US Relationship And Interference In South East Asia Term Paper Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

The United States role in the security of the Southeast Asia

Relations between Southeast Asia and America from 2001 onwards

The United States Engagement with Pakistan



Main book consulted



Introduction Just like human beings, states cannot live in alienation. This is due to the fact that, to meet their political, cultural, and economic needs, the states become dependent on other states. The relations guiding the way in which one country relates to another is referred to as foreign policy.

Primarily, a country’s foreign policy is a blend of its internal and external factors, such as the historical backdrop, needs to be at peace with the neighboring countries, and the role played by the international society such as the UN in the current worldwide politics, among others. Moreover, superpowers like the United States end up influencing the foreign policies of other small countries[1].

The South East Asia comprises of eleven states namely: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Burma, Brunei, Cambodia, east Timor, Laos, Vietnam, and Philippines. These states have undergone transformation in many perspectives including political, economic, and military. This has occurred right from the Cold War era to the devastation of the World Trade centre in 2001, which triggered a lot of collaboration between these states and America to wage war against terrorism[2].

The United States role in the security of the Southeast Asia The future role of the United States to Southeast Asia can be understood by first looking at the security threats faced by the region. Right from the defeat of its Indochinese cronies in 1975, the United States has not shown much interest in Southeast Asia[3], and particularly in five of its nations (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand). This could be because the region has not experienced any emerging crises.

The only issues at hand could be the reconcession of the United States base agreement in Philippines and the restoration of the United States association with Vietnam. Whereas some Southeast Asian leaders had expressed concerns that the United States leadership could be ignoring the region, some had raised questions as to whether the United States was concerned with the security of the region.

Most people formed a negative conclusion as to whether America was still concerned about the security of the Southeast Asia because the whole issue was addressed within an extraneous context of whether America could offer military intervention on behalf of its cronies in the area[4].

To conceptualize the basis of the United State’s responsibility in Southeast Asia, it is primarily prudent to look at the scenery of the security threats that were bedeviling the region[5].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both direct threats and external aid insurgencies have not been of major concern in the past; indeed, former fears of Vietnam supporting their fellow communists did not happen. However, the manufacture of Soviet central power was of much concern to some leaders within the Southeast Asian area, though this can only aggravate if the United States does not intervene.

Various types of subversion from several multinationals also posed security tussles, only that the Southeast leadership was quite confident that this one could be contained. The main security threats to the Southeast region were domestically recognized.

Some of these included the probability of eruption of civil war in Thailand, pronounced racism in Malaysia, and upcoming radical organizations in Indonesia and Philippines[6]. Their long-term existence and domestic nature was what posed a great security question in Southeast Asia. The graph below shows the political stability, ability to govern and, law and order in Indonesia between 1995 and 2004. Source: International Business Risk: a handbook for Asia Pacific region, volume 2002 (p. 147).

There ought to be a demarcation between national security threats and ruling group threats. For example, whereas Japan and the United States may regard criticism as necessary political differences, Southeast Asia views this as a real threat to the security of the nation[7]. On the other hand, policies adopted by these leading global economies as means of enhancing national security could be deemed by internal opposition cliques as a danger to national security.

Therefore, the United States should reduce its influence on the security matters of Southeast Asia, since it is political development that these countries are undergoing as they seek to define the foundation of their national development. Moreover, the leaders within the Southeast Asian area acknowledged the fact that, the involvement of the United States in matters pertaining to their national security cannot bear much fruits due to the domestic nature of the issues[8].

Military and civilian leaders within the Southeast region did not anticipate the United States military intervention except for the case of very rare circumstances of being directly confronted by Vietnam, Soviet, or Chinese warlords.

However, the biggest worry among the Southeast Asians was the complete abandonment by America rather than America’s intervention in their internal issues. The best way for the United States to demonstrate its security concern towards Southeast Asia should be in response to their state during the post – Vietnam period, rather than a perpetuation of the earlier military involvement[9].

We will write a custom Term Paper on US Relationship and Interference in South East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The security situation that has recently prevailed in the Southeast region implies that the sole responsibility of the United States military should be to enhance a fulltime naval operation in the region. This has targeted to enhance a balance against the Soviet’s naval operation, and to prevent the Southeast Asians from being entangled in a Sino – soviet invasion between Moscow and China[10].

At the time, the United States’ leadership has been lobbying for the preservation of its base in the Philippines, a gesture that shows United State’s willingness to retain its position as the strongest naval force in Southeast Asia. However, what is uncertain is the ability of this base to let the US have a long-term naval presence there[11].

Many Filipinos felt uncomfortable about the bases remaining in the hands of the United States. First, the Filipinos did not see the connection between the bases and their internal security intimidation. They questioned whether the bases would trigger the American military to act incase of a rare incident of the Philippines being invaded. Some also termed it as a psychological impediment to the establishment of the Filipino army.

Moreover, most Filipinos, including some of their leaders, had a feeling that the presence of the United State bases was harmful to their lives, in that, incase of any antagonism, it could easily spark war between the United states and its enemies[12].

Secondly, the Filipinos were also anxious about the presence of an alien military base on their soil, which they termed as a breach on their soveregnty. In the international perspective, the bases were a disgrace to developing countries, since the country’s image of soveregnty was misconceived.

Repeatedly, America’s feedback to Filipino’s concerns about its soveregnty has been either inclusion of cosmetic agreements like placing A Filipino flag on the bases or substituting American army by Filipinos. Therefore, the general anticipation was to make President Marcos become convinced that technically, the bases were not under foreign influence[13].

This move could not necessarily give a solution to the problem of sovereignty especially regarding such issues as the United State military officers engaging in crime. The Filipinos believed that an American military base compelled them into over – relying on the United States, especially economically. The America’s take was that although the Filipinos did not openly accept it, they found the presence of the American base psychologically relieving.

Besides the two-sided reassurance, the chief significance of the bases for the Philippines was purely economic. In addition, the United States government was ready to release aid for the use of the bases and the Philippine authority sees the base as a means for obtaining more aid from the American government.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US Relationship and Interference in South East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although this might have been the case, it was presumed that the American government would only continue to release economic aid if the bases were retained. Apart from the bases indirectly affecting the internal security issues, they also strengthened President Marcos’ politically, which caused anxiety among his opponents concerning his relationship with the United States.

There is no direct way through which the American aid would benefit the Philippine’s economy. However, the bases are seen as an economic asset to the communist compatriots.

Both the United States and Filipino authority concede that the New People’s Army benefits greatly from the results of the black market transactions. It was not certain as to whether Washington and Marcos would arrive at a decision that would last until 1991, a period for the expiry of the United States bases.

Some American diplomats began arguing that the United States does not require the use of the bases as doing that would sour its relations with Philippines and that the political and economic value of the bases had really increased[14].

There was an alternative for the establishment of bases on Guam and Tinian, a suggestion that was based on the efficacy, cost, and the expressed willingness of other Southeast Asians to preserve the bases.

The United States was partly for the idea based on the aspect of effectiveness, but still asserted that the whole move could lead to logistic challenges such as a decline in the number of naval assets in both the Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean, deceleration in reaction time and difficulty in carried out repairs due to insufficient infrastructure.

The cost of putting up the bases in Marianas seemed to be exorbitant although the United States had no intentions of establishing bases at Marianas that would be very different from the ones in Philippines.

There was also a challenge of the unwillingness of other Southeastern nations (particularly the Singaporeans) to allow the transfer of bases from the Philippines to Marianas. Therefore, remaining at Philippines on American – owned territory would imply the United States willingness to continue exerting naval influence in the region. A shift of the bases to Marianas would was likely to be uneconomical both in time and money. A new approach was therefore necessary[15].

The United States future role to the five Southeast Asian nations is not necessarily in terms of direct military assistance, but rather, in form of provision of military technology that will enable them to be both independent and able to address their internal security concerns.

There is also need for the United States to provide economic aid and investment to the region[16]. Additionally, the United States should ensure a non-aggressive Vietnam by helping to strengthen the fiscal relationship between it and other Asian nations. This can be attained by ensuring the normalization of the U.S – Vietnam relations.

Moreover, the panacea for Southeast Asia’s internal security challenges lie in their hands, rather than in the hands of the United States[17]. Although statistics reveal that the United States has been investing heftily in military (54%) to enhance security in other nations and its own, the solution to Southeast Asia’s defense issue ought to emanate from the Southeastern states themselves.

Below is a pie chart showing the federal budget for the year 2009 and how it spends on military. Source: Voice of Revolution.

Relations between Southeast Asia and America from 2001 onwards Since the American war in Vietnam, the Southeast Asia had not been in the United States limelight until September 2001 when the American World Trade Centre was destroyed[18]. Washington made it clear that Southeast Asia was the second facade in worldwide war on terrorism.

Therefore, South Asian leaders joined into that war with noticeable ecstasy. For instance, Philippine president called for American’s assistance to help eliminate a terrorist gang from its bowels, while Singapore and Malaysia sprang into action to marshal suspected terrorists from within their boundaries.

The October 2002 bomb blast on Bali, sweeping away the lives of many foreigners and Indonesians was a confirmation that there was collaboration between Osama Bin Laden’s al Qaeda some Indonesian Islam groups. Indonesia then became a battleground in fighting terrorism. Although the Thailand Prime Minister feigned neutrality; he eventually reversed his position and termed Thailand as a partner. This caused Thailand to be plunged into the battleground on terrorism.

The United States Engagement with Pakistan The first of the three main US-Pakistan engagements took place during the cold war (1950-1960). Pakistan’s concerns about power disparity in the region and its need for economic growth triggered it to seek help from the United States.

At the same time, the United States attempted to initiate a strategic association whose aim was to assess the soviet influence in the Asian region. The United States buttressed Pakistan’s defense mechanisms while at the same time supported undemocratic trends in the country. However, as reality proved, the US relationship with Pakistan was not founded on common viewpoints.

Whereas Pakistan showed no concerned with the US view, that communism was weakening and thus a threat to Pakistan, the US did not take India’s intimidation to Pakistan to be real. As the condition within the region and across the nations gradually grew, the two parties reacted to upcoming trends with policy restructuring that produced their own strains.

For instance, Pakistan’s reach-out to China and the change in the US interest with India to put a check in China’s growing power are a case in point. Finally, United States lost Pakistan’s attention up to when we had the soviet assault of Afghanistan in 1979 [19](Hussain 4).

Pakistan’s help was so immense in assisting the US eject out Soviets that it raised fears that the US could have had interests towards Pakistan like those attributed to democracy and nuclear creation. Although the relationship between the United States and Pakistan saw the ceasing of the Cold War, it also set a stage for threatening not only the security of the two nations, but also the world as a whole.

During 1990’s, a set of sanctions were directed to Pakistan from the US. These sanctions did not only have an adverse effect between the US relations with Pakistan, but also they also caused a division in the army.

Pakistan’s alienation with the rest of the world plunged it into political instability that saw the rise of some forces like the Taliban, the AQ Khan affair, among others. The United States did not respond to these actions in any way.

After the September 11 terrorism attack in the US, Pakistan knew that it had the potential to assist the US fight against terrorism, only that it lacked both economic empowerment and military support.

Pakistan is reported to have played a significant role in its fight against terrorism. The US has also been funding Pakistan since September 11, which has seen the latter step up its efforts against fighting terrorism. The table below shows the economic assistance that Pakistan has been receiving from the United States between 1999 and 2002. Source: Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S Policy (P.62)

The current engagement between the two countries focuses on war against terrorism. As this unfolds, the Pakistan president is also focused on solving the country’s internal problems to see to it that its future engagement with the United States is sustained. Musharraf’s vision of Pakistan is in line with the US objectives and thus allows for the latest US- Pakistan realignment.

Anxiety that the US has towards Pakistan especially after Musharraf is misinformed and may hinder its future policies with Pakistan. To see the fruition of its future policies with Pakistan, the US faces the challenge of dealing with Islam forces that is repulsive to social change and liberalism. In addressing this challenge, the United States will have to combat anti-Americanism.

Conclusion The growth in the Southeast Asian region has taken many dimensions from long ago with emerging attributes that have made the United States to develop interest in it. During 1975 and 2001, the United States had become particularly interested in nations that seemed to play a vital role in both Asia – Pacific and global political /economic dealings.

After the cold war, the direction and standing of the Southeast Asia was transformed by Bill Clinton’s 1993 declaration that the foundation of that region rested on three elements: financial growth, political equality, and security[20]. After sometime, the five promising economies of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore) had developed economically.

The local economic crash of 1997 was great test for them but apart from Indonesia, strong grounds for both future plans and economic growth were formulated. These countries engage in international trade. There is also development in democracy and technology in the region.

The United States relation with Pakistan has seen the two countries support one another during the cold war after which they had contrary perspectives. The US sanctions to Pakistan in the 1990’s saw the latter face alienation from the world as well as political instability. However, the two seem to have been re-united especially in the anti-terrorism war. As they seek to realign their future policies, challenges are still ahead of them.

Appendix George W. Bush, the then American president made a move to confirm that the counterterrorism being experienced in Southern Asia at the time was within the American interests. This was during his visit to the region in the year 2003.

The conspiring between the United States and the Southeast Asian region implied that after such a long time, America still had an interest in the region. The distinction is that for the American battle within Vietnam was the Southeast Asian stage of Cold war. The consecutive American attribution of the fight on terrorism to the conflict and regime transition in Iraq, did not improve the new collaboration with Southeast Asia on anti – terrorism war.

Apart from Singapore and Philippines who supported it, Malaysia and Indonesia were vividly against America’s policy in Iraq. On the other hand, the operation that targeted to wage war against the al Qaeda and Taliban tenure in Afghanistan received full support from the Southeast Asia area.

There is however, a continual concerted effort from all on fight against terrorism. The anti – terrorism fight shows the way in which the international systems of the Southeastern Asia are still under the control of some political economic global powers. The acknowledgement of the latest development of American security interests and involvement in Southeast Asia depicts very intricate and profound political, social, and economic interests that are connecting the United States with Southeast Asia.

These interests are motivated at transnational levels. American interests compete with those of other countries like Europe and Japan, among many others. Security is just but one entity that makes the Southeast Asia play a unique role at the international level.

A map showing the Southeast Asian nations (Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam)

Source: Asean-Japan Center: Establishment of ASEAN

Main book consulted Weinstein, Franklin. The bulletin of the atomic scientists. The United States and security of Southeast Asia. Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1978.

Bibliography Asean-Japan Center. Establishment of ASEAN. 2010. 08 December 2010.

Diane publishers. National Security: Perspectives on Worldwide Threats and Implications for U.S. Forces. New York: Diane Publishers, 1991.

Hanami, Andrew K. The U.S., Japan, and Asia in International Politics. CA: University Readers, 2009.

Hastedt, Glenn. Annual Editions: American Foreign Policy 09/10. NY: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Hussain, Touquir. U.S – Pakistan engagement: The War on Terrorism and beyond. Washington: DIANE Publishing, 2009.

Jarvis, Darryl. International Business Risk: a handbook for Asia Pacific region, volume 2002 (p. 147). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2003.

Katzman, Kenneth. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S Policy. Washington: Diane Publishing, 2010.

Kim, Young. The New Pacific Communities in the 1990’s. New York: M.E Sharpe, 1996.

Ma’aroof, Mohammad. Afghanistan in World Politics. Delhi: Gian Publishing House, 1987.

Voice of Revolution. All US troops Home Now. No to a War Budget! 2009. Web.

Weatherbee, Donald and Emmers, Ralf. International Relationships in South East Asia: the struggle for economy. NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2005.

Weinstein, Franklin. The bulletin of the atomic scientists. The United States and security of Southeast Asia. Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1978.

Footnotes Ma’aroof Mohammad. Afghanistan in World Politics, (Delhi, Gian Publishing House, 1987), p.1.

Ma’aroof Mohammad, ibid.

Weinstein, Franklin. The bulletin of the atomic scientists. The United States and security of Southeast Asia. (Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1978).

Weinstein, Franklin. The bulletin of the atomic scientists. The United States and security of Southeast Asia. (Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1978), 26.

Hastedt, Glenn. Annual Editions: American Foreign Policy 09/10. (NY: McGraw-Hill, 2008).

Weinstein, Franklin, ibid.

Hanami, Andrew K. The U.S., Japan, and Asia in International Politics, (CA: University Readers, 2009).

Weinstein, Franklin, ibid.

Weinstein, Franklin, ibid

Diane publishers. National Security: Perspectives on Worldwide Threats and Implications for U.S. Forces. (New York: Diane Publishers.1991, 37).

Hastedt, Glenn. Annual Editions: American Foreign Policy 09/10. (NY: McGraw-Hill, 2008).

Diane publishers, ibid.

Diane publishers, ibid.

Diane publishers, ibid.

Diane publishers, ibid.

Hanami, Andrew K. The U.S., Japan, and Asia in International Politics, (CA: University Readers, 2009).

Weinstein, Franklin. The bulletin of the atomic scientists. The United States and security of Southeast Asia. (Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1978), p. 32

Weatherbee and Emmers. International Relationships in South East Asia: the struggle for economy. United States: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005.

Hussain, Touquir. U.S – Pakistan engagement: The War on Terrorism and Beyond. (Washington: DIANE Publishing), 2009. P. 5-9.

Kim, Young. The New Pacific Communities in the 1990’s. (New York: M.E Sharpe. 1996), p. 50.


Should Service Learning Be A Requirement For College Graduation? Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Students Serve the Community While Learning

Service Learning: Elemental for Higher Education

Service Learning May Impede Learning

Works Cited

Introduction According to Herman Melville, human being cannot live for themselves. This means that their lives are connected in numerous ways that are invisible and along these connections; their actions act as causes and then the outcomes or reactions come as results. Agreeing to Melville’s philosophy when addressing service learning means that students must have action on the community and then these causes bring results.

For instance, through serving learning, a college student can impact positively on the lives of people he/she will be serving and thus cause a positive change. In final assessment, this student is likely to benefit from the service learning by attaining contentment and hands on experience. An experienced optician can help a student optician to ma eye examinations in poor neighborhoods.

However not everyone believes that service learning is a good venture and they oppose it terming it as self serving since students and professional are used to accomplish the same tasks. Again even the activities that are not entirely helping the students to learn his/her future career can still have positive outcomes. This paper addresses the impact that service learning has on the students and the community to gauge whether it would be viable to make it a requirement for learning or not.

Students Serve the Community While Learning College administrations have in the past made remarks that the current generations of graduates do not have civility or community worth ethics. They claim that these young adults have gotten too self absorbed and are now loosing the sight of community good. Caret Robert however does not think this is true. At Towson University, students just like many others across the country are positively engaged in the community and are making a big impact on the community (Egger para. 2a).

September usually has a week of serving the community and during that period students raise awareness of the greater god that results from serving learning.

Service learning can be described as the teaching method which involves service to the community as part of its curriculum. It offers the students practical experience in the real world regarding specific fields of study and at the same time, it meets the needs of the community being served (Egger para. 2a).

The teachers involved in such programs are qualified professionals in community-oriented practice (Egger 189b). They provide the best way for students to reflect and integrate their community experiences into their wider educational knowledge perspective.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through these experiences, the students are above to discover how events in politics, economics and general social lives affect the community and programs running in real life.

They start thinking about creative strategies that are linked to their knowledge in theory but not bound to it alone (Egger para. 2a). They find their roles in the community and identify their responsibilities as productive members of the society. Family studies at Towson University offer an exceptional way of integrating class work and community service (Egger 189b).

Students wishing to make a positive impact on the community can engage in such services. It’s estimated that at least 30% of student have been engaging in volunteer community work while still in school. Baltimore area lone has over 100,000 students and based on this percentage, then it mean over 30,000 students are serving their communities. Therefore service learning is the best way that universities can bring real change to the community.

Service Learning: Elemental for Higher Education What is the general purpose of the higher education, for mere career or for lifelong benefit? This is a question that many people have been seeking to address. Ernest Boyer believes that in order to bring change to American colleges, students should be trained to be responsible citizens in the long run rather that teaching the solely to build their careers (Caret para. 2).

This way, the colleges will proudly connect theory to practice and therefore meet the challenges of social problems especially for universities in urban areas. Universities cannot be left to be areas of riches, self-importance and floral splendor when there is violence and despair loom in the community (Caret para. 2).

Service learning has the potential of enriching the process of learning and rejuvenating the society and provide fresh dignity to the service to the community scholarships (Egger 191b). Emphasizing that the worth of community serves is voluntary. Universities build a culture of service (Caret para. 3). There are two salient methods that this has been happening, through curricular and extracurricular activities. Professional schools are better placed to provide several ways of experiential learning experiences.

Service Learning May Impede Learning Egger John explains that he was taught that self – interest can by no means conflict with the love of the society. This to him mean that subjects like arts, chemistry and history are meant to promote they way individuals understand the nature of human behavior and hence build their capacity to cooperate in the community. Educated people respect the society and this arises when they realize person achievements.

We will write a custom Essay on Should Service Learning Be A Requirement For College Graduation? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a society of individuals, everyone struggles to make his/her life better and this makes others better and social bonds strengthen as these individuals interact (Bringle and Hatcher 223). They hence develop mutual respect even for unintended persons because of the predictable outcomes. Egger argues that education promoting civility does not inn anyway deal with “good works” as Caret approves. Civility can be remedied by liberal arts lessons.

All that is required is to put emphasis on merits to an individual for respecting the society and involving others in trade. Unfortunately, Egger does not think this is being done and that is why students are disrespectful and distrustful of the human freedoms particularly the free markets. The solution for this is not to get s substitute like service learning (Bringle and Hatcher 223).

Service learning diminishes reverence for the society as it seems to imply that students owe other less privileged members of the community time and effort. Teaching that one has a responsibility to people he/she does not like, does not knew or whose misfortune one was never responsible engenders sense of antipathy and contempt but not compassion to fellow humans.

Liberal education requires that students respect fellow human but not to mean that they owe them something (Bringle and Hatcher 225). This means they respect other’s rights and freedoms while pursuing individual dreams. The purpose of higher education is training the minds of responsible members of the society and not to enhance their emotions.

Works Cited Bringle, Robert and Hatcher, Julia. Implementing Service Learning In Higher Education (Excerpt), Journal of Higher Education,67.2(1996): 221-238

Caret, Robert. Local Students Serve As They Learn. Baltimore, Maryland: Baltimore Examiner, 2007, Print.

Egger, John. No Service to Learning: “Service-Learning” Reappraised, Academic Questions, 21. 2(2007): 183-194

Egger, John. Service ‘Learning’ Reduces Learning. Baltimore Reporter, 2007

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Comparison of Two Kinds of People Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Among the great diversity one sees in the surrounding world, some distinct types of people stand out and allow categorization, comparison, and contrast between and among them. However, there are some interesting practices of comparing and contrasting non-compliant people; such activities may be highly productive for analytical thinking. Hence, the subjects of the present paper have been randomly chosen without any combination by category.

A politician and a scholar will be compared according to some characteristics they may have in common, and the disparities in activities, style of thinking and perception they may have. No specific representative of the kind is taken as an example, and all inferences are made on the basis of generalizations and stereotypical visions of the typical representatives of the kind.

A politician is a public person, in contrast to a scholar who usually deals with his/her scientific experiments and studies in a laboratory or cabinet. This is the main difference of politicians and scholars; the former have to be in public places, communicate their opinions and thoughts to masses of people, and always remain in the focus of mass media attention.

Scholars are usually known by their works, and there are only a limited number of people who knows them in person. However, nowadays the situation has changed drastically, with the intensifying mass media impact on all kinds of activities.

There are many scholars who conduct active social and enlightenment work, so they often become public personalities as well. Similarly to the politicians who bring their political agenda to the nation or the focus group and try to attract followers and supporters, scholars may also be interested in arising curiosity and attention to some scientific findings or studies, thus performing public presentations, giving interviews and press-conferences etc.

Another criterion for comparison may be found in the attitude to the truth by both kinds of people. Scholars are the active seekers of the truth, and they usually devote their lives to the quest of true facts and revelation of natural laws. Politicians have a very arbitrary attitude to the truth, as they surely manipulate it for the sake of their individual political interests.

Politicians constantly pose the truth intro the focus of their political attention as they claim they fight for its protection and restoration, they are guided only by integrity etc. Nonetheless, as practice shows, politicians often exaggerate their devotion to the laws of truth, law and morale, and often have to conceal certain facts in order to maintain their positive public image.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One more criterion chosen for comparison is the perception of the job these two kinds of people have. Politicians are considered to be the elite group of people associated with luxury, wealth, and status. The political field of activity is traditionally associated with serious, prestigious positions and high stakes of the political plays.

The party winning the race for the majority in the government, or the official who manages to become a Senator or Minister, are supposed to get enormous profits from such new appointments. Scholars, in contrast, are considered to be more motivated to work because of their own inclinations to scientific discovery, and they are thought to earn not much, even for grand discoveries.

It is obviously not the case for advanced countries such as the USA, Canada and Western Europe – these countries foster their talents and provide adequate remuneration for their findings. It is still a problem in less developed countries where the contribution of scientists is still undervalued.

As one can see from the present comparison, different kinds of people that may seem to have nothing in common can still be compared. As in the case of a politician and a scholar, there are several criteria that clearly suit for characterizing both kinds of people discussed. The attitudes to life and profession, the central concepts of their perception, as well as the nature of their work may become the basis for comparison, revealing both common and different traits.


Seven Habits of High Successful People by Stephen Covey Essay essay help online

The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People by Stephen Covey was a bestseller book in the late 80s and early 90s; it sold more than 15 million copies and was translated to more than 38 foreign languages (Covey 1).

The author remains a very influential management guru of his times and indeed even in today’s world because not only was his book used as a blueprint to personal development in organizational contexts but also in other disciples such as social sciences, psychology and the likes (Covey 1). In the book, the author presents a set of ideas that if applied, aligns one towards the attainment of success by following a guideline of habits which he notes, are universal and timeless.

However, observers note that the book is quite simple to understand but not necessarily simple to put into practice. Based on the analysis of the book, this study will provide a detailed summary, analysis and critique of the book’s principles with regards to its inspirational and aspiration teachings.

Summary Habit 1: Being Proactive

Stephen purports that the destiny of an individual is usually dictated by the choices he/she makes (Covey 11). This means that people are often empowered to choose their status; say, happiness, sadness, decisiveness, failure, ambivalence, courage, success, fear or any other attribute that defines a person.

Of importance is peoples’ acknowledgement that every new opportunity gives an individual the chance to make a better choice. In so doing, people get a new opportunity to do things differently so that they can increase their productivity levels.

Habit 2: Considering the End

Covey notes that people should always consider where they would want to be in future while undertaking their daily duties. This should be done alongside an analysis of the current position they are in, their dreams, ambitions, goals and the likes. This is important because Covey notes that people often find themselves in positions of success but they derive very little satisfaction from it.

In fact, some people always achieve these high levels of success by trampling over the things they valued most in their lives (Covey 12). Such things could be family, friends, a dream career and the likes. Covey therefore gives an example by noting that “If your ladder is not leaning against the right wall, every step you take gets you to the wrong place faster” (12). This exposes an important aspect of imagination for the determination of the future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Habit 3: Prioritizing Issues

Covey observes that human beings cannot do everything that comes along their way, at the same time. This is okay because it prevents overstraining oneself. Prioritization empowers individuals to decline taking up things they can’t do and instead focus their energies on matters of higher importance. Covey observes that people are usually the creators of their lives and therefore they are in charge of their destiny.

Habit 4: Think Win-Win

Thinking of a win-win strategy is not really about being extra nice or losing one’s edge, but more of collaborating and negotiating with third parties (Covey 14). Many people adopt a wrong way of living by comparing themselves to others and evaluating their actions in the eyes of others. This has created a negative culture of basing success on the failure of another person. For example, people often see themselves as a success when a fellow person falls.

The same is also true where some people perceive themselves as failures just because they have seen another person succeed. This is created by the variation in human potential and the inequality in opportunities. Some people therefore ensure that if they fail, they have to bring other people down with them, and if they succeed, they cut links with those who’ve failed or in some cases; they succeed as a way of revenging.

Covey notes that many people like to play this game because it is part of human nature but he questions what fun there is in doing so. Through this trail of thought, he proposes that a win-win situation needs to be upheld because it eliminates the animosity in human relationships and fosters cooperation.

Habit 5: Seek to Understand and then to be Understood

Highly effective people always don’t rush to explain their side of the story before they get to understand another person’s point of view. This fact elevates the most important skill to human interaction and understanding; communication (Covey 18). Partly, the societal system is to blame because people spend endless years learning how to read, write; but little time is dedicated to listening.

In fact, people rarely get life training lessons on the importance of listening to other people. Because of these shortcomings, most people often rush to be understood first and their points put across before others can air their views. In doing so, many people become very inconsiderate because they totally disregard the views of other people, pretend to listen or selectively understand a person’s views, thereby letting many points go unheard.

Habit 6: Synergy

Synergy is a common trait among highly effective people. Majorly, it underlies the premise that two heads are better than one and team work is an integral component to the success of any business. This concept also embraces open-mindedness to induce creativity so that new solutions can be found towards solving old problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Seven Habits of High Successful People by Stephen Covey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this process is not easy at all. Most importantly, it doesn’t happen overnight because people have to come together to contribute pieces of information and varied experiences towards the overall attainment of their ultimate goal. In this manner, a very comprehensive and hybrid solution can be obtained; better than one which could be obtained if only individual effort was employed.

Habit 7: Emphasis on Strengths

Covey sometimes refers to the emphasis on strengths to “sharpening of the saw” (19). This primarily means capitalizing on one’s greatest asset. It is also what highly effective people thrive on. It means achieving a balance between various functional areas on ones life for self renewal (Covey 21). First, one area of core competence is the physical aspect of it, where people practice beneficial eating; exercising and resting to improve their physical fitness.

Secondly, improvement can be done in areas of social and emotional wellbeing where interpersonal relationships can be enhanced to improve personal effectiveness. Thirdly, people can improve their mental wellbeing by learning to write, read, and learn and lastly, one can improve his/her physical wellbeing by engaging in natural mediation through music, art, prayer and other forms of self mediation (Covey 21).

Analysis Habit 1

With regards to being proactive as the first characteristic of highly effective people, people should be in a position to take responsibility for their actions at all times. In other words, it is not wise to keep blaming other people for one’s shortcomings; like managers blaming lower level employees for their failure; or employees blaming the managers for their failure.

Proactive people are therefore able to take a proactive stand and accept their responsibilities and shortcomings. This fact deters people from blaming their living environments, working conditions, genetics, circumstances or other parameters which may pose as an excuse for their shortcomings.

Proactive people understand that their actions and behaviors all depend on their intuition. The opposite of such kind of people are reactive people who are more likely to blame their primary environments as opposed to their actions (Covey 21). These are the kind of people who always seek external factors to use a scapegoat for their shortcomings.

Habit 2

Having the end scenario in mind entails having a wild imagination. Imagination is the ability to envision where one would be in the future because the eyes cannot see it at the moment. This element also observes that most things are always created twice; one, in the mind and two, in reality.

Just like a building follows a construction plan, the physical creation of a dream or goal follows the mental picture of it. The second habit therefore notes that if people fail to have the strategic foresight or dream about their destiny, they allow other people to control their future.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Seven Habits of High Successful People by Stephen Covey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Imagination therefore needs to incorporate unique attributes within an individual which ought to be nourished within the framework of ethical guidelines, moral upbringing, and personal principles towards the achievement of the final goal. Also with the end in mind, one can be able to wake up each morning with the aim of accomplishing the desired goal by flexing personal will towards the attainment of a desirable end result.

Habit 3

Recapping the fist two habits of an effective person, we realize that the choice of being proactive is voluntary while in the second habit, the ability to create an end vision about one’s life is imaginary; however, this third habit makes the imaginary aspect to one’s destiny, real.

The third habit therefore encompasses the first and second habit and normalizes the process because it outlines that efforts need to be factored into the overall process on a daily basis. Many dilemmas regarding time management are also addressed in this context but this is just a fragment of the whole analysis.

More specifically, this third habit revolves around the management of one’s life. In detail, it involves a deep analysis of one’s life, values and purpose. Emphasis should therefore be made on the things which appear to have most importance in value. People therefore need to utilize most of their time in doing the things they find most value in; through organization and time management (in line with the resolutions made in the second habit).

Habit 4

The fourth habit being adopting a win – win scenario; it is not essentially easy to quantify it because its success lies in the hands of men and in the hearts of people who endeavor seek to foster mutual benefits (Covey 21). This is the attribute which effective people have been able to master. Effective people therefore ensure that human relationships are to a great extent beneficial to all and have a mutual benefit to all parties involved as well.

If opportunities were equated to one big pie, everyone would have a share and it would taste really good if everyone were a part of it. Covey points out that people who have properly mastered the art of adopting a win-win scenario in contemporary business set ups, posses a number of traits. First, they posses a high integrity; meaning that they adhere to their strong moral values and principles.

Secondly, they have a high level of maturity which means that they have a lot of courage when expressing themselves, and they also consider other peoples’ feelings while doing so. Lastly, these kind of people have a lot of abundance in terms of mental capability because they operate under the belief that everyone will get a share of whatever resources there is to divide (Covey 29).

Habit 5

The lack of ability to listen to other people often occurs because many people are tuned to listen just so they can respond to a given issue instead of understanding. People therefore spend most of their time listening to others while preparing to ask another question. This is wrong because important issues pass by without proper consideration.

Also, people should refrain from listening to other people through their life experiences and comparing other people’s stories with their own autobiography to see how it measures up. This leads to premature conclusions of what other people intent to put across.

Covey gives examples of common statements people make such as “Oh, I know just how you feel….. I felt the same way…….I had that same thing happen to me…..Let me tell you what I did in a similar situation” (25). This is wrong. Because many people listen to others through their own selves, their reactions fall within a given set of responses. These responses are outlined through the processes of judging, evaluation, probing, advising and interpreting other people’s information.

Habit 6

Synergy is a process that effective people employ to help them discover new solutions as a group (a goal which they wouldn’t have otherwise achieved through individual effort). Synergy firmly embraces the idea that the whole is always greater than the combination of different segments towards a solution.

Covey asserts that “One plus one equals three, or six, or sixty–you name it” (31). Synergy therefore thrives on open interaction and honest exchange of ideas so that new insights can be obtained. In fact, since everyone has a different opinion towards the achievement of a common task, the probability of inventing a new approach is very high. In fact, the diversity of opinion is the real driver towards accomplishment of productive synergy.

Habit 7

An emphasis of strengths as the seventh attribute requires one to engage in a rejuvenation of the four functional areas of human life. These areas as outlined above include physical rejuvenation, social and emotional rejuvenation, learning to write, read, and learn plus natural mediation through music, art, prayer and other forms of self mediation.

Improving in these core competency areas means that one can effectively improve in the other six functional areas. One’s capacity to handle new challenges and problems can also be enhanced in this manner. A lack of rejuvenation in these functional areas means that the body will become weak, the mind mechanical, the emotional status in disarray, the spirit dead and ultimately, someone is bound to be very selfish in nature. These attributes lower the effectiveness of a person.

Critical Analysis Becoming a highly effective person is a process of internal self analysis. Most of the issues identified in this study are internally motivated and largely depend on self-will. They also largely outline areas which concentrate on strengthening the functional areas of human growth.

The first habit of being proactive seeks to motivate people to take responsibility for their actions and helps them focus on areas they would best make a change; as opposed to areas they have very little impact on. The habit of end consideration empowers people to know the direction they are following and expend their energy towards the accomplishment of their ultimate goals in life. This principle also encourages people to appreciate what is of importance to their lives and concentrate less on what is unimportant.

Covey talks of issue prioritization which more or less revolves around accomplishment of specific goals but it encourages people to take up what they can do and avoid situations of burnout where they try to do everything at the same time. The fifth habit as identified in the book is however closely associated with the fourth because it encourages people to understand others’ point of view as opposed to theirs.

The sixth and seventh habits can also be employed concurrently because they incorporate the employment of synergy and emphasize on the strengths of an individual (because the latter can be used to develop synergy if used collectively). Comprehensively, the development of a highly effective person revolves around the 7 key areas of competence described above.

Conclusion The most unique attribute human beings have is the ability to choose the kind of channel they will take when dealing with issues that plague their lives. Even though conditioning the different circumstances they faced with will probably have an impact in changing the course of their lives, it doesn’t necessarily happen in a huge way.

Covey points out that an individual is totally responsible for the type of events that characterize his/her life. In other words, the power to feel happy, sad, annoyed or such like attributes all depend on the individual involved. The book explains how human beings can achieve a positive attitude and acquire traits that make them effective. Collectively, this book is quite captivating and has the potential to change lives if applied in the right spirit.

Works Cited Covey, Stephen. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. 2010. Web.


Racism in the Penitentiary Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors Contributing to Racism in Prison

The Root Cause of Prison Racism in America

History of Racism in United States

The Nature and the Effects of Prison Racism

Effects of Racism in Prison


Works Cited

Introduction Racism in America has been a topic of discussion for a long time in the view of the fact that the country hosts people of different races. It occurs every where; in hospitals, learning institutions, prisons, and in social institutions, to name just a few. In the same country, there are a lot of people who have been put in prison as studies of Quigley( par. 3) explain that around 2.4 million American citizens have been imprisoned excluding the number which is held under probation and parole, who are over five million.

Most surprisingly, further studies indicate that despite the fact that racial minorities like the blacks and Latinos are less than a quarter of the total population, they comprise around sixty percent of the total prisoners. Therefore, it is clear that racism and racial inequality has not been eradicated but has taken a different form.

According to Quigley (par 4.), racial disparity in the juvenile justice system is also paramount. It is quite explicit that racism in American prisons is a real phenomenon. With that background in mind, this paper shall discuss more about the same problem and narrow down to root causes, history and explore the reason why it takes place as well as its impacts and consequences.

Factors Contributing to Racism in Prison There are many factors that contribute to racism in prison and in most cases; the same contribute to racism in the free society. For instance, superiority complex contributes to racism not only in prison and other penitentiary institutions, but also in the free society (Bhavnani, Mirza and Meetoo pp. 42).

The feeling of whites as the most superior race has persisted for a long time and the same is also present in prison facilities. Since racism is also a problem of the prison officials, whites are treated better than the other racial minorities especially if the official happens to be a white.

The nature of prison life is also a causative factor to the racism in such institutions. There are many gang activities in prison formed by the prisoners and more often than not, each gang contains members of a similar race. Given that gangs are involved in violence, prisoners are forced to join a particular gang of their race in order to be protected from the criminal activities of the other gangs. Therefore, it is clear that the existence of various gangs in prison is an important factor attributing to racism.

It is amazing but also true that some racists groups in the free society contribute greatly to the racism in prisons. Such groups incite criminals of their race by influencing them to establish racism groups in prison. A t times, they send some information and literature to them either in books or tapes to help them spread racism ideologies among the prisoners. Prisoners hailing from the racism groups are treated as heroes and often do appear in publications that spread racism ideologies (Quigley par 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Root Cause of Prison Racism in America Laws in the American constitution have contributed greatly to racism in American institutions, prison facilities included. For example, the 13th Amendment of the American constitution created a loophole which helped to influence racism in prisons as it stated, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, expect as a punishment for crime….

Shall exist within United States” (Truax par. 4). Although several states continued to revise such laws, new laws which were formed continued to contribute to racism in prison. Immediately after the abolishment of slave trade, slaves continued to be imprisoned after committing crimes such as refusing to work, insulting the workers and even handling money carelessly.

Slavery codes were changed to black codes and since they allowed blacks to be imprisoned after committing petty offences, the same can be viewed as the root cause of racism in prison. Having discussed the causes of racism in prison it is important to explorer on its history which also helps explain the root cause.

History of Racism in United States Prison racism in United States has been in existence for a long a time; since the era of slave trade although blacks were rarely imprisoned as they were more valuable while working in the plantations. However, there were local jails and other facilities which used to control and limit the freedom of the blacks. The number of the blacks in prison increased following the end of the civil war and after the abolishment of slave trade.

Studies of Acoli (par. 5) indicate that once blacks were arrested even for the very minor and petty crimes, they were sentenced more harshly, compared to their white counterparts. Further studies indicate that immediately after the civil war, the percentage of the black citizens increased to thirty three percent.

The trend continued during the cold war era. Racism was not only being exercised by the prisoners but also by the prison guards bent on the fact that most of the guards were whites. Black prisoners were not only mistreated, but they were also deprived some of the important social amenities that are necessary even to a prisoner.

Prison life in America was a reflection of the life in the free society. During the civil rights era, life in prison was segregated and the same condition was present in the society. White prisoners and the prisoners from other races were treated differently. While the whites were allowed to be clerks, electrician and other good jobs, black prisoners were given the lowest jobs like garbage disposal, working in the farms and washing clothes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Racism in the Penitentiary specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, blacks were segregated in all other places in the prison life. For example, they were supposed to live in their known separate cells and the same segregation existed even recreation facilities such that black prisoner used to stay at the back while the white prisoners occupied the from seats.

Nevertheless, civil rights movements which were upcoming during the same era influenced the prisoners to contest gains racial discrimination which was taking place. Consequently, there was lot of violence in prison because the white prisoners and administrators were resisting any change.

On the other hand, black prisoners were not ready to take anything less than equal rights and abolishment of discrimination (Acoli par. 8). Although there was some improvement, prison racism was not abolished completely since the same problem is still present even in the twenty first century.

The Nature and the Effects of Prison Racism United States has the highest number of people in prison at any given time than any other country in the world. The most amazing issue is the fact that majority are racial minorities.

The problem is evident in the whole process of criminal justice system starting from the arrest up to the sentencing and provision of various services like probation and parole. Of all other Americans who have been sentenced death, forty two percent are African Americans. Similarly, African Americans women are imprisoned in higher rates than the white women, actually four times more. In addition, African Americans receive harsher jail terms compared to their white counterparts Fisher (par. 5)


Budgeting Preparation in Economics Sector Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Budgeting entails preparation for the achievement of specific targets and missions within a given duration by calculating the necessary funds together with the funds at hand. The budget is meant for use by the government in putting its policies to work by regulating the money spent by various agencies in the government (Robert


A Comparative and Contrast analysis of Everyman and The Wanderer Essay online essay help

Everyman is an old English morality play with an anonymous writer. The play presents the idea of salvation in the Christian context. It is believed that the author of the play wrote it during the late fifteenth century (Frohman, 10; Flesch, 179). The play shows Everyman traveling on a long journey to account his life to God.

The teaching the play presents is that God records Everyman’s character and actions, which represents the actions and characters of an ordinary person, after death as in a book. On the other hand, The Wanderer presents the case of a man who is in exile and roaming the earth (Channing, 1). This man laments for the loss of his family members, friends and he hates being away from his kind king.

In the middle of disillusionment and despair, The Wanderer remembers that it is good to have faith in God in order to be saved. According to The Wanderer, salvation is based on faith in Christ rather than in a man’s own deeds. The Wanderer and Everyman have both similar and contrasting ideas.

The author of Everyman used allegorical characters to present his message (Cummings, Para. 6). These characters include Death, Everyman, God, Fellowship, Goods, Good Deeds, Knowledge, Strength, Five Wits, among others. The first scene of the play shows God looking at Everyman from heaven.

He sees that Everyman loves the goods and possessions of this earth and has forgotten him. Everyman is young, rich and preoccupied with worldly things. He not only forsaken God, but also despises his fellow human beings who are poor. God therefore becomes angry with Everyman and send his servant Death to take a message to Everyman that he has to embark on a long journey (Effinger, para.1).

Everyman is therefore required to put himself in order and be ready for the journey because Death reminds him that there is no returning from that journey. Because of his love of the world, Everyman tries to bribe Death to leave him to continue enjoying his life on earth. However, Death refuses. Everyman tries to ask his Friends, Fellowship and Kinsmen to accompany him for the journey but they let him down.

After prayers and penance, his friend Good Deeds, whom he had forgotten for a long time, gets enough energy to accompany him and assist him in presenting his case before God. All the other friends who had promised to go with Everyman like Strength, Discretion, Beauty and Knowledge leave Everyman as he enters the grave.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The wanderer is an old English poem that presents an old warrior who roams the world in search of accommodation and help (Gerould, 63). The poem is a monologue where the aging warrior presents his grievances. The unknown author gives the introduction and conclusion of the poem.

The wanderer is sorrowful for being in exile (Alexander, 63). He laments for losing his family members, friends, and his home and remembers his caring king. Through his dreams, the Wanderer sees himself in the company of his friends and kinsmen and sees himself embracing his king.

He wakes up from his sleep to find himself in his exile, faced with gray winter, snowfall and hailstorms (“The Wanderer Summary”, Para. 1). Further, on the Wanderer’s second monologue, he considers giving up self-control since he considers them similar to ways of meeting diversity. The wanderer also sees many negative things and destruction happening in many places as he travels than in his own society.

This poem also links the values of pagans and Christians in an unfair combination. The author’s voice in the poem refers to God and shows the importance of having virtues like faith, an issue that the wanderer seems to have forgotten. The Wanderer through his lamenting, however, gives an indication of upholding values like loyalty, generosity, courage and strength. The wanderer appears resigned in life. The wanderer appears resigned in life (“The Wanderer poem,” para. 3).

However, at the culmination of the poem he brightly illustrates his lack of companionship and anticipates for the previous days in which life was more interesting. He finally concedes to his faith in God.

There are several themes and characters presented in both Everyman and The Wanderer. Some of these point towards similar ideas while others are contrasting. In both episodes, faith in God is presented and God is shown and acknowledged as the sole controller of the universe.

Men are seen to forget God and concentrate more on the cares and concerns of earthly issues and only come to remember God when they are in problems. Everyman forsakes God and loves earthly goods and riches than God. This is why he is not ready to leave his earthly possessions and even offers to bribe Death to leave him stay on Earth.

We will write a custom Essay on A Comparative and Contrast analysis of Everyman and The Wanderer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Everyman remembers his good deeds when he finds that no one stands with him. We are also informed that he remembered the days he used to serve his God. The Wanderer also is too much worried of his fate on earth and forgets his God as he journeys the earth. The wonderer comes to remember his God when he is aging and admonishes us to put faith in God.

They also agree that man needs some virtues while travelling through this world. They agree that man often needs to put his relationship right with God. He needs generosity, strength, good deeds and courage. For Everyman, he needed Good Deeds to present his case before God when he reached heaven. He also needed Strength, Beauty and Five Senses to go with him in the journey.

The wanderer also admonishes us that we need strength, courage, generosity, loyalty and faith in God throughout our journey on Earth. These works use allegorical characters to present their message. While Everyman uses allegorical characters such as Goods, Good Deeds, fellowship, Five Senses among others (Cummings, Para. 6; Lawrence and Reich, 204), The Wanderer uses an allegorical character of “the life of a man in the image of a sea-journey” (Gordon, para. 1).

There are a number of differences that can be identified from the two literature materials. Everyman is a play while The wanderer is a poem. Everyman uses many allegorical characters to present the message while the Wanderer uses one soliloquy character to present the message. The narrator in The Wanderer makes the introduction and conclusion. Everyman believes that good deeds are necessary to save a person.

This is why he goes for repentance and penance to give Good Deeds strength to accompany him in his journey. The Wanderer on the other hand believes in salvation by faith. He believes that faith in God is enough to save a person without deeds. Thus, The Wanderer presents the theme of salvation by faith in Jesus Christ, while Everyman presents the theme of salvation by works.

In conclusion, the two literature materials present the themes of Christianity, isolation and betrayal by the trusted friends (Marin, Para.2; Marsden, 327; Treharne, 42). They use characters that are in a journey on earth. The Wanderer is in exile while Everyman is traveling to God. Even though these materials present similar themes and messages, they also conflict in some ideas. Conspicuous in the texts is the difference in the means by which people gain salvation.

While Everyman believes it is by works, The Wanderer believes it is by faith in Christ. Everyman and The Wanderer reflect the life of ordinary men on earth and their Christian walk. Everyman shows the evils people do against their fellow human beings and against God. The two stories reflect the life on an ordinary person on earth and advices people to live a life they know they will give an account of at last.

Works Cited Alexander, Michael. The earliest English poems. London : Penguin, 1991. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Comparative and Contrast analysis of Everyman and The Wanderer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Channing, William E. The wanderer: a colloquial poem. Boston : J. R. Osgood and Co., 1871. Print.

Cummings, Michael J. “Everyman: A morality Play Written in the Late 1400’s by Unknown author.” Study guides. Web.

Effinger, Sandra. “The Summoning of Everyman: A Student Guide.” MsEffie. Web.

Flesch, William. The Facts on File companion to British poetry 19th century. New York: Facts on File, 2010. Print.

Frohman, Charles. Everyman : being a moralle playe of the XV centurie. Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger, 1903. Print.

Gerould, Gordon H. Old English and medieval literature. Freeport, NY: Books for Libr. Press, 1970. Print.

Gordon, I. L. “Traditional themes in The Wanderer and the Seafer.” Justor. Web.

Lawrence, Cunningham, and Reicg, John J. Culture and Values: a survey of the humanities. Boston, M.A.: Wadsworth Pub. 2005. Print.

Marin, Lucian E. “The poem the Wanderer.” The Wanderer. Web.

Marsden, Richard. The Cambridge Old English reader. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2004. Print.

“The Wanderer Poem.” World Lingo. Web.

“The wanderer summary.” The Wanderer (Magill Book Reviews). 2010. Web.

Treharne, Elaine M. Old and Middle English c.890-c.1400: an anthology. Malden, Mass: Wiley Blsackwell, 2004. Print.


Concept of Bioregionalism in Environmental Ecosystems Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents The Philosophy

How does it work?

Is it feasible?


Bioregionalism is the phenomenon of understanding the process of environmental ecosystems in a way justifiable to the human cultures. It is a way of merging various human territories into what the universal territory holds in the form of global environment, which is only possible through human motivated effort towards environmental problem solving.

Environmental ecology has long before the Second World War has left reasons for us to manipulate the causes to study this subject. However, it occurred just after the anti-war peace movements of the post world war that the bioregional activists started realizing the hazards in the form of environmental crises caused by wars, human overpopulation, air and chemical pollution, and overconsumption.

The primary cause of our current environmental woes rests with the negation of bioregional process that we often do by not responding to the political and environment power relations of global economy. Bioregionalism requires a complete grasp of local and global integration of economic resources that in this era of capitalism should not have been ‘limited’.

By limited, I mean reserved talks that in this globalized era must not be encouraged. Unfortunately globalization does not go hand in hand with bioregionalism. Both are inversely proportional to each other’s needs and contribute to each other’s development respectively. For example, cheaper energy is not permitted by globalization and expensive energy is not allowed in bioregionalism.

So, we must remain open in our bioregional expressions to break the ice regarding what globalization has to offer us in context with policies and measures. What we are in our closed bioregions is not what today’s globalized era wants from us. In this manner we are isolated within what ecology does not want us to reckon. Isolated in terms of not integrating our ecological affiliations with that of our culture, or when we consider our ecosystem to be a separate entity, though it is not.

Our ecosystem is a part to be stemmed out of our larger landscape that means environmental activities like watershed, rainfalls, culture that makes us close to the nature, local community knowledge, environmental history, and climatic concerns. Environmental activities are not understood by us the way they are supposed to have been analyzed. This ignorant attitude has only left us in dark where habitat destruction is obvious in the longer run.

Thus, in order to preserve our environment and ecological stability, it is necessary to focus on the hazards that are caused by the “commercial, industrial and agricultural globalized developments, natural resource extraction, tourism and war, because all these initiate a new chain of ecological and cultural disruptions” (Mcginnis, 1999, p. 122).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my opinion, the most significant aspect to analyze the threat of bioregionalism goes against the globalization phenomenon. If we talk about better health, we are not talking about the opportunities which in this case global health specialists are capitalizing on. Similarly, the more pollution factor, the least will be the cleanliness benefitting the global health trends. The more industrialization of the weapons of mass destruction, the more would be the production, the greater destruction caused by the warfare.

The concern arises why human warfare in this modernized age is a concern? Just because of the fact that we have chosen globalization over bioregionalism. We have put an end to all our communication modes along with the patience to bear aside. Since there is no communication understanding, we are more prompted to adopt the warring than to give in any room for peace.

Thus, weapons of mass destruction not only destroy humanity in the wake of warfare, but also disrupt our ecosystem. This is highlighted by many theories of globalization that asserts that our environmental problems possessing able solutions are not limited to overflow through national boundaries and borders.

Communication barrier with no understanding on either side is a common drawback that goes against bioregionalism. This applies to global climatic change, which is already unable to cooperate with our increased globalization trends, thus, leaving room for the water, air and environmental pollution.

The Philosophy The main philosophy behind bioregional assumption is the geographical characteristic that asks explanation of physiographic ‘boundaries.’ Unlike humanly sketched political borders, it is difficult to define a hierarchical legitimacy in halting the spread of environmental causes and issues. For example, pollution is difficult to be dealt with as long as there is human existence. Globalization extension beyond borders has given rise to the economic and political relationships with that of technological cause.

This on one hand has produced tremendous capitalist results, while on the other it is making global world a future plight for us, where everything on earth will be materialized. What would be left with us will be the destruction in the wake of greenhouse effect, climatic severity in the form of increased volcanic disruptions, and tsunamis.

What the globalized trend has made us today is not the answer to the problems of bioregionalism. Instead, globalization itself has raised the concerns that make environmental NGOs to rake over the environmental crises. Thus, it is not wise to turn a blind eye to “the physical realities of environmental, resource, and biodiversity issues by not considering natural divisions within physiographic regions” (Thayer, 2003, p. 19).

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Bioregionalism in Environmental Ecosystems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globalization has given rise to environmental awareness, leading to think about the consequences of the international trade and environmental conservation. The role of transportation in the environmental crises management has helped us in thinking about the policies that govern ports.

Similarly, port areas are considered to be the “functional organization of activities and operations that are designed specifically to attain high standards of environmental protection and the goal of sustainable development” (Pinder


Great Smoky Mountains National Park Term Paper best college essay help

Introduction Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a US national park and a UNESCO world heritage site and covers the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains and part of Blue Ridge Mountains (National Park Service US Department of the Interior 1). It is the most visited park and one of the largest protected areas in the US (Walls 7).

It covers about 2108 km2 and forms part of the larger Appalachian Mountain Chain (Saferstein1). Unlike other national parks within the US, the Great Smoky National Park does not charge any entry fee (Walls 7).

History of the Park The region covered by the park was once the home of Cherokee Indians (Himiak 11). However, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 which resulted in the eviction of the Indian tribes from the region (National Park Service US Department of the Interior 1).

The white settlers later on built a rail line passing through the region but then started cutting and hauling of the trees from the forest. This led to the destruction of the forest and its natural beauty until the locals and the visitors saw the need to preserve the forest.

They then (along with the US government) raised some money to establish the park since the US National Park Service did not have enough finances to establish the park on its own (Campbell 3). Individual citizens from North Carolina and Tennessee came in to help assemble the land for the establishment of the park.

Those who still lived in the park, mainly the Cherokee Indians, miners and loggers, were forced out of the park and all the operations which contributed to the destruction of the forest were abolished (Saferstein 56). The park was officially instituted in June, 1934 by the US Congress and dedicated in 1940 by President Franklin Roosevelt (Himiak 22).

The Works Progress Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps and other federal organizations developed the infrastructure in the park and around Smoky Mountains during the Great Depression (National Park Service US Department of the Interior 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1976, the park became an International Biosphere Reserve and in 1983, it was certified by UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1988, the park was expanded to become part of the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve (National Park Service US Department of the Interior 1).

Attractions and Uniqueness of the Park According to the US National Parks (para. 1), the park is renowned for its diversity in plant and animal species. For example, the national park has over 10,000 different plant and animal species, its scenic ancient mountains, the depth of its wilderness sanctuary, and the remnants of the Southern Appalachian Mountain culture, among others. It has ridges of endless forest covering the border between North Carolina and Tennessee.

The park has one of the largest temperate, deciduous and old growth forest blocks which date as far back as during the time of the European settlement in the region. The trees species alone are over a hundred. The animal species include over 66 mammal species, over 43 amphibian species, over200 species of birds, over 39 species of reptiles and more than species of 50 species of fish. It is also important to note that the park has over 1,800 black bear (National Park Service US Department of the Interior 9).

The park also has a number of historical sites, such as the Cades Cove, Cataloochee, Mingus Mill and Mountain Museums. These historic sites have many preserved historic buildings such as the log cabins, churches and barns which provide an outdoor historic gallery. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park has some high altitude mountains like Mount LeConte which is very popular with hikers. The park has some of the most spectacular waterfalls like Laurel, Abrams, Whank, Grotto and Hen Wallow Falls.

It has other beautiful sceneries which include Fontana Dam situated between Rocky Mountains, the Deep Creek rivers and waterfalls, the Balsam Mountain which offers a stunning mountain view for summer wildflowers, the Roaring Rock which offers a glimpse of rushing Mountain Rivers and old-growth forest and the New Found Gap among many other beautiful types of scenery.

Around the park, there is the Andrew Johnson Historic site which was established in honor of the United States’ 17th president. It includes the late president’s home where he resided before and after his presidency.

There is also the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area covering about 125,000 acres around Cumberland River and its tributaries (Kephart 4). This region has many natural and historic features which include beautiful sandstone bluffs and scenic gorges. In the nearby North Carolina, there are the Pisgah and Nantahala Forests which offer rich wildlife, spectacular waterfalls and areas for camping.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Great Smoky Mountains National Park specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Activities The park offers a wide range of activities which include wildlife viewing, hiking, fishing, camping, horseback riding, boat riding among other activities. Hiking is the most popular activity in the park and the park provides many routes for hiking on the elevations of the mountains (Public Service Ads 1). Fishing is the second most popular activity in the park done in the waters within the park. Fontana Dam provides cool waters for boat riding and fishing in the park.

Transportation The main entrances to the park are located are on the New Gap Road, US Highway 441. From the south, the park can be reached through Sevierville and then through Pigeon Forge using US-441 and finally to the park using the Gatlinburg entrance. From the north it can be reached through the interstate highway, through to Maryville and then Townsend and finally to the park using the Townsend entrance. Cherokee entrance can be reached through US-19 and then through Maggie Valley road to the park.

There are also two airports around the park: McGhee-Tyson Park in Tennessee which is a few kilometers from the Gatlinburg entrance and Asheville Regional Airport in North Carolina which is about 60 miles away from Cherokee entrance to the park. Although there is no public transport to the park, there are private commercial bus services and trolley services such as Cherokee Transit, connecting the park to the main cities around the region.

Inside the park, there are also roads that lead to the various sites and sceneries such as Ramsey Prong Road, Capes Code Loop Road, Foothills Parkway and many others.

Infrastructure and Concessions The park has many well-maintained roads connecting it to the outside regions and within it for exploring the park. The park is also connecting to the outside world through the two airports in the regions around it. It has lodges, motels and restaurants as well as camp sites for tourists. It provides recreational vehicle camping and background camping (Walls 7). Some of the lodges in the park include the Mt. LeConte Shelter, Laurel Gap Shelter and Kephart Shelter (Public Service Ads 1).

The Park’s Visitors The park is the most visited national park in the US and records over nine million visitors annually (National Park Service US Department of the Interior, 1).

It experienced the highest visit among the US national parks in 2007 with a record of 9.4 million visitors which was more than double that of Grand Canyon National Park which was the second most visited (Walls 5). Most of its visitors come from the surrounding regions and towns which include Gatlinburg, North Carolina, Tennessee, Cherokee, Townsend, Pigeon Forge, and Bryson City among many other areas.

The most visited centers in the park are and Oconaluftee Visitors’ Center and Sugarlands Visitors’ Center. The categories of visitors recorded in the park include both those who go purely for recreation and those who go for other purposes such as studies and scientific research.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Great Smoky Mountains National Park by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most of the visitors in the park are hikers who go to hike in the rails and the unpaved roads within the park. It is open to visitors throughout the year, but the most appropriate period to visit the park is during the autumn when the region experiences warm days and cool nights (Public Service Ads 1).

Concerns extraneous to the Park There are several factors that affect the park. Among these include air pollution, urban encroachment, inadequate funding and invasive species among other problems. According to Camille (28), the air quality around the park is affected by pollution from industries and automobiles and mostly from the coal fired power plants which release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The severe air pollution negatively affects the biodiversity in the park (National Parks Conservation Association 1). Air pollution causes diseases in the plants which have killed almost all the chestnut trees and is also threatening future of butternuts and dogwoods as well as beech trees.

Some normative plant species also affect the survival of the native species within the park. Invasive insects also threaten the future of Fraser firs and hemlock trees (Maldona 14). Generally, the invasive species destroy the biodiversity and hence undermining the ecological health of the wildlife in the park.

The park’s efforts to preserve its cultural resources are negatively affected by the underfunding of the park’s management and that of the National Park Service.

Summary The Great Smoky Mountains National Park was established in 1934 by the US Congress to protect the beautiful forest and forest features around Smoky Mountains and since then has achieved greater status including being the International Biosphere Reserve and the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve.

It has over 10,000 wildlife species of both flora and fauna, which includes among others the black bear and the old growth forest. It also boasts of many historic sites as well as beautiful sceneries such as waterfalls and gorges. It serves all the US citizens and entry to the park is free. It is also the most visited park in the US. Infrastructure both inside and outside the park is well maintained and includes the road network, airports, lodges among others.


The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is one of the largest and the most visited in the US. It is therefore important that measures that ensure that the park’s cultural and natural resources are conserved and managed sustainably. More scientific research should be carried out to find out alternative measures for encountering the normative species. This implies that more funding should be made to help support the park’s conservation and preservation programs.

Works Cited Camille, Feanne. Smokies top list of most polluted parks. 2004. Web.

Campbell, Chis. The making of a national park. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. 1964 print.

Himiak, Lauren. National and State Parks: Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 2010. Web.

Kephart, Horace. Our Southern Highlanders. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 1961 Print.

Maldona, Charles. Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Hazy Future. Metropulse. 2009. New Report Ranks Five Most-Polluted. Web.

National Parks. National Parks Conservation Association. 2004. Web.

National Park Service US Department of the Interior. Great Smoky Mountains. November 2010. Web.

Public Service Ads. Things to do: Smoky Mountains. 2010. Web.

November 2010.US National Parks. Great Smoky Mts. National Park: Tennessee and North Carolina. and Yellowstone Net, Bruce Courtley, 2007. 12

Walls, Michael. Parks and Recreationin the United States: The National Park System. Washington, D.C. Resources for the Future. 2009. Print.


Germany; History, Geography, Legal and Politics Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents The German Flag

History of Germany

Geography of Germany

Legal framework of Germany

Politics in Germany

Works Cited

The German Flag The German flag has three bands of colors running horizontally across it. The colors which, from top to bottom are black, red and gold are also of equal width. The meaning of these colors has been explained in several theories. To bring the meaning comprehensively closer, the two colors, black and gold are associated with the colors of the coat of arms of the Roman Empire.

The fall of the Roman Empire caused these colors to be used in the Habsburg ruling Dynasty of Austria. They later gained their popularity as the ‘Black and Gold Monarch’ during the period of this ruling dynasty (German Culture 2).

It is worth noting that the three bands of colors in the German flag, that is, black, and red and gold, symbolized the movement which fought to get rid of the conservative European order which had been formed after the fall of Napoleon (German Culture 3). The colors are used symbolically as follows; red refers to the Hanseatic League whereas black and gold here directly indicates Austria.

The colors of this flag have a direct affiliation with liberalization in the history of Germany. This combination of colors of the German flag was directly affected by the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, World War I and World War II, in a series of events.

This includes the replacement of gold with white, the replacement of the entire flag with the swastika flag, the return of the black-red-gold flag by the allied forces, the inclusion of communist emblem, by the German Democratic Republic, to the centre of the flag (a hammer and a pair of compasses inside ears of grain). Thus the stability of the German flag was only experienced after the unification of Germany in 1990 (German Culture 7).

History of Germany Germany has a long history since its formation as a country. His history can not be complete without the mentioning of major European and world wars. The history can be dated back in the year 451, when Germany fought together with the Huns in the fields of Gaul against the Roman Empire (Pinnow 10).

Germany in the nineteenth century was characterized by shorter wars. This is quite different with the seven year war of the 18th century because there was a seven week war in the nineteenth century which was called the Franco-Prussian war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Germany experienced rapid victory in the seven weeks war. The history of modern Germany was shaped in the 20th century. This was the period when Germany was rising exponentially as an economic powerhouse. This was the period of the demise of Weimer Republic and the rising into power of Hitler.

Germany played a major role in the genesis of both the first and the second world wars. After the defeat of Germany in the Second World War, it was divided into Western Germany and the Eastern Germany by the iron curtain. This division was caused by the cold war between the two superpowers that had been drawn into the European war which was caused by German war campaigns.

During this period, the archaic sociopolitical structure combined with a rapid modernizing economy was of much magnitude. It was the magnitude of this combination which resulted in the unleashing of domestic and international conflicts because this magnitude was too much for Germany to bear. Thus the history of Germany cannot be comprehensively covered without the inclusion of the international community (Fulbrook 7).

Geography of Germany Germany is a country in Western Europe bordered by the Baltic to the north, the Rhine to the west, and the Alps to the south. The east of Germany has no natural borders and this has caused a lot of problems in the history of Europe (History World 1). However, according to political boundaries, Germany is bordered by France, the Netherlands and Belgium to the West, Poland and the Czech Republic to the East, Austria and Switzerland to the South and the Baltic, Denmark and the North Sea to the North (Rosenberg 1).

The country covers a total area of 357,021 square kilometers with land covering a total 349,223 square kilometers while the remaining part is covered by water. The climate of Germany is classified under temperate and marine types of climate. Temperatures are usually cool and the skies cloudy.

The country experiences seasons of wet winters alternated by summers and occasional Warm Mountain wind (Rosenberg 12). German’s terrain consists of lowlands in the north and the uplands at the central regions of the country. The Bavarian Alps are also present in the Southern parts of the country.

The country is well endowed with natural resources which include fuel resources, metallic minerals, nonmetallic minerals and forests. Natural fuels include natural gas, coal and lignite. The metallic minerals are iron ore, copper, nickel and uranium while the nonmetallic minerals include salt and potash. In addition to this, there is also plenty of arable land. The forests provide wood for the timber industry. The strategic location of Germany creates a critical factor in trade and transport activities.

We will write a custom Essay on Germany; History, Geography, Legal and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legal framework of Germany Germany is governed by a constitution which was implemented in 1949 and became operational to the united Germany in the year 1990. The president of federal Germany is the head of state. However, the head of state does not have much influence on governance. He is elected for a five year term by representatives called the Bundestag and a number of people who are chosen to represent the parliament. The head of Government is called the Chancellor and is chosen for a four year period by a majority vote from the Bundestag.

The Federal Germany is divided into 16 states called Lander. Each of the state has its own government and is governed by its own legislative and constitutional frameworks. The governments can pass laws affecting their Landers except laws concerned with national security, international and financial policies which are the business of the federal government.

Germany is a federal state which means that the legislature is found in both the state and the federal levels. The German constitution offers certain provisions to the citizens, which include protecting the rights of the citizens like human dignity, rights of liberty, and general personality rights among many others. Employment rights which include respect to workers and other labor laws are also incorporated in the German constitution.

Other constitutional legislatures which the German citizen enjoys include the right to informational self determination. Civil law, criminal law, data protection law is also found in this constitution. The parliament is responsible for enacting these laws which are incorporated into the constitution (233).

Politics in Germany There are 16 federal states in the Federal Republic of Germany. The federal chancellor is called the Bundeskanzler who is the head of the executive arm of the German government. The Bundeskanzler is elected by German’s parliament which is called the Bundestag. This classifies Germany as a parliamentary system of Government just like Great Britain.

The Bundeskanzler can not be removed from office until the Bundestag agrees on a favorable candidate to succeed him. The Bundeskanzler has always been the leader of the party which has a majority in the parliament. The chancellor appoints the vice-chancellor, also a cabinet official who couples up to become also a foreign minister. However, since there has always been a coalition government, the vice chancellor comes from the smaller party.

The German’s federal assembly is called the Bundestang. It is elected for a period of 4 years which serve as a one term period. The number of representatives is twice that of the number of electoral districts in the country. The constitution allows for a party to have a minimum of 5% of the vote for it to be represented in the parliament. An alternative would be for the party to have at least three directly elected deputies.

At the federal level, we have the Bundesrat, which is the Federal Council (Fact Index 11). It represents the state governments at the federal level and comprises of sixty nine members. The members are also delegates of the sixteen states. In addition the 69 members may also form part of the chancellor’s cabinet (Politics of Germany 12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Germany; History, Geography, Legal and Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The current government of the Federal Republic of Germany is built by coalition of two parties.

Works Cited Fact Index. Politics of Germany. Not dated. Web.

Fulbrook, Mary. Ed 2, History of Germany, 1918-2000: the Divided Nation. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.

German Culture. German Flag. 2009. Web.

History world. History of Germany. Not dated. Web.

Pinnow, Hermann. History of Germany: people and state through a thousand years. Manchester: Ayer Publishing, 1970.

Rosenberg, Matt. German Geography. 2010. Web.


Poverty in the Bronx: Negative Effects of Poverty Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Decay of South Bronx

Negative Effects of poverty in South Bronx

Efforts to restore the ruined South Bronx



Introduction South Bronx is found among the administrative divisions New York City, the richest city in the world. There is a region in New York called Southern Bronx, which is different from South Bronx. South Bronx is strictly the southwestern part of the borough of Bronx and Bronx is the only borough in New York city in the mainland.

Though New York is the richest city in the world, we find ten of the poorest congregational districts here, among them, South Bronx. It borders Manhattan to the east, the richest congregational district in North America. South Bronx is the most famous slum in the nation due to its past since it was named, a city without slums (Jonnes, 2002. Rooney, 1995).

Bronx was not always the poorest city in the American nation. In 1930’s, it was a city without slums, it had the lowest rate of unemployment among the five administrative districts of New York and during these days, it was among the first and few regions in New York that undertook privately financed residential construction.

Contrary to its beginning, the face of Bronx today is very different. By around 1970, its beautiful developing face had already vanished and its new face was in ruins characterized by part cleared rubble, half-collapsed buildings, and some completely burnt-out buildings. Wild dogs could be seen roaming through the streets, in and out of ruins and through garbage filled sidewalks, and so much crime among men. South Bronx is a city where extreme violence is common (Jonnes, 2002. Rooney, 1995, pg 5).

Decay of South Bronx South Bronx became the symbol of international decay in the 1960’s and many people who knew the place have no hope of its restoration. It turned from being a comfortable neighborhood for middle class and blue-collar workers to a literally dangerous place to live. The major cause of this decay resulted from world war two (Silverman, 2004, pg 94).

The fall of South Bronx started quietly and it began by collapse of law and order. As Dublin coat of arms suggests, ‘By the Obedience of the People is the Happiness of the City Ensured’, this is fact that did not take root in South Bronx.

McCloskey’s Hell’s Kitchen harbored very delinquent young males and though they lived in institutions that were strongly in control, these young men always prevailed over them. Their ill-mannered conduct continued taking root and with time, crime became prevalent in this region. By mid 1950’s drug abuse was an epidemic, which was out of control since it caught the government unawares thus it was beyond control.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was no institution in South Bronx that was able to convince these young culprits that drug taking was wrong or even enact laws that would term drug taking a punishable crime. However, with the help of the stern Jansenist church, the family was the only institution that put effort to curb this crime since the church never tolerated any form of delinquent conduct (Jonnes, 2002).

As the epidemic of drug use prevailed, the society that was long before independent started depending on welfare. In the beginning, New York creation of welfare population was just a generous act but by 1970, there was a welfare explosion. South Bronx community had already destabilized and more than half of the families in the society were depending on welfare.

Badly behaved children, men drifting away from their responsibilities, and destruction of the residential premises and other buildings by fire, characterized the societal crisis. This entire crisis was a result of government’s irresponsibility (Jonnes, 2002).

Another factor that contributed to the decay of South Bronx leading to its current poverty state was World War II. When America declared war, more than two hundred thousand men from south Bronx community left their homes and went for battle. It was a very patriotic community devoted everything to the success of its country.

Most of the streets were filled with women and the people left behind were not energetic enough to improve the face of Bronx. The battle lasted several years and this marked a major transformation of this community. There were so much labor shortages in the industries whose main objective was to accelerate mechanization of Agriculture in America, which lead to need for immigration in order to supplement the workforce (Jonnes, 2002. Rooney, 1995, pg 31).

The American government contributed a great deal to the current poverty situation in south Bronx. At one point, it introduced policies on rental costs and did not support the landlords to overcome the deteriorating income. The property owners started withdrawing while the tenants started migrating to better places.

The factories that used to provide job to the community started suffering from acute labor shortages. The abandoned houses became harboring blocks for gangsters and drug dealers. The government also failed to control the fires that were prevalent due to poor electrification and carelessness, which consumed thousands of buildings and property.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Poverty in the Bronx: Negative Effects of Poverty Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Negative Effects of poverty in South Bronx In social development, housing is ever a dependent factor especially on the social status of the community. Growth and development of the housing sector is greatly influenced by availability of jobs, stability in the family set up and crime control. When these factors are responding positively, creation of housing is made easier.

The case of South Bronx in this field is a bit wanting. There is a lot of crime, instability in the family set up since men have drifted away from their responsibilities and unemployment is prevalent leading to extreme poverty. The result of this is drag in creation of housing and decay of the housing developments that took place in 1930’s. Rental housing became unprofitable as the community continued deteriorating thus investors withdrew to better means of investment (Jonnes, 2002).

Poverty in south Bronx has always had a close relationship with drug abuse and crime. There have been several reported cases of molestation of female teacher by unknown intruders in the classes, and this is all due to poverty related issues. For instance, there was a case where a teacher’s sweater put in fire while still on her body.

Another female teacher claimed that her idealism was badly battered and she was planning to leave the school to avoid being hurt. The school was generally indiscipline with kids loitering around with bottles of wine and several cases of fires set by students (Rooney, 1995).

Sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS have been a very common phenomena in this region. Twenty percent of the sexually active men are infected and statistics show that AIDS has been the leading cause of deaths of young women in south Bronx. 5% of children born in the regional hospitals are infected with AIDS while others have traces of drugs in their blood (Rooney, 1995, Sam and Lake, 2010).

Drug trafficking and drug abuse has been so prevalent in this region. Young teenagers are the most affected since their jail sentences on these cases are not as hard as those inflicted on older culprits who get mandatory jail sentences.

Drug abuse and trafficking hit south Bronx unawares in 1950’s and it took roots since the government and the institutions concerned were reluctant on the issue and there was no proper control when the issue arose. The leading drug trafficked is crack cocaine due to its high pay. It is projected that a teen can make $3000 in a day through this business.

A certain teacher was reported saying that the face of a certain school was teenager loitering in the playground with bottles of wine. Drug abuse is not only a problem to the youngsters but also the older men whereby many men have dropped labour due to drug abuse. Teenagers have also dropped out of school due to issues related to drugs (Sam and Lake, 2010; Rooney, 1995, pg 39).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Poverty in the Bronx: Negative Effects of Poverty Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More South Bronx is the leading district with teen pregnancies in New York. The number of pregnant teens outnumbered that of the rest of New York in 2005.

This scenario results from the prevailing poverty in south Bronx leading to many idle teenager girls with low access of employment and education. The setting of the community does not impose so much stigma to unwanted pregnancies among teens thus they end up not being very keen to use birth control measures. Abortion cases are also very common among teens since most of these pregnancies are accidental (Trapasso, 2008).

Efforts to restore the ruined South Bronx Charlotte Street in the centre of the borough of Bronx marks as the sample of the poverty prevailing in south Bronx. It was the worst hit region and its features have brought so much confusion to the American government on what to do in order to solve this shame to America. In the effort to restore the region, two presidents of America have visited Charlotte and their objective is to mobilize resources of the US and rehabilitate the region to start a new face of the region (Rooney, 1995).

The Bronx borough has put much of its attention to south Bronx. Since 1980’s, the region has been going through urban renewal whereby old buildings have been rehabilitated and new residential houses have been built. Bronx has channeled half of its housing projects towards Bronx in order to restore the once ‘city without a slum (Sam and Lake, 2010. Purdy, 1994).

In 1935, there was formed an organization known as Aid to Dependent Children which was later changed to Aid to Families with independent children. This organization was solely meant to provide cash assistance to families without supporting fathers probably deceased, absent or unable to work. This was the beginning of war to poverty, which facilitated access to health care, and reduction of poverty, hunger and malnutrition (Brady, 2008).

Conclusion The poverty condition in south Bronx has always been controversial due to the nature of the region in the early 20th century. It started as one of the fastest growing borough in New York and its residents mainly composed of the working class. South Bronx started decaying in mid 20th century whereby it lost a large number of its population, housing and even investments. Low class people started residing here and as poverty increased the level of crime.

Poverty in south Bronx has had a negative impact to the society though the government has been putting effort to restore it to its original status. However, it might take a longer time to take South Bronx where it was since it has lost most of the factor that contributed to its well being like good investments.

References Brady, A. J. (2008). A Place at the Table: Justice for the Poor in a Land of Plenty. London: Twenty -Third Publications. Web.

Jonnes, J. (2002). South Bronx rising: the rise, fall, and resurrection of an American city. NY: Fordham University Press. Web.

Puddy, M. (1994). Left to Die, the South Bronx Rises From Decades of Decay. Web.

Rooney, J. (1995). Organizing the South Bronx. Albany, State University of New York Press.

Sam, L. and Lake, J. (2010). Church Planting in the Bronx, New York. Web.

Silverman, R. M. (1994). Community Based Organizations. Michigan, Wayne State University Press. Web.

Trapasso, C. (2008). Bronx teen pregnancy rate soars. Web.


History to the Eighteenth Century Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

The eighteenth century was one of the epochs of human history that had the greatest revolutionary happenings that transformed the entire world and the way things are handled. It is the period of human existence that experienced the highest number of performers in all areas of academic study, literary art, economic empowerment and philosophical advancement emerge to prominence coming up with some of the greatest concepts and philosophies that have been invaluable to our general understanding of the metaphysical world that we live in now.

This paper is a study of different aspects of the eighteen century revolution and in doing so, it will respond to different questions about various issues that were pertinent during that epoch of human development.

How did the First Scientific Revolution Energize economics and society? Scientific Revolution was a period in man’s revolutionary history when there was a profuse arising of new ideas and concepts in all the scientific fields such as astronomy, physics, human anatomy, biology, chemist among other sciences which abolished most of the unauthenticated concepts and doctrines that had been in operation from the times of the Ancient Greece to the Middle Ages.[1]

This revolution saw to fruition concepts that had been suppressed by religious groups which held promising results for the new Science Age that was now dawning in. It was the base of what is now called Modern Science where superstition and religious dogmas were replaced with scientific reason and knowledge that would explain every single happening on the basis of empirical evidence supporting such notions.

The accompanying new concepts in physics, biology, astronomy and metaphysical world soon became central in the understanding of universal social concerns and economic trends of the time. Studies were developed steered towards attempting to unite the world into a global market that would transact business with the main reason being to edify human life and alleviate poverty.

These concepts were adopted by scientists who were involved in social sciences and economics to transform the period’s economic trends in investment and way of conducting businesses thereby beginning the concept of universal congruence in economic undertakings. From this, business transactions were encouraged to be geared towards profiting the society in which they thrive and thus societal development was also a key area that was developed in this period.[2]

How did Absolutism assert itself in Europe? Absolutism was a concept that was fronted by H. G. F. W. Hegel as a philosophical account of how understanding of the being can be attained as a whole. According to Hegel, for the subject that is thinking (that is the human) to be able to understand the object (that is the world in which he lives), the subject has to have some sort of identity of being and thought.[3] This was a fascinating philosophical idea that received a lot of attention in the time setting stage for the development of modern philosophy of absolutism in many other respects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Absolutism within the first decade of its invention as a philosophical train of thought, it attracted a lot attention among the contemporaries and therefore was taken up by storm by many philosophers of the time. The concept entered Europe from Germany, US and Britain where it had first been accepted.

It was out of the influence of such philosophers like Meister Eckhart that the concept entered Europe. Within the first two decades of its inception in Europe, Absolutism greatly became the center-stage concept that was referred to in almost every philosophical argument. This made its assertion easy and appropriate since it would explain many humanistic concerns such as religion, government systems and human activism.[4]

How did Enlightenment Thinkers conceive of Improvements of Human society? Enlightenment thinkers were a group of scientists and reformists who believed in science and acquisition of knowledge as the way to respond to all the challenges facing humanity.

They spent a lot of time devising philosophies and concepts that would explain all human experiences with empirical evidence to clearly outline the details of every explanation in accordance to scientific research methodology.[5] These thinkers therefore perceived the society as being capable of standing on itself and creating responses to solve any difficult it faced.

Improvements in the human society were thought to be driven by personal ambition and objective of equality among all people as well as creating avenues through which the society would be taught to attain education. In a snapshot, these improvements were thought to be realized through education and brotherhood which was a concept that favoured equity and equitable distribution of resources and opportunities to all people in the society.

How did Democratic forms of Government spread in the West? The spread of democratic forms of government into the West was as a result of the oppression that had been seen during the world wars which had painted dictatorial leaderships as tyrannical and oppressive.

Human rights activism albeit in its infant stage, had began coming up with the creation of world organizations that fronted for equality and these compelled government leaders to be accountable to the citizenry to whom they (government officials) were responsible to.

We will write a custom Assessment on History to the Eighteenth Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Democratic form of government was a concept that proved very promising as it required that political leaders be led by ideologies which they would sell to the citizenry and competitively seek for votes by convincing the voters of what their parties would do to improve the living standards of the citizens.[6]

Democratic form of government also refuted harshly tyrannical leaderships and oppression as it gave the populace the express right to elect public servants into offices and remove them from these offices when voting time came again. This created responsibility for these leaders thereby making them more accountable to the citizenry.[7] This is how democratic form of government spread in the West.

Bibliography Chambers, Mortimer, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew and Lisa Tiersten. The Western Experience, Volume 1, with Primary Source Investigator and PowerWeb. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

Jürgen, Habermas. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Toby, Huff. The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Footnotes Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew and Lisa Tiersten, The Western Experience, Volume 1, with Primary Source Investigator and PowerWeb (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), 124.



Habermas Jürgen, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Ibid, 78.

Huff Toby, The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 54.

Ibid, 55.


Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Cut off from the rest of the globe, with practically no knowledge of their neighborhoods, the goals of most individuals are to spread out their territories ultimately forming an empire and then eventually, overcoming the world. Traditionally, man has always tried to exert influence on fellow men and ever since in the early days the world was ruled through empires and kingdoms which had kings, queens, and emperors.

These kingdoms had great contribution to the present system of ruling as they provided the foundation of how countries or subjects are governed. Among the positive contributions that the early empires made are associated with civilization and other great discoveries. For example, the Roman Empire is associated with the engineering and the invention of cement while the Greeks are associated with democracy, civilization, philosophy, and mathematics.

Discuss the Problem of Empire in the Ancient World The main problems that faced the earliest empires were how governance[1], avoiding invasions by other stronger and emerging kingdoms. These problems existed due to the fact that rival empires were growing and expanding and risks of traitors within the kingdom were high as well as attacks from rival empires. To rule successfully, the emperors had to cultivate loyalty from their subjects to ensure his citizens could guard and protect the empire.

This called for the emperors to employ different strategies on how to ensure that their subjects maintained loyalty at the same time remaining united for the sake of recognition and the power of the empire. Opposition and internal revolts within the empire was another problem that the early empires faced this made some of the rulers become to harsh to their subjects in order to ensure loyalty was observed.

How Did the First Empires Come About? The first empires are said to have come as a result of civilization, democracy and rule of law. The strong and the influential people in the society became the rulers by associating with people who believed in their views thus creating a following. They ruled these empires through political and social organizations.

Another factor that led to the emergence of the early empires was the invention of gunpowder. Kingdoms attacked and captured rival and empires at will making them part of their own. For example the Ottoman Empire emerged in 1350as a result of use of gun powder and by the early 1500 through the use of artillery, the ottomans had expanded even to Iraq.

Trade was another factor that led to the emergence of the early empires. It is worthy noting that some of the early empires were established within trade routes. Trade centers were established and with time these trade centers became empires.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What were the strengths and weaknesses of the universal empires of Assyria and Persia? Assyrian Empire Strengths

The major strength of the Assyrian empire has always been attributed to its effective and organized army. They are widely regarded as the first organized and well trained armies in the world history. The army used superior weapons and was also well disciplined. They also had the capability of using different kinds of military tactics which led to the emergence of the empire army as one of the strongest at that time.


One of the major weaknesses that led to the collapse of the empire was the failure by the kingdom to solve the Babylonian problem by ending the continuing conflicts. These conflicts weakened the kingdom to the extent that Babylonians who had been seen as a weak empire were able to conquer Egypt out of the Assyrians hands.

Another factor that could have led to the weakness of the Assyrians was the fact that their rulers were cruel and harsh to their own subjects and this contributed to growing discontentment among the Assyrians.

Persian Empire Strengths

While the Assyrians were known to be cruel and harsh, the Persians were known to institute a rule that was relatively less incriminating and demanding. Thus, their success in ruling the western Asia and ruling them for a period of two centuries was not only due to their outstanding military qualities and man power resources but also due to how they ruled their subjects.

The requirement that all the Persians serve in the army under a form of universal conscription made the Persian army such strong by providing the required manpower in case of war with the other empires.

The Persian Empire was also the largest by geographical content but despite this the empire was centralized and thus chances of divisions were very low. The king was a very important person in keeping the empire together and despite some of the revolts which were experienced, the empire was never threatened. The rivalry between the rulers under the king also ensured the kingdom succeeded as it was difficult for any conspiracy development against the central authority among them.


The stagnation of the Persian army in making technology advancement led to its fall to the Greco-Macedonian army. The death of Alexandria was another source of the empire kingdom. Since after his death the army commanders began dividing the kingdom and thus reliance on manpower could not be relied on during the wars

We will write a custom Essay on Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How did the Greeks Fail at Empire yet Succeed at Civilization?

The failure of the Greeks at the empire level was mainly due to the conflict among its groups. These groups never cooperated even during the times of conflict and this was a major weakness to the empire. For example the conflict between the Spartans and the Athens was one of the signs that the Greek empire was on the verge of collapsing.

When the Spartans conquered the Athens and started placing their rules on them it resulted in revolts against the Spartans dominance by both the Athens and the Thebes. These conflicts led to the weakening of the kingdom and for example by the end of the conflict between the Spartans and the Athens, there was no group that was strong enough to unite the other members of the empire. Driven by traditional separatism and the desire for own independence, uniting the Greek states was quite a problem.

The enmity which existed could not allow the states to help one another and thus rather than uniting in the verge of a disaster some remained neutral while others hoped for the punishment and destruction of rival groups within the empire leading to the failure of the kingdom[2]. However, the cultures of Greeks evolved to create the most glorious civilization of the ancient world. The kingdom led in art, philosophy, political culture and science.

The phase commonly known as the archaic period saw the advancements in political supposition and the beginning of egalitarianism as well as art and culture. After the fall of Mycenaean civilization, the Greeks formed small tribes of which some were agricultural and others were nomadic. In their bid to succeed and outdo the other groups, these agricultural and nomadic groups developed technologies which increased their productivity and thus the advancements in civilization.

These ethnic groups made one of the supreme Greece (political) accomplishments. The Greek tribes came together and developed strong city states with each state establishing its own culture and political structure and thus while it was hard for them to adopt the culture or the political structure of the other state, they succeeded highly at civilization

How Did The Roman Empire Arise Out Of A Crisis, Create More Crises, And Yet Survive Several Crises? The crisis

The kingdom slipped into anarchy after the assassination of Commodus whose death brought about civil war within the empire. As if that was not enough, his successor was also murdered and the office put on auction by the body guard leading to various people buying the office but none succeeding at ruling the empire and this led to succession battles.

The rulers who followed tried to increase the emperor’s authority and preserve the unity within the empire and this resulted to an army monarch where state intervention was carried out with ruthless severity. The people charged with law enforcement became selfish and those who opposed the system were physically harassed bringing about widened uprisings within the realm.

The cities which were now centers of civil and military administration became parasitic in a way and their contribution to the economy was just the consumption of farm produce. The end users were, nearly without exemption, either armed forces barracks or local majestic (civil) servants. The state was required to drive the economy but no one was willing or cared about the situation. Thus, as the state broke down so did the Roman economy come to a stop and collapsed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The slaves who used to flood the kingdom were nowhere to be seen and thus the availability of the cheap labor was no longer a guarantee. By the start of the 3rd century, depopulation and disturbance caused by attacks, epidemics, and general turn downs in fertility had resulted in a demographic disintegration.

This exposed how the kingdom was ineffective and profligate through its (Latifundia) system. The previous access to labor at no cost had hampered technological advancements in the agriculture sector and with the nonappearance of slaves, the deficiency in manpower led to curtailed productivity in the empire.

The currency devaluation along with increased supply of the valuable metals brought about (rapid) inflation also increasing the cost of basic commodities within the empire. As the political and military organization of the kingdom collapsed, people localized and the empire became of less importance to its citizens.

The Revival of the Empire

The revival of the empire was brought about when the stability was restored; the army was reorganized by building huge reserves for their support, their source of food and income was guaranteed.

After the demise of Severus Alexander, the ruler powers were fundamentally cut due to the suspicions and fears that if too much power was given to the emperors the kingdom could ride back to anarchy as earlier experienced. The roman citizens did not see the royal leaders as gods as they had been seen before and too much power was yielded to the citizens rather than on the rulers.

This new emerging empire at the beginning of the 4th century was not similar to that of the past. Particularly in the western side of the empire, what previously could have been described as the Roman civilization underwent huge changes the empire was now characterized by strong presence of army in every place. While in the past the army was concentrated along the borders with the cities and interior having none of their presence, they were now felt everywhere.

After Diocletian, the old cities were made more secure by surrounding them with huge walls often from the old debris of the old houses and other structures which had been demolished. Coloni and Serfs took the slaves position in a bid to arrest manpower shortage. Though they (serfs and coloni) had freedom, they two groups were supposed to remain in these estates as they were tied by to pay rents and taxes.

What caused the ultimate failure of the western portion of the Roman Empire, and what were its consequences?

Imperial expansion increased the power of military commanders and to them; they viewed this as an opportunity to seize political power from the civil authorities. In return, this resulted in the rulers accumulating enormous wealth brought about through corruption. Aristocracy was also diverted from civic duties and social duties towards pursuit of wealth and sensual gratification.

Growth of slavery propelled by the large number of war captives served in the enlarging farm and estates. The rich grabbed the land which belonged to the poor peasants and this brought about resentment within the kingdom and it made the peasants become mercenaries since they has nothing to do.

There was also the widening gap between the rich and the poor, the empire neglect of its military and civic duties provided opportunities for ambitious army generals to enlist for support from fellow soldiers and the discontented masses and this was translated to a cycle of factionalism and civic strife which led to military dictatorships.

At its last stage the western empire found had become impoverished, depopulated, and stripped off its territories by the encompassing barbarians whose military skills and dynamism were superior to Romans artillery.

We can summarize that the fall of the Roman Empire took a few centuries due to the slow disappearance of liberty and the decline of private and public confidence on the kingdom. The civil wars that brought the kingdom down were as a result of the lost confidence.

“At the same time, the disappearance of liberty further accelerated the decline of virtue itself. Without the risks, responsibilities, and challenges of freedom, public and private virtue gradually withered, facilitating the Empire’s general decline”[3].

The empires centralization policy and the uniformity impositions which were later followed by elimination of mediating structures between the civilians and the authority also brought the kingdom to a further decline.

The growing appetite of the government for revenues also led to the decline of the kingdom. The various taxes which existed and included levies on land and personal income were another major factor due to the simple fact that the hardest affected were the ordinary and most productive citizens. Eventually, the taxes became so high that in most parts of the empire the farmers abandoned their lands and refused to till them so as to avoid the ever increasing taxes, as the taxes increased so was the bureaucracy level.

This led to low populations as most of the empire citizens avoided giving birth leading even to the emperor allowing the gothic to stay permanently in the kingdom due to the dwindling population. Christianity also led to the decline of the Roman Empire[4]. The Christian teachings contrasted against the Roman society pillars. Since the reason of fighting anymore was not there, they already had a defined end; the question was just when the end would come.

Conclusion From the above study, we can conclude that the end of the early empires was brought about by many factors depending with the situations. For example, the Roman Empire collapsed as a result of bad govern-ship while others collapsed due to internal conflicts whereas the Persian Empire started weakening after the death of Alexandria. Some say history can repeat itself and thus it is advisable to learn from these empires how they rose and collapsed.

Bibliography of notes How to rule their subjects successfully containing any internal revolt that may lead to the destabilization of the empire

Marko, Marelich. “Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.” San Francisco, California-USA, 2006. Web.

Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p.104).

Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p. 104).

Bibliography Gibbons. Edward. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.

Marelich, Marko. “Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.” San Francisco, California-USA, 2006. Web.

Footnotes How to rule their subjects successfully containing any internal revolt that may lead to the destabilization of the empire

Marko. Marelich. “Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.” San Francisco, California-USA, 2006.

Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p.104).

Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p. 104).


Jazz Bio on Jazz musician Miles Davis Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Miles Dewey Davis III is a renowned American musician and composer who was born on 26, 1926 at Alton, Illinois. He died September 28, 1991. He is remembered for his contribution towards the development of Jazz music. He was the son to Doctor Davis, who is credited to have nurtured the talent in his son of playing the guitar. His mother was Cleota Mae (Cook, 2007). This paper analyzes the life of Miles Dewey Davis III.

Music Career His parents realized their son’s talent at the age of 13 where the father bought him a trumpet and enrolled him to music classes conducted by Elwood Buchanan.

At the age of 16, Miles was playing as a professional musician whenever he was out of school. During his final year at high School he was so refined that he was playing as a reliable member of Eddie Randle’s band, the Blue Devils. At the same time Tiny Bradshaw was strongly persuading him to join their band but his mother insisted that he had to finish his secondary school education before joining the band.

In 1944, after his high school education, he traveled to New York where he was to pursue his dream without the influence of his parents; however he had gone to the state to study music at Juilliard School of Music. In the midst of his studies he started playing at Minton’s Playhouse and Monroe’s night clubs. He did not finish his studies at Juilliard but dropped saying that the school offered a lot of classical European and “white” repertoire. He started playing in clubs as a freelance singer (Ward and Burns, 2000).

In 1945, with Herbie Fields’s group, Miles entered into studio to record as a side man. For the next three years, he was looking for a good collaboration to start recording as a leader, however this was hard to come by. He decided to go it alone in 1948 (Cook


Passing through nature into eternity Term Paper online essay help

The themes of death and immortality occupy pivotal roles in many of Emily Dickinson’s major works. For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be on two: Because I Could Not Stop for Death, and I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce.

This paper compares these two poems to the play Hamlet, William Shakespeare’s tragedy. The basis of comparison herein dwells on the conflicting views toward death and immortality espoused by the three works. Dickinson’s poems personify Death as a male, and a gentleman, in her eyes, attractive, cultured, and refined.

Both Because I Could Not Stop for Death, and I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce depict death as a pleasurable state, one to be wished for and sought after. Dickinson’s view of immortality, similarly, envisions a painless Eden, where both time and worldly cares dissolve into peace, conversation, and companionship. There is a cleaving toward death in Dickinson’s poems, and a view of immortality as an infinite gift.

Conversely, in Hamlet, Shakespeare treats the themes of death and immortality in a more conventional manner. The author describes death as the “undiscover’d country,” the unknown, and as a state to be feared and despised (DiYanni, 2007). The main character Hamlet fears death to the point of paralysis.

Shakespeare also personifies Death in Hamlet, however it arrives through the form of Hamlet’s murdered father, who demands revenge, a request that lays waste to Hamlet’s peace of mind and eventually his life. Indeed, Hamlet knows full well the moment the ghost arrives that his life is forfeit. Regicide, the revenge the ghost exacts, will be Hamlet’s doom. Immortality, in Hamlet’s eyes, resembles the “eternal blazon” that his father describes, full of darkness, punishment, fire, and retribution (DiYanni, 2007).

Thus there is a shrinking from death in Hamlet, in utter contrast to Dickinson’s longing for the grave, and a view of immortality as an infinite curse. The reason for this discrepancy, as this essay will prove, lies in religion. Shakespeare’s tragic hero holds a religious view of death and immortality, one which is punishment focused, while Dickinson’s view of death and immortality, utterly devoid of religion, is much more personal and individual.

Let us begin the discussion with the treatment of the theme of death in these three works. Emily Dickinson’s poem Because I Could Not Stop for Death begins with the lines “Because I could not stop for Death – He kindly stopped for me” (DiYanni, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While this line certainly alludes to the inevitable quality of death, in that it will stop for all of us, whether we have time for it or not, there is something deeper to note in the language itself. To apply the descriptor “kindly,” especially, is noteworthy. This word immediately generates an image of Death in the reader’s mind as first and foremost, a man, and secondly, a gentleman.

Dickinson employs genteel language to describe Death in decidedly non-threatening terms, and firmly locates Death as a common fixture of the social order. There is nothing strange or frightening in his portrayal. In fact, the complete absence of fear in Dickinson’s voice roots her depiction of Death as tender, kind, obliging, neighborly, and quite friendly.

The next line of the poem reads, “The Carriage held but just Ourselves –” (DiYanni, 2007). Again, the calmness of the voice and the soothing quality of the language underscores Dickinson’s view of death as a pleasurable, desirable state. Dickinson also hints at the intimacy that she shares with her traveling companion when she employs the term “just Ourselves,” further emphasizing the closeness of the exchange with the capitalized “Ourselves” (DiYanni, 2007).

Hamlet, by contrast, in his first encounter with the ghost of his father, expresses a more conventional view when he asks: “Why thy canonized bones, hearsed in death, Have burst their cerements; why the sepulchre, Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d, Hath oped his ponderous and marble jaws, …What may this mean, That thou, dead corse, again in complete steel, Revisit’st thus the glimpses of the moon, Making night hideous; and we fools of nature, So horridly to shake our disposition, With thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls?” (DiYanni, 2007).

Note the harshness of Shakespeare’s descriptors, specifically the use of the words bones, jaws, horridly, corse, and the phrases “make night hideous” and “shake our disposition” (DiYanni, 2007). Shakespeare’s language contrasts sharply and definitively with Dickinson’s depiction of the quiet, calm afternoon carriage ride steeped in politesse.

In Dickinson’s poems, a certain intimacy seems to be achieved with, and perhaps as a result of, spending time with Death, or through the act of dying. We see this in I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce most noticeably. The poem’s second stanza reads, “He questioned softly why I failed? “For beauty,” I replied. “And I for truth, -the two are one; We brethren are,” he said” (DiYanni, 2007).

The significance here lies in the use of the word brethren, a word that connotes intimacy, companionship, camaraderie, and trust, and the personification, once again, of the dead neighbor as a gentleman who speaks “softly,” and assures Dickinson that “the two are one,” a reference not only to their proximity in the grave, but also to their shared loved of literature (DiYanni, 2007).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Passing through nature into eternity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The poem goes on to create an image of friendship and solidarity: “And so, as kinsmen met a night, We talked between the rooms” (DiYanni, 2007). Dickinson speaks of her kinsman almost as a lover.

The phrase “we talked between the rooms” especially symbolizes closeness and shared harmony. Hamlet, again in complete opposition, nearly vomits when he finds the skull of the former court jester Yorick: “Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio: a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy: he hath borne me on his back a thousand times; and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is! My gorge rims at it” (DiYanni, 2007).

The difference between how Dickinson views death, almost as a lover, and how Hamlet views it, as something “abhorred” and sickening, creates a clear delineation between the three works in regards to how death is portrayed and understood.

At this point in the paper, let us turn our attention to several interesting similarities that exist between Dickinson’s view of death and Hamlet’s, particularly when we analyze Hamlet’s view as espoused through the soliloquies. In Because I Could Not Stop for Death, the lines “We slowly drove – He knew no haste, And I had put away, My labor and my leisure too, For His Civility” make mention of the peace and tranquility that death brings (DiYanni, 2007).

The lack of haste here represents the release of death. In these lines, Dickinson points to the pleasure found in the dropping of all worldly cares and concerns. The next line, “We passed the School, where Children strove,” offers a fascinating perspective on the idea that death releases us from the struggles and tribulations of life (DiYanni, 2007).

Note that when Dickinson and Death pass the school where children “strove,” the insinuation resembles empathy and compassion (DiYanni, 2007). Dickinson feels some pity and sadness for these striving children, for all of their efforts and competitions, because she now knows that Death will eventually nullify all of them.

The character of Hamlet echoes these very thoughts in his Act Three, Scene One soliloquy, following the departure of Claudius and Gertrude: “To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer, The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them?

To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end, The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks, That flesh is heir to, ’tis a consummation, Devoutly to be wish’d” (DiYanni, 2007). With these words Hamlet ponders the release of death, as does Dickinson, and he clearly glimpses the attraction death offers as means to finally be free of the “thousand natural shocks” that life affords the living (DiYanni, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Passing through nature into eternity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Much like Dickinson, Hamlet wishes for it. Similarly, in the soliloquy where we first meet Hamlet in Act One, Scene Two, Hamlet expresses a desire for death, if only as means to escape the pain of his father’s death and Gertrude’s marriage, when he exclaims “O that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!” (DiYanni, 2007). Through these examples we learn that Dickinson’s view of death and Hamlet’s share some commonalties.

The discussion now moves on to the treatment of the theme of immortality in these three pieces. In Because I Could Not Stop for Death, immortality rides in the carriage alongside death and Dickinson. Although it is quiet, there is no sinister element implied by its silence. In fact, once immortality is introduced, it becomes incorporated into Dickinson’s “we” (DiYanni, 2007).

Toward the end of the poem, Dickinson describes being placed in the ground, where she still remains: “We paused before a House that seemed, A Swelling of the Ground, The Roof was scarcely visible, The Cornice – in the Ground. Since then – ’tis Centuries – and yet, Feels shorter than the Day, I first surmised the Horses’ Heads, Were toward Eternity” (DiYanni, 2007). It is vital to note that the poem does adopt a slight chill in these lines, when compared to its opening stanzas.

However, Dickinson’s language still retains the calm sense of peace and tranquility that infuses the entire poem. Here, her view of immortality as unending bears analysis. Essentially, by ending the poem with the words “since then,” Dickinson offers her view of immortality as a place where the dead continue to live, if only to comment on the living (DiYanni, 2007).

Dickinson’s immortality holds that she has preserved her consciousness and insight into the human condition, even though she no longer breathes. We see that in Dickinson’s immortality, the experience of time is much different, as centuries feel like a day. However, the poem alludes to no punishment, no pain, no torment, and no real death, in the sense that she does not end. She simply watches.

The treatment of immortality in I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce follows the same course. Dickinson’s immortality includes a friendly, literate neighbor who remains at her side throughout: “And so, as kinsmen met a night, We talked between the rooms, Until the moss had reached our lips, And covered up our names” (DiYanni, 2007). There is no punishment, no fire, and no fear. Instead, she has a companion who stays with her. In eternity, she is not alone.

When we look at Shakespeare’s treatment of immortality in Hamlet, we find a wholly different view of eternity, one that concerns itself with punishment, pain, torment, and retaliation. When Hamlet witnesses the ghost of his father, he asks what has “cast thee up again” (DiYanni, 2007).

This implies that Hamlet assumes his father has been in hell. The ghost uses terrifying descriptors to impart his experience of immortality to his son: “My hour is almost come, When I to sulphurous and tormenting flames, Must render up myself” (DiYanni, 2007).

Again, when laying out the terms of its revenge, the ghost’s depiction of immortality remains rife with images of pain and punishment: “I am thy father’s spirit, Doom’d for a certain term to walk the night, And for the day confined to fast in fires, Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature, Are burnt and purged away” (DiYanni, 2007). Shakespeare’s descriptions of immortality contrast penetratingly with those of Dickinson’s.

Not surprisingly, Hamlet’s musings on immortality following the encounter with the ghost of his father emphasize its penalizing nature: “To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there’s the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come, When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause” (DiYanni, 2007).

Hamlet’s fear of what the after life holds for him is enough to stay his suicide, as evidenced in his Act Three, Scene One soliloquy: “Who would fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscover’d country from whose bourn, No traveller returns, puzzles the will, And makes us rather bear those ills we have, Than fly to others that we know not of?” (DiYanni, 2007).

How do we explain the conflicting views of death and immortality in these three works? For the purposes of this paper, let us focus on one plausible elucidation: religion.

The ghost speaks of the torment he undergoes as a result of losing his life before the benefit of confession: “Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother’s hand, Of life, of crown, of queen, at once dispatch’d: Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, Unhousel’d, disappointed, unanel’d, No reckoning made, but sent to my account, With all my imperfections on my head: O, horrible! O, horrible! Most horrible!” (DiYanni, 2007).

Examples of Hamlet’s religious leanings proliferate the play. When Hamlet finds Claudius alone and at prayer, he stays his own hand and forgoes the opportunity for vengeance on religious grounds: “Now might I do it pat, now he is praying; And now I’ll do’t. And so he goes to heaven; And so am I revenged. That would be scann’d: A villain kills my father; and for that, I, his sole son, do this same villain send

To heaven” (DiYanni, 2007). Hamlet so believes in the conventional religious interpretation of immortality as a place where sinners pay for their transgressions, that he decides instead to kill Claudius while in the midst of sin: “Up, sword; and know thou a more horrid hent: When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage, Or in the incestuous pleasure of his bed; At gaming, swearing, or about some act, That has no relish of salvation in’t; Then trip him, that his heels may kick at heaven, And that his soul may be as damn’d and black, As hell, whereto it goes” (DiYanni, 2007).

When Hamlet contemplates suicide in his Act One, Scene Two soliloquy, he refutes his own desire to end his life on religious grounds, wishing that “the Everlasting had not fix’d, His canon ‘gainst self-slaughter!” (DiYanni, 2007).

Dickinson’s poetry, by contrast, lacks entirely any modicum of religious sentiment or explanation. Though the subject matter of her poems covers the same terrain as that of Hamlet, particularly death and the experience of immortality, there are no direct references to religion, God, or the church in either Because I Could Not Stop for Death, or I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce (DiYanni, 2007). In Because I Could Not Stop for Death, the focus of the poem is the personification of Death and the journey from one of the living to one of the dead, albeit the immortal dead (DiYanni, 2007).

Dickinson’s Death is one of us – he is not described as an ethereal being. He bears more resemble to a man. Dickinson places herself as both Death and Immortality’s equal, through her constant use of the word “we” when describing the carriage ride. Death is a part of the world, in Dickinson’s poetry; he notices “the School, where Children strove, At Recess – in the Ring” (DiYanni, 2007).

Death traverses the “Fields of Gazing Grain,” and passes the “Setting Sun,” with no connotation of fear, punishment, sin, or judgment (DiYanni, 2007). Dickinson does not mention the need for confession in the poem. Similarly, in I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce, no religious symbolism exists (DiYanni, 2007). The notion of punishment is absent.

Therefore, Dickinson’s view of death and immortality remains informed by something decidedly personal and idiosyncratic. The absence of a religious element in Dickinson’s work offers an explanation for the qualitative difference in language when used to describe death and immortality. Because Dickinson does not believe that immortality equates to everlasting punishment, she fears neither it nor death.

In conclusion, death and immortality are important themes in many of Emily Dickinson’s major poetic works. For the purposes of this paper, the focus was on Because I Could Not Stop for Death, and I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce (DiYanni, 2007).

The comparison between these two poems and William Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet concerned conflicting views toward death and immortality espoused by the three works, with an eye to why these differences arose, and what these differences tell us about the individual authors as well as the works (DiYanni, 2007). Dickinson’s poems personify Death as a gentleman, a neighbor, and a part of the human landscape.

Both Because I Could Not Stop for Death, and I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce depict death as a pleasurable state (DiYanni, 2007). Dickinson’s view of immortality, similarly, envisions a painless afterlife where both time and the perils of living vanish into timelessness, peace, companionship, conversation, and reflection. Dickinson’s poems cleave toward death, and her view of immortality is as an infinite gift.

In Hamlet, Shakespeare treats the themes of death and immortality in a more conventionally religious manner (DiYanni, 2007). The paper illustrates, through Shakespeare’s language principally, how immortality, in Hamlet’s eyes, resembles the “eternal blazon” that his father describes, full of darkness, sin, judgment, punishment, fire, and retribution.

Thus there is a shrinking from death in Hamlet, in utter contrast to Dickinson, and a view of immortality as an infinite curse (DiYanni, 2007). The reason for this discrepancy, as this essay proves, lies in religion. Hamlet maintains a religious view of death and immortality, centered on punishment, while Dickinson’s view of death and immortality, utterly devoid of religion, is idiosyncratic and self-generated (DiYanni, 2007).

Reference DiYanni, R. (2007). Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.


Preposition 23: Suspension of Air Pollution Control Act Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The Preposition 23 states that the implementation of Air Pollution Control Law (according to Global Warming Solutions Act), will be suspended, until the employment level in California decrease to 5.5 %. In addition, the Proposition 23 suspends the program on greenhouse gas emission reduction that involves cleaner fuel requirements and augmented renewable energy.

It also suspends reporting on mandatory emotions for such emission sources as oil refines and power plants (League of Women Voters of California Education Fund, n. p.). During the period of suspension, the state organizations will not allowed to adopt and propose new regulations and enforce previously accepted regulations.

The proposition 23 received a mixed feedback from the voters. On the one hand, it was approved by the California Air Resources Board that considered it more realistic to suspend the implementation of this law due to the existing $ billion deficit leading to the rise of unemployment rates and to destruction of the economy and society (Official Voter Information Guide, n. d.).

On the other hand, the proposition was highly criticized because it could impose adverse effects on the situation with air pollution in California. Moreover, the voters believe that “…Texas oil companies are spending millions on a deceptive campaign to promote Prop. 23 because 23 would allow them and other polluters to escape accountability and increase their profits” (Official Voter Information Guide, n. d).

A thorough analysis of the situation reveals that the Proposition 23 can save workplaces and, at the same time preserves clean water and air in California; it should also prevent from destruction of economies. Nevertheless, the measure can be also evaluated as the oil companies’ attempt to promote their businesses and to reduce export of foreign oils (Pros and Cons. Suspension of AB 32 Air Pollution Control Law).

Despite the fact that there is equal amount of arguments in favor and against, the majorities of voters did not support the Proposition because they are more concerned with climate change issues. In particular they believe that air pollution and natural disaster refer to much more serious problems (Forum with Michael Krasny n. p.).

However, there were voters that explained their approval by their concerns with the economic situation in California that had considerably aggravated within the period of 40 years. Therefore, the problem is difficult to resort. Two-polar views are presented in Walter’s article called Airing Out Prop 23 where he presents a neutral position on the case (Walter 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my humble opinion, the Preposition 23 has both positive and negative outcomes for the members of our society. Such mixed attitudes to the issue are predetermined by setting different priorities. In particular, some people believe that the suspension of Air Pollution Control Act will have an adverse effect on the ecological environment in California and will impose inevitable losses. However, there are people whose are more economically predetermined believing that a short suspension will improve the economic situation.

I believe that suspension will not beneficial for either of the supporters because the unemployment rate can be decreased by other, more efficient methods. In addition, there should be other methods and programs on providing clean air and waters in California that would not require significant funding. Otherwise, the secretary of state will turn out to be in a tight corner.

Works Cited Forum with Michael Krasny. Preposition 23. KQED Radio. 2010. Web.

League of Women Voter of California Education Fund. Preposition 23. Smart Voter. 2010. Web.

Official Voter Information Guide. Prop 23 Suspends Implementation Of Air Pollution Control Law (Ab 32) Requiring Major Sources Of Emissions To Report And Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions That Cause Global Warming, Until Unemployment Drops To 5.5 Percent Or Less For Full Year. Initiative Statute. California Statewide General Election. 2010. Web.

Pros and Cons. Suspension of AB 32 Air Pollution Control Law. League of Women Voters of California. 2010. Web.

Walters, Hedi. Airing Out Prop 23. North Coast Journal. 2010. Web.

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“The Place of Nonhumans in Environmental Issues”. Summary Essay essay help site:edu

In an essay entitled “The Place of Nonhumans in Environmental Issues”, in Honest Work, Peter Singer asserts that human decision-making must include a consideration of the welfare of nonhuman organisms if we are to claim moral consistency, and he compares our habitual heedlessness towards animal pain to the attitudes of slaveholders. Peter Singer has popularized the term speciesism to describe this anthropocentric blind spot.

In situations both large-scale and small, from the location of a building project or the wholesale extermination of pests, to the daily consumption of meat for our pleasure, he notes that we ignore the pain and damage we cause to individuals and populations of nonhumans. He makes a case that such prejudice is equivalent to racism and that our use and abuse of animals for food, and for other purposes and in other circumstances is morally equivalent to slavery.

Singer begins by reminding us that, although much human environmental destruction bites us in our human posterior, our nonhuman neighbors get it in the neck. He calls us to reflect on our prerogative to limit our decision-making to issues directly affecting us.

This ignores the damage to individuals and populations of other organisms. For example, in the example of a habitat-destroying construction project, in contemplating whether and how to move proceed, should we weigh the homelessness and deracination of the animals qua animals, or merely the loss of hunting/fishing revenue?

He goes on to assert that our obliviousness to animal suffering, albeit ancient, is without logic, and immoral. He points out that believing that a hurtful action’s moral implications can be inferred from the species of the victim is exactly parallel to slave-owners’ stance towards the importance of suffering by enslaved Africans. Singer then clarifies the subtle point that giving equal weight to the interests of two individuals or groups is different from saying that they are equal.

In specifying what he means by interests (he cautiously avoids rights) requiring evaluation, he limits the field to organisms that can subjectively experience pleasure/pain. There may be scientific suggestions of botanical potential for pain sensations (and he acknowledges this), but his definition is a clear enough delineation for the current state of human knowledge. If it clearly feels pain, then its pain has significance.

Singer also acknowledges that we may assess two different lives with different values. He also admits the inadequacy of all of our current means and methods of arriving at such valuations. He elucidates his principle of similarity in the degree of discomfort which two entities experience, a concept that he recognizes poses dilemmas for measurement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, he contends that we perform analogous comparisons regularly, taking into account such vague differences as degree of benefit from a particular action. Although such comparisons undertaken between species are even more challenging, Singer insists that we not avoid them simply because they are imprecise.

With this given, Singer challenges us to consider all the instances wherein our decision-making could be shaped by an examination of the pain potential for nonhumans. Pest control and lumbering are two examples he offers where our choices are based on cost and convenience, and could be made differently to reduce the pain to nonhumans. The most intimate relationship that we have with animals, Singer notes, is our daily consumption of meat.

The list of cruelties we perpetrate on animals to ensure swift weight gain, high volume production of milk or eggs, or meat of a character to please, is long, detailed, disturbing, and not novel to anyone in this generation. As he points out, no rationale exists for these appalling animal husbandry conditions, apart from taste and cost, given plant-based alternatives.

Singer finishes by drawing us back to his analogy with slave holding. He calls on us to ask ourselves; if we continue to eat (and abuse) animals on the grounds that their pain is less morally disturbing than that of a human, how are we different from slave-owners who held the pain of their enslaved African captives to be less than that of white folks?


Starbucks in Europe Report best essay help

Background Starbucks is world’s number one coffee and coffeehouse company. It is situated in 55 countries. The first branch was opened by Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, and Gordon Bowker on March 30, 1971 (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010). This paper takes a looks at Starbucks in Europe.

How many store? Starbucks Company has over 666 stores distributed across Europe. The branches have been developed through buyouts and franchising. Though the branches are operated and managed differently they have a similar code of conduct that they must uphold always (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010).

Which countries? In Europe, the company is not concentrated in one nation but has diversified its business to a number of nations; it ventured in individual countries at different times. It is operational in 25 countries and a pilot survey is ongoing to analyse the chances of expanding to Ukraine and Italy. It is available in the following nations; Portugal, Austria, Belgium, Germany Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Czech Republic, Hungary Ireland, United Kingdom Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus Hungary Ireland France , Jersey, Romania, Switzerland and Spain (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010).

Profits in Europe After some takeovers of businesses making losses, the company has reversed the trend in Europe and make profits. In 2007, the company made 1,986.9 millions, in 2008 2, 1856.0 millions and in 2009, 1732.6 million. This is a portion of approximately 6% of the company’s total profit; majority of the company’s profit come from United State. The drop in profits in 2009 is attributed to global financial crisis which started in 2007. The company external auditors are Deloitte and Touché; it is responsible for both local branches (United States Branches) and international branches (Starbucks Corporation Fiscal year 2009 Annual report, 2010). Profits for the past years have been attributed to sales of products in the following proportions;

Product Percentage Beverages 76 Food stuffs 18 Coffee making equipments 3 Whole bean coffee 3 There is a high competition in hospitality industry with a number of new entrants getting into the market every year.

When did Starbucks got into Europe? The group of company got into Europe in 1998 after it acquired sixty braches of Seattle Coffee Company (the company was UK based) for a total of $83 million; it immediately rebranded the outlets as Starbucks. Before opening an outlet, the company undertakes an intensive study to ensure that it makes a sound decision. Some branches are in airports and supermarket chains. To sell wide, the company has entered into a selling contract with Kraft Company which sells to grocery stores; at the same time it sells directly to large companies like Costo Wholesale Corporation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To ensure a constant supply of raw materials, the company uses fixed price and Price to be fixed purchasing strategy. There is fluctuation of prices according to demands and supply although the company aims to be fair at all time. To acquire assets in Europe, the company used leasing method where it has leased over 80% of all its outlets. After becoming certain that a certain area has a high potential and it has been attained a high brand, then it buys such a property.

What products do they sell? The company has a variety of products which it sells in Europe they are; coffee roasted beans, drip brewed coffee which include brand like cappuccino, latte, mocha; snacks, sandwiches, Panini, salads, pastries, coffee drinks, and tumblers. The company also is a books, films and music marketer in its stores (, 2010).

What’s popular in what country? The company’s products have different been taken differently in different Europe countries. Some countries prefer a product A than another company. The trend is as follows;

Portugal, Bulgaria, Coffee hot drinks (espresso-based) Austria , Greece coffee hot drinks (espresso-based) Belgium , Turkey, Cyprus Hungary Ireland France , Jersey Instant coffee Germany hot and cold sandwiches Portugal, Romania, Switzerland and Spain pastries Russia snacks Sweden, Czech Republic, Hungary Ireland, United Kingdom Denmark, Coffee: cappuccino, latte, mocha Netherlands, Poland, Panini How does Starbucks pay producers in Europe? Coffee is the main product that the company buys from farmers. It ensures that it has bought quality coffee and embraces fair trading. Fair trading is ensuring that all parties to a production benefit from the act.

This is in terms of price that the company buys raw materials and corporate social responsibilities undertaken by the company. It buys coffee directly from small scale farmers as well as large scale farmers. In 2004, the company price of coffee beans way more than double the then prevailing rate at an average $2.64 kg for coffee beans; the market rate then was1.20–$1.60.

Is it fair? The prices that the company buys coffee beans from farmers are higher than the prevailing market rate. However it can only buy coffee which is produced in an ethical way and of high quality. In Europe the company in collaboration with Conservation international has embarked on training farmers on better ways of growing coffee.

Those who comply with the teaching sell their products to the company at a premium increasing the revenue to farmers. On the other hand the company being a leading consumer of coffee has “pulled” prices upwards.

We will write a custom Report on Starbucks in Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Charities they are involved in? As a matter of social corporate responsibilities, the company has a number of charity programs which it finances they are; Water conservation financing, this is done through Ethos® Water policy where when somebody purchases the brand then 5 cent goes to the project.

The company is engaged in youth programs aimed at training youth on entrepreneurial strategies. In 2009 a total of $2.1 million was used to finance 71 grants. The company has also entered into Bono’s (RED) For Charity where it donates money to assist those suffering from HIV.

Environmental protection The company has a system called Shared Plane, where it aims at doing business in a way that is friendly to the environment. The system involves the producers and local community to adopt ethical production method which does not pollute the environment. The company has embarked on recycling of its waste products up to 70%.

The move is to ensure that there are minimal disposal to the environment. The company uses large amounts of water in its productions, however in a move to conserve water; it recycles over 70% of its waste water. In the effort to reduce green house emission, the company has embarked on massive energy efficient methods. This involves the use of electricity to roast coffee beans in place of charcoal (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).

References Starbucks Corporation Fiscal year 2009 Annual report. (2010). Web.

Starbucks Corporation. (2010). “Starbucks and Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) Announce Next Step in Commitment to Small-Scale Farmers”. Web.

Starbucks Corporate website. (2010). (2010). Starbucks is heading to Central Europe. Web.

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The statue of Augustus and Republican Busts of the Previous Generation Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A Roman portraiture and sculpture are characterized by specific stylistics. Each stage of sculpture and, especially, portraiture, is marked with certain elements that were a characteristic of each dynasty.

One of the brightest representatives of such portraiture is a statue of Augustus of Prima Porta. It is not only a statue of a man, it is a symbol of new époque of Rome, new tendencies in sculpture and portrait. Thus, the sculpture of Augustus is symbol of a rupture with “the worst of times” and its traditions, and it is an important mean of propaganda.

As it has already been mentioned, the statue of Augustus marked a new period when Roman Republic became Roman Empire. Everything had changed. An old Iron Age passed and new Golden Age became the riches and the most glorious time in the history of the Roman Empire. The city was restored after the last political conflict (Civil War) in the Republic that exhausted the country.

Augustus called this time “the worst of time”. Constant wars did not let the country to develop its sciences and art. The brightest characteristic of the Roman Republic is the portraiture. A realistic “face” with all its lacks and imperfections is associated with “the worst of times”.

The old “face” of the Republic was very detailed and realistic. That is why it disclosed every wrinkle and every skin imperfection to show the wisdom and courage of the person. A military prowess and blind devotion to public service were the most important traits of every politician.

The sculptors tried to reflect these traits in busts and statues. According to the rules of Republican traditions, the form of the sculpture should preset the idea that the artistic model wanted to express (concern about the nation, wisdom that he acquired during his “cursus honorum”, etc).

The traditions of the Golden Age of the Rome Empire ruined old traditions and reconsidered the meaning of the sculpture and portraits. The image of the sculpture was completely different: not “wrinkles”, but “youth” of a face and the whole pose of a statue expressed the power and greatness of a person. Now, the sculpture was a means of ideology and propaganda.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A completely different scheme for portrait was adopted. New techniques were based on a traditional Roman art, however, it was original and innovative at the same time. These new statues emphasized the greatness of emperors, their divinity and heroism. The youth, beauty and majestic pose were the major treats of signs of power and braveness. And these are the traits that every portrait possessed.

“Augustus was portrayed in numerous statues and portraits” (Cunningham and Reich 111). The Augustus in Prima Porta was created during the emperor’s reign. It is the manifestation of his talents, authority and connection to Olympic gods.

Indeed, the statue is the best example of propaganda, as every detail, from head to toes on his barefoot legs, symbolizes his leadership abilities. The artist put into the sculpture the orator’s gesture and body proportions of a Greek Doryphoros. The impression as if Augustus speaks to his people and shows them his justice and wisdom.

He looks younger than he really was because youth and brave look of his eyes symbolize his greatness. These features make the statue completely different from the republic statues. In Republic architects considered that and faded and calm look symbolized the wisdom of a king. “New” statue used the pose and “activeness” to express this feature, moreover, it showed that the emperor was ready for radical actions for the sake of his people.

Another feature that distinguishes the statue of Augustus from works of the Republic period is the presence of additional attributes of power and “divinity” of the emperor. The first one is the statue of Cupid, which rides a dolphin. It shows the emperor’s consanguinity with the goddess Venus. It indicated that Augustus, as well as Aeneas, who was the founder of Rome, and Cupid himself, was the son of Aphrodite. Consequently, he was the only and competent ruler of the Empire.

The breastplate is the most significant detail of the statue. The reliefs show his great achievements, victories and people conquered. There, we can see the reliefs of the goddess Diana, Augustus’ patron, Apollo, two sphinx that signified the victory over Cleopatra and many other significant figures from life of Roman Empire. The breastplate is the most significant propagandistic detail of the sculpture.

The Augustus of Prima Porta is one of the brightest examples of early propaganda. In addition, it is not only a symbol of power and divinity of the emperor, it is a symbol of new era without old traditions of life, art and politics.

We will write a custom Report on The statue of Augustus and Republican Busts of the Previous Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Cunningham, Lawrence S. and John J. Reich. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. vol. 1. 7th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. 2009.


Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Types of UPS

Characteristics of a UPS system

Objectives of a UPS System for Emergency Medical Dispatcher

UPS topologies

UPS System Management



Introduction Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) is a device that supports electronic equipments such as computers or other intelligent systems such as automated machines, when there are some power faults.

Uninterruptable Power Supply system forms an interface between the power utility and the equipment that requires protection from the energy uncertainties. The equipment running under the UPS gets supply of power for several minutes before switching the power to an alternative or emergency power options such as batteries in case of electric failures.

In line with Godse and Bakshi (2009), the main function of the UPS is to smooth out voltage and eliminate sever risks such as power disturbances or circuit damages. Good examples of these risks include the slit second power losses that can cause a computer to restart. Others include long power outages, under voltage, over voltage, lightening and short time spikes of the voltage, which can easily damage equipments (Godse and Bakshi, 2009).

This research paper forms an analysis of the Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) system used in emergency dispatch centres, and mainly forms a close reference to the hospital dispatch centres. The centres are Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

Types of UPS A UPS is able to stabilize voltage and maintain a certain level of energy flow for a short or a longer while depending on the size, whenever there are power attenuations or fluctuation. The emergency battery in the system helps to maintain supply until the system is switches either manually or automatically to a stable alternative source of energy.

In support of the medical automated systems, some of these UPS systems have a direct connection to the equipment and automatically enhances transfer of power source to an alternative, thus avoiding possible data losses due to shut downs (Schmidt, 2002).

In general, there are three types of UPS systems. To begin with is the offline UPS that have a connection through an electrical transition. The normal electrical voltage continuously recharges the system batteries and the system comes into action whenever there are fluctuations of the electric voltage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system fails to protect the system against the power failures due to slow response time. It consumes more time opening and closing the relay time. The second type is the online system that constantly regulates the amount of voltage coming in due to its series connection to the equipment.

Lastly is the line interactive UPS, which has a hybrid technological framework. The UPS connects in parallel with the electronic equipment and has a monitory system to detect high or low voltage supplies and consequently supply compensating voltage (Schmidt, 2002). In considering the automated Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), the third type would be most viable to implement.

Characteristics of a UPS system The power protection support accorded by the UPS systems is in VA (Volt-Ampere) (Schmidt, 2002). An Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMS) is a critical application machine that relies heavily on the respondents. For such vital connections, it is advisable to consider a support system that has a 1.6 times more capacity of power supply than consumption by the equipments connected to it. It is also critical to choose a UPS that has enough sockets to support devices that ought to be connected. Different UPS systems have different connectors such as the network, USB or the parallel connectors. Some of these ties are smart ties to control or instruct devices to safely shutdown, especially when the there are prolonged interruptions. However, the UPS systems do not support the telephone connections. This means that lightning can still affect a computer system that has telephone connections for the modem (Schmidt, 2002). It is thus advisable to have lighting arrestors to safeguard the machines.

The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) is often important for accurate direction and transportation of ill patients or the injured. They also assist in dispatching of medical personnel/technicians through the paramedic programs to the needy emergency centres.

Due to this form of coordination, dispatch centres require constant power supply and in its support, a series of UPS systems can offer the required sufficiency until connection to a stable alternative source. UPS systems connected in series can supply electrical power for long periods before the generators can take over. In such cases, it is important to store the UPS in a different ‘self-sufficient’ room next to the generator especially when the system is manual.

Objectives of a UPS System for Emergency Medical Dispatcher Electric power supplies often suffer from network overloads, emergency interruptions and accidents that can cause blackouts, frequent drifts, sags, power swells, brownouts, surges and spikes (Gregory, 2009). Most electrical equipments can tolerate majority of this faults, while others delicate systems such as the Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are critical due to the dispatching functions.

Think of a situation where a person is in urgent need of medical assistance and therefore the dispatcher must provide planned or scripted pre-arrival instructions before the dispatched team arrives for the rescue services, then the power breaks before administration of assistance. Worse still would be the interferences of the medical self-help program and the assistant cannot give out the quality assurance procedures. Power interruptions can interfere with dispense recordings and telephone conversations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) installations require stable continuity of power supply, since it cannot tolerate any form of faults due to compromise on health. Some of the emergency cases for the dispatch units cater for the emergency labour cases during pregnancy or childbirth, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or chocking.

There are some vital requirements for a UPS system in support of an Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) system/machine. To begin with is the need for the hold-up period. The time mainly depends on the conversion time.

The capacitive and inductive elements of a UPS can only store power for a certain limited time-frame for instance, an efficient switch-mode period for such an equipment ranges between ten and thirty minutes. Secondly, the time required for transfer from the main power switch to batteries or generator if it is not the automatic switching system. This time ought to be less than the period the application can hold-up, for provision of a safe margin.

The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is more sensitive compared to normal computerised system and therefore requires more time to allow for safe changeover margins. It is also crucial to consider the power handling abilities of the system. The UPS must supply normal power consumptions over the specified conversion interlude during emergency periods.

The UPS must equally cater for the inrush power. This is a common input power requirement since the new input supplier may fail to produce as per the expectations at the initial point. The effect occurs due to the charge uploads (Gregory, 2009).

Regulation of power occurs when there is a proper power stipulation thus the voltage supply is free from ripple, attenuation and electrical noise. Some of the conversion systems require total isolation between the UPS output and the input power suppliers. This also assists to maintain the right load sequencing to minimize chances for inrush currents that can be fatal to machines.

Before installing a UPS, it is furthermore very important to know the time taken for the system to recharge after current usage. This caters for cases when there are frequent interruptions. Lastly, one must consider the ability to perform a hot-swap. Hot-swap is a manual changeover done while the power is in use especially when there is need to change the battery packs.

UPS topologies The basic elements of a UPS system are chargers, batteries and an inverter. These elements apply for all the three topologies. The first topology is the stand-by or off-line UPS system. They are mainly for the basic power protections, where the UPS provides a direct connection of power to the load.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “A main direct current line maintains the charge of batteries during low voltage […], the inverter turns on, to have power loads directly from batteries” (Gregory, 2009). The topology is not suitable for the Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) because the conversion period might prolong and thus disrupt operations. The lack of fulltime conditioning of the power is also a loophole for simple filters, spikes and electric noises (Gregory, 2009).

The second topology is the online UPS system. The system has no power breakups and supports zero transfer periods. This means that the system has better frequency regulation mechanisms and voltage supports, compared to the offline or the interactive UPS systems. In this system, the main power has provisions with a double direct power lines, as a concurrent support to both the charger and inverter.

This means that the topology has a permanent power supply, which provides alternating current for the application (Gregory, 2009). This is the automatic switching required for medically approved dispatch protocols, such that when there is failure, the inverter gets power from the direct current supply of the batteries. The AC-DC conversion provides the fulltime conditioning where certification remains safe from all forms of disturbances.

The system is mainly an implementation in major emergency cases such as Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD), where any form of conversion delay is unacceptable. The systems are more costly to acquire, implement and maintain due to high rates of consumptions and heat generation.

Lastly are the interactive UPS systems, which have the offline inverters as well as transformers to provide output power during shortage. The transformer acts as a power conditioner but provides powers output just for a while, to increase the holdup time.

UPS System Management Business or organization pressure such as need to have a stable dispensing machine often requires introduction of alternative sources of sustainable energy. There are various benefits of adopting and complying with new incentives of UPS systems for alternative supports. It is imperative for an Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) to have stable power conversion system. Such a system suffers huge losses from short power cuts.

The system requires medically permitted dispatching protocols where there must be clarification procedures to qualify any form of dispatch. The trained professionals provide first-hand responses. It is vital to have the UPS systems that offers strong workbench with high power levels. The sensitivity of the system calls for high-level power controls because even the smallest amount of power change such as surge can cause a big difference due to emergency programs interruptions (Schmidt, 2002).

Conclusion Today it is easy and cheap to achieve the best technological changeover systems, since there are constant modernization and introduction of new elements of the UPS systems, thus making energy saving more easier to achieve. The current technological advancement presents the new modular UPS system, which enhance full cover up of the power load requirement for a long period.

The importance of load requirement depends on the quality of the UPS. Current technology provides modular systems that have ability to involve dynamic changes and cater for critical requirements of power load, thus allowing continual efficiency and stability.

The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) also depends on various transactional systems such as the UPS. Alternating current failures automatically calls for direct conversions to alternative means. Today’s new modular designs provide a better level and approximately 94% of the medical dispatch units utilize UPS to support the pre-arrival programs or instructions and supports improved efficiency due to real-time dispatch of personnel.

The quantity of UPS has also reduced, thus making them more mobile and compatible to most environments. Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) is today emergency medical care; it has caused evolution of the medical centres to become centres of EMS assistance. They explicitly assist both the public and dispatch personnel in their roles.

References Godse, A. Bakshi, U. (2009). Electronic Circuits and Applications. (Fourth Ed). New Zealand, Australia: Technical Publications. Print.

Gregory, P. (2009). CISSP Guide to Security Essentials. Canada: Cengage Learning Publishers. Print.

Schmidt, C. (2002). The Complete Computer Upgrade


Totalitarianism and Soviet Russia Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

A few years after cessation of the 1st world war, democracy was viewed as the best way of governing countries in Europe. During this time, tyrannical governments in “Russia, Germany and Austria” were brought down and substituted with republics (Shlapentokh 70). As such, all the 7 states formed in Europe were republics in nature and democracy seemed to take its toll.

However, a drastic turn of events occurred and many states which had embraced democracy fell under dictatorship. Only England and France retained democratic type of government (Paul 131). Italy and Germany were thereafter seen as Fascist countries while Russia (Soviet Union) was viewed as a Communist nation.

The official name of Soviet Union was “The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)” (Shlapentokh 70). Soviet Union extended from “the Baltic and Black Seas to the Pacific Ocean”. The first political party to reign in Russia was Bolshevik party which was led by Vladimir Lenin. Soon after seizing power, the party attuned its strategy in order to agree with citizens’ needs and remain in supremacy. On that note, it changed its name to “Russian Communist Party of the Bolsheviks” during the third month of the year 1918.

In addition, the party leader approved a number of rulings so as to gratify the pressing needs of Russian citizens. This involved donating pieces of land to the poor, allowing employees to take control of industries and permitting people to work for a maximum of eight hours per day (Paul 138). Further, Lenin disclaimed covert agreement and foreign debts although he sought peace with Germany. All these efforts got massive backing from the citizens as their wishes were being realized.

Later on, Vladimir Lenin acknowledged citizens will to hold an election for Constituent assembly. People voted in favor of Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks while Lenin’s party secured a quarter of all the votes cast (Curtis 197). Following the humiliating defeat, Lenin used the Red Guard to forcibly disband the Assembly thereby gaining temporally control over the situation although some resistance still persisted.

There was more trouble as Lenin signed “Brest-Litovsk peace treaty” with Germany in search of peace where Russia lost big chunks of land and iron deposits (Shlapentokh 79). This made Lenin’s opponents to feel disgruntled and civil war erupted and lasted until 1922. This war was mainly between the white and red Russians although foreign governments, backed by their own reasons, interfered with it in support of white Russians.

The fight was more serious in five locations which included “Caucasus and Southern Russia, in the Ukraine, in the Baltic, in Northern Russia (Murmansk and Archangel) and in Siberia” (Shlapentokh 85). Lenin won the battle due to factors like support from workers, better coordination by his soldiers, and use of psychological torture as well as reorganization of the economy among other reasons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was followed by serious famine as farmers lost hope in agriculture. In addition, factory workers lost commitment due to lack of wages and this led to reduced output. Further, trade declined due to disintegration of communication and transport systems.

During this time, “Communist Party of Soviet Union” was the only legalized organization and it proposed the introduction of “local and regional” democratic administrations (Meissner 123). Precisely, party organs at those levels of governance were to be in control in such areas.

Supreme Soviet was the uppermost legislative organ while the senior most executive organ was the ‘Politburo’. The government controlled people through underground policing. The law enforcers in this case would locate political rebels and eject them from the party or charge them for ‘counter-revolutionary’ involvements.

Lenin succumbed to death in 1924 and Joseph Stalin acquired control which he exercised until 1953 when he died. Joseph Stalin acted as a supreme leader between 1929 and 1953. In his era, 3.7million citizens were accused and jailed due to perceived felonies of counter revolution (Meissner 110). This included 0.6 million people who received life jail terms, 0.8 million individuals who were jailed to extradition and 2.4million citizens who were jailed to detention centers and work facilities.

During Stalin’s era, the 2nd world war emerged and the Soviet Union army was found unprepared. To maintain control in the Eastern parts of Europe, the leader organized the “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany on August, 1939”.

A covert treaty handed “Eastern Poland, Finland, and Estonia” to Soviet Union while “Lithuania and Western Poland” were handed to Germany (Paul 150). In September, both the Soviet Union and Germany raided Poland. In the same month, Finland was attacked by the Soviet Union and this led to Emergence of Winter war.

In 1936, the president of Germany, Hitler, condemned “Jewish Communism in My Struggle” and expressed his intention to attack Soviet Union (Curtis 195). This prompted Stalin to seek support from Western democracies. He enticed those nations by giving the constitution to the Russian citizens as a sign of democracy.

We will write a custom Essay on Totalitarianism and Soviet Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hitler raided Russia in 1941and Stalin’s army put up a brave fight although the Nazi’s were highly advancing. Majority of Russian soldier were captured as war prisoners. Soon, the German army had surrounded Moscow but their surge was effectively checked by “winter and a Soviet counter-offensive” (Shlapentokh 91). Since then, Russian military rescued it land and even captured Berlin in 1945.

Leaders who came after Stalin acted more like socialists than dictators. In Leonid’s era, USSR assault to support Afghanistan was commenced in December of the year 1979. In 1985, the president, Mikhail Gorbachev, tried to resurrect the dying communist regime through minimizing rivalry with US and lowering the level of political hounding.

However, communist principle of centralized ritual management of the financial system was not abandoned. Mikhail’s main guiding principles “were Glasnost -openness, and Perestroika –restructuring” (Meissner 117). However, these policies were ineffective and the fall of USSR was witnessed in 1991. The Russian citizens favored capitalism instead communism.

Poor decisions involving various policies led to disintegration of USSR. These involved poor management of economy, labor force and foreign interactions among others. To date, the relationship between Russia and some western countries is strained. However, Moscow is still trying to recapture its lost glory.

Works Cited Curtis, M. Totalitarianism. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1987. Print.

Meissner, B. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union: party leadership, organization, and ideology. United States: University of Virginia, 2008. Print.

Paul, Ellen, F. Totalitarianism at the crossroads. United States: Social Philosophy and Policy Center and by Transaction Publisher, 1989. Print.

Shlapentokh, V. A normal totalitarian society: how the Soviet Union functioned and how it collapsed. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2001. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Totalitarianism and Soviet Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Notes for Dante’s Works Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Dante’s Moral Stand

Moral Depictions

Importance of the Church and State’s Co Existence


Works Cited

Dante’s Inferno follows the example of Homa’s Ilioad because it begins at the middle of Dante’s life, makes a quick flash forward of his life and then comes to a quick end. The middle of Dante’s life is characterized by the time he lost his way in life; at a presumable age of 35, which marked the middle of a hypothetical 70 years lifespan.

The setting was in the Easter of 1300 AD but Dante did not make it to his 70-year lifespan (because he died from Malaria at the age of fifty-four) (Gutchess 1). Dante’s literary piece (Inferno) is an unprecedented work because seldom did writers of his time start a literary work by narrating their own life experiences (Gutchess 1).

Nonetheless, since the Middle Ages, many writers have taken the cue and now follow Dante’s footsteps. Some of the medieval dream visions that exist today are diverse and may be sampled by Langlard’s Piers Ploughman, Wordsworth’s Prelude among other conventional literary writers.

The subject and inspiration of Inferno are all conceptualized in the first paragraph of the poem where the author lets the readers know he is about to narrate everything he saw in a vision (Alighieri 2). However, unique to Dante, the author does not talk about some superficial being, but himself. In other contexts, it can be analyzed that Dante speaks of his experiences in the vision as he personally witnessed it.

The subjectivity of this epic is unique when analyzed with other similar literary pieces of his time. For instance, classical poets normally talked about how certain beings sang to them or how certain supernatural forms of man or muses spoke to the authors; however, in Dante’s works, the muses are actually Beatrice Portinari and Virgil (Alighieri 3).

These two individuals guide Dante throughout the narration and unlike other literary pieces; they do not recite the poem. Some observers note that Beatrice and Virgil actually guide and teach Dante along the way but the author reports on the details of this encounter because he exposes what the two showed him during his trip through hell and the Garden of Eden.

However, Beatrice Portinari represents the author’s idea of a being with divine wisdom, but at the same time, she is the author’s partner in the sharing of courtly love. Dante first set eyes on Beatrice when he was still very young and when she died at the age of 25, Dante was inspired to write a novel about her in one of his works tiled: Vita Nuova (Gutchess 10).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, Inferno was written at a time when the author was working as a municipal officer in the city of Florence, and considering the poem has a lot of reference to religious principles, Christianity acted as the official background to the literary piece; a concept which other poets such as Plato have used in their works (Gutchess 3).

This is why Dante’s Inferno, ought to be openly understood that it was not written as a philosophical work but to enforce religious doctrines. In the same religious context, Dante introduces Inferno from the religious perception of Catholic’s Holy Thursday which is referred in other contexts as “the dark wood period” to signify a timeline just preceding Jesus’ crucifixion (Gutchess 3).

This background can also be equated to the spring equinox period where the sun shines from the constellation of Aries because in the same setting, Dante travels practically the whole Friday and throughout Saturday with Virgil. Nonetheless, from the religious context, Dante represents a framework of virtues, vices and morality from his personal view on morality and judgment.

Dante’s Moral Stand Dante’s stand on morality is represented from his perception of crimes done against God. Dante represents the contravention of God’s laws to persecution and agony which are characteristic of hell. He makes the readers understand that evil is a moral sin and it is regarded just like any type of sin because immorality is in contravention of the will of God; however, in the same regard, it is not possible to judge the will of God.

Conversely, Dante lets his readers know that an otherworldly hell would follow his representation of hell. His trip through hell, while in the company of Virgil, represents his allegorical representation of the hierarchy of pain and suffering associated with wrongful acts, and to a large extent, Dante represents the Old Testament teachings on morality and judgment which can be best represented through the “eye to eye” or “tooth to tooth” philosophy.

In this regard, Dante identifies certain moral offenders in Inferno who are depicted as serving punishments that befit the offences they committed, and in a way that reflects the nature of their sin. For example, Dante equates the moral sin of homosexuality to walking on hot sand. This is Dante’s way of pointing out that the moral sin of homosexuality directly befits the punishment of walking on hot sand.

Human suffering and subsequent judgment given to those who fail to observe God’s instructions is justifiable according to Dante. The type of punishment given for any moral sin does not therefore occur randomly because Dante observes that morality is judged from the most serious offences to the lightest. These variations are represented from Dante’s segmentation of hell to suit the different type of moral offenders.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Notes for Dante’s Works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, Trombley (cited in Gutchess 5) notes that: “In Dante’s view there are three major divisions of the circles of Hell, populated by those who give into their lesser instincts and desires, those that refuse God, and those that intentionally do harm to themselves or others by physical or deceptive means”.

In Dante’s perception of morality and punishment, it can be analyzed that under the issue of evil and God’s will, those who give in to their instincts and desires contravene God’s will and attract punishments that befit their moral sin while people who refuse the will of God and those who intentionally do harm to their neighbors, all manifest the levels of punishment and morality.

Virgil is seen as falling in the category of people who don’t have enough faith in God and this is why he was unable to guide Dante into the Garden of Eden. To a large extent, this can be seen as his punishment for not having enough belief in Christ.

In this regard, it is clearly evident that from Dante’s stratification of hell, he is able to show the level of misdeeds which warrants different levels of punishment. Through the same analysis, he is able to justify his perception of judgment. This explains why Dante comes out as a very perplexed individual; especially in the way he quantifies the degree of punishment.

For example, the stratification of hell explains why the moral sin of bribery was considered graver than the sin of murder as represented in the eight and sixth chronicles of hell. In the same manner, Dante considers acts of violence and murder as graver than acts of fraud.

In this example, the greatest moral sin that contravenes God’s will is fraud; which goes against God’s principles of mankind living in harmony. On the other hand, murder is in contravention of the love but fraud manifests as the biggest deprivation of love.

Moral Depictions In Inferno, Lucifer is often referred to as Satan and is depicted as the King of Inferno because his fall from heaven into earth created hell where he was imprisoned in. Lucifer’s multicolored face represents certain negative sentiments of hate, powerlessness, and deceit when contrasted to positive attributes advanced by the holy trinity. The triple aspect character of Satan is also representative of the three-faced aspect of paganism which was severally referred to in the novel.

When Lucifer flapped his wings, the tears of the sinners were frozen; meaning that they could not find any relief from their mourning and at the same time, greater populations of those who fell in this category (mourners) were treacherous people. This therefore means that treacherous people were associated with Satan because they deserved the same punishment because of the contravention of God’s will.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Notes for Dante’s Works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lucifer is also the representative being who exposes the importance of the state and the church to harmoniously coexist together because he is seen as the moral punisher of both church and political leaders. To illustrate this, Lucifer is quoted as chewing on Judas Iscariot (Jesus’ betrayer), Brutus and Cassius who committed atrocious acts of murder and betrayal; something which ironically Lucifer was supposed to reward them for (Gutchess 16).

In the poem, Lucifer is found on the roadway, but in heaven, he is seen as desiring what he cannot have, and in so doing, ignores the will of God. His contravention of the will of God is also the ticket that led to his casting from heaven into hell. Again, the will of God is hereby seen as the benchmark to morality because when Satan went against God’s will, when he desired that which he could not have, he was thrown down to hell.

In close resemblance to Lucifer is the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church who represented deceit and bribery. Boniface was the ruling pope at the time when Dante was writing his work.

He was the predecessor to Celestine V who abdicated in 1924; afterwards, the corruption and chaos Dante makes reference to, when referring to his town, Florence, began when the pope made a decree that his title as a pope was enough assurance that he had the authority to rule all of Italy. In this regard, he started committing moral sins which later saw his fall from his position as the pope.

One of his prominent moral sins was his backing of the Guelphs to take over Florence through the bribery of French military men to assist them. According to Dante’s perception of punishment for such atrocious acts committed by a servant of God, he makes reference to the pope as a de facto servant of God who was thrown into hell after he failed to heed to the rules guiding all servants of God. His destination in hell can be regarded as the punishment for his wrongful deeds on earth.

This fact is affirmed in the 8th circle where Dante points out that Boniface had a section in hell especially left for his occupation because if his poor moral example on earth (Gutchess 19). Boniface died in 1318 when Pope Benedict VI took the mantle as the pope of the Roman Church.

Importance of the Church and State’s Co Existence The leopard, lion, and she wolf represent three animals that were a hindrance to Dante’s chances of succeeding in Canto 1. These animals are representative of biblical animals like Daniel’s casting into the lion’s den and the she-wolf representation of the last days in the book of revelation.

Even though Dante avoids naming these animals in complete censorship, they can be analyzed in political terms as representing Florence, France and Papacy. Comprehensively, the leopard that was seen symbolizes Florence city, whereby back in 1300 AD it was deeply divided between the black and white Guelphs. This division is representative of the need of the state and church to coexist together.

The blacks can be perceived as proponents of the Pope’s quest to rule Italy (which is representative of the church’s will), while the White Guelphs were critics of such a move and represented the will of the state to control Florence. In this regard, they were supported by secular leaders. For the sake of their security from the pope; they had to go to extreme lengths to support secular leaders like Dante.

Nonetheless, Dante found it difficult to maintain peace between the two factions (in his capacity as a magistrate) and he therefore made enemies from both sides of the divide. As a resultant measure, he banned all Guelphs, who he thought were causing havoc, and in this process, he also banned his friend Guido Calavcanti too.

Unknown to Dante, the blacks came back with the backing of the pope while the novel’s narration during the spring of 1300 AD and its writing, three years down the line (when Dante was in exile) gives enough room for Dante to note that the prophecy of his exile was true.

The lion symbol represented France as an ally to the Pope; after they were bribed to support the blacks in the Florence conflict. The king of France thereafter reinstated the black Guelphs in the city of Florence and later tried Dante in his absence and vowed to kill him if he ever returned back into the city.

The she-wolf on the other hand represents Rome, which took control of the city of Florence in 1302 (Gutchess 18). During this period, Dante is exiled in an unknown foreign land because he feared for his life; considering he opposed the power of the pope while in Florence. Nonetheless, the symbol of the she-wolf can be best analyzed to represent Rome in its totality and also as the home of Virgil who happened to be one of the greatest poets of Rome.

In the analogy, the wolf is seen as preventing Dante from achieving the highest status of poetry in Rome. Lastly, the Greyhound symbol happens to represent Dante’s patron in Verona, through Can Grande Derlla Scalla, although ironically, Can Grande represents a gigantic dog; which may imply that Dante’s patron may probably be a domesticated wolf (Gutchess 19).

This use of biblical symbols can also be perceived as representative of the need to merge the state and the church since Dante uses them to explain political intrigues. Interestingly, these political intrigues also determine the biblical destination of some of the key players like the Pope who was sent to hell because of bribery and corruption.

Conclusion Dante uses many literary techniques such as symbolism, and character casting to best convey his perception of punishment and morality in Inferno. The 1300 AD setting of his literary piece and the religious connotation of his poems is a representation of the religious undertones related with morality and judgment.

The use of symbols is a more subtle manner of representing controversial opinions and Dante uses them tactfully to let his readers know his trail of thought. Nonetheless, Dante extensively uses religion (Christianity) to form his opinion on morality and punishment. Tactfully, he also uses his imagination about God’s opinion to advance his own opinion of morality and punishment.

In this manner, it is difficult for anyone to question his personal ethical system. Nonetheless, he bases his virtues and vices on religion and integrates it with his political experiences to present a belief system that also advances his personal thought. He also integrates the ancient virtues and vices associated with the Roman Empire to reflect on his political beliefs. These attributes therefore outline Dante’s framework of virtues, vices and morality in his work.

Works Cited Alighieri, Dante. The Inferno of Dante Alighieri. London: Forgotten Books, 1962. Print.

Gutchess. “Notes for Dante’s Inferno”. 2003. Web.


Russell and Lenore’s Essays Comparison argumentative essay help

Essays are a means by which many people have expressed their ideas on a host of issues. It is a means also that affords criticisms for leaderships and governments without necessarily engaging in unlawful acts. It is a means of communication that has been in existence ever since man had evolved to the capacity that he would communicate via writing (Greetham 67).

This paper considers different issues that are presented in two essays by different authors as a critique and a study of the central themes in them. For this paper, the essays that will be considered have been written by Russell Sanders and the other one has been written by Keeshig-Tobias where the humanistic perspective of manhood and womanhood and the relationships between and among them will be of interest in explaining how these genders interact as discussed by these authors in their respective essays.

The essence of manhood is treated differently by Russell Sanders and Lenore Keeshig-Tobias in their essays dubbed The Men we Carry in Our Minds and He was a Boxer respectively. The two writers examine the role of a man in different contexts. These include male to female relationships in a family perspective, the power dynamics between men and women in different social settings, societal expectations of a man and the challenges of living up to those expectations.

The role of man’s physical strength is contextually treated differently by Russell Sanders and Lenore Keeshig-Tobias. In Russell’s world, the man’s physical strength is used to advance the family’s economic security. However it is at the cost of his own physical health and emotional wellbeing.

He works long hours exposed to elements of weather by having to carry heavy loads and stand for long hours often sustaining physical injuries. In the evenings and weekends he toils on his land and mends broken roofs (Kay et al. 34). On the other hand, the women work at their own pace in a better environment. They cultivate their social lives around the different errands they have to run. Russell perceives the work dynamics to be in favor of the women. He says he would rather hold a baby that work at the machines.

On the other hand, in Lenore’s world, the man’s physical strength has being used to the detriment of the family’s emotional security. Lenore’s father a boxer uses his physical strength and boxing prowess to intimidate the women in his life. There is insecurity as both the mother and daughter as they cower at the sight of him (Kay et al. 335).

Russell wants to run from the roles and the expectations of manhood in his poor social setting. He finds the women’s world to be more comfortable and he dreads growing up to these manly roles in his society. He is caught between the two ideas of men in his social setups; the worriers and the toilers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The toilers work all the day long at the tiresome manual labor while the worriers work preparing them for war and eventual death. He doesn’t envy any on the roles. In contrast to Russell gender roles discordance, Lenore Keeshig-Tobias embraces the manly role and the societal expectations of the same.

This comes as surprising. Her drunkard father had often terrorized her and her mother (Kay et al. 390). Yet she makes excuses for him arguing that her mother must have had something to do with it. She hypothesizes that he is doing right.

She enrolls for boxing classes in a bid to understand his world. We see that Russell is running way from his duties as a man out of understanding of what awaits him. However Lenore is embracing the masculine world in order to understand her father and the world that he has forced her to live in.

The men in Russell’s and Lenore’s world confront manhood challenges in different ways. The failure to provide for one’s family is seen as a man’s failure in Russell’s world (Kay et al. 378). The men prevent this by working in deplorable conditions to earn a living. When they get home they work even more to mend broken roofs and till their own land.

They confront the challenges through physical work. In Lenore’s world the men run away from their challenges. Lenore’s father is driven into boxing and alcoholisms by the family strains. This explains his tantrums and physical abuse of his wife (Kay et al. 473).

Lenore Keeshi-Tobia’s father never graduated from college. This makes him ill prepared to confront the different family challenges that he is undergoing leading him to alcoholism. On the other hand education opens Russell’s eyes to the different dimensions of manhood. His perspectives had been limited to the manual laborers and their bosses.

Though television and encounter with male teachers he is exposed to men who work with their brains; the lawyers, the politicians etcetera. He has a change of heart from wanting to hold babies to become this kind of man. His female college-mates challenge him further on the gender roles (Kay et al. 287). He is exposed to the comfort and power of men in a higher social setting. The balance of power and comfort contrast to those of his social setup. In this set up the balance is titled in favor of men.

We will write a custom Essay on Russell and Lenore’s Essays Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Man to man relationship is treated differently in both works of Russell and Lenore. Lenore discusses his father taking his family problems to the boxing ring. This is often to the detriment of his male boxing opponents (Greetham 145). His driving force are personal and in contrast to the sportsmanship spirit.

On the other hand Russell examines the racial relationship between the black male convicts and the white male guards. The convicts are painted as miserable and working in deplorable condition. The guards are painted as being powerful. The bonnets of their guns are said to shine in the sun (Kay et al. 512). While the man in Lenore’s world is using his boxing prowess to dominate over his fellow man, in Russell’s world he is using the gun.

In both Russell and Lenore’s essays we find that man is often a victim of his social economic circumstances in his different social setting. The drive, attitude and perceptions of his acts can be digested form those perspectives. While the intensity of the man’s act may vary from man to man, they are often dictated by his environment (Greetham 145).

Works Cited Greetham, Bryan. How to Write Better Essays. 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Kay et al. Essay Writing for Canadian Students with Readings. 6th Ed. Toronto ON: Pearson Education Canada, 2007.


Temperament in Child Development Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction The term temperament in psychology is used to refer to those facets of a person’s personality, for instance, extroversion and introversion, which are often deemed as intrinsic, rather than acquired from learning. There have been several classificatory schemes with regard to temperament but apparently, none has been approved in the field of academia. The historic perspective of temperament has it that, temperament was a section of the four humors’ theory, and it was believed that there were four temperaments.

The concept of temperament was very imperative in pre-modern psychology and was looked into by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, David W. Keirsey and Hermann Lotze (Klein 553). Temperament is assessed through certain unique behavioral profiles, with a focus on those that are easier to measure and test in early childhood.

Modern scientists have sought ways of establishing the relationship between temperament and character through the use of biological evidence. However, regardless of the fact that scientists have hypothesized that there is an association between temperament and biological factors, there have been difficulties in testing this association directly.

Discussion Parents will always observe that their children behave differently in similar situations. What may work out for one child may not work out for another. Temperament is this difference in behavior as well as in personality (Rothbart, Stephan and David 123).

Thomas and Chess have been two great researchers involved in the study of temperament through a description of nine characteristics of behavior in children. These characteristics are useful in describing children’s temperament or those stable, individual variations in activity level, self-regulation, attention and emotional reactivity (Rothbart, Stephan and David 123-125).

Personality is evaluated through an interaction of temperament traits with the surrounding environment. This interaction is very vital as it determines how a child values himself and others. Thomas, Cheese and others were the first to conduct the New York Longitudinal Study during the early 1950s in infant temperament (Rothbart 1-4). The study was on how temperamental qualities influence adjustment throughout one’s life cycle.

Thomas, Cheese and others made use of nine temperament characteristics to study how each of characteristic, by itself or in combination with another, affected child’s development in the context of school, home and friends. Behaviors for each trait are progressive, that is, each characteristic is on a scale that range from mild to intense.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It would be a cause of alarm if a child is inclined towards the high or low end of the scale. Redundancies were realized between the established categories leading to the development of a revised list that is frequently used by psychologists in today’s world (Rothbart 1-4).

Laboratory measures of fear, positive affect and anger have been used to predict temperament among the seven-year-olds but, attention has shown minimal stability since infancy. This can be associated with the relatively dwindled development of the executive attention system, whose development determines a child’s ability to control emotions, thoughts and behaviors.

The tendency of children to control activities governed by rewards leads to the prediction of greater success and emotional control in adolescence. Caspi and Silva (1995) implied that children, who portrayed a higher approach or confidence when they were only three to four years, indicated greater impulsive ability at age 18 and had a higher level of social potency.

Fearful children aged between 3 and 4 stayed away from harmful situations and possessed a lower score on social potency and aggression. Children between the ages of 3 to 4 with a higher tendency of distress proneness and who lacked attentional control were expected to manifest higher distress tendencies at age 18 (Sanson 142-150).

It is important to understand that most behavioral tendencies are innate and not a consequence of bad parenting as most people would presume. Examining of a child’s temperament is apparent in case the child shows bad behavior.

Interviews, observations and questionnaires are the tools used to measure the nine temperaments as suggested by Thomas, Cheese and others. These temperaments are measured while utilizing a spectrum that indicates mild to intense reactions in a continuous style. It is very important that parents understand their children’s temperaments and should work towards coping with these traits in their children instead of changing them (Kochanska 744-759).

The nine kinds of traits are compressed to form three basic kinds of temperaments. Around 65% of all children fall in one of three patterns; of these, 40% are deemed easy or flexible, 15% are within the range of slow to warm up (cautious) while the rest 10% are regarded to be difficult, feisty or active.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Temperament in Child Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other 35% of children indicate a combination of all these patterns. When parents understand these patterns, they will be able to tailor their parenting approach to suit the children’s needs with regard to expectation, discipline and encouragement (Center of Excellence 2-3).

Easy or flexible children are basically calm, sleep regularly, are happy, have regular eating habits, can adapt in a new environment with ease and are not easily upset (Oates, Andrew and Clare 172-173). Their easy traits create a need for parents to spare special periods to talk with the children about their hurts and frustrations because the child/ren will not instigate such a talk.

Children who are considered difficulty, feisty and active tend to be fussy during most times, will not sleep regularly and have very poor eating habits. They fear new people and situations, are easily upset by commotion and noise and respond to situations in an intense manner (Henig MM1). Children with such disorders ought to be provided with adequate room, where they can expend stored up frustrations and energy.

In addition, they require enough space so that they can exercise their freedom of choice. Cautious children are relatively fussy and inactive and are seen to react in a negative way, or withdraw from new situations.

However, their reactions become positive in a gradual process after continued exposure. Such a child should be placed on a routine program and should be given a lot of assurance as well. Adequate time is necessary for the child to adapt to new situations so that he or she can acquire independence that is necessary for him or her to unfold (Clakins, 1-6).

Temperaments are presumed to have relative stability since birth and are deemed as be enduring characteristics, which in reality can never be good or bad (Center of Excellence 2-3). The perception of these temperaments is what determines the perception by children of these temperaments as to whether they are bad or good.

Comprehending children’s temperaments is the most appropriate solution for parents rather than blaming themselves for their children’s normal temperaments. This understanding would enable parents to guide their children in the right way as they would learn to anticipate challenging situations that may present before their children (Oates, Andrew and Clare, 171-185).

When the environment, while taking into focus people’s expectations and demand, is compatible with a child’s temperament, then a goodness-of-fit is said to exist. Incompatibility exists when there is personality conflict. In early childhood, parents can cope with their children’s temperamental traits instead of opposing them. Later on when the children mature, parents can assist the children to adapt to the world by fitting in, in their temperamental traits (Howell 1-6).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Temperament in Child Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion A lot of children will possess some level of magnitude on various temperament traits. However, one trait will always be dominant. Negative labels such as lazy, cry baby or worrywart should not be used. The adult in a child’s life has a great influence on the development of the child’s temperaments. Therefore, adults should take up their parenting roles in an appropriate way that will positively guide the child’s natural style of reacting to the world.

Most scientists argue that temperament is associated with genetic and biological aspects despite the fact that environmental factors and maturations affect the way in which a child’s personality is expressed. The differences in child temperament are vital for family life as they govern the interactions that prevail in a family.

The goodness-of-fit is a critical determining factor of the relationship between a parent and his or her child. It determines the harmony between them. Temperament changes across the life cycle have been evident due to family environment and life experiences which influence one’s temperamental development process.

Early socialization of caregivers and their children and especially the use of the affective tone in these relationships have a very profound effect on the child’s developmental process. A caregiver influences a child’s developmental process by helping the child learn how to take charge of their behaviors and talk about their emotions. A child will develop more functional social and emotional interactions with his or her peers if a caregiver appropriately responds to a child’s emotional needs.

It is very important that a parent reacts to a child’s emotional upsets by acknowledging the child’s distress and comforting him or her rather than negating it. It is the interactions between caregivers and their children that affect how these children interact with others. A positive interaction with the caregiver will foster a positive interaction between the child and others, and the converse is also true.

The possession of temperaments by a child is a very normal process. However, the kind of temperament possessed is very important and a parent is the key determinant of this temperamental development process as he or she is the first person, who is in direct contact with the child.

Social and emotional readiness is equally important as it helps a child in making a successful transition through a kindergarten, early grades and later in life. Social competency and emotional readiness enable a child to achieve success in school as they are able to comprehend their own emotions and those of others. This way, they are able to relate well with others and understand what they want to achieve. Consequently, they are able to become successful in school and in later life years (Klein 552-556).


Concepts of the Role of Technology in Economic Development and the Process in Japan Term Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Technological efficiency

Research and development

Capital formation

Organizational technology

Legal frame work that support techno- economic environment


Reference List

Introduction Perhaps the key prerequisite of economic development of a country is the hopefulness of a country to access to the technological advancement and innovations that seek to adapt this technological knowledge to the needs of marketplace for economic gains.

Most of the economically developed economies mostly are technology influenced; thus, the role of technology in economic development of a nation cannot be ignored. Technology is an intangible body of knowledge by which humans modify nature for the purpose of production process for an economic development. Technological advancement of a country minimizes cost, increases production efficiency, and creates the capacity for better living standards for its people (Technically Speaking, 2010, Para. 1).

Economic development can be defined as an increase in the per capita income of a country where the spending of its per capita income is on consumer durables and products related to leisure activities as opposed to much spending on basic needs such as food. Hence, a country with high per capita income and spends more on basic needs cannot be described as an economically developed county.

A major component of economic development is the citizen’s involvement in economic development process to revolutionize the basic structure of the economy of their country. However, foreign investment is in general unavoidable, for the increase in the real per capita income to be said as an economic development, the citizens of that country must play a part in the production process itself other than just enjoying the economic benefits because of increased per capita income.

Source: Ministry of internal Affairs and communications

Japan being one of the developed economies, with a per capita income of above $10,000 in the year 1985, it is important to discuss the role technology has played in its economic development.

Although other sectors have also such as Agriculture and other service activities have played a key role as it can be shown in the figure below which shows the economic contribution of each economic activity in the year 2008. Technology has enhanced more product production through increased technological efficiency, capital formation, research and development, intellectual property rights and good organizational techniques.

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Technological efficiency Technology has played a key role in revolutionalizing Japan’s production efficiency in both mining and manufacturing sectors. Japan Production process is carried out with the help of machines to produce more of it products, but with the advanced technological efficient production of more and more of its products for both domestic and export has been realised , resulting to the increase in its Gross Nominal Product.

It’s continuous increase in efficient methods of producing new products in the market, thus raising its national income , has resulted to its sustained economic development. The growth in productivity has come from changing methods of production and increase in efficient use of its resources.

This is one of distinguishing important factor for Japan economic turnround during the industrial revolution as more efficient organisational and production techniques were establishment and the take-off of new innovations (Sahu, 2006, Para .3-19).

Research and development Technological advancement of research and development has contributed to economic development of Japan. Since technology is a lifecycle which after a certain period of time it loses the economic value, Japan has been in the forefront to replace its technology with the newer ones to increase its product production frontiers through investment in research and development.

However, research and development has not been a smooth process, it has taken time before certain innovations diffuse in its economy where the most important technology had a modest impact at its initial stages. The full economic development potential of a new technology development can only be realized after the capability of the technology has been researched and developed.

Japan used their technology themselves and as the technology became cheaper and widely diffused which later translated to a reduced resources cost. In an estimate, research and development in automotive industry resulted to Japan economic growth of more than 10 percent in the year 1950 to 1960 as shown below on the graph (Ministry of internal Affairs and communications, 2008, Para. 1-4).

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The application of new technological ideas for example increased efficiency of Japan manufacturing industries, along with the cost accounting represents a rebirth of a new knowledge of scientific management, which has marked an increased rate of technological revolution to reorganize the industry based on improved efficiency for economic growth (Jurica,