Use Of Simulation In Military Essay College Essay Help

The military has got a variety of applications which require new technology such as simulation. The uses include training the officers, rehearsing for military operations, testing and conducting evaluations and analyzing the effectiveness of war activities. Military training can be classified into training at the units or technical training. Technical training is usually structured from the time it begins till its end while training at the unit involves practical use of the tools that the trainee will be expected to use.

There are various types of simulation used by the military in its operations and in offering training to the officers. The simulation can be subdivided into two the first sub division comprising of systems and the people. The second sub division can comprise systems and people combined together and it can also be in such a way that there is neither people nor systems or one of the two.

The first type of simulation used in the military is live simulation. This type of simulation is comprised of systems and people that are alive in a situation involving a large group of people taking part in a simulated battle. The simulated battle employs live weapons and other equipment used in war.

This type of simulation is intended at preparing the officers for war. It is a real encounter that soldiers experience without necessarily going to battle fields. Militaries of different countries establish several locations in their countries to offer this type of training (Hang, 2011).

The second application of simulation in the military is the use of virtual simulation. It is among the most widely used new technologies in the military. It is used by military personnel to offer training to soldiers and aviators to guarantee success in the battle fields. Virtual simulation is used in conjunction with tank simulators which are used in training soldiers effective use of battlefield tanks.

Virtual simulation has made it possible for soldiers and operators of the tanks to network and take part in simulated wars even when they are in different locations. The wars would otherwise have been impossible because of the costs involved in transporting the soldiers and purchasing the required equipment were they to be conducted live. The training offered through virtual simulation enables the soldiers to acquire new skills that are crucial in war by participating in the exercises (Sokolowski

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Knowledge of Organizational Management Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Primary Leadership Theories

Applications of Various Leadership Theories in Business Settings

Strengths and Weaknesses of Contemporary Leadership Models

Conclusion

References

Introduction Leadership in profit making and non-profit making organizations has been under study for the past one century. As a result, there have been various theories explaining effective leadership in profit and non-profit making organizations. Leaders have been defined as being individuals with lots of impacts on others to act in a manner that will ensure attainment of organization’s goal or objective.

However, there has been no enough information explaining the application of such leadership theories in business setting. In addition, the strength and weaknesses of contemporary leadership models have not been exploited fully. As a result, this easy critically demonstrates an application of my knowledge of organization management by synthesizing the information from different readings and class work into work and life experience in organization management.

Primary Leadership Theories According to Yuki (1994), “the main primary leadership theories used in profit and non-profit organizations are Trait Theory, the Behavior Theory and the Contingency Theory. Current leadership theories being researched are Transformational and Servant Leadership.” (Yukl, 1994)

Trait Theory: this theory assumes that people are born already having traits which are inherited from generation to another in their lineage. There are some traits which are suited for leadership while others are not. As a result, proponents of this theory try to differentiate different traits in leaders who have been perceived as being great.

They have tried to research on physical traits like the leaders’ height as well as psychological like temperament. At long last, their studies have proved the fact that there exist no universal traits of such leaders. However, there are some traits which were found to be of much significance for any leader. Such traits include “Adaptable to situations, Alert to social environment, Ambitious and achievement-orientated, Assertive, Cooperative, Decisive and Dependable,” (Science.jrank.org 2011) among others.

On the other hand, the theory identifies various skills required by any leader in order to be termed as great. Such skills include, “Clever (intelligent), conceptually skilled, Creative, Diplomatic and tactful, Knowledgeable about group task, Organized, Persuasive, and socially skilled.” (Science.jrank.org 2011)

Behavior Theory: it has been stipulated that, behaviors are significant for any leader. This is because; it has been assumed that, behaviors are very important as compared to physical characteristics or mental traits. Studies have found that “Two types of behavior correlate with great leaders, according to the theory: the ability to organize a task and the ability to express consideration for subordinates.” (Rowe 2007)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contingency theory: according to this theory, the most significant quality of any great leader is his or her capability to respond to any contingency that he or she is faced with. Some of these significant contingencies include “respect level, kind of trust felt by workers for the leader, the level at which the leader can organize any task ahead of him or her, as well as the control over reward and recognition processes for his/her subordinates.” (Science.jrank.org 2011)

Servant and Transformational Leadership Theory: this theory states that, “leaders who are transformational have the ability to impact their subordinates by being examples and much inspiration by him/her-self.” (Jago 1982) Such leaders usually motivate their subordinates to an extent that they end up performing above and even beyond their job stipulations.

Servant leadership on the other hand denies leaders the privilege position, by giving them a responsibility position. This gives them the responsibility of achieving best possible results for the organization they are working for, the subordinates as well as customers or clients.

Applications of Various Leadership Theories in Business Settings There exist no single leadership theory that has been applied in business, but in case there is a single application of leadership theory, no matter the process, leaders have brought success in business. However, the difference comes in the processes under which one brings such success. Successful business operations depend much on leadership theories. Such theories have been applied in casting visions, motivating employees as well as positive change implementation.

Leadership theories like transformational and behavior theories have been applied directly in the development

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What is Applied Management Science? Definition Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Decision-making encompasses all aspects of human life. However, the problem is how to ascertain whether one has the required skills and knowledge to make optimal decisions. This led to the emergence of Applied Management Science as an important field in various sectors of learning. Applied refers to making practical application of something that is not theoretical.

Management on the other hand refers to the control of activities within the set guidelines and policies for the achievement of specific objectives. Science is the identification, observation, investigation, and explanation of theoretical phenomena. Applied Management Science therefore refers to the science of solving business problems. It assists business managers in making optimal, informed, and satisfactory decisions.

Business managers face complex and dynamic challenges that not only demand forethought, but also call for optimal and informed decisions making to provide solutions to business challenges on daily basis. This calls for developing complex scientific models capable of analyzing the situations and providing indicators that assist managers in decision-making.

Applied Management Science therefore ensures that decisions made by business managers are products of strategic thinking processes and are aimed at improving operations. In other words, it offers practical information in decision making that is an indicator to success in business.

The process of mainstream decision-making has not received mainstream attention because of the dynamic and evolving nature of business challenges. The development of a universally accepted decision making model becomes a big challenge because business decisions change and remain unique within the each business set-up and culture.

Despite the fact that business, education, and psychology communities embrace decision aides, the public may not adopt the application of these aides. This is because most decisions made by the public are personal and may not demand complex processes to determine their levels of accuracy.

Indecisiveness has been a major problem to psychologists because it does not translate to anything good in life. The inability to make a decision and pursue a course presents unwanted challenges within career and family. Human beings must have a determination in life and to move ahead with ambitions, there must be the component of decision-making on what and where one is moving. Indecision in career, family, and general life translates to failure, confusion, unfulfilled ambitions, and frustrations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To entrench the character of courage and instill ambition on an individual, it is imperative that decision-making skills be taught in high schools. This is because of its implications on an individual and in society. Skills in decision-making and right judgment should be enhanced on an individual from early age.

From the discussions, it is seen that management science is a form of applied decision-making in organizations, and business problem solving. This is because it enhances the capacity of business managers to make rational and satisfactory decisions that not only solve problems in business, but also ensure improvement in operations.

Whereas some schools of thought posit that management science make decisions, the reality is that management science equips managers with the skills in making satisfactory decisions. These involve a combination of qualitative techniques, hypothesis formulation, and analysis to find solutions to complex management problems.

Quantitative analysis for management problems has become more widely used in the past years because it employs scientific and systematic techniques and procedures in seeking solutions to management problems.

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Effect of Ethnocentrism on an Individual and Society Essay essay help

Defined as a universal syndrome of attitude and behaviour that entails the tendency to view the world from the perspective of one’s culture (Brown, 2003), ethnocentrism has profound impact on individuals, society and multinational corporations.

This is because an entrenched belief in one’s cultural superiority over the others determines the forms of relationship an individual extends towards people of different cultures. However, research abides in the fact that everyone is ethnocentric and it is almost impossible to avoid being ethnocentric.

After watching Dream keepers: A Spirit Journey into Aboriginal Australia by Harvey Arden, what rings into the mind is the effect of ethnocentrism on an individual and society. Total neglect and marginalization encompass the daily lives of the aborigines because of the ethnocentric belief that their culture are not only inferior, but they are not fit enough to join the Australian mainstream society.

The effect of ethnocentrism on an individual is precipitated by false assumptions about cultural differences. It reinforces wrong assumptions and premature judgements on people of different cultures and therefore gives a vague feeling of superiority. Through such a wrong evaluation, an individual misses important aspects of life because ethnocentrism tends to evaluate others by what we are best at.

According to Sanders (2002), “membership in an ethnic group is typically evaluated in terms of one or more observable characteristics (such as language, accent, physical features, or religion) that are regarded as indicating common descent.” Furthermore, it affects interpersonal relationship an individual develops with a person of a different culture.

At the society levels, ethnocentrism deters the interaction among people of different cultures, ethnic groups, gender and age. Chirot and Seligman (2001) indicate that ethnocentrism has impacted largely on ethnic conflicts, wars and patterns of voting. It is pointed out as a major impediment to societal cohesion and peaceful co-existence among people of different cultures.

According to Rogers and Laitin (1998), “ethnocentrism can be in-group favouritism or out-group hostility.” This is a pointer to the fact that societal problems such as ethnic cleansing, colonialism and racism are products of ethnocentrism of out-group hostility. Multiple forms of discrimination against members of different societies have denied people their human rights and fundamental freedoms. Furthermore, governmental neglect and group marginalization are directly linked to ethnocentrism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In multinational corporations, ethnocentrism presents the biggest challenge in diversity management and is a determinant to consumer choice. In the understanding that appreciating diversity in organizations demand that each individual form a bigger part of the business entity and must work together knowing that their objectives and goals are far greater than their differences, ethnocentrism deters collective appreciation and the sharing of common purpose.

Despite being a major component of an organization’s life and forms the very foundation of organization’s stability, diversity management remains a challenge to multinational firms because of the premature judgment of an individual’s or group’s superiority. Furthermore, it negatively effects communication, which is as a key success factor in organizational climate and it has been directly linked to job satisfaction, performance, and overall organizational effectiveness.

Consumers have become complex the choices of their products. Driven by cultural beliefs and ethnocentrism, consumers would easily shun a product because of perceived cultural inferiority of country of origin. A car manufactured in China would definitely not expect good reviews in the United States. In summary, it can be discerned from the above discussions that knowingly or unknowingly, ethnocentrism plays a critical role in the relationship we develop and the choices we make.

References Brown, D.E. (2003). Ethnicity and ethnocentrism; Are they natural? In Race and ethnicity: An anthropological focus on the United States and the world (ed.) R. Scupin. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Chirot, D. and Seligman, M.E.P. (2001). Ethno political Warfare: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions. Washington DC: American psychological Association

Rogers, R. and Laitin, D.D. (1998). Ethnic and National Violence. Annual Review of Sociology. 24:423-452.

Sanders, J. M. (2002). Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in Plural Societies. Annual Review of Sociology. 28:327-57.

We will write a custom Essay on Effect of Ethnocentrism on an Individual and Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction The author candidly extracts into the rich and expanse history of the world’s principal religions which are; Taoism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Judaism. Intentionally, the author avoids digging into the simple but complex minutiae detectable in religious history.

This includes evading the attempts of explaining why religion was exploited as a vehicle of destruction. As the author observes “The sanctioning theological as well as metaphysical genuineness of the world’s creeds are . enthused. Institutions – religious establishments categorically included – are a different story.” (Smith 188) .

The author thus kicks off with a watchful and clear prose supported with witty details for the best reflection of all seven influential religions. And this includes their fundamental beliefs and intrinsic beauty.

The books presentation shows that the author is a genius in regard to correlation. More so, the unfamiliar, disputably, fantastic religious abstractions are cleverly summed up. Take, for instance, the Christian teachings of the Trinity, “It holds that whilst God is entirely one, God is as well three. The second half of this declaration compels the Jews and Muslims to question if Christians are truthfully monotheists, but Christians are convinced that they are (Smith 100).

Analysis The book is a must read. The way religious dynamics are explored forges a strong ground for nurturing respect for both individual and religious beliefs .This has been achieved through the elaborate explanation of the ostensibly incompatible religious configurations.

The scope and extents of Taoism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Judaism are intricately handled. The author achieves this task by giving these religious systems a profound analysis. In essence, the book is made superb by the simple integration of wisdom carried in religious sayings. Hence, the book offers a candid insight into the nature of man and religion. Thus, it can be argued that the book is for anyone interested in exploring the world of religion.

What the author has done is to cover all the major religions giving the reader a deep and profound understanding of religious dynamics. Also the book stands as one of the few meaningful and insightful works on religions. This concept is supplemented by the author’s insightful discussion surrounding the historical interlude in which each religion was founded or the issues that contributed to the birth of each.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another notable feature of this book is that it incorporates both religious and cultural attributes that are significant to each religion. And this is well illustrated by the deep explanations and comparisons of all the seven religions. For instance, if one is interested in understanding the concepts of Roman Catholicism along the path of Protestantism, the book provides a wealth of information in such areas abundantly.

For those who have never read this book, it is a classic exploration of religions; it is an examination of religions dynamics and configuration in the world. Also diverse features have been added such as the indigenous philosophies allied to Native Americans, Pacific Islanders and Australians. However, the authors influence and style of presentation gives the book a strong appeal that reflects the core tenets and philosophies of each religion covered .

It is on that respect the author states that the aim of this book is to stand as an exploration of diverse religious ideas and beliefs. Also, he warns that the book is not a balanced narration of its perceived subject rather it is anchored on the foundation of values. With the author’s suggestions at the end of each chapter, the book can be said to be a rich source in regard to understanding the world religions.

In essence, the book plays a fundamental role in highlighting the conflicting trends related to the world religions. Given the immensity and the abundance of information gathered in this book, it would be instrumental to assert that it satisfies the broader requirements of understanding the fundamentals of human and religion interaction.

Also, the book examines the emerging religious trends such as Baha’i beliefs, Mormonism, as well as the scope of Scientology. Thus, by investing ones time in reading this book can be instrumental in understanding the genesis of world religions. Including the pivotal roles they have played in bringing man closer to God.

Conclusion The book is easy to read. It is not a documented history of major world religion or a rigorous analysis of comparative religion. It is a superb and successful endeavor to put the fundamental wisdom of the major world religions in one book. The beauty of this book lies in that it has managed to bring together the differences that are evident in the global religions.

More so, the author has established that no religion is superior or greater than the other. Also by following the cultural trends in examining the scope and extents of all major global religions, he has shown that each community and nation has abundant but diversified opinion on religion.

We will write a custom Report on Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man. New York: Harper

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Hate Crime and Society Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A hate crime is a crime which is perpetuated against an individual based on his or her membership to a certain group of people in the society. Hate crimes may include things like assault, murder, harassment and injuries. The grounds under which hate crimes may be committed include race, ethnicity, gender, age, nationality, political association, religion and one’s social status.

Hate crime has got its history in the times of Nazism in which many Jews were exterminated in what has been explained by many international relations analysts as the worst genocide ever. After the World War II, hate crimes continued to persist, with the United States having the greatest number of cases of reported hate crimes mostly due to its diverse culture.

The typical individual who commits hate crimes is usually motivated by prejudice and bias against a certain group of people depending on their characteristics which I have mentioned above. The individual is usually guided by innate hatred towards the victims, based on what he or she has learned or how he has been socialized to perceive the victims.

Such an individual who commits hate crimes is usually different from the victims, especially in terms of colour, race, ethnicity and religion. The person is motivated by his or her prejudicial perception of the victims to commit the crimes against them. The perpetrator is also motivated by jealousy, ill intent, malice, jeopardy and the spirit of Nazism, which makes people have the feeling of wanting to eliminate those who are different from them.

In the United States where the rates of hate crimes are high, the targets of hate crimes are the Black Americans followed by Hispanic Americans. This is because of racism, which portrays the Black Americans and Hispanic Americans as the minority. The hate crimes take the forms of violence, murder, harassment as well as discrimination in employment and leadership. In the United States, hate crimes also take the form of domestic violence mostly involving Black American woman married to husbands of the white race (Myrdal 17).

One of the key causes of hate crimes is discrimination. Most of the crimes involve elements of hatred based on ones characteristics. Prejudice is also another key cause of these crimes and it makes the perpetrators view their targets as incomplete humans, who do not deserve any space in their territory. These causes are however not based on facts, but on mere hatred without any factual basis (Foucault 43).

One effect of hate crime is a feeling of lowered self-esteem among the victims, which interferes with their psychological stability thus exposing them to the risks of suffering from mental disorders like depression. Hate crime also makes the victims vulnerable to social and political risks like discrimination based on social class and political violence which target specific groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hate crimes may be reduced by integrating the education systems, so that all students would get an opportunity to study together irrespective of their socio-cultural, economic, racial, religious and ethnic backgrounds. This would enable them to learn to stay with people who are different from them from childhood.

The rationale behind this argument is that the socialization process plays a very crucial role in shaping the children’s perception of others. If the children begin to study with others who are from different backgrounds from early age, then they will learn to appreciate them instead of hating them. The gap between the rich and the poor also needs to be addressed, so as to minimise discrimination based on social class.

Works Cited Foucault. Discipline and punishment: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979:43.Print.

Myrdal. An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996:17.Print.

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The Mind’s Eye Review Essay writing essay help

Introduction Oliver Sachs thesis is based on the neuroscience sensory areas of the brain. Through his interactions with several blind people and reading their memoirs he has come to the conclusion that there is a rich interconnectedness and interactions of the sensory organs of the brain.

One cannot really explain that anything in life is purely visual and that another object is purely auditory. The sensory modalities therefore cannot be considered in isolation at all. The blind people have the ability to build highly descriptive visual images from the information that they receive from other sensory organs such as speech and sound. Language can cause a blind person to visualize and describe landscapes so beautifully yet he has never seen the place.

A blind person can describe landscapes with colors so beautifully that a sighted person even wonders who between the two of them is blind. He therefore concludes that visual capabilities are not simply dependent on the physical eyes. The mind of an individual has an eye which is capable of generating and holding images. Both the sighted and the blind have visual capabilities though they are different. The title of the essay, “Mind’s Eye” is therefore very appropriately used by Sach’s in writing down his findings of his research.

The blind and sighted people therefore according to Sachs both use their visual senses. He had believed previously that the brains of the people who had lost visual or hearing capabilities had gone through an adjustment process. For blind people, the visual capabilities had been reallocated or transferred to other sensory capabilities such as sound and smell. Blind people had heightened sound and smell capabilities.

This was demonstrated by the interaction Sachs had with Dennis Shulman, a clinical psychologist. Dennis had become very alert after becoming completely blind. He could recognize patients by their smells. He could also sense the moods that a patient was in when he or she came to see him.

He would immediately sense when the person became tense or anxious. He had realized that sighted people relied too much on visual appearances of an individual yet it was so easy for an individual to camouflage and present a fake picture of his character and his feelings. He felt that the smells and the sounds of people revealed much clearly people’s depths in who they actually were.

It was with this view of reallocation of the brain sensory organs that Sachs approached the study on adjustment after blindness in adults. However his view changed after the study. He interacts with several blind people who have different experiences in adjusting to life after blindness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oliver read the memoirs of John Hull who had lost vision in his left eye gradually from the ages of thirteen to seventeen. The right eye became completely blind at forty eight. It had started becoming weaker from the time he was thirty five. Hull lost his visual memories and imagery. Concepts such as the appearances of people and objects were no longer applicable to him (Hull, 1992, pg 23). He started to rely more on other senses especially hearing.

Oliver proposes that the reason for this could be that his blindness was gradual. Zoltan Torrey, on the hand, a psychologist who had lost his sight immediately through an accident had different experiences from Hull. He had been advised to switch from visual to an auditory mode of adjustment however he refused to do that (Torrey, 2004, pg 45).

Instead he worked to develop the inner eye and sharpen his visual imagery as much as possible. He is skilled in generating and manipulating images in his mind. He constructed a visual image world in his mind that resembled the real world so much such that he was able to even do repairs of his roof in the middle of the night. Oliver Sachs suggests that the visual abilities of Torrey were possible due to the rich childhood that he had.

While growing up, Torrey grew up in an intellectual environment of writers and artists. His father, a film studio owner, brought him scripts regularly to read when he came home from work. From a young age he learnt to work his imagination by visualizing stories, plots and characters. When he became blind he decided to hold on to light and visual sight as much as possible.

Oliver Sachs also interacted with SabriyeTenberken, a blind woman who had different experiences after becoming blind. While Hull and Torrey had been concerned with their mental adaptation after loss of sight, Sabriye had acquired great passion to help blind people after becoming blind.

She had travelled all over Tibet establishing schools for the blind and providing systems for the integration of these graduates back into the community. The people of Tibet generally do not treat the blind people well. They lack equal opportunities to excel in academics and professional careers.

For Sabriye, she had impaired eyesight from birth. Till the age of twelve, she could make shapes of people and landscapes. Twenty years after losing her sight completely,

We will write a custom Essay on The Mind’s Eye Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More she has strong pictorial and synesthetic abilities. She has the ability to give deep verbal descriptions of landscapes. Her descriptions are so vivid they even astonish her listeners. She still possesses her visual memories. Oliver Sachs writes that her visual prowess can be traced to the fact that when she was as young as age five she had been fond of painting and colors.

Her attraction to colors is so intense that words and figures can represented in her mind in connection with specific color shades. The number four to Sabriye is represented as gold. At the end of the day Sachs finds that the way an individual will life his life after being blind may depend on such factors such as the age total blindness occurred, whether the blindness was gradual or immediate and the experiences the individual had gone through prior to the blindness.

The common factor among the blind people was that the cornea was more sensitive to signals from the other senses after the person become blind. The question though is the role of sight senses in the lives of the individual. Sachs summarizes his view on his interactions with the blind people by saying that Torrey’s visual prowess was due to his upbringing. Torrey was visually inclined from the time he was young.

He could come up with highly visual stories whose plot was based on the scripts his father brought him to read. Torrey as an individual was already skilled in visual imagery and manipulation of the imagery even before he lost his sight (Sachs, 2010, pg 55) Sachs in explaining why other blind people had different experiences from Hull says that

SabriyeTenberken had several physiological factors different from Hull. From the time Sabriye was young, she was attracted to painting and the different colors that artists used. Even before she became blind, her brain was able to look at letters and numbers and associate them with certain shapes and colors. Her visual cortex already had a great relationship or connectivity with language and sound. When such an individual as Sabriye goes blind, the visual imagery will continue and even in several cases be heightened (Sachs, 2010, pg 55 )

After reviewing the three experiences, Oliver Sachs concludes that there is no such term as a “typical blind experience. He met Dennis Shulman, a clinical psychoanalyst who thirty five years later after gradually losing his sight in his teens had different experiences from Hull.

Shulman viewed the world from a visual standpoint. He has visual images of his wife and kids though he has never seen them. He even saw his Braille notes which he used for lecturing as visual images. An elderly woman, Arlene Gordon, who is seventy years old had strong visual images. She could “see” her hands when she moved them about. While listening to audio books she felt like the spoken words were actually printed

Finally, Oliver Sachs He compares the accounts of the blind people in his essay and is struck by how different the experiences are when it comes to visual images and memories. Hull had no visual memories or images, over time they had disappeared. Torrey had determined to concentrate on visual imagery in his life daily and it had paid off. Sabriye was blessed highly with visual imagery. Sachs therefore supports his thesis or argument well. There is a high interconnectedness in the sensory organs of the brain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Mind’s Eye Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Hull, John. Touching the Rock: An Experience of Blindness. New York: Vintage publishers.1992. Print.

Sachs, Oliver. The Mind’s Eye. New York: Knopf publishers. 2010. Print.

Torrey, Zoltan. Out of Darkness. Australia : Pan Macmillan publishers. 2004. Print.

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Hate Crime and Society Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

A hate crime is a crime which is perpetuated against an individual based on his or her membership to a certain group of people in the society. Hate crimes may include things like assault, murder, harassment and injuries. The grounds under which hate crimes may be committed include race, ethnicity, gender, age, nationality, political association, religion and one’s social status.

Hate crime has got its history in the times of Nazism in which many Jews were exterminated in what has been explained by many international relations analysts as the worst genocide ever. After the World War II, hate crimes continued to persist, with the United States having the greatest number of cases of reported hate crimes mostly due to its diverse culture.

The typical individual who commits hate crimes is usually motivated by prejudice and bias against a certain group of people depending on their characteristics which I have mentioned above. The individual is usually guided by innate hatred towards the victims, based on what he or she has learned or how he has been socialized to perceive the victims.

Such an individual who commits hate crimes is usually different from the victims, especially in terms of colour, race, ethnicity and religion. The person is motivated by his or her prejudicial perception of the victims to commit the crimes against them. The perpetrator is also motivated by jealousy, ill intent, malice, jeopardy and the spirit of Nazism, which makes people have the feeling of wanting to eliminate those who are different from them.

In the United States where the rates of hate crimes are high, the targets of hate crimes are the Black Americans followed by Hispanic Americans. This is because of racism, which portrays the Black Americans and Hispanic Americans as the minority. The hate crimes take the forms of violence, murder, harassment as well as discrimination in employment and leadership. In the United States, hate crimes also take the form of domestic violence mostly involving Black American woman married to husbands of the white race (Myrdal 17).

One of the key causes of hate crimes is discrimination. Most of the crimes involve elements of hatred based on ones characteristics. Prejudice is also another key cause of these crimes and it makes the perpetrators view their targets as incomplete humans, who do not deserve any space in their territory. These causes are however not based on facts, but on mere hatred without any factual basis (Foucault 43).

One effect of hate crime is a feeling of lowered self-esteem among the victims, which interferes with their psychological stability thus exposing them to the risks of suffering from mental disorders like depression. Hate crime also makes the victims vulnerable to social and political risks like discrimination based on social class and political violence which target specific groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hate crimes may be reduced by integrating the education systems, so that all students would get an opportunity to study together irrespective of their socio-cultural, economic, racial, religious and ethnic backgrounds. This would enable them to learn to stay with people who are different from them from childhood.

The rationale behind this argument is that the socialization process plays a very crucial role in shaping the children’s perception of others. If the children begin to study with others who are from different backgrounds from early age, then they will learn to appreciate them instead of hating them. The gap between the rich and the poor also needs to be addressed, so as to minimise discrimination based on social class.

Works Cited Foucault. Discipline and punishment: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979:43.Print.

Myrdal. An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1996:17.Print.

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God and Holy Scriptures Expository Essay essay help online free

The sacred has always been the opposite of profane. The profane views show that the existence of humans is totally a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the holy scriptures of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam exhibit the sacred as all-powerful that has complete power over all humans, humans have to obey God, and they cannot do anything without his will.

Human mind is incapable and insufficient to understand the existence of God. Based on the evidences from the texts of the Holy Scriptures, this essay demonstrates some indicators, which differentiate God from humans and present God as a sacred reality. It also shows how God is portrayed in the sacred scriptures, and how is it different from the traditional philosophies.

The dichotomy between the sacred and profane are not new, both are opposite from each other. The traditional philosophies presented by Kant (1854) in his book called “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” have suggested that the nature of God is similar to that of the humans.

Moreover, if the humans have weakness, disorder and disturbance than the nature of God is also not free from these weaknesses. Kant’s book “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” questions that if God is the one who puts everything in order, than who puts God in order.

Other traditional philosophies about the idea of God suggest that human existence in this world occurred because of a coincidence. Darwinian philosophy is one such example, who believes that humans are going through biological evolution. Cunningham and Kelsay, suggest that there are some factors, which indicate the sacred as real. They argue that the features of the God are “Specially Distinctive” from that of the humans. God is distinctive from the human nature because he controls the humans.

The prime reason that the God is distinctive from others is that he is the creator. Even the creation of a very minute thing needs a maker, and it is not possible that things come in complete harmony without God. Humans are also creators but only of their own social world, their creation is finite and they could not provide any thing to others without the help of God. This is the theology mainly demonstrated in the Holy Scriptures.

Holy Scriptures shows that God is distinctive because he has the supernatural powers he is infinite, and in complete harmony. The Book of Genesis maintains that God send a ram through his angle from the sky when Abraham was about to sacrifice his son (Genesis: 22, 13). Similarly, when the God was about to descend on Mount Sinai there was a thick cloud over the mountain and there was a loud thunder and lightning (Exodus: 19, 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More God is also beyond the volitional control of human beings. Although, the traditional philosophies could argue against it, the Holy Scriptures form the major faiths of the world show that God is beyond human aspirations. One such example could be found in ‘The book of Genesis’.

In order to test the faith of Abraham, God ordered him to sacrifice his only son (Genesis: 22, 1-20). Of course, this was against Abraham’s will, because why would anyone want to sacrifice his only son. Abraham succeeded in sacrificing his son Isaac, God greatly approved his act, and told him that he only wanted to test his faith.

It is proved in the example that God loves those who succeed in sacrificing their beloved for the sake of God. However, no one can go against his intention. The God wants humans to obey his commands. The book of Exodus also expresses that if the humans obey his command, and will work according to his intentions, then God will render his blessing over him. God does not want anyone to cross the limits of his commands. The humans are powerless before God (Exodus: 20, 1-24).

Cunningham and Kelsay have also suggested that God is also concerned with the welfare of the humans. God through his providence provide guidance to the humans so that they could live with peace in the world. God called Moses on Mount Sinai and passed down the guidance for the Israelites, known as the “Ten Commandments.”

If the context of these commandments is explored, one could indicate that they are so well defined in terms of welfare of the human beings that if humans only conform to these ten rules provided by God, there will be a complete peace in the world. These commandments prohibit murders, adultery, and theft and so on. God also asks to honour the father and mother, and ask not to make any other god beside him (Exodus: 20, 1-24).

Similar, the idea of the reward and the punishment of the God is also related to the welfare of the humans. If there is no punishment for the wrong actions of the humans, there will be complete chaos in the world. Similarly, the reward is also necessary. All the scriptures of the major faiths of the world show that God rewards his beloved in the form of blessings. In addition, God promises reward for them in the after world.

God is determinative of human existence. God arranges the livelihood of the humans, he provides him food and shelter, and if he wishes, he could withhold it from them.

We will write a custom Essay on God and Holy Scriptures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Quran, the example of Joseph is provided, their brothers plotted against Joseph. Initially they succeed, and they removed Joseph from his parents. However, in the longer run they failed. Because God provided Joseph was provided with power to control the wealth. It is written in Quran that God established Joseph in Egypt and gave him knowledge and wisdom when he reached his youth.

In the end of Joseph’s story, he was in possession of the wealth of whole of Egypt, at a time when the whole of Egypt was facing drought. His brothers were completely helpless as they asked mercy form Joseph without realizing him as their brother. Quran suggest that this story is provided as an example that God has complete control of all the possession and the wealth of the world and provide it to only those he wishes (Quran: 12, 1-111).

Holy scriptures present God as sacred reality. Humans have very limited powers in the world and they could not do anything in this world without free will. On the other hand, God is free from all kind of bounds. God could use his power with free will. God is the determinative of the human existence, and provide humans with guidance for their welfare, and God rewards those who fulfil his wishes. Hence, the Holy scriptures present the reality of God as completely different from the traditional philosophies.

Works Cited Cunningham, Lawrence S. and John Kelsay. The Sacred Quest An Invitation to the Study of Religion. Prentice Hall, 2009

Hume, David. “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.” Ed. Kemp Smith. 1854.

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Analysis of “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption” Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Insatiable Nature of Human Consumption

Excessive Consumption and Environmental Degradation

Excessive Consumption and Wars/Conflicts

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Allan Durning, in his piece “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption”, argues against the unchecked consumption in the developed world. As a researcher on the social aspects of increased consumption characteristic of western societies such as the US and the UK, he cautions that the pursuit of happiness by individuals in such societies should not be tied to materialistic gains.

By offering research findings on the level of contentment by people in different societies, he shows that monetary benefits and acquisition of material wealth are not related to increased happiness; on the contrary, such unbridled pursuit for wealth and unchecked consumption contributes to environmental degradation, wars and conflicts, and exacerbates such phenomena as global warming.

Insatiable Nature of Human Consumption The author argues that although the general feeling amongst many people is that they would achieve a higher level of happiness if only they could increase their income, such a notion is untrue. Durning quotes Aristotle by stating that, “the avarice of mankind is insatiable” (770). According to research findings presented in the article, the levels of happiness for people in higher income groups compared to those of lower income groups are not different (Durning 773).

The author’s aim is to show that the belief in a notion that happiness is commensurate to increased income is merely a psychological belief similar to the notion ‘the grass is greener on the other side’, even when this is never the case. The author therefore, argues that understanding the insatiability of human desires, greed and wants is the beginning of liberation from the extreme desire for material gains characteristic of citizens of western nations.

Excessive Consumption and Environmental Degradation Excessive and unnecessary consumption prevalent in many western societies have a negative impact on the environment. According to the author, since the year 1940, Americans have consumed more resources than all previous generations of the world combined (Durning 771).

This startling statistic opens a window of analysis of the effects of such a ‘culture of consumption’ in the world’s resources. Consumption and acquisition of goods such as cars and other gadgets and appliances in the home inevitably leads to higher energy needs. Factories and industries created to produce these machines and appliances for home use are the biggest contributors to global warming. More vehicles on the roads also emit carbon fumes that worsen an already pathetic situation.

Excessive Consumption and Wars/Conflicts Furthermore, as energy needs fuelled by consumption rise, the limited natural resources that service this need continue to dwindle. The over-reliance on oil as the chief source of energy by most western nations has directly contributed to the many wars that have been fought in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf – region with some of the world’s largest known oil reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More American interest in the Persian Gulf is exclusively due to the presence of oil reserves, and with oil as the chief source of energy for the average American consumer, successive American governments have been willing to wage war in order to secure the oil fields in this region.

Conclusion Excessive consumption amongst individuals in western societies creates a sense of dissatisfaction in people, contributes to environmental degradation and fuels wars and conflicts related to securing natural resources. Therefore, western nations would do well to take cognisance of these facts, and undertake policies that limit excessive consumption and utilise more sustainable energy sources that reduce conflicts.

Works Cited Durning, Allan. “The Dubious Rewards of Consumption.” In Bill McKibben (Ed.),

American Earth: Environmental Writing since Thoreau (pp.770-780). New York: Library of America, 2008.

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Self-actualization and Self-transcendence Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Self-actualization is a concept that people have advocated for ages. In creating the hierarchy of need, Abraham Maslow placed the concept on the apex of his tier, as a tremendously vital element, which points out how man comes to realize the need for others after he has managed to provide for all his other superficial needs.

Many people conform to this principle. It is even evident in contemporary music with lyrics such as “…when I grow up, I want to be famous…I want to be a movie star” (Steven 23), which reflect the mentality of most people. However, at the end of his life, Maslow made a crucial revision to his hierarchy. Sad enough, it did not capture the attention of many people. He added another tier above self-actualization, which was for ‘self transcendence’.

Whereas self-actualization is the way to go about in gaining wealth, self-transcendence is the principle to apply during the retention, utilization, and building of such wealth while still enjoying the above processes and finding reasons to continue living.

Maslow’s change of heart from self-actualization, as the highest achievement one can have, to self-transcendence was triggered by a realization that even after amassing excessive quantities of wealth, knowledge power and other desirable qualities, man does not have what it takes to live a contented life.

Instead, this is only possible if one engages actively in the fulfillment of service to someone greater than one is, or other than self. It is no longer enough to live and die as the richest man alive. Whereas this may be acceptable in one’s youth, it becomes evident that, with time, it is no longer enough just to be rich. That is when people go different ways. Some seek out fame and celebrity status, which serves as a confirmation or reaffirmation of their wealthy status.

In turn, this makes them contented, knowing that they are ahead based on most people’s standards. When the excitement of fame wanes, they seek more challenges and some venture into drugs now because they cannot seem to find any contentment in their normal livelihood or the pressure that comes with trying to keep up with society’s expectations is too much for them to handle.

While growing up, many people have but one paramount goal in their life: to become rich. They do not specify the method they intend to apply to get rich. They just set it as the destination. This vision could be counterproductive. This follows because when they are aging, they feel that their clocks are ticking. Most people will employ whatever method they deem necessary to become rich. If they become rich, without any plan on what they intended to do with their wealth, they end up becoming arrogant and prideful (Whitney 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They acquire a need for recognition for whatever little contribution they make. Such a person becomes petty and greedy. He/she loses grip on reality. That is why most of the world’s richest men die undignified deaths such as drug overdosing or DUI accidents. It is because somewhere along the way, they had made so much money, and they still had the potential to make more, but they lost their zeal towards life. Their driving force died.

They went on looking for other ‘interesting’ things to spend their money on. That is what happens when self-actualization is the sole goal of an individual. However, when one desires to become rich so that they can use their wealth to serve fellow human beings, thereby leave a legacy, they acquire sufficient drive to remain diligent and committed to their wealth generation and utilization endeavors (Whitney 90).

The need to transcend one’s self keeps one fueled for more growth efforts, regardless of how much one has already achieved because there will always be opportunities to provide service. This means that one will never lack the desire to learn more, generate more wealth, serve more, and outdo his / her last success.

Self-transcendence enables one to make realistic plans for the future. It puts these plans in perspective, making it even harder to lose focus. Moreover, the joy that comes with seeing the appreciation that the less fortunate have for one’s efforts keeps one going.

When a person who lived through poverty in his / her youth makes it in life and manages to create jobs for people in a similar situation as he / she was growing up, it is exceedingly gratifying for their morale. Most wealthy people who have discovered this secret are investing billions in charities and other nonprofit adventures.

Oprah Winfrey is a superb example who invested billions in an initiative to promote girl-child education in Africa with impressive results. It is also intriguing to note that most of these famous people who are seeking self-transcendence rarely get involved in public scandals, unlike their counterparts who are obsessed with fame and amassing wealth for personal benefits; they are rarely sued for engaging in inappropriate businesses, as most rap musicians appear (Steven 65).

Examples of such musicians include Clingy, Lil Wayne, and Snoop Dog, who have all served time in jail for one felony or the other. Their quest for fame and wealth to self-actualize blinds them from acting ethically.

We will write a custom Essay on Self-actualization and Self-transcendence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They involve themselves in illegal selling and possession of ammunition, shady drug smuggling deals, competitive assassination of more successful counterparts in the music industry, and the production of violent and obscene records. Others, especially politicians and first-time leaders involve themselves in shoddy get-rich-quick schemes, which ultimately end up ruining their careers and breaking up families.

Whereas it is not set in stone, it is evident that to master self-transcendence, one requires self-discipline and integrity, characteristics that one perfects by attaining sufficient education in the correct principles.

The fact that most universities and other educational institutions enjoy the benefits of a scholarship program me that is mostly usually funded by an alumni who benefitted from similar support and succeeded in life supports the principle that self-transcendence begets itself.

It is also true that the educated people in society are responsible for starting most of the existing charitable organizations. This is because they probably understand the principle of self-transcendence and they can see beyond self-actualization.

Ignorance and illiteracy perpetuate the notion of self-actualization because most of the poor people just want to get out of their poverty and the way to do so is through getting rich. Lyrics such as, “I want to be a billionaire …so …bad, buy all of the things I never had…” (Steven 65) portray the desire to attain wealthy status among the less privileged. However, a greater purpose for of the less fortunate is usually to help their ‘still incapacitated’ colleagues, and this can reap more fulfilling results.

Works Cited Steven, Covey. First Things First: To Live, To Love, To Learn, To Leave a Legacy. London: Simon

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Anthropogenic Climate Change Argumentative Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Scientific Debate

The Opposing Views

Supporting Views

Conclusion

References

Introduction Human activities have been gaining significant attention in climate studies for they contribute to climate change, particularly global warming.

The prime cause of anthropogenic climate change is the release, into the atmosphere, of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons by varied human activities. According to Rahmstorf (2008), exponential anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases poses a severe threat to stability of earth’s climate. Subsequently, this threat affects humanity, flora, and fauna negatively (p. 35).

The major challenge that climatologists are grappling with is global warming, which is the main cause of climate change across the world. Since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it requires both immediate and long term attention because its consequences are particularly grave and irreversible. Thus, various stakeholders need to consider having both short and long-term intervention measures aimed at reducing levels of greenhouse gases and mitigating their impacts on climate.

Scientific Debate Since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it is imperative that climatologists focus on both immediate and long term interventions to avert future crises of global warming that seem to threaten the existence of humanity and other forms of life on earth.

Scientific debate has been raging as to whether global warming is a natural occurrence or an anthropogenic consequence, but there is indisputable evidence that temperature of the earth has been continually rising for centuries. Rahmstorf (2008) argues that climatologists expect that by the 22nd century, temperature of the earth will rise by 5 oC or more globally, while regionally, it will be more than 10 oC (p.36).

Given the current trends of human activities, the rise of temperature will continue for more centuries to come if immediate and long term interventions are not put in place to regulate the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The fact that temperature of the earth has been increasing for centuries clearly indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are responsible for climatic change, which seems to threaten the existence of life on earth.

Immediate and long-term interventions are essential in reducing anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, because climatic crises due to global warming have grave impacts on the existence of life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase in levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere indicates that, global warming is real and is gradually becoming worse each day if necessary interventions are not put in place to reverse the trends. Although greenhouse gases are many in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide contributes considerably to climate change because of its abundance in the atmosphere and sources of emissions.

Rahmstorf (2008) argues that, preindustrial levels of carbon dioxide were about 280 parts per million (ppm), but the current level of carbon dioxide is over 380 ppm (p.36). It, therefore, means that increasing the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the cause of global warming. Hence, both immediate and long term interventions are critical in reducing emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by human activities.

Climatologists hold that, with the current trends of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide, it is predictable that by the 22nd century, the levels will be about 1000 ppm. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers carbon dioxide levels of between 400 to 600 ppm to be particularly dangerous.

Surprisingly, currents levels of carbon dioxide stand at about 380 ppm, while levels of total greenhouse gases are about 450 ppm. Furthermore, there has been increased emission of greenhouse gases recently because virtually all countries across the world rely on fossil fuel as the source of their energy. Such trends are quite alarming because it depict that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming and subsequent climate change.

According to Erin (2011), most countries have ratified the United Nation’s recommendation of steadying greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reducing anthropogenic interference (Para.9). Thus, to avert climate change, immediate and long term measures such as developing and relying on renewable sources of energy is imperative.

Although greenhouse gases come from various sources, carbon dioxide emissions are mainly due to anthropogenic sources. It is currently evident that the main cause of drastic increase in carbon dioxide levels is due to increased utilization of fossil fuel.

Given that the amount of fossil fuel used correlates with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, Rahmstorf (2008) reasons that, the apparent increase in carbon dioxide levels form about 57% of total emissions because ocean and biosphere, which acts as carbon sinks, have absorbed approximately 43% (p.36).

We will write a custom Essay on Anthropogenic Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that, had it not been for the carbon sinks, which absorb a significant percentage of carbon dioxide, there would be a high percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which consequently could have caused severe climate changes due to global warming. It is estimated that oceans alone have absorbed approximately 30% of anthropogenic emissions making marine environment become acidic.

Therefore, anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide does not only cause global warming but also acidify marine environment, thus threatens the existence of marine life. Hence, both immediate and long term interventions are essential in reducing anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide.

The Opposing Views Opponents of anthropologic climate change argue that global warming is a natural process that does not need any immediate or long term intervention. Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are the main cause of climate change and global warming, Patterson argues that global warming is a myth because some scientists refute the claim that human activities are responsible (Para.2).

The scientists view that natural processes mainly contribute to accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide is one of the gases that form significantly larger percentage of volume in the atmosphere and thus is the main cause of global warming that has been occurring for centuries.

However, a recent study indicates that temperature increase has stagnated in spite of increase in the use of fossil fuel across the world. Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011) argue that, between 1998 and 2008, there was negligible increase in temperature and decline in surface temperature by 0.2 oC in years between 2005 and 2008, yet their anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide increased tremendously (p.1).

Inconsistency in the amount of carbon dioxide emitted and increase in temperature beg a question as what is the real cause of global warming. Disconnect between emission of carbon dioxide and global warming implies that there may be other factors apart from carbon dioxide that contribute to global warming.

Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and fluctuating temperature increase indicates that there are other confounding factors that significantly influence global warming. More study carried by Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011) shows that, in the year 2000, water vapor decreased by 10% in the stratosphere and slowed temperature increase by 25%, contrary to expectations of what would have occurred because of high concentration of greenhouse gases (p.2).

Expectations were that global temperature would have risen due to decrease in water vapor because they absorb latent heat of vaporization and bring about cooling effect on the surface of the earth. However, abnormal decrease in temperature in spite of exponential increase in anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases tends to disapprove that human activities are the leading causes of global warming.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropogenic Climate Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Critics of anthropogenic climate change argue that, parameters that scientists use to measure the number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and increase in temperature are not reliable since they are subject to many confounding factors.

Rahmstorf (2008) asserts that, temperature measurement originated from proxy data such as tree rings, corals and ice cores that have a link with local temperatures and other parameters that influence real temperature variation (p.45). Local and regional temperatures can be significantly higher than global temperatures because of variation in causes that may not necessarily reflect global warming.

Moreover, critics argue that the use of satellites in measuring temperature of the earth through radiations is unreliable since it is subject to atmospheric radiations of the sun. Short life span of satellites also affects the accuracy of data collected due to variation daily temperature and calibration of satellites. Thus, temperature of the earth is fairly constant and subject to other environmental factors other than anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases.

Supporting Views Climate change mainly results from human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere and create the greenhouse effect that shields radiations from the earth surface from escaping into the atmosphere, thus increases the temperature of the earth.

Therefore, the argument that global warming is a natural process of the earth does not give sufficient evidence since it only presumes that temperature is a variable factor that varies from one place to another and from one year to another.

Moreover, critics of anthropogenic argues that despite an increase in the use of fossil fuel and the temperature of the earth remained relatively constant and dispute that human activities are the cause of global warming. According to Kaufmann, Kauppi, Mann, and Stock (2011), apparent increase in global temperature for the last 50 years is due to a measurable increase in anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (p.3).

There was insignificant rise in global temperature between 1998 and 2008 because sulfur emissions brought about cooling effect, which cancelled out warming effect of greenhouse gases. Therefore, although anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases causes global warming, there are other factors that mediate occurrence of global warming in the universe.

Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are the cause of global warming. Given that human activities emit a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, they contribute significantly to the occurrence of global warming.

Therefore, anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide is easily quantifiable because the amount of fossil fuels used correlates directly with the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. During the preindustrial period, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was about 280 ppm, but currently, the concentration is about 380 ppm.

Plausible explanation for the huge increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is an anthropogenic emission, which occurred due to industrialization. Industrialization led to increased consumption of fossil fuel and concomitant emission of carbon dioxide.

Rahmstorf (2008) contends that the total amount of carbon dioxide emission that is in the atmosphere forms about 57% of the emissions because oceans and biosphere absorbs about 43% (p.37). Hence, if it were not for oceans and biosphere to absorb about 43% of carbon dioxide, global warming would have caused drastic climatic changes that threaten the existence of life on earth.

Although critics of anthropogenic climate change argue that parameters of measuring global warming are unreliable, climatologists have used numerous parameters and models to enhance consistency of data collected.

Since there is significant disparity in temperature at local and global levels, consistency of variability is quite evident to suggest that anthropogenic activities in certain places relates with temperature of specific locations. Thus, proxy data collected from tree rings, corals and ice cores give an overall picture of occurrence of global warming.

Critics further assert that satellites are not reliable in measuring due to prevalence of confounding variables and short life span of satellites. However, Rahmstorf (2008) argues that, satellite has effectively shown that since 1979 to present, about 20% of Arctic sea ice cover has shrunk due global warming, which makes it melt (p.44). Hence, melting of ice and rising sea levels are indisputable effects of global warming that occur due to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases.

Conclusion For centuries, there has been a raging debate as to whether global warming results from natural or anthropogenic processes. Numerous studies support that anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, water vapor, methane and others causes global warming and subsequent climate change, thus threatening the existence of life on earth.

Increasing concentration of these gases in the atmosphere correlates with global warming, meaning that human activities are responsible for climate change that is threatening humanity and other forms of life on earth. Therefore, since anthropogenic climate change occurs due to the cumulative effect of greenhouse gases, it requires both immediate and long term attention to avert grave consequences of global warming.

References Erin, S. (2011). Canberra Times: The future is Lean and Green. Financial Times Limited. Web.

Kaufmann, R., Kauppi, H., Mann, H.,

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Steps by the Local and Military Officials to Prevent the Spread of Avian Flu in Okiwan Term Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Strategies/Recommendations in Regard to Okiwan

Conclusion

References

Recently, there have been qualms over the spread of Avian Flu among the local nationals in Okiwan. Avian Flu is a communicable disease that is commonly associated with birds, though it frequently develops other strains that human beings are not immune to(Capua et al., 2002; Lin et al., 2000; Stegeman et al., 2004; Tweed et al, 2004). So far, 238 cases of human infection by H5N1 have been established in 10 countries, with the largest numbers of infection being found in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam (Fouchier et al., 2004, Li et al., 2004; Peiris et al., 1999; Tran et al., 2004; Ungchusak, 2005; Yuen et al., 1998).

More than half of the established human cases have resulted to death of infected persons (Kurtz et al., 1996; Puzelliet al., 2005; Webster et al., 1981). The military officials have been identified as a group that is highly at risk of contacting the virus. Thus, a review of the steps that the local and military officials are taking in preventing avian flu is essential.

So as to discuss this topic, I shall discuss; the issues that should be addressed in emergency management by use of examples; the steps that the local and military officials in Okiwan are taking; and make a conclusion that summarizes the key points discussed. I shall also give a final statement of opinion in the conclusion part.

There are three issues that must be considered while planning emergency management. These include: preparedness and communication; surveillance and detection; and response and containment (Liem

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Product Proliferation Qualitative Research Essay essay help: essay help

Product proliferation refers to a situation that arises when a specific organization markets almost similar products but introduces slight variations to increase its market share (Berman, 2010). These products are only differentiated through aspects like color, shape and product size. Product proliferation has both positive and negative effects with regard to the market.

One of the strategies employed by companies that adopt product proliferation is a broad product line, which is perceived to translate to increased overall demand. Secondly, an extensive product line in relation to supply has been known to affect the market through increased costs. Lastly, an extended product line, especially by large scale manufacturers, mostly deters other players from joining the market. This will translate to increased prices by the incumbent firm (Barnett and Freeman, 2001).

Although there is no clear-cut study that has been done to assess the three aspects given above empirically, it is crucial to mention that it has been suggested from previous studies that product proliferation strategies have no uni-dimensional explanation in relation to decision making as product proliferation has an impact on both demand (market share) and supply (price).

The market outcome is determined in terms of product proliferation by competitive structural factors that influence product line decisions in a firm (Bayus, 1999). Product proliferation is used as a means to curb rivalry within an industry as competition is based on product differentiation rather than price.

Product proliferation facilitates competitiveness, which is based on perceived uniqueness of the product, quality and lastly performance of the product. Some critiques argue that product proliferation has led to wastage of resources as it works well when there is a boom in the market. When a recession hits, even powerful companies experience major stability problems. This is directly linked to excessive investment costs.

Most car makers churn out various models of vehicles, a practice that has led to immense competition between car makers. This has translated to increased demand for iron and aluminum which are the raw materials for the automobile manufacturing industry. To reduce cannibalization of these products, there is a need to intuitively target the changing customer needs by building a full contact through watching and questioning those creative market segment.

The other aspect of minimizing cannibalization of products is by coming up with ways of out-innovating other competitors by expanding the product line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This comes in the way manufacturers plan their innovation to incrementally change to capitalize maximally on previous developments and modern ones to absorb common parts and other components that would otherwise go to waste. The other means through which cannibalization of products by product proliferation can be reduced is by critically adopting the continuous improvement approach.

Many traditional industries are known to instinctively operate within quad rum of pure quality concerning cost model, where any slight modification in design, quality or even features will translate into increased prices. Most prestigious car manufacturers have adopted this model of trade-off curve like BMW and Mercedes-Benz brands. In more than one way, product proliferation leads to wastage of economic resources

Product proliferation has gained momentum with the rise of a middle-class section of the population, which is the main proponent of consumerism. This middle-class mentality is centered on getting custom-designed products that are affordable and act as a source of prestige. This is worsened by established businesses which have a culture of demanding for private brands or labels which are mostly put in display and promotional packs.

This has been made easy by the rise of globalization where products must adhere to specific requirements such as labels that are translated in different languages. Other negative aspects arise with product proliferation. For instance, due to its dynamism, it is practically impossible to manage product proliferation. In recent times, most of the large scale manufacturers have resulted in pruning their products rather than coming up with new ones.

What this means to those manufacturers coming into the market is that they cannot compete as the veteran companies will determine the prices of products that are offered in a particular industry. This is made complex by the unpredictable change of the landscape of consumer demands. As new consumer demand rise so will the companies attempt to meet these demands and maintain the existing market share.

Measures Associated With Product Proliferation Capacity Control

Capacity control emanates from industry players producing too much output to caution against making tremendous losses, and manufacturers result from cutting on prices. Other players respond similarly and reduce their prices causing a price war.

Although excessive production may result from too much output from manufacturers other factors like a shortfall in demand due to a recession may also cause excessive output in the market. Paradoxically, the effort of each industry players to outperform the other results in overcapacity which bites them all.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Proliferation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Design as a Strategy

Design as a strategy has been adopted as a means towards enhancing product proliferation in a market; one of the latest companies to take this strategy is Thomson Consumer Electronics (TCE). The company is a manufacturer of different brands of TV sets. As noted by Aguirregabiria and Mira, (2007), design as a strategy entails aspects such as the product’s feel, look, touch, and ergonomics.

For many manufacturers, the design is not merely cosmetics add-ons, but a corporate identity that separates them from other manufacturers. A company’s product design is synonymous with the quality of the product. The design has been used by various companies like house furnishing where it acts as the company label or the brand. Design goes beyond styling. It conveys quality and also improves margins.

There are various enhancements that design puts on a product. One is the aesthetic quality which causes appeal of a product; the design also increases the safety of a product making it pleasing to touch and use. Thirdly, the design ensures a product is easy to operate, clean, handle and install. The most crucial aspect of the design is that it should be economical to manufacture and also recycle (Aguirregabiria and Mira, 2007).

Innovation as a Strategy

Innovation serves as the basis for product proliferation as it curves a niche for a company and places it as a guru in industrial breakthrough.

Some of the companies that have come up with unique innovations in recent times include companies such as Apple which came up with the icon-based personal computer; Michelin came up with its radial tire, Pilkington which also came up with the floating glass process. All these innovations have placed their companies in great heights. Innovation as a strategy is challenging to maintain and thus very risky. Most companies see innovation as not a sustainable competitive strategy.

This has translated to increased product proliferation as there are no new products, but the only modification of the previous inventions. It is critical to mention that the period sustained by new design roughly translates to how fruitful one’s venture will be in the form of profit as the market becomes an oligopoly. This consistency of being always on the lead ensures a loyal customer base.

Innovation in product proliferation takes two distinctive approaches, either by nature and trust, where innovation trickles from management downwards, or it may be characterized by innovation rising from bottom-up. The bottom-up approach originates from the workers, and their suggestions are passed through the organizational hierarchy to the management.

This approach has been hailed by Bayus and Putsis (1999) as it promotes ownership of the innovation which further translates to success as far as market penetration and future product success is concerned. This means that innovation is spontaneous throughout the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Proliferation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Service as a Strategy

Lastly, in product proliferation, service as a strategy translates to how much a company will succeed than the other. Most manufacturers do not consider service as being important. Generally, it is the product that receives much attention since it’s a source of competitive advantage.

Service, on the other hand, is seen as a necessity that is incurred, rather than an added value. In product proliferation, there is an immense need to have an efficient and sufficient service delivery since there are various similar products in the offing. It is estimated that companies lose 15-20% of their customers on an annual basis.

Now for a market that is oversupplied, there is a need to keep a strong customer base, and this can only be achieved through customer satisfaction. Swift and effective handling of complains and inquiries together with friendly customer approach will always keep customers coming back.

Reference List Aguirregabiria, V. and Mira, P. 2007. Sequential Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Games. Econometrica, 75 (1) Pp.1–53. Web.

Barnett, W., P., and Freeman, J. 2001. Too Much of a Good Thing? Product Proliferation and Organizational Failure. Organization Science. 12(5). Pp. 539-558. Web.

Bayus, B., L., and Putsis, W., P. 1999. Product Proliferation: An Empirical Analysis of Product Line Determinants and Market Outcomes. Marketing Science. 18(2) Pp. 137–153. Web.

Berman, B. 2010. Products, Products Everywhere: Do companies really need to sell so many varieties of similar goods? No. Wall Street Journal. Issue. Web.

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The Use of the Cell Phone While Driving Essay cheap essay help

Popular culture is the sum of a society’s actions, beliefs, traditions, and other such similar engagements that define a given society and its people. Although sometimes is described as an expression of the people occupying the lower classes of a society, as opposed to those occupying the higher classes, popular culture effectively encompasses a society’s wholesome activities and expressions.

Since the turn of the 21st century, the use of cell phones has increased tremendously all over the world, and more specifically in the United States. Unfortunately, the use of the cell phone while driving has also increased, posing a danger both for the driver and other road users.

Currently, the use of cell phones for reading or writing text messages while driving causes a significant number of road accidents in the US, leaving victims emotionally traumatised, maimed and even dead. Insurance claims arising, and healthcare needs for these victims puts unnecessary and avoidable strain on the economy. Currently, nearly half of the states in the US have passed laws, or are in the process of passing laws declaring the act of texting while driving illegal, with fines and jail terms of various degrees for the offenders.

The theory of progressive evolution states that popular culture is an expression of inherent and intrinsic activities of a society. Accordingly, the act of cell phone texting while driving – however dangerous – would be an expression of an aspect of the American lifestyle, a part of its intrinsic identity. Indeed, many of the culprits of this dangerous practice are teens and the youth, ordinarily the most ardent expressers of popular culture in a society. Adults, too, use their cell phones while driving, but to a comparatively lesser degree.

Another theory of popular culture that expresses the act of texting while driving is the theory of the culture industry, where consumer needs for gadgets such as the cell phone is the principal contributing factor of the high presence of cell phone amongst Americans, with its use in texting while driving being a logical consequence. The cell phone, according to this theory, is portrayed as a must have communication tool, leading many Americans to acquire it.

Heroes in American society are highly regarded and respected. In the American society, heroes belong to both the past and present times, and are given near mythical attributes (Browne, 2005, p.35). American heroes include former presidents such as Washington and Lincoln, or adventurists such as Charles Lindbergh. Celebrities are more numerous and easily identifiable in today’s celebrity-obsessed American popular culture.

Oprah Winfrey is one such celebrity, and her fame and philanthropic deeds make her a veritable American heroin. Oprah has been the face of the campaign to stop the practice of texting while driving. Because celebrities command a large following, and their followers tend to respect their word, the campaign by American celebrity and heroin, Oprah Winfrey, and other like-minded celebrities has the greatest potential of stopping the practice, especially amongst teens for whom such celebrities are highly adored and respected.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, by understanding the concept of popular culture, and subsequently applying the two popular culture theories to the topic of texting while driving, the concept of heroes and the cult of celebrities ties into the entire thread when the influence of these celebrities and heroes in curbing the practice of texting while driving is applied.

The insight of applying the influence of heroes and celebrities in positively changing one negative aspect of American popular culture (texting while driving) is attained through the application of the two theories of popular culture.

Reference Browne, R. B. (Ed.). (2005). Profiles of Popular Culture: A Reader. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

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Titus Andronicus as a Classic Tragedy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Titus Andronicus is a classical tragedy from the beginning to the end. For instance the introduction of the characters to the play shows a clear picture of a classical tragedy. In this play, the characters are introduced by bringing them on stage without any prior notification and at the same time, at certain point, the characters are introduced by other characters at the stage (Greenblatt 98).

The play starts up with minor characters whose roles in the play are not of much importance, these characters are used to introduce the more important characters. For instance, the play starts after the death of the roman emperor and his two sons.

The conflict is created at the beginning of the play, whereby the two sons Saturninus and Bassianus were disagreeing on, who will succeed their dead father. The act of the two sons conflicting on who will rule is an aspect of the author to bring out the need of identifying oneself with the hero (Greenblatt 250).

The roman emperor was a hero, and the two sons wanted to be identified with this hero. The aspect of identifying oneself with a hero is a good example of a classical tragedy. The conflict between the two sons turned to be violent until when the tribune came up with a final solution of making the emperors brother Titus to be his fathers successor.

In addition, at a certain point in the play, Aaron is seen persuading Demetrius to plan the murder of Bassianus, so that they can have a good opportunity of raping Lavinia. The play acts of characters planning to kill other characters and barbaric acts of raping others brought the emotional response in the play.

Unlike the comedies that does not show any aspect of emotional such as fear and pity, a classical tragedy like this one demonstrates much pity and fear in most of the incidences throughout the play. There is a sense of fear when Bassianus is murdered and his body dumped. Lavinia undergoes a painful process of a violent rape in a forest. Lavinia suffered a great deal, as the rapists cut her tongue and her hands to prevent her from telling the truth.

The act of human suffering is another aspect demonstrated in a classical tragedy. In Titus Andronicus play, human suffering is a major theme especially what Lavinia underwent. For instance, during the celebration party that took place in Titus house, Saturninus advised Titus that it was possible for a father to kill his raped daughter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shortly, Titus decided to murder his daughter, by breaking her neck and revealed the secret of rape to Saturninus. The play moves with a lot of solemnity and foreboding (Greenblatt 103). The play ends with rigid finality, whereby Titus murders Tamora, and Saturninus kills Titus.

After killing Titus, Saturninus is killed by Lucius out of anger of past memories of his father’s death, he did that purposely to revenge. Moreover, due to continuous murders of the characters, Lucius gets an opportunity of becoming an emperor, being a ruler, he commanded his people to give Saturninus a state burial (Greenblatt 156).

On the other hand, he ordered Tamoras body to be thrown away for the wild beasts to feast on him. Lucius the emperor ordered Aaron to be punished by hunger and thirst until his death. To Aaron that was not a big issue as he did not repent even at the end, and he wished to have done more evil in his life.

Work Cited Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Shakespeare Based on the oxford Edition. New York: W.W Norton

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Forgetting Women in Popular Culture Essay college essay help near me

The journal article by Catherine Strong, titled “Grunge, Riot Grrrl and the Forgetting of Women in Popular Culture,” depicts women in history as being forgotten. The author uses the Grunge era of the 1990’s in her analysis as the point of reference. The survey makes a clear reference to the Australians that were living in the era at the time. Additionally, the author makes a string reference to the articles and media sources that existed, in an endeavor to unearth why many women rockers were forgotten.

From the article, the Grunge era was characterized by anti-sexism and gender neutrality. As noted, many female musicians apart from Courtney Love were regarded as “Riot Grrrls”, a situation that made it difficult to remember individual female artists.

The author attributes this behavior of female discrimination to the idea that people do not regard females as dedicated and serious, regarding them as sexual objects. The people’s belief in addition makes the media, which is supposed to market them and announce their popularity, look down upon them as they mostly compare them with the male counterparts.

Additionally, many female rockers have been forgotten because of their desire to be liberal and non-sexists. The media mostly directs its attention on the new females in rock, other than concentrating on the established women rockers. Any female who decided to join a male’s band was given the role of a bassist, making them get devalued and in turn worsening the situation.

The “Riot Grrrl” movement as presented was one of the feminists groups in the Grunge area. Additionally the movement was involved in politics and was supported by male artists such as Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain. Many females were actively involved in the music industry during the Grunge era.

The women openly declared their rights and desires in the music and were very confrontational. They felt suppressed and thus obviously made their anger known to the society through music while rejecting any offer to speak publicly through the media. This however made it difficult for them to keep any records as documentation was almost non-existent and the possibility of future remembrance completely destroyed.

The society either does not support any women rockers and as noted, many of the interviewed people were insensitive indicating the presence of masculine society. Various people brought up Kurt Cobain and Eddie Vedder and other mentioned female artists, including Courtney Love and L7. All regarded females as “eye candy” and the bands were male dominated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Grunge era thus regarded women as people who should be seen and not heard. The era indicated a time where women were not regarded as rockers and their role into music was limited. Men who had women in their bands despite having stronger vocal were bassists, thus ensuring that they were almost concealed from the rest of the audience.

Neither did the society recognize their role especially in music nor in the vocals and most of them became known stars only after joining the feminist clubs such as the Riot Grrl and later rising to the 21st century in them. The same transpires in the contemporary world for women who mostly engage in certain forms of music such as rap and hip hop. Thus one has to feature a renowned musician in the genre to succeed. In every endeavor to advance such genres of music independently, it takes time to rise.

These include the likes of Missy Elliot. In any collaboration done, women are allowed to bring the vocals of the soft parts and live the hip hop parts to the likes of Lil Wayne and other established hip hop male artistes. Women are more appreciated if they engage in soft genres such as blues, thus the likes of Beyonce. Unpredictably, men who take into such soft genres are regarded as being all-round and very successful, for instance Michael Bolton, West Life, Justin Timberlake and others.

Other than the awareness that was advanced at the time, famous female artists were forgotten. The article by Strong (2011) thus encourages the reader to clearly analyze the society and critically think the role women play in the society. Various policies have been advanced that would have assisted to fight gender inequality but many times they are ignored.

As noted, change is like rest. To date men and women are still not regarded as equal, mostly in the employment sector to various professions which are referred to as male dominated jobs such as architecture, engineering and other sciences. Women are only made to feel as if they belong to a certain moment and have no relevance in the future.

The journal additionally makes it clear that if any woman has to be remembered, the process will only arise if she has for instance freed slaves, or has been married to a famous man, or has to be identified as one who stood for her rights; a situation which in the era was closely related to deviance. For a man however, to become famous and probably leave a legacy behind, one had only to make up some edgy music and later die from a drug overdose.

Reference Strong, C. (2011). “Grunge, riot Grrrl and the forgetting of women in popular culture.” Journal of Popular Culture, 44(2): 398-416.

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Race, Ethnicity and Crime Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Racism and ethnicity are one of the social evils that pose a big danger to the society. These are the main factors that have been contributing to crime in the contemporary world. Racial discrimination in America has a significant implication on crime in the region. Most of the racism in America has been between the whites against the blacks and vice versa. There are a number of incidences that has resulted into crime in the United States.

Discussion In many cases, most criminal activities in the United States are characterized by racism. Racism has resulted in a number of crimes, which has threatened security and peaceful co-existence among the people. There are a number of opposing issues concerning racism and disparity that has led to complication in the discussion of the issue of racism in the Criminal Justice System. For instance, there are economic differences among the people that have led to crime in the United States.

It is possible to have people from different race on low income group and also on the high income groups. The larger the differences between the poor and the rich, the high are the chances of crime. We also have differences in terms of biological heredity, psychological and other factors that may influence ones tendency to engage in crimes.

Racial differences have also led to crime in the United States. This can be explained through the discrimination that the vice has cultivated among the people. For instance, the idea that members of a certain group like the African Americans are more likely to commit a certain crime can lead to difficulties in fighting the vice. Similarly, the fact that the reason for doing so is psychological can also lead to serious difficulties.

This is because they tend to propose the inability of the public policy to solve these problems. This is unlike the social explanations where an individual can change through the public policy. From previous statistics, the results showed that the rate of arrests for the African Americans were higher than those in the other Americans (Anonymous, 2011).

There are several historical incidences that can clearly illustrate the issue of racism in America. One of this was the racism against African Americans through the institution of slavery. During this period, African Americans were enslaved and treated like property (Randall, 1998). This incident led to undermining and persistent racism against Africans.

Another incident in the history that can be used to demonstrate racism in America took place after the Mexican- American War in 1948 (Greenhaus and Parasuraman, 1990). During the period, Zoot Suit Riots clearly demonstrated the racism against Latinos. The Latin Americans were usually composed of people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds. This made them more prone to racism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recently, the issue of racism has raised major concerns in the study of the criminal justice. In America, there are a significant difference between the number of the black Americans and the white Americans arrested and prosecuted for various crimes. This has raised concerns on the criminal justice practices.

There are a number of areas that differ in terms of races, a thing that may lead to differences in the criminal justice. One of these differences is the level of unemployment. Through racial discrimination, there is a significant difference in the level of unemployment in different racial groups. When the level of unemployment is high, the level of poverty is also high and therefore there are high chances of committing crimes. For instance, unemployed person may engage in stealing due to lack of livelihood.

Race may also lead to differences in political orientation. This leads to differences in the views among the people from different races. In some cases, some members from a certain group may feel that they are not properly represented. In such a situation, differing views may lead people to engage in criminal activities.

The issue of the race and crime can easily be understood through the analysis of the criminal etiology or the breaking of law. Breaking of the law can either be explained from individual or social perspectives. From the individual perspective, the crime is caused by the characteristics that an individual possess. These include heredity defects, intelligence, and body type among others (Heaven and Hudson, 2011). On the other hand, crime is seen to be caused by social or psychological reasons.

In my opinion, I believe that racism is of great importance in the criminal justice. This is because it has helped in explaining the patterns of crime in the society. Most of the criminal activities in the United States are rooted in the issues related to race. As already noted, previous statistics have revealed that certain groups of people in America are more likely to commit crime than others.

It is therefore necessary to study in terms of race differences. People from a certain race may have varying social psychological differences. This can significantly influence the conduct of individuals. For instance, there are some tendencies that are common in a particular racial group but not prevalent in others.

The concept of race has a significant implication on my future career as a police officer. To begin with, this may affect me through prejudice. As already seen, the past record has clearly revealed that there is more proportionate cases of criminals arrested and prosecuted from one racial group than the other (Lafree and Russell, 1993).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race, Ethnicity and Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the past data has revealed that there are more cases of the African Americans engaged in crime. This may lead to a temptation of prejudice or bias in the process of executing duties. Due to intensification of the issue of racism in the society, I may also face the problem of undermining others. The citizens from other racial groups may be tempted to think that I am biased towards my race.

Another way through which race can affect my future profession is through career advancement. In most cases, racism has been integrated in the work place. For instance, the senior managers are tempted to promote only those employees from their racial group. Racism may therefore affect me in my career as a police officer.

Conclusion In summary, race and ethnicity has a significant implication on America’s criminal justice system. Racial differences have significantly affected the crime patterns among the people. For instance, there are more reported cases of criminals from a certain group arrested and prosecuted in court. This can be explained from both the personal and the social perspective. Individual’s personal differences can increase the possibility of engaging in a certain form of crime. Social and psychological factors can also increase the chances of engaging in crime.

Reference List Anonymous. (2011). Race and Ethnicity – Race in U.S. Legal History, Native Americans, Black Americans and Crime, Policing and Minorities.

Greenhaus, J. and Parasuraman, S. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Azcademy of Management Journal. 1990, Vol. 1, pp. 64-86.

Heaven, O. and Hudson, B. (2011). ‘Race’, Ethnicity and Crime. Web.

Lafree, G. and Russell, K.K. (1993). The Argument for Studying Race and Crime. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 4, 273-289.

Randall, K. (1998). Race, Crime, and the Law. New York: Vintage Books.

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Skills of CEO at Bay View Inc. Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bay View Corporation

Line of Operations

Management trainee

Skills necessary to be a CEO

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction Multinational companies face various challenges that require managers to endure as well as maintain high levels of integrity. This is mainly because these corporations have branches throughout the globe, which target a highly dynamic market. It is also quite important to note that employees in these corporations usually come from varied cultures.

This poses another problem whose solution lies in a good organizational culture. It is every employee’s dream to take charge of duties in their areas of work. Different lines of operations pose varying challenges to managers. Moreover, these challenges require different leadership skills to solve. It is therefore very essential for managers to have a thorough understanding of the business’s line of operation. This way, he/she can apply different skills to get desired results.

High technology companies, for instance, requires a manager with massive wealth of experience in production and marketing of the product. Since companies encounter varying challenges at different times and places, it is quite important for the manager to possess both individual skills as well as those that can be employed to realize success. This paper will consider skills required for a management trainee to become a CEO at Bay View Inc.

Bay View Corporation Bay View Inc. manufactures framostats, which are supplied throughout the world. Framostats is a propriety item in high demand. Bay View employs more than 50000 workers all over the globe and adds to its number by 10, annually. In addition, the company is sole in manufacturing of these product.

The products are useful parts in automotive machinery such as motor vehicle and airplanes, among others. Moreover, Bay View Corporation has branches throughout the world. In essence, it monopolizes manufacturing and supply of framostats all over the globe. This is quite essential because the company has to deal with constant demand for their products. The chief executive officer therefore has a very significant role to play in this corporation.

For instance, he/she has to link with a team of managers that operate the branches all over the globe. In addition, the manager has to ensure that these products are made in their right shape and quality before supply. This cannot be done without prior knowledge of skills in production and use of the product. A chief executive officer (CEO) can be defined in relation to the type of organization. For instance, in corporations, the CEO is answerable to company’s board of directors.

On the other hand, in sole proprietorship, the CEO is answerable to him/herself. In this regard, CEOs should have vast knowledge of skills and qualities of leadership. The CEO is charged with responsibility of executing company’s strategic plans as well as policies. Therefore, to manage such a huge company as Bay View, one must rise through the levels of its operations to improve its efficacy. Therefore, management trainees form the best candidates as potential CEOs and managers in this corporation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Line of Operations The company deals in manufacture of framostats. This product is in high demand as it forms part of automotive machineries. As a management trainee, the first three weeks involves orientation, understanding of company’s organizational culture, and structures. Others include understanding the number of branches, products, and their uses, possible opportunities, and work ethics, among others.

Trainees should have a good understanding of the company’s organizational structure. In fact, those who hope to be CEOs in the corporation must understand its internal structure, chain of command, tasks, and responsibilities of each individual as well group ethics. These are very significant in developing an individual’s managerial skills for betterment of the corporation.

Management trainee Trainees are usually hired to be imparted with skills that can enable them fit the requirements of a corporation. This enables them to have a clear understanding of all levels of work in the corporation. Moreover, it helps develop an organizational culture in them. This is mainly because candidates are drawn from various parts of the world with varied cultures.

The corporation should therefore try to impart relevant elements with ability to develop their human capacity for efficacy. The first three weeks will therefore involve elements such as orientation, understanding of company’s organizational culture, and structures.

Others include number of branches, products, and their uses, possible opportunities, and work ethics, among others. Orientation is important as it provides individuals with the mastery of workplace. Another aspect of great importance to development of trainees is interaction with company staff and managers. This enables them to learn organizational culture of the corporation (Gibbons 1).

Skills necessary to be a CEO To become a CEO that manages a large multinational corporation such as Bay View, one needs to poses the following skills as well as be ready to improve on them. These can be divided into two main groups, those that are result oriented and individual skills. The latter include an individual’s ability, most of which are noticed during recruitment.

They include analytic intelligence, creativity, which should be developed during training. Trainees should possess urgency, openness, empathy, drive, and endurance, willingness to work in any given role as well as have high integrity. Others include ability to identify problems, interpersonal skills, neutrality, and ability to lead as well as have vision for the company, among others.

We will write a custom Report on Skills of CEO at Bay View Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Result oriented skills include knowledge of customer and market, comprehensive knowledge of the technology, championing as well as articulation of vision, ability to strategies, and realize objectives. Still, other include identification, support and deployment of essential competencies, removal of obstacles, emphasis on profitability, ability to focus on short and long term basis, promotion of learning, and early identification of problems as well as their solutions, among others (Gibbons 1).

Clearly, these objectives cannot be achieved within the first three weeks of class. However, they are developed in a continuous manner. Ideally, candidates should be able to develop more than one skill at a time and progressively development their human capacity. Therefore, as much as the first three weeks majors on orientation, organizational culture, business structure, product and its usage, among others, skills must develop simultaneously with acquisition of new ideas (Gibbons 1).

Conclusion Trainees are usually hired to be imparted with skills that can enable them fit the requirements of a corporation. This enables them to have a clear understanding of all levels of work in the corporation. Moreover, it helps develop an organizational culture in them. Possible candidates for the post of CEO should possess variety of skills, which must be developed during training.

These include those that are result oriented and individual skills. Therefore, since the first three weeks majors on orientation, organizational culture, business structure, product, and its usage, among others, skills must develop simultaneously with acquisition of new ideas.

Work Cited Gibbons, Fred. “CEO Skills Inventory”. stanford.edu. 24.01.2007.11.09.2011. https://web.stanford.edu/class/ee353/ceo.htm

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The United States Constitution Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu

Introduction The United States’ constitution has stood the test of time since its adoption in late 18th century. During 17th century, Americans were under colonial rule that denied them rights and powers to govern themselves. Then, Americans fought for their independence gradually by demanding their recognition and inclusion into the colonial government that had oppressed for quite some time.

Colonialists flooded the US in early 17th century from various parts of the world, majorly Europe because they were escaping religious persecution and in search of expansive land for agriculture. Under oppression, Americans made several initiatives in a bid to emancipate themselves and these initiatives culminated into independence in 1776.

According to Garrett, in 1765, 13 colonies met to discuss the violation of fundamental rights and in 1774 and 1775, first and second continental congress respectively resolved to have independence (12). In 1776, the United States got its independence and adopted a new constitution in 1787. This constitution has become the legal basis for the present government. Despite the fact that the formulation of the United States’ constitution dates back to more than 230 years ago, it is still remarkably viable in the modern government.

The preamble of the United States’ constitution envisages a perfect union of diverse states based on common defence, liberty, justice and tranquillity. Even though the preamble dates back to more than two centuries ago, it formed the basis of federal form of government that still exists today.

American government has a federal model of government that other countries are trying to emulate for it is a perfect union of diverse states. Garrett argues that the United States’ constitution has stood the test of time because it established federal government as it exists currently (19).

The existence of the federal government reflects viability of the United States’ constitution in modern governance. Therefore, current union of states has its basis in the United States’ constitution, which envisaged perfect union and how federal government functions and relates with central government.

The United States’ constitution is still viable in modern governance because it has an elastic clause that makes it flexible and adaptive to modern changes, which are consistent with new forms of governance. According to Section 8 of Article I, Congress has powers to make necessary amendments that are essential and consistent with the United States’ constitution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States’ constitution is a legal framework that anchors several amendments and provisions in view of evolving legal issues of governance in the modern world. Wedes argues that, the elastic clause is particularly relevant to modern governance because it does not only give power to Congress to conduct necessary and appropriate amendments, but also ensures that the constitution is in tandem with dynamic needs of governance (p.1).

For instance, Congress has made several amendments in modes of taxation, regulation of commerce and security issues with regard to terrorism. Thus, elastic clause has made the United States’ constitution remain viable and reliable in current governance.

Moreover, the amendment process of the United States’ constitution is decidedly stringent to protect it from undue mutilation and changes that would make it lose its viability over time. The United States’ constitution has the first ten amendments that form basis of human rights, which are inalienable.

From independence, the first ten amendments have remained and are truly viable as they are provisions that stipulate inherent and immutable rights of every citizen in America. For instance, the first amendment to the United States’ constitution provides and guarantees freedom of expression, religion, association and petition. The first amendment assured Americans that the federal government will protect and secure their rights for posterity.

In addition, Garlinger states that, the fourteenth amendment to the United States’ constitution forbids any state from making or enforcing any law that restrict the privileges or deprive life, liberty and property (p.32). Hence, in spite of numerous attempts to amend the constitution, the amendments to United States’ constitution are central to human rights and have become the cornerstone in advocacy of human rights, thus still viable in the present government.

Supreme Court of the United States also has powers to review the constitutionality of statutes, amendments and treaties that congress makes to guarantee their consistency with the constitution. According to Prakash and Yoo, Marbury v. Madison (1803), did set a precedent, which gave powers to Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of congressional statutes and amendments (890).

Currently, Supreme Court still has powers to review and determine the constitutionality of statutes and amendments of the Congress. Thus, Supreme Court has a considerable role in ensuring that the United States’ constitution remains viable and consistent across all ages except few amendments that enhance its application in modern governance.

We will write a custom Assessment on The United States Constitution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Although the United States’ constitution is over 200 years old, it is still highly relevant in modern society. The constitution provides a legal framework, which anchors several provisions and amendments that occur over a period.

The legal framework of the United States’ constitution has relatively remained constant for over 200 years, and is still relevant and viable because it is flexible in adopting new judicial and governing reforms. It is quite evident that the United States’ constitution been stable for a long period because of federal form of government, elastic clause, stringent amendment process and judicial review, all of which attest its viability and relevance in the modern United States.

Works Cited Garlinger, Paul. “United States Constitution: The Amendments.” New York University Law Review 2.4 (2009): 30-34.

Garrett, Sandy. United States History, Constitution and Government. New York: Harcourt Publisher, 2005.

Prakash, Saikrishna, and Yoo, John. “The Origins of Judicial Review.” Chicago Law Review, 2003: 887-933.

Wedes, Samuel. “A Living Constitution, the United States Constitution: Does It Stand The Test of Time?” Government, 2006: 1-33.

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The Fear’s Explanation Essay essay help free: essay help free

Fear is a natural emotion prevalent in human beings as a result of anticipation of danger. It could have both positive as well as negative impacts in the life of an individual depending on a situation. It for instance puts individuals in a better position in regard to responding to danger and threats.

Nonetheless, fear could grow to an extent where it becomes unhealthy thus causing abnormal and violent behavior among individuals. This piece of work looks at the aspect of fear as illustrated in the article “Fear” by Phil Barker. The article is very informative giving various aspects that are related to fear. According to the author, there is some form of fear that is understandable and advantageous to an individual while there is also some fear that accounts for conflicts that result in war. Fear can occur in different stages.

There is real fear which is based on a real situation for instance when you get hurt or experience some pain out of a certain happening, it is automatic that you develop fear of such a happening even in future. Realistic/ possible fear on the other hand is the fear that is natural and can be seen as in individual’s effort towards avoiding threats through all means, for instance, avoiding walking at night for safety reasons.

The third form of fear is what is considered dangerous and could lead to violence and war. Barker asserts that the fear that brings about conflicts which in return lead to war or violence is the exaggerated or emotional fear. This entails a person not only remembering past fears and happenings but also associating it with current occurrences. It is closely associated with conflict as it determines an individual’s capability of handling danger or threat related situations (Barker par 2).

The author gives an elaborate explanation of the issue of fear through providing various perspectives of fear as well as the attributes associated with it including the causes, why fear matters as well as how fear can be handled. Through the information given, I strongly think that the author’s explanation is a reasonable way of enhancing our understanding on the issue of historical violence in relation to the concept of fear.

This is because the author gives a clear relationship between fear and violence and how history plays a critical role. The author first states that conflict is fuelled by unfulfilled needs and desires and the fears associated with the needs. Identity is usually a very essential aspect in every individual. For this reason, any chance of losing identity and security could result in fear for instance that related to extinction and oppression.

History has been depicted to be very crucial in creating fear especially that which is connected to violence. This is because historical or past experiences play a great role of shaping how individuals and groups of people perceive and respond to threats and any form of danger.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It therefore follows that if a person or a group has been wounded or hurt over the past, the experience affects their status today and also in future in terms of how they view fear as well as how they may tend to handle it. A good example that the author has given us is that of the tension that exist between the Palestinians and the Israelis. All the happenings that occurred between these groups often rejuvenates among the people and it has created some form of fear in the people making it difficult for them to relate in a friendly manner.

This is despite the fact that things could have changed. History creates some form of fear cycles. This is for example where a certain group is mistreated causing fear and the feeling of weakness and for this reason; they become susceptible to further discrimination or mistreatment as they believe that since they were hurt or done wrong in the past, the probability of the same happening in future is very high.

This is however exacerbated by the fact that those who endured some pain out of any occurrence tend to feel betrayed and bitter and instead of trying to accept the situation and to look for strategies of coming out of it, they stay withdrawn thus making chances of being hurt once more high.

In order to enhance our understanding on the concept of fear and how it is related to violence and war, I will give some examples. As noted earlier, historical memories play a great role in shaping an individual’s life for instance through how he or she perceives things and people. A person who was hurt in the past is more likely to be bitter and have an urge to revenge. This is usually done through violence which is connected to fear.

During childhood, there occurred some war in my hometown and I witnessed policemen arrogantly hurting people whom I considered innocent. Although we as children were not affected, the memories of the happenings are still fresh in my mind. I not only developed fear towards policemen but also some form of hatred. Up to now, I do fear them and try as much as possible not to cross my lines and have an experience with them although in the real sense, they ought to solve problems.

Another example is the historical violence that existed between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. This is evident even today where there is some way people from either group treat the others as a result of fear brought about by occurrences that transpired between the two. It is very hard to see a Catholic being comfortable among the Protestants and vice versa. This is because there is some form of fear and each group values itself to be more superior to the other hence the tension.

It is evident that fear entails a lot, not just what can be thought of at the mention of the word. Fear could be useful, for instance, in helping an individual to be more prepared concerning responding to threats and dangers. It could also be dangerous where it goes to the extreme and causes violence.

We will write a custom Essay on The Fear’s Explanation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, there is dire need of leaning on the strategies of dealing with fear in an effort to avoid instances of exaggeration where it could cause negative effects not only to the victim but also to those around him or her.

Some of the strategies ought to be personal while others could be initiated by the responsible people for instance relatives and counselors. Generally one should be aware of the fear and the consequences linked with it, accept it, and identify ways to express the fear, determine the factors that contribute to fear and more so, implement strategies that could in one way or the other reduce fear.

Works Cited Barker Phil. “Fear”. Beyond intractability, 2003. 7 September 2011

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Assessing Quality of the Products and Services Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Products and services have a collection of features that enable a customer to rate quality of the goods and services for satisfaction. The views to determine the overall quality of product and service include product design, services delivery, and the overall process of delivering product or services. This paper focuses on assessing product and service quality.

According to Lewis et al (2007, p. 447) there are many factors for rating a products quality, but it depends on the type. For example, I went to a beauty shop to buy a face cream for removing blackheads, which I thought could be effective after some time but did not see any improvements. The factors which I used to gauge the product include the brand name, products ingredients, its effectiveness and price. The product contained a trusted brand name and I thought that it was effective and hence, I rated it at 9 out of 10.

The product also had many ingredients, which appeared to be natural and so I rated it at 5 point. Since the product was not effective as expected, I rated it at 1 because there were no changes after applying it. Due to the products’ ineffectiveness, and despite the high price, the products rating were at 4 point. I discovered that it is not always true that the higher the price of a product, the better it is as compared to those with lower costs.

Based on the results of the rating, the brand name was at 9 point, ingredients at 5, and effectiveness of the product at 1, and the price at 4. Hence, the total number of all the ratings was 19. I got the average of the total points by dividing the total by the four factors and a rating of 4.75.

In service quality, I used many determinants when I visited a national library, but did not get the best services. First, there was no proper responsiveness whenever I needed assistance in locating my books of interest. The rate of responsiveness was of 4 out of 10. In addition, there was no ease of accessing the reading materials because they were mixed up in the shelf, thus the rating was 5 out of 10. At the main entrance the library staff was not courteous and polite to customers, thus courtesy rating was at 3 out of 10.

The library also lacked competent staff because I noticed that they did not have the proper skills and knowledge for providing the services when I tried to enquire more about the library, hence competency rating was at 2 out of 10. It was not easy to communicate since there were no staffs ready to listen to the customers and thus, communication rating was at 4 out of 10.

Similarly, security of the bags and other items left at the shelf was not guaranteed because some of the shelves did not have number tags and we left the bags without being assured of their security: it is possible for another customer to pick a bag that does not belong to him hence the security rating was at 6. The staff did not bother to understand individual customer needs and hence, the rating was at 5.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based at all the service ratings, the responsiveness had 4 points, ease of accessing had 5 points, and courtesy was at 3 points, staff competency was at 2 points, communication was at 4 points, security was at 6 points and finally understanding customer needs was at 5 points. The ratings were all out of 10 and thus, when I added all of them the result was 29. I got the overall average service rating by dividing the number of points by the number of factors and the average was at 4.14.

In conclusion, it is important for companies and organizations to focus on customer satisfaction by providing the best services and giving quality products. Wirtz (2003) suggests that to determine the customers’ perception of a product and a service, businesses should seek to understand the customers’ experience when using the product or getting the service, and what they say about them because the final financial results are based on customer satisfaction and quality.

References Lewis, P. S., Goodman, S. H., Fandt, P. M.,

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How to Effectively Train for a Marathon Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Physical Training

Physiological Training

Psychological Training

Conclusion

References

Introduction Training for a marathon is exceptionally demanding because it requires physical, physiological, and psychological preparation. Usually, athletes undergo rigorous training that prepares them to endure the hard challenges associated with marathon. Training programs for marathon aim at enhancing performance and endurance by improving effective utilization of energy and oxygen.

Moreover, training enhances performance by increasing muscular structures and promoting effecting coordination of neurons throughout the body. According to Tinsley (2005), training theory perceives that effective training is only achievable if athletes incorporate nutrition, physiological, physical, and psychological factors into their training programs (p.1).

These factors are critical in marathon training, for they offer comprehensive training to athletes so that they can not only endure fatigue, but also enhance their performance and improve their health. Fundamentally, marathon training requires comprehensive training since marathon can potentially cause serious injurious, thus quite dangerous for a novice athlete.

Given that marathon can potentially cause grave injurious if an athlete does not train well, it is imperative for training programs to be effective and comprehensive. Thus, effective training for a marathon should encompass physical, physiological, and psychological aspects of training.

Physical Training Physical training for a marathon aims at building strong muscles that are essential in enhancing physical fitness. Rigorous exercises that novice athletes undergo enable them to build appropriate muscles and acquire physical fitness that form basis of training.

Moreover, rigorous exercises are particularly beneficial in burning excess fat and promoting circulation of oxygen in the body. Tinsley (2005) reasons that, running a marathon causes considerable physical changes in the body because; it can result into utter exhaustion, severe injuries, and extension of muscles (p.3).

These changes can be extremely grave if a novice athlete attempts to run a marathon, yet his/her body is not physically ready and accustomed to extensive and intensive running. Inadequate preparation for a marathon has severe consequences because it predisposes the body muscles to more injurious than usual. Thus, for an athlete to build strong stamina and develop resilience of running a marathon, rigorous physical exercises are imperative.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective marathon training requires athletes to wear proper shoes and clothing. Proper shoes cushion legs and body from undue friction and shock experiences of a marathon run. For effective training, legs should accustom to a given type of shoes because changing of shoe design during training predispose one to injury.

Tinsley (2005) explains that, appropriate shoe design and cushioning enhances springing and reduces the occurrence of injuries on legs (p.4). Thus, athletes need to consult shoe specialists to enable them choose the right design of shoe before embarking on rigorous exercises of marathon. In addition to shoes, athletes also need appropriate clothing that suit their training needs and environment.

When training during cold weather, athletes need clothes that keep them warm while at the same time allows removal of sweats from the body. During hot weather, athletes need light clothing that bring about cooling effect and reduce the rate of sweating, thus conserve a lot of water in the body. Athletics’ attire has significant influence on marathon training and consequently determines athletic performance.

Physiological Training Physiological training entails aspects of nutrition and rest. Physiological mechanism of the body highly depends on nutrients obtained from diet that athletes take. Poor nutrition interferes with physiological mechanism of the body that deals with generation and regulation of energy, thus negatively affect effective training for a marathon.

Without stable physiological health, athletes are not able to perform their rigorous exercises, which are essential in building stamina and resilience. Hamilton (2007) advises that, even if an athlete is mentally determined and physical strong, neglect of nutrition has a detrimental effect on health and can cause illness or physiological injury to vital organs in the body (p.78).

Thus, for athletes to train effectively for a marathon, they should ensure that they take balance diet. Since marathon requires a lot of energy, a diet needs to contain about 60% of carbohydrates. Additional, the body needs a lot of water to prevent dehydration of cells because more water is lost through sweats during training.

Even though more exercises are essential for one to gain appropriate physical fitness, resting is also imperative to allow restoration of over-stretched physiological processes. During the period of rest, physiological processes replenish used energy and regenerate exhausted muscles, making them stronger again.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How to Effectively Train for a Marathon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cormier (2009) argues that, high intensity training should precede tapering period, which refreshes the body and the mind in preparation for a marathon (p.10). The tapering period should entail a two-week period where intensive training reduces to about 50%, to allow the body to rejuvenate for a race.

Psychological Training Although marathon race may seem to be more of physical than psychological activity, it has become evident that psychology plays an integral role in motivating athletes. Cormier (2009) contends that, physiological ability of an athlete determines how one covers the first 30 kilometers, while psychological aspect of willpower determines one’s ability to cover remaining 12 kilometers (p.13).

Studies have further suggested that about 40% of runners surrender after covering about 30 kilometers because they lack willpower that motivates them to finish. Psychology influence running because the brain in conjunction with central nervous system coordinates movement of limbs, use of fuel reserves, regulation of water and oxygen utilization by the body. Thus, athletes need to develop willpower during their training so that they can cope with the challenge of exhaustion, endurance, and surrendering.

Thus, effective psychological training of marathon involves training with other athletes to obtain emotional support, acceptance of hardship, interaction with mentors and coaches, and running as an explorative activity. Hamilton (2007) posits that, long runs are essential in training, for they make the mind and body adapt to the strain of viewing marathon as a long distance event that requires endless steps (p.76).

The strain associated with marathon training has made many athletes lose hope and surrender in the course of their running because they have insufficient psychological preparation. Thus, for athletes to train marathon effectively, they need to acclimatize their psychology to long runs, hardships, different routes and derive pleasure in marathon.

Conclusion Marathon training is quite demanding because it requires physiological, physical, and psychological preparation for athletes to perform well. Partial training does not only result into poor performance but can cause severe injuries. Injuries that athletes usually experience occur due to poor training.

Thus, novice athletes must undergo rigorous and comprehensive training to avert predisposition to injurious that occur because of insufficient training. Comprehensive training for marathon needs to involve physiological, physical, and psychological training, because they are integral factors that determine performance in marathon. Therefore, for athletes to train effectively for a marathon, they should not overlook or assume essence of physiological, physical, and psychological training.

References Cormier, S. (2009). Marathon Training: Nutritional Strategies, Pre-race Taper and Psychology. Marylebone Physiotherapy and Sports Medicine, 1-22.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Effectively Train for a Marathon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cormier’s article asserts that marathon training must be systematic to prevent undue injuries and futility of training. In the article, Cormier notes that haphazard training of marathon is to blame for poor performance and high rates of injuries. Thus, he recommends comprehensive training of athletes for them to perform outstandingly in marathons.

Hamilton, A. (2007). Marathon Training Plan: Tackling the Big One. Fit Runner, 74-78.

In this article, Hamilton argues that running a marathon is not fun because it is very demanding in that, it requires both extensive and intensive training. Moreover, the article outlines basic principles that are essential for effective training, which include long runs, cross training, rest, and nutrition amongst other principles. Ultimately, the article concludes that marathon training should entail physiological, physical, and psychological aspects.

Tinsley, H. (2005). Principles of Training Theory. International Association of Athletics Federations, 1-14.

This article reflects the recommendations of International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) in training of athletes. IAAF recommends that training of athletes must entail social, philosophical, nutrition, anatomy, physical, psychological, and physiological knowledge. Tinsley observes that wide conception of marathon training enhances effective training and promote performance.

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The Stock Market Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Stock market refers to marketing environment whereby issuing and subsequent trading of shares and securities takes place (Wyss 12). The market is also referred to as equity market and it is very crucial in economic growth bearing in mind that by issuing specific percentage of their shares to investors, companies are able to raise the much needed capital to facilitate growth and expansion (Wyss 16).

The term stock market does not necessarily refer to a specific place (Wyss 18). However, stock exchange market such as the New York Stock Exchange and other exchanges around the world are situated in specific locations.

On the same note, stock market provides a platform through which individuals can buy or sell stocks, bonds and securities. Wyss (18) elucidates that there are several securities which are traded in stock markets such as shares, derivatives, unit trusts and bonds. Most stocks are sold or bought through stock exchanges which are either physical or virtual. At physical exchanges, buyers and sellers decide on pricing level through an auction method which is moderated by a specialist (Wyss 64).

The final price is arrived at by establishing an equilibrium price whereby both buyers and sellers are willing to make a transaction (Wyss 72). Once an equilibrium price is reached, a transaction is concluded. A similar situation is experienced in virtual exchanges. The only difference is that in virtual exchanges, dealers are interlinked digitally. Moreover, brokerage dealers regulate the stock market through continuous bids which are within a certain price range (Wyss 66).

Additionally, Wyss (28) distinguishes between two types of stock market namely primary and secondary. The primary market is whereby companies issue their securities for sale to the public in the stock market through Initial Public Offer (IPO) (Wyss 28).

On the other hand, subsequent trading of previously- issued securities by investors is referred to as secondary market (Wyss 28). On the other hand, primary market trading is a onetime event but secondary market is the core of stock market since it is continuous almost on a daily basis (Wyss 29).

Prices in the stock market fluctuate every minute and it is imperative for traders to establish how shares are performing at certain times (Wyss 66). This is accomplished by use of stock indexes such as Dow Jones and S

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Cultures around the World Descriptive Essay scholarship essay help

Culture is the way of life of a given people. It entails how people behave and perceive different life issues. It includes aspects like religion, customs, language, beliefs, food among others. Culture varies from one place to the other depending on the circumstances surrounding a place such as climate and environment and how people perceive things.

The difference between cultures brings about the issue of culture shock. Culture shock is experienced differently by various people and is believed to be temporary. In this assignment, I will give my experience and how culture shock affected me.

It was last year when I decided to have a change of environment; after having a very tight school schedule. I held the idea that spending my summer on a farm far away from the busy city life would be a relief to me. Since childhood, I had spent my life in the city and hence I was used to city life and all the attributes that go along with it. This made the countryside look so different for me in regard to various aspects including the environment, the customs, the food taken, the values and beliefs among other things.

The first thing that gave me problems was the environment and climate in the new place. Initially, I found it interesting due to the fact that it was free from congestion and pollution and everything seemed cool.

It was however very cold, which made me to clad in warm clothing so as to put up with the weather. Communication is another concept that was so different. Unlike in the city, respect in the countryside was a key issue especially when interacting with people who are much older. I had to be taught the words I would use when addressing older people.

Although it sounded awkward, I had no choice but to learn. Shaking hands was also important since you had to show concern to the other person. People had to engage in lengthy conversations whenever they met differing to the city life where they just say hello and leave. Food and how meals were taken was also amazing. Most of the food offered to me was very unfamiliar; some tasting okay while others were just unbearable. Meals were taken many times a day and people took time together.

This is unlike in the city where everyone is rushing and taking a meal together as a family is rare. Some customs in the countryside also seemed unbearable, for instance, having to work hard for specified duration of time and having resting hours. It is a relaxed experience compared to the busy lifestyle in the city. Generally, some of the feelings that I experienced as a result of culture shock include feeling out and misunderstood, frustration, anxiety, homesickness and worse still developing a negative attitude towards the new culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that culture shock is a reality that people have to face from time to time as they encounter different cultures that are markedly different from theirs. This is mainly because of the differences that exist in regard to values and beliefs. All in all, culture shock is temporary and requires just some time before one adjusts and thus move away from the confusion.

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