Urbanisation can be discussed as one of the main characteristics of the modern world influenced by the global forces and by the governments’ policies. If the role of urbanisation for developed countries is rather obvious, the effect of urbanisation on developing countries is the controversial question that needs to be discussed in detail. Thus, the essay aims to discuss potential socio-economic effects of urbanisation on the situation in developing countries.
Urbanisation can be defined as the significant growth of towns and cities in a certain country, which leads to changing the socio-economic situation within it. Although many researchers state that urbanisation does not provide the obvious positive effect on developing countries, the process of urbanisation can guarantee many potential socio-economic benefits for these countries because of changing the direction of the socio-economic development.
Rural territories do not provide the necessary resources for the significant economic development. That is why the developed countries characterised by the economic growth depend on the idea of urbanisation. As a result, to achieve the definite level of the economic development, it is necessary to accentuate the role of urbanisation in the process. Towns and cities in developing countries become the centres of the social and economic progress because of the concentration of the maximum of the necessary forces in urban territories.
Furthermore, urbanisation is the way to the further productive development of rural territories. The economic interactions between the urban and rural territories are a kind of investing into the progress of the rural areas. Thus, the interaction between “rural and urban areas is likely to increase over time and should be supported”. Rural territories traditionally develop depending on the progress of cities. That is why, the increase in cities can stimulate the positive changes in the rural areas of developing countries.
Nevertheless, developing countries are characterised by the uncontrolled urbanisation, which prevents cities from the economic growth and contributes to the urban poverty. However, poverty in cities can be overcome easier than in rural areas, and the perspectives for the economic development and for increasing incomes are greater in cities. The problem is only in the effectiveness of governing urban territories in the developing countries.
Thus, urbanisation can be discussed as the first step to the economic growth of developing countries. In spite of the developed biases, there are many potential socio-economic advantages of urbanisation for developing countries because of the process’s orientation to the progress and positive changes in economy.
Bibliography Hammond, R., The positive potential of urbanization, World Urbanization Prospects, USA, 2007.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nelson, A., Urbanisation, World Urbanization Prospects, USA, 2006.
Footnotes R. Hammond, The positive potential of urbanization, World Urbanization Prospects, USA, 2007, par. 2-3.
Hammond, par. 4.
A. Nelson, Urbanisation, World Urbanization Prospects, USA, 2006, par. 3.
Hammond, par. 6.
Ludwig Van Beethoven Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ludwig van Beethoven’s early life
How Beethoven established his career
Introduction Music refers to the arrangement of sounds in an artistic manner within a certain period. The music industry grew from monophonic in the Middle Ages to polyphonic common during the 9th century. It then developed to homophonic before developing to classical music in 18th century and eventually to romantic music in 19th century.
The 21st century music involved random noise and electronic sounds. Consequently, music composers have come up with their various compositions. Lonel power, Walter Frye, Henry Purcell, Mauro Giuliani, and Ludwig van Beethoven are amongst the famous artists of the world. With this highlight of the music industry and various composers, the paper provides a detailed research of Beethoven with the sole goal of showing how he established his career as a musician. However, the paper begins by a brief highlight of his early life
Ludwig van Beethoven’s early life Beethoven was born in a family that had music orientations. Beethoven’s grandfather Lodewijk Beethoven was a famous classical music artist. According to Cooper, Lodewijk was a musician who was employed at Elector of Cologne as a singer (407). In fact, Beethoven’s grandfather had grown in music ranks to become a music director.
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in a place called Bonn. His father Johann also worked at elector of Cologne court as a musician in the tenor divide. Cooper asserts that Johann was also a music teacher. Johann taught how to operate the piano and violin.
Beethoven’s mother was Magdalena Keverich. The actual date of Beethoven’s date of birth is not known. However, there exist records that Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. This information can be used to trace his date of birth to 16 December 1770 since children were baptized at the age of one day in that era. His biological father who was a musician initially taught Beethoven music.
However, he was a harsh teacher. In most instances, he forced his son Beethoven to learn music in tears. Other music teachers that made Beethoven a lead musician included Gilles, Tobias, and Rovantini. Beethoven had a music talent that was realized at a very tender age. His father Johann wanted to make Beethoven a leading example of gifted musicians in the country. He even went on to lie about the age of his son when he made his first public appearance. Beethoven made his first music performance at the age of seven.
According to Thayer et al, Beethoven began his music classes in 1779 in Bonn (67). His teacher at that time was Gottlob Neefe. Thayer et al. say that Gottlob was very influential to the music life of Beethoven (14). Gottlob taught Beethoven how to write and compose music. Thayer et al. posit that Gottlob helped Beethoven in writing his first music publication (56). Beethoven began working for the Electors court together with Neefe who was the deputy organist. Initially, Beethoven worked as an unpaid pianist in 1781.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was later employed in 1784. Beethoven made his first sonatas publications for Fredrick Maximilian who was the Elector in 1708. This Elector realized that Beethoven was talented in music at his early age. Thayer et al. affirm that Maximilian encouraged Beethoven to better his music talent and studies (32).
When leadership changed hands from Fredrick to Franz, various changes in the field of arts and education were witnessed. As a teenager, Beethoven was highly influenced by these dynamics. Since Neefe (his teacher) was a member of Illuminati, Beethoven also became a member.
According to Cooper, Neefe and other people that were close to Beethoven were members of order of Illuminati (15). He therefore became a role player in the freemasonry. After the death of his mother, Beethoven’s father became a deep alcoholic thus leaving Beethoven with the role of providing for his younger siblings.
In fact, Thayer et al. confirm that it was due to his father’s drunkenness that Beethoven went to court and obtained a court order to receive half of his father’s salary in order to enable him provide for his family (57). During this period, Beethoven worked in the Court and made friends with influential people. One of such friends was one of his financiers Ferdinand Waldstein (Thayer et al. 105).
How Beethoven established his career Beethoven’s music career began at a tender age of seven years when he did his first public performance. According to Cooper, Beethoven became an ally to Joseph Haydn when he stopped at Bonn in 1790 on his way to London (35). Due to this friendship, Beethoven got a scholarship to study in Vienna.
In 1792, Beethoven went to Vienna. Unfortunately, his father passed on at around the same time. While in Vienna, he was financed by Prince Joseph, Prince Karl, and Swieten (Cooper 53) to sharpen his music talent. In Vienna, Beethoven became famous for his ability to improvise music. It was also in Vienna that he studied how to play violin professionally under the instruction of Salieri. He leant Italian music and its composition.
By 1793, Beethoven had established his career as an expert in playing piano: a piano virtuoso. In fact, Cooper argues that, due to this expertise in playing piano, his publications of 1795 had a great effect (53). In 1795, Beethoven did his first public performance in Vienna. From this point, performances by Beethoven earned him a lot of profit. His first composition was dedicated to his Vienna patron Lichnowsky (the prince).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ludwig Van Beethoven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Between 1796 and 1800, Beethoven was able to compose six quartets that he published in the year 1801. At this point, people rated Beethoven as the third king of music after Mozat and Haydn due to his powerful composition. According to Cooper, Beethoven’s music became prominent due to its character, emotional depth, originality, level of ingenuity, and manipulation of tone (82). During this period, he composed the Septet that has been very popular in the world.
Although this composition was very popular during his lifetime, some critics observed that Beethoven disregarded the soloist hence making it unprofessional. Beethoven’s music has also been criticized of being more like the music composition of Mozart. His music career got another promotion in 1800 because of his overwhelming demand. This demand was especially coming from music publishers and patrons (Cooper 97).
At the height of his career, Beethoven taught a good number of famous students of music. For example, he taught Anna (a daughter to the countess of Hungary). He also taught Ferdinand Ries who later became a famous composer and writer. It is believed that the song “immortal beloved” that Beethoven did in 1812 was dedicated to Josephine after another man married her. However, in 1796, Beethoven began having a problem with his hearing ability.
This issue resulted from severe tinnitus that made him hard of hearing. After his hearing loss became profound, he stopped public performances. This situation happened when he failed to perform a piano concerto in 1811. Later on in 1827, Beethoven died in his bed due to a thunderstorm. His death has been attributed to alcoholism, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and lead poisoning. In 1862, his remains were exhumed for analysis.
Beethoven’s Character Beethoven grew up as a vibrant musician with a likeable behavior. The health problem that Beethoven suffered from greatly impacted on his character. Since Beethoven experienced deafness and abdominal pains as early as in his early twenties, his character was unstable to a certain extent. At is also argued that Beethoven contemplated suicide due to these problems. According to Cooper, some of Beethoven’s allies argued that he suffered from bipolar disorder.
However, Beethoven had a strong personality that kept him moving despite his health problems. Due to his appealing character and ability to make many friends, most people moved in to help him during his final days. For several months that Beethoven was bed ridden, he garnered much support from many people who had earlier recognized him as a figure whose work was worth emulating.
The other strong character of Beethoven was respect for the authority. In fact, in most instances, Beethoven would stop his performance when he noticed that his audience was not according him full attention (Cross and Ewen 43). This stance made his audience to have great discipline, which in turn contributed significantly towards their understanding and liking of Beethoven’s music.
The other character that was so eminent in the life of Beethoven is his outstanding capacity to do planning and organization. This was evident based on his refusal to perform when he was hurriedly invited to do so. According to him, it was uncouth to do any performance that could not appeal to the eyes of his audience due to lack of proper planning and organization. Therefore, he preferred missing opportunities than having them only to displease his viewers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ludwig Van Beethoven by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Beethoven also advocated for social coexistence between people. He composed many songs that he dedicated to various persons. This strategy portrayed his passion for peace and love within humanity. It is also worth noting that various people sponsored Beethoven in his pursuit for music education. Beethoven also loved to learn. He went in search for more education even when he knew that he was talented in music.
Beethoven’s Music Beethoven is a famous talented composer in the classical music world. He is among the great founders of classical music. Other founding talents include Brahms and Bach. These artists are the founders of the classical music in the world. In fact, Beethoven brought in the art of education in the classical music.
He made it possible for artists and fans of the classical music to seek more knowledge in the form of theory and practical skills. Beethoven played a great role in maintaining the classical music in the lead at the turn of the 18th century. He championed the change of traditional classical music to romanticism.
This kind of classical music became more appealing to the people hence making it a preference for them especially the youth. The music that Beethoven did was unique in style because Beethoven took his time to learn in addition to being talented in music composition. He spent quite a considerable part of his life learning how to play instruments like the piano, violin, and the flute. His music became more appealing due to the use of instruments.
Beethoven was also a good pianist. In fact, he was employed in the Electors House during his early years. His dedication to music was also demonstrated by his acceptance to work in the Electors court as a pianist without being paid. This gesture gave him an opportunity to learn from his teachers.
Beethoven also made many piano sonatas. He also made short compositions of classical music. According to Cross and Ewen, Beethoven’s music ran across various genres. In fact, in almost all of them, he came out outstanding. It is also worth noting that Beethoven’s music involved the use of instruments, which he also excellently played. Beethoven wrote orchestra music, symphonies, operas, chamber music, and soloist led songs.
Conclusion In conclusion, Beethoven was a great classical music composer and an artist. Beethoven came from a family that was rooted in music. Both his father and his mother were musicians. It was out of learning from his father and the teachings of local teachers that Beethoven learnt the art of music. Other volunteers also sponsored his career. Beethoven’s appealing personality made him shine in the music industry.
He was able to make great friendship with sponsors in an attempt to manage his music life. Though he suffered from hearing loss, he was able to maintain a stable character. Beethoven played and wrote classical music. He is also credited with overseeing the change of ancient classical music to the romanticism classical music. In his music, he also added the accompaniments that made it very outstanding in comparison with the traditional classical music.
Works Cited Cooper, Barry. Beethoven. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
Cross, Milton, and David Ewen. The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1953. Print.
Thayer, Wallen, Henry Krehbiel, Hermann Deiters, and Hugo Riemann. The life of Ludwig Van Beethoven vol1. London: The Beethoven Association, 1921. Print.
Comparison of Two Sequences Essay college essay help near me
The sequences taken from the films To Live and The Road Home can present a different use of formal elements; however, one can argue that both of them eloquently portray the despair of women who has lost people extremely dear to her.
This paper is aimed at discussing and comparing the way in which different techniques are used by film-directors in effort to highlight the experiences of these characters. Close attention will be paid to such aspects as non-diegetic sounds, the movement of camera, and its distance since they help the authors to explore the feelings and emotions of people. They can be regarded as tools that evoke the empathy of a viewer. These are the main issues that should be examined in greater detail.
One of the main similarities that can be identified is the use of non-diegetic sounds that play an important part in both movies. They are supposed to intensify the visual effect of these sequences. The source of these sounds cannot be identified by the viewer and it cannot be attributed to any physical phenomenon that can be observed in the movie.
Overall, they are supposed to highlight the emotions experienced by the female characters who have to accept the idea that their beloved ones can never be returned. They have to reconcile themselves with this idea. This argument is particularly applicable to the final shots in the sequence from the movie To Live. It seems that music prompts the viewers to feel even deeper compassion for a mother whose child passed away. The music reminds that the woman comes to the grave of her son and brings dumplings.
This is one of the details that produce a strong impression on every person who watches this film. Similar approach can be observed in the film the Road Home. In this case, non-diegetic sounds are essential for demonstrating the despondency of a woman who has to be departed by the man whom she loves. Close attention should be paid to the scene when she stumbles down and understands that her chase was futile. This is one of the similarities that can be identified in these sequences.
Additionally, one should speak about the functioning of the camera, especially its distance. It is possible to choose those cases, when the directors prefer to take close and straight-on shots in order to emphasize the feeling of loss that the female characters had to overcome. This technique is particular useful when the director wants to show the facial expression of a person.
It is possible to argue that in each of these sequences both music and camera distance are supposed to show the emotional distress that the female characters try to overcome. These are the main similarities that can be identified. The film-makers apply these techniques to make the scene much more vivid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, there are certain differences that should be taken into consideration by the viewers. One can speak about the movement of camera in these sequences. One can say that the authors prefer to move the camera in different ways. For instance, one should mention that in the movie The Road Home the director decides to rely on tracking shots that are done with the help of a camera dolly.
This technique is particularly suitable in those cases when one has to depict moving objects. It seems that this technique is quite justified because in this way the film-makers were able to illustrate the desperate effort of a girl who tries to catch up with her beloved. Moreover, the viewers can look at this character from different angles.
Furthermore, this method makes the sequence more dynamic. This is one of the main distinctions that can be identified. In contrast, the movie To Live is based on a different technique. The cameraman focuses on the woman who mourns the loss of her son. This sequence consists of rather long shots that can last for approximately ten seconds. Furthermore, the camera is almost not moved in any way.
Additionally, when a new shot is taken, the cameraman takes a sufficient amount of time to show the facial expressions of the characters and their jestures. Overall, these examples suggest that formal elements can help film-makers express very complex ideas. Additionally, one can say that by paying more attention to formal elements, viewers can gain a better understanding of these movies and the ideas that the authors attempted to express.
The movies discussed in this paper can differ dramatically in terms of plot, genre, or cinematographic techniques. Nevertheless, each of these films shows that cinematography can explore the experiences of people who have to struggle with emotional distress. The sequences which were analyzed have several similarities.
For example, one can say that music and camera distances assist the film-makers in portraying the emotions and feeling of different characters. In turn, the movement of camera is one of the differences that can be identified in these sequences.
Ethics in Computer Hacking Essay essay help online: essay help online
According to hackers, hacking is the art of checking anomalies within a network or website or computer system for points of entry, to exploit it to the hacker’s advantage. Ethics is the moral conduct of an individual, the conscience to judge between right and wrong. Hacking by no means follows ethics; the infiltration is to the benefit of hacker and loss of users of computer system, network or website. (Erickson 1-3)
Ian Murphy was the first hacker convict. In 1981, Ian Murphy under the pseudonym Captain Zap, hacked the AT
Police Minority Killings Essay argumentative essay help
A prejudice is a personal bias against an individual. While everybody has a freedom of expression, when a prejudice leads to a criminal activity, it becomes a legally defined as a hate crime. It is of significance to differentiate a hate crime from other criminal activities due to the fact a hate crime has a life of its own as it intends to create fear among those facing prejudice.
Hate crime is a criminal activity, with a prejudice motivation. Prejudice exists between race, class, disability and sex orientation among other forms. Hate crime operates along these conflict lines. Hate crimes are criminal offence inspired by existing (In the Shadows of The War on Terror: Persistent Police Brutality And Abuse Of People of Colour In The United States 2007).
Police brutality in the USA is historical from brutality against Native Americans slaves, black racism and recently, Muslim profiling. The racial profiling and abuse at the police force has been at the heart of killings of minorities in America. With the police force behind its officers in face of police brutality, police involved in hate crime cases face reduced sentences and mostly get their jobs back after cases brought against them (Community Relations Service U.S. Department of Justice 1999).
Hate crimes must meet some prerequisites in order to be classified as such. The first prerequisite is that the hate crime is a criminal activity, which has a legal recognition as a criminal activity. Secondly, it should have a prejudice motivation. The murder of Jonny Gammage, a Black-American, at the hands of police did satisfy these prerequisites (Levinand and McDevit 2008).
Jonny Gammage, on October 12, 1995, was driving irresponsibly leading to police pulling him over. What had been a normal arrest for driving haphazardly took a turn for the worse when he died for resisting arrest. The events on that given day, took place as follows. After Jonny came to a halt, the arresting police gave an instruction to alight the car he was driving, a Jaguar Sedan. Although resisting, he did as asked and alighted with a phone in hand.
The police had a mistaken assumption that the phone was a gun and with aggression, they pounced on him. It is at this moment that he turned violent; therefore, to arrest him, police retaliated with excessive force among them, John Voltas who was the first to hit him. After they were unable to restrain him on the pavement, Voltas along with fellow police officers continued attacking him.
This was the view of the police of the occurrence of events on the fateful day, but it is far from the truth. Jonny drove a Jaguar Sedan, by any means a reasonably expensive car. What was unexpected, was a driver of such a car slowing as they approached a police car on standby at the roadside and accelerating thereafter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was suspicious, which prompted the police officer to follow the car. Lieutenant Milton Mullholland requested back up of John Voltas. Jonny was instructed to exit the car, which he did and the items he was holding fell after being hit by a torchlight. Jonny hit the torchlight, which Voltas responded by with help of Mullholland to wrestle him to the ground. He was sat on as he was being hit by torchlight after 7 minutes he was dead (CNN 1996).
The four arresting police were all white. The court jury that participated in the acquitting charges of manslaughter by Voltas and his team was all white. Voltas eventually got back from his suspension to go back to his job. The violence meted against Jonny Gammage when it went to court in 1996, the Brentwood police force was fully behind their fellow police officers.
The police force was at trial and the evaluation of facts impartially was out of question. It was, after all, outstanding police officers who just had a slight blot in their career; which they would learn from (John Volta’s words). The African American Coalition of Justice was at hand with fellow African Americans in protesting the verdict during the trial but to no avail.
References Levinand, J.,
Marketing: The Product and the Factors That Enhance Its Popularity. Median Income, the Associated Traits and the Relevance to the Product Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction: Skechers’ Shape Up and its Current Rates Promoting sportswear is not an easy task; even though sport has become an integral part of many people, a great chunk of the population still considers sport as something to be taken professionally. Therefore, promoting sportswear is quite a complicated task; however, with a careful marketing plan that involves the analysis of the related factors, one can possibly come up with a marketing solution for such a brand as Skechers’ Shape Up (Skechers, 2012).
Customers’ Age and the Existing Marketing Opportunities
When considering the target audience among which Shape Up is bound to enjoy the highest popularity, one should sort the potential customers according to their age. The given solution seems most reasonable, since it would be reasonable to suggest that the younger people are, the more actively they take up sports. However, according to the existing evidence, sport has recently become more popular among people over 50, which is also to be remembered for developing a marketing campaign.
Age and the Related Issues: The Appropriate Ways of Shaping up
Even though age is of great importance for making the list of possible customers, it should be also mentioned that personal characteristics also play great role in shaping people’s attitude towards sport and sportswear. When defining the best ways to promote such sportswear as Shape Up to different target audience, not only age, but also possible social and personal issues must be recognized.
Lifestyle traits and the customers’ age: it is hard to keep fit
When splitting the customers into age groups, one might consider lifestyle traits as a noteworthy issue. While some people may be inactive by the time when they reach their thirties because of their lifestyle, others, who prefer more active way of life, remain physically active till they are in their late 60ies (Finch, 1997).
Shaping up and demographics: sports and the city
Demographics is another important issue to consider. As for the chosen city, its population rates are rather low (21,177 people). Studies show that in the areas with low density of population, people are more apt to taking up sports (Arditti, 2012). Therefore, the age statistics should be related to the demographics when promoting Shade Up.
Concerning the specifics of personality
The last, but definitely not the least, personality plays a great role in people’s attitude towards sports. Unfortunately, it seems hardly possible to find a way to split the customers into groups according to their personality types. However, it is possible to adapt the future marketing strategy to suit all four personality types. For example, it will be a good idea to come up with four different legends behind the brad for four different personality types (melancholic, choleric, sanguine and phlegmatic ones).
Conclusion: There Is Still a Long Way to Go
Therefore, it is clear that, to promote Skechers’ Shape Up in the given area, it is necessary to take careful account of the customer’s age in the first place. The classification, however, should not be restricted to splitting the customers into age groups solely – it is also necessary to take account of such important factors as health state, occupation and interests. Once the Skechers learn to incorporate all these factors into their marketing strategy, Shape Up will become a highly popular and recognizable brand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference List Arditti, D. (2012). Dr. “Natural Causes” Patel struck off. Retrieved from http://www.voleospeed.co.uk/2012_08_01_archive.html
Finch, H. (1997). Physical activity “at our age.” Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/
Skechers (2012). Shade-ups. Retrieved from https://www.skechers.com/en-us/
Literature Analysis on “Girl” Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The narrative “Girl” is a piece written by Jamaica Kincaid concerning a mother‘s attempt to teach her daughter about a woman’s role in society. The author’s intentions are evident through her feminist activities, familial relationship as well as the structure of the narrative. This short story is a feminist critique of the contradictions and tensions inherent in womanhood development; it sets out to show how women perpetuate gender inequality.
Analysis The author –Jamaica Kincaid – is an immigrant from the West Indies who entered the United States in her teens. She had a poor relationship with her mother and despised the societal structures that caused this rift. As an only child, Kincaid enjoyed the love and attention of her mother, but this changed dramatically when three brothers came into the picture.
The mother redirected all her affections to the boys and ignored her daughter merely because she was female. It is likely that this experience affected how the author perceived gender subjugation. While the Caribbean islands were immensely patriarchal, it was the woman who was used as a tool to perpetuate oppression against her own kind (Bailey 111).
Kincaid’s choice of structure is a hint on this theme of female disempowerment by women. First, the narrative is lengthy and fluid; it appears like a monologue although the daughter responds once in a while. Kincaid wrote her piece in such a manner in order to demonstrate that it was a lecture.
Instructions are often one sided, long and do not consider the view point of the recipient. At one point, she states that “always eat your food in such a way that it won’t turn someone else’s stomach;” (Kincaid 350). In this case, the mother rants continuously without pausing or asking for her daughter’s feedback.
When the girl tries to ask a question about something, the latter immediately victimizes the girls and makes it look like she is at fault. For instance, she tells the girl how to test bread in order to ascertain that it is fine. The girl asks what to do if the seller won’t let her touch it. Her mother asks her why she would have a character that is not worthy of the seller’s trust: “you mean to say that after all you are really going to be the kind of woman the baker won’t let near the bread?” (Kincaid 351).
The author wanted to show how gender was constructed in this setting. Women were instruments of gender inequality because they did not even give a voice to one another. Patriarchal societies often prevent women from talking back to men or having an opinion. Sadly, this starts with women’s interaction with each other as seen through the condescension and ridicule of the mother in the story.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is particularly interesting that the narrative contains no real male character. The mother only refers to men in general and her husband in particular. It is likely that Jamaican Kincaid wanted to emphasize women’s role in gender inequalities within her society.
One can deduce Kincaid’s inclinations from her background as an activist. Jamaica has started a group that supports President Obama because he believes in women’s reproductive right to choose. Such leanings form a basis for her rejection of gender instructions and stereotypes about women in the narrative.
Conclusion Women in the narrative could not enjoy the freedoms that men did. Someone had to transmit these expectations to younger generations; Caribbean societies chose women as their tools. They taught young girls about subservience, passivity and domesticity. This theme is evident from the author’s work as a feminist activist and her relationship with her mother.
Works Cited Bailey, Carol. “Performance and the gendered body in Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl” and Oonya Kempadoo’s Buxton Spice.” Meridians 10.2(2010): 106-123. Print.
Kincaid, Jamaica. “Girl.” Fiction: A pocket Anthology. Ed. R. Gwynn. NY: Pearson Education, 2011. 349-351. Print.
Cultural differences in arranged marriages Essay college admissions essay help
Some cultures across the world have been practicing arranged marriages for several decades. Even in the modern age, some communities are still cherishing this tradition. All the successful marriages arranged by parents largely depend on the personality of the individuals who are getting married.
There are many challenges faced by couples who are forced into marriages. Divakaruni (2) is quite categorical that there are some forced marriages that work in spite of the prevailing cultural differences. The arranged marriage of Jiang is a typical example of such unions. Arranging a marriage is not a smooth process at all. Both parents have to consider quite a number of factors before choosing a lady that they want their son to marry.
Arranged marriages are often done between members of the same caste. This may be a limitation depending on the geographical location of the two parties. For instance, the Hindus and Indian communities often organize marriages for their children. Before bringing the couples together, their differences have to be harmonized. This is done by assessing the differences and similarities between the two families and confirming that the two can match each other in a lasting relationship.
The parents of the couple adequately investigate the other family. This ensures that the lady is going to be married to a reputable family and that the son is from a respected family as well. All these investigations are done in a process called arranged marriage. All the expenses of the marriage are taken care of by the parents of the couple.
The reason why arranged marriages are encouraged among the Hindus is that there is utmost respect compared to marriages arranged and planned by the couples themselves.
The elders often claim that they are not pleased with marriages embedded on love. Most women in this case are usually not worried about the men as their future husbands. They trust that the parents will choose the best match for them. Despite the differences that are likely to be witnessed, arranged marriages still work in many societies.
Most cultures in the western world allow unmarried couples to look for their own marital partners. This ensures that the couples fully understand each other and are ready to live together in lifetime bondage. It reduces the risks of divorce or misunderstandings within a marital set up.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the Indians believe that marriages based on love are bound to fail. Since the arranged marriages are between people of the same caste, cultural practices are the same. This helps in fighting any cultural differences and problems that may crop up during the marital union.
Research studies indicate that most of the arranged marriages are less likely to fail compared to love marriages. This is due to the fact that most divorce cases are often common among couples who were married based on love for each other. Before getting married in the arranged mode, the young couples have to be obedient and marry the partners that their parents have chosen for them without complaining.
The only problem that is likely to occur is in cases when the two fail to fall in love with each other. When a marriage is arranged, the couples do not know each other, neither they are familiar with their likes and dislikes. This may be one of the major causes of disagreements between such couples when they will finally be living together. However, differences may be settled by the fact that they believe that marriage is all about commitment but not love for each other. Feelings towards their partners develop as life progresses.
The latter is the key ingredient towards their survival. The partners have a reason to hold on to the marriage and stay together. Another challenge posed by arranged marriages is the aspect of dependency. When the marriage partners have been sought by the parents on behalf of the partners, they are more unlikely to make decisions on their own.
The couples do not trust in their abilities. As a result, they may regularly go back to their parents to seek advice even in regards to less complicated matters. If problems and disagreements between the couple arise, they put the blame on their parents for choosing bad partners for them. It is not surprising for a couple to stay together in a marriage where emotions towards the other fail to grow because love and feelings take the second position in this kind of marriage.
When parents arrange a marriage for their children, chances of interfering with the relationship are high. When problems in the arranged marriages occur and the couples notify their parents, the parents solve the problems in the absence of the couple. This might bring additional challenges to the relationship (Allerndorf and Dirgha 6).
According to Xiaohe and King (2), cultural differences are inevitable. However, arranged marriages have their benefits. The parents of the couples get a partner from a family that is financially well off. This provides financial security since wealth and property are in abundance in the family.
We will write a custom Essay on Cultural differences in arranged marriages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arranged marriages also help in keeping culture alive. Mrs. Pritchett is one of the characters who is not happy at all with her arranged marriage. She complains that her husband has completely failed to demonstrate any love in their union (Divakaruni 3). Their marriage is indeed troubled.
When couples from the same cultural and religious backgrounds marry each other, they extend the same cultural and religious values to their families. Most of the young women who are married through the arranged marriages are in most cases considered to be sexually pure since culture insists on the importance of abstinence and preserving personal respect for their future husbands. This offers a viable solution to problems that are usually brought about by relationships prior to marriage.
Works Cited Allerndorf, Keera and Ghimire Dirgha. Determinants of marital quality in an arranged marriage society. 2012. Web.
Divakaruni, Chitra. One Amazing Thing. New Delhi: Hyperion, 2010. Print.
Xiaohe Xu and Martin King. Love Matches and Arranged Marriages: A Chinese Replication. Journal of Marriage and Family 52 (1990): 709-722. Print.
Individualism vs. Collectivism Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction This paper discusses the ideals of individualism and collectivism. There exist cultural disparities in social behavior caused by ideals of collectivism and individualism. Individualism is the notion that life is individualistic and thus, everyone has a right to live as he pleases (Sampson, 2001).
This ideal also holds that a person ought to act on his individual opinions, pursue the values of his preference as well as utilize and maintain the creation of his effort. Besides, it is the thought that the person is an end to himself, independent and the basic component of moral concern (Kim, 1994). This represents the principle that Americans expressed and endeavored to launch when they formed the Constitution that safeguards a person’s rights to freedom, rights to live, right to own possessions, as well as the individual quest for happiness.
On the other hand, collectivism is the thought that a person’s life belongs to the entire community and that he does not possess any rights (Kim, 1994). Rather, the idea holds that an individual should forfeit his goals and values for the good of the larger group.
From the perspective of collectivism, the society forms the fundamental element of moral concern, and a person has to serve the group to get value (Kim, 1994). In other words, the only rights that an individual possesses are those that the society bestows. From when a person is born to the day of his demise, the community allows him certain rights and denies him others. This ideal values the welfare, preservation and happiness of the entire community.
Collectivism and individualism have a strong attachment to the society and thus, they shape our identities and behavior. The two ideals shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as attribution.
Normally, intellectuals use individualist behaviors to describe people in Western parts of the world, including North America and Western Europe, while they use collectivism to describe people from other parts of the world such as Africa, South American, and Asia.
The majority of Europeans and North Americans have a sovereign perception of the self as a unit that is self-sufficient, unique, independent and gifted with exclusive characters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in countries like Africa, Asia and Latin America, citizens embrace a mutually dependent perception of the self as a component of a bigger social system that comprises the family, colleagues as well as others to whom we have social attachments. As per se, Americans are more apt to articulate ego-focused sentiments such as pride and resentment. Conversely, Japanese who are collectivist often announce feelings of gratitude to somebody, familiarity to somebody and association with someone.
Resolving the Conflict between Individualism and Collectivism The issue of individualism vs. collectivism is a source of main conflict in America. American scholars and politicians seek to know with certainty whether an individual has total rights over his life, or whether individuals belong to societies, from where they should derive their moral values.
Those who support individualism use ideas of metaphysics, to support their claims. They argue that people that we see in the environment exit as entities and not groups. While they recognize that people may be in groups, they say that we see indivisible beings that have their own bodies’ minds and life. In their interpretation, groups are just individuals who gather for their self-interests. They assert that the fact that people exist as entity beings is an observable truth that does not need debate.
Individualism, Collectivism and Culture Several factors determine whether a culture assumes the collectivist or individualistic nature. The first is the wealth of society. As citizens start to thrive, they become economically independent from each other, and this also encourages social independence, mobility in addition to a focus on individual and not collective ends.
The second factor is the complexity of society. People exist in more multifaceted modern societies, as opposed to the nomads, they get more groups to relate to, and this makes them to have a larger focus on individual rather than collective goals, because they have less loyalty to these groups.
Another factor is heterogeneity. Homogeneous or tight societies are apt to be rigid and intolerant of those who behave in unacceptable ways. Factors that characterize such communities include shared religion, language and societal principles. Heterogeneous societies, which have many cultures coexisting together, tend to be more tolerant, creating room for further individual expression.
Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment. Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, artwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group. It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism.
We will write a custom Assessment on Individualism vs. Collectivism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Therefore, collective reprimands exist to punish the affluent. Such reprimands take the form of social exclusion, loss of status, or even violence. For instance, communities have often used witchcraft allegations to punish gluttony and covetousness in addition to ambitions to travel to other areas.
At the rear of these reprimands is the fear that the connectedness of the society will be destabilized and that a person who seems more flourishing will depart the community or will not reallocate any extra products, or food. In most African communities, people with huge savings tend to keep this as a secret from other community members at all costs, for fear of retribution.
Measures of Collectivism and Individualism Hofstede (1980) came up with a conventional measure of collectivism and individualism. He utilized studies of IBM workers in thirty countries to draw conclusions. His idea was to study people with equal jobs in diverse nations in the same firm in an attempt to gauge cultural disparities. To evade cultural prejudice in the framing of questions, a team of English and native language speakers participated in the interpretation of the survey into native languages.
Recently, Hofstede’s gauge of individualism extends to about 80 nations. The gauge of individualism in other methods other than Hofstede’s index utilizes a wide selection of survey queries to create cultural standards. To sum up construct indices and information, they use factor analysis.
The index of individualism, in Hofstede’s study, is the primary factor in queries concerning the significance of autonomy, personal time, as well as fascinating and satisfying work. This factor loads negatively on significance of collaboration, associations with seniors as well as harmony and positively on valuing accomplishment, personal liberty, prospects, recognition and progression.
Discrepancies of Individualism and Collectivism among Persons Attitudes towards collectivist and individualist ideals are not mutually exclusive. For instance, they can exist together on the personal level, since people have both sovereign and co-dependent attitudes. Besides, collectivist and individualist approaches can be set off as a function of social associations and communal perspectives. Thus, we can say, individualist associations are regular with a number of people or in certain circumstances such as in business dealings, while with others the association is collectivist, such as with relatives.
There exists variation in collectivist and individualist attitudes in diverse forms of associations for instance, with a parent, fiancée, neighbor, or colleague. Thus, people belong to certain groupings of collectivist and individualist attitudes.
Development of Individualism and Collectivism among different Countries Americans perceive individualism as a good thing. Nevertheless, the term individualism seems to have its origin remote to the North American sphere, specifically in the French Revolution. It seems that America used individualism to portray the negative effect of personal rights on the interests of the commonwealth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Individualism vs. Collectivism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The growing surge of the individual rights group was apprehensive. People thought that individualism would quickly make the society fall apart into the power of individualism (Burke, 1973). From this perspective, individualism portrays a worldview opposed to society and communal social organization.
In fact, there is an extensive Western custom of differentiating collective and individual spotlights. For instance, Emile Durkheim utilized the words mechanical and organic cohesion to compare the provisional associations formed in multifaceted communities among different others.
From this perspective, organic solidarity describes a personal focus and the lasting bonds created among parallel others in traditional communities. Mechanical solidarity, on the other hand, is the communal focus. In addition, Weber (1930) differentiated Protestantism with Catholicism to show the difference between individualistic and collectivists. Catholicism believes in collectivism, while Protestantism believes in individualism.
He explained how Protestantism promoted self-reliance in addition to personal interests, while Catholicism supported lasting and hierarchical associations. Weber’s explanation on collectivism and individualism resembles the relationship between the collective rural villages and the individualistic urban societies.
For the last 20 years, the notion of differentiating communities depending on dissimilarities in individualism has augmented in status, in a big proportion due to the very prominent work of Hofstede. Hofstede (1980) distinguished individualism in countries from masculinity, power distance and uncertainty avoidance.
In his descriptions, the particular questions utilized to evaluate individualism centered on the place of work, differentiating the level that employees esteemed individual time and preference with the level they esteemed career trainings and job security. During the Study, Hofstede (1980) assessed likely experiences and inferences of these job-related aspects for communities.
While he was not the first social scholar to center unequivocally on culture, Hofstede’s concepts were significant since they prearranged cultural diversities into distinct patterns, which eased comparative study and instigated a swiftly growing organization of cultural and inter-cultural exploration in the following 20 years.
Typically, researchers depict collectivism as the opposite of individualism, particularly when differentiating East Asian cultural structures and European American (Chan, 1994).
Researchers in social science believe that individualism is more widespread in developed Western societies than other traditional communities in emerging nations are. The process of civic liberation and Protestantism in Western democracies brought social and public structures that supported the position of personal freedom, and self-actualization and individual preference (Sampson, 2001).
Scholars believe that these practices resulted in a Western civilizing center on individualism that is further outstanding in nations and cultural societies with a Protestant legacy. They also relate the thought of Western individualism to both in country and cross-regional relationships of ethnic societies with diverse cultural legacies.
Therefore, in America, it is usually understood that European Americans are less in collectivism and much into individualism than other people in ethnic minority groups elsewhere. Overall, present hypothesis in cultural psychology depicts the most individualistic group to be European Americans. The first thought that comes into one’s mind when dealing with European Americans is their individualistic nature. Since 1835, Americans have been individualistic.
Individualism in America relates to restricted government, as well as equality and individual freedoms. American individualism is also associated with the American frontiers, the Puritans and the origin of their market economy.
Individualism in America For a long time, Americans have taken liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans are known to carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that they are individually responsible for their destiny.
In fact, contemporary American cultural idols maintain to express their faith in individualism. Individual privacy as well as personal rights and liberties are celebrated. Besides, independence and individual happiness are highly esteemed.
The truth is that every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001). Besides, Americans perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. Nevertheless, despite the apparent consent that European Americans are the model that depicts individualism, there is no logical prove of the principal postulation that European Americans act, or are more individualistic than other societies.
Besides, there exists an obvious tension between the supposition that European Americans are exclusively low in collectivism and more inclined to individualism. Another area of contention is the supposition that the psychological frames built within the cultural ideals of attribution, self-concept and associations are collective frameworks and not just structures resulting from and pertinent to an individualistic perspective.
According to Baumeister (1998), recent American psychological inquiry is mainly focused on an individualistic perspective and may not essentially act as a common form of human behavior to the degree that other individuals or states of the globe are stridently dissimilar from Americans in collectivism and individualism. For instance, focus on self-esteem and the principle that achievement of personal happiness is a fundamental motivational force acts as a guide to explorations on self-concept.
Similarly, construal of cognitive processes and individual perceptions happens with regard to even traits, while equity is the foundation for flourishing relationships (Triandis, 1995). Such models of research can only be in shape with individualistic, but not collectivistic, ideals of the world. According to Triandis (1995), it is true that there exists disparities in individualism and the power of cultural structures is evident for the spheres of acknowledgment and relationality than all other areas.
Psychological Consequences of Individualism According to Triandis (1995), it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to self-concept, relationality and attribution. First, self-concept makes individualists to focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self. In addition, self-concept makes individualists to feel good, to strive for individual success, and hold many unique individual views and attitudes. As per se, abstract characteristics, and not communal, descriptors are central to self-conceptualization
Moreover, it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to well-being. Individualism calls for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Individualists view these two aspects as vital sources of life satisfaction and well-being.
Furthermore, individualism calls for a personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since the cause of the problems or issues is perceived as an entity. Therefore, individualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances, or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is not connected to the social context.
Lastly, the effects of individualism on relationships are quite tentative. People need relationships and affiliations to groups to achieve self-relevant ends, although relationships are expensive to sustain. Scholars imagine that individualists use equity standards to poise benefits and costs associated with relationships (Kim, 1994).
They postulate that people step out of relationships when the costs exceed benefits and join new relationships that may lead to achievement of personal goals. Thus, theorists suppose that individualists form temporary relationships and group affiliations (Kim, 1994).
Psychological Consequences of Collectivism A key component of collectivism is the supposition that groups collectivism aims at keeping members of the communal system leaning toward in-groups and afar from out-group. In this case, in-groups include the clan, family, as well as ethnic and religious groups. According to Triandis (1995), collectivism is a varied construct, bringing together culturally dissimilar foci on diverse types and stages of reference groups. Thus, collectivism can denote a wide range of attitudes, values and actions than individualism.
While at times seen as plain opposites, it is possibly more precise to conceptualize collectivism and individualism and as concepts that vary in the issues, they make prominent.
Sampson (2001) explains that collectivism is found in communal societies typified by disseminate and mutual duties as well as prospects deriving from attributed statuses. In such societies, social components with similar objectives and values are centralized. The individual is just a part of the social, making the group that the person lives in the main component of focus.
It is easy to identify possible psychological effects of collectivism. Some of these effects relate to welfare, self-concept, attribution and association. First, with reference to the self, collectivism denotes that belonging to a certain group is an essential feature of identity. On the same note, collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivism, for instance, keeping harmonious interactions and sacrificing for the ordinary good of other members.
Second, with reference to emotional expression and welfare, collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to failure in those areas. Besides, collectivists call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions.
Third, with reference to decisions, attributions and causal thinking, collectivism calls for consideration of the social environment, situational restraints, as well as social responsibilities. Collectivism contextualizes meaning and the memory of collectivists contains details that are richly rooted.
Finally, with reference to relationships, collectivism calls for significant group memberships. Every member in a collective society must belong to a certain group. Members within the groups have certain limitations. In addition, exchanges inside the groups should follow the principles of generosity and equality.
Case study of China China is a country that has had ideological evolution from a more collectivist society to a more individualistic society. China now embraces capitalism in its economy as opposed to socialism. Capitalists promote individualism (Weber, 1930). They believe that there is always a reward for individual effort and these rewards benefit an individual. On the contrary, socialists promote the well-being if the group rather than the individual.
For a long time, China was a socialist economy. However, China experienced economic transformation in the last two decades and it transformed to a capitalist society. While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) goes on with its activities in the disguise of socialism, it should continue to turn away the surfacing of values like individualism, whose affiliation is in developed, Western democracies such as America.
We all know that China is slowly embracing some aspects of individualism, although CPP does not announce it loudly. Nevertheless, this transformation to an individualistic society has led to realization that each citizen has some personal responsibility for his or her failure and achievements.
Conclusion In conclusion, collectivism and individualism are cultural aspects that have a strong attachment to the society. Both aspects shape our identities and behavior. They also shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as attribution. Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment.
Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, artwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group.
It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism. Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Americans, on the other hand, embrace individualism. Every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001).
They perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. In fact, Americans take liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that they are individually responsible for their destiny.
Collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivists. Collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to a failure in those areas. They also call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions. On the other hand, individualists focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self.
They call for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Furthermore, individualists call for personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since individualism treats causes of the problem or issues as an entity. Therefore, individualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is separate from the social context. Therefore, both collectivism and individualism shape our identities and behavior.
References Baumeister, R. (1998). The self. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske,
Picasso’s Blue Period Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The famous Picasso’s Blue Period was the name used to explain the painted works of art that were done using blue color. These paintings were mainly famous from 1901 to 1904. This was a significant period in poetry and art because it marked a building block of a new era in art (Ravin, 2004).
The artist by the name Pablo Picasso was one of the ancient pioneers of such modern paintings. It is the main reason why the period was named after him. The blue period is the duration when Picasso illustrated his lowest moments in life. Most of his inspirations were from Spain, but the drawings were done in Barcelona and at times in Paris. The great works of Picasso, despite the blue period, are still felt to date.
Ravin (2004) adds that marketing his arts was a major challenge for the first time until a time when he attended several exhibitions in Britain and gained outstanding medals leading to his fame. The exact time of the day that the blue period began has never been known.
Most researchers argue that it was a time during the spring season in 1901. He was praised for the different styles that he had as well as the different shades of blue that he artistically applied to make the paintings attractive. During this period, there were few artists. However, Pablo emerged the best. The artist was prominent and made perfect painting when he was as young as twenty years. He made a lot of money when his painting career was still on.
The Picasso’s blue period was a time of personal expression and emotion. This happened at a time when one of the artist’s greatest friends decided to commit suicide due to frustrations in life. This was a tough time for Picasso but the artist soon recovered from the trauma that had left him seriously depressed.
He got several topics and issues to base his paintings on. He made several paintings that showed resentment and painted them using a gloomy blue color. The different shades that he used brought out mood and expression of feelings that clouded the region during that particular time. This was one of the blue times that the artist’s reports faced (Ravin, 2004).
In the tenth month of the year 1900, Picasso together with a close friend relocated to Paris. They settled in a residential area secured for artists and researchers. He went through several moments of sadness that formed a strong basis for more paintings. For instance, he faced dire poverty in the early times after settling in Paris.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, the fact that most of his paintings reflected his blue moments, these themes discouraged potential shoppers from buying the paintings. This was another contribution to his poor living standards. Paris remained a favorite place for his artistic works. However, the artist continually went to Barcelona until 1904 when he made Paris his permanent residence (Jansen, 2009). His friend lived most of his life in Paris as well. His friend (Casagemas) had also made several paintings featuring important aspects of the artist’s life.
These were paintings depicting the pain that Picasso went through after the loss of his great friend. These pictures were also constituted in the blue period despite the fact that the blue shade that Casagemas used was bright and did not bring out clearly the sorrow that Picasso had gone through. In one of the paintings, Casagemas had shown some part of a burial while the other one was a marriage ceremony.
The two contradicting events were explained very well with the use of light blue and dark blue colors respectively. The paintings were collectively called evocation, the burial of Casagemas. Picasso used to describe the blue period evolved between love, prostitutes, beggars and drunkards. Visiting different regions in Spain and the self murder of his great friends were top on his list of themes. Among the saddening moments that colored the blue period were the deaths of his two greatest friends (Jansen, 2009).
Casagemas took his life away by shooting himself to death. This happened after a woman he really adored rejected his proposal. The proposal was made in a cafeteria in Paris. After this occurence, Picasso added another series of pictures to his gallery. He was not in Paris when Casagemas took away his life.
Upon returning, the news was devastating and he spent his mourning period in one of the Casagemas studios. During this time, his painting work did not come to a halt at all. He prepared great paintings that were to be displayed in an exhibition that was to be held later in Vollard. Picasso felt very lonely during that period of mourning and the paintings that he did during that time depicted sorrow.
He painted them using bright blue color. One of the paintings was that of his friend Casagemas in his coffin. According to Jansen (2009), this was in the year 1901 and it is a period when he went into deep depression. People were not ready to hang gloomy pictures in their homes. Hence, it led to poor sales of the paintings. The main drawing that Picasso made was of Casagemas standing next to a lovely lady and a woman who held a child in her arms, probably the child’s mother.
Jansen (2009) explains that Casagemas was painted with a blue color that symbolized life. The young lovely lady in the picture was shown with one leg almost reaching on to Casagemas. One of her fingers pointed upwards. It was a sign that despite the fact that Casagemas surrendered his life for love, he was not defeated. This was a major point in the blue period. These paintings are still in museums due to the great roles that they had played during that period.
We will write a custom Essay on Picasso’s Blue Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two titles of paintings namely ‘life’ and the ‘evocation’ had a theme that clearly showed that Picasso had wished his friend all the best. This is well depicted in various paintings in these albums. In the two themes, the pictures show Casagemas in the company of beautiful ladies and explain the main reason why he lost his love life. Picasso also adds pictures of the great family that he wished his friend would have.
Most of these paintings can be found even today in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Other paintings were plain portraits of Casagemas in a blue and gloomy mood. Prominent in his paintings was the theme of blindness as well. Another painting was that of a blind man seated in a table with a woman who could see. In the same set of paintings were paintings of naked ladies or women who had children either in the back or simply in their hands.
The blue period was not an easy time for Picasso. He chose the color blue to depict the sorrow that life had left him to go through. These paintings were his best and he had decided to have a different color to paint his pieces of art. In this case, he chose pink. The period that followed was named the rose period. According to Jansen (2009), most of his paintings after this trying moment were pink, a color that he decided to use to mark the end of his sorrowful moments.
It did not imply that he was over with his sorrows. There was a time when Picasso visited one of the female prisons in Paris. The prison was called St. Lazare and nuns were the guards of the prison. From this visit, he made different paintings of some of the prisoners as well as nuns and at times painted the two parties in the same piece of art. Different hues of blue were used to distinguish the nuns from the prisoners since one party was free while the other remained completely locked under bars.
The paintings of the prisoners depicted a lot of sorrow in the faces of the women prisoners. It was very difficult for him to erase the life stressing moments that he had gone through. Pink was used to bring a different theme to the great paintings that he had in his gallery. During the end of the blue period, Picasso had demonstrated social aspects of life were clearly evident.
References Jansen, M. (2009). Blue period 1901 – 1904. Web.
Ravin J. G. (2004). Representations of Blindness in Picasso’s Blue Period, special article. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/416257
How the aftermath of the war of independence affected the lives of African slaves in the North and South Cause and Effect Essay essay help
Africans in the north and the south reacted to colonialism with a lot of resistance. For this reason, they started their struggle for independence. The lives of the Africans were affected by the aftermath of the war of independence. The Africans had been enslaved in their own countries.
The colonialists had deceived the Africans that colonialism would put an end to slavery although it was not the case. Quite a number of activities and events occurred during the period of their search for independence. Those people who supported colonialism for the Africans had reported that Africans were ready to be colonized. To some extent, this strategy worked. When they were colonized, it marked the end of the war between the Africans in the south and those from the north.
Several wars were fought by the Africans before they gained their independence and freedom (Higginbotham 84). The colonists had conquered the Africans’ efforts of trying to resist colonization. By the end of the First World War; all Africans were under colonial rule. During this period of time, the Africans remained at peace with the colonists before the struggle started again.
They had a number of grievances that they wanted the colonists to address urgently. For instance, the Africans were not happy with the prejudice and bias that they received from the white colonial masters. This resistance came mostly from the Africans who were educated since they had better understanding of the effects of colonialism to Africans (Conway 76).
When the Africans obtained their freedom, several things changed in their favor. The slaves were now given equal opportunity in their countries. They were also no longer treated inhumanely and discrimination cases were taken as criminal offences. The slaves were free at last.
They formed organizations and unions that fought for their rights. South African National Congress and the West African National Congress were some of the organizations that ensured that the rights of the Africans were observed to the letter. The slaves also enjoyed their freedom of worship and practiced any type of religion of their choice. African priests and clergy wanted religious discrimination to be stopped. Hence, it became a reality after the Africans were given independence.
Christians were not given freedom to worship and all their religious meeting places had been abolished by the whites. New churches were formed. Christians gathered together to worship and give thanks to their creator. These churches played a very important role in ensuring that justice was done to all Africans. It made these churches to acquire great numbers of followers. Some of their founders were later imprisoned but the churches still grew.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most slaves were forced to work long hours in the mines and ports. This was another reason for opposition by the Africans. Freedom from working long hours without pay was another effect of the aftermath of the war to the slaves. Africans were also allowed to own land. During the time of slavery, their lands were grabbed and worse still, they were forced to work on them for the benefits of their colonialists (Conway 39).
The Africans now had the freedom to control the factors of production as well as the market for their cash crops. Since all their demands had been fulfilled by their colonial masters, freedom of the African slaves was the main impact of the struggle (Higginbotham 69).
Works Cited Conway, Stephen. The War of American Independence 1775-1783. New York: E. Arnold, 1995. Print.
Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789. New York: Northeastern University Press, 1983. Print.
The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation Essay (Book Review) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction A Pulitzer Prize-winning book called The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation is written by Joseph Ellis. The literary work focuses on the interactions among individuals of various origins who had a profound impact on the evolution of a new nation and culture, the United States of America. In particular, the account relates to the group of gifted individuals, including Franklin, Jefferson, Burr, Hamilton, Madison, Adams, and Washington, who managed to create a new union and survive in a new world.
In the book, the author highlights the realities of the end of the eighteenth century during which the Founding Brothers, also known as Founding Fathers, sought to define the practical underpinnings of our government, as well as create the content and ideals for the Constitution and Declaration of Independence.
Summary The work focuses on the six significant historical episodes, including Burr and Hamilton’s deadly encounter, Washington’s Farewell Address, Adam and Jefferson’s correspondence, Franklin’s endeavor to make Congress consider the issue of slavery and Madison’s resistance to his attempts, and, finally, Adam’s political administration and cooperation with his wife.
In the first chapter entitled as The Duel, the scholar introduces personal and political encounter between Burr and Hamilton, leading to the deadly duel predetermined by the challenges of the Revolution. While looking through the prism of historical events, the duel is considered one of the most significant and famous encounters known in American history.
The rivalry resulted in Hamilton’s injury and death whereas Burr’s experienced indignation and disapproval on the part of society. The main conflict between the politicians was premised on the discrepancies in personal outlooks. The second chapter narrates the secrete negotiations resulting in the selection the Potomac River location for building the new national capital.
Such a decision is made in exchange for Virginia’s advocate of Hamilton’s financial plan. The plan referred to the development of states debts that should be acknowledged by the federal government. In Chapter Three called The Silence, the author uncovers the confrontation between James Madison supporting the postponement of slavery discussion and Benjamin Franklin who signed the petition that withdrew the importance of slave trade and slavery for the welfare of the union.
The fourth chapter of the book is called The Farewell and discloses the Presidents George Washington’s Address in which he presented his view on the political and social reforms that were vital for prosperous development of nation. The speech represents the classic message of republicanism through which the former presidents warn American society about the political hazards they must avoid to maintain and develop the nation’s veritable values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Collaborators is the title of the fifth chapter, in which two important relationships are discussed. The first one involves the political partnership between John Adams, the second president of the United States., and his wife during his administration period. The second partnership is dedicated to the evaluation of cooperation between James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in the course of the same historic period.
The first partnership is connected with the rise of the discussion on the Atlas of Independence, as well as of the revolution of the British policy. Madison and Jefferson formed another coalition whose main purpose was to create Democratic-Republican Party and write the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions to denounce the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The final chapter – The Friendship – introduces the active correspondence between Jefferson and Adams who strived to revive the lost friendship. While elaborating on this period, Ellis provides a unique account on the romanticized version of the correspondence on history, challenges, and politics. The correspondence can be interpreted as the attempt of both politicians to expound their outlooks on power and politics.
Historic Evaluation and Personal Analysis Historical Perspective
While looking the book through the prism of historical events, it should be stressed that the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson touches on the question of whether history is represented either as a lived experience or as a recollection of the past.
At this point, Jefferson’s role as the founder of the Declaration of Independence became the underpinning for American history whereas Adams’s role is confined to his personal experience, which assumed sophisticated origin to the document, as well as the restricted importance of the drafter.
At the same time, different versions narrated by their followers about the events happened at Weehawken between Burr and Hamilton focus on the tragic fate of the latter, which is also perpetuated in the United States history. While choosing this perspective, the author unveils the content as a critical, thoughtful, and superior approach to evaluating the main facts from history throughout his work.
In response to Ellis’s account, Young and Nobles argue that the author strived “…to portray the leading figures of the Revolutionary era as individual actions within an enclosed circle of political insiders, all smilingly isolated from the social and political turmoil”.
We will write a custom Book Review on The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To support this argument, it is purposeful to cite Ellis’s statement about collaborations and personal encounters among the politicians. In particular, the author stresses the importance of analyzing the “marginal or peripheral people whose lives are more typical”, but their significance to the history and political reforms is incredibly small.
Indeed, Ellis withdraws the importance of humble population; instead, his attention is paid to transcendence of the natural rights of the political elite. Within this perspective, all central events represented in the book are of political origin. These achievements bear historical significance due to their role in shaping the history of the United States.
The author organizes his book by evaluating particular events during the decade, including the 1787 Constitutional Convention to demonstrate the main constructs of American history, with no explicit data about outcomes.
In particular, Ellis does not construct the book in a comprehensive or systematic manner; rather, he focuses on several historically significant political figures – Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and James Madison – who are represented in a number of provoking episodes, testifying to such themes as the friendship, cooperation, convictions, and philosophical outlooks on the future development of the United States. The main emphasis in the book is placed on revealing thematic and experiential visions of the history rather than on chronological account.
While deliberating on the book structure and organization, Young and Nobles explain, “this emphasis on individual character and political connection …is, after all one basic approach to biography”. Such an approach is perceived critically by other book critics who believe that lack of comprehensive manner constitutes the major shortcoming of the book. Nevertheless, such an approach is beneficial in terms of highlighting the main personalities and leaderships styles employed by the famous historical figures in American history.
Author’s Significant Assumptions
By describing and accounting the major experiences, feelings, and attitudes experienced by the Founding Fathers, Ellis encompasses all propitious events, as well as practices the skill of narrating. In particular, the description of the duel event, the author insists, “the stigma associated with the Burr-Hamilton duel put the code duello on the defensive as a national institution”. In addition, the book ignores the politicians’ origins because the New World provides people with equal opportunities for gaining power and freedom.
While depicting and assessing the historical events, the author frequently refers to the importance of collaboration and interaction among the politicians, leading to the formation of new concepts, regulations, and principles in a new union. At this point, the role of personal approaches and political visions is amplified because these interactions do not only contribute to political growth and evolution of the union, but also serve as an underpinning for constrains and contradictions among the politicians.
Thus, the correspondence between Jefferson and Adams, the duel between Burr and Hamilton, and the confrontation between Madison and Franklin are bright examples of how political and personal relationships can influence the creation of social and economic environment in the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At this point, the author argues, “the key point is that the debate was not resolved so much as built into the fabric of our national identity”. Looking through the prism of personal encounters allow the author to define and predict the development of the Unite States as a series of confrontations.
Apart from shaping the American nation’s identity, the interactions among the Founding Fathers also affected the content of such famous documents as the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. This is of particular concern to Washington’s Farewell speech, which is considered as a transcendent document, leading to the adoption of the Declaration.
Under this chapter, the author discusses such themes as national unity, struggle for political power, independent foreign policy, and disapproval of factions. The extensive overview of these topics provides a fresh insight into the history of the United States and creates a new pattern in understanding political and social life at the end of eighteenth century.
Logic in Developing the Thesis
Based on the book’s main idea and argumentative thesis, the author relies on a handful of direct quotes that specifically relate to the correspondence between the above-mentioned politicians. Using this approach in interpreting the history allows the author to link the thematic nodes in all six chapters, beginning from betrayal and confrontation of personal interests and ending with author’s attitude to friendship.
In general, addressing the interaction between notable historic and political activist creates a fresh insight at the American history and explain the existing biases and conflicts in a contemporary society. It also sheds light on the formation of cultural and national identities in the United States, as well as defines the perspectives for social development.
In fact, using a narrow-focused personal vision of the political situation at the end of eighteenth differs much from the social history perspective that is heavily used by most historians for describing American history. Ellis’s decision to confine the list of characters only to eight people contributes to developing a new context in which all historical events occur.
Use of Sources to Support Author’s Assertion
The book can be compared with other biographic books dedicated to the American founding. In particular, in the book called Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, Richard Morris focuses on defining the role of historic figures in shaping the destiny and future development of the new nation.
As a proof, the author presents a quote from the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson that refers to their friendship: “The Friendship shoulder-to-shoulder against the Tories, served together in Europe as a dynamic team, then returned to serve again in the new national government”. Thus, despite all the hardships and challenges that emerged among the Founding Fathers, they all were united by a special bond.
Audience for the Book and Language Used
The target audience of the book is relatively vast because it can be used for educational purposes and for personal inquiries. Due to the fact that this account is premised on experiences and biographic information, it simplifies the process of reading and comprehending the material because no theoretical framework are presented.
Absence of pedagogical approach makes the work even more compelling and interesting. References to first-hand documents are also beneficial because they provide a deeper insight into the realities of the time. Most importantly, the book manages to skillfully combine the historical flashback with the current trends in development of American society.
Bibliography Columbus, Frank H. Book Reviews on Presidents and the Presidency. US: Nova Publishers, 2008.
Ellis, Joseph. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000.
Young, Alfred Fabian and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. NY: NYU Press, 2011.
Footnotes Alfred Fabian Young and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. (NY: NYU Press, 2011) 140.
Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 10.
Alfred Fabian Young and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. (NY: NYU Press, 2011) 141.
Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 20.
Frank H. Columbus. Book Reviews on Presidents and the Presidency. (US: Nova Publishers, 2008), 56.
Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 212.
Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime Essay online essay help
Introduction In the 1920s, the United States was facing worrying rates of crime that called for the intervention of the Congress to avert the situation. Different ways of ensuring control of the society and effective prevention of crime were tried. The attempts were faced with numerous challenges that needed to be addressed.
It was a time when the rate of crime was increasing and a solid solution grounded on the established legal mechanisms was sought. The United States Congress had long been consulting to remedy the situation. The solutions were triggered by the fact that gangs at the time looked more organized than the government. In 1920s, a considerable number of the American citizens sought refuge from crime.
An extensive evaluation of the situation and the viable solutions were submitted to the Congress. Prohibition was proposed and an amendment to the constitution was thereby proposed. Subsequently, the Eighteenth Amendment of the United States constitution was put into place. The rationale of having the amendment effected was to control and completely manage crimes related to alcohol.
To further strengthen the Amendment, the Volstead Act was enacted, which imposed stiff penalties to those who disobeyed the Eighteenth Amendment (Cressey and Finckenauer 15). The prohibition period is one of the remarkable eras in the history of organized crime, having sowed the seeds of some of the most infamous crimes today as crime networks proved stronger than state agencies. This essay will show how prohibition encouraged the rise of organized crime.
The period of prohibition derived authority from the United States constitution and the Volstead Act. From the strict wording of the amendment, the rate of alcohol consumption was anticipated to go down. The period of prohibition simply meant that the manufacture, transportation, export, and import of alcohol were unconstitutional and subsequently illegal.
The law was geared towards creating an environment of low crime and corruption. In addition, prohibition was thought to be a clear solution towards massive reduction of social problems. The country was facing high rates of taxes that were used in supporting prisons. Health care and hygiene was expected to improve with the establishment of the prohibition.
It was a strategy to reduce overcrowding in jails by people suspected to have committed alcohol related offences. The effects of prohibition were not imagined during the time of the amendment. The duration preceding the enactment of the Volstead Act and the Eighteenth Amendment had less demand for alcohol. The prohibition eventually increased the demand for alcohol and a chain reaction became inevitable. Vertical monopolies were created by the growing number of mobsters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These monopolies were mainly set up to control the production and distribution of alcohol. Throughout time, the monopolies became powerful and much of the income earned in the distribution of alcohol was channeled to both legal and illegal businesses. The markets for selling alcohol were largely controlled by the mobsters. Crime rate took a different turn. Groups would gang up and form mobs that were very popular in urban areas (Woodwiss 8).
Crimes were left in the hands of able gangs. Consistent wars between the gangs in the streets were evident fighting to maintain control. The fights would focus on affirming control in the markets. It occurred that the new gangs would license people to sell illegal drugs and alcohol. A set tax would be paid by the seller to the gangs.
The control of urban centers and other key places of interest questioned the authority of the United States. There are states that were notoriously known for mobsters, for instance in Chicago whereby Al Capone used to manage a big gang that controlled alcohol markets. On the same vein, it should be noted that prohibition was inadequately managed, and it directly fostered the rise of organized crimes.
The rise of organized crimes occurred at a time when there were many temperament groups seeking to better the society. The movement had taken shape since 1800. Their founding goals were to reform several aspects of the society. The issue of alcohol being a source of social instability was part of the movement’s aim. Though its leadership was mainly religious, the Temperance society had a distinct mission from that of religious leaders.
The most notable aim was to support the society from the rate of insecurity and other crimes in that period. The prohibition period was largely ineffective since Americans continued to access the prohibited alcohol. Organized crimes took over legitimate saloons; hence stamping their authority in bigger areas than the neighborhoods they controlled.
The mobsters made policies of selling alcohol, which were directly against the prohibition promoted by the government. In other cities, some of the well known leaders enriched themselves during the time of prohibition by supplying liquor in areas with high demand. Smuggling of alcohol from other parts of the world was equally evident. The situation aggravated to a worse situation than it was before. Crimes unknown before such as smuggling were rampant (Woodwiss 8).
Prohibition prepared the ground for the significant increase in violent crimes. One of the famous violent crimes that was committed in the infamous incident of St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, whereby the quest for territory led to death of many individuals.
We will write a custom Essay on Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Valentines Massacre was one among many crimes that took place in major cities in the United States. The increase of crimes in America hit a thirteen percent mark. This was contrary to what supporters of prohibition had expected. Though the prohibition efficacy was highly questioned, other crimes such as swearing and vagrancy were dealt with.
Prohibition was geared towards reducing the number of people serving in prisons; to the contrary, prisons ended up being congested. State prisons received enormous number of prisoners. The financial burden was heavily felt in all levels of government. More tax revenues were needed than before. The economic situation in 1920s was affected by the prohibition period.
The response to prohibition led to certain establishments that served alcohol illegally. Though the operation of the said establishments was illegal, it was clear that corruption in the police department aided these establishments. In some instances, the police department was used by gangs, whereby the police informed the gangs in advance during raids. Doctors’ prescription of whiskey as a medicine triggered a million gallons of liquor in a year.
The prohibition law stated that alcohol was permitted three miles off the coast, which was capitalized on by state-owned shipping agencies. The state-owned agencies served alcohol over water since the law did not prohibit such a practice. Brewing of alcohol was rampant in homes. The practice was largely illegal. Prohibition lacked a moral backing since many public officials disregarded prohibition (Lyman and Potter 16).
The prohibition campaign failed in its entirety since it created a worse state, instead of controlling alcohol consumption. Its attempt to stop consumption of alcohol was met by maximum resistance. Both national and federal governments were affected in a way that they did not anticipate.
The Volstead Act is said to have had a direct contribution towards crime prevalence in the United States. The organized crimes evidenced after the prohibition were placed in different categories. The most dominant of all was bootlegging. This involved the sale of black market alcohol.
It became a booming business that became remarkable with profits. The bootleggers hiked the price of alcohol to gain vast amounts of profits in a short duration. The bootleggers were extremely vigilant in making sure that they were not caught by authorities. The competition between the mobs was untamed, making it very unhealthy and dangerous. The wars over control of liquor markets were fought in the streets with sophisticated weapons (Cressey and Finckenauer 12).
The acts of the gangs in the 1920s fit in the confines of the definition of an organized crime. In its definition, organized crime entails a systematic illegal or unlawful activity by an individual or a group of individuals. The crime could be in a city, interstate, and in some instances at an international scale.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The aim of organized crime unlike other types of crimes is that it is for profit making. The profit making element introduces the modern day crimes on corporate criminal organization. In the criminal organization arena, the essence of keeping secrets in illegal operations is encouraged.
The gangs in organized crimes have to be systematically organized for them to be termed organized. The structuring of the groups for criminal intents is known as racketeering. Supporters of the prohibition had overlooked the fact that criminal organization has major support from the society. In the society that the organization exists, rooted support helps in keeping the group.
It has been established that the law did not make it a point to set strict offences for those who aided or abetted operations of gangs. It was a miscalculation of the law drafters, whereby they were not alive to the fact that mob groups were part of the society. With time, the groups were committing crimes under the watchful eyes of the police. The police were paid to look away, and in some instances they benefited directly from the illegal activities (Woodwiss 8).
Members of the judiciary and the legislature were compromised through blackmail or bribery, giving birth to a situation where the gangs were powerful and deeply rooted. There were mutual beneficial relationships through illegal businesses that were created by leaders of the gangs and public officials. It was extremely impossible to anticipate prosecuting corrupt official since law societies closely shielded them.
The gangs were integrated in the government, whereby revenue from narcotics and extortion was accepted in the revenue. In addition, organized crimes such as labor racketeering were inevitable. There was a rampant organized labor that introduced exploitation to the laborers. Lack of reasonable working conditions was very evident. Employers were subjected to bullying, whereby they were forced to pay employees who did not work.
Money was paid to the corrupt officials to guarantee labor peace. The mobsters were paid more retirement incomes than other employees. The organized crimes in the labor sector were widely used to exercise control. Crimes would recur, whereby labor officials who did not go as per the orders of the gang were killed. The period was marred with a lot of blood shed and unlawfulness (“Prohibition: As Bad Now As It Was During The 1920’S” 3).
There are other crimes related to immigration that emerged during the time of prohibition. Immigration groups that did not trust the police and other authorities formed powerful groups to further their mission. These groups mainly engaged in crimes such as drugs and corruption.
Several organizations in the United States were formed. Federal agents lacked the right mechanisms to use in fighting the growing number of crimes. The raiding of speakeasies was met with an equal measure of resistance since the crime syndicate had both national and international connections.
The formation of the 1930 Wickersham Commission inquiry was to investigate why the crime rate was going on. The inquiry showed that there was political corruption in the institutions. The environment created during the prohibition period was felt later. In 1933, the law prohibiting sale of alcohol was repealed, which made the gangs to choose other means to continue exercising control. Trafficking of narcotics became very pronounced in 1920s to supplement the repealing of the Prohibition Act.
Gangs still remained intact and major differences in suppressing them made it hard to do away with the crime rate. Major crime kingpins had sufficient political connections, which made it easy for them to draw demarcations based on the control of some cities. The move by the Congress to neutralize the crime rate had profound effects on the national economy. Various commissions were set up to investigate the prevailing situation of organized crimes.
In 1972, the Knapp Commission indicated that there was a very close link between the kingpins of organized crimes in New York and the department of police. There were severe economic effects witnessed as a result of the gangs’ operations in key cities in America. Another report conducted in 1988 showed that massive bribing was taking place in the public service sector. The interstate links to organized crimes played an increasing role in defining the modern forms of organized crimes (Casper 837).
The rebirth of a moment whereby organized crime could not be stopped has been explained through different ways. There are those who have averred that the Prohibition Act aided the eradication of public consumption of alcohol. Prohibition era was an intervention intended to deal with the problem of alcoholism in America.
Its repercussions were a direct contrary situation from the government. It was in that era that organized crimes unknown before started to surface. The critics of the Prohibition Act and the era have observed that the situation was created by the drafters of the Act.
Crimes such as setting forests on fire became common. The twists evidenced in the crime cycles today have greatly borrowed from the period after the Prohibition period. The seeds of organized crime sowed during the era have continued to blossom everyday in the world. The failed intentions of the Prohibition have formed a golden age of crime. New ways of evading tax and black mail were adopted. It should be noted that organized crimes are committed in various ways, but they are based on the same theory (Abadinsky 12).
The theory developed after the prohibition era clearly explained the reasons why crime rate increased after the prohibition was passed. The cause of organized crimes has been based on the basis of supply and demand. It has been observed that demand for illegal goods makes it impossible to rule out criminal syndicates.
The syndicates are geared towards maintaining a constant supply. In most cases, the market is confined to small powerful syndicates who protect it at all costs. The power in the criminal syndicates is based on the ability to suppress public morals, while at the same time neutralizing the law enforcement agencies.
The syndicates depend on using corrupt means that are intended to blackmail public officials. Infiltration of the legal economy is the most appropriate weapon developed after the prohibition period. The countermeasures taken to avert organized crime have often been met by enormous weaknesses, making it hard to deal with the criminal syndicates in the world today.
There are four components that are imperative in dealing with organized crimes. The four components can be effective in dealing with organized crimes if well managed. They include government, society, illegal markets, and availability of readily organized markets. The issue of organized crimes can be ably addressed with proper coordination of the government and the society.
The main stumbling block is the fact that criminal syndicates are well funded, and in many instances they get support from the societies that they are established in. With support of the society, it becomes clear that the government may not find it easy to deal with such a group. The fact that the criminal syndicates are well grounded makes them an organizational entity that uses many resources to maintain their status quo. The government should put in place strict measures to deal with the criminal syndicates.
Illegal markets that are widespread should be dealt with before the government can competently handle organized crimes. In advanced cases, patron client networks have been defined to help in organization of the crimes. The networks have remained in interconnected social and economic environments. Organized crimes largely depend on the existing systems. They employ effective communication to counter the enforcement agencies (“The Wine of Violence” 20).
Conclusion The prohibition era was a period when laws were introduced to deal with alcoholism. The period was backed with the constitution amendment famously known as the Eighteenth Amendment. The amendment outlawed importation, production and distribution of alcohol.
The rationale of the laws was not realized, thus several consequences came up. The period was marked with organized crimes, with crime groups taking control of major cities in America. The groups operated in a time whereby law agencies were marred with rampant corruption. State agents were either bribed or black mailed.
Control of illegal markets was the main interest of every group. The authority and control used to be through street fights, whereby the group that won would control the market at that time. The dynamics of demand and supply used to play a critical role in keeping one group stronger than the other. The popularity of each group was essential in affirming authority. Undoubtedly, the prohibition era was a period when organized crimes took shape and many illegal transactions took place at the time.
Works Cited “Prohibition: As Bad Now As It Was During The 1920’S.” Electronic Ardell Wellness Report (E-AWR) 351 (2006): 3-3. Print.
“The Wine Of Violence.” Saturday Evening Post 204.46 (1932): 20-20. Print.
Abadinsky, Howard. Organized Crime. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Casper, Juliet M. “Organized Crime–United States.” Journal of Criminal Law
Single-parent families Proposal college application essay help
Introduction and Rationale The growing number of single-parent families has become a matter of the growing professional concern. The most influential psychologists tried to explain its causes. The current state of empirical research has greatly improved the public and professional knowledge of single-parent families.
Nevertheless, many processes inherent in single parenthood remain poorly understood. The society is concerned about single parenthood for at least three reasons. First, the growing number of single-parent families has profound implications for the society’s economic wellbeing: single mothers and fathers often find it difficult to work full-day or spend long hours at work (Elwood
The world of business Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Setting the scene
Introduction Michael Syrett is the author of this invaluable handbook in business management. It gives a detailed chapter by chapter analysis on winning strategies that are intended to keep business goals on target. The folly of most companies lie in their failure to track their performance against their set long-term goals.
Syrett’s in-depth analysis is aimed at giving theoretical strategies with practical applications using real life companies as case studies (Syrett, 2007). The facts and anecdotes from these case studies set the backdrop for other companies to implement what works for them.
Setting the scene Having a vision alone for a company normally does not propel it to success. Vision goes along with execution. Execution of strategy is not complicated. It simply requires that one develops an idea and carries it through to fruitition.A case study of Hewlett-Packard and British airways shows how the management made a complete turn-around of the companies using well-known ideas such as budgetary cost-cutting, breaking down barriers, focusing on the main goal, workforce empowerment and setting high standards for performance.
Friction Despite the concept of breaking down boundaries being a contributing factor in success strategy, it may not always be easy to achieve. This is shown through the case study of General Electric’s relative ease in breaking into the American Market.
On the contrary, they had a problem breaking into the Hungarian market due to culture and economic traditions. For a business to become ‘boundaryless’,considering the needs of the workforce is paramount in creating a united front so as to avert friction.Co-ordination is a winning strategy that ensures working together towards achieving the same goal.
Focus The previous chapter on friction reiterates that everyone must be assigned their roles that when executed, works together in achieving a common goal.However,this freedom to perform roles works as many parts of a machinery that is focused to do one job. Focus is imperative in setting up objective company goals and sticking to them until success is achieved.
The right focus gets people engaged. The focus goals must be clear and allow for individual employee input, right from senior management down to the lowest employee. Having a clear focus ensures that everyone understands their roles and takes responsibility over them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This sets a foundation for accountability that ensures transparency. The style of leadership is also an important strategy in enabling command of the team. The leader delegates roles and has to ensure that there effective communication and mutual respect for the chain of command.
Communication Communication is an important business strategy. Investing in effective communication is a tried and tested way of motivating the workforce into delivering the business objectives. Effective communication wins the trust of the business stakeholders, right from management, employees to investors.
Communication also involves keeping in touch with the current trends in the market and responding to them. A good example is social networking. This is true especially in this age of fast changing technology. Subtle gestures, such as rewards for exemplary tasks that meet company objectives in order to motivate the workforce are also effective ways to communicate success to the team.
Behavior How a company handles itself sets precedence for its success or failure. It is common knowledge that competition undermines business performance. However, positive competition is encouraged in a case where employees are to be motivated and also to set employee attitudes such as sharing the company values and commitment to the company. Consistency in these positive behaviors is a winning business strategy.
Measurement Measurement techniques are the key drivers for gauging the performance of a business. Such tools as corporate cartography are used to measure the extent of achieving strategies in line with the business goals. The results of these measurements will show how successful a business will be.
Leadership Good leadership is an essential tool in executing business strategies. Leadership roles go beyond the senior management levels and involve focus, resource allocation and collaboration.
Change We are living in a fast changing world of technology. The winning strategy involves shifting with the current trend as circumstances demand (Kourdi, 2009). Change can take place within an organization to structure the company towards focused goal achievement or externally, to merge with the trend. Some of these changes can be extreme, like in the case of mergers, but they may ultimately turn out to be profitable for the company.
We will write a custom Essay on The world of business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Innovation Using old knowledge to create new ways is the basis for innovation. This goes hand in hand with change, where businesses are expected to conform to the market expectations in order to come out winners.
To enable innovation, it is paramount to have all the other strategies in place, namely resources, good leadership and operational freedom so as to cultivate creativity, all aimed at achieving he company goals and objectives (Economist, 2009). Taking risks is encouraged as they are unavoidable and success can only be achieved by those who try and fail, but still have a winner’s attitude of trying until they succeed.
Pathway A pathway to successful strategy execution is like creating a roadmap to the success of a business. There has to be focus on the right strategic goals, and the workforce given the chance to participate, share and make innovative decisions aimed at a common goal. This is why good leadership is required to spearhead effective strategies.
Conclusion Generally, this book makes an effective guidebook for businesses as they make strategies that they hope will chart them forward into success. It is also a good learning platform from the failures and successes of highlighted case studies right from top-level management to the ground.
Reference List Economist, T. (2009). The world of business. New Jersey: John Wiley
Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams Essay a level english language essay help
For a long time, there has been a common belief that thoughts suppressed during daytime are likely to be dreamt during the night. This is according to the research done on the suppressed thoughts and their influence on the dreams at the University of Texas, San Antonio (Wegner, Wenzlaff and Kozak, 2004). The purpose of this research article is to find whether suppressed thoughts have an influence on what is being dreamt by an individual.
In this regard, the research questions were as follows. Do suppressed thoughts have an influence on dreams? Are there explainable theories behind suppressed thoughts and dreams? What is the connection between surprised thoughts and mental control?
The research hypothesis is based on the theory that suppressed thoughts can be accessed through dreams. Brain activities evidenced by rapid eye movement (REM) are an indication of brain activity in trying to access suppressed thoughts. Pre-sleep waking thoughts also influences dreams.
However, this is only known as a psychological theory and its factual statement is yet to be tested. The access of suppressed thoughts has recurrently been explained in the theory of ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, Wenzlaff and Kozak, 2004). Basically, the suppressing of thoughts and then activating them later in dreams have been viewed by psychologists as a way of controlling mental states.
For this to happen, there must be a conscious process that tries to access the desired state of mind. In addition, this process is also supplemented by an unconscious process that automatically tries to access the contents of the desired state of mind. An example of such interactions is given by an individuals desire not to think about eating a chocolate bar.
In such a process, a person will be forced to suppress his or her thoughts towards other important issues such as dieting and dangers of cholesterol. According to theory of ironic processes, suppressed theories are more likely to be evidenced in dreams compared to immediate thoughts before sleeping or waking. Psychologists allege that such can be evidenced by rapid eye movement (REM) exhibited in a person during sleep.
Basically, the rapid eye movement is a sign that certain memory functioning is taking place, preferably the deactivation of suppressed memories. Dreaming of past events such as traumatizing events are viewed as suppressed thoughts and are sometimes deactivated through dreams.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research methodology used the following design and procedure. First, the research participants were undergraduates sampled from the University of Texas, San Antonia. The research sampled 202 women and 128 men. The sample population had a mean age of 20.36 years. Moreover, the participants were required to have at least attended the psychology introduction course offered at the university. Other important aspects of the research participation and design included offering the sample population with the following condition.
3 (instructions: suppression, expression, mention) × 2 (instruction target: crush vs. non-crush) design.
The research procedure was as follows. The research participants or sample population were given some materials in envelopes and were only allowed to open them before they got to bed that very night.
The first procedure involved thinking about two previous crush experiences they have had before and one non-crush experience. In this case, the material described a crush as a person one thinks romantically about, but has never had any romantic contact with. A non-crush is a person one thinks fondly about, without romantic feelings.
These crush and non-crush people were to be identified by initials. Another procedural task was to suppress the above thoughts for at least 5 minutes, and later think anything beside the initial thoughts. The participants were then required to record their afterwards consciousness as target thoughts. Basically, the participants were to record every detail of the target thoughts and sleep. The same procedure was to be repeated upon waking in the morning by recording all dreams.
The following morning the research findings were that 16 of the total participants dreamt about alcohol drinking. Nonetheless, the dreams of all participants were to be rated for further analysis.
Basically, the rate analysis had to consider the conditions, hypothesis on consciousness streaming and reports on crush and non-crush targets. In addition, the rate analysis also considered emotional intensity, eroticism of dreams and the valence aspect. From the research findings, it was evidenced that reliability of the ratings was a significant 0.93 in all the test variables among 19 participants.
We will write a custom Essay on Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The results of the research found that the concept of manipulation effectiveness were to be passed by emotional response among the participants, when they thought about the targets. The aspect of dream–self ratings was also used to assess participants dream content and the influence of pre-sleep task on dreams. Finally, the dream reports were used to assess the coded report by participants on emotional intensity, eroticism and emotional valence.
The discussion of the research article agrees with the research experiment that pre-sleep task have an influence on dreams. For example, the participants dreamt with their pre-sleep suppression thoughts about their crush and non-crush person. However, dreaming of a crush experience did not necessarily mean that a person was emotionally attached to the crush.
According to the research, it is also possible that any rebound dreams that occurred were as a result of changes in brain activation. This could be evidenced by REM as the participants slept. It also means that REM and other brain activities can cause rebound dreams.
The research on suppression of thoughts and their association with dreams is well thought. In fact, the research is essential in giving insightful information regarding dream theories. Although, the research is not lengthy and only involves a simple concept of the dream theory.
The research is a foundation to an in-depth analysis on rebound dreams. The strength of this research is the inclusion of a target thought in analyzing the impact of suppressed thoughts in dreams. A thought on a crush is psychologically involving and is part of a crucial process in growth and development of young people. In this aspect, thoughts of emotional attachment to another person are a good example of some of the suppressed thoughts. This makes the research non-ambiguous and objective.
However, the research on suppressed thoughts association with dreams is non-conclusive. In fact, the current research provides a lot of generalization about dreams and does not describe how dreams are formed. The science behind the activation of suppressed thoughts as evidenced by the REM is non-convincing.
There are other reason that could result in brain activation and REM, and the results on the research could as well be imagined. In fact, the REM activity is an indication that there are mental processes, which are yet to be known. Therefore, this research could focus its research on theories that explain the ironic monitoring processes, the science behind brain activation and stress simulation theory.
In this regard, the research on activation-synthesis theory is significant in interpreting brain processes. Therefore, more research modification on the same and updating of activation-information-mode theory is critical. These theories are integral in interpreting and describing formation of dreams, as the fundamental principles behind suppressed thoughts and even rebound dreams.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, this research raises other important aspects of the same research. For example, the concept of threat stimulation theory and other brain activities while sleep raises more question on the influence of suppressed thoughts on dreams. Therefore, this research requires further analysis and improvement on the same.
Reference Wegner, M. D., Wenzlaff, M. R.,
Plato’s Philosophy Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Plato’s Theory
Allegory of the cave and reasons to mistrust majority
Plato class system
Motivation of Plato’s philosophy
Born around 427 BC in Athens, Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher. His father (Ariston) and his mother (Perictione) were members of a noble society of Athens. Despite the fact that he travelled to Italy on several occasions, most of his life was spent in Athens. Being born of a noble family, although much literature does not exist about his early life, Plato acquired the finest education as reflected in his collection of philosophical works reflecting the tragedy and politics of his time.
While Socrates was his teacher, Aristotle was his student. Plato’s writings explore themes such as equality and beauty coupled with a discussion of aesthetics, cosmology, political philosophy, language philosophy, and political philosophy. He was the founder of one of the oldest philosophy academy in Athens in the western world.
Plato lived in the synthesis age. He had an acquaintance with Socrates (his teacher) between 469 and399 B.C.E. Socrates altered the life of Plato. In this perspective, Kahn reckons, “the power that Socrates methods and arguments had over the minds of the youth of Athens gripped Plato as firmly as it did many others, and he became a close associate of Socrates” (67). Following the death of his father, Plato’s mother married Pericles’ friend.
This move made him connected to both democracy and oligarchy systems of politics. After the Peloponnesian war came to a halt, his uncle and mother persuaded Plato to join the Athens oligarchic rules. However, he objected. He preferred becoming a student of Socrates. In the Socrates academy, he developed his principles of being an opponent to relativisms coupled with Sophist’s skepticisms.
He dwelled on values as opposed to physical science. While describing the works of Socrates, Aristotle paid immense credits to Socrates’ emphasis on moral questions coupled with his precise definitions of issues. A careful scrutiny of Plato’s works evidences that he absorbed these lessons from the Socrates’ class.
The philosophical positions held by Plato made him neither a friend to thirty tyrants (404-403 BC) nor to Athenian democracy upon its restoration. He deployed critical interrogation methodology to alienate them. As Kahn informs, in the 399 BC, Plato was “brought to trial with capital crimes of religious impiety and corruption of youth where he was convicted and sentenced to death” (22). One of his friends offered to have him freed through payment of a fine as opposed to the imposition of the death penalty.
Referring to this experience, Kahn writes, “Plato tells us in the Seventh Letter after Socrates’ death that he became disenchanted with all existing political regimes and felt that the only salvation of politics would require that either true or genuine philosophers attain political powers or the rulers of states by some dispensation of providence become genuine philosophers” (39).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He founded his school around 387 BC in Athens. In effect, the school served as a higher education institute specializing in philosophy, astronomy, physical science, and mathematics. In this school, Plato delivered lectures. Unfortunately, the lectures were never published.
Dion, Dionysious II’s uncle, invited Plato to Dionysius school thus securing him a voyage to Sicily. He was trapped in the Syracuse until 360 BC. After several misunderstandings between Dion and Dionysius II’, Dion entered Syracuse in 357 B.C.E. The move culminated to the overthrow of Dionysius.
In the seventh letter of Plato, he recounts his roles in the death of Dion although, “the deepest truths may not be communicated” (Kahn 34). When Plato traveled back to Athens, he continued being the president of his academy until his demise in 347 BC. He died at the age of 80 years.
Plato’s Theory Plato postulated that people live in an imperfect state. This position was opposed to the position held by Athenians who held that their polis was perfect with regard to cultural and military achievements. His skepticism can perhaps be traced from his role model, Socrates, who taught him to be skeptical about a society, which pays no attention to inclusion of people with political expertise in the running of states.
In the Republic, Plato proposes an ideal state having the capacity to deal with the imperfection in the real state such as corruption. Plato theorizes the realization of the ideal state as encompassing three waves aimed at eroding corruption coupled with bringing about new principles and ideals.
The first wave consists of the ruling class, which, rather than being composed of the perceived most intelligent people, it constituted “only philosophers-kings” (Jackson 93). Plato defined philosophers as people “who have a great love of knowledge believing that knowledge was the key to a successful ruler” (Jackson 93). Kings ought to be philosophers while philosophers ought to become kings.
The second wave in the Plato theory for ideal states entangles the guardians who are principally a mix of women and men. Unfortunately, at his time, women were not permitted to engage in political processes. This argument meant that Plato was not only knowledgeable on political issues surrounding the ancient Greek history but also on modernization standards.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Plato’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opposed to the prescription of roles for engaging in battles among people belonging to the guardian class, Plato saw such roles as irrelevant in his theory of ideal states since the manner of operation of the third wave gave no room for conflicts.
In the third wave, guardians would have no wealth, would share all they had, had no private property, lived together communally, envy would disappear in theory, and issues of class rankings disappeared. This argument means that disagreements would not arise on issues such as who should have what since all people would have the same things. A perfect society would thus be created.
Allegory of the cave and reasons to mistrust majority The allegory of the cave can serve in revealing some of the key reasons to mistrust the views of the majority. The allegory of the cave presents a description of a complex philosophical world. Plato “described symbolically the predicament in which mankind finds itself and proposes a way of salvation” (Kreis 1). The salvation advocated by Plato is influenced by the theory of freedom of mind that was advanced by his teacher, Socrates. According to Plato, the manner in which the world is revealed to us is not a real copy of it.
Unfortunately, majority of people live in the unreal copy, which is characterized by various class systems. Since the world presented to us is not real, it inappropriate to trust the majority of the people living in it with their minds trapped by unreasonable norms of various class systems.
This argument is evidenced by Plato’s theory that is advanced through the allegory of caves in which he held, “the universe ultimately is good, his conviction that enlightened individuals have an obligation to the rest of society, and that a good society must be the one in which the truly wise are the rulers” (Kreis 1).
Philosophically, the wise are the people who have freedom of thought and people who do not open their own minds to prejudice in search of what is real and accurate beyond any reasonable doubt. This argument drives at the first reason why people should not trust the majority.
Believing the majority implies contending on a universally acceptable way of thought, which is not acceptable since the world is not real. Hence, everything presented to us by it is open to doubt. The unrealistic nature of the world is perhaps evident by consideration of descriptions of it in the allegory of caves.
In the allegory of the caves, Plato provides an analogy of how people live in the unreal world by describing a situation in which people live around a cave situated underground. An opening is located at the top of the cave. A shadow is casted due to burning fires. The people living in the cave are chained thus making them only be able to see the wall.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, they are not able to turn around. Since people in the cave cannot only see the wall, in case an object passes by the fire, a shadow is cast on the wall. People are not able to see the real object. Hence, the only thing that they comprehend to exist is the shadow of the object (Plato 747). Luckily, one the people in the caves gets off his chains and manages to wander around in the exterior of the cave (Plato 748).
What he sees flabbergasts him. When he reports to the rest of people still chained in the cave about what he saw outside the cave, they (majority) think that he is mad. They indeed plot to murder him (Plato 749). This evidences that the majority has a deeply ingrained fear to come into terms with reality. This primitiveness of the true nature of majority of the people serves to advance and promote ignorance. Thus, it is dogmatic for a rational thinking being to trust the majority.
Plato class system In the Republic, tantamount to the allegory of caves, Socrates is the central character. However, Republic is “less a dialogue than a long discussion by Socrates of justice and what it means to the individual and city state (independent states)” (Kahn 51).
According to Plato, class systems comprised three elements. These are guardians, rulers, and workers. These state classes are analogous to the three elements of the soul: rational, impulsive irrational, and less rational. Each of the elements of the state classes has different roles in society. Rulers do not comprise ruler’s families.
Rather, the class is made up of people who stand out in the society as the most intellectual and gifted. Just as rational component of the soul is the chief decision maker based on reason, the rulers are charged with the roles of giving direction to the rest of the class states. Surprisingly, this class is composed of the fewest number of people in the population.
The class that compares with the less rational components of the soul is the guardians. In the Plato class systems, guardians are charged with the roles of maintaining order in the society and handling governments’ practical matters such as engagement in battles. While the guardians would make certain decisions in the execution of their roles in the class systems, their actions are in the better part dependent on the decisions made by the rational element of the state (rulers).
The main roles of the workers are engagement in labor to ensure that the whole runs in a smooth manner. This last class of people in class systems comprises the majority. Compared to the elements of the soul, the class is analogous to the impulsive irrational (Kahn 57). Hence, the larger the numbers of people in class systems, the more their roles are less driven by their own rationality.
Borrowing from the argument that people should choose to act in a manner that justifies one’s rationality at arriving at a decision to act in particular ways, trusting majority is detrimental to one’s capacity to think rationally. This assertion justifies the actions adopted by the majority of the people in the allegory of the cave to kill the person who had information about the reality of the world.
Motivation of Plato’s philosophy Various issues including experience motivate the development of philosophies of various people. This section argues that Plato’s philosophy is relative to his culture and experience. This argument is evidenced by the vivid descriptions of people living in caves in confusion. In his era, people lived in a society where they never questioned the authority.
They did what was required of them without thinking through the appropriateness of what they did. Yet, those who objected to comply were treated as enemies, and were subjected to punishment. This experience is reflected in Plato’s allegory of caves when he informs that, when one of the people tied in chains in the caves got an opportunity to learn about what the real world was like, the other people planned to kill him.
Considering his personal experience in political systems, it is evident that his allegory of caves reflects the ignorance of ruling class state to incorporate the knowledgeable in the governance of the states. Indeed, philosophers who Plato perceives have incredible knowledge and are able to view issues from true and real dimensions were treated with dismay. In this context, Jackson reckons, “Athenians saw Plato’s kind as rogues and useless individuals who thought themselves as better than the rest of the society” (81).
This argument underlies the reason why Plato maintains that kings need to be philosophers and philosophers need to become kings in the Republic. This way, kings would have an understanding of how philosophy would aid in helping them to develop an ideal state: free from conflicts.
Plato’s philosophies reflect various arguments on the manner in which material distribution should be done to realize an ideal society. His theory on the political society is a depiction of historical materialistic conceptions evident in his society.
In this perspective, Jackson notes that, since Plato was born in a strict social class, his works reflect ideas of Karl Marx that the “nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production” (99). The argument is evidenced by his argument in the Republic that ideal states would have to be docile as a matter of condition defining when they were born and how they were raised.
According to him, the nature of people in the ideal states would have to be defined by their surroundings- the society. Indeed, he wonders, “How can any society that has such a strict social code and classes ever be successful?” (Kahn 77). This interrogative is a depiction of well thought ideas about how societies are supposed to be constituted based on Plato’s cultural experience.
The advocating for people to think rationally and independent from the ill conception of people in the society reflects the contempt held by Plato for a society that delinked his departure of ways of thought based on rational judgment. Now, it is important to retaliate that this same society executed his teacher- Socrates- for his failure to submit his mind and power of reason to prejudice.
As argued before, Plato was born in an era when compliance was vital to fit in a society. This compliance impaired rationality of people. Hence, people could not perceive the reality. This experience is reflected abundantly in the allegory of caves. Readers of the allegory of caves know too well that puppeteers behind the prisoners used wooden and iron objects, which liked reality in the form of shadows.
In the context of Plato’s cultural experience, this development is critical since what is insinuated as reality from the time he was born was now exposed to doubt since it could be “completely false based on our imperfect interpretations of reality and goodness” (Kahn 78). The point of argument here is that people use names to describe physical representation of what can only be grasped by the mind since appearance may be deceptive. Hence, the things defined in Plato’s society and political systems as right may not be right or good.
Drawing from the above argument, in the development of an ideal society, the problem is to define what is good because what one may perceive as good may indeed be an imitation of the reality. Hence, rulers create their own meaning of what is good. With the flawed definition of good, a challenge of doing ‘good’ emerges.
Deeply ingrained knowledge is required to come up with what is good for the society. Concerning Plato, only philosophers are able to think freely and evaluate various issues far from just in the context of face value. This argument explains perhaps why he says in the Republic that philosophers need to become kings.
Otherwise, ‘good’ would just remain being a word but not a representation of what is appropriate for the whole society. This argument is congruent with the position held by Jackson, “in a society like Athens where society came first, it would not matter if citizens thought they did well because, if they did not do well for the polis, then that “good” did not matter” (101). Based on this assertion, the allegory of caves reflects a society (Athens) whose reality is constructed by other people beyond the reach of the majority.
Only few people who are able to escape from the chains can understand the reality. Unfortunately, the ignorant people who are not able to unveil their reality threaten the lives of those few witty people. Such people who have escaped the wrath of ignorance represent people like Plato and Socrates, his teacher.
Works Cited Jackson, Roy. Plato: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Hoder and Stroughton, 2001. Print.
Kahn, Charles. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.
Kreis, Steven. Plato republic, Book VI: the allegory of the cave. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Plato. Republic VII. Collected Dialogues of Plato. Ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Publishers, 1982. Print.
Hart-Landsburg and Burkett Argument Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Since the late 1970s, China has been experiencing a tremendous growth in its economy. In 1978, the Communist Party of China commenced an economic reformation program that aimed at enhancing the economic growth and performance of China (Hudis 112).
This program aimed at enhancing the management of state owned enterprises (SOEs) as well as encouraging the development of privately owned enterprises. Thus, in addition to attaining high rates of economic growth and attracting foreign direct investments, the main aim of this economic reform was to transform the Chinese economy to a socialist market economy (Kraus 361).
The aim of this ideology was to ensure that this economy is primarily controlled by state owned corporations. With this strategy in place, it was believed that every individual in China would benefit from the results of economic development as the profits earned by SOEs would be evenly distributed within the population.
At the present moment, China is one of the nations that exhibit high economic growth rates in terms of GDP. However, from a critical angle, it is evident that the Chinese market is based on the capitalist system. It is due to this fact that Hart-Landsburg and Burkett argue that perhaps China has failed to achieve its economic reform goals that were set over four decades ago.
Thus, the measures that were put in place after the implementation of the market reforms only led to the growth of capitalism. Despite the fact that SOEs were dominant during the 1970s and the 1980s, the growth of private entrepreneurship started to flourish during the late 1980s and in the 1990s.
Consequently, the Chinese government passed several legislations that not only encouraged the privatization of SOEs, but also played a significant role in attracting foreign direct investments which led to the growth of the private sector. In 1993 for instance, the labor law was passed in China. This law eliminated the control that the government had in the selection and recruitment processes and paved way for the free labor market.
This new concept used the demand and supply mechanism to determine the availability of jobs and the remuneration of employees. As a result, China has now been regarded as one of the main sources of cheap labor. Thus, many firms have moved their operations in this nation to enjoy the low costs of production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this analysis, it is clear that the reformation program that was initiated by the Chinese government to rejuvenate socialism within China has failed. The results of this program have led the Chinese economy into a totally different path. The Chinese market is now based on capitalism.
Consequently, most of the market industries and segments are dominated by foreign owned companies (Hart-Landsberg
Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All Essay a level english language essay help
There is hardly anything that people take for granted as easily as the state budget. Indeed, what the state budget is being spent on, as well as what cuts it is supposed to undergo and due to what factors does not interest an average citizen of the USA in the least. When it comes to cutting on the bare necessities and the everyday facilities, as well as raising the costs for services, the results sequestration become obvious, which leads to another bunch of economical, financial and political problems to solve.
Although demanding that a person should pay for certain services and pay the debts that the person has made is a rather legitimate demand, the idea of sequestration is still too severe a measure to impose on a person. In addition, some of the aspects of sequestration can lead to people questioning its actual usefulness and the reasonability if sequestering the state budget.
Despite the fact that currently, the U.S. government and the President insist on the need to sequestrate the budget, the results of the given procedure may turn out even more drastic than expected. Even though budget sequestration might lead to getting financial help for the state to cover the expenses, the costs that the USA will not be worth the effort.
To start with, the process of sequestration needs a definition. Described as “a process of automatic, largely across-the-board spending reductions to meet or enforce certain budget policy goals” (Saturno and Heniff 17–4), sequestration does not seem a fabulous perspective for the U.S. economy.
One of the most often expressed concerns about the sequestration concerns the way in which the budget cuts are carried out. According to what Larsen says, these are not just the cuts in budget that the U.S. state authorities talk about, but the cuts in the rates of the budget growth. Therefore, not only the current budget, but also the whole budgeting policy of the United States is threatened once the policy of sequestration becomes an integral part of the American reality.
The given event can be the point at which the U.S. economy starts going completely downhill. With the current spending levels as the basis for the future budget to be planned on, the government of the United States will practically reduce the future growth rates of the federal budget (Shick 82). Reconsidering the possible effects of the sequestration policy, one can assume that it might lead to the same deplorable economical situation as the one that the United States faced in 1990 because of the missteps taken in 1980 (Schick 82).
To its credit, the sequestration policy has certain positive aspects. No matter how scanty the obtained financial resources will supposedly be, it is still necessary to admit that the state government is still planning to use this money for the greater good. As the state report says, the budget cuts and the money obtained as a result of the sequestration are going to be used for a noble cause.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To start with, the cuts will serve the purpose of enhancing the state defense program, which is crucial in the light of the increasing tension in the relationships between states. As the report says, 10% ($55 billion) are going to be used for enhancing the defense program. Another important issue that the state is going to address as soon as the state budget increases is the concern for the citizens’ health.
Medicare will receive 2% of the revenues in addition to the money that is annually provided to the Medicare by the government. Making $11 million, this money will certainly be of great use for Medicare, helping the latter provide the U.S. citizens top-notch medical services (Congress 4969). It goes without saying that medical services must be improved in accordance with the latest advances in medicine and technology.
Therefore, from the given perspective, the sequestration process can be justified. The last, but definitely not the least, the development of educational facilities all over the country is a crucial process that must be encouraged. Though sequestration is not the only way to get the funding for education process development, it is admittedly helpful for education at present.
Still, the policy of sequestration does not seem to hold any water. For instance, the governmental authority and the ideas voiced by the President should be brought up when considering the sequestration issue.
Although there is sufficient evidence that the sequestration procedure as a result of defaulting on one’s payments seems rather threatening, the actions that the U.S. government is currently undertaking makes the given threat rather doubtful. According to Larsen’s judgment, “And all of those threats that the president made earlier about who won’t get paid, and what services would not be provided, are just that: empty threats” (Larsen).
Therefore, in addition to all the problems that it causes in the economical and financial spheres, the sequestration legislation does not make the U.S. government look good, either. Hence, another argument against the sequestration reform appears; for the U.S. government to keep its authority and remain trustworthy in the eyes of the American citizens, it is necessary either to keep with the sequestration policy fully, or to reject the given policy.
Given the absurdity of some of the existing governmental projects, such as “Moroccan pottery classes, an empty airport at Lake Murray State Park in Oklahoma, a robot squirrel funded through the National Science Foundation, or the Alabama Watermelon Queen Tour” (Larsen), it must be admitted that enhancing the policy on sequestration is not the best way for the U.S. government to prove its reasonability and regain its authority.
We will write a custom Essay on Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the aspect of trust in the American government is not the only reason for the latter to change their policy on sequestration; as the recently obtained data shows, the money that the sequestration process brings to the state authorities is quickly dispersed among several departments, split into rather small amounts (Dewhurst and Rausch 67).
Therefore, the value of the money that has been obtained in the process of sequestration reduces; being split between several departments, this money can hardly buy a required tool or pay for the long-awaited project. Bringing little to no profit for the government, this money can hardly help improve the situation regarding the federal debt:
The rest of the outlay reduction of $1.2 trillion triggered by the sequestration will be applied over the next ten years. But even with that reduction, the federal debt is projected by the Congressional Budget Office to be a staggering $26 trillion. (Larsen)
Because of the drastic situation with the Federal debt, even the results of sequestration will not help improve the financial situation and solve the existing problems (Mauro 36). While using the money that have been sequestered from the mortgage owners does allow for sufficient financial support for certain projects, the amount of the Federal debt is still too great to be handled with such little sum of money that can be extracted from individuals.
As Larsen put it, “It’s going to hurt individual people and it’s going to hurt the economy over all” (Larsen). While the individuals are going to suffer, their possessions being taken away from them and government leaving them with little to no means of subsistence, the needs of the state are highly unlikely to be addressed anyway.
Addressing the issue of sequestration, one must admit that it does not lead to immediate satisfaction of the person who has suffered from a certain offence; moreover, in certain situations, the cost of the sequestrated property is not enough to cover even a half of the losses that have been taken.
In their turn, people suffer greatly. Apart from the aspect of humanity, the numerous economical issues are worth bringing up. For instance, the loss of the above-mentioned 1.2 % spending that the Wall Street financial markets will take as a result of the sequestration process is also quite a debatable issue (Naco).
Moreover, the fact that the sequestered amount of money will disperse among the numerous departments and will hardly suffice for completing any project that bears any significance, is rather disturbing. Taking everything that has been mentioned above into consideration, one must admit that the sequestration law is highly unreasonable and must not be adopted on any account.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Congress. Congressional Record. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2010. Print.
Dewhurst, Robert E. and John D. Rausch. Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. 2009. Print.
Larsen, Richard. Sequestration 101, The Sky Is not Falling. n. d. PDF file. 1 Mar. 2013. Print.
Mauro, Paolo. Chipping Away at Public Debt: Sources of Failure and Keys to success in Fiscal Adjustment. New York, NY: John Wiley
Kuala Lumpur Overview Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Kuala Lumpur is a region in Malaysia, which is a good example of urban dynamics. The population growth of the Kuala Lumpur region varies from the core of the city to the suburbs. The population growth in the core of the city is extremely high and is approximated to have doubled between 1980 census and 2000 census.
By the year 2010, the increase in population had tripled that of the year 1980. There is a great difference in percentage growth in the suburbs and in the core of the city. As much as there is a high population growth in the core, the growth of the population in the suburbs has been more rapid, nearly six times that of the city. At the current growth rate of the region, the population could approach 10 million by 2025 (Bindloss
A Defence of Thrasymachus Concept of Justice Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Life of Thrasymachus
The Concept of Justice according to Thrasymachus
Defence for his Conception of justice
Introduction Everyone deserves to be treated in a just manner. However, and unfortunately, the concept of justice seems to mean different things to different people. This essay seeks to explain and defend the concept of justice according to one Thrasymachus.
Life of Thrasymachus The exact year of birth of Thrasymachus remains unclear. Dionysius intimated that Thrasymachus was younger than Lysias. Dionysius wrongly believed that Lysias was born in 459 BC. According to Aristotle, Thrasymachus lived between the times of Tisias and those of Theodorus although he did not state the exact dates. Cicero indicated that Thrasymachus and Gorgias lived around the same time.
Aristophanes seems to give an exact reference for Thrasymachus life in the mention of his play, Banqueters which was performed in the year 427 BC. It is therefore probable that Thrasymachus had been a teacher in Athens for some period before the play was performed. In his writings, Thrasymachus makes reference to Archelaos, the King of Macedonia between 413 and 399 BC. Rightly so, Thrasymachus was on the scene in the fifth century BC (Rauhut).
The Concept of Justice according to Thrasymachus Other than his date of birth being unclear, his philosophical ideas are also not clear. Some people believe that he was a Sophist. It is in the Book One of Plato’s Republic that Thrasymachus becomes visible. His encounter with Socrates is dramatic and emotional as he attacks the position taken by Socrates that justice is a vital good (Rauhut). Thrasymachus asserts that ‘injustice, if it is on a large enough scale, is stronger, freer, and more masterly than justice’ (Rauhut).
As they argue with Socrates on the issue of injustice, Thrasymachus says that justice “is nothing more than the advantage of the stronger” (sparknotes). In other words, justice for the poor does not exist. As we know it, justice is a preserve of the stronger. This could be stronger in terms of wealth or power.
According to him, it pays not to be just and it is not the person who behaves justly who benefits but the person who acts unjustly. The assumption here is that those in power are always unjust but they access justice at the expense of the weak. The only just thing that we can do to justice is to ignore it in totality.
From the long discussion with Socrates, three major issues are raised by Thrasymachus, three attempts at defining the concept of justice. Thrasymachus sees justice as the advantage that the stronger have over the weak. By strong is meant those in power, the rulers, and the rich and so on. Secondly, Thrasymachus perceives justice as an imposing laws on people; obedience to the laws of the land. Lastly, Thrasymachus sees justice as that advantage that one has over another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Defence for his Conception of justice Let us start with the first conception of justice: advantage of the stronger. The stronger refer to the ruling party, the government of the day, the leaders and any other person who is in a privileged position either due to power or affluence. In every society, it is the same people who make laws which always work to their advantage. The weak will call it injustice but to the strong, it is just to follow those laws that favor them (sparknotes).
It is not so clear why the weak must always follow the rules set by the strong and why such following is always in the interest of the strong. Some scholars, among them Wilamowitz, Zeller and Strauss have treated Thrasymachus as a natural right crusader. The scholars argue that it is only natural that the weak are ruled by the stronger (Rauhut). This is rightly so in almost every society.
Another group of scholars comprising of Hourani and Grote have dealt with the second conception of justice by Thrasymachus. According to them, justice is all about obeying of laws.
They seem to vouch for legalism and accordingly, Thrasymachus is portrayed as a relativist who believes that justice cannot be thought of outside the body of laws. It is all about observing existing laws. As such, any good deeds performed outside the set rules cannot be seen as elements of justice. One wonders where acts like obedience to parents fall if it is not defined as justice.
The third group of Kerferd and Nicholson observes that the third conception of justice by Thrasymachus is his main part in the justice issue. In this regard, Thrasymachus is “an ethical egoist who stresses that justice is the good of another and thus incompatible with the pursuit of one’s self interest” (Rauhut). This qualifies Thrasymachus under ethics more than in politics. In other words, Thrasymachus thrives more in ethical arguments than political ones.
Taylor and Burnet look at Thrasymachus as an ethical nihilist. According to them, the cardinal aim of Thrasymachus is to prove that justice does not exist. This argument can lead to a back and forth argument. If Thrasymachus believes that justice does not exist, are we to take that as the truth? This would go against the Principle of Non Contradiction (Cliffnotes). The mere mention of justice implies that justice indeed exists.
Barney and Johnson have suggested that Thrasymachus should not be taken for what he is not. He is a sociologist cum political scientist who offers observable facts that equals to a “cynical commentary on those who follow a traditional, Hesiodic conception of justice (Rauhut).
We will write a custom Essay on A Defence of Thrasymachus Concept of Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, another group treats Thrasymachus as a confused thinker. This arises from the fact that even his own conceptions of justice do not marry, they don’t support each other yet they are from once person (Rauhut).
Thrasymachus may have been treated as seen in the above discussion yet his input cannot be wished away. His ideas are very crucial in ethical and moral theory. Where ethics is concerned, his views have majorly been seen as the “first fundamental critique of moral values” (Rauhut).
In addition, he seems to foreshadow Nietzsche when he insists that “moral values are socially constructed and are nothing but the reflection of the interests of particular political communities” (Cliffnotes). He is seen as propagating cynical realism in political theory that states that might is right.
Conclusion Thrasymachus is such a pillar in ethics and political philosophy. He cannot be wished away, he can only be studied deeper from his fragments so that a better understanding of Thrasymachus is sought and used to enhance the said fields of ethics and political philosophy or theory. Strong people have the courage to do wrong.
Works Cited Cliffnotes. Republic by Plato: Summary and Analysis. 1 March 2013. 14 March 2013
Rauhut, Nils. Thrasymachus (fl. 427 BCE). 9 August 2011. 13 March 2013 sparknotes. Republic Book I: Summary. 5 February 2013. 13 March 2013
Affirmative Action Research Paper writing essay help
Society is differentiated in several categories and everybody cannot have the same opportunities to advance him or herself. Some people are disabled and therefore are unable to compete effectively when it comes to some issues. In some societies, culture has defined women as being weak people whose duty is only to give birth and take care of children. They are therefore given minimal opportunities to economically empower themselves.
There are also places where people from given racial backgrounds are given an upper hand in economic and societal matters as compared to others. However, it is just fair that every person is treated equally and given equal opportunities in society to develop. Consequently, the government has initiated policies that are meant to ensure equality in society. Affirmative action is among the efforts that have been taken to see to it that each person stands the same chance in the society.
Affirmative action refers to the measures that are taken by the government to ensure that discrimination against people on the grounds of sex, color, religion or nationality is eliminated. It is important to note that these measures are usually applied in employment areas. The measures have been taken so as the help mitigate the effects of historical discrimination that has led to various disadvantages to the affected groups (Tittle 237).
Moreover, the argument has been that every group of people needs to be fairly represented in institutions especially if the institutions are within the society where the groups reside. However, various institutions are bound to be unfair if they are left free to act on their own initiatives. As a result, affirmative action is necessary to ensure that institutions are compelled to include everybody.
Despite the good effects that affirmative action has to the society, it has not gone without opposing arguments. To begin with, there are those people who view affirmative action as being a form of reverse discrimination. In their view, affirmative action leads to discrimination against the majority in favor of the minority.
In the case of Riccci v. DeStefano, a group of white people went to court complaining that affirmative action had been used to discriminate against them. This argument is based on the fact that some criteria for various actions are disregarded so that affirmative action could be applied.
Moreover, there are those people who argue that it would be better if merit and qualifications were the criteria used to give people various positions (Sharma 89). According to this group of people, affirmative action requires use of some features which people have no control over like, gender and race in selection of people. This is being unfair to other people who cannot change their background.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With or without affirmative action, there are other qualifications that must be met. These include academic or job experiences that one must have before being allowed to even attend an interview. In this regard, people have argued that affirmative action does not help people or women from lower classes but only those who happen to come from well to do backgrounds.
Minority and women from lower classes do not even have the opportunity of getting a good education that can allow them to stand a chance of being considered for interviews (Sharma 95). Consequently, some people have argued that affirmative action leads to further class discrepancies.
Another argument against affirmative action is based on the fact that people might be unwilling to work hard knowing that the affirmative action will favor them to get employed. Moreover, affirmative action will only increase racial tension because people favored by affirmative action will be viewed negatively by others.
Furthermore, other people argue that discrimination is illegal in law and each person will try as a much as possible to avoid discrimination on any grounds. With this in mind, affirmative action is useless since everybody is trying to use merit in choosing students or even employees. In addition, affirmative action is seen by opponents as some form of quotas which are not healthy to the society.
On the same note, the problem of discrimination on grounds of gender, race or any other factor is not present in any society nowadays, leave alone in American society. As a result, it is useless to use affirmative action to fight a vice that is no longer existent in society (Fischer 20).
Moreover, provided there is affirmative action in place their will still be some form of stigma to minority groups. As a result, affirmative action only helps to foster prejudices towards some groups of people. Arguably, people need to be evaluated as individuals and not as groups in which they belong. By and large, though affirmative action is linked to minority groups there is scanty evidence that the groups which need affirmative action really benefit from the same.
Not everybody is against affirmative action. There are people who have brought forward quality explanations of why affirmative action is essential to the society. Firstly, the society is made up of different racial groups some of which have been discriminated against for a long time now. Moreover, communities that are considered as minorities are increasing in number (Tittle 240). Whether we like it or not, these people will form our country’s workforce in the future.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Affirmative Action specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, it would help to equip everybody from now to ensure that the future workforce will be well prepared. On the same note, it is a fact that there are some communities who due to their racial background have been disadvantaged. These communities are unable to compete effectively because they lack the necessary qualifications. One way of assisting these communities is by addressing the historical injustices and finding a way of reversing the same. This is what affirmative action aims at doing.
Moreover, if the community does nothing, most institutions will be dominated by the majority groups. These will lead to further disadvantages to the minorities. Therefore, affirmative action is important to ensure that minorities are empowered by ensuring their representation in schools and work places.
In addition, ensuring a level play ground in itself will not help to give equal opportunities to everybody (Fischer 12). The major groups which have several advantages over the minorities will always have an upper hand. Therefore, affirmative action is very essential in helping people with various disadvantages thus ensuring that everybody has equal opportunities.
Opponents of affirmative action argue that race and gender should not be used as a basis for giving people opportunities. Proponents argue that affirmative action is not used to make employers and schools take unqualified people.
On the contrary, affirmative action is meant to ensure that minorities and women who qualify are given an upper hand in these institutions. Similarly, diversity in opinion which has been found to be very beneficial in any institution stems from diversity in composition of workforce.
It is important to note that diversity leads to ingenuity and competitiveness in the workforce. In this regard, affirmative action is very essential because if helps to foster diversity in selection. It is also evident that there is a huge gap in education, especially higher education, between whites and color communities. This gap can never be eliminated if deliberate measures are not taken to ensure that the minorities have a fair share of opportunities in institutions of higher learning.
Moreover, research at the Michigan University depicted that people needed exposure on how different races view the world in order to integrate with people without problems (Sharma 76). On the same note, people who have experienced diversity are more likely to succeed in life because they are more able to approach various problems from an objective perspective (Fischer 9).
It is, therefore, the argument of proponents that affirmative action is not intended to discriminate against the majority or be unfair to any group. On the contrary, it is meant to ensure that all people are pulled up to the point where they can be able to compete equally with other people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Affirmative Action by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Affirmative action has found great support from the government in form of policies as well as various decisions from the courts. In the case of Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), the court held that institutions can use race as a factor of admission to achieve race diversity in the composition of their students. This is because adoption of color blind policies will only favor white students due to the fact that they get exposed to education systems early in life.
In the case of Griggs v. Duke Power co., the court decided that the employment requirements were discriminating because promotions were not done fairly on the ground of job performance. The government also helped to enforce the affirmative action in 1979 when President Jimmy Carter issued an executive order which led to the creation of National Women’s Business Enterprise Policy (Tittle 253). This enhanced implementation of affirmative action thus enabling women to prosper in entrepreneurship.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is also among the measures that have been taken by the government to help in the efforts of affirmative action. This Act ensures that people with disabilities are given equal treatment as any other person during employment or promotion process. The review of affirmative action that was ordered by president Clinton in 1998 found that affirmative action is very crucial. However, the review suggested continuous evaluation to ensure that any negative effects are eliminated immediately.
It is important to note that there are also efforts to stop the enforcement of affirmative action. The most recent include the case of Fisher v. University of Texas. In this case the plaintiffs are arguing that they were discriminated against when they failed to get admitted to the university.
They are citing the university’s application of the affirmative action as the cause. The future of affirmative action in learning institutions depends on the ruling of this case. If the court overturns or affirms the ruling of Grutter v. Bollinger is matter that we can only wait to see. It is paramount to note that there have been successful petitions against affirmative action in the past. In the case of Hopwood v. Texas (1996), it was held that the university could not use race as a factor of admission (Sharma 117).
Opponents of affirmative action argue that it is ethically wrong to favor some people in society. The argument is that affirmative action is a way of punishing innocent people from majority communities who were not there when discrimination was taking place. Moreover, it is unethical to just wait until people are grown up to give them favors (Fischer 4).
From the time of birth, minority communities should be given equal chances so that they may stand a good chance of competing effectively with the others. However, it should be noted that there is everything ethically correct in trying to favor people who have been pushed to the back in various societal aspects. If people agree that segregation was ethically wrong and immoral, then affirmative action is ethically right because it addresses the effects of segregation.
The minority and colored people still comprise a very minimal percentage when it comes to various economic sectors. Unemployment rate among black people is double that of white people. There are still huge disparities in terms of education levels between Black-Americans and White-Americans.
The effects of segregation have not yet been fully addressed. Moreover, it has been depicted that without affirmative action these disparities will escalate.
Many people will avoid women workers or the disabled due to reasons well known to them. It is, therefore, important to have affirmative action in place to help in addressing issues that equality policies cannot be effective in tackling. Nevertheless, it would be vital to ensure that affirmative action policies are well formulated to minimize any negative effects that might arise.
Works Cited Fischer, Katharina. Advantages and Controversy of US “Affirmative Action” Concerning African-Americans. Munchen: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Print.
Sharma, Arvind. Reservation and Affirmative Action: Models of Social Integration in India and the United states. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publishers, 2005. Print.
Tittle, Peg. Ethical Issues in Business: Inquiries, Cases, and Readings. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2000. Print.
The Problem of Internet Piracy in Modern Society Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Online piracy is one of the major problems that the entertainment industry faces. Online piracy makes the industry lose billions of dollars annually. It has led to significant reduction in the number of music CDs that record labels sell annually. Record labels have undertaken several strategies to reduce online piracy.
Litigation against companies that engage in online piracy is one of the strategies that record labels use to reduce the vice. In addition, record labels have set up legitimate websites where customers can download music online. However, these measures have not been successful. The Pirate Bay was one of the companies that engaged in online piracy of music. The company enabled users to access an unlimited number of pirated content.
The Pirate Bay was primarily a business. Therefore, it had to make a profit to remain in operation. The company generated its revenue from advertisements. There were various advertisements on the company’s web page. Companies that advertised on The Pirate Bay’s web page paid a premium price for the service. Since most people who pirate music online are between the ages of 14 and 21, the advertisements were very effective.
This is because people in this age bracket are more responsive to various online advertisements. Therefore, the business model of the company is the advertising revenue. The Pirate Bay did not charge customers to download music from the site. In addition, The Pirate Bay did not store the pirated music. The company was a search engine that enabled its users to access pirated content expediently from other providers. This enabled the company to gain popularity quickly.
P2P networks that operate without corporate sponsorship may repackage and sell pirated content to generate revenue. The networks usually sell the repackaged content at prices that are much lower than the recommended market prices. However, P2P networks do not remit the payments they receive from their customers to the music companies that own the copyright for the repackaged content.
P2P networks may also sell subscriptions to private networks. Certain P2P networks may generate revenue by advertising to users of the networks through spyware and adware programs that have pop-up advertisements. Users download the spyware or adware when they download software from the company. The spyware and adware may send unsolicited e-mails from parties that pay for the service.
There are many social and legal implications of piracy. Various people argue that P2P sites deny musicians and record labels valuable income. This reduces the profitability of the record labels. In addition, reduced income may reduce motivation of artists and record labels. However, there are arguments against this opinion. Record labels do not benefit musicians.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their only aim is to make money by exploiting musicians. Musicians make a sizeable percentage of their income from endorsements and concerts. Therefore, it is wrong for the record labels to claim that they are protecting the music industry when in fact they are only protecting their own interests. Record labels should not shut down P2P sites since they are simply a means of accessing pirated music.
They do not engage in piracy directly. Shutting the P2P sites would not eliminate piracy. It would only make it hard for people to pirate music using P2P sites. However, people would ultimately find other means of accessing pirated content. The only solution is for the record labels to develop new platforms of promoting and distributing their music. In addition, record labels may target parties that provide pirated content to P2P networks.
The ruling of the Swedish court would not reduce illegal sharing of music files over the internet. In addition, the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision on sharing files over the internet would not reduce internet piracy in the US. The decision of the courts would make people devise new means of pirating music.
These methods may be more creative and innovative. This may make it hard for authorities to detect piracy. Therefore, the only solution is for record labels to develop new promotion and distribution channels that may help in countering piracy. Facebook and Apple are some of the companies that have developed innovative ways of distributing music. These companies have experienced tremendous success due to the innovative music distribution channels.
People who are more than 21 years old are usually more cautious than people who are much younger. This is because these people may have various responsibilities. Therefore, they would not like to engage in activities that would put them at risk. Therefore, legal action against people who engage in piracy may deter people who are more than 21 years old from engaging in piracy.
Legal action due to piracy may put their jobs or families in jeopardy. In addition, people who are more than 21 years old have a source of income. Therefore, they may be unwilling to download pirated content since they can pay for the original version. In addition, people who are more than 21 years old may not have time to search for pirated content, which is not easily available on the internet.
On the other hand, people who are between 14 and 21 years old may engage in piracy since people in this age bracket are carefree. They may not have a clear understanding of the consequences of their actions. In addition, people in this age bracket may download pirated content due to lack of money to buy the original versions.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Internet Piracy in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the modern world, record labels do not perform roles that justify their huge revenues. Record labels engage in the promotion and distribution of music.
However, technology has availed various tools that musicians may use to distribute and promote their work. Social media is one of the major technological tools that musicians may use to promote and distribute their music. The major advantage of these technological tools is that musicians would only use a fraction of the money that record labels would use to distribute and promote their music.
Various bands have launched their music careers using YouTube or other internet based platforms. These platforms enable artists to earn more income than what the record labels may be willing to pay them. Record labels still use the business models that they were using during the 1980s prior to the invention of the internet. Therefore, it is vital for record labels to embrace these tools. Failure to embrace these tools would make record labels lose their competitive edge in the market.
Piracy is one the problems that make the entertainment industry lose vast sums of money. It is vital for record labels and other legitimate companies in the industries to formulate new methods of promotion and distribution of copyrighted content. Suing companies and people that engage in piracy would not solve the problem. This may make the culprits devise more innovative ways of engaging in piracy. This would increase the severity of the problem.
Sylvia Plath’s poetry Essay best essay help
Sylvia Plath’s poetry, as many researchers have pointed out, is strewn with pictures of the holocaust. The influence of her personal life on her poems is self-evident as many of her works are semi-autobiographical in nature.
The influence of her father, Otto Plath, in her poetry is unmistakably clear (Butscher 3). Otto’s life and especially his death right before Sylvia’s eighth birthday left a profound imprint on her imagination and nurtured her style as a poet. The presentation and the poetics of torture so evident in Plath’s poetry, I believe, has stemmed from her personal life and her ancestry.
The connection between the private and the public that Plath so subtly made in her poetry has been critiqued handsomely in poetics research. Plath used her private live as a medium to make it a public show, where the personal dissolves completely, to form a ludicrous public show of the body (Butscher 11). Therefore, in this essay I will discuss Plath’s poems, Daddy and Lady Lazarus, where she uses death to recreate the self.
Both the poems are of confessional nature, are semi autobiographical, and meddle in the private life of the poet. The paper is arranged in three sections. First, it discusses the life and philosophy of Sylvia Plath. Second, the essay discusses the style of Plath’s works. Thirdly, it will discuss two of her poems that demonstrate a public show of the private life.
The first aim of the essay is to understand life of Sylvia Plath. She was an American born writer and poet of German origin. She was educated in America and then married the British poet Ted Hughes in 1956 and had two children. Her adult life was strewn with bouts of depression and her inclination to commit suicide.
She finally committed suicide in 1963. Plath gave birth to a new genre of poetry, which has been termed as confessional poetry. Both the poems discussed in the essay are confessional in nature with distinct features of the personal life of Plath being projected in the text.
The political and worldview of Plath must be mentioned in order to understand her poetry. Plath worldview was mostly influenced by postmodern philosophers like Nietzschean (Peel 42). Her political and worldview are intermingled not only her direct usage of political stance in her poems especially in Ariel but also demonstrates her fight with the “Other” in order to establish self-identity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many critics have viewed this fight as a personal and political battle that is distinctly her political view. The influence of the existentialist philosophy is also apparent in her search for self-identity through nullification of the other.
One of the biggest influences on Sylvia Plath’s poetry was Otto Plath, her father whose life must also be brought under the microscope to understand how far the influence of her father on her poems was, or were they actually a misinterpretation of too casual reading. Otto Plath was a German born in Polish Corridor. He then migrated to America in 1901 and settled in Boston with a teaching position at the Boston University (Butscher 6).
Plath’s mother, Aurelia, was an American of Austrian origin. Both of Plath’s parents grew up speaking German until the First World War when the surge of the patriotic Americans ended this (Travis 278). Both of Plath’s parents lived their adult life in America, especially during the rise of Nazism and the Second World War. He died of a gangrenous toe, and during the process of amputation, he died. These facts of Otto Plath’s life are distinctly suggested in the poem Daddy written in 1962:
Ghastly statue with one gray toe
Big as a Frisco seal
And a head in the freakish Atlantic
Where it pours bean green over blue
We will write a custom Essay on Sylvia Plath’s poetry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the waters off beautiful Nauset. (Plath Line: 9-13)
Plath compares her father’s toe with that of a “Frisco seal” and describes it to be grey in color directly indicating to her own father’s gangrenous leg as well as to his German origin.
Therefore, in a strict play of the private incidents such as the death of her father with gangrene and his German lineage are presented in the poem to actually demonstrate Plath’s abhorrence for her ancestry and therefore making a public show of it. There are other distinct references of her father’s German origin in the poem as in stanza eight of the poem we find mention of manifestly Austrian particulars: “The snows of the Tyrol, the clear beer of Vienna / Are not very pure or true” (Line 36-37).
Germany and Austria are two nations that share a common language, but are distinct. More importantly, Otto Plath does not seem to have any connection with Austria and the relevance of the lines in Otto’s life becomes unclear, as they are not explained further in the poem.
Images of oppression and the holocaust are replete in the poem as Plath uses words and phrases to describe the destruction in Nazi Germany: swastikas, barbed wire, fascists, brutes, devils, and vampires. Though apparent reading of the poem with little thought into its inner meaning would suggest that Plath’s poem is a “runaway train barreling through one psychic nightmare after the other” (Platizky).
Plath’s forceful vindictiveness against the father relates as a paradoxical need to return to him: “get back, back, back to you” (Line 59). However, on closer reading proves to be a conscious attempt to recreate a space for self, creating an identity that breaks away from the psychological imprint the father has on the poet.
Clearly, the poet wants to disassociate herself from the memories of her father whom she still loves and misses. This can be seen as a process of creating a self-identity through repeated emphasis of the pronouns such as “I” or “my”. In a way Plath clearly demarcates the demonic imagery of the patriarchy through the description of the holocaust and creating an identity of self where the self is the victim – “I think I may well be a Jew” (Line 40) – of the autocratic patriarchy.
Therefore, according to Roger Platizky, the poem can be read as a “psychological victory of the self over the other” (106). In the end, by metaphorically killing the father, Plath successfully kills the memory of him and creates her independent self. The poem demonstrates the recreation of the self through the death of the father figure.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sylvia Plath’s poetry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lady Lazarus too is a holocaust poem. Death again forms an integral part of the poem as has been observed in Daddy. Death in Lady Lazarus is projected like an art that her torturer, Herr Doktor prevents.
The poem tells the story of a woman on whom the Nazi doctor was performing experimental medication to resurrect her from death. The image of the doctor is that of the Nazi dictator. Here too we get significant reference to “foot” and “Jew”. In a way, Plath identifies with art as a means of prostitution – a means of earning – and death as the way of reviving the self. Theresa Collins points out that Plath uses the holocaust imagery to present the “controller’/controlled” relationship (156).
Mathew Boswell studies both the poems and writes that in both these poems Plath uses the imagery of the holocaust to describe the torture being inflicted on the narrators and it was through death (55). Lady Lazarus is a means of representation of the cannibalistic attitude of the Nazis thorough the strip shows that Lady Lazarus performs and her suicide in the end is a victory over the patriarchal control over the female flesh.
The speaker of Daddy internalizes the process of being a victim while externalizing her heritage. The speaker assumes a Jewish identity though there is mention of the mother in the poem. The poem initially sets to show the narrator as the victim of the torturous nature of the father figure and metaphorically compares him to the Nazis. The imagery of the holocaust sets the clear image of a torturous father in the mind of the readers.
The narrator takes the position of the victim in this poem, as was seen in case of Lady Lazarus, and talks of the overbearing figure of her father whose presence was crushing her identity. Therefore, there is a clear attempt to segregate the torturer from the victim with persistent repetition of the ‘you’ that recurs in the rhyme scheme of the poem. The narrator addresses Daddy, as the narrator calls to him, while she emphasizes on their separateness (Travis 278). There is no “we” in the poem it deals in only “you” and “I”.
Creation of a separate identity, of the self in the two poems is clearly demonstrated through the metaphor of death. Plath wrote both the poems just a few months before she committed suicide, and therefore, the idea of death was used a trope to show that the independent self can only be created by killing either the self or the other. Death becomes the main theme in both these poem through which one realizes the true self-identity.
Bibliography Boswell, Matthew. “‘Black Phones’: Postmodern Poetics in the Holocaust Poetry of Sylvia Plath.” Critical Survey, vol. 20 no 2 (2008): 53-64. Print.
Butscher, Edward. Sylvia Plath: Method and Madness. Tuscan, AZ: Schaffner Press, 2003. Print.
Collins, Theresa. “Plath’s Lady Lazarus.” Explicator vol. 56 no. 3 (1998): 156-158. Print.
Plath, Sylvia. Daddy. 12 October 1962. Web. .
Platizky, Roger. “Plath’s Daddy.” Explicator (1997): 105-107. Print.
Travis, Isabella. “‘I have always been scared of You’: Sylvia Plath, perpetrator trauma and threatening victims.” European Journal of American Culture, vol. 28 no. 3 (2009): 277-293. Print.
Equity in Men and Women Participation in Sport at College Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Raising funds, scholarships, and budgets in college sport should be carried out with consideration of talents, skills, and students’ aptness, but not with consideration of gender. Despite the existing legislature, there are a great number of stereotypes and prejudices that are historically and socially predetermined. The development of women’s sports dates back s to 1972, the time when Title IX has passed to enforce equality and fairness in funding sports.
Although this provision sounds noble and persuasive, many inconsistencies and unpredicted consequences arise on the basis of these regulations. Therefore, College should introduce complete equity in accessing sporting activities irrespective of gender because it can create wider opportunities for women to fulfill themselves, as well as justify the contemporary trends in gender equality movement.
College athlete programs fail to receive sufficient federal and financial support due to the ambiguity of the original law. Therefore, the government should take greater control of funding to ensure equal access of males and females to sporting activities. According to Title IX of Public Law,
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (No. 92-318).
Although this rule is officially recognized, there is no actual measures taken to introduce equal funding and budgeting for both male and female students studying at college.
Each person regardless of sex has the right to freedom and equality in self-expression and self-determination. Therefore, all people should be able to access any type of sport activities. Promoting equal funding will liberate women from false stereotypes and prejudices about their skills and abilities, as well as provide an opportunity for them to demonstrate strength and persistence in making decisions.
Therefore, such types of sports as basketball, football, box, or arm wrestling could even attract more spectators and supporters, which contribute to the prosperity of business in sport. Moreover, it can also attract more investors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gee, women can have similar changes to make contributions to sport in general because “American females brought home more hardware than did their male counterparts” (n. p.). These medals were won in boxing, which proves that college budget should be equally allocated among males and females.
Providing scholarship support both to male and female students can create underpinnings for exterminating gender discrimination, as well as providing new incentives for intellectual fulfillment. Ensuring sufficient financial support of female sports does not necessarily imply budget reductions in males’ sports.
As Carlson states, emergence and rapid development of women’s sports contributes positively to social change (n. p.). In particular, “female physical educators began to concede that sports participation improved, rather than harmed, the health of college women” (Carlson n. p.). Therefore, such an argument seems to the most persuasive reason for enhancing funding initiatives and introducing new standards to college sports.
In conclusion, college budgeting and funding activities should focus on equal allocation of financial resources to students, regardless of their gender. In fact, women’s constant fight for equality should not be confined to cultural and political fields because introducing improvements to sports sphere also promotes social change.
Hence, historic perspective and legal regulations approve women’s aspiration to participate in sporting activities because it significantly improves their physical health, as well as establishes new dimensions for self-expression and determination. More importantly, it can provide significant improvements to educational sphere as well because students should not restricted in the possibility to their reveal abilities, talents, and skills.
Works Cited Carlson, Christie. “Gender Equality in Sports Scholarships”, LiveStrong. 2011. Web.
Gee, Austen. “2012: Year of the Women in Athletics, But Is There Equality in Sports”. Policymic. 2013. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Equity in Men and Women Participation in Sport at College specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public Law, Title IX, No. 92-318, Stat. 235. Print.
Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Problems Facing the Electoral College
The Electoral College and Democracy
The Electoral College and Political Equality
The Risk of Faithless Electors
Introduction The Electoral College plays a very significant role in the United States’ presidential elections. It is the institution that determines who becomes the next president and vice president of the United States of America after every four years (Lipsitz 186). This implies that the United States’ president and his or her vice president never get directly elected by the voters.
The Electoral College is constituted by individuals who have been popularly elected to represent every state; they are referred to as electors (Burgan 17). The number of electors in each specific state is restricted by the number of Congressional members each specific state is allowed to have.
The Electoral College is an electoral system in the United States that was established through the Constitution of the United States; this was subsequently amended through the establishment of the 12th Amendment of the year 1804. Currently, the Electoral College is constituted by 538 electors each of whom has only one vote (Neale 2).
In order for a presidential candidate to win the elections, he or she must get a minimum of 270 of the votes from the members of the Electoral College (Belenky 100). If a candidate fails to get the 270 votes, the 12th Amendment is invoked so as to allow the House of Representatives to determine who become the president and vice president of the United States of America (Belenky 123). In this case, only a simple majority is required for a presidential candidate to win.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that there have only been two instances in which the House of Representatives has had to decide who becomes the president. The first one was in 1801 when Thomas Jefferson was elected as president by the House of Representatives; the second one was in 1825 when John Quincy Adams was also elected president by the House of Representatives (Belenky 149).
The Problems Facing the Electoral College The Electoral College has been faulted on various grounds. Many political scholars have extensively researched and written on the challenges faced by the Electoral College. In this regard, this literature review will consider the problems that the Electoral College faces with respect to the elections of presidents and vice presidents in the United States of America.
Therefore, it is worth noting the Constitution of the United States provides for a presidential election to take place among states and not among individual citizens. As explained in the introduction, each state is assured of a number of representatives to vote on behalf of its members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Electoral College and Democracy It is important to note that the United States of America is in the forefront promoting democratic governance not only within its borders, but also across the world.
In this regard, a number of scholars have examined the relevance of the Electoral College in promoting democracy in the elections of United States’ presidents and vice president. One of the scholars have presented two reasons he perceives as fostering the belief that the Electoral College system of presidential elections is undemocratic; the first is that it is fostered by the understanding democracy relates to what most voters need (Glenn 4).
According to the scholar, this contradicts the opinion of the founders of the Electoral College that “democratic” entails as much as conceivable popular consent with justice and the common good (Glenn 4). The second argument is that it is fostered by the belief that one-person-one-vote for presidential voting in every state is undemocratic since democracy means that there should be one-vote-one-value nationally (Glenn 4).
Many researchers contend that the Electoral College is one of the most criticized facets of presidential elections in the United States. In this case, it is argued that the rules used in determining a winner in the electoral college may be detrimental to the process of democracy.
In this respect, the rule requiring that a winner takes it all and the inevitability of winning a majority in the Electoral College perplexes many since it does not make the basis for elections based on popular voters’ decisions (Bugh 65; Oppenheimer and Edwards 231). In this case, the researchers have a common argument that the Electoral College does not allow for every American’s vote to count in determining who becomes the president.
This is because, as shown by Sanders (49), in some instances where a presidential candidate may get the majority of the popular votes but fails to garner the majority of the Electoral votes; conversely, a presidential candidate may fail to garner the majority of the popular votes but ends up becoming president by winning the majority of the Electoral College vote.
Therefore, it is clear that the foregoing researchers are in support of majoritarianism, which demands that the will of the majority prevails. The majoritarian theory is discussed in the next section.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some supporters of the Electoral College system have hailed its existence with respect to the promotion of the popular will of the people. According to them, the Electoral College makes the popular election process fairer to the interests of the small states; the small states are considered as geographical minorities within the United States. In this case, they argue that the Electoral College elects the United States presidents by wider and more diverse interests than would elections done directly by voters nationally.
Some scholars argue that the Electoral College system produces presidents who are more likely govern the country for the general good of the people. With respect to this, they further argue that the Framers of the Constitution provided the Electoral College system with regard to the fact claim that democracy is not based on the sole perception that democracy can only be preserved by the will of the majority. Therefore, it is argued that the Electoral College represents an amalgamation of the will of the majority.
It is also argued that the Electoral College strengthens the popular choice of American presidents. According to the arguments, this happens by encouraging greater voter support to the ultimate presidential winner. Based on this, the implication is that this approach produces a more democratic outcome than the process of choosing presidents through a popular voting system.
The conclusion that can be drawn here is that the Electoral College system produces a stronger democratic system than the popular voting system; this greatly contrasts with the belief of scholars who think the Electoral System is a distortion of democracy.
Therefore, the existence of the differing perspectives of the Electoral College and its relationship with democracy point to the fact that there is still a need for further studies to determine the role the Electoral College in nurturing and promoting democratic presidential elections in the United States. This is because there seems to be a lack of consensus among political scholars as to whether the Electoral College promotes or thwarts democracy within the United States’ presidential election processes.
Majoritarianism Model Political scientists have established many theories to explain the American democracy. One of the theories is the majoritarianism (Lijphart 141). However, the scientists provide a caveat that there no one single theory that can describe the American political aspects in totality. In this case, therefore, each theory can only describe or deal with a portion of American politics (Lijphart 149).
For the purposes of this review, the focus has intentionally been placed on the majoritarianism. Majoritarianism is the notion that collective decisions are made properly when they are a reflection of the will of the majority. Voting theorists argue that voting rules should satisfy the principles of majoritarianism. This is one of the reasons the Electoral College system has been criticized with respect to democratic presidential elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
Even though the majoritarian theory assumes that the government’s responsiveness to popular demands comes through mass participation in a political process, the theory views the participation within a narrow scope. However, the theory favors conventional voting in elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because, according to proponents of the theory, majoritarianism solely rely on vote counting so as to determine the will of the majority with respect to specific issues, especially the presidential elections. This means that its bias towards political equality is strong (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
However, it is worth noting that the majoritarianism has been faulted on various grounds. It has been criticized due to the fact that it has limited motivation; in this case, it does not allow resourceful individuals to exercise personal or private influence with respect to government actions (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008). Besides, it has also been criticized on the grounds that it limits individual freedom since it focuses on voting as the primary means of mass participation.
This subsequently limits the scope of the conservative political behavior by describing the political actions that can be regarded as logical and suitable. This means that even if a decision may be wrong, the mere fact that the majority voted for it necessitates that the decision is adopted or considered the most appropriate. Critics argue that this may not be good for a country (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).
The Electoral College and Political Equality Political equality is one of the grounds on which the Electoral College has been criticized. In this case, the main focus has been placed on rights and equality to participate in the political process of electing a president of the United States. Many researchers have reported that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have high chances of winning (Bond and Smith 345).
The distribution of electoral votes has also been seen as a problem with a significant challenge to the credibility of the Electoral College. Pundits argue that the Electoral College tends to favor the small states. It is argued that the total number of electors received by each state is determined by the number of representatives in both the House and Senate. In this regard, it is generally perceived that the small states are favored, to some extent, due to their statuses as states (Bond and Smith 347).
However, another scholar has argued that since the total number of electors for each state is a combination of the Senate and House representation numbers, the imbalance arising between large and small states is not as extensive as as it is in the Senate. In this case, the scholar argues that a small state with a population of about 600000 people has a similar representation as large states with, say, ten to twenty million (Bond and Smith 389).
Based on this argument, other researchers have noted that this kind of perceived favoritism suggests that some voters may be more important than others. It is noted that voters in the so called battle grounds receive more attention from presidential candidates relative to other voters; this scenario contradicts the commitment to political equality as defined by majoritarianism (Bugh 83).
In addition, there is another scholar who has argued that even in the states known as battlegrounds, the winner-take-all vote allocation is biased to those on the losing end. This means that the votes of those on the losing end do not count as far as determining who becomes the president of the United States is concerned; in other words, they can be described as wasted votes. The proponents of this argument suggest that there should be a proportional system of allocating electoral votes (Drachman and Langran 146).
Another study has revealed that the wasted votes have had the effect of low voter turnouts. This situation has been blamed on the Electoral College (Bugh 50). Researchers contend that the voter turnout in the United States has been lower than other Western democracies (Drachman and Langran 146). The argument in this case is that it is obvious that in more than half of the states where candidates are expected to win, voters have limited incentive to turn out and vote in a presidential election.
Another study shows that presidential candidates spend less time campaigning in those regions thereby reinforcing the claim of low voter turnout. Owing to the fact that the democratic theory places high value upon political participations, this scenario is viewed to be a setback brought about the existence of the Electoral College (Drachman and Langran 146).
Moreover, the other problem that faces the Electoral College revolves around the relationship between the Electoral College and the two-party system. In this respect, several researchers have collectively argued that the Electoral College has the propensity to promote the two major parties while attenuating the influence of third parties (Bugh 215).
In this case, the researchers have looked at the elections of 1992 where Ross Perot, a third-party candidate, garnered 19 per cent of the popular vote while not managing to get electoral votes to prove their argument (Bugh 215).
Furthermore, it has been considered that the “winner-takes-it-all” allocation of electoral vote has also had a significant contribution to the controversy affecting the Electoral College. According to a study, if the electoral votes were to be proportionately allocated, third parties would definitely be capable of receiving electoral votes, particularly in larger states where the threshold for securing electoral votes would be low (Bugh 228).
Another researcher has revealed that in the current system, third parties find themselves in a very difficult position (Bennet 27). This is based on other studies that have revealed that citizens worry about wasting their votes on parties and candidates who, for all intents and tenacity, have no chance of winning the elections.
The Risk of Faithless Electors Sometimes the Electoral College has electors who, for reason or another, may decide to vote against their party designated candidate; these are the electors who are referred to as the “faithless electors.” Available literatures show that there has been 157 faithless electors since the Electoral College was established (Bennet 95).
A researcher has observed that the potential for malice on the basis of an elector’s faithlessness has far reaching implications; according to his argument, this may extend well beyond the possibility that the Electoral College may tie or otherwise fail ensuring the required majority (Bennet 95).
This means that an elector’s faithlessness could result in entirely decisive outcome in the Electoral College. This is because an elector may decide to vote for another candidate or otherwise abstain from casting his or her vote. Political scientists agree that this kind of a scenario makes the Electoral College system to be a complicated election process (Green and Coffey 17).
This is because, according to various researchers, it may lead to the election of a minority president, who might not have garnered the majority of popular votes (Green and Coffey 17). This has been viewed by many commentators as being unfair to the American democracy. Such commentators argue that besides being unfair, the faithlessness of some electors prevents the members of a concerned state from exercising the right to participate in electing the president of their choice (Green and Coffey 48).
Conclusion The literature review process has pointed out a number of issues with regard to the problems facing the Electoral College. First, with respect to democracy, the outcome of the review process has revealed that there is no consensus among various scholars as regards whether the Electoral College promotes democracy or thwarts it. In this case, there are scholars who have argued that the Electoral College does not represent democracy in the United States.
These scholars have advanced the argument that the Electoral College system does not allow for the popular voting process to determine the president of the United States. In this case, they posit that the privilege has been given to the few who constitute the Electoral College. This has been seen to contradict the principles of majoritarianism, which is one of the prominent theories of democracies.
However, the review process has also revealed that other scholars consider the Electoral College system of election as representative of the will of the majority, which they consider as being in tune with the theory of democracy. This group of scholars argues that the electors are representatives who have been mandated by the people to represent them in the presidential election. This implies that the people exercise their democratic rights through their representatives.
In addition, the review process has also revealed that there are scholars who believe that the Electoral College system of presidential elections does not allow for political equality among the Americans. The review process has also revealed that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have chances of winning.
It is also clear that some researchers perceive the Electoral College as favoring the small states. There is also the problem of faithless electors who may not vote according to their party commitments; this has been seen as casting aspersion on the integrity of the Electoral College system.
Works Cited Belenky, Alexander. Who Will Be the Next President? A Guide to the U. S. Presidential Election System. New York, USA: Springer, 2013. Print.
Bennet, Robert. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.
Bond, Jon and Smith Kevin. The Promise and Performance of American Democracy. London, UK: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Bugh, Gary. Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities. London, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Print.
Burgan, Michael. The Electoral College. North Mankato: Capstone, 2007. Print.
Drachman, Edward and Langran Robert. You Decide: Controversial Cases in American Politics. New York, USA: Rowman
Jarir Bookstore Term Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Individual Project
The Major Issues
The Future Implications
Individual Project Introduction The government of Saudi Arabia adopted a new labor in 2012 that compels companies in the private sector to employ more Saudis than foreigners. The government adopted the new law in order to reduce the high unemployment rate in the country. However, the law is expected to have significant effects in various industries in the country because most companies depend on the labor supplied by foreigners rather than Saudis (Hamdan).
This paper will analyze the effect of this law on Jarir Bookstore, which is a leading retail company in Saudi Arabia. The company supplies computers, office equipment, and books among other products (Jarir). In particular, it will shed light on the risks associated with the legislation and the strategies that the company has adopted to overcome them. Additionally, it will highlight the future implications of the new law to the company and its stakeholders.
The Major Issues In November 2012, the government of Saudi Arabia enacted a new labor law that forces all private companies in the country to hire more Saudis than foreigners (Hamdan). This law was adopted against the backdrop of rising unemployment rate in the country. According to the new law, the number of Saudis working in private companies must exceed that of foreigners. Companies that fail to comply with this law are expected to pay a fine of approximately $640 annually for each employee from a foreign country (Hamdan).
Jarir Bookstore is one the companies that were negatively affected by the new labor law. In 2012, the company had more than one thousand employees who were working in its stores in Saudi Arabia (Jarir). 60% of the employees were expats from Asian countries (Jarir).
This means that the company had to pay the fine of $640 per foreign employee in order to maintain 60% of its workforce. In this regard, the operating cost of the company was likely to increase because it was not ready to absorb the extra labor costs associated with the fine.
Since its inception in 1979, Jarir Bookstore has focused on employing foreigners in order to reduce its operating costs. This strategy was based on the fact that expats demand lower wages than Saudis (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77). Thus, it is cheaper to employ foreigners than Saudis. In addition, most Saudis are reluctant to work in the private sector because the public sector pays higher wages.
Since the company operates in cosmopolitan cities within Saudi Arabia, it prefers to employ people with good command of English and other international languages in order to serve its diverse clientele effectively. In this regard, the company hires multilingual foreigners since most Saudis speak only in Arabic rather than international languages such as English. Thus, replacing the expats was likely to have negative effects on the competitiveness of the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resolution Even though the enactment of the law came as a surprise to the company, it had no choice but to comply with it in order to avoid the costs associated with the fine. In order to prevent disruptions in its operations, the company had to replace most of the expats in its workforce immediately. Almost 80% of the company’s workforce consists of frontline employees who are responsible for performing duties such as sales and fulfilling customers’ orders (Jarir).
Even though most Saudis are qualified to perform clerical and supervision, as well as, sales and marketing related duties, the company had trouble in replacing its frontline employees. This is because most of the new hires did not have the commitment that the expats had. Besides, most of them were fresh graduates from colleges and universities. Thus, they did not have adequate work experience that would enable them to fit into the organization without training.
In response to this challenge, the company had to review its staffing policies in order to hire the right people. In particular, the company had to identify the job requirements that new recruits had to meet in order to be hired. This included possession of excellent skills in areas such as communication, negotiation, and leadership (Jarir).
Moreover, the company designed and implemented training and development programs in order to enable the new recruits to acquire the skills that they needed in order to perform their duties effectively. The company has had to change its human resource policies in order to attract and retain the best talent from Saudi. This involved offering attractive remuneration packages, flexible shift schedules, and acceptable work environment.
In addition, the company implemented a performance-based pay system in order to motivate the employees and to improve their productivity (Jarir). A performance-based pay system involves rewarding employees who are able to meet or exceed their targets (Martin 75). At Jarir Bookstore, the employees were paid annual bonuses if they achieved predetermined conditions such as sales targets.
The Future Implications The new labor law has several future implications for the company and its stakeholders. To begin with, the company will have to look for alternative ways of reducing its operating costs. This is because it can no longer depend on cheap labor to maintain low costs. In this regard, the company is likely to focus on the use of modern technologies to reduce its operating costs in the long-term.
This will involve the use of technologies that reduce human involvement in the provision of its services. For example, the company has already established a sales and marketing website that enables it to reach its customers (Jarir). Thus, the company is likely to focus on online sales rather than the store model in future. This will help it to reduce the number of employees that it needs to serve its customers, thereby reducing its operating costs.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Jarir Bookstore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second implication is that the company will have to strengthen its employ retention programs in order to reduce labor turnover. This is because the competition for skilled labor is likely to increase as more companies comply with the new law in future. Labor turnover is often high in markets where companies are competing for the few skilled workers. This is because employees will prefer to work for the few companies that are able to offer high wages (Hartel and Fujimoto 96).
Consequently, the cost of acquiring talent is likely to increase significantly. The company can avoid losing its valuable employees by improving their commitment and job satisfaction. The third implication is that the morale of the employees is likely to reduce as the expats leave the company. Employees usually lose morale in their work when a large number of their colleagues leave the workplace.
This is because existing work relationships are destroyed and the remaining employees might not have adequate sources of support in their work (Hartel and Fujimoto 112). In addition, conflicts are likely to arise if the company is not able to integrate the new hires with the remaining employees. In this regard, the company will have to implement team-building initiatives in order to improve cohesion among its employees.
Finally, the new law will enable the company to improve its reputation in the country by providing jobs to Saudis. Currently, the company has a bad reputation in the country because its staffing policies favor foreigners. However, the company’s reputation is likely to improve as it begins to hire more Saudis as required by the law.
The Risks The implementation of the new labor law was associated with the following risks. First, the company was likely to lose its investments in knowledge and skill development as it replaced its employees from foreign countries. The company had already spent its scarce resources to train the expats on areas such as customer service, sales, marketing, and management.
The benefits of this investment such as creativity among employees were likely to be lost if a large number of the expats left the company. This would reduce the firm’s competitiveness by limiting its ability to engage in product and process innovation (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77).
Second, the company was likely to face disruptions in its operations if it was not able to find skilled Saudis to replace the expatriates. This is because the process of replacing employees who leave the company often takes a lot of time. Third, the company’s operating costs were likely to rise because hiring Saudis would increase the labor costs, whereas employing foreigners would attract high fines. High operating costs was likely to reduce the company’s profits, thereby limiting its ability to expand to other markets.
The strategies that have helped the company to overcome these risks include the following. First, company has implemented training and development programs in order to replace the lost skills and knowledge in its workforce (Jarir). These programs will enable the firm to improve the competence of new hires, thereby increasing its competitiveness in terms of ability to meet market needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jarir Bookstore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Second, the company has focused on reducing labor turnover in order to avoid losing its talented employees. This involves using intrinsic rewards such as promotions, as well as, extrinsic rewards such as bonuses to improve job satisfaction, motivation, and employees’ commitment. Finally, the company has embarked on cost cutting measures in order to absorb the high cost of hiring Saudis. This involves outsourcing processes such as transportation and logistics.
Conclusion The aim of this paper was to analyze the effects of Saudi Arabia’s new labor law on Jarir Bookstore. The new law requires private companies to employ more Saudis than foreigners. Jarir Bookstore focused on employing more foreigners than Saudis in order to reduce its labor costs.
The main effects of the law included increased operating costs and loss of skilled employees. However, the company is also likely to improve its reputation in the country by employing Saudis. The company has not only complied with the new law, but has also implemented strategies to cope with its negative effects. The strategies it has adopted include staff training programs, cost cutting measures, and staff retention schemes.
Works Cited Hamdan, Sara. Saudi Arabia to Fine Firms with too Many Foreign Workers. New York Times, 21 Nov. 2012. Web.
Hartel, Charmaine and Yuka Fujimoto. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Jarir. Company Profile. Jarir Bookstore, 31 Dec. 2012. Web.
Madhi, Salah and Armando Barrientos. “Saudisation and Employment in Saudi Arabia.” Career Development International 8.2 (2012): 70-77. Print.
Martin, John. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The focus of this essay is a business enterprise that would be involved in selling glasses and pitchers. The products can be used for various purposes among them putting beer, juice and water. Most people think that bars only sell beer but there are juice bars. A juice bar is a place where people who do not take beer can go and take different types of juices. One of the advantages of the products is that they are able to keep liquids cold for about one hour.
Location The location of a business is important since it determines its growth. This implies that before starting any business enterprise, it is important to identify a suitable location that guarantees satisfactory business growth (10 reasons to start a business, 2013). Our business would be located in the City of Vancouver. There are other locations where the business could have been established, but the City of Vancouver is the most suitable among them. The City of Vancouver attracts many tourists because of its good hotels and attractive sites.
In addition, tourists are always ready to use a lot of money and this would increase our profits. Apart from tourists, the residents of the City of Vancouver would find the product beneficial. The city is characterized by many bars and restaurants which need a high number of glasses and pitchers. In addition, the local residents like healthy drinks and milk. This implies that our products would fit well with the needs of the local residents because of their high consumption rate of fluids.
The business would be given time to stabilize within the first year before expanding it to other places outside the city of Vancouver. We would first carry out a market research to identify the most suitable locations where other outlets would be established. In the third year, we would spread the business to British Columbia because this would be a viable region where it would thrive well and grow fast.
Market Analysis The first thing in our market analysis would be our target customers. In this regard, we would first apply business to business strategy. Business to business strategy means that we would walk into local stores such as bars, restaurants and juice points where we would do presentations on our products.
This would popularize our business enterprise and provide local traders with adequate information about our products. In addition, we would offer free samples such as table mats with adverts about our products for the customers to get information about the products. Our second strategy would be business to customer strategy (Rodgers, 2001). In this strategy, we would make use of online platforms to reach customers directly. We would advertise through Facebook, YouTube and other online platforms.
The second item in our market analysis would be the image and special features of the products. It would be important to create a good image of our products by enlightening customers about the special features of the products. We would inform our customers about the plastic products that would be selling at reduced prices. One of the products we would offer our customers is tritan plastic which is used to make glass.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tritan plastic has many advantages over other products. To begin with, it has the ability to keep fluids cold for about one hour. It is also clear, a quality that makes it possible for the user to see what is inside the glass (Moore, 2008). Tritan plastic is lighter than glass and this makes it convenient to use. In addition, when tritan plastic is compared with polycarbonate, it is easier to transform into various articles with minimal energy and waste.
Apart from plastic products, we would also provide brosilicate which is used in the manufacture of glass products. Brosilicate glass has numerous advantages over other glass products. The first advantage of brosilicate glass is that it has the ability to tolerate extreme heat and cold. The second advantage is that it has a low level of thermal expansion. When compared with shattered glass, brosilicate glass is easy to clean in case it breaks. Finally, it is not easily affected by chemical corrosion.
Marketing Marketing would be an important activity for our business enterprise because it would inform potential customers about our products. The first marketing strategy would be visiting local businesses such as bars, restaurants and juice points to do presentations in order to popularize our products.
We would also include free samples like table mats with our products in our marketing strategy. The other marketing strategy that we would use is online marketing through Facebook, YouTube and other social sites in order to reach our potential customers. Our initial marketing would start at the City of Vancouver but after the first year, we would move to other places outside the city. The first location outside the City of Vancouver would be British Columbia since it would be a viable market for our products.
In order to reduce costs and shorten the marketing chain, we would apply direct sales. This implies that we would not hire any middlemen since the four members of our business enterprise would be enough to do the work. Our selling strategy would comprise of at least six or eight glasses plus a pitcher. The same strategy would be applied in our online marketing.
Sales Strategy Our sales strategy would be customer oriented selling approach which would start by establishing rapport with the customer. After a rapport has been established, the second step would be to determine situational factors and objectives of the customer. The third step would involve urging the customer to take an action because his objectives would be met by the product.
The last step in our sales strategy would be to obtain a commitment from the customer. The strategy would also emphasize customer advantage for him/her to see the importance of purchasing the product (Ranchhod, 2007). The competitive advantage for the customer must be read because failure to read it does not benefit customers. It should also be specific because this translates into a benefit for the customer. Competitive advantage is also supposed to be appealing in order to promote it to the customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management Our management team would be comprised of a marketing manager, a website manager, an operations manager and a financial manager. The marketing manager would explore available external opportunities, design marketing strategies, handle customer relations, ensure timely product delivery, manage budgets and come up with new marketing guidelines.
The roles of the website manager would include monitoring online marketing strategies, ensuring proper functioning of our website, posting important information on the website and communicating with customers online. The operations manager would supervise all activities of the organization, manage projects, work with customers and serve the role of a resource person in our business enterprise.
Finally, our business enterprise would require the services of a financial manager, who would raise funds for the business, allocate funds for different tasks, plan on how to spend profits and provide insights on capital markets (Role of a Financial Manager, 2013). The duties of the different managers would be clearly defined hence there would be no conflict of interest or misunderstandings.
References 10 reasons to start a business. (2013). Retrieved from https://startups.co.uk/10-reasons-to-start-a-business/
Moore, C. (2008). Managing Small Business. New York: Cengage Learning.
Ranchhod, A. (2007). Marketing Strategies:A Contemporary Approach. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Rodgers, S. (2001). Marketing Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques: A Handbook for Practitioners. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Role of a Financial Manager. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-financial-manager.htm
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Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Essay Proposal
Is price gouging justifiable?
What is the right thing to do?
Essay Proposal Calamities leave terrible and remarkable damages on people who are afflicted by them. Hurricane Sandy was particularly devastating to northeast residents in New Jersey. Apart from the conspicuous financial and personal damages left behind by disastrous emergencies, they also provoked political and bad economic grandstanding.
Any person who follows such grandstanding wonders whether it is fair for businesses- from those dealing with consumables to gas stations- to spontaneously hike their prices to earn windfall profits at the advantage of desperation of disaster-afflicted customers. Many will perhaps say no to the query especially those caught at the middle of the hurricane sandy, as price gouging not only seems illegal but also unethical.
Chris Christie, the New Jersey governor, was concerned that not all people in New Jersey held the above position. He warned that price gouging in the event of a disaster like hurricane sandy was illegal and one that attracted heavy penalties to culprits. Similar to the warnings issued by Chris Christie, Schneiderman, a New York based Antony, lamented that people need to look out for one another during emergencies.
Conceptualization of these lamentations creates an impression that price gouging is morally unethical. Unfortunately, this may not be the position for Keynesian economists. While some people like Chris Christie and Schneiderman may see price gouging in event of a disaster as a wrong profiteering endeavor, to these groups of economists, sudden price hike is merely one of the ways of realizing balance between demand and supply. Hence, price gouging is not wrong since it is simply an application of laws of demand and supply.
Considering the opposing positions of price gouging, this paper proposes to question whether indeed price gouging is right or wrong and whether it is just. Particular focus of the research paper will be dedicated to introspection of the perception of the business owners on the purpose for existence of their businesses especially on aspects of profit making endeavors showing how such perceptions relate to price gouging.
In the effort to deliver a research based on scholarly evidence, discussion of price gouging is based on various scholarly views of people on what constitutes justice. The essay will first lay fundamental grounds of research by discussing first what is right or wrong from the context of Sandel’s work: Justice: What’s the right thing to do? The essay will then proceed to discuss Libertarianism view of price gouging followed by Utilitarianism view of the same. Finally, Kantian perspectives on price gouging will be considered.
Annotated bibliography Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do?. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book lays down Sandel’s political philosophy. The author attempts to engage with difficult political philosophical issues in an open and honest manner. He argues that justice, as a chief determinant of what is rights or wrong to do is concerned with values, which are central to politics of states coupled with the law.
His discussion of justice is limited to pluralistic societies forming western civilizations. He does this through a balanced discussion of a three-facet approach to justice. These facets are communitarian, utilitarian, and libertarian dimensions of justice. Sandel does not contend with the arguments of these alternative justice theories. Rather, he engages criticism and commentaries whenever appropriate.
Criticism is the main methodology used to provide a balanced view of justice from the three theories. Sandel begins by outlining Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism theory followed by its criticism in the context of the refinements to the theory as postulated by John Stuart.
He then proceeds to scrutinize Robert Nozick’s Libertarian’s approach to justice followed by Immanual Kant’s categorical imperatives. Upon discussing the work of John Rawl and the concept of telos, which was raised by Aristotle, he begins to bring into lime light his own views on justice.
He maintains that, opposed to the view of justice as being autonomous, as Rawlsians and Kantians would suggest, it has a purpose and goals. Now, Sandel makes it clear that justice serves to limit certain actions of individual in the society: a view adopted by communitarians.
Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginal Law Journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.
Jonathan Wolff discusses the characteristics of liberaltarianism coupled with foundation that anchors it. He argues that libertarianism is anchored on the ideas of “minimal state, restricted to narrow functions of protecting citizens from each other (and for non citizens), and providing for the enforcement of private contracts” (Wolff 1605).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To him, this argument implies that libertarians presume that freedom from the state rules is accompanied by economic institution driven by perspectives of pure capitalism, which includes strong rights of private property.
This presumption helps to permit free competition among all potential goods and service producers. The article then proceeds to discuss two forms of libertarianism: deontological and consequential libertarianism. Wolff relates these types of libertarianism with theory of justice by claiming that libertarianism is based on “a strict doctrine of natural rights, violation of which is never permitted whatever consequences” (Wolff 1605).
If free market operation encompasses one of the elements that are protected by universal chords of freedom, based on the argument that people have the right to buy whatever on offer at any price or not, it sounds appropriate for price gouging to occur during periods of shortages. This would permit freedom of operation of market forces of demand and supply without state interference as Wolff Jonathan suggests in his approach to libertarianism.
Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education, 28.2 (2009) 391–402. Print.
This article introduces capability approach as a new approach of evaluating justice based on perspectives of individual wellbeing. The author argues that this approach diverges from the traditional approach of utilitarian view. He asserts, “instead of measuring well-being based on the accumulation of wealth and resources by individuals and nations, the capability approach focuses on the opportunities (capabilities) an individual has to choose and pursue a life they have a reason to value” (Hart 391).
She claims that, opposed to the approach of utilitarian which views justice as driven by normative ethics, which hold justifiable actions as those which foster maximization of utility through maximization of happiness and reduction in suffering, his capability approach views actions that foster good life for all and hence enabling human life to flourish as being justifiable.
The question that remains is, ‘Does price gouging promote happiness and reduce suffering for all people afflicted by disasters?’ From the discussion of utilitarian as offered by Caroline Hart, price gouging is nothing less than a mechanism of reducing equality among people. This claim perhaps may justify consideration of price gouging as illegal meaning that it is punishable by law. In this end, the law is a tool for enhancing justice for all.
Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the article, Cheng evaluates and critics Kant’s principles of justice. According to Cheng, “…duty to respect rights of others is the foundation of justice or equity” (345). In this sense, justice accrues from respecting other people’s perceived rights. While maintaining that justice is the foundation of Kant’s theory, Cheng says that generosity is not a requirement for justice nor should it have any role to play in justice.
In the context of the proposed research, price gouging may be seen from the context of Cheng’s work as unjust since it denies some people especially those who are less economically endowed in terms of their rights to consume products when prices escalate beyond levels, which they can afford.
On the other hand, maintaining low prices for products yet their supply is low makes a business owner sacrifice an opportunity for making more profit. Hence, retaining low prices implies that the business owner is more generous. This issue raises the dilemmas of what the right thing to do entails.
The Essay Is price gouging justifiable? The term Price gouging may be used in a variety of ways. In the casual sense, it means the rising of prices of service and goods to levels considered as unfair especially to the less economically endowed persons. In the legal sense, the term refers to the laws against taking economic advantage of people upon the occurrence of emergencies. This kind of price gouging may occur, for instance, when a disaster like a hurricane strikes destroying many business premises leaving behind few of them so that demand of commodities increases.
In the effort to meet the increased demand, business premise owners, for example, shop owners hike prices of the commodities. However, is this strategy the right thing to do? The overall focus of the essay is to provide a response to this query by exploring Libertarianism, utilitarianism views on price gouging, and Kantian perspectives on the same.
What is the right thing to do? Opposing the views of Libertarianism, Utilitarianism, and Kantian notions on justice makes the dilemma discussed by Sandel in his work Justice: What’s the right thing to do even more amplified when the work is interpreted in the context of price gouging.
The idea of dismissal of price gouging during periods of high demand in comparison to supply in the occurrence of disasters such as hurricane sandy as inappropriate is pegged on the perception and premise that people who sale goods at the escalated prices above ‘normal’ are immoral capitalists.
These people focus on taking advantage of people during times in which they are living below their means. From the utilitarian positions, the most appropriate ethical action is the one which “provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm” (Wolff 1611).
In the context of price gouging, the right thing to do is to set and maintain prices of commodities in a manner that ensures that they produce the utmost good and or do the least harm to persons afflicted by disaster-customers. This argument would mean that customers would have to compete in buying products whose supply is limited.
The repercussion of approaching the challenge of price gouging from the above perspective is that some people who have the capability and are willing to purchase certain amounts of products are not offered the right to do so by virtue of the fact that enough products will not be available in the market.
Hence, applying utilitarianism to justify the inappropriateness of price gouging suffers especially if justice is considered a way of ensuring that all people have their rights protected. While the utilitarian would take price gouging as unethical and immoral, libertarians would consider states’ interventions to criminalize price gouging as not justified, and hence inappropriate.
Libertarians “argue for the free market and strong individual rights to property, not based on an antecedent theory of justice, but in terms of the beneficial consequences such as wealth creation and efficiency that such arrangements may bring” (Wolff 1607). Therefore, the right thing to do is to permit free operation of principles of demand and supply.
During the times of need, demand must go up. Prices must also go up to ensure that people have accessibility to products depending on the extent and magnitude they need them. This strategy is perhaps not the right thing to do based on the utilitarian positions since it appears to foster growth of massive exploitation of needy people by capitalist. However, it qualifies to be the right thing to do since it also ensures service delivery to other people who actually need them more.
People inclined to the libertarian perspective of thinking would defend price gouging since, for instance, if the price of gasoline selling at $3 per gallon remains at the same price during the times of shortage, the market would remain open to persons who actually need it less. For instance, a person wishing to power a generator so that he or she can sell other products to needy persons will have to compete equally for the limited supplies of gasoline as anybody else would.
Consequently, failing to permit market to operate freely will lead to influencing negatively other areas of service delivery. This argument correlates with the Kant’s perception of justice as argued by Cheng, “we should Know our rights and rights of others so that we can render to others what we owe to them and let others render to us what they owe to us” (346).
In the example of price gouging with respect to the price of gasoline in the event of an emergency, the right thing to do is to permit the operation of the fuel market in a manner that will ensure that all people benefit. From the Keynesian perspective, this case cannot happen if the balance of demand and supply is interfered with through state interventions.
Raising the prices of goods and services when people are in desperation is considered illegal in many nations. However, looking at it from the angle that the right thing to do is the one, which delivers utmost good to all people, price gouging is necessary. In fact, people being driven by their capitalist interests in the occurrence of disasters will risk taking goods and services to disaster-stricken areas in the quest to earn above ‘normal’ profits.
In the process, supply would exceed the demand. From the economic perspective, prices have to come down. Consequently, price gouging helps to bring normalcy fast in disaster stricken areas. If this case would ensure that people obtain utmost good from the market fast enough, from utilitarian and libertarian perspectives, price gouging is appropriate after disasters strike.
Works Cited Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.
Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education 28.2(2009): 391–402. Print.
Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.
Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginia law journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.