer is more likely to be the one, on which the central characters of this issue agree. Household production of this manner was successful, thus allowing employees to do minimal work for more wages.

There is no human being craving to acquire material riches through labor hen there can be an alternative. If technology enhanced greater levels of profit for minimal attempts and if the enlightening norms were to reduce human effort rather than exploit human reward, then the expertise could just either serve to limit or to increase a total production.

We will write a custom Essay on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The answer of merchants and putting out industrialists were eminent: to compose the most of the novel techniques needed to vital and hierarchic control – employees were to be forced to work when industrialists needed them too, but not while they desired it (Wharton, Vallas and Finlay, 55).

Cultural changes The Revolution was initiated in 1966. Mao assumed that bourgeois fundamentals were invading the government and community as a whole, aspiring to reinstate capitalism. He asserted that these “revisionists” were ejected through aggressive class struggle. The Chinese youth reacted to Mao’s plea by establishing Red Guard groups across the nation.

The group increased the martial, urban employees, and the Communist Party management itself. This revolution resulted in extensive fractional wrangles in all spheres of the people’s lives. In the premier leadership, it resulted in a huge crowd of superior officials who were blamed for opposing the socialist way, most remarkably Shaoqi and Xiaoping. In this matching era, Mao’s classified sect extended to enormous numbers.

Millions of citizens were victimized by the brutal, factional wrangles that threatened the entire nation, and underwent a wide range of insults including anguish, rape, captivity, continued harassment, and abduction of wealth. A mammoth fragment of the inhabitants was forcibly relocated, the most outstanding event was the relocation of metropolitan youth to countryside areas. Historical artifacts and ruins were shattered. Cultural and holy sites were looted.

Social changes When the accumulative manufacturing of the Industrial Revolution swamped the market with reasonable consumer products, these manufactured goods significantly enhanced the life style of the people of these industrialized nations. When the cost of life reduced, and the living standard amplified, the inhabitants experienced an enormous boom.

The population only of Europe increased four times, and in the continent of America, the number of people rose significantly between 1700 and 1900. This populace boom emerged because of top rates of birth due to the reduced costs of living and the dropping of death rates owing to a boost in sanitary surroundings and diets. The population boom that the industrial states encountered in the 1800s was identified as a demographic conversion.

A majority of families also faced modifications because of the Revolution. Initially, most of the families engaged in agricultural tasks before industrialization. However, the system of the factory gave rise to alterations in the family structure.

Members of the families, including children, were encouraged to leave the agricultural tasks concerned in the household and transfer to labor in mass production industries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The working categories of men enjoyed salaries, which were higher as compared to that of women who were also working. The enormous salaries made the men breadwinners, hence becaming the head of the families, while the other members were obliged to respect them.

Bibliography Wharton, Amy, Vallas, Steven and William Finlay. The Sociology of Work: Structures and Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.


Theology and Philosophy Research Paper essay help site:edu

The Author of “The Shape of Catholic Theology “tries to explain the importance of God in Christianity and how theology relates to philosophy. Philosophy and theology are relevant in explaining some of the basic elements of Christianity.

Although theology is about faith and revelation, it cannot overlook the importance of philosophy in its work. Philosophy is crucial in explain how the revelations relate to the existence of God. Philosophy explains the existence of God using the things that human beings posses. It proves that there is a supernatural being from the activities and habits that human beings adopt.

Philosophy asks questions and attempts to answer them, as does theology. The two relate because both attempt to give answers to the basic questions asked all over the world. The first case in this is the theory that explained the name God. All religions have different names for their higher being, but all of them believe that God is one and only.

Philosophers want to understand where the name originated from and whether it has any connection with reality. The Dogmatic constitution teaches us that a theologian should isolate himself or herself from the philosopher. The reason given by the constitution is the need to connect reason and faith, as well as nature and grace.

Catholicism believes in the grace of God and the ability to change the life of human beings so that they can lead a life that is not as God created. Theology bases their arguments on the fact that God is the one shaping one’s destiny, but a philosopher will want to understand the nature of the being as God created before it undergoes the transformation.

The Catholic Church believes that human beings became corrupt after the fall. Therefore, they argue that philosophers are also the corrupt. However, the fact that Jesus came to save the world means that man is not totally corrupt. They base this on the fact that man has his roots in how God created him.

The church wants to create a philosophy based on Christianity. This is by answering questions about the existence of God. This philosophy will use revelation to explain and answer questions. The key question that needs to be answered is the question of the existence of God.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theology can answer this based on the realities like Jesus, and the holy sacrament. Theology also explains the existence of God using the theory of perfections. This is evident when a human being strives to do everything perfectly. The inner voice or consciousness is also a true reflection of the existence of a supernatural being.

A philosopher says that human being has the drive to do the correct thing even if there is no one to judge him or her. The conscious feeling that people have in them is an unexplainable phenomenon that cannot be explained only by logic. It is a feeling inside the hearts of human beings that is so powerful that it can only be related to God.

In accordance to the Christian faith, the belief is that God exists. It is this existence that forms the foundation of Christian faith and is unshakable within the realms of this faith. The proof of the existence of God can be found in human nature. An example mentioned in the text is that Christianity is guided by hope, as it is the desire or anticipation for things to occur.

Hope guides Christians into being optimistic that their dreams will be fulfilled through letting God have his way into their lives. The combination of the two aspects i.e. existence of God and hope cultivate into morals within the Christian faith. Another example that was given is the urge and desire to satisfy the internal and bodily needs. Human beings have a never-ending urge to do things over and over again.

The urges never disappear even if the person repeats the action several times. The desires seem to be aimed at finding satisfaction in another place or world. This means that there is another world or body that can satisfy these needs. They believe that heaven is the place where man will find lasting satisfactions of these desires, and find the true meaning of life (Aidan 67). Hope is one of the things that are consistent in the lives human beings.

No matter the situation, they will still hold on to the hope of a good life afterwards. The same applies to the case of an eternal life; human beings belief that there is a place where everything is perfect with no problem. They hope that they will go to heaven and find eternal peace. This is because people believe that God is the determiner of destiny and has good plans for everyone.

Bibliography Aidan, Nichols. The Shape of Catholic Theology. London: Liturgical Press, 1991, Print.

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Starbucks – Competitor of GC3 Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

The following review is an analysis of Great Cups Coffee Co. (GC3) with Starbucks. The present report provides a detailed analysis of the competitive analysis of Starbucks and GC3 . The first part of the report will deal with the web analytics of Starbucks and show how the competitor is successful or unsuccessful in making its online presence work.

Figure 1 shows that there is a great deal of traffic in the website. Daily page viewers actually provide the percentage of internet users worldwide are viewing Starbucks’ website. The figure shows data for the last 6 months. The data demonstrates that there is a decline in the number of visits to the website and it follows a cyclical pattern.

Visits are more from mid-October to mid-November. The traffic to the website has been high from December through January. However, for the months of August through early October traffic has been low. Web analytics tools show that in the past one month, page views for GC3 have increased by 3% while that of Starbucks has declined by 7.5%. for three months period, GC3 has seen an increase of 180% viewership while Starbucks faced only an increase of 30% viewership.

Figure 1: Website Traffic for Starbucks.

Figure 2: Page views for GC3.

Page views Change 1 month 0.000012 3% UP^ 3 month 0.000011 180% UP^ Figure 3: Top Queries from Search Traffic at GC3 and Starbucks.

GC3 Starbucks Query Percent of Search Traffic Percent of Search Traffic 1 keurig 17.85% starbucks 38.38% 2 k cups 10.32% coffee 2.30% 3 k-cups 3.17% starbucks locations 2.16% 4 k cup 2.55% starbucks menu 1.58% 5 great coffee 2.47% starbucks nutrition 1.17% 6 k cups cheap 2.36% company 1.14% 7 kcups 1.33% starbucks coffee 0.84% 8 kuerig 1.24% starbuck 0.83% 9 keurig k cups 1.08% starbucks card 0.73% 10 buy coffee beans online 1.03% starbucks.com 0.69% On comparing, the search queries for the GC3 and Starbucks are provided in figure 3. The table demonstrates that the top searches related for Starbucks is the brand itself while that for GC3 is Keurig. GC3 seem to have to favourite search items are Keurig and K-cups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A comparative analysis of Starbucks and GC3 based on demographics of viewers and the analysis shows that the age of the viewers to GC3 are less compared to the total number of 18-24 year olds on the Internet. On the other hand, the number of 18-24 year olds is just marginally low for Starbucks. Most of the people surfing GC3 website belongs to the age group of 35 to 64 years while that for Starbucks is 25 to 34 years.

In terms of education, the viewers of Starbucks page are usually been to College while for GC3 the viewers did not attend college or have been to some college. Mostly females surf the Starbucks website while that for GC3 cannot be specifically stated. GC3 is surfed by viewers who mostly have children while Starbucks website is surfed by those who do not have children. GC3 website is surfed mostly from home while Starbucks website from work.

There is a distinct difference in the income group of the viewers visiting GC3 and Starbucks. The former has viewers who mostly belong to the income group of $30,000 to $60,000 and above $100,000. While that for Starbucks is $60,000 to $100,000 and above $100,000. This difference indicates that mostly people with high-income groups surf the Starbucks website.

In both the websites, the maximum viewers are Caucasians. Further, in terms of geographic coverage, Starbucks is viewed in 10 countries including Asian and European countries while that of GC3 is viewed only in the United States. This can be viewed from the data derived from Google Analytics data as shown in figure 4, 5, 6, and 7.

Figure 4: Age Demographics Starbucks visitors.

Figure 5 Income Demographics Starbucks visitors.

Figure 6: Gender Demographics Starbucks visitors.

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Figure 8: Visitors interest in Starbucks website.

Interest Affinity Coffee


Parents and Families as Partners Expository Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Volunteering at the school and in the community

Supporting students learning at home

Involvement in decision making and advocacy

Collaboration with the community


Introduction Education is not an isolated experience but can be considered as an interactive endeavor that takes place over the course of a person’s life. When parents, families and school work together, they can provide the best possible resources and expertise to enhance the education of all their children.

In a synthesis on parents’ involvement, it was established that families and parents had a major influence on their children’s achievements in school and education in general. Parents and families can also be described, explained and understood more effectively by the illustrations explained of how a teacher or a school can encourage this type of partnership below. Parenting knowledge and skills.

According to Morrison , this is the education and the knowledge acquired by both the parents and the family as a whole of how to bring up their children. The parents are learning how to rise up children who value and appreciate the need of education as a part of their growth.

A teacher or a school encourages the need for parenting knowledge and skills when the advantages and the response of children and the community can be notified to the parents. Communication between home and the school.

A synthesis by Boult (2006) describes this as the relationship between school, parents and family of a student in a particular learning institution. A teacher encourages this communication by giving the parents opportunities to know teachers and interact with them. This encourages working in partnership to improve the children at the same time improving the morale of the teachers.

Volunteering at the school and in the community It is where parents, teachers and children are able to give the feedback to the society. This can be through working on community projects which encourage the interaction of the parents, teachers and children. Teachers and schools encourage this as it enables the partnering of both teachers and parents. They are in a better position to know more of the ways to help children to improve on their education.

Supporting students learning at home This can be described as the encouraging students to spend some of their spare time at home studying and the provision of the proper study environment at home. According to Boult , teachers and schools encourage this by offering home visits and visits of children the school community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Involvement in decision making and advocacy Parents and families are included in the decision made by teachers and school about their children with their suggestions that are also taken into consideration. Before changes are made in schools, parents are allowed to offer their suggestions and give their views on the issues.

Collaboration with the community This is the working together between parents, families and teachers of students with the community to ensure educational success of the students. Teachers and schools encourage this by taking part in community activities as members of the community and, thus, being able to interact with families and parents discussing the ways of overcoming challenges in education.

This, therefore, leads to the conclusion that parents and families working together as partners with the teacher to support learning and education; this leads to children achieving better academic performance. Students can also stay in school for longer to complete their education.

References Boult, B. (2006). 176 Ways to Involve Parent: practical strategies for partnering families. California: Sage Publications Company.

Cox-Petersen, A. (2011). Educational Partnerships. London: Sage Publication Limited.

Morrison G. S. (2009). Early Childhood Education Today (11th ed.). California: Pearson.


First Nations/Aboriginal People and Justice System Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction The terms First Nations and Aboriginal people are commonly used to refer to indigenous people in Canada. The group makes up about 4% of the total population in Canada. The Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes three groups categorized as Aboriginal people. They include Indians, Métis and Inuit.

Large numbers of Aborigines occupy the northern part of Canada but few numbers are scattered all over the country. Statistics collected during the 2001 Census in Canada showed that North American Indians comprised a population of 957,650; Métis were 266,020 while the Inuit’s were 44,835.

It is however argued that the bureau did not give exact figures. The number of aboriginal people is expected to be larger than that. The question of Aborigines has been a major concern in Canada and Australia since the arrival of first colonialists from Britain (Comeau


The Business Communications Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Business communication is also popularly referred to as company communication, and it refers to the passing of information within a firm and within a supply chain (“Business Communication” 1). Employee engagement and transaction of officially permitted matters falls under business communication.

Other topics that fall under this include; advertising, branding, client dealings, community involvement, and event organization, among others. There are various means through which internal business communication can take place and they include; cyberspace (email), print, face-to-face meeting and video conferencing, among others. Communication involving external parties or entities may entail other channels like radio, television, billboards, among others.

Communicating a bad-news message to an employee Every organization has laid down rules and code(s) of conduct which the members of staff are expected to abide by. There are as well spelled out procedures or actions to take if an individual goes against the set regulations (McLean 1). It has to be brought to the attention of any person going against set rules that they have done so. This has to be done in the right and most sober manner so that the offender realizes the gravity of the matter.

To begin with, one has to pick the most appropriate channel to relay the message to the employee in question, as regards to the bad-news meeting.

Word of mouth or a face-to-face engagement is the most fitting since the information is received in first hand. In firsthand acquisition of the message, the right mood is usually captured from the tone in one’s voice (in the case of telephone communication) and both the tone and facial expressions are captured if it is a face-to-face engagement.

The content of the communication to the employee in question should be direct. This serves to tone down anxiety in him or her as a lot is likely to go through their minds when they hear of a meeting with their superior. This will enable them to relax and be open during the meeting and even offer constructive insight.

During the meeting, the offender needs to be informed of their mistake and the evidence of committing such an offence made clear. With clear and open evidence, the offender will find it rather difficult to be dishonest. It also offers a perfect ground to level accusation(s) against the offender with no fear of appeals being raised.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Making the right evidence clear therefore reduces the time to be spent on dealing with law-breaking cases. The offender then needs to be given room to react to the accusation(s) after being made aware that honesty should always be their guiding principle. The meeting convener has to be a good listener (“Forms of business communication” 1).

No multitasking that needs to take place as this is impolite and one may miss vital points in the conversation. Following this, the convener of the meeting needs to communicate what the rules say as far as committing the offence in question is concerned.

Conclusion of the meeting needs to be done by communicating the importance of rules in any institution or place of work. The offender then needs to be made to willingly accept their offence(s) and offer their apologies. This is especially important because it will largely bar the offender from committing such offences in the future. Whenever tempted to go against set rules, one will remember how they promised to abide and will therefore conform.

Works Cited Business Communication. “What is Business Communication?” Management Study Guide. 2008. Web.

Forms of business communication. “Business, Communication Technology”. Information Science Today. 2011. Web.

McLean, Scott. “Business Communication for Success.” 2010. Web.


The five competitive forces of Michael Porter Essay college essay help online

Business strategists’ primary function in companies is their ability to understand competition and create plans to cope with such. The five competitive forces Michael Porter discusses in his article are the threat of new or potential entrants, negotiating power of suppliers, bartering power of customers, threat of substitute products and/ or services and competition among direct rivals.

An industry’s structure is characterized by the comprehensive competition of the five forces. These forces also outline the temperament of aggressive interaction within an industry. It is important for company strategists to have a thorough understanding of the five forces in order for them to plan out strategies for the company.

In understanding the five competitive forces, the company will be able to “reveal the roots of an industry’s profitability and provide framework for anticipating and influencing competition and profitability” (Porter, 2008). Understanding a given industry’s structure is also essential in the positioning of a company.

The industry structure determines the strength of the five forces. Such is characterized by the economy and technological advancement (Porter, 2008). The five forces which shape strategy differ from industry to industry with regards to their configuration. Evaluating and analyzing the five forces may enable companies to understand the challenges present in the industry. The first force is the threat of new players in the industry.

The presence of new entrants affects the industry’s prices, costs and rate of investments. “New entrants bring new capacity and desire to gain market share. This force puts a cap on the profit potential of an industry” (Porter, 2008). Entry barriers and the reactions of incumbents determine the competition and profitability of an industry.

Industry incumbents have an advantage through the seven entry barriers which are supply-side economies of scale, demand-side benefits of scale, capital requirements, incumbency advantages independent of size, unequal access to distribution channels and restrictive government policy.

In planning out company strategies, managers must take into consideration the relationship of entry barriers and potential players’ capabilities. The second force which affects strategy is the power of suppliers where “they try to gain more value for themselves by charging higher prices, limiting quality or services or shifting costs to industry participants” (Porter, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another force is the power of buyers where customers tend to coerce sellers in lowering product prices, demanding superior quality and services. Customers can influence the increase of costs at the expense of the profitability of an industry. The fourth force is the threat of substitutes.

Substitutes can threaten the profitability of an industry for they can act as an alternative when a customers are not satisfied with a given product. Lastly, the rivalry among existing competitors is the fifth force which shapes competition. These rivalries can be manifested in different forms such as price competition, product innovations, marketing and advertising campaigns and improvements of services.

Profitability of industries is limited when rivalry among industry players is high. “The degree to which rivalry drives down an industry’s profit potential depends on the intensity which companies compete and the basis on which they compete” (Porter, 2008). An industry’s profit potential is determined by the industry structure.

Understanding the five forces enables companies to regulate how economic value is created in the industry. Strategists must consider the five forces in keeping the overall industry structure in mind and must focus on structural conditions.

Aside from the five forces, strategists must also take into consideration factors which affect industries namely the growth rate of the industry, technology and innovation, government policies and complementary products and services.

An evaluation of an industry’s forces and factors may provide an understanding that industry structure constantly undergoes adjustments and such can change sporadically. Changes in the industry can originate from within the industry or it can be attributed to factors outside the industry. The outcomes of the changes in the industry can be an advantage or a disadvantage.

The importance of understanding the five factors enables strategists to identify the framework of the industry thus they can expect such developments and anticipate the impacts of such changes in the industry’s profitability. Such changes may include the shifting threat of new entry, changing supplier or buyer power, shifting threat of substitution and new bases of rivalry.

We will write a custom Essay on The five competitive forces of Michael Porter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The thorough understanding of forces, factors and changes in the industry allows strategists to plan out how companies should position themselves, exploit industry change, shape industry structure and define the industry. In developing strategy, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the forces which shape the competition of a given industry.

The five forces expose the profitability of an industry and a thorough understanding of such together with the factors affecting the industry as well as the changes brought about justify such profitability. The five forces expose the most important features of an industry’s competitive environment.

A detailed understanding of the forces enables strategists to determine the standard strengths and weaknesses of a company in a given industry. The knowledge of industry structure helps managers shape strategies for companies to compete in the market.

Works Cited Porter, Michael. “The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy.” Harvard Business Review January (2008): 78 – 93. Web.


Microsoft Share Point Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment

Cases related to Microsoft SharePoint.

Ethical issues



Introduction Microsoft SharePoint has done a lot in improving the efficiency of businesses. Before its introduction into the business industry, business people wasted a lot of resources hiring people to manage their information. Getting these services cost the businesses a lot of money as they needed to hire many people.

The reason why the businesses hired many people was because no one person could do all the necessary things by himself. However, the introduction of Microsoft SharePoint into the sector is changing the situation. The only things that a business needs to do are pay and specify the service they require. After this, the upgrading process is automatic. On top of this, the services are cheaper than hiring a group of people to do this manually.

Businesses realized the need to work together. They needed to join forces in order to improve the quality of services they give to their consumers. The businesses require a platform where they could share this information. Therefore, Microsoft designed the Microsoft SharePoint.

Microsoft SharePoint is a product of the Microsoft office. It monitors the performance of businesses. It also helps the businesses manage their date, plan and collect data. It collects the views of consumers and other stakeholder’s concerning the finances of the business. After collecting the data Microsoft SharePoint analyses the data, and share the information with the rest of them.

This is a tool they use to share the information that sees to improve their businesses, (Williams, 95). The information they share increases the companies’ productivity. It gives the employees a chance to insights and ideas.

Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment The SharePoint is crucial in the business environment as it helps businesses to increase its efficiency and improve team work. SharePoint makes this possible by providing a site where the businesses stay connected across many regions and boundaries. People access documents and any other information through this site.

The employees get information regarding their work and the current developments. This gives them a chance improves their work, which in turn, translates to high productivity. It helps the business manage information by editing the information they have before they can put it into the site. It also stores the documents for future use (Noel


Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Gender Analysis in health care


Reference List

Introduction Gender analysis assesses the effects of actions on both women and men. Gender analysis tends to focus on women more than men. The institutional structures view women as insubordinate. This could be termed as an aspect of women marginalization. Women are not involved in planning, decision making, policy formulation, training, employment and in projects. Women have been marginalized in politics, schools, economic and family setting.

Consequently, men have emerged as the privileged gender. Men who come from high social status have enjoyed the impacts of development. The economic status of women usually denies them a chance to access and maintain quality healthcare (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 1).

There is a need to examine gender relations in health care. This will enable policy makers to implement policies that benefit the least advantaged gender in the society.

This essay defines gender analysis and discusses the application of gender analysis to the health status of women of different incomes. The paper will also examine the implications of gender analysis to public policy and how research can contribute to gender analysis.

Gender Analysis in health care Gender analysis in healthcare can be defined as the process of evaluating effects in healthcare provision from a social and economic perspective on both male and female genders.

The aim of gender analysis is to promote sustainability of healthcare provisions, enhance equity and identify areas with challenges. The assessment highlights areas of involvement, achievements and failures associated with either men or women. Gender analysis will provide the information required to plan and implement effective programs (Hunt, 2004, p. 100).

According to Office for Women’s Policy (2005, p. 8), gender analysis in health care involves identifying healthcare experiences for both men and women and noting the disparities. The aims and objectives of the policies are analyzed to obtain their impacts on men and women.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data on different groups including the high, middle and low social class women and men is obtained and analyzed. Investigations on the effects of the policy on different genders are recorded and evaluated. Innovative solutions are obtained to overcome the challenges.

Recommendation of the most appropriate solution that will achieve gender equity is considered. The policy and the program are communicated and the indicators mentioned.

To examine health status of women of different incomes, it is necessary to obtain information concerning sex in the community, households and in the workplaces. Their health care needs, the level of income and access to health care are also important to gender analysis (Women and Healthcare Reform Group, 2009).

Gender analysis involves aspects like convenience and access to health care facilities. It also involves attitudes and perceptions about health for both men and women. Gender analysis will seek to obtain information on health care providers and investigate their attitude towards male and female. The influence of different instructions such as schools and religious institution can be analyzed. The implications of diverse attitudes from policy makers in health matters should be examined.

The equipment, infrastructure, environment, waiting time and access to facilities can be analyzed. The source of motivation for health care providers and the hospital guidelines used can be assessed. The services that are offered, community involvement, education materials and organization structure can contribute to the assessment of gender analysis.

Financing in health care is an aspect of gender analysis. The focus is placed on areas that are given priority in relation to gender analysis. Analyzing the stakeholders and decision making process on their ability to recognize gender issues in health institutions is significant. Obtaining information on service delivery for both genders is essential for gender analysis in healthcare, as Jackson et al (2006, p. 1) mention.

Social indicators of health and illnesses between men and women should be analyzed. Depending on the roles and the economic social status, differences may affect the access and availability of health care resources. Poverty may increase vulnerability.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women who are left with the responsibility of providing and childcare may lack the resources to access health care. Cultural norms have a great impact on the perception of health by both men and women. Men and women give different levels of attention to illness, preventive measures and treatment. Culture affects the attitudes of both genders.

Quality healthcare is important in healthcare provisions. High social class women have access to quality health care owing to their economic status. The low class struggle to obtain and access healthcare. They are exposed by their environment and sometimes lack information on measures to prevent preventable illnesses. A large number of women belong to the low social class and the middle class. Consequently, they receive low quality health care than men. Poor quality health care may have negative effects on women.

Policies impact the implementation and the outcomes of every program in healthcare. Policies are the foundation for programs undertaken in health care institutions. The assumption is that policies address prevailing health issues. Gender blind policies ignore the differences between male and female and foster widespread gender inequalities. Gender aware policies are neutral, specific or redistributive.

The aim of gender awareness policies is to recognize the differences in men and women and attempt to attain equality between them. They also address specific issues in one gender and transform existing policies in order to accommodate both men and women irrespective of their situation (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 32).

According to Moana (1999, p. 4), policies based on gender analysis avoid discrimination of one gender. Most of the policies eliminate gender discrimination against women, who are often the victims of gender inequality. Basic health care is a human right and should reflect in public policy.

Health care policies that reflect gender analysis overcome unconstructive cultural practices and promote the availability of healthcare at an affordable price for women of all social classes. They also enhance accessibility to health care facilities. The application of gender policies will enable women to have access to reproductive healthcare services. Occupational challenges related to childcare and health care for women in career development will be alleviated if policies that are gender sensitive are implemented.

According to USAID (2012), gender analysis can be achieved if men and women collaborate in the evaluation and implementation of policies. Policies that are implemented should incorporate the community. It should not be viewed as a means of attaining equality but as an avenue for improving the lives of the marginalized. The programs should ensure that both men and women from low to high social class benefit.

Muecke (1996, p. 385) notes that healthcare providers pay little attention to gender when offering services. The value of gender analysis can be recognized if the quality of healthcare given to women is known. Gender analysis will enable healthcare providers improve the quality of healthcare given to women from diverse economic backgrounds.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If gender analysis is implemented, women with low income will access quality health care. Health services will be convenient and accessible. Programs that are implemented in health care will become a success because some of the issues and challenges will be overcome. Policies will be effective in meeting the needs of diverse groups in society. Gender analysis will contribute to the awareness of gender issues while enhancing the capabilities of women in society (Office For Women’s Policy, 2005, p. 5).

Research in gender analysis will inform the policy makers to formulate policies that will improve the quality of healthcare for women. Additionally, policies should be communicated to women, to whom the quality of healthcare services is directed (Muecke1996, p. 385).

World Health Organization (2002, p. 10) reveals that research provides a clear understanding of the issues in gender. Moreover, research can be effective in providing a solution for the challenges encountered in the analysis of gender. Research can also be used to set agendas and to determine the measures that are effective for prevailing problems.

Conclusion Gender analysis mainly focuses on women. In health care, gender analysis eliminates the inequality related to gender, sustenance and meeting the goals of programs, identify issues and enable equal distribution of health resources to both genders of all social classes. Gender analysis informs policy formulation and is based on research.

Women of low income are more vulnerable than men. Gender analysis is a process that recognizes that men and women have different roles and are economically diverse. Women have been marginalized by the social institutions. Change will be realized if men and women collaborate. Gender analysis will improve the health of both genders if gender aware policies are implemented.

Reference List Hunt, J. (2004). Introduction to gender analysis concepts and steps. Development Bulletin, 64, 100-106. Web.

Jackson, B. E., Pederson, A.,


“War” and “The other Wife” Essay essay help online free

In this paper, I will strive to show the significance of characterization, at the expense of other elements of literature, towards the successful revelation of the deeper meaning of the following two short stories: “War” By Luigi Colette and “The other Wife” by Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette. As we shall see characterization can be employed as the main vehicle towards the realization of a writer’s thematic concerns.

“The Other Wife” by charlotte is about a woman, who is married to a rich husband; the story has three characters, Marc, Alice and Marc’s ex-wife (Colette). The bulk of it comprises of dialogue between Marc and Alice who have just arrived at a hotel for lunch. Incidentally, Marc’s ex-wife is in the same hotel. Through exchanges of pleasantries that reveal the traits of Marc and Alice, Calotte foregrounds the themes of patriarchy and sexual love.

Marc is a controlling husband. He finds pride and power in dominating his wife and feeling needed. For instance, when his wife lets him order lunch for both, he is so pleased that: “He sighed as if he had just moved an armoire, gazed at the colorless midday sea” (Colette). This simple act gives him great pleasure.

His wife, Alice, on the other hand is emotionally dependent on him. She is passive and unobtrusive. She willingly lets Marc make even the smallest of decisions for her. For example, when Marc asks her what she would like for lunch, she so naturally lets him order dinner for both: “Whatever you like, you know that” (Colette). She is so proud of his complements that she seems to rely on them to reaffirm her self-worth: “Her firm, round breasts rose proudly as she leaned over the table” (Colette).

It is through the characterization of Marc and Alice, the contrasting of Alice with Marc’s ex-wife, that the story’s themes are revealed. By characterizing Marc’s ex-wife happy and contented and Alice as timid and dependent, the story’s themes are realized.

“War” on the other hand is a longer piece. It’s about how parents who have children at the battlefront view war (Pirandello). The horrors that are committed during war can never be justified by simply invoking patriotism. It is through the characterization of the fat red faced man that the main theme of this story is communicated.

At first, we think him stoic and patriotic and the other parents are embarrassed when he says such things as: “Why then should we consider the feelings of our children when they are twenty? Isn’t it natural that at their age they should consider the love for Country even greater than the love for us” (Pirandello). And later;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everyone should stop crying; everyone should laugh, as I do…or at least thank God—as I do—because my son, before dying, sent me a message saying that he was dying satisfied at having ended his life in the best way he could have wished” (Pirandello).

But we get to know that is mere bravado, his unwillingness to face his son’s death is what inspires his talk. Eventually, it becomes inevitable that he should face reality and “he snatched in haste a handkerchief from his pocket and, to the amazement of everyone, broke into harrowing, heart-breaking, uncontrollable sobs” (Pirandello).

It is through the characterization of this man as vulnerable that we are forced to really wonder at the worth of war, even with patriotism at stake. As clearly shown, characterization is a powerful conveyer of inner meaning in literature.

Works Cited Colette, Sidonie-Gabrielle. “The other wife”. 2007. 28 Jan. 2012. .

Pirandello, Luigi. “War.” 2009. Web.


Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Comparison between China and USA Business in China and America

Countries operate around different political regimes with unique policy formulation, implementation, and review that affects business environment. These policies are aligned by policy makers towards self interest protection and profit optimisation. At micro and macro levels, these protectionist policies have merits and demerits in short and long-term business engagements.

Notably, business related policy formulations in specific market environment have weaknesses capable of attracting conflict of interest especially when the same policy functions in the international trade market scenario.

Since the beginning of the new millennium, China has become an economic powerhouse in terms of aggregate investment portfolio and economic growth. The systematic and consistent rise is attributed to political and economic policies which also double as source of tension between America and itself.

Located in the heart of the Asian continent, the Democratic Republic of China is founded on the principles of Communism and ruled by a single party government. Despite capitalism dominating business environment across the globe, China has managed to hold firm on the Marxist-communist foundation and has struck a balance between the science of politics and communist business system.

Characteristic of a communist system, the government of China is active in monitoring and directly intervening in major sectors of the economy. Due to deep rooted culture of concentrated power in the hands of the politically established government, who have liberalised its market and facilitated internal investment by foreign investors, China offers attractive investment incentives and waivers on taxes to potential investors.

Comparatively, then ne-liberalist system controlling business environment in the states of America is equally developed. Reflectively, this system is based on the ideology of totalitarian democracy in which decisions on business and other matters of public interest are made by a democratic republican or democrat government elected by the majority. Despite consisting of three political parties, that is republican, democratic, and independent, the first two are dominant in the economic, social, and political spheres of America.

Aiming to start a medium shoe making business with relatively sketchy market network, the first choice of business location is in the Democratic Republic of China, especially in strategically located town of Shangai.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This choice of location is as a result of the large untapped market of China and regions surrounding it, the friendly communist regimes with direct intervention in business activities, massive cheap and readily available labour, and friendly business regulation policies on investment and business functioning based on acculturation. Despite being at the same level in comparative analysis, China plays a bigger role as a retail business leader and industrialist.

According to Markus 2007,

China is not just the World Factory, most booming market for resources and consumer goods and the fastest growing economy in the world with an average GDP of over 10% in the past decade. It is also the most attractive destination for foreign investment since China opened its door to foreign businesses in 1978. (p.23)

Within business organisation and practise, labour is vital especially in balancing over head cost of doing business. Reflectively, existence of abundant, cheap, and sustainable labour supply gives a business an upper hand in the competitive market and ensure its survival and sustainability in long run. China has a skilled pool of cheap labour.

This aspect is attractive in doing business within its territories. The population of China is ethically aligned and appreciate the essence of commitment and hard work towards achieving greater heights. Comparatively, America’s labour market is expensive, highly structured and professionalism work ethics have been internalised by the labour market same as that in China (Jonathan, 2006).

In order to gain from this comparative advantage, doing business in China saves resources that could have been directed towards training workforce since skilled labour is available and relatively affordable as compared to that in America where living standards are higher and minimum wage bigger.

In addition, the culture of Chinese people promotes self discipline and appreciates excellence in service delivery as a means of making the economy better. In the process of achieving this, the self motivating culture facilitates competence and combines skills with loyalty to give positive result. Thus, this would give China an upper hand as a preferred choice for retail business location since cheap labour would translate into more profits (Ambler, 2000).

We will write a custom Essay on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To meet the demands of its population, China has successfully transformed the economy and economic systems from traditional agricultural dominance into advanced and reliable service industry system consisting of international banking systems and liberalised private sector through its business policies.

These banking systems make credit available for entrepreneurs in the private sector and facilitate public borrowing. Subsequently, the economy has been expanded and series of opportunities are available for internal and international investors. As noted by Rainer (2007), interactions between banking sector and private businesses in China have made it a hub for entrepreneurship and emergence of wide market.

Thus, to gain from this advantage, retail trade investment in China is more viable than the vulnerable market of America which often fall a victim of market swings (Rainer, 2007). Interestingly, from the study on number of investors for the two countries carried in 2006, Rainer (2007) noted the following:

For the first time, China attracted more foreign investment than the United States. The world’s fastest-growing economy is the second largest behind the United States, and by mid-century, it is expected to be number one. (p. 67.)

According to Ambler (2000), China has rich resources which have managed to ensure success of companies such as Gamble and General Motors which were established in the terror back in the late 1980s. Reflectively, despite series of swings in global economy characterised by periodic inflation and deflation, China’s economy remain stable following the acquisition of membership certificate from World Trade Organisation.

America on the other hand, has similar flexible business policies that promote trade (Ambler, 2000). Moreover, the results of the American Chamber of Commerce survey indicates that of 450 American companies in China, nearly 69 percent have directly benefitted from substantial profits more than their counterparts based in America (Jonathan, 2001).

This success is attributed to existence of investments opportunities, ready market, and competitive advantage as a result of consistence in service delivery, insurance efficiency, and reliability in the banking system, and flexibility in retail industry (Xiaowen, 2001).

Markus (2007) states the prevailing positive economic climate in the economy of China offers unlimited opportunities to sellers to expand market territory from small streets to upmarket with ease (Markus, 2007). In an attempt to capture attention in the global market, China adopted the strategy of maintaining relative advantage through exportation of goods and services tagged with competitive price as a policy (Curran and Acker, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over time, this strategy has paid off in the continents of the global market where China has created market for every brand of its products irrespective of economic classes in these markets. Besides, the population of China consisting of nearly a third of the world population and offer ready market, labour, and services in every industry irrespective of its size.

According to Harvard University article (2004), as a substantial proportion of the middle class experience upward mobility, demand chains are created periodically to sustain continuously production and supply. Therefore, creation of an international market within the boundaries of the republic of China can reap relative advantage of the expansive market for its products and a channel of accessing related markets at global level (Harvard University, 2004).

In the global business arena, China predominate large scale manufacturing of competitive goods and delivery of affordable services. Mass production of cheaper goods is due to its ability to balance overhead cost by use of highly skilled, readily available, and cheap labour in the manufacturing industries as compared to America’s expensive labour market.

According to Xiaowen (2001), over the last decade, China has made substantial investment in product development and research. Consequently, gains from intellectual capital have created expansive opportunities for marketing. These opportunities act as incentive for global investment in China (Xiaowen, 2001).

China is endowed with natural resources same to America. As a matter of fact, availability of raw materials is the basis of viability in investment planning. As a result production resonates on the periphery of low-cost. According to Jun (2006), the dynamics of cheap raw materials and their availability can be attributed to quality and dominance in international trade by China more than American market.

For instance, mass production of textile and toy in mega factories in China is as a result of availability of cheap raw materials. Subsequently, the low cost of production encourages mass manufacturing and boosts the cumulative profit gained from a bundle of production units (Jun, 2006). Though America is more strategically located, market for shoes would be higher in China which consists of a third of the world population (Bucknall, 2000).

American market has more or less same advantages as China. In fact, democracy and total market liberalisation policy in America is advantageous to business set up and operation. Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion. Besides, competition for shoes product is very stiff as compared to the same in China.

Conclusively, it is apparent that China is better off as a strategic location for establishing business as compared to America. Among other reasons for the better position can be attributed to cheap labour, ready market, government commitment, and the spirit of entrepreneurship.

Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion Thus, as a potential investor in shoes manufacturing business; I prefer the town of Shangai in China as the location for my business because of its untapped market, political stability, and strategic location.

References Ambler, T. (2000). Doing Business in China. Economic Policy Journal, 11(3), 25-41.

Bucknall, K. (2000). Cultural guide to doing business in China. (3rd ed.). London: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Curran, G.,


The textile Industry Essay essay help online free

The textile industry is one of the biggest industries in the world, as the market for its product is growing at an exponential rate. This industry is concerned with the immediate role of producing material in yarn and cloth form; which are the primary ingredients in the manufacture of clothing.

In the 18th century, the British inventors wanted to exploit the world markets with their technological designs and at the same time there were restrictions on selling the designs, models, or the machinery to other parts of Europe. James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny while Richard Arkwright came up with the first textile factory in 1771 in Cromford, England.

Samuel Slater later opted to start his own factory in Rhode Island in 1792. In the early 1800s, other factories started coming up in Boston and other parts of the United States. Since then the textile industry has flourished not only in America but in the whole world. Factories with modern state of the art equipments have been built in major cities in the world; and demand and supply of their products are at a rising trend (Gathi, 2001).

International trade is one the most complex areas in the legal arena. This is because there are a number of players involved, both state and non-state actors forming trade organizations. The levels of interactions amongst the parties involved are difficult if not tedious to keep track of. Before the trade act of 2005, the textile industry in America was not doing so good.

The relationship between the US and China for example has been in the dark side for decades. Exports and imports between the two countries have been hampered by the political interests and differing ideas of these two countries. The textile markets between these countries have never achieved their full potential. Looking at the American industry, the number of jobs that were lost in this period with trade barriers were totaling to the thousands.

This meant that more Americans were jobless and there was little income coming from this sector. The removal of the trade sanctions in 2005 has seen an increase in the trade of textile and especially in the trade of the demin material.

Everybody in the word seems to be in love with the denim jeans. It therefore would be no surprise to find at least 10 pairs of jeans in each house hold in America. The denim business is a giant catch, raking in over 50 billion dollars each year. There are over 70 countries involved in the production of jeans in the world; the big producers are China and Mexico.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business of denim has become so global, that it is literally evident in the threads that make the materials. Different countries e.g. India, Azerbaijan, Turkey, United States and Pakistan produce the cotton that is used to make the denim fabric. Snyder’s Fugitive Denim looks at the business of Jeans and its impact on the lives of those involved, as well as its impact on the environment.

One of the counties explored was the United States. Different fashions have come and gone but the denim jeans seems to have outlived them all; only evolving to become the iconic fashion symbol of the 20th and perhaps the 21st century. However, in the last few years, cotton production has been of low benefit to the farmers as the world market prices plunged.

Farmers in the United States enjoy subsidies from the government unlike some of their counterparts from others parts of the world. They also use methods of farming that are less harmful to the environment. When you buy your jeans from the shop, chances are that the pair contains up to 3.5 % of pesticides used during production.

It is no wonder that the American farmers have adopted safer methods that avoid the usage of Pesticides. The farmers are using genetically modified cotton seeds. The impact of the toxic pesticides has been felt by farmers in the third world; who do not have the privilege of advancing their farming methods. Farmers in these regions end up developing lung and other long term diseases such as cancer.

Furthermore the textile industry has been riddled with scandals of child and slave labour. The most affected counties being china and Cambodia which have numerous scattered sweatshops. Other impacts of the textile business are those of water pollution and soil degradation. Being a water intensive type of farming, farmers channel water to their farms from the rivers.

This leaves some of the rivers with no way of supporting life. Some of the water also gets contaminated with the chemicals from the farms leaving the soils toxic and dangerous to human life. The world system theory suggests that the world economy has disparities in economic development. That development largely depends on the technological knowhow of a state. Making the United States at the top of this hierarchy followed by her counterparts in Europe.

And the tasks or works that require higher levels of skill and capitalization are reserved for these regions making the third world a peripheral region and receiver of the remnants of the maldistribution of resources. Hence, current progress of the world economy tends to enlarge the economic and social gaps even further.

We will write a custom Essay on The textile Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leaves the third world a beggar of sorts (Chase-Dunn and Grimes, 1995). It would be safe to say that the world-systems theory is drawn from the dependency theory. This is further defined as a macro-sociological existence, where different states or regions depend on each other for the basic survival kits which include food, fuel, and perhaps protection.

There is a presence of a power hierarchy. There are regions or states that exist in the core and are considered to dictate terms of business to the other regions that exist within the periphery. Technology seems to be a power weapon in the quest for domination.

The peripheral countries are structurally disabled to pull themselves out of the murky situation and formulate policies that are development oriented. The core states maintain the system as well as try to pull out the peripheral states by offering their surplus (Goldfrank, 2000).

Do I agree with this world-systems theory? It is quite evident that the third world countries have remained in the same status as they were economically; while the developed countries continue to rich themselves from the spoils they get from their exploits.

Even though the developed world is offering help on one hand, the other hand seems to be taking. This makes me agree with wallerstein’s theory.

Works Cited Chase-Dunn,