United States Military As An Institution Essay Essay Help

Table of Contents Development of US Military since World War II

Comparison of American and British Army

US Army and Russia

Impact of the US Army on Individuals

Applicable Institutional Theory

Adaptation to Globalization

References

Development of US Military since World War II The American military has undergone a lot of changes since the Second World War. These changes have essentially brought about significant structural changes in the running of the institution, but a significant portion of it has been evidenced in policy operations because issues are no longer based on ideological passions or exogenous effects but on important nationalistic issues (Chapman, 2009, p. 6).

There are probably very few institutions in the world that are undergoing the same type of institutional self-examination as the US army (Chapman, 2009, p. 6).

The US army has essentially undergone changes after the Second World War because it has been primarily defined by the changing threats on the American population and interests globally. Initially, the institution had been prepared to deal with the threat posed by certain dictators (such as Hitler) on the security of the nation, but as time went by, the army has been dealing with the potential threat of a nuclear arms proliferation in the former Soviet Union and indeed the world over.

To minimize the threat posed by the former Soviet Union and other countries (in the accumulation of military arsenal), the US army has taken the role of a mediator to ease tensions existing between America and other nations.

Such mediation roles have been evidenced in forums such as the United Nations (UN), NATO and such like organizations or unions. Initially, America had taken a proactive role of engaging in world conflicts, such as the Second World War, but its role significantly changed to include the maintenance of peace in countries considered strategic for the realization of world peace (Chapman, 2009, p. 6).

With such goals in mind, it has become a first hand priority for the US army to try and quell humanitarian concerns across the globe and establish peace; as can be evidenced in the Kosovo invasion where the army invaded Yugoslavia to ease the humanitarian situation in the province.

However, in the 21st century, the US army has been more concerned with other objectives, but closely related to issues regarding world peace. Specifically, the army has been primarily concerned with eliminating the threat of terrorism in the world and because of these concerns; the army has been proactively engaged in most terrorism wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Taliban areas where the institution has been trying to eliminate terrorist networks and minimize the threat on state security.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because of these reasons, the army has build networks and bases in other countries; something which was not common with past military organizations (Chapman, 2009, p. 6). For example, the war on Iraq was a combined force by the British and American forces. Due to new emerging threats, the intelligence system of the army has been further strengthened and the army has become more modern to deal with the increasingly changing threat of terrorism; which is especially perpetrated through Information technology.

Through the advancement period after the Second World War, the US military has also increased in numbers and is now more well equipped than it was ever before to tackle modern national threats.

The army has been able to modernize its equipments including jet fighters, naval warships, tankers and the likes but more training has also been undertaken on new and existing personnel to tackle new threats and operate ultramodern equipment. In the same context, a lot of military training has been done on existing personnel to better orient them with technological developments which are regarded essential for the institution’s relevance in the 21st century.

Comparison of American and British Army There are some major appalling differences between the American and British army which can be seen through the wars they have fought together or against each other. For starters, unlike the American army, the British army is more negotiation friendly (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51). Reports have been cited across the spectrum; of American soldiers adopting a “rigid” stand when engaged in military combats alongside the British army (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51).

The anti-negotiation sentiments have even infiltrated into the military ranks and therefore the military commanders have a strong sense of control over their subjects. Some observers have noted that this strong anti-negotiation stand comes about because of the superiority of the American army when compared to other military institutions across the globe (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51). One unnamed British commander who experienced such US army sentiments in the Iraq war says:

“We managed to get on better…with our European partners and at times with the Arabs than with the Americans. Europeans chat to each other, whereas dialogue is alien to the US military… dealing with them corporately is akin to dealing with a group of Martians” (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 52).

From these assertions, it is therefore correct to say that the US military adopts an anti- negotiation stand when dealing with its partners and is more bureaucratic than the British army is.

We will write a custom Essay on United States Military as an Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With regards to training and recruitment, the British military is seen to be better prepared than the American military, in aspects such as soldiering skills and recruitment baselines, because for one to become a British military personnel, he/she does not have to be British because the institution leaves it open to all commonwealth members to join the army (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51).

The British soldering skills are also ranked as one of the best in the world but their relative progression in technology is seen to lag behind the American’s (Martell, 2010, p. 259). Finally, when analyzed in terms of dynamics and discrimination, the British army is often observed to fair on much better than the US army. In fact, the British army is regarded as friendlier to other races than the US army because they are better at heart than the US (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51).

For instance some cosmopolitan regiments like the Royal Regiments of the Fusiliers encompasses a number of people from divergent backgrounds, thereby forcing the members to treat their colleagues better, like in pastoral care, and the likes; however, such treatment is rarely observed in the US military (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51).

US Army and Russia The US and Russian armies have found themselves in compromising positions of war, especially in the cold war era, which if it were left unregulated, would probably have led to the first all-nuclear blown out conflict.

The Russian military is termed as one of the best militaries in the world and it is relatively better equipped with military arsenal than the US. In fact, some observers point out the fact that even if the US and its NATO allies were to fight the Russians, they would lose the war because Russia probably has more than double the number of nuclear weapons the US and its NATO allies combined posses (Gerace, 2004, p. 121).

The military history of both countries (the US and Russia) is quite brutal but little is known of Russia’s strength because most of its operations have been kept secret and this explains the relative “respect” both military institutions have of each other. Even though some quarters claim that the US is much stronger in technological development, the Russian military as an institution has a stronger sense of command and its strong communist sentiments has infiltrated into its operations to give it more stability (Gerace, 2004, p. 121).

However, in terms of institutional strength, both military institutions seem to be on the same level because the US, for example, has better adopted technology than the Russians have, but the Russians are better equipped quantitatively. For example, it is said that the Russian forces has the world’s largest air forces and the second largest navy (Gerace, 2004, p. 121).

Impact of the US Army on Individuals The US military affects individuals in many ways. However, the biggest influence is evidenced in the change of attitude of most of its military personnel, especially when they retire and have to fit back into the society. Many at times, ex military men have been seen to be more emotionally abusive than other people because of the effect of endless years of military training on their psychological development.

Not sure if you can write a paper on United States Military as an Institution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, official statistics expose a partner violence prevalence rate among military men at between 8% and 10.5%, with most of the cases reported among married couples who often beat abuse or even kill their spouses (Diamant, 1993, p. 84).

Another common area that the military as an institution affects individuals is the exposition of its members to increased risks of injury and death. Often, many military personnel have been forcefully retired from the armed forces after suffering severe injuries which often inhibits their performance of the army and so they have to be integrated back into the civilian population. Some of the most severe forms of this injury lead to amputations during treatment and many of such victims have to spend the rest of their lives in psychological trauma, in addition to coping with a change in livelihood and lifestyle.

This not only has an effect on the victims but also family and friends who probably depend on such people for their sustenance. Some of the worst cases have seen a loss of livelihood and successful or unsuccessful suicide attempts; despite the fact that the army tries to take care of its ex. military men and war veterans through long-term financial compensation, health insurance and the likes.

However, on the positive side, the US army as an institution has some positive effects to individuals because it teaches them basic life skills like survival in worst humanitarian situations through the inculcation of the will to persevere. This kind of perseverance among military men and women can therefore not be compared to ordinary citizens’ because it is obviously higher, thereby increasing their chances of living a longer life.

At the same time, the military teaches its people to apply basic survival skills, even in the general community where they come from, to cope better with hard situations if they are ever faced with such. For example, some wings of the military are specialized in vehicle maintenance, water treatment and other life skills which can be applied even in the civilian world. This therefore means that most military men find their services of use not only in the war set up but also in the civilian setting.

In close relation, the military instills a sense of discipline to its members which enables them to be much more organized than ordinary people are. Discipline here should be analyzed in a dynamic way because it spills over into basic spheres of life like financial management, use of daily time, exercise, indulgence into drugs, personal grooming and the likes. These skills are important even after military life and it enables such people to have a deeper sense of well being than ordinary people.

These factors withstanding, the US army as an institutions can be minimally changed to avoid the negative effects it has on individuals because some of the positive or negative effects are either necessary or unavoidable.

However, more can still be done in minimizing the negative effects of military training and combat experiences of ex. military men and civilian members (who are also dependant on such people); especially when situations of death, injury, trauma and such like eventualities are witnesses through mandatory counseling of both family members and military personnel, or through an increase in financial compensation to the family members of those affected.

Comprehensively, the army should look into the welfare of its existing and retired service men and women, not only in their life at the institution but also in their lives out of the institution.

Applicable Institutional Theory The working of the US military can be further explained through the institutional theory because it defines the resilient aspects of institutional workings and considers the process by which structures, including schemas, rules, norms and routines become part of the social system, defining how the institution works. In addition, the theory outlines how these facets of institutional development are usually created and diffused to become the norms of the institution (Warburton, 1999, p. 157).

The institutional theory outlines that institutions often conform to laid down belief systems, rules and norms in the organizational environment, so that they can obtain legitimacy in the eyes of their peers. This fact can be used to explain the bureaucratic form of the US military as was analyzed when comparing it to the British military.

This is true because in conventional military organizations, the chain of command is usually respected by all military personnel, starting from the commander in chief (who is usually the president), down to the unit commanders. This type of system is usually replicated across many military institutions to better streamline the functions of the institution and to better fulfill its objectives.

Also, since the US army is operating in a very diverse institutional environment, the institutional theory outlines that the dynamism is bound to create a lot of pressure to the institution and in turn, it is bound to experience significant influences in its competitive strategies (Alexandrou, 2001, p. 51).

Because of this reason, the US army has been seen to develop technologically and build stronger and more efficient equipments to effectively carry out its mandate of protecting and serving the citizens. This is also the reason why the US army is seen to be one of the most technologically developed across the globe because there is an increased pressure to remain competitive in the face of changing military balances and changing world threats.

From the analysis of the institutional theory we also deduce the fact that in light of competitive pressures, various institutions adopt divergent strategies to react to these changes, and in this context, we see how the US army has revolved to increase its military numbers and improve on its training methods. This explains the training and increase of military numbers since the Second World War because there has been an increased need to have more military strength in the face of increasingly dangerous enemies.

The difference can also be seen on how other military institutions across the globe have reacted to the changing institutional environments; for example, the Indian and Pakistan military forces have been developing deadlier weapons (nuclear weapons) while other forces have dedicated more of their time strengthening their naval forces, like the Russian army, but the US has invested more resources by increasing its military spending to improve the level of technological utility in its war tact.

Adaptation to Globalization In the past few decades, the level of interconnectivity of social, economic and technological forces has tremendously increased, to shift institutional paradigms to new levels of engagement. In this regard, the US army has changed its strategies because, the security threats it seeks to eliminate have also changed in the same way (Kugler, 2010, p. 21).

Also, in this regard, the US military has changed the way it employs force when engaged in wars. Most importantly, it is crucial to note that globalization has reduced the utilization of force in solving international conflicts and the US army has acknowledged this fact by seeking new ways of engagement. This is true because globalization has redefined the core competencies of the armed forces by redefining the institution’s core missions and objectives.

In the past, the core mission of the armed forces had been to protect American citizens and interests from any external attack or influence but due to global forces, the mandate of the US army is broader, comprehensive and indeed more subtle than previously thought (Warburton, 1999, p. 157). For example, in the wider union of the NATO allies, the US army has an obligation, under NATO to support its NATO allies in military combat whenever they are faced with national threats on security.

At the same time, the military under certain world bodies such as the UN has a duty to maintain peace across the globe, for example by assisting in humanitarian efforts or even acting as a mediator between warring factions in international conflicts. In this regard, the roles of the US army have been more holistic and now stretch beyond American interests.

The US army has also had to critically think of the impact of using military power on opponents by considering the impact of globalization on such conflicts. Since globalization has intertwined the interests of various nations across the globe, it has become increasingly difficult to autonomously make decisions regarding military actions on other nations because third party interests are to be considered (Warburton, 1999, p. 157).

For example, The US army cannot make a unilateral decision to carry out military attacks on a country like Lebanon because that decision has to go through the UN Security Council and approved by other nations before it makes such a move.

However, chances of other nations approving military engagement are often minimal and this explains why the use of military force has been reduced with the advent of globalization.

In this regard, the US army has had to contend with a more inclusive decision making process because it has to consider the interests of other nations in carrying out military actions; if for example, the US wants to carry out aerial strikes on Iran, for example, it would have to consider any other relevant interests like Japanese interests or investments in the nation, Chinese investments and the likes.

It is therefore very difficult for the US military as an institution to enjoy the same kind of autonomy it used to enjoy before globalization took effect. This therefore means that the US army has to be more flexible and pro-dialogue with other nations before it carries out any military actions.

References Alexandrou, A. (2001). Human Resource Management in the British Armed Forces: Investing In The Future. London: Routledge.

Chapman, B. (2009). Military Doctrine: A Reference Handbook. New York: ABC-CLIO.

Diamant, L. (1993). Homosexual Issues in the Workplace. New York: Taylor

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Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence Research Paper essay help free

Introduction Discussion

Several theories have been explained by philosophers in attempt to prove that God exists. However, it is important to defend faith by first beginning to understand the fact of the existence of the world as a way of proving existence of God. Such lines of arguments are referred to as “cosmological” arguments (Thompson 284). My objective in this paper is to state and explain St Aquinas’s five ways on proving the existence of God.

Thomas Aquinas was a Christian theologian of the thirteenth century who applied Aristotle concepts to Christian theology. He endeavoured to devise a rational proof of existence of God by incorporating in part, upon conjectures of Aristotle that there must be a first cause (Owen 14). The first cause was the prime cause for creation. Initially, he devised five ways to prove existence of God; however, the first cause was termed by Thomas Aquinas as one which proceeds from the movement of sensible things.

The argument St. Thomas gives from motion had long and varying history. In regard to that history, it would seem at initial glance to be anything but an easy and manifest prove that God exists as Thomas understood as a Christian. The paper begins by reviewing literature related to Thomas Aquinas and the Proof that God Exists by examining (Owen 16).

A Review of Related Literature Cosmological Argument for God’s Existence

Cosmological arguments are arguments presented to justify the existence of God. St Thomas Aquinas finds it useful to defend faith by presenting a way of proving that God’s existence emanates from the fact of existence of the world. The term cosmological refers to as ‘based on the fact of the cosmos’ (McKeon 14). The term has to do with cosmology a branch of metaphysics concerned with the universe as an orderly system. Obviously, the world exists and yet cannot explain its own existence. As such, something else must account for it. But, if we still don’t develop another unexplained existence of some kind, this “something else” must have within itself the cause of its own existence. Such example of an uncaused being is God (Thompson 284). This simple explanation provides the essence of cosmological argument; however it is enhanced and made logically defensive when stated more candidly. St Thomas Aquinas developed five ways of explaining the existence of God. The first three arguments are cosmological in nature (Wadia 54)).

The First Argument from Change

The first way of proving God’s existence is the argument from change. St Thomas thinks that our senses indicate without doubt that some of the things in the universe are changing. In essence whatever change must be caused to change by something other than itself (Thompson 330).

As a Christian theologian, Thomas embraced the concepts advanced by Aristotle to explain God’s existence. The argument when looked at in this way has its sources in physics and metaphysics (Thompson, 410). In physics, proof from motion seems to reach nothing further than a celestial soul.

In metaphysics, Aristotle’s demonstration arrives at a plurality of separate substances, each of which, although act without any mixture of potency, is nevertheless a finite entity. His argument in either case, that is, both physics and metaphysics, does the result of the proof at all resemble the Christian God (Thompson 284).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Prima Via structure in the Summa Theologiae is remarkably clear (Reinchenbach 30). Its beginning point is situated in things of the sensible world, things which are evidently perceived through sensation to be in movement. Thomas Aquinas gives examples of fire heating wood and hand moving the stick which pushes something else. Analysis of this movement of sensible things reveals emergence of two successive propositions (Thompson 318).

In the first proposition, whatever is being moved is being moved by another; and second that an indefinite series of movents that are being moved cannot account for this motion. The conclusion from the analysis of the movement seen in sensible things is therefore that there is a first movent which is not being moved by anything, and this is all understood to be God (Wadia 420).

Accordingly, St Thomas constructs the arguments as follows: first, the starting point where some things in the sensible world are being moved; second, propositions where whatever is being moved is being moved by some thing else.

In addition, an indefinite series of moved movents cannot account for motion; and three, the conclusion where there is a first movent which is not being moved by anything at all, and this is understood as the existence of God (Wadia 416). The first of the two propositions emerges from a metaphysical examination of the movement witnessed in sensible things.

It is not agreeable in any a priori way, either analytic or synthetic, but is reached as a conclusion from what is seen happening in the sensible world. Thomas Aquinas reasoned with an evident example before his mind. “A piece of wood which is cold is being heated by a fire. The movement in this case is alteration, change in quality. Insofar as the wood is being moved from cold to heat, it is in potency to being hot.

This is at once seen to be the necessary condition for being moved. The thing that is being moved has to be in potency in the same respect. So nothing can move itself. If it is being moved, it is being moved by something else. The basis of this argument is that the act is something over and above the potency, something more than the potency, and so has to come from something which already has or is that act (Reinchenbach 96).

The Second Argument from Causation

The second proposition follows from a continuation of this study of sensible movement in terms of act and potency. If that which is causing the motion is thereby being moved itself, it is also necessary being moved by another. If this third is also a movent that is being moved, it is likewise being moved by still another. But one cannot proceed this way indefinitely, for there will be no first movement. Therefore there must be a first movent which is not being moved by anything; and this is all understood to be God (Fredrick 64).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quite evidently, this evidence derives its force from the doctrine of act and potency explained in the proof of the first preposition. Anything that is being moved does not have of itself the act towards which it is being moved. So in an indefinite series of moved movents, none would have the act of itself.

Therefore, such a series would never be able to account for the motion. Since there is sensible motion, then there must be something which of itself is act, in the sense that it is in no way being actualized by anything whatsoever in causing the motion. Such a movent, Thomas notes without least hesitation, to be understood by all to be God (Fredrick 62).

In sum, Aquinas argues that there must be something on which this entire causal order depends for its existence. To him, God is this first cause who makes things to be and sets them in motion in turn makes other things to occur. It is therefore important to note that for Thomas the strict idea of temporal beginning of creation, as distinct from its eternal dependence on God as its first cause, cannot be derived from the basis of human reason, but must rather, come from revelation (Wippel 323).

Aquinas Argument from Contingency

St. Thomas third argument of contingency has become synonymous specifically as cosmological argument. He viewed it as an observed fact that some things have a start and an ending. These items are thus capable of either to exist or not to exist. This implies they are not necessary but contingent.

For if these things were necessary, they could not have had both the beginning and the ending. This leads to the conclusion of the presence of the necessary being to cause contingent beings; if not nothing could exist (Fredrick 60). Reichenbach (1972, 19-20) provides a modern angle of this argument when he states:

A contingent being exists. This contingent being is caused either by itself or by another. If it were caused by itself, it would have to precede itself in existence, which is impossible.

Therefore, this contingent being is caused by another, that is, depends on something else for its existence. That which causes (provides the sufficient reason for) the existence of any contingent being must be either another contingent being, or anon-contingent (necessary) being.

If then this contingent cause must itself be caused by another, and so on to infinity. Therefore, that which causes (provides sufficient reason for) the existence of any contingent being must be either an infinite series of contingent beings or a necessary being. An infinite series of contingent beings is incapable of yielding a sufficient reason for the existence of any being. Therefore, a necessary being exists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We note that both Thomas and Reinchenbach’s forms of arguments commence with the existence of a contingent being. Contingent beings are vividly described by St. Thomas whereas Reinchenbach does not as it is an assumed fact that such exists. They postulate that a being that is contingent is one that doe s not need to exist.

In other words, it does not have the cause of its existence within itself, but relies for its being upon one or more other things. Contingent in terms of explaining God’s existence can be proved on the basis of time and change. All that exists in nature survive in the context of time (Reinchenbach 20).

Consequently, everything existing time undergoes change. In case change does not happen, imperatively, time has not elapsed. In other words, everything in nature undergoes changes. Nevertheless, everything that changes does so because it is affected by other things. If it had its various forms all together within itself, all these forms would exist at once, and in essence no change could happen. Thus, since everything that is affected by other things is contingent, everything in the universe is contingent (Thompson 312).

As a result of everything contingent being caused by something else, every being or item had to have a cause when people them in the natural realm. When people locate this cause, it is contingent and thus has a cause. This process may continue to infinity and still have a series of caused beings.

Because none of these could cause itself, none could exist unless there were anon-contingent being. Such a non-contingent being has its own cause in itself, thus is different from the other beings in that it must exist. In sum, it is possible to prove the existence of a non-contingent being because contingent beings exist (Ariel 298).

Aquinas third way differentiates between necessary and contingent beings. Human beings for instance, are contingent beings which come into existence and which can cease to exist. However, St Thomas argues contingent beings can only come into existence if they are caused to do so by an original cause of being whose existence is there as a matter of necessity.

Aquinas claims as before that this idea of a necessary being is what people refer to when speaking of God. Cosmological argument also offers distinction between existence and essence. For instance, the essence of man consists of all properties that make him a man, that is, his characteristics (McKeon 434). The properties that make the individual man do not make him exist. Therefore, a man’s essence is separate from his existence, and he is a contingent being.

Essence and existence in the eyes of God are identical. In other words, the essence of God is existence (Owen 14). God is a necessary being since it is God’s very nature to exist. God offers His creatures existence. However, the existence that he provides to them, though real, is not self existence like His own, but contingent existence (Thompson 345).

Argument of God’s Existence from Degree of Perfection

St. Thomas fourth proof of God’s existence is extracted from hi argument found in finite objects. He postulates that some things appear to be better, truer, nobler compared to other things. Every individuals has the ability to rate specific objects to be superior or more superior to other objects.

However, the degree of perfection can only be determined if there exists a being that is more perfect. To insinuate that something is more perfect than something else is to concur that it more closely approximates the perfect. In affirmative, the perfect must exist (Caputo 686).

Aquinas fourth argument observes values in human beings such as beauty, goodness and truth. He inquires where such things come from. He argues that existence of such values means that something must exist that is the most good, beautiful and true and this brings such human values into existence. Infact, that something is God who is the perfect and original cause of these values (Caputo 680).

Aquinas’s Argument of God’s Existence from Design

In this way of explaining the existence of God, St. Thomas argues that there exist clear signs of design within what terns as natural order. According to him, things don’t just occur; they appear to have been designed with some form of purpose in mind. This aspect of nature has been examined often in relation to natural sciences.

The orderliness of nature evident, for instance, in the laws of nature, seems to be a sign that nature has been designed for some purpose. It essentially for this point that naturalists approaches to science especially those that argue that matter possesses an intrinsic capacity to organize itself, are viewed as such a threat by some modern Christian apologists (Southgate 52).

Aquinas’s design argument became popular following the scientific revolution. The universal law of gravitation and laws of motion by Sir Isaac Newton suggested a mechanistic universe, carefully designed with a purpose in mind.

However, the weaknesses of this argument were philosophically exposed by Hume David who intimated to the degree of disorder or natural evil in the world as a significant countervailing fact. It was also exposed by Charles Darwin when he provided an alternative explanation of apparent design of the natural world in his evolution theory by natural selection (McGrath 182).

Aquinas viewed creation as both depending on God for its existence at every moment, but as also having been granted its own integrity to unfold according to its God given nature through the action of secondary causes striving, under inspiration change drawn from God’s spirit, too attain their desired end and fulfillment in God.

The fifth way views the intelligent design in the world, that is, things seem to be adapted with certain purposes in mind. The source of this design or natural ordering must, St. Thomas reasons, in be some intelligent being, God, who works out God’s purposes in creation (Southgate 52).

With his arguments for existence of God, Thomas developed the concept that nature had purposes deriving from God’s design. These purposes did not only offer evidence of God, they also provided a natural revelation of the end of creation. Thus, the eternal law of God is revealed in divine law through the scriptures and in natural law, reflected in the nature of creation itself.

If every part of creation naturally tends to seek its natural end or good, in the case of human beings this takes particular form in the search to know God and to construct an ordered society reflecting the well being of God’s good order. In constructing such a society, in addition to biblical commands, natural law means that human beings can identify universal and eternal moral standards.

Human law is therefore laid on these moral standards, and indeed the natural law provides a framework for laws in specific situations. The advantage of this is that it offers the opportunity of agreement on international law across different countries and cultures. This is evidenced in the role it played in developing concepts such as just war theory.

Objections to Cosmological arguments

Cosmological arguments received a number of objections from various philosophers. Kant Immanuel and others are among those who have objected that Aquinas cosmological arguments are depended upon ontological (Runyan 56).

According to objectors of cosmological arguments views, they eliminate cosmological arguments as an independent proof. Kant noted that the argument proves the existence of a necessary being. He however, alleged that it relies upon the ontological argument to indicate the properties of that being are those of God (Ariel 298).

Reichenbach on the other hand objected to this argument. He intimated that Kant classified cosmological argument into two categories; one, which Kant contented to be sound to prove existence of a necessary being, and two, which Kant claimed to, disagree, indicates that this being is God (Reichenbach 142).

Works Cited Ariel R. Theistic Proof and Immanuel Kant. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1974.

Caputo, John D. Kant’s Refutation of the Cosmological Argument. Journal of American Academy of Religion, 1974, 686-691.

Fredrick, Copleston B. A History of Philosophy. New York: Image Books, 1962.

McGrath A. Christian Theology. New York: Wiley

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Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

One of the most outstanding poets of the XX and XXI century, Rita Dove, has created many beautiful pieces of poetry that show the world as it is – bare, but beautiful, like Venus the goddess appearing from the deepest of the sea.

Because of the talent of the poetess, the world that people live in has taken a new shade of unreal and shown its natural beauty to the people. The question is, how on earth does this woman make the words speak so sincere and tender? “Dove,” a poem of hers, might give the readers a clue about this astonishing riddle.

A poem that touches the very depth of the soul and makes the heartstrings ring with the sudden wistfulness, it tells a story of the horrifying cruelty that can lurk in the depth of the island and come into the light suddenly, grasping people and causing them to die.

A terrifying dictator, Rafael Trujillo, who ordered to kill the local people that could not pronounce the letter “r” in “Perejil”, Spanish for parsley, is the blind and scary force that lurks in the depth of the poem, making it so tense and making shivers run down the reader’s spine.

One of the most curious questions is how come the author makes the words sound so intense and provocative, yet lulling the audience into the rhythm of the exotic world of the strangers. Taking the poem apart, one could see that there are specific patterns that Rita Dove follows to create the feeling that stuns the readers.

When it comes to mentioning the tone, one has all the rights to say that the tone of the poem is filled with the things. The word is vague, but that is the only way to describe all the realities of the Dominica that Rita depicts. The things, that create the specific atmosphere of the life on an island, so separated from the rest of the world that it seems to cut off the map of the world.

The words that ring no memories to the English ear make the picture bright and vivid, yet the colors of the new wonderful world are hushed down by the feeling of suppression that is continuously following the reader. What makes this feeling grow is the speaker’s tone, employed in the gloomy air. As one reads the poem, the vision of a beautiful garden on a rainy day comes to one’s mind. The place where hopes shatter is heaven governed by a monster.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The syntax is, probably, one of those common things that cannot go together with the poem the same way as it does in prose (Syntax in English Poetry 1870-1930). The syntax that Dove uses in “Parsley” is of quite a different kind than a piece of prose might have. In fact, as the notion that represents some order in writing, how come can syntax claim its rights in a poem?

It does. Filled with the unusual phrases that sound foreign to the ear of the English speakers, “Parsley ” is the example of the poetic piece that does not adhere to the rules of syntax – and closely follows them. It stirs the regulations from the down under and makes them all chaotic, yet it creates the order of its own, that makes the poem look logical to the audience.

“Parsley” does not have a tint of the short, sharp snatches of phrases that usually make the poem sound like the beating of the drum. On the contrary, the verse is all gentle and stifled into a kind of a song that reminds much of a lullaby – a lullaby of the people that live on an island cut off from the rest of the world.

The phrases in the first line float quietly in the second one like milk is poured into a glass from a little jug. This all makes the poem acquire the rhythm that it needs to sound soft and mild like a tale told on a rainy evening next to the fireplace.

There is something that disturbs the reader as the poem unwinds. The constant struggle between the soft melody of the verse and the idea that it is supposed to express must find the way out in the way the words are stacked up together. It can be traced in the way the lines are torn away from each other, and the way they are trying to get together, but – alas! – with very little success. The snatches of the sentences that continue in the other lines are the very place where the struggle within is expressed.

Full of metaphors, “Parsley” seems to speak out loud on its own. “The parrot imitating spring” is the refrain that goes on and on till the end of the journey that Dove takes us on. It makes the beat of the tam-tam that is hidden in the middle of the poem sound louder and creates a specific figure that is supposed to express the despair that the whole poem is sewn through.

The metaphor that is the very atmosphere that the people lived in makes the reader understand the tension that was growing within the country, the despair of the people that were killed for nothing, and the useless anticipation of the changes to come, which never did.

We will write a custom Essay on Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the pieces of the nature that are mentioned in the poem are the specific challenge to the harsh and severe rules imposed on the people, the punishment that was passed to them according to the judgment, and the fear together with the desire to make the life full of sufferings end somewhere.

The figure that symbolizes the state of the people living under the unceasing restrain and control is the fall “when thoughts turn/ to love and death.” The fall also is one of the faces of the death itself, and it makes the readers think that the people that are suffering the severe and cruel tyranny will be released soon, if not with the help of the hero to come, then by the soothing grip of death.

The drops that add to the specific beauty of the poem are the rhythm and the sound, rolling and shaking the lines so that they went in a tribal dance.

It is not that usual that each stanza of the first part of the poem has three lines – a solution rather unusual even for poetry where every weird idea is another step towards perfection. The first part makes the pattern that is rather soothing, while the second one, with five lines in each stanza, is much more filled with fear and anxiety.

The abovementioned makes the poem split into two structurally, just the way it is divided logically, as it has already been mentioned. The struggle between the tyrant and the people who want to live their own life is something that cannot be hidden within, and this something comes out into the light, with all its grace and beauty.

The sound of the chains breaking, the sweetest melody to the ears of the enslaved, is what one could hear in the poem. Beginning with the words that are mild and soothing, the author ends with the sounds that rock the poem into an anthem of the people suppressed yet struggling and suffering. Listen to the music of this line: “Even a parrot can roll an “R”!” – it sounds like a storm going on and tearing the world apart with the lightning strike, the scattering “R” rolling all around.

The unceasing iamb pattern that the poem is breathing with is the meter that makes the poem sound both restrained and full of inner strength that is going to burst out immediately. It hides the danger that is growing as the people become more and more oppressed, and it grips the audience like a spell that only the author can break. The sharp pain that the people are gripped with has to be stopped, and that is why Dove sends the characters of the poem to sleep, laying them to rest till the sun shows up above the country.

Usually referred to as the classical meter o the Greek prosody (Wilson 222), iamb, in this case, plays a part of the basis that all people’s hopes stand on. The profound and stable beat of the poem leaves the hope that as the last drop of the rain falls on the earth, the suffering ends and the parrot that imitates spring, green as parsley, will be flying high, and the stains of blood on the parsley will fade into yesterday.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A perfect piece of poetry, the creation of Rita Dove, is the piece of history that has to be stored in people’s memory. As the pain subsides, parsley will grow on, as the remainder of the storm that was rocking once in the skies of the Dominican Republic.

The purpose that the abovementioned text has is to convey the main idea of the poem and analyze its poetic structure. In the process of writing this paper, which consisted of analyzing the poem and taking it its relevant parts, I learned the basics that every poem includes. The most difficult about writing the paper was trying to understand the hints that the author sent to the readers and explain them with the due accuracy.

Speaking about the strengths of the paper, these are the descriptive parts that make the essence of the poem come out in the limelight. However, it would also be nice to include some elements of the poetess’s biography to make the context of the poem even brighter. The approach of writing the essay resulted from the ideas that were inspired by the poem and the poetic elements that it combined to reach the stunning effect that it had on me.

Works Cited Syntax in English Poetry 1870-1930. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967. Print.

Wilson, Peter. Introduction to Greek Prosody. New York, NY: T and J Swords, 1811. Print.

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Constructivist theory Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Qualities of Constructivist Learning

Process Approach on Constructivist Learning

Control of Constructivist Learning

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

Introduction Constructivist theory is the theoretical structure of the active learning practice which involves use of either present or precedent knowledge in the structure of new ideas. The learner is therefore supposed to select the best already existing information, look for the means of transforming it, he should then structure hypothesis, followed by decision making while relying on the reasoning which is guided by the cognitive structure.

Cognitive structure gives a wide meaning and systematic consideration of the experiences hence the judgment is based beyond just the existing or historical information. Constructive theory demands that the learners should be in a position to discover principles on their own an act which should be emphasized by the instructor (Maypole

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The World Hunger Problem Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

History of World War

Statistics of the World Hunger

Causes of the World Hunger

Impacts of World Hunger

Responses to World Hunger

Recommended solutions

Conclusion

References

Introduction Hunger is a term that has been defined differently by different people due to its physiological as well as its socio economic aspects. In most cases, the term hunger has been defined in relation to food insecurity. However, according to Holben (n. d. pp. 1), hunger is usually defined as a condition that is painful or uneasy emanating from lack of food.

In the same studies, hunger has yet been defined as persistent and involuntary inability to access food. Therefore, world hunger refers to a condition characterized by want and scarce food in the whole world. Technically, hunger refers to malnutrition a condition that is marked by lack of some, or all the nutrients that are necessary to maintain health of an individual.

There are two types of malnutrition which include micronutrient deficiency and protein energy malnutrition. It is important to note that world hunger generally refers to protein energy malnutrition which is caused by inadequacy of proteins and energy giving food. According to World Hunger education Service (2010 Para. 4), the recent statistics by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) records that there is a total of about nine hundred and twenty five million people in the whole world who are described as hungry.

It is a serious condition since statistics indicate that the number has been on the increase since the mid twentieth center. With that background in mind, this paper shall focus on the problem of world hunger, history, statistics, impacts as well as solutions to the problem.

History of World War The problem of hunger has been persistent since early centuries given that people residing in Europe continent used to suffer from serious shortages of food. The problem intensified in the twentieth century due to increase of wars, plagues and other natural disasters like floods, famines and earth quakes. Consequently, a lot of people succumbed to malnutrition and death.

However, during the mid twentieth century and after the Second World War, food production increased by 69% and therefore, there was enough food to feed the population by (National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Public Engineering Policy, 1975 pp. vii).

The situation of food adequacy which continued from the year 1954-1972 was as a result of various factors which were inclusive but not limited to better methods of farming, land reclamation, use of fertilizers, use of irrigation, as well as use of machines and other forms of skilled labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970s, people thought that they could keep the problem of hunger under control by conserving environment, controlling population growth and technological development. Nevertheless, even with such optimism, studies of National Research Council (U.S.).

Committee on Public Engineering Policy (1975 pp. vii), record that by 1974, the condition had already grown out of hand because there was not only a high population growth rate, but energy was also extremely expensive. To make the matter worse, the same study records that a quarter of the total population in the world were already experiencing hunger.

Therefore, due to hunger, agencies which were dealing with the problem started to request for the intervention of the humanitarian relief as well as trying to solve the problem thorough the use of the green revolution. The problem of hunger contributed greatly to the technological development since by all costs, people had to survive. However, although agriculture continued to expand, the population continued to increase and that is why the problem of hunger has persisted throughout the twentieth century to the twenty first century.

Statistics of the World Hunger As highlighted in the introductory part, nine million people in the world are malnourished but further studies indicate that the exact number is not known. It is important to note that though the problem of hunger is virtually everywhere in the world, most of the hunger stricken people are found in the developing countries.

Despite the fact that the number has been on the increase since 1995, a decrease was observed in last year. The figures below clearly explain the statistical trend of world hunger from 1968 to 2009 (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 Para. 4).

Figure 1. The Number of Hunger Stricken People from 1969-2010

Source (World Hunger Education Service, 2010)

We will write a custom Research Paper on The World Hunger Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 2: Distribution of Hungry People in the Whole World by Regions

Source: (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010 pp. 2)

The above figure clearly illustrates that the problem of hunger is most common in the developing countries and less common in the developed countries. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010 pp. 2), 19 million are found in developed countries, thirty seven million in North East and North Africa, fifty three in Latin and Caribbean America, two hundred and thirty nine million in Sub Saharan Africa and five hundred and seventy eight in Asia and Pacific Region.

However, it is important to mention that the Food and Agriculture Organization arrives at the above figures by considering the total income of people and the income distribution. Therefore, the figures given are just estimates and that is the main reason why it has become increasingly difficult to get the actual number of hungry people in the whole world.

Causes of the World Hunger There are many causes of world hunger but poverty is the main and the same is caused by lack of enough resources as well as unequal distribution of recourses among the populations especially in the developing countries.

According to World Hunger Education Service (2010 Para 10. ), World Bank estimates that there are a bout one million, three hundred and forty five million people who are poor in the whole world since their daily expenditure is 1.25 dollars or even less. Similarly, Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that about one billion people in the whole world are under nourished.

As expected, the problem of poverty affects mostly the developing countries although there have been a lot of campaigns which have been launched with an aim of poverty reduction. Consequently in some parts Asia and China, the campaigns have been successful because the number has reduced by 19% (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 para. 12). Conversely, in some parts like the sub-Saharan Africa, the number of poor people has gone up.

Since the study has indicated that poverty is the main cause of hunger, it is important to look at the underlying cause of poverty. According to World Hunger Education Service (2010), the current economic as well as political systems in the world contribute greatly to the problem of hunger and poverty.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Hunger Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main reason is due to the fact that more often than not, resources are controlled by the economic and political institutions which are controlled by the minority. Therefore, policies which emanate from poor economic systems are contributory factor to poverty and hunger.

Conflict and war is an important cause of not only poverty but also hunger. The main reason is due to the fact that conflicts lead to displacement of people and destruction of property and other resources that can be helpful in alleviating hunger. Towards the end of 2005, the number of refugees was lower compared to the current number influenced by violence and conflicts which have been taking place in Iraq as well as in Somali.

The same study clearly indicates that towards the end of the year 2008, UNHCR had recorded more than ten million refugees. A year after, internally displaced persons in the whole world had reached a total of twenty six million (World Hunger Education Service 2010 par 13). However, although it is difficult to provide the total number of internally displaced people due to conflicts, the truth is, refugees mostly suffer from poverty which exposes them to extreme hunger.

Over the last century, climate has been changing in most parts of the world, a condition which has been caused by global warming. It is a real phenomena and the effects of the same are observed in most parts of the world which are inclusive but not limited to draughts, floods, changing weather and climatic patterns as well as hurricanes (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Economic and Social Dept, 2005).

Such effects of globalization contribute greatly to hunger because they destroy the already cultivated food leading to food shortages.

Changing weather and climate patterns require a change to certain crops which is not only expensive but it also takes long to be implemented. In addition, some plants and animals have become extinct and the same contributes greatly to food shortages and hunger in general. Nonetheless, the most serious consequences of global warming are floods draughts and famines since they lead to poverty which ends up increasing people’s susceptibility to hunger. ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010)

High food prices in both domestic and international markets are also a contributory factor to world hunger. Although the level of poverty is increasing because the level of income has reduced, the price of various food commodities has also gone up and therefore, it has become increasingly difficult for people to afford adequate food for their needs.

According to the studies of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008 pp. 24), between the year 2002 to 2007, prices of cereals such as wheat maize as well as rice increased by about fifty percent in the world market.

Nonetheless, although the world market food prices were increasing, the rate was different with domestic prices, a condition caused by the depreciating value of the US dollar while compared to other currencies in the world. However, in the year 2007 and 2008, domestic food prices in most countries also ended up increasing.

High prices in the domestic market are caused by high prices for agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. As highlighted earlier, the need for use of advanced agricultural inputs results from the effects of global warming which is also a chief cause of world hunger and food insecurity.

Impacts of World Hunger There are many impacts of world hunger because food is a basic need for everyone in the society. Although impacts of hunger affect people across all the age brackets, young children are usually the worst victims. In science, the condition caused by hunger and starvation is known as under nutrition. It increases the disease burden such that in one year; under nourished children suffer from illnesses for at least five months as the condition lowers their immunity.

In most cases, undernourishment is the underlying cause of various diseases that affect children like malaria, measles, diarrhea and pneumonia. Studies of World Hunger Education Service (2010 par. 10) indicate that malnutrition is the underlying cause of more than half of all the cases of malaria diarrhea and pneumonia in young children. In measles, the same studies indicate that forty five percent of all the cases result from malnutrition.

As the problem of hunger, malnutrition is unequally distributed in the world because about thirty two percent of the stunted children live in the developing countries. Seventy percent of the total number of the malnourished children is found in Asia while Africa hosts 26% and the remaining four percent are from Caribbean and Latin America (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 par 11).

The study points out that the problem starts even before birth because in most cases, pregnant mothers are also usually undernourished. Due to this problem, in every six infants, one is usually undernourished. Apart from death, under nourishment resulting from hunger also causes blindness, difficulties in learning, stunted growth, retardation and poor health, to name just a few.

Apart from disease, poverty is also a resultant factor of hunger. In reference to the definition of hunger as an uncomfortable condition resulting from lack of food, hungry people are usually incapacitated. Since food is an important source of energy, people suffering from hunger are usually not in a position to take part in useful economic activities and a result, they are usually poor.

In addition, hunger is one of the reasons that cause people to migrate from one place to another there by causing economic constraints to the host countries. Conflicts also emanate from the same as people compete for scarce resources. A lot of humanitarian agencies use most of their funds in proving food to the people suffering from hunger either in refugee camps or in other places.

As a result, governments spend a lot of money in providing humanitarian support while the same amount of money could have been used in development projects. Impacts of hunger are mostly felt in the developing countries, Asia and Sub Saharan Africa because in most cases, the problem of hunger in such regions is usually an international problem because regional governments cannot be able to deal with it single handedly ( World Vision, 2010).

Responses to World Hunger Hunger being a serious problem requires no emphasis and therefore, there are some responses which are meant to mitigate the problem. Various policies have therefore been established in all related areas. For example, there are various policies that that have been established to regulate high food prices. Such measures are inclusive but not limited to tax on imports, restricting export to maintain adequate food in the country, measures to control prices of food as well as to enhance food affordability, and stabilizing prices.

Improving and increasing agricultural produce is an important measure that has been taking place especially in the developing countries meant to increase supply and eventually curb the problem of hunger. At this point, is important to note that the number of response which have be taken to reduce or eliminate the problem of hunger vary from one region to another.

In addition, every region implements the policies that can be useful in that particular region. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010 pp.32 ), a survey conducted in the year 2007 and 2008 indicated that about 50% of all the countries reduced the tax of imports on cereals and more than fifty percent adopted measures like consumer subsidies with an aim of lowering domestic food prices.

Twenty five percent of the countries imposed restrictions on exports to minimize the outflow of food and the remaining 16% had done nothing to solve the problem of high domestic food prices. It is quite unfortunate that the regions that are mostly affected by hunger like Sub Saharan Africa; Caribbean as well Latin America has established the lowest number of policies.

Although such policies are of great help locally, they have negative impacts in the international markets. For example, due to restriction on exports, the supply of food at the international markets is usually low and as a result, the prices end up increasing. Apart from that, subsidies on imports increase government expenditure thereby straining the budget.

Therefore, it is clear that some measures of price do not control neither they end up mitigating the problem since they affect other people like farmers and traders. The main cause of the problem is due to the fact that most governments are unable to protect their economy from external influences.

Recommended solutions While looking for the solutions to the problem, it is important to note that the demand of food will continue to increase due to various factors like urban growth and development as well as the high level of income. In that case, there is a great need for increasing food production.

In addition, the intervention should aim at not only solving the current problem but also solving any shortage that may emerge in future. Therefore, all regions and especially the sub-Saharan Africa ought to focus on increasing agricultural production. Moreover, it is necessary to come up with appropriate policies to ensure that the increase in food production will solve the problem of food insecurity (National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Public Engineering Policy, 1975).

One of the problems that have been causing hunger especially in developing countries is inaccessibility to adequate food. As a result, the concerned stakeholders should look for ways and means of increasing food accessibility. For instance; it would be more helpful if the production of small scale farmers could increase because the problem cannot only help in lowering food prices in the global market but also in alleviating poverty and hunger in the rural areas.

Although incentives and agricultural inputs are important in increasing agricultural production in the rural areas, some other measures can still be used in the same areas. For instance, in a region like Africa, more areas can be irrigated and by so doing, agricultural production can increase as well ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010).

Conclusion World hunger is a real and a serious problem not only due to its grave impacts but also due to the complexity of the whole issue. A lot of people in the whole world are exposed to hunger. A critical analysis of the problem illustrates that it not only results from low food production but it is also affected by other factors such as inaccessibility of food, high food prices and some policies established by the government.

For example, the research has indicated that some polices that control the prices of food in local markets end up increasing food prices in the global market. In the view of the fact that hunger is the underlying cause of poverty, disease and eventually death, it is important for the concerned stake holders to address the issue accordingly.

As the studies of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2008, p. 2) indicate, the over nine million hunger stricken people can be saved only if the stake holders that are inclusive of the government, United Nations, civil societies, donors and humanitarian agencies, general public and the private sector can join hands in combating the problem.

In order to come up with lasting solutions, their efforts should be aimed at improving the agricultural sector and establishing safety nets to protect the vulnerable population. Finally, in every challenge, there is an opportunity and in that case, the high prices of food can be used as an opportunity by small scale producers to increase their produce and get more returns and thereby reduce problems like poverty which contribute to hunger. Therefore, even though the problem is complicated, viable solutions still exist.

References Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2010). Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high. Web.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2008). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Web.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Economic and Social Dept. (2005). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2005: eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. New York: Food

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Como Agua para Chocolate: Like Water for Chocolate Essay online essay help: online essay help

One of the best ways and most pleasant ways to learn more about culture of a particular country is to watch the movie depicting its culture and directed by a director originated from this country. One of such films is Como Agua para Chocolate (Like Water for Chocolate). It is a film that gives a deep insight into Hispanic culture and traditions. It tells about relationships between people, family traditions, national food and customs.

The film was screened in 1992 by a Spanish director Alfonso Arau. The film is based on a famous novel with the same title by Laura Esquivel. It is a romantic love story that was interfered with strict national traditions. The story is set in Mexico, it times of the Mexican Revolution. Two young people are falling in love, but they cannot be together because of a tradition that presupposes that the youngest daughter in the family should not get married and stay with her mother doing housework. The film is filled with magic related to cooking.

So, the main characters of the film are young people that experience a forbidden love. Tita (protagonist) was born the third and last daughter in the family. According to old superstition, Tita has no right married, she must live with her mother and help her. She becomes a family cooker.

However, one cannot escape one’s fate and girl falls in love with a young man Pedro, a very nice local boy. He also loves her and makes a proposal. However, Tita’s mother refuses. Pedro has to marry Tina’s sister to be closer to his bellowed girl. Two people live close to one another, but they cannot be together. At the end of the film, they finally find a way to be together, but after marriage Pedro dies and Tita kills herself.

As it has already been mentioned, the film is filled with mysticism. There is an allegory to food. This allegory comes for the first time in the scene of Pedro’s and Rosaura’s wedding. When Tita prepared a wedding cake, she cried and her tears filled the cake.

All guests in the wedding were crying as well when they were eating it. Thus, Tita understood that she could communicate with her dear Pedro through food. The film is very rich in metaphors, as well as in symbols: dishes and their ingredients are symbolic, the name of Rosaura’s daughter – Esperanze (which means hope), and even the title of the movie is a symbol of Tita’ and Pedro’s love.

There can be two explanations to the title. The idiom “como agua para chocolate” means passion and love “people melt as chocolate melts in hot water” and the second explanation relates to the marriage of Rosaura and Pedro “the chocolate made with water instead of milk has the same look, but the taste is not that good”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing film is a great activity that not only develops your critical thinking, but gives you the possibility to learn more about people, their lives and feelings. In addition, if this film depicts foreign culture, you broader your intellectual horizons.

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Drug Free Workplace Evaluation Essay college essay help near me

Implementation of a drug-free workplace is a fundamental component in strengthening and most importantly protecting one’s business. Employees are as well protected from the dangers associated with drug abuse such as violence and injuries. The implementation of drug-free workplace programs differ in regard to size of an organization.

Basically, the approach towards development of these programs is a stepwise process that requires a lot of evaluation by the employer. First of all, the employer needs to assess the needs and requirements of his business. For instance, organizations running projects funded by the federal are required to have drug-free workplace policy in place. This should include a written policy, employee training and education.

Employers should also consider employees holding safety-sensitive positions as well as the possibility of substance abuse occurrence in the organization to guide them in implementation of these policies. The employer should also consider the availability of resources in regard to the size of his business. This is because some programs such a drug testing and health promotion may not be favorable to a small organization.

An effective program should consist of written policies such as the basis behind the development of the program and how it was developed. Expectations by the employer on employees behavior should also be indicated.

It is also necessary to provide the employees with information on the prohibited drugs as well as undesired behaviors in the workplace. Information on consequences in case of policy violation should be made available to make everyone understand the seriousness of the program. Ways of handling appeals and determining a violation should, too, be put in place (Franklin, 2010, p. 1).

Employee confidentiality should be maintained and fairness among all employees especially when they request for help. Efforts should be made to help the employees abide by the policy requirements since most drug abusers are addicts and might have difficulty avoiding the drugs.

Employers should consider providing employee assistant programs which are programs sponsored by the business aimed at offering service to employees as well as their families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some organizations may even go to the extent of addressing health and wellbeing of employees besides dealing with problems associated with alcohol and other drug abuse. Some organizations especially the large businesses offer internal employee assistance programs but small businesses can unite with their health providers to give external services to employees at cost effective rates.

Employee assistance programs are important where the largest population of employees is faced with the risk of social and disturbing problems as well as drug abuse (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). These services include employee education, assessment and follow up and most importantly, individual counseling for motivation.

For a drug-free workplace program to be successful, employees need to be educated on drug abuse consequences and supervisors trained to watch their progress. The education program should focus on all employees no matter the organization level they are in.

This program should discuss the accessibility of assistance by all employees and how their problems in duty execution will be dealt with (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). Besides the assistance program, an employee awareness program should be included as well to educate them on the effects of drug abuse and the benefits of a drug free life.

Employers who have put into place the drug-free workplace policy enjoy some benefits that they would not have noted were it not for the program. Cases of employees’ nonattendance, theft and occupational injuries are reduced. On the other hand, productivity increases as well as moral values.

Employees experience reduced use of medical benefits due to better health conditions (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). Premium costs for workers’ compensation reduce as well. The overall effect is a secure workplace with enhanced productivity and comprehensive service delivery.

Reference List Franklin, G. (2010). Do drug-free workplace programs prevent occupational injuries? Web.

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Alternative Energy Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A case for Renewable Energy

Counterarguments and Refutation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Modern human civilization is build on and continues to be principally dependent on large quantities of energy to sustain it. The primary source of this energy has been fossil fuels. As early as the 19th century, fossil fuels were being used to power industries and to date; they continue to be the primary source of energy for man’s industrial efforts.

However, as a result of the exponential industrial expansion and the population explosion that subsequently followed, these traditional sources of energy have been stretched to their limits as the demand for energy continuous to grow. In additional to this threat of exhaustion, it has in the recent decades been acknowledged that fossil fuels are largely responsible for adverse effects on the environment.

A wider exploitation of renewable energy sources has been seen as the key to enhancing the energy security for many nations as well as mitigating environmental effects caused by fossil fuels.

Governments have therefore begun to seek alternative energy sources such as wind, wave, ocean currents and solar energy. These sources are to act as alternatives to the use of existing oil and natural gas sources. While alternative energy sources have been hailed by some as the only way through which man will be able to satisfy his energy needs, other people view these means as unfeasible.

This paper will argue that renewable energy sources if fully utilized can lead to an end to the world’s energy need problems and mitigate the environmental hazards caused by fossil fuels. To reinforce this assertion, this paper will engage in a detailed discussion as to why renewable energy sources should be adopted and reliance on fossil fuels decreased.

A case for Renewable Energy The world cannot run on fossil fuels indefinitely since there is only a finite amount of fossil fuel reserves on earth. Issitt and Warhol reveal that according to a BP report, only 1,200billion barrels of crude oil remain in the world’s oil reserves (1). Bearing in mind that the current consumption rate is about 31billion barrels per annum, it can be projected that the world will run out of its reserves in the next 4 decades.

This is a bleak reality since most of the world’s technology is made to utilize fossil fuels (Issitt and Warhol 1). As such, governments must invest more in alternative energy so as to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels which are predicted to run out in the not so distant future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The overreliance on fossil fuels results in the increased dependency of the U.S. to the oil producing nations. While the U.S. does produce some fossil fuels, The US department of Energy notes that the contribution of the US is only 3% while its consumption is up to 25% (Issitt and Warhol 1).

These points to a high dependency on oil imported from other countries by the US. This inevitable places our country at the mercies of the oil producing giants which might be a risk. For example, following the 1967 Arab-Israeli way, the oil producing Arab states imposed an oil embargo on the US for its support of Israel. With such realities in mind, it makes sense to be self sufficient. The only way that the US can move towards self sufficiency in energy is through exploiting renewable energy sources.

Proponents of fossil fuels propose that measures can be taken to mitigate their adverse effect and ensure their sustainability. Rich and David assert that while such efforts at producing environmentally-friendly fossil fuels such as coal are praiseworthy, they are misguided and will not make a significant difference (1).

This is because it is impossible to avoid the production of green house gasses when burning fuels regardless of the technology being utilized. Instead of focusing on ways to increase the environmental friendliness of fossil fuels, the available renewable energy alternatives should be pursued. Rich and David argue that there are many feasible alternative energy sources which if properly researched could render the need for fossil fuels obsolete.

One of the reasons why fossil fuels are favored over alternative energy sources is because of their relatively cheap cost. This edge that fossil fuel has over renewable sources is quickly being closed and it can be projected that in the near future, alternative energy sources will dominate the market. Witherbee suggests that one of the reasons why most alternative energy sources have failed to work out in the past has been as a result of lack of political and economic support.

With the continued penetration into mainstream market of alternative energy sources such as solar power and heat pumps that work on geothermal energy, it is considerable that alternative energy sources will become cheaper as the market increases therefore becoming more competitive. Given the numerous advantages that alternative energy sources have over fossil fuels, most consumers will opt to utilize the cheap and renewable energy sources.

The need for fossil fuel posses a threat to the natural environment and if the demand for fossil fuels continues unabated, it is likely that rampant drilling for oil will occur. An especially troubling reality is the proposed drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge which has been a protected wildlife site for decades. Proponents of fossil fuel extraction claim that such a move would result in cheaper fuel as well as jobs for the American population.

We will write a custom Essay on Alternative Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Issitt and Tom declare that the benefits from such moves would be minimal and only periodic and the authors blame corporate contributors and politicians for furthering the interest of the petroleum industry at the expense of the environment even though they know that it is non-renewable. Lizza demonstrates the role that politics play in determining the fate of the environment by documenting how politicians support drilling in protected areas just so that they can get political leverage.

This is a very irresponsible behavior since the welfare of the people in the long run and the sustainability of resources should be the main determinant of the stance taken by politicians. Witherbee asserts that rather than expanding fossil fuel exploration while all the time knowing that it is a limited energy source, alternative energy sources should be sought out for a more permanent solution.

Counterarguments and Refutation Proponents of fossil fuels assert that while alternative energy sources purport to be the solution to the problems that fossil fuels have caused, alternative energy sources can simply not cater for the huge energy needs of the world.

Bowman and Marcus assert that while it is a fact that the world’s fossil fuel reserves are dwindling, alternative energy sources are incapable or replacing them and the only solution would be to use fossil fuels more efficiently by use of conservation techniques (11). To reinforce this claim, the authors demonstrate that all the current implementations of renewable energy sources are either inefficient or prohibitively expensive therefore making them unfeasible (Bowman and Marcus 13).

Fossil fuels on the other hand continue to remain cheap and therefore attractive to consumers all over the country. To counter this claim, Rich and David demonstrate that there are numerous renewable energy source alternatives and if they are extensively researched on, they could rival fossil fuels and eventually cater for the energy needs of the world (1).

One of the points that opponents of fossil fuels raise to deride fossil fuels is that they are detrimental to the environment and result in the proliferation of global warming. However, proponents of fossil fuels point out that renewable energy sources which are hailed by alternative energy lobbyists as environmental friendly are not only expensive to the tax payer but they also result in environmental degradation.

Bowman and Marcus argue that some renewable sources such as ethanol and bio-fuel result in deforestation so as to create more land for corn and other resources used to produce the fuels (3). Renewable energy sources such as solar power as obtained through Concentrating Solar Power technologies require huge amount of land that large scale production plants demand.

The large scale installations of mirrors results in a negative effect on the ecosystem since deployment of these structures leads to the shading or complete coverage of large tracts of land. The ecosystem that exists on these shaded surfaces will therefore be affected by the lack of sunlight. This therefore negates the notion that renewable energy sources are favorable to the environment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alternative Energy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While it is true that some renewable energy sources do result in environmental degradation, they do not do so on the same scale as fossil fuels do. In addition to this, not all the renewable energy sources have adverse environmental effects. For example, wind power is a very environmental friendly alternative energy source. As such, not all renewable energy sources should be branded as degenerative to the environment.

Despite the US government having invested billions of dollars to alternative energy sources projects in the past 4 decades, there is still no sign of a feasible alternative to fossil fuels. For this reason, opponents of alternative energy sources argue that more effort should be directed towards increasing the efficiency of the available fossil fuels instead of wasting time and money researching on renewable sources which hold little promise of providing solutions.

Pearson reveals that the US government has lost billions in revenue as a result of tax breaks designed to motivate renewable energy production (1). The US government has also made enormous contributions to alternative energy sources such as the Hydrogen fuel cell engine despite a lack of support for the feasibility of such technologies (Pearson 1).

While this argument does hold true in that alternative energy sources are not yet matured and hence cannot compete with fossil fuels in terms of efficiency or pricing, this should not be used as the basis to stop research into renewable sources. Only by extensive research and investment into alternative sources can renewable energy compete and ultimately replace fossil fuels which have been in use for over a century.

Alternative energy sources result in some problems which are not present with fossil fuels. Roper documents that wind towers which are praised by renewable energy lobbyist for their environmental friendliness pose a risk to the aviation industry by disrupting the radar system.

Solar power plants which are characterized by huge reflective structures that are used to concentrate the suns rays also interfere with air transportation systems. Aircraft operations in particular stand the risk to be affected if reflected light beams become misdirected into aircraft pathways. This may have catastrophic results on the airplane. While these dangers are real, they can be mitigated by placing the solar power plants and wind plants away from the path which airplanes take.

Conclusion This paper has argued that renewable energy sources if fully utilized can lead to an end to the world’s energy need problems and mitigate the environmental hazards that have resulted from over exploitation of fossil fueled. It has been documented that fossil fuels are not only dwindling in supply but they also have an adverse effect to the environment as a result of the greenhouse gases they emit.

Through a detailed discussion of the many advantages that can be reaped from embracing alternative energy sources, this paper has proposed that resources should be channeled into alternative energy sources research so as to eventually cause fossil fuels to lose their primacy as the chief energy source.

However, this paper has recognized that there are some problems that are inherent in alternative energy sources. The major problem is the pricing which is the reason why most people still favor fossil fuels. It has been suggested that with more governmental support, this problems can be offset therefore making alternative energy sources competitive. By embracing alternative energy sources, man will not only be able to survive favorably when fossil fuel runs out but he will also safeguard his natural environment.

Works Cited Bowman, Jeffrey, and Marcus Griswold. “Counterpoint: Alternative Energy Won’t Solve All the Demands of World Energy Consumption.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 3. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Issitt, Micah L., and Tom Warhol. “Alternative Energy Exploration: An Overview.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 1. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Issitt, Micah L., and David C. Morley. “Counterpoint: There are Better Energy Alternatives to Drilling in Alaska.” Points of View: Arctic Drilling (2009): 3. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Lizza, Ryan. “AS THE WORLD BURNS.” New Yorker 86.31 (2010): 70. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Pearson, John. “Point: Alternative Energy Exploration is Not the Answer.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 5. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Rich, Alex K., and David C. Morley. “Point: The World Must Actively Explore Alternative Sources of Energy.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 2. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Roper, Peter. “Ill wind blowing: Towers foul up radar.” Pueblo Chieftain, The (CO) 05 Apr. 2010: Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Witherbee, Amy. “Counterpoint: Saving the Alaskan Frontier.” Points of View: Arctic Drilling (2009): 6. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Witherbee, Amy. “Counterpoint: No Alternative.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 6. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

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work as a human services practitioner at a state prison and have been assigned to manage Casey Hamburger as she starts to plan for her upcoming reentry into society in 3 months. She has spent the past 15 months incarcerated. Read her biopsychosocial evaluation. She will need support in addressing her lack of resources, a home to go to, and any daily skills before leaving prison. college application essay help

Write a 750- to 1050-word report on strategies for how to manage your client’s biopsychosocial needs and needs related to reentry. Complete the following in your report: Identify your client’s needs based on the biopsychosocial evaluation, (take into account your client’s needs related to reentry, including lack of resources, a home, and limitations in daily skills). Discuss short-term and long-term goals. Describe strategies for managing your client to help achieve these goals. Discuss desired outcome after 3 months. Cite at least 1 evidence-based research in your report.

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Politics of developing Nations Research Paper essay help online free

Abstract The complexity of the group of nations that are referred to as developing countries continues to escalate by the day. This diversity stems from both the economic and social-political structures that define the status of a given country.

More often than not, these countries have developed one or two areas of specialty that enables them to cope up economically with other countries; this is mainly in the form of production of minerals, agriculture or rendering some special services. The exploitation of these sectors usually provides the blueprint for achievement of the set developmental targets, in that the degree of exploitation of these sectors often dictates the state of development.

In the face of these, these countries at the background happen to be mired in startling catastrophes’, issues that undermine the rate of economic growth. Biting poverty, total absence to little or no security, inequity and the citizens being denied their basic human rights are sometimes the order of the day, they characterize the life of the populace that dwell in these Nations.

In addition to the above mentioned problems which the middle class country has to grapple with, lies the underlying factor, in most states it is the weak political structures and the absence of a political will to combat and accommodate the divergent views that the leadership may experience.

In a nutshell, this paper will focus on; the factors that have contributed to the conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the conflict minerals in DRC and, the governments efforts put in place to avert conflicts and the conclusion of the paper.

Introduction Endowed with immense natural mineral resources is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country crippled by the political jinx that has bedeviled it, consequently dragging its economy to a near collapse.

The tug-of- war for the control of the mineral rich eastern DRC dates back in the year 1965, the era of coup, that subsequently led to the overthrow and untimely death of Patrice Lumumba, the then premier of DRC (Lobe, 2003). The mastermind of the coup d’état was Lieutenant General Mobutu, who later became the president of the DRC.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The demise of the then Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba led to political and civil unrest, that consequently bred a host of militia groups. One such significant rebel group was led by Laurent Desire Kabila, a political antagonist of Mobutu and a proponent of Patrice Lumumba (Lobe, 2003). Laurent Kabila’s rebel forces executed intermittent but less radical attacks on the Mobutu’s forces for more than three decades, but it was not until the year 1996 when he launched his serious attack on the government’s forces (Benedict, 2006).

In December 1996, Kabila’s rebel forces backed by Rwanda, Uganda and Angola, started their exodus towards the west, committing atrocities to the civilians with a motive of conquering the Mobutu’s government (Lobe, 2003). The Kabila’s invasion, which was later designated as the ‘First Congo War’, culminated to the ousting of Mobutu, who later passed on in the year 1997 in Morocco (Lobe, 2003). The self-proclaimed President Laurent Kabila took over the power and the control of the nation with its vast mineral resources.

The year 1998 so to it the inception of the ‘Second Congo War’, a war that was characterized by conflicting interests amongst different African countries neighboring the DRC, and the diamond mining companies which were supporting the Kabila’s government in return for better mining deals (Benedict, 2006). The governments which were against Kabila’s government were however, the Rwandan and Ugandan governments.

The duo, who had helped the Kabila’s rebel forces to topple the Mobutu’s government, had their own selfish interests geared towards seeking favors from the Mobutu’s government, and ultimately benefit from the mineral rich regions (Hochschild, 2004). After the ‘First Congo War’, the two nations were reluctant to leave, prompting Kabila, who was receiving hostility from the public due to his inclusion of the foreigners in his government, to oust them tersely (Hchschild, 2004).

The two nations retaliated by throwing their weight behind the rebel forces, trying to attack Kabila’s government from different directions. Burundi followed suit by backing the rebel forces adding to Kabila’s predicaments. By 23rd August 1998, the rebels had conquered the diamond rich Kisangani centre further weakening Kabila’s government (Ismi, 2001).

In an effort to consolidate his government, Kabila started fostering diplomatic relations with other African nations which later bore fruits (Benedict, 2006). These led to the mitigation of the rebellious groups enhancing political sobriety in the DRC. It was on 18th January 1999 in Windhoek, Namibia, when a consensus for a ceasefire was reached bringing calm to a nation that was in the threshold of collapse (Rosthchild, 1996).

The accord did not however change much the situation in DRC since there was continued upheavals especially in the diamond rich Kisangani centre, where rebels were still fighting for the control. This resulted to: loss of life, loss of properties, displacement of the citizens and fleeing of other citizens to the neighboring nations to seek asylum (Snow, 2006).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Politics of developing Nations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The attempts to bring to an end the massacres in the DRC so to it the intervention of the UN peace forces in February 24th 2000, which was to foresee the enactment of a prior ceasefire agreement (Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement) geared towards disarming of all groups (Rosthchild, 1996).

In January 16th 2000, in Zimbabwe, an aborted assassination attempt on President Laurent Kabila, so him escape with fatal injuries (Lobe, 2003). President Kabila, who succumbed to sustained injuries, later died paving way for his son Joseph Kabila, who was sworn in as the next president by the parliament which was loyal to his government (Benedict, 2006). In April 2001, a panel of eminent persons from the UN carried out an “investigation on the illegal exploitation of diamond, copper, gold, coltan and other lucrative resources” (Ismi, 2001).

Their report brought to books three states including Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe governments accused of robbing of the DRC of its natural resources (Rupesighe, 1987). Sanctions were imposed on these nations in an effort to punish them. In spite of diplomatic interventions and signing of never-ending agreements, the foreign rebel forces presence were still evident.

Sick and tired of war, the forces either started withdrawing or joining Joseph Kabila’s government buttressing his influence to the entire nation (Lobe, 2003). The exploitation by foreign states with respect to illegitimate acquisition of the mineral sources did not however end. On 21st October 2001, a UN report accused Ugandan and Rwandan governments of “illicit trafficking of plundered resource” (Lobe, 2003).

It was not until 30th July 2006 after the promulgation of the new constitution, that a democratic atmosphere was felt which led to the formation of an interim government and, on 30th August, a free and a fair election was held (Benedict, 2006).

The election, which was a two horse race between Joseph Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba, resulted in the triumph of the later, garnering a massive 44% of the total votes (Benedict, 2006). The ‘Second Congo War’ is certainly the most lethal conflict of the recent times in history since the World War II. The aftermath of the war, which is felt up to date, has led to lose of approximately more than 5.4 million lives (Hochschild, 2004).

The causes of deaths were mainly; hunger and diseases, coupled with violation of human rights and crimes against humanity. The war has left a disturbing legacy characterized by; insecurity along the eastern border adjoining Rwanda to the DRC, spontaneous uprising of unorganized and yet weaker rebel groups, looting of resources, and rape among others (Ismi, 2001). All these are impediments towards a stable political friendly economic.

The factors that have contributed to the conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Politics of developing Nations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Being one of the epicenters of the essential mineral resources in Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not a safe heaven for investment due to its unstable political atmosphere. The DRC has experienced a lot of setbacks in the quest to achieving its political stability ever since independence.

This is a country marred by coup, a string of spontaneous insurgency causing political turmoil to the otherwise good state. To the centre of these conflicts are the selfish interests that are deeply rooted in their leaders, who make arbitrary political decisions at their whims.

Majority of the mineral deposits in DRC are skewed towards the east, a region that has claimed many stakeholders from within and outside the borders of the DRC (Ismi, 2001). The stakeholders, who are mainly illegitimate owners, are always corrupt demanding bribes from the interested parties bagging in millions of dollars money (Ismi, 2001). The cash obtained from their dubious dealings are the sole causes of political instability, since they are used to fund rebel groups (Monty, 2003).

These illegal interests include the ‘local militias, Congolese and Rwandese rebels’ (Lobe, 2003). These groups control a vast region of more than half of the deposits dwarfing the region owned by the government. Although there are many mineral deposits in the DRC serving various industries around the world, the spotlight has been on the minerals supporting electronic industry (Rupesinghe, 1987).

Electronic industry renders a wider market for the minerals in the DRC, feeding a “range of complex supply chains, serving as raw materials for component parts in everything from cell phones and cutting tools to jet engines and jewelry” (Monty, 2001). Efforts by an array of stakeholders have tried to come to the bottom of these evils by trying to establish the connection between the minerals and the conflicts. Giant steps have been made by the electronics industry to address the issue at hand.

NGO’s have lobbied campaigns with an aim of bringing awareness to the public domain on how the two issues relate (Rosthchild, 1996). The government has however, tried to establish laws and legislations that bars dubious supply chains that, hinder a maximum revenue collection with respect to mining (Rosthchild, 1996).

Conflict minerals in DRC and, the government’s efforts put in place to avert conflicts Stakeholders have established three significant issues that have played pivotal role in sparking conflicts in the DRC. These issues focus on; supply chain responsibility, government engagement and, economic development and capacity building (Rosthchild, 1996).

With regards to supply chain responsibility, a responsible chain of supply seeks to bring sanity in the supply, by addressing potential issues that might ignite conflicts (Rosthchild, 1996). The chain should also encourage tracking and traceability of a particular mineral in order to find the genesis incase of any conflict (Rosthchild, 1996).

To curb mineral conflicts in the DRC, the stakeholders call for government engagement that will enact laws and legislations, merge with international aid programs and, generally foster peace in the region (Rupesinghe, 1987). The stakeholders further try to avert the conflict by campaigning for economic development and capacity building, which generally seeks to benefit the locals by channeling back the revenues obtained to the community.

There are many supply chains in the DRC mineral rich eastern region based on the type of mineral. These minerals benefit the armed groups by generating cash used to purchase arms important in the invasion of the rival groups. They generate their revenues through taxation and generally trading on the minerals after seizure and control of mine holes (Benedict, 2006). The groups benefiting from these mineral deposits are mainly the rebels groups, with taxation revenues accounting for the vast share.

However, the mineral industry in the DRC does not only benefit the rebel forces but it does also sustain the livelihood of the Congolese people. It is alleged that the industry supports a population 16% of the total population either directly or indirectly. The supply chains encompass so many middlemen from the mineral deposits to the final user. There are however, underground artisanal miners who are considered illegal and, they are actually the stumbling blocks towards the achievement of a transparent supply chain (Ismi, 2001).

The artisans, who are normally small scale miners, are always tax evaders performing their tasks such that they avoid both the government and the rebels. The efforts to establish the origin of the minerals are always hampered by the inclusion of foreign minerals causing mix-up in the minerals.

Nevertheless, the miners wrestle with the issues touching on the infringement of their rights, prompting the NGO’s to intervene. There have been so many reported cases of sexual abuse, child labor, and, deaths due to collapse of the mine holes not (Snow, 2006). All these issues are barriers towards economic development, political stability notwithstanding.

Changes in the demand of the minerals, coupled with the lack of substitute minerals, are the main catalyst sparking conflicts in the region (Monty, 2001). There is a likelihood of unabated conflicts amongst different factions if, the purchase of the conflict minerals will continue outside the stipulated supply chains. It is upon the stakeholders to coordinate the functions of supply chains to arrest the problem (Monty, 2001).

A government commitment in the quest to restore political stability will be a great incentive that will mitigate the socio-economic evils synonymous with the region. The dilemma faced by the DRC government in an effort to consolidate its power over the control of the mineral rich eastern region include; “weak local governance institutions, porous borders and limited transparency in international supply chains” (Rupesighe, 1987).

The most critical issue that has enhanced vulnerability of the Kabila’s government to insurgent groups is a weak local government. The Kabila’s government needs to take a keen eye on this particular issue, which has eluded him to date, limiting his influence on the region.

It is evident that foreign governments have been and are still funding rebel forces to some extent (Hochschild, 2004). It is only through diplomatic relations that the DRC government can restrain these foreign intrusions. In a nutshell, the governments responsibilities in an effort to bring calm the situation in eastern DRC should be geared towards fostering peaceful atmosphere with its neighbors.

Efforts by the DRC’s government together with the international community have to some extend influenced the psychology of the interested parties trying to bring sanity to the industry. Among the recent endeavors is the revised DRC Mining Code; a code that seeks to harmonize with the international standards to enhance transparency in the mining industry.

The Code was nevertheless criticized as being a plot by the senior government figures to exploit artisanal miners. Moreover, the government’s agility to insist on supply chain traceability has elevated the level of transparency an octave high (Rupesinghe, 1987). The international community has nevertheless played their part. The US government through its legislation called ‘Conflict Mineral Trade Act’ emphasized on the need for traceability on the minerals obtained by its companies (Rupesinghe, 1987).

Another US effort led by the secretary of states in the year 2009, called upon the countries official to address issues like corruption and sexual abuse (Snow, 2006). The United Nations has had its fare share of contribution aimed at restoring peace and political stability in the region. It has a group of experts on the ground reporting on the progress of activities in the region (Monty, 2001). Other groups e.g. the European Union have shown their concern in the need for a sobriety in the region.

The companies have improved their levels of participation in the peace building of the war-torn mineral rich region of the DRC. Their concern is depended on the gravity of their activities (Monty, 2001). The companies engage their member countries into diplomatic relations, enhancing peaceful atmosphere for trade which is a great impetus to the conflict mitigation. There are a number of ways that the interested companies engage their governments into a cordial relationship with DRC.

Companies may also engage themselves with the government, abiding by its legislations thereby enhancing transparency in the supply chain. In a synopsis, the need for a calm political environment calls for the company’s participation in collaboration with the central government. The success of a chain of supply largely depends on the impact it has to its locals and, its efforts to establish the origin of the mineral tackling the issue of conflict minerals in a ‘bottom-up’ direction (Rupesinghe, 1987).

Conclusion The problems that are continuously being experienced by the Democratic Republic of Congo are partly attributed to its mineral deposits which are located in the periphery of the central government. The location of these deposits towards the eastern border far from the central government is a hindering factor that has influenced the predomination of the rebel forces in these regions. In pursuit for supremacy over mineral rich regions, it is necessary that the government engage in international relations with other nations.

The government should come up with legislations and laws that enhance efficient flow of business activities devoid of selfish interest that might spark war. The government should encourage Non Governmental Organizations participation to create awareness to the public as well as trying to educate them on the relation between minerals and conflicts. This will enable the government curb conflicts and hence enjoy a peaceful environment that will encourage economic growth

Works Cited Benedict, Lindsay. “DR Congo on the Brink: International indifference to the deadliest conflict since World War II” Journal on the Congo War. 23.4 (2006). 4-10. Print.

Hochschild, Adam. “In Congo, Dark Heart of Mineral Exploitation”. London: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Ismi, Asad. “The Western Heart of Darkness: Mineral-Rich Congo Ravaged by Genocide and Western Plunded”. Dehli: Kathak and sons publishers, 2001. Print.

Rothschild, Donald. “Containing fear: The Origins and Management Of Ethnic Conflict ” Journal of International Security. 21. 2 (1996) :41-75. Print.

Lobe, Jim. “Global Businesses Profit from Congo War, Groups Charge,” Journal of mineral conflicts.68.5 (2003): 13-18. Print.

Monty, G Marshall. Ted, Gurr and Deepla, Khosla. Peace and Conflict: A Global Survey of Armed Conflict, Self Determination Movements and Democracy. New York: University of Maryland Publication, 2001. Print.

Rupesinghe, Kumar. “Theories Of Conflict Resolution And Their Application To Protracted Ethnic Conflicts.” Journal Of Peace Proposals.18.4: (1987): 527-539. Print.

Snow, K Harmon and David, Barousky. “Behind the Numbers: Untold Suffering in the Congo.” Nairobi: East African Publishers, 2006. Print.

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Internet and Democracy in US Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

The rise of the United States as a world superpower has led to the global interest in how she conducts most of her activities. Her large population has also been on the watch out due to criticism on the U.S for involving herself in international affairs some of which have been disadvantageous to the nation.

There have been mixed reactions by the citizens to such conflicting issues that have combined with the notion of color, thus giving rise to two main opposing camps. The fate of a political candidate would then be judged by his or her position on these contentious issues.

Traditionally, the way by which a candidate could reach the public to sell his or her policies was through public campaign forums, where a candidate would schedule to visit a state and address the public concerning his or her presidential ambitions.

However, those who could not attend personally would be forced to follow the speech through electronic media like radio and television. One disadvantage of this is that, the audience, especially those that were miles away, would not find it easy to comment on the policies sold, neither would they be able to show their position on the candidate.

The latter is usually a significant factor in campaign and politics in that, the more fame a candidate gains the more supporters he/she will continue to obtain (Some people do not make their own decision, but follow the direction to which the wind blows). Then appeared the use of Internet to sell a candidate’s policies and give various other political adverts. This was due to the increased use of modern technology in various other sectors and the need to quicken and democratize the electoral process.

The introduction of internet in American political arena has had both positive and negative implications on the democratic rights of the public. As Sifry pointed out, the use of internet in America “has introduced a new age of mass participation and personal activism in which anyone can be a community organizer, message maker or fund raiser and can mobilize the others” (Para. 1).

A report released by Pew Center on Internet and American Life showed that about 25 million Americans access online information daily and can give comments and contribution to various political debates online. The flooding of the information sites by comments from politically active citizens does not only signify a unified public voice, but it also contributes to polarized political platform and governmental standpoint.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The exercise of democracy by involving the public has been witnessed throughout the political past with its peak being observed towards the elections. According to Sifry, “it started with Howard Dean in 2004 and flowered in 2008 with Barrack Obama; and now the “right roots” have mastered the new online platform, especially since the GOP lost its hold on Washington” (Para. 4). In effect, there have been various sites established, that serve the interests of political partisans in different ways.

instance, there are sites blogs that contain various pieces of information vital to the public; e-mail sites for the partisans to issue comments; SeeClickFix that enables the public to contribute to the solution of an emerging issue; and InfluenceExplorer that enables the user to see who donated what to the candidates among many other sites, all of which focuses on the access of information by the public.

Moreover, in his article, Hurwitz (656) stated that “Internet activists have succeeded remarkably in making government and political information available to citizens.”

Discussions Internet and democracy during campaign

The use of Internet during campaign and election processes has been embraced successfully in the United States. However, the same is yet to be exercised in the United Kingdom, where there is still doubt on whether it will succeed or fail. In the United States, the use of Internet as a campaign tool helped the current president Barrack Obama to gain popularity among millions of citizens.

Primarily, his campaign program was organized online and even his policies were, in several cases, sold online. In addition, the campaign team established a website, MyBO, where they could interact with the candidate’s supporters.

Financial contributions by well-wishers could also be done through this site. Moreover, the campaign speeches given by Obama were available on You Tube; while he also had almost two million friends on Facebook and MySpace, as well as tens of thousands of followers on Twitter (Thornton Para. 3).

Generally, Obama’s campaign over the Internet was successful especially given the fact that he was able to express himself explicitly. In such a case, internet can be seen as a tool that makes campaign as simple; thus, democracy is promoted now that the candidate can reach several people, one on one.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Internet and Democracy in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of internet requires a kind of mutual relationship between the user (or the public) and the program itself. Abuse by any party will always lead to a fault somewhere. It has been observed that “Technology is used by the members of the society; its diffusion and use depend on social conditions; the conditions of the society, in other words, shape technological development” (Yang 406). Yang argues that the use of Internet alone is not sufficient to ensure democracy; the social factors in the society also contribute substantially.

Besides, there are sites that a potential supporter can access in order to help finance the campaign of his or her favorite candidate. This promotes democracy now that even those with little contributions that would otherwise shy off can reach the campaign team; indeed, politics is thus not left for the giants only.

Sifry (Para10) observed that the “Internet-powered politics is helping to shift America toward more open, participatory and accountable political process; big contributors have become less necessary in campaigns, giving more influence to small donors and independent organizers.”

The use of political blogs like Dailykos, Big Governments, Talking points Memo on the left, and many others ensures that the public are fully politically informed. All the blogs serve the same purpose, and as Sifry states, ‘they serve partisan red meat to their readers” (Para. 5). Therefore, by accessing the political information on these sites, a potential political partisan is able to develop an informed opinion on any political issue including whom to support.

Moreover, campaigning over the internet can be hazardous especially to a defending candidate who cannot fully give a clarification on a scandal that emerged under his or her docket. Such was the agony that befell the U.K Prime Minister Gordon Brown when he could not give an explicit clarification on the expenses scandal over the You Tube.

Such a candidate will be officially surrendering himself to the public who will not hesitate to take their stand. Democracy shall have been exercised here in some paradoxical sense; the public can now make a positive decision that whoever is selling the policies is not the right person for the seat in question.

Nevertheless, the extensive involvement of Internet in politics can lead to its mismanagement, rendering it quite inappropriate. As Sifry (para6) pointed out, the “rapid rise of social media has generated more talking than listening, more pushing than parsing, and more fragmentation of attention than concentration; the resulting sense of information overload may cause more people to retreat from the public arena, simply because it feels too crowded and noisy.”

The use of email sites can also be mishandled by self-centered political activists. In as much as it is usually used to criticize the opponent’s ability and previous conducts, the site can form a good platform for the activist to defile the opponent wrongly.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet and Democracy in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, the public who learn and believe such accusations will have no otherwise, but to join the undefiled camp. As a result, democracy shall have been interfered with in two ways. First, the voter has been influenced into rejecting a candidate on false grounds, as well as being denied a chance to make his own-judged opinion. Secondly, the defiled candidate has been denied an equal political platform, hence denying him his democratic right.

How Internet promotes democracy during Elections

The process of election is the most fundamental stage in ensuring democracy is exercised. The need to have the exercise conducted quickly and the counting and tallying of votes done immediately not only gives no room for rigging, but also boosts the spirits of the electorate.

In most cases, delayed vote tallying and official release of the results have led to election rigging that has resulted into post-election violence witnessed in several countries in the recent past. Majority of the public, who felt they were denied their democratic rights, lost their confidence in the electoral process and vowed not to vote again. In such a case, the use of the modern technologies like the Internet would have saved the situation.

Firstly, no much time is wasted during voting as compared to the traditional manual system. This encourages even the old, sick and the disabled who would find it cumbersome to stand on a long queue waiting voting. These minority groups in the society have in many cases been left out during elections and that signifies lack of democracy (Warf and Grimes 261-263).

Secondly, there are those individuals who work away from their polling stations. They could also have traveled elsewhere during the period of election. Such people are usually left out of the election due to their inability to access their register from where they are. The use of Internet therefore allows such people to vote from the comfort of their workplaces or wherever they could be.

Finally, the votes are recorded as soon as they are cast. As such, manipulation of figures by the elections officials who probably had directions from a leader defending a seat is minimized. The results are usually available for official release some few hours from the end of the voting period.

The use of Internet however poses some challenges in ensuring that the democratic rights of the public are not denied. This stems from the social-economic interrelated factors prevailing in a given societal setting that generally contributes to low level of education.

Lack of enough funds and poor, outdated culture could lead to high level of illiteracy in a given community. This will contribute to a mixture of results should the system of electronic voting be introduced in such a setting. To begin with, the illiterate voter will depend entirely on the clerks and agents at the polling station for assistance.

This could give room for some form of corruption as the clerks or agents could secretly direct the voter in favour of their favorite candidate. Besides, most of the illiterate and semi-illiterate suffer the inferiority complex. In certain cases, they would rather boycott the election than to go and reveal to the public, which had better expectation of them, that they are actually semi-illiterate and need assistance. This might sound odd and untrue but it is the reality underlying low voter turnout in some areas.

Another less serious case occurs when even the polling clerks who have the electronic expertise are not available in a given area and have to be imported from elsewhere. In such cases, the less qualified individuals and their close associates from these areas usually have a feeling that they were denied an employment opportunity. In many cases, they try to mobilize the public to boycott the elections as they claim that justice has not been exercised. These have also been the reasons behind low voter turn out in some cases.

The lower voter turnout resulting from mass participation in politics could further lead to some irregularities. A less potential candidate could probably manage to be outspoken among the competitors and ends up the winner. Even though democracy is not directly affected here, there is an indirect impact that simply emanated from the extensive use of the cyberspace (Sifry Para. 6).

Conclusion The use of internet in political world can effectively promote democracy. However, this is only applicable to an extent that the legislations governing the roles of media in politics are obeyed. With the struggle to do away with poverty and low level of education, the system will be less viable to mismanagement by the corrupt individuals.

Internet’s is and will be the best measure to ensure democracy prevails in the public sphere. To achieve this, there is also need for continued innovation in the fields of Information Technology to help come up with better technologists. There is need for “a generation of civic technologists who engage the fundamental infrastructure of the Internet and standards processes in the public interests” (Clift 31). This approach would be the most efficient in ensuring that nobody is wrongly influenced.

Works Cited Clift, Steven. An Internet of Democracy. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 43 Issue 11, p31-32. Nov2000. Minnesota USA.

Hurwitz, Roger. Who Needs Politics? Who Needs People? The Ironies of Democracy in Cyberspace. Contemporary Sociology, 28.6 (1999): 655-661.

Sifry, Micah. “The Internet has fueled polarization and gridlock, but it is also giving US a new tool for self-government.” Wall Street journal, Oct 30, 2010, pg C.3. New York. Web.

Thornton, John. Vote with Your Finger. Public Finance. London: Apr 23-Apr 29, 2010. pg18. Web.

Warf, Barney

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The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Historical Background

The Symbolic Meaning on the Protagonist without a Name

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Reading any novel, people try to notice as much as they can to consider the main idea of the literature work and to understand the purpose for writing this specific information. Each novel has a specific goal. It is impossible to imagine a piece of writing which is aimless and at the same time which is extremely popular all over the world.

While reading a novel, people should notice each feature, any unusual thing should be considered. The absence of the protagonist’s name is one of such things which should be considered. Only attentive reader can notice that the absence of the protagonist’s name is a specific and symbolic device which helps understand the whole novel, consider it from absolutely different perspective. This device is going to be discussed on the basis of the novel Notes from Underground written by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

Dostoevsky is a Russian writer who managed to reach the world fame. The books written by this person are translated on many languages of the world and people still consider this person a great representative of the literature who worked and lived in the 19th century. The novel Notes from Underground is a good example of the no name protagonist.

Moreover, it is possible to consider the reasons why the author has chosen this device and how it influences the understanding of the whole novel.

The absence of the name in the novel Notes from Underground by Dostoyevsky is symbolic as it shows that the protagonist is an ordinary person who tells the story which is not unique and there are many people in the society who could appear in the same situation and come to the same conclusions; moreover, the reason for leaving the protagonist without a name may be in fact that it is impossible give a name to the person relaying on the actions he performed.

Historical Background The novel is written in 1864 and there are some quarrels about the initial idea and the symbolic meaning the author wanted to deliver to people by means of using a protagonist with no name. First of all, it is important to understand what circumstances surrounded Dostoevsky and whether these circumstances influenced his decision.

The novel was written in the 19th century, during the time when many writers in Russia and all over the world wrote their pieces without introducing protagonists. It may be said that this was the tendency and it influenced the author’s decision greatly. Many authors wanted to make an impression that the works they wrote were autobiographical and no named protagonists helped in that (Smith and Watson 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, it may be concluded that the author used the tendency and this is the main reason for failing to introduce the protagonist. The scholar who considered the literature works by Dostoevsky has written, “Notes from Underground features a hero – or anti-hero – of contemporary consciousness cobbled together out of literature bits and pieces” (Emerson 147).

Nevertheless, there are a lot of other issues and signs which show that there are much more reasons which made the author make a decision and represent the audience with the protagonist without a name.

The Symbolic Meaning on the Protagonist without a Name It is possible to make any possible suggestions about the nature and reasons of the author’s decision not to use the name for the protagonist. Still, it is impossible to omit the reasons Dostoevsky provides in the very novel. He writes, “the author of the dairy and the diary itself are imaginary.

Nevertheless.., such persons… must exist in the society” (Dostoyevsky 1). Thus, the author explains his position on failure to use the protagonist’s name. The story is imaginary and there is no real prototype to it, but being aware of life and human behavior, Dostoevsky cannot avoid the fact that such situation can happen with anyone.

Time and distance is not the barrier. Thus, reading the story now, it is possible to see the social degradation of the protagonist and agree that such people may exist. The author wanted to show the real life, but still, Dostoevsky understood that he did not have a specific right to say straightly that such people live.

The reasons for this may be numerous. On the one hand, the author could have known such people and did not want to insult those, on the other hand, the author could have never met such people but his intuition and the awareness of life could make him a hint that the problem of such people in the society is really crucial.

Thus, representing a protagonist without a name, the author tries to express the ideas of some representatives of the society without attaching the situation to any specific person. Moreover, the author was in Siberia for some years and lived with murders and other criminals. This could have influenced his understanding of human beings and their relation to life and other people (Emerson 9).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It seems that the absence of the protagonist’s name only adds to the impression the novel provides. The novel is written in the form of a dairy. The first lines of the novel tell us, “I am a sick man… I am a spiteful man. I am unattractive man” (Dostoyevsky 1). It is impossible to imagine another situation apart from a dairy when a person can make such confession. It seems that Dostoevsky understands that this form of writing is the most appropriate.

On the one hand, a person dwells upon the most terrible and the ugliest actions he has been doing in his life, on the other hand, the reader may doubt the sincerity of the situation as the person, no matter how shabby the acts, cannot tell the truth about such actions to another one. The idea of a dairy is the ideal one. The reader understands the reasons for sincerity and the device of no named protagonist adds to this effect. Who can go as far as introducing himself of herself in the dairy? Such things are usually written from personal considerations.

One more reason for failing to represent the protagonist of the novel Notes from Underground with the name is the nature of the actions the author discusses. If to consider the novel as a dairy, it is necessary to believe in what is said there. The author represents three main situations which influenced his life greatly.

The first situation deals with the officer who was invisibly bumped by the protagonist. This action shows him as a foul and coward person who cannot even face the offender and solve the problem one to one. The second situation which strikes attention is the dinner with old school friends. The situation is unpleasant as the protagonist hates all those who were present at the party but tries to show that he is their friend. There is no other word for such a person but a dissembler.

The final situation is also disgusting. The protagonist humbles Liza, a young prostitute (Dostoevsky 113). All those actions show the protagonist as a morally depraved person. Considering the problem under discussion from the perspective of these actions only it becomes understandable why the author does not want to introduce the name of the protagonist.

It is not easy to find a name to such person. Moreover, any name can always be associated with a good and kind person and it seems that the author did not want any other person to be related to such terrible actions. In the prism of those actions, it is also possible to justify the author and say that the device with no named protagonist was one of the best in the situation.

Conducting a research, some great words were considered. They have been written many years before the novel was written, still, they ideally fit the situation with the absence of the protagonist’s name in the novel. Therefore, Aristotle writes, “the extremes have the appearance of being opposed to one another, because the mean has no appropriate name” (Aristotle 71).

The main idea of these words is that it is impossible to give a name to the person whose actions show that here is no appropriate name for him/her. As it was mentioned above, this opinion may be easily related to the novel by Dostoevsky. The person describes his life with the purpose to understand why he had become a person who he was.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the stories in the book are so terrible, that it is really impossible to name the person who performed those actions. Moreover, the ideas expressed by Aristotle and reflected by Dostoevsky prove the ideas considered earlier about the possibility of the existence of such people as the protagonist at any time and in any society.

These two people lived in absolutely different times and societies, but this is not considered as the barrier for having the same thoughts. This situation proves most of our theories about the absence of the protagonist’s name, especially those which deal with the inability to use an appropriate one and the other that each society may have a person with such considerations and who conducts the same actions.

While the research conduction, it was identified that many authors used such techniques and the scholars in most cases check not the very specific novel or author, but the very idea of the failure to introduce the protagonist’s name. Thus, Melissa Matthes in the article A Checkered Past states that in case when the protagonist has no name, he “lives on every page” (Matthes 21).

Such announcement is rather bold, but at the same time it is reasonable to check this theory to be sure that all the ideas are referred to and to be able to make the conclusion which is going to support the thesis statement provided above and cast light on the specific reasons for using no named protagonist while writing.

Reading the novel it appears that the protagonist was not present in some situations, but, still, he describes those. The best example for such situations is as follows. The protagonist dwells upon his meeting with old friends he hates. He states that his friends made a secret appointment about meeting later and did not invite the protagonist.

Moreover, describing some other situations, the customer is always on the pages, there is no feeling that he is omitted even if he is not involved in the discussion. It is crucial to remember that when the narration comes not from the first person singular, the narration may be distracted from the main character. Here, the narrator is present on each page of the novel. This impression is given by two reasons, the absence of the name of the protagonist and the consideration of the novel as a dairy.

It is crucial to remember that all the reasons the author of the novel uses for failing to introduce the protagonist’s name are closely connected. One specific reason may be easily supported by another one or even explained. The impression appears that all those reasons are interconnected and that the author intentionally used those to create a symbolic meaning around this fact.

Thus, the author gives the explanation to the absence of the protagonist’s name saying that such people may exist in any society, and Aristotle supports this idea. Moreover, the idea of a novel being a dairy (in the relation to the ugly actions the author describes) is supported with Matthes’ statements that a person who acts in such a way may not have an appropriate name.

Conclusion In conclusion it should be mentioned that the author’s idea of absence of the protagonist’s name is symbolic. There are a number of different issues the author wanted to provide the reader with by means of the fact that he did not give a name to the protagonist. Therefore, firstly, the author explains this action as the desire to show that there are people in the society which may act and think like that. It is crucial to notice that Aristotle supports this idea.

The absence of the protagonist’s name shows that such people may be near us. Secondly, the absence of the protagonist’s name gives a hint that the writing is a dairy and that the situations described there are true, as who is going to lie to the dairy? Here is the reason for the name’s absence. People do no introduce themselves to the things if only they are expected to read it. Thirdly, the impression that the writing is the autobiography is created by the same device.

This method was rather popular during the time when the novel was created. And finally, the author does not give the name to the protagonist because there is no a name to a person who acts like that. So, all those reasons are reasonable and have the right to be considered.

While reading the novel, the audience should think about what is the reason they like more. Moreover, it is helpful to think over the reasons why this symbol is necessary. It seems that the author wanted to show the whole world that is not to do something the world society may be overburden with people like the protagonist, without names but with terrible actions and unclear consciousness.

Works Cited Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2008. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Notes from the Underground. Champaign, Ill.: Project Gutenberg, 1999. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.

Emerson, Caryl. The Cambridge Introduction to Russian Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.

Matthes, Melissa. “A Checkered Past.” Commonweal, 135.17 (2008): p 21. Literature Resource Center. Web.

Smith, Sidonie and Julia Watson. Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 2001. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.

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Equality of Men and Women Essay college essay help: college essay help

Despite campaigns in developed and developing countries aimed at creating awareness and respect for women rights, their participation in employment remains low. International human rights fights for equality in men and women, their employment act says women should be given equal opportunities; it is of the opinion that at least a third of a company’s employees should be women.

Sweatshops policies are some of the policies made in some countries to increase women employment to informal and formal sectors. This argumentative paper discusses why sweatshop labour opportunities for women in developing countries are better than no opportunities, or the limited opportunities, that are currently available to women in those countries.

One of the major reasons why men have been able to look down upon women is women lack of economical empowerment. They are left to depend on men for their livelihood. In Africa, women were required to cultivate and produce food for the family, however in today’s increased population, which have resulted to farming land fluctuations farms can no longer feed a family.

Another factor that has affected this old “women” profession is global warming, seasons are no longer predictable. If the countries start sweatshops programs, women will at least have some income other than depending on men wholly.

Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn in their book “Half the Sky” gives the example of China as one of country that have used sweatshop policy to incorporate women in their production. According to the authors, the moves have shown an increased participation of women in economic development. Though the policy offers low wages and mostly is in the informal sector, women are able to meet their basic needs.

This is the start point. According to Abraham Marlow (1908-1970), hierarchy of needs theory, Psychological needs are the foremost needs that human beings require; these are the basic needs that a person should have they are food, shelter, health and clothing. When these are given by sweatshops, women will be able to focus on higher things and be able to fight for their needs.

When fighting for rights, there is always a sacrificial group, when today’s women are included in these low paying jobs, they will create an avenue to future girl child, as they are involved in production, men will note that they are equally and sometimes more productive than men and thus in the future, they will trust them with higher responsibilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Canada, clothing industry, women dominate as labourers and casuals. This has given them exposure and experience that they require to establish their own small businesses which has resulted to their financial empowerment.

When African economies, embrace this move their economies will adjust to this economic policy; then with time, they will feel they can move without them. The result will be a foundation of fight for women rights. When these rights are respected, this is the start point of women empowerment. In Kenya-Africa, there was a move by the countries government and Italian government to have Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in the country which had a similar approach like sweatshops programs.

The zones were termed as areas of oppression in the late 1990s but in early 2000, C.O.T.U. (Central Organisation of Trade Unions-Kenya), intervened and currently the teams of the employment is better; they even have access to loans through the policy. This is a real example that shows how sweatshops programs can start small but end up benefiting women.

To recognise the talent in a person, it is good to expose him/her to a challenging task. When women are given the low earning jobs; in the process their talents will be recognised and used for the good of the economy.

I thus support the statement that “sweatshop labour opportunities for women in developing countries are better than no opportunities, or the limited opportunities, that are currently available to women in those countries”.

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Food Safety Risk Assessment Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction In the event that food is not handled properly during preparation or is poorly stored, there is likelihood of food borne illness. For many years, food safety has been a growing threat to the public health in many regions of the world. Basically, food borne diseases can be grouped as either infections or intoxications and are caused by microorganisms that are ingested in the body and have the capability of multiplying.

According to Unnevehr and Hirschhom (2008), some factors that can inhibit the safety of food products are microbial pathogens, zoonotic diseases, parasites, adulterants, mycotoxins, antibiotic drug residues, pesticides, heavy metals, and genetically modified foods (p.8).

According to Unnevehr and Hirschhom (2008), Gram-negative pathogens are “bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol”; however, they usually hold a “pink or reddish dye once a counterstain chemical is used.” These bacteria produce toxic substances when they enter the blood stream and cause destruction to tissue, hence leading to inflammation of tissues.

However, recent studies show that these bacteria are evolving and becoming immune to the available antibiotics. Most of the Gram-negative pathogens are considered harmful to their host, and are known to cause severe pneumonia, infections of the urinary tract, and the blood stream.

On the other hand, some threats to food safety are environmental and industrial pollution, agricultural practices, and food production practices and cultural practices i.e. consumption of raw food. Some of foods borne diseases are salmonellosis, Campylobacter, diarrhea, cholera, and Shigella. Shigella is a rod shaped bacteria that mostly affect the digestive tract.

According to Curtis, et al (2003, p.69), Salmonella are gram-negative bacteria, non-sporing, growing in both anaerobic and non-anaerobic conditions and that cause salmonellosis disease. The salmonella bacteria are capable of growing and living in areas with limited amount of oxygen. Some types of salmonella bacteria affect only animals and not human.

On the other hand, Shigellas are bacteria than cause shigellas infections symbolized with diarrhea and dysentery. Shigella bacteria can cope in area of very low temperatures. Campylobacter is bacteria that cause diseases in animals and human being, and the most common bacteria that causes disease is known as campylobacter jejuni, which is a zoonotic organism and has sixteen species and six sub species (Curtis, et al., 2003, p.23).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will therefore discuss food borne diseases in the sense that, food borne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem, both in developed and developing countries. Every person is at risk of a food borne illness.

Salmonella Salmonella is a food borne disease caused by salmonella bacteria, which enters the stomach, and can move to other organs through the blood stream if not treated promptly (Brands

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Peapod Groceries Report college admissions essay help

Peapod is a grocery company that sells its products over the internet. Customers make their orders on-line and the orders are delivered to their doorsteps. It was founded in 1989 by two brothers, Andrew and Thomas Parkinson. The goal behind the establishment of this company was to make shopping easy for all types of customers.

In July 1990, Peapod began testing its market by allowing customers in Evanston to place orders on-line. It also provided software to the customers and sold modems to them in order to make ordering easy. By that time, the two brothers did not have a vehicle for the company and deliveries were made using their own cars. Family members and friends came in to help them in the picking, packing, and delivery of the products to the customers.

By 1998, demand for Peapod’s products had increased substantially and the company expanded to other markets such as Chicago and also opened its own website. Its mission is to provide friendly and quality services to all its customers as it strives to exceed customers’ expectations (Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping, 2005).

Peapod’s largest market is in Chicago area. It has managed to expand its services to other states including but not limited to New Jersey, Boston, New York, and Baltimore. To make marketing easy, Peapod has partnered with big companies in the food industry in the respective state of its operation. For instance, in Chicago, it has formed a partnership with Jewel Food Stores and Randall’s in Texas.

Peapod is the leading e-retailer in the grocery industry and this has been made possible by the partnerships it formed with Royal Ahold, an international food company based in Netherlands (Peapod, 2010). Today, 75% of Peapod’s services are targeted to the single parents and families with young children (Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping 2005). These are the people who are believed to have less time to go to the grocery stores and would prefer shopping from their houses.

However, this is a very narrow market considering the growth in the online market. In addition, it has only been able to expand on specific geographical areas especially along the East coast. I believe Peapod target market will change with time when it starts to put other things into consideration. Apart from time issues, other factors that can be considered in designing the target market are physical constraints such as inability of the elderly to jump from one vehicle to the other while going to the grocery stores.

Just like other on-line groceries, Peapod has been experiencing the problem of customers questioning the quality and freshness of its products. To curb this problem, the company has introduced a delivery system called Stay Fresh that keeps all products at optimal temperatures before they are delivered to customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this system, customers are able to receive their products when they are still fresh and this has led to an increase in the company’s sales. Another problem that is experienced by the company is that many customers are not quick to make orders for products they cannot see. Although the website may contain much information on the nutritional value of the products, the pictures displayed on the website do not offer a good basis for customers to make comparisons (Bretagne, 2010).

Other people argue that purchasing over the internet is more expensive than face-to-face purchases. Peapod Company has introduced a marketing strategy that allows customers to use promotional code. This ensures that customers are convinced about the company’s products and they are also able to save money (Riedman, 1997).

Peapod has been able to utilize its warehouse facilities to customize its products. To do this, Peapod uses centralized distribution with a warehouse and a wareroom. Deliveries are made on the day following an order request using an intact supply chain.

This has allowed the company to utilize the use of the store’s assets in opening new markets which are later transitioned into warehouses as the business expands its operations. The use of Ahold stores has assisted the company in the provision of quality products and services, controlling its inventory, and minimizing out-of-stocks (Peapod, 2010).

One of the major competitors that are likely to enter the online grocery shopping market is Wal-Mart stores. This is the largest retailer in the world a position which it has earned through its marketing approach including low priced products, just-in time delivery, and its organizational behavior.

Wal-Mart’s superior marketing strategy complements its mission statement and has seen its product being well positioned in the market. The company’s reputable brand name is a source of competitive advantage as it lures customer traffic. There is a likelihood of the company going online in marketing of its groceries and if this happens, it will be a major threat to Peapod considering its market position.

Another competitor likely to enter the market is Publix Super market. This is a supermarket based in Florida. It was ranked among the best one hundred international companies and it’s among the largest companies in America. Publix is a food retailer that is privately owned although not available to a large population.

We will write a custom Report on Peapod Groceries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This company has not yet gone on-line but with the current trend in technology and the increased reliance on the internet, it poses as a major competitor for Peapod for the reason that soon it may decide to market its groceries over the internet.

Peapod uses a two way communication system which helps in increasing its sales volume as well as its development. It uses external advertising agents such as Kraft Foods and Frito-lay. About 75% of its customers are able to access its services over the website while the rest use dial-up method to access the services (Riedman, 1997).

One of its selling tools includes pre-testing of its content before they are placed on the web. This ensures that customers are not deceived but get the right information. Today, about 15 million households shop at Peapod online market in spite of all the competitors present in the online market. To ensure that it is able to retain its customers, it analyses customers’ shopping behavior through promotions which forms part of its business model.

Having looked at the history and current situation of Peapod, I conclude that peapod has a promising future. In five years to come, the company will have extended into other international markets. It would be better if the company considers expanding into the developing countries since most of the large companies have not yet explored these markets.

However, the company has to develop new marketing strategies that will help in beating the present competition. One of such strategies would be low cost products and services that will see the company being ranked as the largest online retailer in marketing of groceries ten years from now.

Reference List Bretagne, R. (2010). Bad Experiences with Shopping Grocery Online. Web.

Peapod, (2010). The Peapod Start. Web.

Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping (2005). Peapod Official Website.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Peapod Groceries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Riedman, P. (1997). Media

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Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

In spite of the fact that gambling has always been considered a vicious way of sparing one’s time that cannot exist in the society of religious and fair people, the notorious game has taken its toll on the casinos and the people who would like to have some air of adventures and risks in their life without resorting to extreme sports. The question is whether gambling should be legalized as one of the sources of the state’s incomes or banned for good as the pastime that cannot be accepted in Kentucky.

Taking a deep look into the history of the state, one can see absolutely clearly that gambling has always been one of the ventures that bring huge sums of money into the state’s treasury. However blasphemous that might sound, gambling is something that the state has been surviving on throughout its long history.

Beginning with the very history of the state, one should presume that it is a well-known fact that gambling has been widely established in Kentucky.

It was not the main source of the state income, though. The industries that added to the well-being of the state and its GNP since the day the state was founded and throughout the past century was the coal mining, which contributed to the state’s income to the utmost. However, as the Word War II burst out, mining became extinguished and the mines were left. As the war ended, the abandoned territory of production was rather uneasy to raise.

Meanwhile, ambling, which did not need any additional help from the government and investors, was flourishing in the state. Even after the Ohio River flood which happened in 1937 and caused almost the same harm than the war that followed it did not prevent the risky venture to develop further. The business of the gamblers not only flourished, but helped the state to get enriched with the new funds that could provide the necessary helping restoring what had been damaged by the war and the cataclysms.

It must be admitted that the unlawful way of earning money has been banned not once in Kentucky, and that most strict measures were applied to those who have been caught gambling. While people tried to earn some money with help of a deck of cards, the numerous raids that challenged the gamblers in 1951 cooled the adventurers’ enthusiasm down. Taking into account that the government connected gambling to drinking alcoholic beverages in public places, the situation was more than threatening to the gamblers in 1950ies:

Fourth, I recommend that you enact into law an act providing for the mandatory suspension or revocation of the license to sell alcoholic beverages, upon conviction of the license of this agent of gambling on the premises. (Wetherby 29)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was something to ponder over, and gambling was forsaken for a while.

Although the present economical state of Kentucky ahs sufficiently improved since 1950ies, there is still a great concern about gambling and its legalization. The reasons for the gambling industry to develop in the state must be taken into consideration together with the ones that speak in favor of its prohibition, which will be a democratic decision to make.

Then, the multiple economical reasons must be viewed to understand whether can really provide Kentucky with the money that the state needs nowadays. The income that might overlap everything that has been achieved before is definitely the reason for the further suggestions not to be refused from considering.

The specific national character must also be well understood, since the state is breathing with what can be called the spirit of risks.

The most popular argument that is driven against gambling as the resource of the state income is that it holds no water as a serious business entrepreneurship to undertake. Its unpredictability makes gambling one of the most unpredictable ways of enriching the state’s treasury.

As Nelson (134) put it, there were several reasons for the gambling proposals to fail in early 1990ies as well; according to the scientist, the most important and profound one was the diffusion of the lotteries that added to the unpopularity of gambling, defined as the gambling political decline.

Spread all around the country, they soon became the tricks that only children could fall for. Then, the internal characteristics must be kept in mind. According to the latter, gambling has become so popular that it started to threaten people’s lives, which finally drew to its prohibition.

We will write a custom Essay on Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The hangover from Rocky Top created a seedy image of gambling in the body politic, which was reflected in the legislative view of such things,” says the veteran legislative correspondent Tom Humphrey. The scandal touched many legislations personally when friends and associates were indicted, or, in two cases, took their own lives. In the same vein, McWherter says that the pinball and bingo controversies “created a problem about any kind of gambling, including a lottery” (134)

With such reasons for gambling to stop its destructive influence on people’s lives, it was impossible to drive any possible reasons in favor of gambling and its legalization. The conflict seemed to come into a dead end.

However, there were also the activists that preferred talking aloud about the advantages of gambling legalized to keeping silence and doing nothing. They emphasized that, first, gambling might give sufficient amount of money to the state permanently, and, second, it was in the character of the people living in the South to gamble, which was the way they expressed their need to take risks.

Gambling should be legalized in Kentucky according to a number of reasons, the economical ones the first to consider. Mainly, these are the employment and the money lost due to the riverbank casinos that speak in favor of allowing gambling, but these reasons are sufficient enough.

Of course, the economical reasons are the first to take into consideration.

With all respect to the morals and the image of a true Christian, one cannot admit that the money that the government receives to sustain the decent level of the nation’s life as gambling is allowed will be tremendous.

One of the most often driven arguments of the supporters of gambling legalization argues that a grown-up person can decide on his or her own which way he or she is going to spend the money:

Supporters of legalized gambling often argue that adults should be given the freedom to spend their money on gambling and should not be presumed incompetent to make those choices. (Evans 127)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, since this is the right of an adult man to make the steps that he or she considers the most necessary at the moment, no one has the right to prevent the people from making these steps. Whatever could be said about the gambling being against morals, the things that go against the Constitution are counted for a more serious mischief.

Thus, the rules and laws that restrict gambling in the territory of Kentucky must be reconsidered and cancelled. The question of the rights and freedoms of people is something that cannot be argued, and the government has to count for that.

Moreover, the idea of gambling as one of the additional resources for the state treasury enriching sounds rather reasonable. A single idea of what these additional funds could be involved into to make the state develop further and become more advanced is already convincing enough for the governmental bodies to start acting in favor of gambling allowance.

Thompson (210) claims that Kentucky could survive on the racing bets only; such big is the input that the bets make into the well-being of the state:

Kentucky is the home of horse racing. More race-horses are born and bred in Kentucky than in any other state. The Kentucky Derby is the most famous horse race in The United States.

In addition, horse industry will allow creating the working places for the people that are unemployed now, and thus decrease the index of unemployment in the state. This might help to cope with the problems that the state is facing now.

In spite of the fact that the religious opponents are straight against gambling and its variations, they encourage the game called bingo, which is a form of gambling as well. If such game as bingo is allowed, why not letting people play the rest of the gambling games?

Thompson also claims that people were inclined to support the idea of making bets and having lotteries that were of a great entertaining element for the people who attended horse races and decent money for the governmental treasury to fill with. The money that could be won with such ease and used to improve the state of affairs in Kentucky was the manna that people were waiting for.

In 1988, 61 percent of the Kentucky voters said they wanted a lottery, and the next year one was established that offers instant games, lotto games, and number games as well as Powerball interstate lottery tickets. Charitable games also permitted. (Thompson 210)

Moreover, it should be born in minds that, due to the riverboat casinos in Indiana, people in Kentucky lose a great deal of money, which has to be stopped: “Indiana is the sixth riverboat gambling state and also the first state to permit gambling on the Great Lakes. The intent of the Indiana Riverboat Gambling Act also was to promote tourism and assist economic development” (Hsu 79). So the question is why doesn’t Kentucky follow this convincing example?

Taking everything that has been mentioned into account, it is needless to say that the gambling games are a source of income for Kentucky that should not be rejected. With all the drawbacks and challenging to the moral prejudice of the people, gambling is still a reliable source of money and a valuable venture that the state should take courage to undertake. In spite of the numerous “cons”, gambling is the integral part of the people of Kentucky. It is in their blood, as well as the urge to have some risks in their everyday life.

The legal gambling has some prospects to survive, though. The following prospects have been stated recently:

“In near future, debate will focus on whether to expand existing forms of gambling and whether to legalize new ones” (Ruschmann 120).However, the government is still uncertain of the steps that they are going to take to solve this problem.

Thus, whenever the government and the moralizing people think that gambling should be banned fro good, it is necessary to say that the government must think of the well-being of the state first and provide it with the basis for their wealth, Since gambling is one of the most useful means that the state can resort to, it must be allowed in Kentucky. And this will become the choice of a man whether to gamble or not. This is, to paraphrase a famous writer, the road that we choose.

Works Cited Evans, Rod L., and Mark Hance. Legalized Gambling: For and Against. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1998. Print.

Hsu, Cathy H. S. Legalized Casino Gaming in the United States: The Economic and Social Impact. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999. Peint.

Nelson, Michael, John Lyman Mason. How the South Joined the Gambling Nation: The Politics of State Policy Innovation. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 2007. Print.

Ruschmann, Paul. Legalized Gambling. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2008. Print.

Thompson, William T. Gambling in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Issues and Society. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO, 2001. Print.

Wetherby, Lawrence W., and John E. Kleber. The Public Papers of Governor Lawrence W. Wetherby, 1950-1955. Frankfort: KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1983. Print.

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Compensation of strategic network board Essay (Article) custom essay help

Table of Contents Analysis

Application

Conclusion

Work Cited

Firms have embarked on strategies that help catch up with the stiff competition in the market. As a result, they partner with other firms to form strategic networks that constitute many members. This arrangement enables them attain strategic renewal through sharing resources, participation in joint technological activities and drawing similar marketing strategies.

It is evident that this helps in strengthening the firm’s competitiveness; as a result, most governments and business related regulatory agencies support its implementation especially for small businesses. Another reason why many governments’ support this concept is because it assists firms to build independent entities that will help them address their deficiencies.

Most importantly, to ensure the networks accomplish their goals, it is essential to establish a network board that will foresee their operations. This board might come in handy in situations where companies that have formed a network are experiencing problems related to insufficient resources (Thorgren, Wincent and Anokhin 131).

The network board consists of firm’s representatives, experts in the industry or representatives of different related public agencies. Most importantly, the main responsibility of the network board is to augment network authenticity. Additionally, it heartens, harmonizes and offers support for joint activities among the networked firms.

Basing on the roles played by this network board, it is essential that they are compensated so as to motivate them. It is obvious that the administrative structure that governs the operations of this board is different from the normal organization structure. This is because the board foresees the operations of more than one firm and each of them has its own administrative structure.

Thus, the process of compensating the network board is far different from that of an organization’s board. As evident, this board acts as agents that link different organizations. Research has incorporated agency theory with stewardship theory to suggest that unforeseen events shape the affiliation linking networking firms and network board members in a way that can add weight to the effects of board compensation on network performance (Thorgren et al. 132).

Analysis In this article, the author portrays the importance of the small businesses coming together and establishing an empire that will sustain them presently and in the future. In order for these businesses to succeed, they must form a board to foresee their operations. Additionally, this board must be compensated as a means of motivating it to perform its duties well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is noteworthy that the author’s qualification is certain as he brings out the most important facts concerning the avenue that leads to small businesses prosperity. Establishment of a strategic network by firms as presented by the author seems to be a practicable fact. However, the administrative structure that links these companies in a way to facilitate the compensation of this board does not seem to be practicable. It is obvious that the board members are derived from the industry.

Thus, each stakeholder must compensate its representatives as part of its contribution towards the sustainability of the board. It is essential for the firms concerned to come up with well constructed strategies, which will ensure the costs incurred during compensation process are shared equally. Basing on this fact, it is an appropriate for firms to produce equal number of representatives on the board to ensure equivalent contribution towards their compensation.

In as much as the article portrays the importance of compensating the network board members, it does not give the criteria to be employed when administering the compensation. It is a fact that the compensation strategy is a critical issue that needs to be addressed in detail.

Some experts reveal that issues arising from the compensation strategy might result to controversies, hence collapse of the strategic networks. In the establishment of these networks, it is essential for its proposers to put in mind the fact that it requires a lot of consultation to link the companies. In the board, it is essential to constitute experts with experience on joint company ventures. This acts as a mitigation measure incase there occurs future disagreements.

Application It is noted that, this information is important in business as it depicts ways in which different companies can combine their resources to come up with a solid venture able to outdo its competitors. The information on compensation of the network board is necessary to companies that are already in strategic network as it enlightens them on ways of strengthening their links.

Most importantly, this information is essential to the management as it reveals a rough idea of what to expect when they involve their institutions in strategic networks. Additionally, this information is vital to institutions already in involved in strategic network but having problems to do with the compensation and constitution of the network board.

Conclusion As evident, stiff competition in the market leads to employment of new strategies to enable firms catch up with the market leaders. Thus, there are companies that opt for the strategic network so as to combine their resources; as a result, it boosts their market share. In any organization, employee motivation is considered essential because it ensures more productivity.

We will write a custom Article on Compensation of strategic network board specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, for the strategic network board to be motivated it should receive compensation from the network partners. It is appropriate for each company to have a representative on the board so that their interests are well represented. Furthermore, a company will be well represented if the individual has got formal links with the company and understands what goes on in the company. The board’s success is determined by the mode of treatment and concern it receives from the stakeholder.

Thus, its compensation is an important element that will boost their working morale. As evident, the compensation process must be well structured so as to ensure there are no obstacles towards the implementation of the strategic network. Hence, the parties involved must seek the advice and guidance of experts before executing this strategy.

Work Cited Thorgren, Sara. Wincent, Joakim.

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Oil and Natural Gas Industry and Its Effect on the Economy Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction The importance of oil and natural gas industry

It is impossible to imagine the modern world without energy. People got used to live in warm houses, the greatest plants work on the basis of the products oil and gas industry supplies them with. This high demand on energy in different forms makes it impossible for the modern economy function without it. Oil and gas industry is considered to be the most impacting in the whole world as well as in the USA.

The Purpose of the Research

The main purpose of the research is to consider how oil and gas industry affects the economy of the country. It is important to understand that the financial value of the industry is not the only an issue which is considered to be influential at the financial market, labor market is also affected at great extend.

The Effect of Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the Economy The General Impact of the Industry on the Economy of the USA

The general impact of the oil and gas industry may be divided into three main measures, direct impact, indirect impact, and induced impact. Direct impact is understood as the jobs and added value which are considered within the industry. Indirect impact is followed within the industries which deal with the products offered by the oil and gas industry. Induced impact is considered as the use of the income resulted from the oil and gas industry. Almost each country in the world deals with this industry and it is possible to say that the impact of this industry is great (“The Economic Impacts” 9). It is crucial to consider the financial importance and the significance of the industry as the employee in detail.

The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Industry on Business and Finances

Dwelling upon the impact of the oil and gas industry on the economy of the country, business sector cannot be omitted. The great impact of the industry on business may be explained as follows, the industry spends money which is further spent by local businesses and recipient employees; then businessmen purchase different goods and hire employees who get salaries and spend them on state economy. This is an indirect impact of the oil and gas industry on the USA economy (“The Economic Impacts” 14).

The demand on the products manufactured in the industry has been increasing from year to year. With the rise of the prices on the oil and gas, capital investments increased as well. This influenced the level of revenue in the industry and the rate of taxes the industry pays to the national treasury.

The production of the crude oil in 2005 was valued at $45.2 billion. The increase of the natural gas production is measured by the increase on 312% from 1997. The export of gas and oil brought the country value at $45.2 billion in 2006. The contribution to the gross domestic product in 2005 was about $5.1 billion (Williams 9).

The Effect Oil and Natural Gas Industry Provides on Labor Market

The impact of the considering industry on the labor market in the whole world and in the USA is crucial. More than 7.8 million employees were involved in the oil and gas industry in the USA, according to the information collected in 2007. If to pay attention to the total employment contribution to the national economy, including the related jobs, the industry managed to provide 9.2 million employees in 2007. This is 5.7% of the whole employment in the USA (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the creation of the job places within the industry, the “oil and gas industry creates jobs in related industries” (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 14).

Moreover, the same report states that due to the direct impact of the industry 10,538 employees have the jobs in the industry, 5,260 employees work in the related spheres and 10,761 employers are related to the industry by means of the induced impact (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 16). These results are considered only for Pennsylvania and it is may be easy to predict he results for the whole country.

Conclusion The Summary of the Information

Thus, it may be concluded that the impact of the oil and gas industry on the country and world economy is crucial, especially if to take into account the rapid growth of the industry. Moreover, there is a tendency that more and more companies and even the whole countries become dependent on oil. It becomes not only the product, but the method for payment. The country which exports more oil and gas industry’s products is the most powerful one and can influence the price formation in the industry.

Oil and Natural Gas Industry Effect on Financial and Labor Markets

The labor and financial markets are influenced by the industry in both direct and indirect ways. Many companies have created business on the basis of the products and services produced within this industry. Many people work in the sphere, even if there is no oil and gas manufacture in the country. Many indirect job places are created on the basis of this industry.

Works Cited “The Economic Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the U.S. Economy: Employment, Labor Income and Value Added.” Price Waterhouse Coopers 8 September, 2009. Print.

Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania. “The Economic Impact of the Oil and Gas Industry in Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania Economy League November, 2008. Print.

Williams, Cara. “Fuelling the economy.” Perspectives on labor and income 8(5): 2007, p. 9. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Oil and Natural Gas Industry and Its Effect on the Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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How to Develop Self Confidence Essay college essay help: college essay help

Self-confidence is ones status of being assured and having a strong belief in himself and his abilities. A person who is self-confident does not struggle too much to make decisions. This essay paper focuses on the three main steps of developing self-confidence. They include; initial preparation, setting out for the process, and accelerating towards success. The final success is determined by both self-efficacy and esteem.

The first step is preparing for the journey This is the journey to self-confidence that may be long or short depending on the person in question. It’s good for a person to identify first where he is, and his destination. The person should focus on what he has already achieved, at least ten of his best achievements. These should be written somewhere for references.

While still preparing for the journey, it’s good to think about your strengths. This part should include weaknesses, opportunities and threats, but put emphasis on strengths. The other important aspect is managing ones mind by defeating inner talks that can deter the confidence. The final part of preparing for the journey is, committing yourself to succeed.

The second step is setting out to begin the journey The right way should be towards the set goals. At this stage one should gather all the knowledge he or she requires so as to succeed. This involves looking for the required skills and acquiring them to be fully equipped. Let the basics be the starting point of the whole process, thus one should not emphasis on perfection but do simple things successfully.

The main objective here would be to set small goals, achieving them successfully, and rejoicing for the achievements. There is no need of setting big challenging goals at this point. While still setting up for the journey, one should keep his or her mind on the positive side. This can be achieved through rejoicing for the attained success. On the other hand, ones mind should also have some techniques of handling failure. Mistakes are inevitable especially when one is trying something for the first time.

The third and the final step is accelerating towards success At this stage one start feeling some self-confidence developing. There will be several achieved small goals in step 2 to be celebrated in this stage. One feels there is a room for making bigger goals with tougher challenges. Here the person feels more committed than before. At this point some people tend to be over confident due to over stretching themselves.

This should not be the case, as one should stay grounded. Its advisable now for one to evaluate himself or her to see how far is the development. While doing self-evaluation, one finds it simple to identify some unique strategies for developing self-confidence. Stretching bit by bit without overdoing it will lead to a top level of self-confidence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, each step of the three main steps is connected to the other. The first step of preparing for the journey is setting the base for the next step. The crucial aspects set in step two are the ones being celebrated in step three making the process a success.

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Media and Homosexuality Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Politics

Television

Movies

Conclusion

Works Cited

Homosexuality has been a huge topic of discussion in most social forums and political debates. Specifically, homosexuality is being discussed in all forms of media including television, magazines, books and the likes; however, homosexuals being a minority group in the society, many people view homosexuality in various ways.

Through the years, many people in different societies have come to understand homosexuality but still, there are a few people who view the sexual orientation as weird and unnatural (Byer 386). Through the divergent perceptions evident in almost all societies, homosexuals have been stereotyped along various social parameters, thereby wrongly shaping the perception of people to how gays should be viewed.

Homosexuality has a huge role in the way society defines gender roles and this outlines the framework to this study because it defines the impact homosexuality and the media has on our understanding of gender.

Homosexuality changes the way we analyze gender in terms of sexual orientation because it encompasses a person’s sexual, romantic, affectionate and emotional feelings towards people of the same gender, as opposed to people from different genders (Byer 386). Many people believe that homosexuality is a choice or lifestyle people choose, but research studies point out the contrary by stating that homosexuality is brought about by psychological factors underlying a person’s personality (Byer 386).

However, this study does not seek to dig deeper into that debate because it exposes the fact that homosexuality tries to change the way we understand gender because it redefines gender roles in relationships. In some aspects, homosexual couples play various male and female roles seen in conventional relationships, even though they hail from the same gender. In other words, homosexuality poses a threat to the conventional way we view male and female gender roles in the society.

The influence of the media in our understanding of gender comes at whatever age, thanks to the volumes of television programs we watch, both as children and as adults. These programs consequently shape how different sexes and gender roles are represented in the society. Research studies cited in (Shapiro 3) affirm this fact by stating that: “the majority of television programming presents the sexes in traditionally stereotyped roles.

This covers a broad area including programming aimed at adults, children and including television commercials”. Moreover, it is plausible that the imitation children do from watching certain television programs shape the way they perceive gender or understand gender role development and it goes without saying that the way media perceives homosexuality plays a big role in the way the society understands gender in this context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the media greatly defines how the society views homosexuals, it is important to analyse how the media plays a role in shaping our perception of gender and homosexuality. In this regard, this study will focus on the most basic forms of media which shape homosexuality in the society and how they are able to project a given image about homosexuality to influence our understanding of gender altogether. Through this analysis we will analyze the media’s portrayal of homosexuality viz a viz politics, television and movies.

Politics In the 21st century the issue of homosexuality has been a hot topic of discussion, especially in the policy formulation process of various governments.

For instance, In the 2004 American elections, former president Bush and rival John Kerry had to state their stand on homosexuality but in other zones of the world, leaders have also been grappling with the same issue; with notable places like Uganda, in Africa, where homosexuals have been banned by the government and civilians maim homosexuals because of the stigmatisation associated with it (Shapiro 3).

With all these political undertones associated with homosexuality, the media has been at the centre stage in the whole drama. For example, many presidential hopefuls have in the past been faced with the dilemma of either legalising same sex marriages, or not, and their decisions have been beamed throughout local and international media.

The American set up especially provides a good platform for the analysis of this issue, in the Bush vs. Kerry presidential contest where voters who were against same sex unions sided with Bush while those who were sympathetic to homosexuality sided with Kerry. Unlike most elections around the world and indeed in the history of the US, homosexuality has been brought to close focus and it can actually seal the fate of presidential hopefuls, depending on the society they hail from.

The role the media plays in this matter is actually bringing to fore the issue of homosexuality as one of a high moral and ethical concern, since it instigates debates at the highest form of government. However, in the past, homosexuality was portrayed by the media (and in other social forms) as just an issue that plagued the society because it was never regarded as important as other issues in politics, such as a politician’s stand on economy, racism and the likes.

However, in as much as the media plays a role in bringing the issue, not only to national focus but international focus, it still remains dehumanising to the gay community the way the media reports on homosexuality, without sensitivity (Shapiro 4). Upon close analysis, it can be said that the issue of homosexuality is now being used by candidates to garner votes by declaring a popular stand in the issue (against their opponents) instead of debating about the issue per se and how it affects the society or the public for that matter.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Media and Homosexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media has heightened anxiety over the issue further by covering the activities of gay rights movements and similar organizations, as well as politicians’ take on the matter, thereby exemplifying the issue above other moral issues of similar magnitude. Recent articles on homosexuality published in magazines such as The Advocate have essentially changed the way homosexuality should be perceived because they publish biased views on the topic and indeed about sex union marriages.

This development has a direct effect in the way society views homosexuality because their perception is influenced to think on the more liberal view of homosexuality (Shapiro 5). In this regard, the perception of the public is inclined towards the view that gender roles can be switched and indeed, gender should be analyzed from a more liberal point of view. Probably, for many people, this influence implies that there is a lot to gender equality than probably meets the eye.

However, more conservative media publications and religious organisations tend to sway the perception of the public to think on a more morally conscious way. By representing the issue of homosexuality as a matter of public interest, the media is succeeding in dividing the general populace into two: one side advocates for homosexuality while the other is against the concept.

This fact even exceeds the political divisions to the matter because it has dragged people who were apathetic to the matter to take a stand on homosexuality, even though they do not really care about the issue in the first place (Shapiro 5). The media on the other hand has been unrelenting in keeping the public busy on the matter through various forms of media including the internet, television and newspapers by asking the public for their views on the matter.

It therefore becomes almost impossible to ignore homosexuality even if you wanted to, because the media has a strong power of persuasion and controversy which has been unrivaled over the decades. In recent times, its power in politics through an exemplification of the matter has been highly critical in all forms of media. For example, even before a politician opens debate on homosexuality, the media would often demand for the politicians’ stand on the matter.

Nonetheless, a significant part of the controversy comes about because the issue comes with a high moral and ethical significance in almost all societies. With regards to how the public should perceive the matter, Miller (6) reports that: “In the media homosexuality was shown as impersonal, and it divided the viewers based on their opinions over what should be done about it” he further affirms that “….the opinions still stand. Through the media, politics has brought the issue of homosexuality to an inescapable new level” (6).

Television The 21st century has brought with it many different perceptions in the way we view contemporary issues in the society, but with the change, new issues have also arisen. As evidenced in this study, homosexuality is such an issue. Television has changed the way homosexuality is perceived because it has transformed the issues from a taboo topic to make people openly talk about it, and in the same way, provided a forum where homosexuals can talk about it (Tipton 2).

In close relation, many television producers have come up with more television programs which have gay personalities but the coverage is still evolving as the years go by. Perhaps the first television show to give an insight into the life of a homosexual was MTV’s “The Real World” which first aired in 1992.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Media and Homosexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This program first hit viewers as a shocker with many people wondering why the producers would air such a show in the first place; however, as the viewers got to know the television personalities at a personal level, they came to a conclusion that homosexuals were just like everybody else (Tipton 2). Because of increased coverage, homosexual relationships have become more common and many people are not shy to talk about it as compared to the past.

The MTV reality show, “The Real World”, still remains a pioneer in changing the perception of people to how they view homosexuality, because it revolved around the lives of 7 people (who were the main characters), and every season came with the promise of airing at least one homosexual individual out of the 7 individuals (Shapiro 9).

However, “The real world” was not the only program that forecasted the life of homosexuals, the sitcom “Will and Grace” was also another common program which highlighted the life of two homosexuals but who didn’t share a sexual relationship with each other (even though they were very close friends). The sitcom showed the character Grace, cohabiting with Will, even though she was heterosexual and Will was a homosexual.

The way they cohabited together and her acceptance of Will’s sexual orientation showed the changing perception of the society on homosexuality, while the household set up where the two characters (Will and Grace) cohabited gave an insight into the gender roles both play, with regards to their sexual orientations.

Conversely, viewers pick their roles as synonymous to their sexual orientations but more importantly, these roles shape the way the society views gender roles similar people with the similar characteristics are supposed to have.

Another common reality television program that brings homosexuality to fore is “Survivor”, especially when the once famous character Richard Hatch won the coveted winner’s price. Richard exemplified homosexuality to international limelight by making an assertion that his win was brought about because of his life as a homosexual (Shapiro 9).

This assertion goes into the minds of the viewers as a plus for homosexuality because it was depicted as giving some positive attributes, despite the ethical and moral concerns that surrounded it. However, amid all the intrigues on homosexuality in television programs, it can be evidently seen that the media is trying to come out strongly as a neutral entity that does not discriminate on homosexual individuals.

For instance, in the latest season of the “Real World”, two homosexuals have been put on cast (which is a deviation from the usual one person) (Shapiro 12). However, one of the homosexuals cast was more flamboyant and therefore fit the stereotype attributed to homosexuals, but the other was very conservative, which also came as a shocker to the other participants because they never thought homosexuals would be that reserved (Shapiro 12).

This assertion also reflects the perception the society has on homosexuals, because to a significant degree, the perception held by the other participants in the program, reflected what the society thought of homosexuality and the stereotypes associated with it, since they were socially tuned to think in that manner. However, the media’s role in this analysis tends to be more liberal because it shows a different side of homosexuality, through a lack of flamboyance of the other character in the program.

Nonetheless, televisions shows which highlight the life of at least one homosexual are many because the media has broken the once existent impulse of the way society understood homosexuality and its concerns. Comprehensively, television has redefined the way the society thinks of homosexuals and the gender roles they play in the same context.

This is true because homosexual characters have been observed to live together in conventional set ups, while their roles in the society is the same, even when they are interacting with people of different sexual orientation as is seen by the viewers. This was never thought of homosexuals before because there was a widely held perception that homosexuals were weird people who never led normal lives.

Movies It comes not as a surprise that today; many movies with homosexual themes are being churned by the week (considering increased media coverage of homosexuality and its antecedents). From these movies, many gay themed movies have busted into the spotlight and are now receiving a lot of media coverage than ever before.

Nonetheless, the messages contained in these movies represent the views of Hollywood, and unfortunate or otherwise, they are very different from each other (Ribeiro 3). This exposes the liberal nature the media tries to attribute homosexuality.

When analyzed closely, movies which have the theme of homosexuality tend to portray the true picture of homosexuality but mainstream movies tend to be biased. Also in the same light, some movies portray a very negative picture of homosexuality while others paint homosexuality in a positive light and beckon the society to be more accommodative of the concept (Ribeiro 3).

This great divide however represents how the media has transitioned in its depiction of homosexuality over the years with the latter representation depicting the current status of media perception while the former represents the past representation of homosexuality by the media.

Previous movies tended to cast minor characters to represent homosexuals, and the biased opinions about homosexuality tended to abound in that context because the movies emphasised more on the stereotypes which had already been generated by the society (Ribeiro 3). Some of the movies which had strongly come out to perpetrate wrong stereotypes on homosexuality were the likes of “Mean Girls”, “As Good as It Gets” and “My Best Friend’s Wedding”. However, this has changed.

To portray the transition the media has held of homosexuals, we can see that in the movie “Mean Girls”, Damien, who is played by Daniel Franzes, represents the flamboyant attitude people thought homosexuals had because he was very colorful and seemed to be more interesting in what the girls were doing, or not doing, despite the fact that he is male (IMDa 2).

When analyzed in relative terms, the movie tried to portray the fact that homosexuality for gay men meant identifying more with the feminine side. This was further manifested in the way he acted, talked, and gesticulated like a woman, but the film even made this stereotype worse by portraying that his favorite attire was a pink polo shirt, which was easily associated with feminism (IMDa 2).

This represented the previous perception the media tried to hold of homosexuals. More examples could be seen from the movie series, “As good as it gets”, where Simon who is a male persona but a homosexual, was also depicted as having a lot of feminine attributes. Moreover, he had a tiny dog (a character which is usually associated with feminism) and because he was a painter but liked to garden, the movie portrayed him as an outright homosexual.

Also, in the movie “My Best Friend’s wedding”, George, a male homosexual, who was played by Ruppert Everet was extensively depicted as having a lot of touch with his feminine side (IMDb 2). He had a flamboyant laugh, which was typically feminine, and his liking for the Song “I say a Little Prayer for you” manifested his feminine side even more (IMDb 4).

These were the roles the media tried to portray of homosexuals in the past, basically by reversing gender roles. In that sense, the media tried to portray homosexual males as women trapped in male bodies and lesbians as men trapped in female bodies. In real sense, these depictions were nothing but stereotypes and they probably reflected nothing of what the gay community is in the world today. From an analysis of current movie productions, the media seems to have realised just that.

However, some of the inspiration to show homosexuals as a reversal of gender roles may have stemmed from a commercial base because homosexual personalities in movies tended to capture the audience a lot and therefore, movies which had such characters were bound to sell more and probably the producers were just enforcing what the personalities thought of homosexuality.

Research also affirms that only less than 16% of homosexual men befitted these stereotypical depictions in movies while less than 6% of women fall in the same category as well (Shapiro 18). The stereotypical way of portraying homosexuals as flamboyant personalities with a lot of feminine connotations to their character was a reversal of gender roles but this has changed with current movie productions.

Currently, gay movies depict the true picture of homosexuals and tend to portray the true gender roles homosexuals have in their community. More so, this is depicted in homosexual-themed movies. Shapiro (18) affirms this fact by stating that:

“Unlike mainstream movies, homosexually themed movies often portray gays in more human aspects. They look deeper into the lives of homosexuals and open a door into their thoughts and feelings, not simply focusing on what they wear or look like”.

Some of the most common gay movies that fit into the category of homosexually themed movies are like “Angels in America”, “Beautiful thing” and “Big Eden”. “Angels in America” tends to highlight the 1980s era when Aids ravaged through the gay community, but basically, it gave an insight into the spectrum that exists in the gay community today. The depiction of male personalities in the movie was not like previous movies because it showed homosexuals as masculine people (for gay males), and feminine, for female gay characters.

In real sense, the movie showed the true diversity which exists in the gay community today and even portrayed the same in the professions that the characters were engaged in; for instance, in the movie, there were lawyers, nurses, doctors and other professionals; just like it exists in the real world.

The movie therefore showed homosexuals as normal people with normal dreams, fears and ambitions, just like everyone else. This shows the real and emotional side of homosexuals despite the erosion of this perception by previous movies (Miller 2).

“Beautiful thing” and “Big Eden” also represent homosexuals in the same way and even though they focused more on the homosexual relationships of the characters, the characters were represented as normal people, except for the fact that they choose to have relationships with people of the same gender. Once again, we are shown the real picture of homosexuals, in that, they have the same types of fears and feelings, just like normal people do, only that they share these emotions with partners of the same gender.

Conclusion With all the conflicting stereotypes about homosexuality in the society and the media, it is important for people to step back and look at the big picture with regards to gender roles in homosexuality and not merely follow what mainstream media depicts as the real representations of gender in homosexuality.

Homosexuality here plays a vital role in understanding gender in the 21st century because it seems to change the conventional paradigm associated with heterosexual relationships by advancing the idea that romantic, passionate and emotional feelings can be shared with people of the same gender. The media portrays the same, though it used to do so, in a biased way, by reversing the roles associated with different genders in homosexual relationships.

Too often, people were led to think that homosexuals acted in a certain way, dressed in a given manner, or thought in a peculiar way, but now the media seems to change the same perception by depicting gays as just normal people; only that they choose to have sexual relationships with people of the same gender. Homosexuality though depicted as a reversal of gender roles is therefore not different from any other kind of relationship.

In our understanding of gender in this study, we can therefore come up with an assumption that homosexuality gives a more liberal sense of gender because it breaks away from the perception that certain genders can only do certain roles associated with their gender.

In other words two males can carry out the same roles a man and a woman can and two women can carry out the same roles as people in a heterosexual relationship would. Nonetheless, homosexuality and the media shape our understanding of gender, in that, gender is much more liberal than people think.

Works Cited Byer, Shainberg. Dimensions of Human Sexuality. London: Brown

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Need for Mexico Border Control Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The rate of crime in Mexican borders has increased tremendously mostly in cities and nearby states such as Durango and Guerrero. Due to lack of sanction and conviction of criminal gangs, it has made it difficult to stop crimes. However, the government of Mexico tries to provide security to the tourists visiting the country and more so U.S citizens.

The major tourist attraction sites are not commonly affected by violence related to drug peddlers and offenses reported along the borders. Crime and violence becomes major tremor in Mexico and most of the people involved in these crimes are Mexican citizens. The citizen of Mexico who fall victims of these crime are subsequently encouraged to report any form of crime to the police headquarter close to them. The crimes that are normally experienced in Mexico include;

Major Crimes Pirated Goods

Counterfeit items enter Mexico through its borders and are widely available in the country. These products are mostly controlled by structured bunch of hooligans who sell these products to citizens for personal use. These goods if caught circulating in U.S can lead to fines or be forfeited (Tribune Review 52). Consumption of these products is not illegal in Mexico but trading them is highly prohibited.

Personal Properties

Visitors are advised to always keep valuable and inimitable things in a secured place, or stay away from carrying them. Tourists are encouraged to stop wearing expensive clothing or jewelry and practice carrying of credit cards instead of liquid cash while crossing the border.

Cases of people pick-pocketing and pucker seizing have been reported mostly while on public transports. Visitors and also citizens are advised to make sure that they hire a vehicle that has the company/agency sticker. Visitors should always ensure that their valuable items such as passports and identification card are not left in these vehicles. Very many people have been robbed off their passports mostly at airports.

Several Americans have been detained for entering with a counterfeit currency received at the border (Gilchrist

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Extreme Work Pressure Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Problem Identification Working for long hours

The case illustrates an increment in extreme work pressure amongst high ranking professionals of different demographics working in firms operating in different economic sectors. This is evident in the number of hours that the professionals commit to their work every week. Some individuals work for approximately 70 hours every week. Their motivation arises from a strong desire to move the organization into a new direction.

The resultant effect is that work becomes very stressful. As a result of working for long hours, these professionals are ranked amongst the highly earning individuals on a global scale. Despite the fact that working for long hours is self motivated amongst these professionals in an effort to attain personal and corporate objectives, this has come at a cost with regard to diverse areas of their life.

Effects on individuals’ well being

Extreme jobs have negatively affected individual’s well being and health. For example, as a result of working for long hours, these individuals do not have enough time to rest, sleep or exercise. In order to minimize the resulting effects such as anxiety and insomnia, these professions depend on medications. Alternative habits formed include overeating and consuming a lot of alcohol.

Family life and parenting

Extreme working also affects individual’s family life and parenting. For example, working for long hours has denied individuals chances of being with their children and partners. This has the effect of straining family relationships (Hewlett

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The Character of Elizabeth Gilbert in “Eat Pray Love” by Ryan Murphy Term Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Elizabeth Gilbert Experiences

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Eat Pray Love is a movie that shows real life story of Elizabeth Gilbert, a young woman of 32 years old. She has made several achievements in her life since she married a loving husband, has a wonderful house and a satisfying career as a writer. Although she has a good family, she finds herself lost in the quest of experiencing real meaning of marriage and family because at some point she cries and yearn for something mysterious, something she cannot tell or define.

In search of the true meaning of life, Elizabeth painfully divorces her husband and starts her journey to explore the world. She first visits Italy where she has pleasure in eating, she then proceeds to India where she uses her time praying and meditating and finally she goes to Indonesia where she finds her true love (Murphy Para. 1). Elizabeth Gilbert’s experiences in the Eat Pray Love movie, relates strongly to the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs as explored in this work.

Elizabeth Gilbert Experiences Based on the Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs, Elizabeth has already surpassed the physiological needs, security needs and social needs. In the physiological needs, she has a good house, enough food and sex since she is married. She has also satisfied her security needs because she has a successful career as a writer.

In the case of her social needs, she is married and a wonderful family where her needs of love, belonging and affection are satisfied. Elizabeth is struggling in her marriage to satisfy her esteem needs, which is the fourth hierarchy needs according to Maslow. She feels lost, confused and unsatisfied in her marriage for her esteem needs such as self-esteem, sense of accomplishment and personal worth are unsatisfied. In pursuit of her needs, she divorces her husband and embarks on a journey, searching to fulfill her needs.

Due to stress and depression resulting from painful divorce, Elizabeth first visits Italy where she derives enough pleasure in eating and drinking to relieve herself from the ordeal of divorce. After recovering from the divorce ordeal, she focuses on attaining the esteem needs by indulging in pleasure, which makes her happy and confident that she has gained self-esteem, social acceptance and sense of accomplishment.

Fernando explains that, “the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs associated with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs” (15). The deficiency needs are necessary for a better life while growth needs are responsible for shaping behavior. Elizabeth achieves her physiological needs whilst in Italy and continues with her journey into India in search of further fulfillment of psychological needs as she intends to change her life.

Elizabeth leaves Italy a happy woman for fulfilling her achievements in pleasure and goes to India where she practices prayer and meditation in order to satisfy her spiritual needs as one of the psychological needs in the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hawks, there are two dimensions of spirituality, “Internal spiritual health seems to provide the individual with life purpose and ultimate meaning, while external spiritual health enables individuals express themselves through trust, honesty, integrity, altruism, compassion, and service” (3). In India, the experiences of prayer and meditation with the ashram guru enables Elizabeth to attain the purpose and ultimate meaning in life, which she has been looking for around the world.

“Self-esteem occurs when the individual lives in close harmony with the value system that results from a strong sense of faith and spirituality” (Hawks 8). Prayer and meditation enables Elizabeth to enhance her self-esteem, which pushed her to divorce her husband. With the great confidence and true meaning of life, she ends up in Indonesia for further exploration and satisfaction of her needs.

The experiences of marriage, pleasure in Italy, prayer and meditation in Indonesia makes Elizabeth see the reality of her needs. She has been yearning to satisfy her esteem needs and self-actualization without considering the social needs of the marriage and family. She wanted to satisfy her needs contrary to the Maslow principle that the lowest needs are first satisfied to the fullest for other subsequent needs to follow.

At last, the Maslow theories proves to her that she must first get married if she want to still pursue her dream in life and attain self-actualization. “A search for the actualization of fundamental identity with the cosmos, human motivation, at its highest and deepest, is a reaching out for the ultimate of truth, beauty, goodness, justice, and the like” (Fernando 19). Ultimately, Elizabeth gets in another marriage after finding true love in a relationship with a Brazilian.

Conclusion The Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs shows sequential fulfillment of the human needs in five stages. The Eat Pray Love movie shows the experiences of Elizabeth in pursuit of the human needs contrary to the Maslow’s theory. She neglects the social needs but wants to pursue esteem and actualization needs leading to divorce. After having pleasure in Italy and praying in India, she realizes the true meaning of life and decides to get married again in order to fulfill the social needs she had neglected earlier.

Works Cited Eat Pray Love. Dir. Ryan Murphy. Colombia Pictures, 2010. Film.

Fernando, Mario. “Abraham Maslow and Spirituality.” University of Victoria Journal 6.3 (2005): 15-21. Print.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Character of Elizabeth Gilbert in “Eat Pray Love” by Ryan Murphy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hawks, Steven. “Spiritual Health: Definition and Theory.” Wellness Perspectives 10.4 (2008): 1-12. Print.

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Extreme Work Pressure Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Problem Identification Working for long hours

The case illustrates an increment in extreme work pressure amongst high ranking professionals of different demographics working in firms operating in different economic sectors. This is evident in the number of hours that the professionals commit to their work every week. Some individuals work for approximately 70 hours every week. Their motivation arises from a strong desire to move the organization into a new direction.

The resultant effect is that work becomes very stressful. As a result of working for long hours, these professionals are ranked amongst the highly earning individuals on a global scale. Despite the fact that working for long hours is self motivated amongst these professionals in an effort to attain personal and corporate objectives, this has come at a cost with regard to diverse areas of their life.

Effects on individuals’ well being

Extreme jobs have negatively affected individual’s well being and health. For example, as a result of working for long hours, these individuals do not have enough time to rest, sleep or exercise. In order to minimize the resulting effects such as anxiety and insomnia, these professions depend on medications. Alternative habits formed include overeating and consuming a lot of alcohol.

Family life and parenting

Extreme working also affects individual’s family life and parenting. For example, working for long hours has denied individuals chances of being with their children and partners. This has the effect of straining family relationships (Hewlett

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Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Autism

Possible Causes of Autism

Symptoms in the Film

Other Symptoms not in the Film

Treatments Portrayed in the Movie

Recommended Psychological and Physical Interventions

Conclusion

Works Cited

Directed by Barry Levinson, Rain Man is a chef-d’oeuvre comedy that functions as a drama film, exploring autism – a mental disorder that sets in mostly during childhood. The main character is Raymond Babbitt – an autistic man, a condition that has forced him to spend his days in a mental institution since his childhood.

Charlie Babbitt, the brother to Raymond, is the actor who portrays Raymond’s autism on the way to Los Angeles to secure his fair share in the Babbitt’s $3 million fortunes in form of inheritance. As aforementioned, the mental disorder portrayed in Rain Man movie is autism.

Autism According to Autism Research Centre, autism is a “spectrum of neurodevelopment condition, characterized by difficulties in the development of social relationships and communication skills and the presence of unusually strong narrow interests, and repetitive behavior” (Para. 1).

Autistic people have both verbal and non-verbal communication problems and they take words literally; that is, they take people for what they say. In addition, autistic people have trouble in understanding other peoples’ emotions, thus making it difficult to form any meaningful social relationships. Finally, autism bars its victims from normal social imagination, making them not to trust other people. Consequently, due to this lack of trust, autistic people resort into repetitive behaviors resisting change or any unfamiliar situations.

Possible Causes of Autism So far, there is no scientifically proved cause of autism. Nevertheless, according to The National Autistic Society, research work suggests there might be genetic or environmental factors that cause or contribute to autism (Para. 2). Intense research work is currently underway to determine the exact cause of autism.

Symptoms in the Film As Raymond talks to people, he does not look to them into their eyes. Avoiding eye contact is a symptom of autism. In most cases, communication involves both verbal and non-verbal skills and as aforementioned, autistic people have difficulties in understanding any of these forms of communication. Consequently, Raymond does not understand other people’s feelings thus making him avoid eye contact.

One’s feelings in a conversation come inform of voice tone or facial expressions and given that autistic people do not sense voice tone or facial expressions, they avoid eye contact in the first place. Additionally, Raymond has fear of boarding flights. When Richie suggests they take a flight to Los Angeles, Raymond vehemently declines the offer, making them to drive in a car from Cincinnati to Los Angeles. Autistic people do not embrace change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The National Autistic Society states that, “People with autism may not be comfortable with the idea of change” (Para. 4). Raymond cannot brace the change of taking a flight because his routine dictates that, he use a vehicle. Raymond shows little emotions except when under stress. For instance, the only time he reacts emotionally is when Charlie suggests they take a flight to Los Angeles. Lack of emotions is a common autistic symptom, a conspicuous sign in Rain Water as portrayed by Raymond.

Other Symptoms not in the Film In addition to the symptoms displayed by Raymond, other autistic symptoms include hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. In this case, an autistic person may overreact or under react to a given situation. In addition, these people have special interests like in music, art, or computers among other areas touching human existence. Medline Plus asserts that, “some autistic people never learn how to talk” (Para. 2).

This observation backs the fact that autistic people have communication problems. Due to the perceived inefficiencies in social interactions, these people tend to withdraw and love to spend time alone. Consequently, in most cases, their physical activity is minimal. Infants suffering from autism may resist cuddling and have no interest in playthings. Finally, autistic people have no understanding of their surroundings. They show no interest in common things that common people find fascinating in life making them appear indifferent.

Treatments Portrayed in the Movie After the Babbitts realize Raymond is autistic, the only intervention they execute is to take him to a mental institution. This intervention helps Raymond for he seems to have developed cognitive abilities in the mental institution.

For instance, he recalls his childhood and sings I Saw Her Standing There, a song he loved to sing to Charlie during their childhood before that accident which led the separation of Raymond from Richie and his family at large. Charlie even realizes Raymond’s sharp cognitive abilities and he takes him into a casino where Raymond is supposed to count cards in a gambling game.

By staying together with people, he can identify with; that is, in the mental institution, Raymond develops and hones his cognitive abilities. Probably, if Raymond grew in the house together with the rest of the family members, his memory abilities would be underdeveloped due to lack of proper care, motivation, and support. Towards the end of the film, Richie changes his attitude and starts to empathize with Raymond.

According to Eikeseth, loving and understanding an autistic person improve his/her chances of living a near-to normal life (158). Richie’s loving attitude and caring nature towards Raymond as the film closes, reflects psychological intervention of autism. Love and support works wonders in helping autistic people realize they too can live normal lives.

We will write a custom Report on Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommended Psychological and Physical Interventions Psychological interventions are highly recommended in autism intervention strategies. According to Kalat, “Psychoanalysts…attempt to infer the hidden unconscious, symbolic meaning behind people’s words and actions… (8). Therefore, based on this argument, all psychological interventions seek to establish why an autistic person behaves the way he/she behaves. Despite the fact that autistic people share some common features, they do not behave exactly the same way.

Therefore, psychological interventions try to determine why a given person behaves in a given way and sets rules that should be followed in addressing that particular problem. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the highly recommended psychological intervention method where autistic children learn “comprehensive, individualized treatment…social skills, communication, daily living skills, academics, self-management or coping skills, and family support” (Eikeseth 177).

On the other hand, physical interventions include general physical exercise. As aforementioned, majority of autistic people have minimal physical activity, which weakens their body. Therefore, physical exercise helps these children greatly. However, given the fact that these people do not fit well in social circles, special programs have been designed to allow autistic people exercise with convenience.

Conclusion Rain Man is a masterpiece directed by Barry Levinson exploring autism and its perception by other people. Raymond Babbitt is the autistic character while Richie; Raymond’s brother, is the character who unveils Raymond’s autism. Autism affects mainly the sociological relationships between its victims and other normal people.

There are physical and psychological interventions that help autistic people live a normal life; ABA is one of the most reliable psychological interventions. As the movie closes, Richie becomes empathetic towards Raymond, a key factor in dealing with autism.

Works Cited Autism Research Centre. Autism. N.d. Web.

Autism Research Centre (ARC) forms an integral part of School of Medical Medicine at the University of Cambridge. The information found on this site is about autism covering all major issues surrounding autism. ARC receives most of its funding from the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Shirley Foundation, and the Three Guineas Trust among others. ARC offers links to other sites that deal with issues related to autism; for instance, Autism Europe Congress.

Eikeseth, Svein. “Outcome of Comprehensive Psycho-educational Interventions for Young Children with Autism.” Res Dev Disabil 30. 1 (2009): 158–78. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kalat, James. Introduction to Psychology. 6th Ed. USA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2001.

Medline Plus. Autism, 2010. Web.

Medline Plus offers reliable up-to-date health-related information in simplified language that patients, families, and friends can understand. Medline Plus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health. Medline Plus is linked to other sites like twitter where people can share health-related information creating awareness to the public.

The National Autistic Society. What is Autism? 2010. Web.

The National Autistic Society is the top United Kingdom charity for autistic people. This society works with LEGO UK, HIT Entertainment, Trafigura, and the Co-operative Bank as its major sponsors. The site offers information, support and initiative services in its bid to create a world where people understand autism.

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