United Nations In Africa Essay College Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

United Nations Operations in Congo, UNUC

United Nations Operations in Mozambique

United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The post-colonial Africa faces massive challenges including desertification, extreme poverty, epidemics, and never-ending regional conflicts, which affect the continent’s economic development.

The UN, as the world’s premiere institution that promotes international collaboration, coordinates all manner of assistance to help African countries overcome these problems.

Its operations extend from arbitrating in regional conflict to achieving peace, promoting democratic governance, promotion, and protection of human rights, and supporting social and economic development in the African continent.

The UN was set up in 1945 following the Second World War with the aim of bringing to halt regional conflicts through peaceful resolution and mediation. It entails several auxiliary bodies to put through its undertakings.

There are presently 192 affiliate nations, with each being autonomous state in the world other than the Vatican City (United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance).

From its administrative centers around the world, the UN and its specific outfits settle on essential and organizational matters in normal conventions held right through the year. The body has six major organs with the UN Security Council being the organ charged with the responsibility of promoting peace in the world.

After independence, several African nations plunged into civil unrest and the UN has been the international body mostly involved in exercises to ensure warring factions reach peaceful agreements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the UN serves as an important institution for promoting peace and protects human rights in conflict zones by working closely with Africa’s regional cooperation mechanisms.

Presently, there are six UN peacekeeping missions in various African countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan, and Mozambique. United Nations peace exercises have been positive and gainful alternatives for dealing with some conflicts and humanitarian predicaments (Anyidoho, 13). T

he greater part of the 35 mediation exercises carried out by the UN over the past five decades have been of great significance in ending regional conflicts, enhancing social equality, and protecting human rights.

United Nations Operations in Congo, UNUC To carry out their mission effectively, peacekeepers in conflict torn areas must rely on intelligence information about the security situation of area prior to their mission, as was the case with the United Nations Operations in Congo dubbed UNUC.

This was a UN international relations military unit in Congo that was instituted following the United Nations Security Council Resolution 143 of July 14, 1963. From this period, the name was changed to Opération des Nations Unies au Congo (Washington CRS Report for Congress 12).

Within the UNUC, a Military Information Branch (MIB) was established with the responsibility of protecting the UN personnel, running specific security operations, and monitoring the security of the region.

Until 1960, Congo was a Belgian colony but in 1960, Belgian proclaimed that it was handing Congo her independence within a period of five months. However, Congo was unprepared for independence within the stipulated five months.

We will write a custom Essay on United Nations in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, Congo declared its independence on 30 June 1960 with Patrice Lumumba as the president and Joseph Kasavubu as the vice president. The Belgian commander-in-chief declined to Africanize the administrators’ units of the armed forces.

As a result, the army staged a mutiny against the Belgian officers who led the Congolese army and attacked the Europeans in general. The mutiny affected the new government’s authority resulting to a crisis.

In response to the crisis, the Belgian government deployed its army on July 10, 1960 to offer protection to Belgians, majority of who lived in the mineral rich Katanga province. However, this was an illegal act since Congo was an independent country and the new government had not allowed them into the country.

The Belgian administration was for the idea that Katanga Province, one of the most productive in the country, be independent. Two days later after the deployment, Congo’s President and the Prime Minister requested for aid of the UN in resolving the matter (Anon).

The UN Secretary-General asked the concerned organ, the UN Security Council, to act on the issue as a matter of urgency in a meeting held on July 13, 1960.

Consequently, the Security Council created an army unit, the UNUC, consisting of about 10,000 troops, to restore peace in Congo between 1960 and 1964.

The military unit’s responsibilities in Congo were fourfold viz. to restore law and order in the country and maintain peace, restore political stability, help in rebuilding the economy and prevent external interference into the crisis.

The force was not allowed to use force unless in self-defense and were to remain neutral in the crisis involving the government in Leopoldville and the self-proclaimed independent government in Katanga led by Tshombe (Washington CRS Report for Congress 10).

Not sure if you can write a paper on United Nations in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, Lumumba wanted the UN to use force to repress the attempted secession of Katanga province to which the UN declined. He then accused the UN of siding with the Tshombe’s government in Katanga because of the regions rich mineral deposits and instead sought the help of USSR to invade Katanga.

By 1961, various breakaway factions controlled different parts of the Congo with Lumumba’s government getting armaments from Russia. All this time, the UN forces could do nothing as they were required to remain neutral in the crisis and could only use force in self-defense.

However, the eminent danger of a civil war forced the Security Council to allow the use of force to prevent a civil war occurring. The United Nations agreed to provide military support for the attack to reclaim Katanga province (Washington CRS Report for Congress 13).

Following this attack, Tshombe agreed to negotiate with the government over the status of the province. However, the talks achieved little progress forcing the UNUC in 1962 to attack Katanga again, which led to Tshombe fleeing Congo. Consequently, in 1963, Katanga became part of Congo again and in 1964, the UNUC withdrew from Congo.

The UN’s involvement in this crisis was a success with respect to the four objectives set out before the mission began. The Congo crisis did not degenerate into a civil war and by the end of 1963; Congo was politically stable.

In addition, Congo was kept intact with Katanga’s reunion with the rest of Congo and humanitarian crisis was avoided through the UN sponsored medical and food programs.

United Nations Operations in Mozambique Following the devastation arising from a 14-year civil war, the president of the republic of Mozambique, Mr. Joaquim Chissano and leader of the opposition faction (RENAMO), Mr. Alfonso Dhlakama, signed a General Peace Agreement in October 1992.

The nation’s post-independence civil strife took place from 1976 to 1992 and led to the death of approximately 1 million people (Handicap International). The agreement outlined the modalities for the achievement of peace in the country.

Under the agreement, the United Nations was welcomed to participate in the implementation of the peace agreement by offering technical assistance for national elections and monitor these elections.

The implementation of this agreement was to be supervised by the United Nation’s Supervisory and Monitoring Commission.

On October 9 1992, the UN Security Council approved an interim Special Representative, Mr. Aldo Ajello, to monitor the UN’s activities in the country.

Meanwhile, both of the warring parties undertook specific actions to promote joint mechanism that would monitor the implementation of this agreement (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs).

However, major violations of the agreement forced the Representative to recommend a detailed plan dubbed the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) in which Aldo outlined the obstacles in restraining the achievement of the General Peace Agreement.

By December 1992, ONUMOZ, composed of about 8000 military personnel, was instituted to help in the enactment of the harmony accord involving the administration of Mozambique and the opposition faction RENAMO.

The mandate of ONUMOZ was to offer support with regard to military, electoral, political, and humanitarian aspects of the Agreement.

To offer military support, ONUMOZ carried out extensive operations throughout the country to prevent violations of the cease-fire. The ONUMOZ’s military unit that was deployed on November 1993 offered medical assistance and helped in the various engineering projects in the country.

Through ONUMOZ’s assistance, Mozambican Defense Force training centers were established to help in the formation of a new unified army (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs). Another mandate of the ONUMOZ was to promote the electoral process.

Following the lack of agreement on how the elections should be conducted, the Special Representative mediated the consultations between president Chissano and Mr. Dhlakama, which culminated in the establishment of the National Elections Commission on January1994.

With regard to the humanitarian program, UNOMOZ’s humanitarian assistance targeted the post-civil war Mozambican refugees resettling in their original lands (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs).

It was estimated that about 6 million refugees and internally displaced persons resettled during the two years following the implementation of the Agreement. Following ONUMOZ assistance, successful parliamentary and national elections were held on 29 October 1994 and were Chissano inaugurated as the president.

United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia The United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia abbreviated UNOL was instituted in November 1997 after the conclusion of UNOMIL’s command at the end of September of the same year. UNOMIL was the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia that had been running since 1993.

UNOL was led by an envoy of the Secretary General and was basically the first UN post-war maintenance organization (UNOMIL). Since its inception, the UNOL focuses on supporting the government of Liberia to promote peace, democratic development and promote national reconciliation following the civil war.

The UNOL also facilitates post-conflict peace-building initiatives and coordinates international assistance for re-building of Liberia following the prolonged civil war.

Civil conflict in Liberia took away more than 250,000 lives and resulted in a full collapse of law and order (The United Nations Statistics Division). Many civilians were displaced, both inland and beyond the nation’s borders. There were about 850,000 expatriates in the next-door nations (Human Rights Watch Africa).

Warfare commenced towards the end of 1989, and by the beginning of 1990, quite a lot of hundred deaths had taken place in conflicts involving government troops and opposition rebels of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, NPFL. A previous government officer, Mr. Charles Taylor, led NPFL.

As of the beginning of the war, a sub regional association, the Economic Community of West African States, embarked on a number of ideas directed at a diplomatic agreement. The UN shored up ECOWAS in its labors.

Some of the help that UN offered was instituting of an ECOWAS observer unit, enforcing an arms restriction on Liberia and providing a Special Envoy to help in negotiations involving ECOWAS and the groups in conflict (UNOML).

Following ECOWAS’s negotiation of a peace accord in Benin in 1993, the UN Security Council instituted UNOMIL. All parties tasked UNOMIL with shoring up the enactment of the Benin peace accord, particularly falling in line with and unbiased enactment of the accord.

UNOMIL became the initial UN international relations exercise carried out in collaboration with a peacekeeping exercise previously instituted by another association.

Holdups in the enactment of the tranquility accord and restarted warfare among Liberian splinter groups made it unworkable to conduct polls in early 1994, as pre-arranged.

In the upcoming months, some complimentary tranquility accords, adjusting and shedding light on the Benin accord was bargained (Johnson). With the truce in effect, the UN effectively monitored the July 1997 polls.

Mr. Charles Taylor emerged as the winner. He was sworn in, instituted as a new administration, and declared a course of action of ceasefire and national harmony.

In this respect, UNOMIL’s main aim was attained. UNOL came in after UNOMIL and by way of complete back up by the Security Council, it made possible the endorsement of national ceasefire and first-rate administration and assisted in drumming up global back up for the enactment of restoration and growth agendas.

The UNOL instituted an integration and rehabilitation program for the combatants deserting the rebel groups. The integration programs consist of vocational training, agricultural sector training, and formal education where the demobilized fighters would be rehabilitated.

The integration and rehabilitation programs are funded by the UNDP in partnership with the African Development Agency.

Conclusion The United Nations, through its various programs, promotes peace in conflict areas and plays a crucial role in facilitating international assistance to countries experiencing conflicts.

In Africa, apart from promoting peace, the UN supports economic and social development and protects human rights through various humanitarian initiatives.

From the involvement of the UN in the ensuring regional stability in many African countries and the promotion of post-war reconciliation like in Liberia, it is evident that the UN is a crucial body that can help the post-colonial Africa overcome its challenges.

Works Cited Anon. “Can Africans keep their own peace?” Web.

Anyidoho. “Political Control and Guidance of Peace Support Operations in Africa: A UN Commander’s View” Ghana Armed Forces.

Grey-Johnson. “Beyond Peacekeeping; The Challenge of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peace building in Africa” (2006) (1) UN Chronicle Online Edition. Web

Handicap International. 2010. Web.

Human Rights Watch Africa. Web.

The United Nations Statistics Division. “World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook, 2008.” Web.

United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Landmine Clearance Unit Report on Mozambique. Web.

United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance. Web.

United Nations United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia UNOMIL (September 1993 To September 1997). Web.

Washington CRS Report for Congress. “Copson RW Democratic Republic of the Congo: Peace Process and Background”.

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Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia Essay college essay help near me

War historians and political analysts are in agreement that the ideological, economic and political conflicts between the Soviet Union and the United States immediately after World War 2 influenced, in large part, the formation and political orientation of many countries in Eastern Europe.

Indeed, the deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the two countries coupled with the Soviet’s Union’s gradual influence in Europe before the end of the war played a significant role in initializing the Cold War era (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).

This paper purposes to analyze how the former Yugoslavia regime functioned during the Cold War Era.

In particular, the paper will analyze the pillars of the regime’s support, the extent to which it employed the cult of personality or ideology, how it re-organized the nation’s economy and society, and how it fitted into the overall picture of European and International politics.

Under the firm control of Josip Tito, the former Yugoslavia regime central pillar of support came in the form of embracing a vigorous program of socialization that was deeply rooted in Marxist theories.

Although Tito leaned towards the socialist policies learned from his former training in the Soviet Union, he pursued an independent course in foreign relations and refused to be subdued by what he termed as the Soviet’s bureaucratic caste and the its attempts to subjugate Yugoslavia’s economy (Banerji, 1950).

This implies that the regime benefited from Financial, military and technology aid from the United States and other Western powers, who were keen on using Tito’s uncompromising stand on the Soviet’s socialist policies to nip its budding influence on Eastern European countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also imperative to note that the regime thrived on crushing opposition voices, executing leaders perceived to entrench a different ideological orientation other than communism, and limiting intellectual freedom (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).

Tito’s regime in former Yugoslavia was deeply rooted in communist and Marxist ideologies. Individuals like Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin were exalted for providing the art and the science through which the regime thrived, and any form of capitalism or revisionism was dispelled (Banerji, 1950).

A comprehensive analysis of some of Tito’s works reveals that Lenin’s personality cult was deeply entrenched in Yugoslavia in the form of a strict system of command as well the people’s unconditional obedience to the rule’s and demands of the regime (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).

Consequently, Tito, the regime leader, was able to overwhelmingly impose himself upon the national communist party and the state.

Tito’s regime in former Yugoslavia re-organized the national economy along the contours of redistribution of wealth.

The regime decried the economic model used by the Soviet Union, which it said perpetrated capitalism through selling commodities as high as possible to achieve as much financial gain as possible from other socialist countries (Banerji, 1950).

The regime re-organized the national’s economy by giving factories to the working class with the aim of strengthening this group of the population. This, according to Tito, was in line with the science of Marxism and Leninism.

We will write a custom Essay on Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In redistribution of wealth, profitable organizations were taxed to subsidize unprofitable ones, and employed workers were taxed to subsidize unemployed workers in line with the socialist policy of profit-sharing among community members (Vodopivec, 1990).

A national fund for capital accumulation was established, and each factory or organization was obliged to give a proportion of its accumulated funds – calculated in relation to its productivity – to improve the living standards of the workers and to promote general industrial development (Banerji, 1950).

The compression of personal income disparities within an organization was also encouraged for the purpose of achieving equality among the working class (Vodopivec, 1990).

This compression was also aimed at minimizing discontent among the masses that, according to the regime, could be triggered by unequal distribution of wealth.

Lastly, it can be argued that Tito’s national socialist regime was lukewarmly accommodated by western powers, mainly by Truman and Eisenhower administrations in the U.S., particularly in its conflict with Stalin and its blatant refusal to align its internal and overseas policies to the Soviet hegemony (Marxists Internet Archive, n.d.).

The two U.S. administrations were willing to ignore the ideological differences that existed between the former Yugoslavia and the Western world in order to attain potentially substantial geopolitical advantages (Eskridge-Kosmach, 2009).

However, other European countries had their reservations for an independent but still socialist Yugoslavia.

Reference List Banerji, K. 1950. “Interview with Marshal Tito.” Fourth International 11, no. 6, 188-192. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern State Formation: The Case of Former Yugoslavia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eskridge-Kosmach, A.N. 2009. “Yugoslavia and U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1960-1970’s of the 20th Century.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 22, no. 2, 383-418.

Marxists Internet Archive. n.d. “Josip Broz Tito 1892-1980.” Web.

Vodopivec, M. 1990. “How redistribution hurts productivity in a socialist economy (Yugoslavia).” World Bank. Web.

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Advertising and Promotion Report essay help: essay help

Executive summary Advertisement plays a key role in business operations. The market position of a given product company will highly be influenced by the company’s ability to expose their products to their customers and how they prove their products to be well above the others in the market.

The medium that is used in the advertisement will affect its effectiveness, as it will reflect on the size of the audience reached. There has been a constant shift on the media that are appropriate for advertisement due to the technological advances that are registered daily.

With the increased technology and the increased competition in the current markets, many companies would want to produce products that have incorporated more than one function.

The convergence enables some kind of flexibility in the products and services that these companies can deliver to the market and will greatly contribute to their high position in the global market.

A key contributor to the current rapid technological advances is the increasing need to do away with the analogue system and adopt digital equipments. The shift from analogue to digital signal system is set to provide a more relaxed environment to the users in the technology world.

It will also be a basis for competition among various production companies. The conversion to digital technology is also positively influencing the sales of products as it reduces the cost of selling a given music product.

Introduction Music, movies, and games are liked by a good proportion of the UK population and thus the music industry is one of the major industries in the region. Music, in particular, is viewed not only as a local but also as a global culture (Brown, et al, 2000, p.2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rise in the modern technology has increased the individual’s access to these products. A good proportion of the population listens to music from their computers.

There is need by the companies that specialize in these products to find ways through which the products could be accessed easily by their customers. This calls for the service of an advertisement agency.

The agency considers the kinds of products that organizations produce and the target group for such products. It then examines the communication medium that is most popular among the identified groups and carries out the advertisements.

The industry has recently suffered great losses resulting from piracy. Despite the copyright acts that prohibit the vice, many users still obtain these entertainment products through illegal procedures. However, more legislation and strategies are being set that are likely to end piracy in the near future.

The principles underlying the roles of the Accounts Manager The account manager of any organization or agency will be charged with various responsibilities that are geared towards the success of the organization. As the accounts manager of the advertising agency, I had to establish and maintain good business relationship with our clients (Field, 2009, p.106; Ryals

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The Success of Organizational Learning Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu

The journal by Helen Shipton called “Towards a typology for organizational learning research,” compares and contrasts approaches to organizational management as there exists a close linkage between individual training and entire workplace training (Shipton, 2006).

This paper discuses the main issues and contributions brought about in the article.

The article gives reference to scholars who seems to have been the originators and first advocators for organizational learning, Cyert and March (1963) according to these early scholars, organizations respond to changes in the external environments and it is through the external environments that they align their organizations learning needs.

To some extent, the above observation of early scholars still holds however in modern times, strategic management approaches to business management puts less emphasis on need for organizational learning to have been initiated by an external influence (Kleiman, 2000).

They are of the opinion that the best approach to organizational learning is to have an ongoing program of learning, training, developing, mentoring, coaching and counseling to ensure that operations within an organization are well up-to-date.

In modern organizational learning theories, there exists a close relationship between organizational learning and performance in an organization; as brought about in prescriptive/normative theory literature, organizations that have well framed learning programs have higher tendencies of having higher outcomes; they make decisions that are responsive to the needs of business environment/industry.

Apple Inc. has become the world’s largest electronic industry because of its well planned organizational culture, the company ensures that there is a believing on the changes happening in the industry, as a response to the learning programs, staffs have come-up with new methods of reducing operating costs and have innovated new products (Henderson, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Zappo International Company has enacted policies that facilitate learning in the organization, they involve their staffs in decision making and keeps undertaking internal and external situational analysis to see the areas that employees needs training.

When appraising staffs, which takes place quarterly, the management leaves a section to be filled by staffs on areas they need training; this has facilitated training in the international apparels company (Muller, Maclean and Biggs, 2009).

How theories brought about can be advanced in the future and what challenges must be overcome

Though organizational learning has been taken as one of strategic management approach deeply in rooted in organizations, and undertaken by human resources management assisted with other line managers, in the future the area should be a full department and section within an organization.

It would yield better results if there were some people within an organization who can liaise with human resources, production departments, marketing, research and developing, business intelligence, and customer relation management teams to come up with policies and identify learning needs in an organization.

Such a department will ensure that an organization gets the right training, mentorship, and coaching to facilitate an improved business (Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003).

The success of organizational learning is hindered by internal and external factors facing an organization if the factors are not managed appropriately; internal factors include organizational culture, organizational politics, leadership and informal team in the organization.

To ensure that the practice is not hindered, management has the role of developing effective communication systems that facilitate sharing of information across the organization.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Success of Organizational Learning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture should be shaped to support training and mentorship programs; leaders should always have it in mind that organizational learning can only be effective if trainers and mentors are well informed and have good training skills (Hornsby and Warkeoczeski, 2000).

References Henderson, R., 2003. Compensation Management in a Knowledge-Based World. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hornsby, T. and Warkeoczeski, L. 2000. New roles for leaders: A step-by-step guide to competitive advantage. Franklin: Hillsboro Press.

Kleiman, L.,2000. Human Resource Management: A Tool for Competitive Advantage. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing.

Meinolf, D., Ariane, A., John, C. and Ikujiro, N.,2003. Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Muller, J., Maclean, R. and Biggs, H., 2009. The impact of a supportive leadership program in a policing organization from the participants’ perspective. Work, 32(1),Pp. 69-79.

Shipton, H.,2006. Cohesion or confusion? Towards a typology for organizational learning research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(11), PP.1468-2370

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Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar Critical Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Falling angels is the third novel of Tracy Chevalier, an American born writer. It began in January 1901, which marked a new epoch since Queen Victoria had died. Her son, Dandy King Edward became an emperor. This novel presumes a wide cultural focus, looking at death and burial as shown hundred years ago.

This narrative is ruthlessly prepared with around ten first person voices all of them differing in age and societal position. Girls, looked upon maids, disturbed fathers and the gravediggers son form the main characters of this novel and help carry the story line.

This novel describes how fundamentally societies can transform within the space of ten years. Tracy Chevalier in her setting of this novel was motivated by her increasing interest in eras of change, moving from one array of values to another (Tracy 215).

Two incompatible families are obliged into contact by a condition of having elaborate family graves. One of the graves is triumphed by an angel while the other one is surmounted by an urn. The two tombs are besides each other.

One of the families is advancive of intellectual personalities and tastes while the other is firmly bourgeois, being totally spiritual and conventional.

Elements of lost arts of entombments and grieving in this narrative are fascinating and prompts us on how much peoples approaches to death has culturally detached us from our predecessors.

Tracy Chevalier in this novel investigates the injustice and faults of a changing time in opposition to a gas lit background of societal and political history. Tracy chevalier in her novel discusses a theme with a great effect to the society, which is the status of the female individual.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will discuss gender inequality as demonstrated in this novel and assess how post modernism has helped solve this problem (Mitchell 138).

Gender inequality and post modernism as illustrated in this novel Tracy Chevalier in this novel illustrates an actual division between male and female sexes. The female world functions nearly as a subversive movement with predicaments of sex and pregnancy being dealt with without discussing or complaining to the men folk.

Post modernism refers to a movement away from the perspective of modernism. It entails the conviction that noticeable realities are merely societal constructs and are vulnerable to change. Post modernism in this novel emphasizes sharp issues such as gender inequality, that is, males versus females (Benhabib 141).

In this novel, post modernism tries to problematise modernist boldness, by depicting how confident the females in this novel need to be in order to meet their theoretical purposes.

Women characters in this novel especially Kitty Coleman struggle to obtain self determination and overwhelm loneliness. It shows how issues faced by female characters in this novel differ with the issues faced by women today.

Post modernism in this novel is illustrated through feminism whereby the women in this novel get involved in movements headed for identifying, instituting and safeguarding equal political, financial and social rights. Its perceptions go beyond those of womens’ privileges.

Feminism is a post modernism aspect which mainly concentrates on womens issues. Since feminism tries to find gender equality, men’s freedom is an essential part of it.

We will write a custom Essay on Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feminism in this novel is seen through the surfacing of feminist movements such as the womens suffragettes association. It also entails the social creation of sex and gender.

Feminist campaigners in this novel are seen to be struggling for womens rights such as education, rights to vote and reproductive rights. Women are in opposition to domestic aggression and sexual harassment ( Hamilton and Jones 318).

Gorgeous and restless, Kitty Coleman and the plain religious Gertrude Waterhouse are the main female character in this novel.

Kitty looks forward to modernism while Gertrude sticks to Victorian customs.Richard Coleman, Kitty’s’ husband, initiates the novel as an open minded scientist devoted to his wife but towards the middle, he becomes an opponent and suppresses Kitty.

These matriarchs are completely opposed in nature yet they develop to a moving joint society reflecting its inflexible class distinctions. Supporting feminism in this story is the cruel ubiquitous truth of male power and the impediments of prudery. This makes actual interactions between both male and females impossible.

This is evident when Kitty’s husband instructs her to have sex with another man. She conforms to this with no complaining. In this case, Kitty falls under the enchantment of a drastic feminist. She even carries out an abortion at a time when this is frankly risky.

Post modernism in this case is shown where Kitty enthusiastically turns her concentration to the women’s suffrage movement. It is clear that discussing with these intellectual women gives Kitty some of the psychological sustenance she needs.

She gets drawn in womens rights and starts to dump the Victorian regulations. The woman’s suffragist movement played a very big role in the society. It was concerned with women who didn’t worry about politics or those uninterested in search of enthusiasm.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Falling Angels by Tracy Chaveliar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender inequality in this novel is further demonstrated where bright adult women were not allowed to take part in public live and in nearly all intellectual undertakings. This is evident where early in the novel, Kitty stares at her husband go for work.

She feels a sense of enviousness just like she had felt before while young as she watched her brother leave for school. Girls were kept from going to school. She however cannot help this situation and only begins to cry. Kitty seems to be uninterested with her family and her way of living.

She craves of being back to her home with her fostering father and brother in order to be liberated to learn and make art. In this novel, men do not understand how education could fit women for any broadly extending responsibility until they came to an agreement of their true stable duty in the society.

Male chauvinism is also illustrated where the existence of young females at home is taken as a basis of anxiety. Families with daughters are not interested in seeing their daughters happily married but in the finances they get if marriage occurs. This novel plays a role in depicting promiscuity in females.

Fallen women including seduced maidens and remorseful maladies are portrayed as playing a didactic role to caution the female audience against the remunerations of sinful sexual satisfaction. Paradoxically, such tasks were played by the same women who had tentatively yielded to such enticements as actresses.

Tracy deems the actress and prostitute areas of work as parallel and not automatically convergent. She contrasts female musicians who present on the public stage with prostitutes.

Such women are in close immediacy since prostitutes were very common in concert halls. Daughters who chose these kinds of life were regarded dead in their families.

Due to this issue of gender inequality, Maude, the only daughter of Coleman, is seen to suffer devastatingly rather than declare her menstruation to her father.

She is not free with her father and cannot explain to him her menstrual problems. She therefore continues to perform her home duties at the expense of her suffering. These approaches are however shifting with the new century.

Gender inequality is also illustrated where women were not allowed to participate in elections. During this time, almost all men were allowed to vote discriminating only those who did not possess property, those living with their bosses, male illicit and lunatics.

This is so unfair since women have contributed so much to bring in peoples liberty and rights. Post modernism was however demonstrated in this novel since women started agitating for their rights to vote in 1906.

Tracy Chevalier in this novel is concerned with the continuing change in the role of women in the society. In reality, Richard Coleman has insignificant grounds for disapproving his wife’s’ conduct. The novel opens with a stint of wife swaps initiated by him.

Post modernism here is seen where Kitty denies Richard the right of entry to her bed from the time Maude, their only daughter, was born. Tracy Chevalier also illustrates how women have changed sexuality to their benefits in the twentieth century.

Women in this novel achieve a right to be heard at a very high cost. Feminine character is built and maintained through enduring pain and sacrificing. Kitty Coleman enrols in the womens suffragettes association so as to make an assertion before a traditionalistic husband and a dictatorial mother in law.

Kitty becomes a member of this movement hoping that she is doing so for her daughter Maude, to enable her to vote and go to institutions of higher education. This would allow Maude to be possibly free from the powers of any man. However, Kitty is slightly understood by Maude.

She relentlessly suffers from lonesomeness. Post modernism in this case is demonstrated whereby Kitty recompenses with her own life for preferring a path different from that designed by her mother in-law (Anderson 72).

Gender inequality is also portrayed whereby in the Victorians brains, women are perpetuated as sensualised, vulnerable and fallen. Money due to its shady influence is said to belong to a man’s world and not in a woman’s extra ethical world.

The base of the issue of women rolling up at the public stage was the tie in Victorian minds. This was between female artists and prostitutes who sanctioned to be employed for the amusement of anyone who could pay for the price. Female actresses were equittted with prostitutes.

Gender inequality is also portrayed where upper and middle category women were not permitted to work beyond their homes and in remunerative jobs. Their hypothetical idleness at their homes acted as a symbol of the male relative capabilities to sustain them in a manner applicable to their social status.

Cases where women played a role in the family income or were self accommodating were considered unfavourable on gender responsibilities. Social accountability was at risk.

Post modernism was applied in cases where the society recognized that some gentle women families were facing hard times from the demise of husband or father or from other monetary constraints. Women in this case were allowed to work until the financial crisis was resoluted.

Women were restricted employment chances due to lack of solid edifications or marketable skills. This predicament was especially common in spinsters who lacked sufficient funds. They therefore ended up doing dress making jobs or acting as ladys’ attendants. All these were carried out under a home environment.

In this novel, women were supposed to be satisfied with what men considered necessary for them. Men had all the authority in the world though they succeeded to women only a small segment of this power.

Women in this novel are encouraged to present their music in commission to others rather than for self enhancement. Young women equipped with a skill in music sought jobs as music governess in homes or as presenters in public appointments.

This was however opposite to the males who were allowed to present their music in national functions.

Conclusion Feminists believe that women are unrestricted to equal rights and respects. People are however not required to give a judgement on the fact that women are being treated unfairly in the society.

The causes of disagreements both with and within feminism are however hard to identify. As a result feminists should have certain goals for creating social change on the behalf of women.

The above explained novel focuses on the development of female characters. Women in the society should follow the character traits of Kitty so as to live a happy life.

They should join women movements that bring meaning to their lives. As such, women should struggle by all means to fight cases of gender inequality and male chauvinism which act as hindrances to their success.

Works cited Anderson, Elizabeth. What is the Point of Equality? London: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.

Benhabib, Seyla. Situating the Self: Gender, Community, and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print.

Hamilton, Geoff and Jones, Brian. Contemporary Writers and Their Work: Literary Movements. NY: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.

Mitchell, Sally. The fallen Angel: Chastity, Class and Womens reading 1835-1880. NY: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981. Print.

Tracy, Chaveliar. Actresses as working women: Their social identity in Victorian Culture. London: Routledge, 1991. Print.

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Guantanamo Bay best college essay help: best college essay help

In the light of the growing interest over whether the United States Administration is faulting with the rights and freedom of several hundred unlawful combatants still detained in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, it is imperative to critically evaluate if the notion of “jihad” has been overhyped by policy makers, the media and other stakeholders interested in the fight against global terrorism, and if majority of the detainees still held in the facility are indeed radical extremists or disaffected and confused men.

The knowledge that many of detainees still held in Guantanamo bay are Islamic terrorists focused on carrying out “holy war” under the banner of “jihad” is in public domain (Aaron, 2008).

To comprehend the US Administration’s attitude in the Guantanamo Bay case, one only needs to remember the brute and unwarranted killings of innocent civilians in the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

Since that date, the U.S. considers itself to be in a constant state of war against international terrorism which is largely perpetrated by jihadis and other terrorist organizations. To therefore assume that the notion of jihad has been hyped is to miss the point.

The jihadis have avowedly sought “…the destruction of western democracy and the conversion of the world to their concept of Islam” (Aaron, 2008, p. 1).

It is important to note that not only do the jihadis perpetrate their murderous killings based on a largely misplaced notion of the ‘holy war’ as described in Islam (Aaron, 2008), but it is increasing hard for the U.S. to wage war against a common stateless enemy scattered throughout the world.

In addition, jihadis are extremely dangerous since they come from a culture and religious orientation that is largely incomprehensible to the U.S., not mentioning that they do not speak with one voice (Aaron, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, all necessary measures need to be put in place to guard against these extremists and to stress the real dangers posed by these stateless groups.

On this account, it is strategically wrong and politically irresponsible to assume that the concept of jihad has been overhyped since this amount to conferring on jihad terrorists’ greater legitimacy and will to attack than they already have.

There exist many reasons and influences as to why many unsuspecting young Muslims leave their homes and volunteer to join jihad.

Indeed, Curcio (2005) cites influence of imams, devotion to Islam, indoctrination with untenable religious beliefs and unemployment as some of the factors that influence young men to join the movement.

But however much one would want to sympathize with these unsuspecting minds, the damage they cause cannot escape mention.

What is perplexing is the fact that the adherents of jihadism believe that they can achieve their goals, especially the creation of a global fundamentalist Islamic State, through violent means (Aaron, 2008).

It is therefore of immediate necessity to put in place strong measures to quell this utopian line of thought, which is in essence not supported by mainstream Islam. In this perspective, the question of hyping the notion of jihad does not even arise; states must at all times be prepared about the possibility a terrorist attack.

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The Regulation of OHS in Australia Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Case of Miner’s Death

The Trapped Miner

The BHP Leinster Mine Case

Discussion

Conclusion

List of References

Introduction The OHS regulation in Australia has undergone transformations owing to elevated levels of industrialization and material processing.

The “National Occupational Health and Safety Strategy 2002-2012” is operational in Australia since its adoption in 2002 by the Ministry of Workplace relations (CCH Australia Limited, OHS Industry and Legal Authorities

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Creativity and Creative Industries Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction: Creativity and creative industries Creativity can be referred to as developing of a new substance that has never existed; it could be a solution or product. Creativity occurs if one invents something new that has never existed, or if it exists elsewhere, the creator is not aware of it.

Creativity can also refer to a new process of tackling something or inventing a new idea. One can also introduce an existing product into a totally different market.

With the emerging technology, upcoming industrious people are able to create their work and hence establishing outlets for their creativity as a way of promoting and distributing their creative work. The creative industries may include design, architecture, writing and publishing, music, photography, and performing arts.

The screen production such as in the television is inclusive. Hence, creative industries are economic activities that concentrate on the generation of knowledge and ideas.

These industries are usually as a result of an individual creativeness inclusive of talents and skills (Queensland University of technology, n.d). Nevertheless, the creative industries contribute widely in a country’s economy due to their uniqueness in their operations, thus attracting many clients from within and abroad.

Creativity yields creative industries, which in turn lead to employment, growth, and development in a country. Hence, creative industries contribute to gross domestic product (GDP), in distribution term and job creation (Henry, 2007, pp 9).

To build creative organizations, knowledge and leadership is required; therefore, the presence of an ideal leader is important. This is a person who has the capabilities of spotting an idea that suits well with the needs of an organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is an entrepreneur who finds ways of selling and guiding his/her through implementation. He is however conscious of how his ideas can be affected by contradicting actions of managers who are not keen.

However, creativity is challenged by several factors, for instance, it is not easy to demonstrate the value of a new service or product that is not in existence. New ideas may be threatening to the existing market; nevertheless, if they sail through, developing of these ideas in to tangible products may be an easy task.

There are a number of factors that an ideal leader should consider including the surrounding environment, which must promote idea generation. Scanning for new opportunities should be done continuously by clarifying the emerging problem.

Practical techniques should also be implemented to encourage the generation of new possibilities. When the idea is finally implemented, a follow-up should be done regularly to ensure that the idea follows the right track (Arnold, 2010).

Creativity can fall in many categories, for instance, the private health sectors. In is evident that private hospitals have more medical facilities as compared to public hospitals, which are limited to facilities.

This is most evident in developing countries where a patient has to be referred to a private hospital to be attended. This may be due to the fact that a certain machine is only available in a certain private hospital.

The profound point here is that, the management of such a hospital thought through how to attract patients or gain fame as a hospital. They then opted to import an expensive life saving machine form abroad, after surveying and discovering that such a machine does not exist in any of the hospitals in that country.

We will write a custom Essay on Creativity and Creative Industries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such an idea changes the lives of many people in the society, from the patient to the new employees / experts needed to operate the machine. Another example could be establishing a borehole in a community that has scarcity of water and by use of technology, pumping the water to taps.

The business can decide on how to charge for the water service, thus making a community’s life easier and at the same time making money.

Creativity is what gives sight to the blind, and what provides a better heart to the children with a heart condition. Through creativity, these surgeries are innovated, studied, and taught to medical specialists such that, when they perform the surgeries, they are a success.

Therefore, everything in our lives revolves around creativity, which develops into ideas that form creative industries that deal with different products and services.

Hence, creativity has contributed greatly to the community in that, it provides quality life for people in the society, and this is evident through a number of creative industries that surround us; architecture, designs, advertising, software, publishing, internet, electronics, infrastructure, among others.

With technological know-how, our live move a little fast, since we no longer have to send an urgent letter via post office – that task can be completed through an instant chat message or through yahoo-mail or face book.

Despite the importance associated with creative industries, the cultural industries are also of benefit to a country such as the museums. However, it is due to their tradition state probably shuns visitors away; nevertheless, creative industries can boost such industries technologically to revive their fame.

The creative industries can also contribute to the cultural industries via architectural services, thus improving the outward image of these heritages.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Creativity and Creative Industries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internet has emerged as a result of creative industries, with its presence tasks are completed faster and communication is much easier due to the social clouds like facebook, my space among others.

Information can also be acquired fast due to the search sites such as; Google, wikipedia and yahoo among others which can be referred to as information clouds.

With the emerge of cloud culture, the internet has enabled exchange of information through chatting which enables one to express themselves and understand other peoples culture through interaction with other online communities.

Culture gives us a sense of belonging and identity and hence through sharing of information and interaction, through clouds such as facebook, twitter and my space among others.

Knowledge is the key to success, since it is through knowledge that one can be able to develop a generated idea. However, according to Arnold (2010), creativity may be faced by obstacles if the organization’s culture, does not entertain new ideas, but instead it criticizes them.

Management may not be willing to take risks, thus hindering implementation of ideas. In organization where workload is routine and unrealistic expectations are required, it proofs difficult for the creativity to occur, since employee are always occupied with work.

New Zealand’s creative industries According to a journal by Fritsch (2008), creativity is seen as a process mostly, other than a product – in the earlier years, people used their own skills and to expand.

In addition, with the presence of creative process, it leads to creative production and if creative output is emphasized, definitely a creative outcome results, hence leading to an economic success.

The creative industries in New Zealand lead to the creation of goods, services, and knowledge in the textile, design, fashion, production, art and even in the photography sector.

According to Grants et al (2009), the New Zealand creative industries led to 121,000 jobs in 2006; nevertheless, this sector led to increase of incomes, such that, as in 2006, the employee earned about $52,000 per year.

A community creates a relationship that encourages the exchange of ideas and risk taking in a business environment. Nevertheless, the relationship in creative industries included a number of elements among them being an idea, which resulted to a process, experience, innovation, and collaboration.

Creative industries are a part of Auckland, which is in New Zealand. According to Bruin (2005, pp 143), the creative industries in New Zealand are well acknowledged since it is believed to be a major contributor to the country’s economy.

The New Zealand film industry is an example of a creative industry, which has over the years, attained recognition internationally by participating in movie production. For instance, the return of the lords, the whale rider, resulted to winning of an award like the Oscar for the actors, directors, screen artist, and digital animators in 2004.

Due to technology, New Zealand has special effects on their productions, hence producing award-winning films for their international clients. Some other movies that have generated from New Zealand are king-Kong, the lion, the witch, and the wardrobe, X-men, the last samurai, among others.

The New Zealand’s government in 2000 contributed $22 million to the filming production fund, whose aim is to build experienced talents, which will be needed to aid in the development and growth of the filming industry, hence providing jobs opportunities (Bruin, 2005 pp145).

Indeed, this country’s location provides amazing sceneries, thus making it appropriate for filming.

The country’s infrastructure is a plus hence it has been effective in terms of transport and communication networks, which are inclusive of broadband connections, hence effective while coordinating film shooting between new Zealand and another country.

Digital content industry is another creative industry that has grown rapidly in New Zealand, such that, the country is rated among the leaders in this sector. It includes internet animation, game software, digital publishing, and television commercial production.

This industry includes the hallmark production, which is a creative innovation, and has the ability of meeting the world’s demand. The New Zealand multimedia industry serves over 20 countries, and seeks to find other emerging markets.

Some of these industries include sunshine brook, which concentrates on publishing of literacy materials, such as animated CD-ROMs. Another company is the Sidhe interactive, which produces games, and is trending on up-to-date technology with outstanding designs, thus producing original and licensed titles (Anon, 2011).

In addition, New Zealand produces a high level and quality crossbred wool in the world. The favorable farming environment has been a major contributor to the quality production; nevertheless, the country’s wool is regarded as uniform, white, and free from dark fibers and contamination.

This wool yields carpets, beddings, textiles, and even winter jackets, hence earning itself a large market share globally and also providing employment, thus boosting the economy.

In 2008- 2009, New Zealand produced about 154,000 tones of wool ranging as the third highest producer worldwide, hence being able to earn $731 million from its wool export globally. Therefore, this evidently shows how these creative industries are worth in a country and to the community at large.

The relationship between the creativity and community According to Hagoort

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NO TITLE Essay college admission essay help

Large corporations and businesses introduce new products and services in order to fulfill a market need and make profits. The new-product development process is discussed in your text. Using this as a basis, research product failures that have affected companies in the past and have cost them a substantial amount of money and may also have adversely affected their market reputation, tarnishing their brands.

Research the web and pick one such product failure for a Fortune 500 company and describe this failure. NOTE: A product failure, not a “company” failure such as Blockbuster and not a “discontinued” product because of a failed part, such as the Ford Pinto which was in production and sold for 10 years but was discontinued because of a faulty fuel system and placement of its gas tank. And, not a service failure.

At a minimum, you are expected to provide:

Information about the company
The product
The rationale for the introduction of this product
The costs associated with the product (development and losses)
Synthesize your position on 3 – 5 reasons or specific factors you believe most likely contributed to the product failure, using the product development process in the text
Offer your analysis.
This is a one to two paragraph exercise – do not go overboard, concise description of the company, product, and major reasons you believe it failed.

Suggested Failure Examples For Review (that you may use)

McDonald’s Arch Deluxe Burger
New Coke
Pepsi Crystal
Coors Rocky Mountain Sparkling Water
HP Touchpad
Sony Betamax
Ford Edsel
ESPN Mobile Phone
Microsoft Zune
Not Considered Failures

Samsung Galaxy Phone (battery failed)
WOW Chips (profited from the product)
Heinz Colored Ketchup (profited from the product)
Use three or more references and citations, in APA format, to support your position.

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Holy Farm Management Evaluation Essay best essay help

Executive Summary The core business activity of Holy Farm was production and sale of milk and cereals. However, the revenues generated from these activities have since declined. In order to increase revenue, the farm was opened to the public. Members of the public were allowed to visit the farm at a fee. The main attraction at the farm includes the milking parlor where the visitors watch the milking process. The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day.

However, the owners of the farm have not been able to receive the required 250 visitors per day. Thus, their main concern is to increase the number of visitors to the farm. This objective can be achieved in the following ways. First, the farm can be opened for a longer period. In particular, it can be opened in all months instead of closing it from November to March.

The farm can also be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. Second, the number of visitors can be increased by organizing educational trips and special events such as dance and coach parties. Finally, more revenue can be generated by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. These can be opened through outsourcing.

Managing Processes Introduction

Holy Farm initially focused on the production and sale of milk and cereals. Following a decline in profits from their core business activities, Holy Farm was opened up to the public in order to generate more revenue. Consequently, the owners of the farm constructed car parks. They also constructed a safe viewing area where the visitors can watch the milking process. Currently, the farm targets schools and the local community with its new services.

The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day. However, the owners of Holy Farm are yet to realize the expected returns on their new venture (opening the farm to the public). In general, the number of people visiting the farm has been fluctuating. The demand for visits to the farm is high from April to October, and remains very low in other months. Consequently, the farm is often closed from November to March.

The number of visitors is also very low during the week days. As a result, the farm is usually opened from Friday to Monday. The number of visitors received on Sundays and Saturdays is usually double the number of visitors who tour the farm on Monday and Friday. In light of these fluctuations, the owners of the farm intend to increase the number of visitors by 50%.

However, the farm faces financial constraints and, thus, cannot depend on capital investment to increase its capacity. Consequently, the owners intend to increase the number of visitors through sales promotions and advertisements. In this paper, the current capacity of Holy Farm will be analyzed. The optimal ways of achieving the targeted capacity will then be discussed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current Capacity

The productive capacity of a firm is the total amount of output in terms of goods and services it can produce within a given time period (Nigel, Alistair and Robert, 2011, p. 299). Potential capacity is the maximum amount of output that can be produced by the firm’s installed equipment and human resources (Clark and Robert, 2008, p. 45).

Actual capacity is the actual amount of goods and services produced by the firm within a certain period. Thus, capacity utilization “is the percentage of the firm’s total possible production capacity that is actually being used”.

Holy Farm’s owners invested in a milking parlor in which 150 cows can be milked using a slow-moving turntable. They also constructed a gallery to enable visitors to watch the milking process. 80 people per hour visited the gallery from 4.30pm to 7.00pm. This means that the milking parlor was open for two and half hours per day.

Thus, the capacity can be calculated by multiplying 80 (visitors per hour) by two and half hours. The result which is 200 is divided by 80% to get 250 as the capacity or the maximum number of visitors who can tour the farm in a day. Thus, the farm’s monthly capacity can be illustrated in the graph below.

The figures for each month are obtained as follows. In April, the total number of visitors is 1,200. By dividing 1,200 by 4, we get the number of visitors per week to be 300. In order to get the number of visitors per day, we divide 300 by 6 and get 50. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 50, while the number of visitors on Sundays and Saturday is 100. This is because the number of visitors on Sundays and Saturdays is double the number on Mondays and Fridays.

In May, the total number of visitors is 1,800. Dividing 1,800 by 4 we get the weekly number of visitors to be 450. The number of visitors per day is obtained by dividing 450 by 6 to get 75. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 75, while the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 150.

In the month of June, the total number of visitors is 2,800. The number of visitors per week is obtained by dividing 2,800 by 4 to get 700. The number of visitors per week is obtained by dividing 700 by 6 to get 116.6. Since we can not get a fraction of a visitor we round off 116.6 to get 117. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 117, while the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 234.

We will write a custom Essay on Holy Farm Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The total number of visitors in the month of July is 3,200. By dividing 3,200 by 4 we get the number of visitors per week to be 800. By dividing 800 by 6 we get the daily number of visitors to be 133.3. This can be rounded so that we get 134 visitors per day. Thus, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 134 and the number of visitors on Sunday and Saturday is 268. In August, the total number of visitors is 3,400.

By dividing 3,400 by 4 we get the weekly number of visitors to be 850. The daily number of visitors is obtained by dividing 850 by 6 to get 141.6. By rounding off 141.6 we get 142. Therefore, 142 visitors are received on Monday and Friday and 284 visitors are received on Sunday and Saturday. In September, the total number of visitors is 1,800. The weekly number of visitors is obtained by dividing 1,800 by 4 to get 450.

The number of visitors per day is obtained by dividing 450 by 6 to get 75. Hence, the number of visitors on Monday and Friday is 75. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors rises to 150 since the number of visitors for Sunday and Saturday is double the number of visitors for Monday and Friday. Finally, 600 visitors were received in October.

The weekly number of visitors is obtained by dividing 600 by 4 to get 150. The daily number of visitors is obtained by dividing 150 by 6 to get 25. Hence, 25 visitors are received on Monday and Friday, while 50 visitors are received on Sunday and Saturday.

The rate of capacity utilization has a direct bearing on the firm’s revenue and costs. In particular, the capacity utilization rate determines the amount of fixed costs per unit of a product or service (Betts, Meadws and Walley, 2000, pp. 185-196). The fixed costs per unit reduce as the firm increases the rate at which it uses its capacity.

Thus, Holy Farm is likely to have the lowest cost of hosting visitors in August when demand is very high. Since the fixed costs are low and the revenue is high due to the increase in the number of visitors, the firm is likely to make high profits. From November to March when demand is very low, the fixed costs per unit are likely to be very high. Thus, the Farm is likely to make low profits or even loses since the fixed costs remain constant while the revenue reduces as the number of visitors reduces. The result of the capacity assessment shows that the farm has not been able to receive 250 visitors per day. Consequently, the owners of the farm must use available resources to increase the number of visitors to 250 per day.

If the number of visitors is increased by 50%, the number of visitors touring the farm on monthly basis will increase as illustrated in graph 2 below. The number of people visiting the farm on a daily basis is calculated as follows. We multiply the daily number of visitors (current capacity) with 150 and then divide the result by 100. Thus, in April, 75 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. The number of visitors will increase to 150 on Sundays and Saturdays.

Graph 2

In May, 112.5 visitors will be received on Friday and Monday while on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 225. In the month of June, 175 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 350. In July, 200 people will visit the farm on Monday and Friday. On Sunday and Friday, the number of visitors will increase to 400.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Holy Farm Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In August, the number of visitors received on Monday and Friday will be 212.5. However, on Sunday and Saturday, the number of visitors will increase to 425. In September, the number of visitors will be 112.5 and 225 on Monday and Friday, as well as, Sunday and Saturday respectively.

Finally, in October, the number of visitors will be 37.5 and 75 on Monday and Friday, as well as, Sunday and Friday respectively. The number of visitors can be increased through demand management since actual capacity is a direct function of the level of demand (Clark and Robert, 2008, p. 143).

Demand Management Demand management involves influencing the level of demand for a given product or service in order to meet the sales target or the desired capacity utilization (Armistead and Clark, 1994, pp. 5-22). In the context of Holy Farm, demand management will involve increasing the demand for visits to the farm in order to meet the desired capacity utilization.

Demand can be influenced through advertising and sales promotions (Croxton, Lambert and Rogers, 2002, pp. 51-66). Currently, the owners of Holy Farm intend to intensify their marketing initiatives. However, they face difficulties in identifying the customers to target with their advertising initiatives. The farm can focus on a specific market such as schools and reach them using the adverts and sales promotions.

Capacity Management Capacity management involves planning for and controlling the existing capacity in order to achieve the desired level of operation (Coughlan and Coughlan, 2002, pp. 220-240). Planning and controlling capacity is the process through which effective capacity is set so that the firm’s operations can respond to changes in demand (Taylor, 2006, pp. 163-186). Planning, as well as, controlling capacity occurs both in the long-run and in the short-run (Diaz, Torre and Garcia, 2002, pp. 286-302).

The full capacity utilization can be achieved in the following ways. First, the farm can be opened to the public for a longer period in order to increase revenue. For example, the farm can be opened from November to March instead of closing it during this period. Second, the farm owners should strengthen their relationships with schools. This can be achieved by organizing educational trips in the farm during the school days.

The educational trips are likely to attract more customers since they are not only for entertainment, but also for learning among the school students. Additionally, the educational trips can help in increasing the midweek capacity utilization since the trips can always be organized on week days.

Third, the firm can also increase sales to coach firms by organizing coach parties in the farm. Special events such as wedding parties can also be organized to attract more visitors. Fourth, the farm should be opened during special occasions and holidays. For example, the farm can be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. Special events such as dance parties can also be offered during the holidays in order to attract more customers.

Many people are likely to visit the farm during the holiday seasons since they have more time. Additionally, many people prefer to spend on leisure activities during the holidays (Taylor and Fearne, 2009, pp. 379-392). Finally, the farm can generate more revenue by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. Since the farm has no resources for capital investment, the souvenirs shop and restaurant services can be outsourced.

Queuing Queuing theory involves using quantitative techniques to analyze waiting lines and arrival at queues (Voss, Tsikriktsi and Frohlich, 2002, pp. 195-219). It enables mangers to analyze the efficiency of serving customers in a queue (Klassen and Rohleder, 2006, pp. 527-548). The rate of capacity utilization has a bearing on the waiting time or the time required to deliver services. In general, the waiting time increases as the rate of capacity utilization tends towards 100%.

In the context of Holy Farm, queues are used to access services at the milking parlor. The milking parlor is often opened at 4.30 pm. However, the visitors normally arrive at the gallery before 4.30 pm to watch the milking process. Consequently, queues usually build up at the gallery. The queues can be reduced or eliminated by opening the milking parlor earlier. The queues can also be reduced by reducing the waiting time. This can be achieved by reducing the time spend by each visitor to watch the milking process in the gallery.

Conclusion Holy Farm was opened to the public after the revenue from milk and cereal production declined. The objective was to allow members of the public to tour the farm at a fee. This would enable the owners of the farm to generate more revenue. The farm has a capacity of 250 visitors per day. However, the farm has not been able to operate at the full capacity of 250 visits per day. Additionally, the farm is only opened to the public from April to October.

Thus, the farm’s facilities are not used from September to March. In order to achieve the objective of generating more revenue, the owners of the farm intend to increase the number of visitors to the farm. This objective can be achieved by opening the farm for a longer period.

For instance, the farm should be opened from September to March instead of closing it. Additionally, the farm should be opened during Christmas and Easter holidays. More revenue can be generated by opening a souvenirs shop and a restaurant. However, these services should be outsourced since the farm lacks resources for capital investment.

References Armistead, C., and Clark, G., 1994. The ‘Coping’ Capacity Management Strategy in Services and the Influence of Quality Performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(2), pp. 5-22.

Betts, A., Meadws, M., and Walley, P., 2000. Call Centre Capacity Management. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(2), pp. 185-196.

Clark, G., and Robert, J., 2008. Service Operations Management. New York: Prentice Hall.

Coughlan, P., and Coughlan, D., 2002. Action Research for Operations Management. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(2), pp. 220-240.

Croxton, K., Lambert, D., and Rogers, D., 2002. The Demand Management Process. International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(2), pp. 51-66.

Diaz, A., Torre, P., and Garcia, V., 2002. A Capacity Management Model in Services Industry. International Journal of Services Industry Management, 13(2), pp. 286-302.

Edgar, D., 1997. Capacity Management in the Short Break Market. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 9(2), pp. 55-59.

Greasley, A., 2007. Operations Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Klassen, K., and Rohleder, T., 2006. Demand and Capacity Management Decisions in Services: How they Impact on one another. International Journal of Operationas and Production Management, 22(5), pp. 527-548.

Nigel, S., Alistair, B., and Robert, J., 2011. Essentials of Operations Management. New York: Prentice Hall.

Pyscraft, M., 2000. Operations Management. New York: Pearsons.

Stevenson, W., 2009. Operations Managemnt. New York: Routledge.

Taylor, D., 2006. Demand Management in Agri-Food Supply Chains. International Journal of Logistics Management, 17(2), pp. 163-186.

Taylor, D., and Fearne, A., 2009. Demand Management in Fresh Food Value Chains:A Framework for Analysis and Improvement. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 14(5), pp. 379-392.

Voss, C., Tsikriktsi, N., and Frohlich, M., 2002. Case Reserach in Operations Management. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(2), pp. 195-219.

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Barclays PLC Investment Decision Research Paper essay help: essay help

Brief history Barclays bank PLC was founded in 1690 in the City of London, which has remained its headquarters to date (Berclays Bank PLC). From a meager start, the company has gradually but steadily grown to become a key player in the banking industry. Through its parent company and a host of other subsidiary companies, the firm has diversified its services to investment and corporate banking, retail banking, credit cards, and wealth management.

Currently, the bank’s reputation is universally acclaimed, with a customer base of forty eight million customers in fifty countries. In 1902, the bank made a significant stride towards success when it became listed in the London securities exchange. The journey to the top has been long fought, but staying on top against the prevailing market competition is the company’s primary objective.

Current problem The ever-increasing competition in the bank’s traditional markets has let its management exploit other investment opportunities to ensure that the firm remains competitive. The bank’s management is considering investing in the Middle East market. Even though all the top managers support this decision, the option to pursue has proven hard to choose.

Investing in the Middle East market is suggested to take either direct foreign investment or mergers. Making a choice between the two options is not easy. As such, it is prudent to carry out a complete company analysis to see its ability to pursue either of the two options.

The bank’s long-term objectives The population in the Middle East is approximately 246 million people (Kublin). The bank plans to hold at least 10% of this population in 10 years. By doing so, the bank also plans to develop savings culture among its clients. It will also extend loan services to women groups to empower women in the region as a part of cooperate responsibility. The Middle East region has hit media headlines frequently for gender imbalance and male chauvinism. Other objectives the bank intends to pursue includes

Outreach: To reach many disadvantages people, especially women, who may find it hard securing loans through formal financial services.

Impact: To provide add-on services such as investment awareness campaigns and entrepreneurial training.

Inclusion: To provide tailored services which are accessible to the marginalized groups to ensure their financial security

The bank’s Investment options With little resources yet so many strategies to implement, evaluation is essential to ensure that only the most viable strategy is selected. In fact, evaluation of strategy options is the most important and complex part in the strategy process. This process focuses on the future of the firm, not the past. In view of the challenges Barclays is facing and the desire for a better future, the company considers implementing either or all of the following strategic options.

Exploit the Middle East market as a Foreign Direct Investment

Pursue mergers and acquisitions

Before making any decision on the best strategic option, the company’s analysis must be done. This will ensure that the chosen option is one that the company can finance. It will also help in eradicating the possibility of choosing a less viable investment option.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company’s current position/situation Competitors

As an international firm, Barclays Bank faces stiff competition on the international platform. Most of its competitors are firms well endowed with financial might such as HSBC, Standard Chartered, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, and Lloyd Banking group. Remaining profitable in such a market is a formidable challenge that requires excellent strategic measures.

This far, the bank has been able to grow its customer base, thereby increasing its profitability, through offering relatively lower interest rates on loans, and more personalized customer experience. The table below gives a brief financial position of the bank in relation to competitors.

Table 1. Market value of competitors and their assets

Bank Headquarters Market Value As of 24 February 2011 $billion Assets As of 31 December 2008 $billion HSBC Canary Wharf 122.4 1,736 Lloyds Banking Group City of London 44.3 1,195 Royal Bank of Scotland Group Edinburgh 49.9 2,508 Standard Chartered City of London 37.1 299 Barclays Canary Wharf 38.3 2,320 Source London securities report 2008/2011

Resources and competencies

As shown in table 1, the bank’s assets were valued at $2,320 billion in 2008. Despite this being a considerable amount in the banking industry, the bank still trails other banks such as Royal Bank of Scotland Group, which has an asset base of $2,508 billion. With no financial dominance in the market, Barclays’ principal focus is in the quality of services rendered to its customers. This is a survival move aimed at remaining competitive. Other areas of the bank’s competence include

Provision of cheaper loan facilities

Concentrated branch networks easing accessibility

Well trained and groomed employees

Wide ATM network and online banking services

Efficient wealth management programme with a fast growing market base

Expectations of stakeholders

The company’s stakeholders include its creditors, shareholders, employees, government, customers, suppliers, community, and trade unions. These groups have an interest in the business operations, which must be fulfilled.

The government

The government expects the company to comply with tax obligation and to operate within the constitutional confines, which it has adhered to so far. Last year alone, the group remitted $1,928,000 as tax (Berclays Bank PLC).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Barclays PLC Investment Decision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees

Employees expect competitive salaries, job security, honest communication, and safety concerns. Barclays employs approximately 146, 523 people globally. At the high of the economic depression of 2008, when many banks chose to lay off employees to cut down on their expenditure, Barclays instead chose to retain most of its employees but instead stopped expansion programmes. Together with a host of other incentives, Barclays has indeed put the interest of its employees at heart.

Community

Barclays bank has an extensive branch network spread all round the globe. In areas where branches are located, the local communities expect much from the company. The company’s obligation is, however, limited to offering job opportunities, environmental protection, and conservation, allocation of shares, and involvement in company’s decision-making process.

Creditors

Creditors expect renewal of their contracts, and liquidity.

Prospects

Barclays bank has excellent prospects for future success. Over the last few years, the bank’s profits have been on the increase. Even after the housing bubble burst that crippled many financial institutions, Barclays has remained stable financially.

Frankly, it can hardly get worse than that. Just when other financial institutions were still shaking off the effects of the housing bubble bust, Barclays posted a “staggering” $11.6 billion profit in 2009 (Wilson 12). Despite the grave effects of the Debt Evaluation Accounting Rules (DVA) to financial institutions, Barclays still has a lifeline because of it has a strong asset base, which it can dispose to settle some of its debts.

Review of company’s current position In the backdrop of the company’s current success lie many weaknesses and challenges. First, the bank has been issuing loans easily, which has resulted in numerous loses. In 2010 alone, the bank lost $1.2 billion in bogus loans (Wilson 14). The bank has also lost the favor of a few persons who feel it recklessly issued loans resulting in the global depression witnessed in 2008/9.

Worst still, the bank’s exclusive markets in Africa and South America are now prime targets for its competitors who have already cut a sizeable chunk of its UK market. Additionally, many markets have become price sensitive, thereby discouraging new products considered expensive. Lastly, the firm’s overreliance on European markets has proven a hindrance to considerable success.

Despite these challenges, the bank will still prevail. This is because most of these challenges cut across the banking industry and, therefore, spares no firm. Secondly, most of the bank’s strategic plans are already a step in the right direction, and if reinforced further, the results can be marvelous.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Barclays PLC Investment Decision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the bank’s decision to invest in china was a step in the right direction since Chinese market is growing rapidly. Further, the economic depression that shrunk the company’s profits is easing, which means that the firm could do much better.

Analysis of the company’s investment options The viability of exploiting the Middle East market

The Middle East banking and capital markets authority are among the fastest growing in the world. This is backed by favorable banking rules, and growing population comprised primarily of the middle aged. The increased democratic space is another boost for interested investors.

The stringent rules that discouraged Direct Foreign Investment (DFI) in the region are slowly easing. This has opened up the Middle East for direct foreign investment and mergers. Barclays bank management should, therefore, grasp the presented opportunity and invest in the region.

Change in behavior trend among wealth business people in the Middle East is another reason to exploit the market. Many Arab investors, who until recently preferred investing in European countries have now chosen to invest, at least part of their money, in the local investment markets.

This has increased the customer base for the banking industry. As such, the bank will out rightly lose the withdrawn funds meant for local investment by continuing to have a strong presence in the European markets only. Therefore, by investing in the Middle East, the bank will still benefit from funds invested locally hence growing its capital and customer base.

In 2008 after the great economic depression that sunk many businesses and crippled many more, the UK government introduced an economic stimulus programme to bail out affected businesses. Being one of the affected businesses, Barclays was expected to receive the funding, but failed to accept the offer.

Instead, the company opted to seek its funding from the Middle East to offset its $ 6.5 billion debt (Davidson 32). This move sparked wide outcry from competitors. Nevertheless, it was a revelation for other businesses and investors. It showed that it was time to look up to the east not only for funding, but also for investment. Barclays has ties and links in the region and shall encounter few obstacles in its operations there.

Lastly, the projected growth of the Middle East is another compelling reason for investing in the region. The economies of many Middle East countries are predicted to grow considerably. A geographic segmentation analysis on Jordan and Saudi Arabia showed the countries’ robust growth in the next few years. Increased economic growth brings many marvelous things to businesses such as social amenities, improved security, and extra capital for citizens to spend. These are attractive to any business establishment.

The key challenges that the organization may face by investing in the Middle East market

Barclays faces a stiff competition in the European markets that finding alternative market is welcome news. However, this fantastic opportunity comes with a host of challenges.

Securing sufficient capital for investment

Many companies are still dusting themselves after the enormous economic depression of 2008/9, and Barclays is no exception. The firm is yet to recover fully from the effects of that devastating crisis. The crisis led the bank’s management to take drastic measures such as stopping of expansionist programmes and borrowing of colossal sums of money. The company is still repaying the borrowed funds, which has narrowed its finances.

Therefore, venturing in a new market will be a challenging task. As a bank, venturing in the Middle East will require capital for building banking halls, hiring employees, and installing security details. These are costs not easily met by any investor especially when many branches are to be built.

Competition

The Middle East market has a considerable number of potential customers, but there are some banks already operating in those markets. This may prove quite a challenge. Small banks are known for developing a closer relationship with their clients than established ones.

Leahy claims, “The increasing sophisticated number of products available means that clients sometimes contact banks they know well for impartial advice, regardless of whether the bank is offering the product” (31). This is an indication that breaking customer loyalty may prove hard.

Trade laws and policies

The legal requirements of doing business in a country are the regulations set by the country’s government for investors to abide by to avoid arrest or business fines arising from noncompliance. Breaking some of these laws may even lead to complete closure of business. Countries such as Taiwan have strict rules and trade regulations, which discourage foreign direct investment.

Venturing in such markets may require other alternative methods, which could be limited. Worst still some countries have trade laws in place that are international accepted as just, but their application is selective. Such countries are strict on foreign companies operating with their borders, but slow on locally owned businesses.

Culture

Culture is extremely valuable to business because it influences individuals buying behavior, affects demand for specific products, and brand image. Every business must be able to understand the cultural orientation of its customers to maximize on its sales. As the company scramble for the Middle East market share, its management must realize the need to understand and embrace the culture of the Middle East people to win their trust and make sales.

Political stability

The prospects of doing business in Middle East may be hugely attractive, but investing in the region could be disastrous due to political uncertainties. Political environment has an enormous impact on distribution, sales, and promotion of a company’s products. Therefore, every company that desires to invest in a foreign country must keenly monitor the political climate of the country and consider the possible effects of change in government.

This is because business policies and attitude towards foreign investors change with a change in government. These changes can be either in favor of foreign investment, thereby offering attractive opportunities, or against it thereby introducing stringent measures such as import quotas and increased taxes. Therefore, investing countries such as Syria could be great risk taking.

Possible ways of countering the challenges

Financial constraint

The company should issue more shares to raise the required funds to solve this problem. Chances are high that if shares are floated, public participation will be marvelous considering that the company’s dividend per share was six in 2011 (Berclays Bank PLC).

Competition

There is no one certain method of beating the competition. However, with the right approach such as providing free ATM withdrawals, the bank may make penetrations and win customers.

Culture

The business in the Middle East is mostly relationship driven. Business in the Middle East demands developing a good relationship with the people of the region understanding their culture. It is hard to make a sale by simply presenting a product to potential buyers without developing the relationship first.

This is contrary to western cultures where businesspersons make sales first and then develop relationship later. Understanding of culture and its influence on business operations require analysis of cultural elements such as ethnic language groups, social structure, religion, education, economic philosophy, and political philosophy.

Pursuing mergers and acquisitions

The business environment is dynamic. Mergers and acquisitions are usual occurrences in the life of any growing business. The decision on acquisition or merger is often undertaken to pool resources together in order to improve the quality of service delivery and products. Mergers and acquisitions are distinct.

When a company purchases another company, in cash or shares, it is an acquisition. The acquired company is viewed as a potential source of benefits such as new customers, technology, or patent. Mergers on the other hand, involve joining two or more companies into a larger one. However, the assumptions and expectations of forming a merger are the same as those of acquisitions.

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Policy Setting in Job Training Programs Analytical Essay online essay help

Introduction Employment and Job training program is a valuable tool for ensuring organizations, and even nations at large, gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. From the dimension of the workers, employment and the on-job training programs are beneficial in the sense that, they result to investment in workers’ abilities and careers, often improving them in the course of execution of such programs. For fresh graduates, employment and job training programs provide them with an amicable opportunity to both learn and work.

For the purposes of realization of these benefits, it is critical that organizations, in both public and private sectors, develop effective policies that guide proper and smooth running of employment and job training programs. The question is, thus, how should it be done? Assuming the position of an external policy analyst, the paper seeks to answer this interrogative.

Akin to development of employment and on job training programs policies, within organizations, is the need to distinguish between two technical terms learning and training. Friedlander and Robbins argue, “Training’ suggests putting stuff into people, when in essence we should be developing people from the inside out, so they achieve their own individual potential – what they love and enjoy, what they are most capable of, and strong at doing, rather than what we try to make them be” (923).

Based on this argument, it is perhaps plausible to argue also that training is the province of organization’s concerns while learning is the concern of people working for the organization on an individual basis. This infers that learning is chiefly an outcome of training, which can be achieved or fail to be achieved, depending on the trainee’s levels of interest and intellectual abilities.

Consequently, the paper proposes that employment and job training policies need to be formulated and implemented, in such a way that, such peculiar differences, amongst the target persons, are well addressed in the attempt to achieve enormous success of employment and job training programs.

While formulating employment and job training policies, it is critical that substantive flexibility is provided. The paper argues that flexibility in policies development and enactment is relevant in the sense of making sure that mechanisms of incorporating dynamic changes, in terms of technological innovation in the programs, are provided.

This implies that, problems should be redefined whenever an attempt is made to derive a new approach in deploying job training programs, in seeking to improve the productivity of the organizational workforce. However, any employment and job training program policy needs to be structured such that, it always defines the problem at hand, considers philosophical and cultural perspectives of the organization (guiding principles, values, ethos, and visions among others), and people (their abilities and financial limitations).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, it should define legal contexts (in terms of discrimination, safety and health); methods of career development, recruitment, succession and selection; financial planning; and social responsibility perspectives (diversity, environment, ethics, sustainability and social corporate responsibility among others).

Training program timing, scale and geographical factors, methods of measuring and evaluating policy achievements, and system tools, among others also need factoring in the policy formulation, implementation and evaluation phases.

With this in mind, this paper focuses on policy development in the area of employment and job training programs. The paper begins by considering problem definition, followed by policy goal setting, then policy tools, and finally, consideration of probability of the proposed policy ability to get into an agenda.

Problem definition Upon passing of the 1961 area redevelopment act in the U.S., policymakers embanked on reshaping and also endeavoring to upgrade skills coupled with employment prospects of people who garnered low income via employment and job training programs that were highly publicized. Many of these programs kicked off their concerns, by availing vocational training opportunities to people, who were displaced and dislocated before shifting in covering people who lived in poverty.

Many of the persons, regarded as weak in the vocational training programs, were largely economically disadvantaged in the sense that, they had a long history that was ideally poor. As Friedlander and Robbins note, “during the 1960s the menu of services provided to economically disadvantaged people expanded, but since that time their variety and content have not changed very much” (927). However, the goals and orientations of employment and job training programs in the U.S. policies can be argued as having shifted incredibly.

For example, within the last four decades, training programs policymakers have indeed changed their emphasis with regard to low costs as opposed to services that are high cost in nature with regard to the extent in which they serve the interests of the unemployed people who often are economically disadvantaged. Much change has also been realized, in the context of such programs capacity, to serve youths in comparison to adults, particularly dropouts of high schools.

The main problem is that such programs fail to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths. This problem is widely supported by the results of non-experimental evaluations coupled with alternative social experiment program models with the exception of findings of Job Corps program. Friedlander and Robbins reckon, “Some evaluations, including one experimental evaluation, report that Job Corp programs services modestly increase participants’ employment rates and earnings” (933).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The services provided by Job Corps are, however, expensive but comprehensive in nature. The ability of the Job Corps’ employment training program to produce positive results is indeed, however, impacted by the fact that cost benefits analysis show that earnings increase derived from Job Corps training fails to justify the costs incurred in conducting the trainings. Ideally then on margin, chances are that the society may be better off in case the employment training resources could have been channeled to adults other than youths.

Statistically, expenditures on employment training program in the U.S. amount to 0.1 to 0.2 of the GDP depending on the nature of the program being implemented (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 43). Almost all other OECD member countries spend much more than the U.S. on employment training program as a share of their GDP (Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith 47).

By considering the magnitude of poverty in comparison to wages inequalities among economically disadvantaged people- who are often targeted by employment and job training programs, it becomes challenging and often sheds light on why training program produces little impact on wages structure and or output. Employment and training programs, with regard to the policies establishing them, they ought not to affect the well-being of participants, on average.

Apparently, based on evaluations, existing programs fails to integrate participants in the realm of the economic mainstream. Indeed even though job training programs may be primarily argued as effective in conducting training, from the workers dimension depending on the differences existing between various people especially their learning abilities, they may fail to ensure that workers indeed learn as intended.

Consequently, amid making people disadvantaged economically less poor, the programs may fail to reduce poverty levels substantially, yet this aim is their noble role. Surprisingly enough, majorities of the programs are executed under lower costs per participant, than the annual cost of normal schooling.

Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith exemplify this point by asserting, “In 1997, programs operated under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) spent on average about $3,000 per participant” (82). Arguably then, anticipating employment and training program to hike productivity output per participant to a sufficient level so that yearly earning escalate, by for instances thousands of dollars, infers that social investments need to have internal return rates that are extraordinary.

In the modern-day, technologies deployed in organizations incredibly change virtually almost overnight. It is thus almost impossible to anticipate that, skills transferred to the population, through formal schooling, would do much such dynamic. Evidently, a mechanism of ensuring that workers remain updated with the emerging innovative technologies and methods of production, especially the ones that reduce production costs, is indispensable.

Essentially, such knowledge is more likely to be transferred to people through employment and training programs that to date forms a concern of every organization that seeks to remain competitive. Reforms of employment and training policies are thus not an option, but a must for embracement by organizations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Setting in Job Training Programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This aspect is perhaps largely significant by considering that, the question of effectiveness of employment and training program are likely to attract large public interest, especially by noting that, creativity and innovation are the key drivers of modern economies. Arguably, continuous training is the core of workers productivity output improvement. One of the most plausible ways of ensuring that employees continuously learn is the deployment of vocational training in every sector of production-something many nations have ardently embraced.

However, change of policies governing vocational training is essential to make the current vocational training program more effective. To resolve the problem of failure, of employment and training programs to produce substantive earning and or employment gains among the youths, calls for change of the vocational training programs from being voluntary to mandatory.

However, these trainings consume money and hence, the government essentially needs to either fund them on differed payment mode or treat then as part of essential services it provides to the citizens free of charge. Where charging is necessary, then, temporary assistance to needy families needs being considered.

Policy goal setting The goal of developing vocational training policy by declaring that, it is mandatory for every student to attend mandatory vocational education and training program, in the due course of his or her education, is pegged on the idea of improving chances of students being considered for jobs upon clearing their formal education.

Students, who have attended technical and vocational training programs, have experience on their line of specialization and hence are better placed to handle responsibilities delegated to them with minimal on the job training. Additionally, the goal of making such a policy is based on the belief that by placing students on mandatory vocational training program, they would get a lid of stereotyping associated with their careers.

This has the consequences of making them develop impression that is realistic in relation to their careers of choice. Moreover, students would get acquaintance with their specialties’ “culture of industry and commerce, to develop the students understanding of the role and functions of different employees within an organization and to provide the discipline of employment” (Conger 30).

Making technical and vocational training mandatory is necessary, especially by considering that, experience has shown that technical and vocational training institutions have an immense opportunity of having their students placed, as compared to other students who do not attend such programs. In this essence, the goal of making technical and vocational training mandatory is to ensure that students become demand-driven, dynamic, competitive, at both national and international levels, and quality conscious.

Ensuring that students develop abilities to respond to work environmental dynamics would apparently mitigate the challenges previously encountered in training programs over the first two decades of the last four decades in which upon conducting on the job training, minimal results were obtained in terms of increased workers productivity outputs in comparison to the costs incurred during the training forums.

Even though setting the goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory may sound as having the capacity of providing students with mechanisms of being recruited for jobs quick enough upon completion of the formal studies, several nations experience a number of drawback towards institutionalization of technical and vocational training programs. For instance, in India, technical and vocational training has been widely acclaimed as having the ability to improve the output of new job entrants.

However, technical and the vocational training program policies have experienced immense challenges, because in India, there exists low priorities amongst the citizens for vocational training, insufficient industries for linkages, inadequate trainers and teachers, and non-existence of vertical mobility.

Moreover, India boasts inflexible curriculum, non-agreement of various agencies, and absence of overall social appreciation of the roles of vocational education, among others. Application of the policy declaring that technical education and vocational training are mandatory needs also to embrace certain aspects in its formulation if at all the goals of vocational education and training are to be meet precisely.

These aspects include; expansion and upgrading of vocational training and education, expansion and upgrading of technical and higher education, promotion of research in institutions of education and also redesigning patterns of education at school levels to ensure that skills development is facilitated.

Government being the primary organ charged with ensuring the successful implementation of policies applicable at national fronts, on its part needs to ensure that vocational training and education program polices are fully implemented by declaring its roles precisely. Within the broader goals of making technical and vocational training mandatory, a government needs to strengthen, reinforce, and reform vocational training and education.

It also needs to enact extra policies that ensure the capacity of technical and vocational training is expanded, by incorporation of the private sector coupled with promotion of academia and industry interaction, in the endeavor to ensure that, the gaps that may exist between skilled labor demand and supply is magnificently narrowed.

Policy tools Policy tools are essentially engineered to serve as a variety of various evaluation approaches often applicable in the broadest probable application. The main objective of putting in place tools for policy evaluations is to derive the fundamental foundation of basing possible reforms on the proposed policy. In education policies formulation and implementation, there exist several reasons as to why policy tools need being set in place.

One of the reasons is “to assess the nature and magnitude of the opportunities and constraints that face the systems that provide education and training” (Fetterman 18). Secondly, policy tools enable both private sector and the government to establish priorities in the allocation of resources for implementation of resource-constrained policies that are of national interest.

This reason is enormously crucial while determining the capacity of likelihood of success of a policy seeking to make technical and vocational training mandatory and part of educational curriculum in the U.S. This move is particularly significant, since as argued before, for success of such a policy there needs to be heavy channeling of resources to according temporary assistance to needy families.

Upon identification of the constraints, mechanisms of dealing with the constraints are enacted, and hence providing the basis for weighing possible options. Tools and instruments essential for implementation of the policy, stated herein as, “every person shall undergo mandatory technical vocational and training program as part of her or his qualification requirement”, must have cost elements ingrained in them.

This means that justification of costs for running such a policy in relation to the anticipated economic gain is relevant. Therefore, in this context, policy tools are indeed not only mechanism of reflecting outcomes of a given policy, but also a way of providing informed guidance in an attempt of categorization of a policy as relevance or irrelevant both in public and private domains.

Bearing in mind the cumbersome process of making policies in the U.S., providing the platforms of classification of the policy this way, may provide a more competitive edge for resulting in the consideration of the proposed policy in the agenda. Apparently, if the policy is not included in the agenda, it cannot proceed to the next phases before it is approved. In attempting to push for the implementation of the policy, desirability and affordability are somewhat critical elements for consideration.

The argument for desirability is that, technical and vocational training follows systematic procedures, just like any other form of education, and thus it could have myriads of benefits and desirable effects. Reforms in polices are intended to ensure improvement of outcomes from the contexts of quality and quantity of outcomes.

Data providing evidence of investments, in technical and vocational training capacity to result in enhanced economic growth and increment, in employment rates could, in this end, support the desirability of making technical and vocational training mandatory. However, as previously argued, this endeavor would call for substantive government funding.

Ideally then, pegged on the need to contemplate on the aspects of opportunity cost incurred if the policy is negated from inclusion in the agenda often would provide a coercive force to the policymakers who are mindful to the welfare of the society especially while choosing between beneficial and most beneficial policies for inclusion in the agenda.

On the other hand, consideration of costs as a critical tool for ensuring successful implementation calls for taking into account valid dimensions of costs attributed to making technical and vocational training mandatory. These costs are either direct costs, for example, payments of salaries of technical and vocational trainers and teachers, and the costs of financing temporary assistance to needy families’ kitty or indirect costs.

Indirect costs would entail aspects, such as costs for failing to provide financial incentives to needy families and or reduction in total payments payable at technical and vocational training institutions, as reflected in the in economic indicators, such as levels of unemployment and living standards of people.

More importantly, analysis of costs needs to go beyond financial costs and involve political and social capital, among others. Consideration of costs as a tool for promoting the relevance of the policy, arguably entails putting policies makers in conditions of substantive evaluations and considerations of various possible policies for inclusion in the agenda which if not addressed would translate into increased indirect cost in future. This means then that the policy tool relies heavily on information availability and persuasions.

Assessment of likelihood of incorporation of the policy in the agenda Getting an issue into a plan is one of the essential steps in policy development to address certain perceived social problems. This implies that unless an issue appears on an agenda, addressing it in a policy becomes a nightmare (Birkland 59). In fact, a lot of research has been done, by scholars, to determine the processes of getting issues into an agenda, coupled with issues that make an agenda and when such issues deserve to form part of an agenda.

Despite the fact that numerous conditions that impair people’s abilities to contextualize issues relating to justice and fairness exist, evidently, not every condition is a problem requiring government interventions through policies. Unemployment is indeed a social challenge not only in the U.S. but also across the globe. Particularly, during recession, organizations prefer retaining workers who are highly productive to have high levels of output, while ensuring that cost of production is maintained as low as possible.

With the conceptualization of this economic argument, and with justification of the fact that unemployment constitutes a social problem and that vocational training and education may increase chances of job selection coupled with hiking economic growth, getting the policy into an agenda is widely possible.

However, challenges may be encountered, especially considering the cumbersomeness of policymaking process of the U.S. This aspect is perhaps significant by considering that, in some situation, some issues are considered as issues, while others are treated as non-issues, and hence hardly make it to the agenda list.

Some issues are more likely to get into the agenda than others are. Among the reasons, why some issues do not make it to the agenda level includes problem definition, crowding an issue with other issues; the problem may be an illegitimate concern of the state, non-decision making and issues irrelevancy.

The seriousness of issues is expressed in their definition. Poorly defined problems would consequently end up neglected in the agendas. However, even though the problem may have been defied properly, its concerns may be irreverent to the state. However, it is anticipated that in the attempt to make vocational education and training mandatory in the U.S., the link between it and increased productivity indeed would make the policy being considered as an issue.

Perhaps, by considering the concept of non-decision-making issues raised by a Bachrach and Baratz, it is apparent why some issues end up as being agendas while others do not. As Bachrach and Baratz reckon, “non-decision making in a power context is based on the presumption that political consensus is commonly shaped by status quo defenders, exercising their power resources and operated to prevent challenges to their values and interests” (901).

A social condition, which attracts keen interests from the wider society, constitute a social problem, which needs solution often arrived at, after the issue of concern is incorporated in a public agenda. However, some issues that attract immense public interest are non-issues, perhaps because the concerned population may lack the ability to site solution as they may lack the power to do so (Birkland 87).

Even if solutions are available, they may largely violate the interests and the status quo of those influential figures that would set the mechanisms of enabling the incorporation of the issue into an agenda. This implies that, though a social condition may be an agenda issue, the larger population may be forced to embrace it as part of their lives since they are incapacitated to push for likely solutions to it.

A fear is also expressed that, the concerns of vocational training and fostering placement of fresh graduates may be treated as non-issues, and thus produce an impediment for the policy being incorporated in the agenda. Several reasons would account for this fear.

In the debate of whether it is relevant making vocational education and training mandatory or not, it is anticipated it would derive many disagreements among policymakers especially considering the hefty costs that go into it in terms of provision of temporary assistance to the needy families to meet its costs, and this scenario breeds fear.

However, taking a condition entailing “actual disagreements in preferences among two or more groups” (Bachrach and Baratz 904) as comprising an issue is confusing. The question is, even if disagreements exist, do they attract the attention of the wider society.

If so, does the wider society have the power to solicit suggested solution? In addition, if so, is the power limited to the extent that it does not violate the status quo of those in power? Any precondition for compliance with the two queries may make an issue end up being a non-issue and in the context of making vocational training and education mandatory, hinder it from getting into the agenda.

Conclusion In the paper, it has been argued that employment and job training programs are a valuable tool for ensuring organizations and even nations at large gain in terms of increased workers’ productivity. Research proves that employment and job-training program raises the probabilities of job recruitments among people.

Investment in technical and vocational training is arguably one of the ways of enhancing employment and job training programs in the U.S. From this assertion; the paper proposes that in the U.S., a policy that makes technical and vocational training mandatory needs to be enacted. However, the success, of putting such a policy into an agenda, is challenging, considering the cumbersomeness of the policymaking process in the U.S. Hence, substantive tools need to be put in place, for ensuring that the proposed policy gets into an agenda.

Apart from clear and concise problem definition in a manner that it amounts to a social problem and hence worth public attention, consideration of elements such as cost and benefit of making technical and vocational training mandatory may indeed play a crucial role in facilitating articulation of the policy into the agenda. For these reasons, the paper has paid incredible attention in problem definition, goal setting, and the examination of policy tools by assuming the position of an external policy analyst.

Works Cited Bachrach, Peter, and Morton Baratz. “Power And Its Two Faces Revisited: Reply To Geoffrey Debman.” American Political Science Review 69.3 (1975): 892-904. Print.

Birkland, Thomas. After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, And Focusing Events. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008. Print.

Conger, Stuart. Policies Guidelines for Educational and Vocational Training. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. Print.

Fetterman, Martins. Foundations of Empowerment Evaluation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2000. Print.

Friedlander, Douglas, and Paul Robbins. Evaluating Program Evaluations: New Evidence on Commonly Used Non-Experimental Methods. American Economic Review 85.4 (1995): 923–937. Print.

Heckman, Johnston, Duncan Lalonde, and James Smith. The Economics and Econometrics of Active Labor Market. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1999. Print.

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Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries Proposal college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction The Ministry of Islamic Affairs in Kuwait accurately notes that the reading culture has declined in Kuwait. In past centuries, Middle Easterners dominated the world owing to their knowledge –seeking culture. However, this is no longer true; few Kuwaitis have cultivated a reading culture, let alone young people. Several issues could have led to this situation, and one of them is the underuse of public libraries. This paper will concentrate on the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait.

Background and statement of the problem Public libraries play an important role in furnishing a nation with knowledge and information. If citizens do not use these invaluable resources, then the consequences will be felt across all industries. Not only will such a culture impede development, but it can also affect the social and political climate in the country. Citizens from countries with poor reading cultures tend to engage in unconstructive and immature discussions; they are less likely to vote wisely and may even start civil conflicts.

It is definitely in their best interest to expand their knowledge base by using public libraries. Young people should be given particular attention because they will eventually become leaders or persons of authority. Besides, it is easier to influence or teach young people to love reading than it is to do the same for an older generation. Once the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries are found, then stakeholders can address those concerns and move towards the creation of a reading culture.

In Kuwait, various reports indicate that the general public has a poor reading culture. Furthermore, few of them use public libraries in order to expand their knowledge base. The situation is particularly alarming because of censorship laws that exist in the country. The Kuwait Times reports that local bookstores and other public forums provide Kuwaitis with minimal options. The kinds of books found are narrow in focus and they rarely offer new perspectives on life (Al-Qatari, 2010).

This could be part of the reason why young people are not flocking to public libraries. Alternatively, different categories of readers require different types of genres. For instance, very young readers may prefer comic books or well-illustrated narratives.

On the other hand, college or university attendants may look for mentally-stimulating material, yet these may be hard to find in public libraries. Sometimes, logistical issues may impede the youth from using these facilities. They may have difficulties in accessing the libraries, or may find minimal assistance when they get inside them.

In other instances, young people may avoid public libraries owing to external factors that have little to do with them. The mass media has a large role to play in this regard. Few outlets nurture the country’s reading culture by promoting and interviewing authors. Additionally, state-sponsored book fairs are few and far-between. Alternatively, the education level in several learning institutions could also contribute to this fact.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some students may prefer to use their school libraries for research. On the other hand, others may not have been taught about the importance of using these facilities or may lack knowledge about their existence.

Some may even suffer from reading deficiencies, so it may prevent them from using the libraries. Since all these issues exist in Kuwait, it is imperative to determine which ones directly affect the use of public libraries so as to provide a solution to the problem. Once an explanation of a problem has been found, then it is quite easy to solve it.

Research questions and objectives The main research question will be “Why are young people reluctant about using public libraries in Kuwait?”. This research question can be paraphrased as a research objective, that is, “To assess the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait”. The main research objective will be divided into the following specific objectives:

To asses whether proximity of public libraries causes reluctance to use the facilities among Kuwaiti youth.

To investigate the relationship between limited book collections in Kuwaiti public libraries and students’ reluctance to use them

To assess whether ignorance about existence of public libraries causes young people’s reluctance to use them

To determine if perceived self-incompetence about the use of public libraries in Kuwait prevents young people from going there.

To examine whether the use of the internet as a source of information makes students unwilling to use public libraries.

To determine the extent to which young people substitute public libraries with university or school libraries.

To assess whether poor reading abilities lead to young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait.

To analyze the relationship between poor public library assistance/ services and reluctance to use public libraries among young people in Kuwait.

Study design This will be a correlational study. It will seek to determine the degree of correlation between a dependent variable and an independent one. The dependent variable in all the specific research objectives is reluctance to use public libraries among young people in Kuwait.

The independent variables in the specific research questions are: proximity of public libraries, low diversity of book collections, ignorance about existence of public libraries, perceived self-incompetence about the use of public libraries, preference for school libraries or university libraries, preference for the internet and poor library assistance or services. The aim will be to establish whether there is a relationship between these parameters.

No manipulation of the variables will be done, as in an experiment. Only information will be obtained from participants about the existence of these relationships. After the correlations are established, then only the independent variables that show a positive relationship with the dependent variable (reluctance to use Kuwaiti public libraries by young people) will be considered.

These independent variables will be identified as the main reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait. In other words, the paper will be a quantitative research. Responses will be quantified and analyzed in order to determine the strength of the relationship.

We will write a custom Proposal on Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Most studies on reluctance of young people to use public libraries have been carried out in western countries. Few of them look at this problem in Middle Eastern nations, let alone Kuwait. Therefore, this paper will attempt to bridge that gap by looking at the contextual and geographical issues that may be causing this low use of public libraries among young people.

Since most of the papers on this topic have been carried out in western states, then most of them make a series of assumptions about the social and political context of the situation. For instance, few of them have cases of book-censorship; therefore, diversity of book genres is never a challenge in their public libraries. Alternatively, their public libraries may be better-stocked than their school libraries so few of them may prefer the latter over the former. This is the reason why it is necessary to look at the topic in the local context of Kuwait.

When one analyses the researches that have been carried in this area, most of them focus on one aspect of library use such as information seeking. A paper written by Lee et al. (2004) wanted to find out why students are reluctant to ask questions in libraries, and it found that they are afraid of exposing their inadequacies.

Another one carried out by Dee and Stanley (2005) wanted to assess the patterns of library use among nursing students. It was found that most of them preferred print resources and common internet websites due to their lack of database-related computer skills. These two studies are useful in understanding patterns of library use but one of them is overly inclined towards electronic sources (Dee and Stanley, 2005).

The other one already assumes that students use public libraries and only concerns itself with patterns of use inside the public libraries (Lee et al., 2004). This research will bridge the gap by analyzing why young people do not go to public libraries in the first place. One particular research that was done in Kuwait concerning public library use only focused on the use information technology in those libraries and did not address why users may not visit them in the first place (Al-Qallaf and Al-Azmi 2002).

This research, however, provides information about some of the possible reasons behind reluctance such as poor services in the libraries. The lack of IT in public libraries in Kuwait indicates that the services are still wanting in Kuwait. A report made by Al-Qatari (2010) indicated that censorship was one of the reasons why people had a poor reading culture in Kuwait. The source provides a social explanation for the poor use of public services, but this research will attempt to look for other personal reasons behind this pattern of use.

Other papers have focused on how to attract reluctant readers in general. Some of them include Crawford (2004), Krashen (2005) and Haugaard (1973). These researches suggest the use of comic books as possible solutions to the problem of having a poor reading culture. The above papers can be inferred to this research by using their suggestions. One can deduce that poor book choice or the limited collections in public libraries is the problem being addressed in the latter studies.

That reason will be utilized as an independent variable in the proceeding research. Other analyses have found that poverty is an important determinant of book accessibility and hence reading (Feitelson and Goldstein, 1986 and Duke 2000). One can deduce from these analyses that ill-equipped libraries or accessibility of public libraries is another determinant of underuse in public libraries. The above findings will guide the research project under discussion.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Kuwaiti Youth are Reluctant About Using Public Libraries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Study population and sampling. The study population will consist of young people in Kuwait between the ages of 18 and 30. These young people will be located in shopping malls, restaurants and eateries, cyber cafes and other entertainment centers. The other source will be universities from all over the country. Since this is a relatively large number, then it will be necessary to narrow down the number of participants through the use of sampling techniques.

It will be quite difficult to know the total number of young people that visit eateries, restaurants and other entertainment centers. Therefore, participants will be selected using haphazard sampling. No statistical method will be used, so only the most convenient people will be used. Here, willing subjects will be asked to get involved in the research, and the research will be administered. 30 participants people will be randomly collected from this segment of the population.

However, young people from universities will be selected through stratified sampling (Horn, 2009). In this process, the number of persons between the ages of 18 and 30 will be obtained from each of the universities, then their names will be arranged in alphabetical order. The total population size in each university will be divided by the desired sample size: In this case it will be 30. Thereafter, the ratio will represent the nth element; this may be 100 or 40. If n is 100, then every 100th person will be contacted for the research.

Data collection This research will use structured questionnaires. The method was selected because it will ensure uniform responses as no subjective selection of responses will be necessary (Babbie, 2005).

The questionnaires will be personally administered so as to increase response rates and also to clarify possible misunderstandings about the questions. The questions used in the research will be complemented using the Likert scale. Each question will possess five items: Agree, Disagree, Strongly agree, strongly disagree and neutral (do not agree or disagree).

Data analysis All the nine specific objectives will have corresponding questions in the questionnaire form. The responses will be analyzed through their central tendencies. In other words, their modes will be found through percentiles. They will be represented on bar charts so as to nullify or confirm the hypotheses inherent in all the research objectives.

Ethical considerations The use of Likert scales always creates biases in central tendencies, where subjects refrain from extreme responses. Alternatively, others may give responses that make them appear more rational. In order to avoid these challenges in questionnaire responses, it will be necessary to combine both negative and positive statements in the form (Burns and Burns, 2008).

Issues about getting equal representation from the group in the social settings will be a problem. To deal with inefficiency, all the thirty subjects will be selected from 30 different locations and all of them will come from different towns in Kuwait that have public libraries.

Not all the subjects will understand the questions in the same way, they may act like they understand and select an answer when they do not fully grasp what the questions mean. To reduce this problem, respondents will be approached when alone so as to minimize the tendency to impress other individuals. Besides that, the researcher will observe their body language so as to assess whether they understand things.

Conclusion This research aims at determining the reasons behind young people’s reluctance to use public libraries in Kuwait. It will solve the problem of having a poor reading culture by offering. For data collection, personally administered structured questionnaires will be used so as to ensure uniformity, higher response rates and question clarification for participants.

References Al-Qatari, H. (2010). Of sense and censorship. Kuwait Times. Web.

Al-Qallaf, C. and Al-Azmi, H. (2002). Information technology in Public Libraries in Kuwait. The International Information and Library Review 34(4), 289-308.

Babbie, E. (2005). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Burns, A.

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Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Former Conflict Style

Current Conflict Style

Resolution

References

Conflict is a major subject in the world and its effects are very diverse in the society causing crisis and other effects. Conflict can be viewed as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns (About Conflict, 2012). In this definition, the key terms are parties, perceive and threat. In any conflict, there must be people or entities involved who have interest in a particular thing like political power, mineral resources and other socio economic activities.

This conflict is said to be from a perceived threat which may be a real threat or something that is imagined but because of lack of understanding of the real situation. Threat in this way means a feeling that what they think is theirs may be taken away or they feel that once certain people get something, they will treat them unfairly.

In the lifetime of a human being, there are situations that lead one to disagreements and struggle in getting something they need in their lives or at the work place. Because of the demands of life and the desire for self actualization, people tend to avoid impediments. If a person or anything is perceived to be an impediment to the journey of self actualization, then a conflict arises. This not only experienced by human beings but also in the animal planet, it’s only that they may not be having a conflict resolution mechanism but the jungle rule.

Another situation is when wild animals and human beings are living in bordering pieces of land as in the boundary between a national park and the general public land. In a number of cases of the world, animals are not checked and controlled by the national park management, which implies that animals may destroy or even kill human beings around that area. This is also a conflict.

However, in this paper, the discussion on conflict is based on the social world and how it is handled. That is why concentration is on conflict resolution styles. Conflict styles are patterned responses that people use in conflict. They can be viewed as having two dimensions which are assertiveness and cooperativeness (Picard, 2002).

In this manner, one can be able to assess the extent to which people attempt to satisfy other people’s needs to avoid or resolve their conflicts. These styles are pegged on personal satisfaction while making a decision of whether one has wronged the other.

Former Conflict Style There are various conflict styles that a person can adapt. In these styles, there is one that comes naturally in a human being and it can be referred to as the default conflict style. About conflict website (2012) lists four styles of conflicts namely “avoidance, collaborating, competitive, comprising and accommodating. In a number of cases it and be necessary to apply all of them in different situations.” For the case of this paper, avoidance and collaboration are discussed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Runde (2007) asserts that avoiding involves a low level of interest in meeting the needs of either person. An example of this type of conflict situation is when a husband asks his wife to cook for him and the wife assumes that she has not heard. The husband repeats the same question while the wife tells him that the food is in the kitchen. The husband decides to go and cook for himself and avoids confronting the real issue.

He does not ask himself why the wife does not want to cook for him. Instead, he avoids her and continues with life normally. The problem might have been solved at that point when the conflict started and could be due to some underlying issues.

However, this conflict style may look okay because everybody is for himself hence, nobody disturbs the other but it is what one may call a time bomb. The problem remains unresolved until it becomes too big to handle. A time comes when the bomb explodes and everything is exposed. It could be a better idea to confront the issue in a different way so that the problem is solved.

The reason for adopting this type of conflict style be based on a family upbringing whereby, the parents are always in conflict and the children have nothing to do about it. Therefore, the best way is to avoid the scene where mum and dad are quarrelling and move to your room.

You will definitely be back when they finish. This way, you will learn to avoid the situation unknowingly and this may be part of you. In a leadership role, this conflict style does not work well because at the end of the day, the problem has to be solved. Applying this style is very dangerous like a detonative device.

A personal experience is illustrated below. A teacher was teaching in a class of forty five students. Every time at the middle of the lesson, a student clicked and the teacher ignored because he didn’t want to get involved in finding out why somebody could click in the middle of a lesson. This went on for quite some time coupled with murmuring. The teacher still ignored his students.

This act finally degenerated to a more embarrassing and disgusting event to the teacher because the students walked out of the class while he was teaching. Later on, he realized that he was losing most of the students while he was teaching or rather delivering his content. It would have been wise for him to try to find out why the students were clicking in class. Maybe, he should have created rapport with the students so that he can get feedback so as to avoid such a situation.

We will write a custom Essay on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current Conflict Style Collaboration is a conflict style which if well used, will enable both parties to be satisfied. Lussier (2011) asserts that the key to collaborative style is agreeing that the solution picked is the best possible one. Thus, a win situation is achieved. Harmony is achieved when this approach is used, thus encouraging people to work together. In most cases, work place communication does not tickle down properly to the work force that is the lead.

Because of this conflict, usually arise from the workers and the management. The worker may decide to use avoidance conflict style and thus, affecting their performance. The management has to give notice that it needs to communicate well and in time to the employees so as to avoid a bad situation.

Through delegation of duties to the junior staff, one can be able to identify the problems that may be in the lower cadres of the work force. For best performance of the company, an agreement has to be reached by both the management and junior workers (Lussier, 2011).

In this case, the worker will be able to know what they are limited to and what their rights and responsibilities to the company. If a manager will be in a position to work with the workers and see him/herself as the team leader and not the boss then collaborative style may not work well. And this is the style to adopt in leadership.

Resolution The above conflict styles tend to explain how to handle situations before they degenerate to a crisis. If a conflict is persistent, then it needs to be resolved. And there are various ways of resolving conflicts. Depending on when and where the conflict is, the use of tools like mediation and assertion may help.

Think of a situation whereby, employees have gone on strike, the employee will first try to use assertion to make the employees go back to work. However, employees have a right to withdraw their services for better work conditions. When the strike persists, mediation technique may be used to resolve the conflict. Trade unions and the labour ministry may try to mediate between the workers and the employers.

Finally, there may be a situation whereby, the conflict cannot be resolved after applying different mechanisms of resolution. Zastrow et al. (2010) explains that when the strategies fail then, one can probably conclude that the parties involved in the conflict are not willing to resolve it.

References About Conflict. (2012) Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social World Conflicts and Its Resolution Styles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lussier, R., (2011). “Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill Development”. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Picard, C., (2002). “Mediating Interpersonal and Small Group Conflict”. Ottawa: Dundurn Press Ltd.

Runde, C.

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Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! Case Study online essay help

Introduction The case study focused on the emergence and growth of the market for canned iced-tea while laying much attention on the Western markets. Basically, the development of these markets made the Taiwan Shin Shii and Unilever (also known as the USA Unilever Best foods) to further exploit such markets by employing efficient marketing strategies with the newly developed brands namely Kai Shii and Lipton.

This study intends to assess the effective market segmentation strategies as well as the prospective markets that companies which produce iced-tea could enter. Besides, factors which iced-tea companies could use when forecasting their future demands are underlined and consequently described.

Thus, this study objectively aims at:

Understanding the types of markets which drive the elevated iced tea demands in addition to the eminent motivations that cause them to occur.

Offering market entry strategies and market coverage strategies for both Shin Shii and Unilever.

Tendering the viably recommended brand positioning strategies for Kai Shii and Lipton as well as an alternate ready- to- drink, but hot tea beverage to Unilever.

Case study background Basically, the Unilever Group is globally recognized as the leaders in supplying the fast moving consumers’ products or goods (FMCG) (Unilever 2010). The Lipton brand of these suppliers dominates the United States markets and also has an imperative worldwide presence.

The Unilever Group seems to have equally established the canned hot ready to drink tea products using the Brook Bond PG guidelines which according to this case is dubbed as the Brooke Bond. As a small corporation that is situated in Taiwan, Shin Shii proved to have already been triumphant in Taiwan with the famous beverage drink known as oolong iced tea. The company has enjoyed market dominance in Taiwan and currently has a target of joining the feasible and promising Western marketplaces.

However, to properly respond to this case study questions, the following assumptions have to be made.

The iced tea markets have not endured some everlasting changes be it negative or positive, on either the supply or the demand sides.

The iced tea market depicts a steady growth which will move along way prior to reaching its saturation point.

Both the oolong Kai Shii iced tea and the Lipton iced tea are perceived to be primarily similar or very close and could be categorized under identical products categories.

In this case, the entire North America markets are what are deemed to constitute the Western markets.

Despite being a narrative case study, there are some accruing limitations that might hinder the chances of properly answering the prevailing case questions. First, the Kotler and Armstrong (2001, p.302) text that is used as the main reference emanates to be somewhat old-fashioned since it might have failed to incorporate the business portfolio or corporation’s profiles alterations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the alliance formed between Pepsi and Lipton might not be inexistence any more. Furthermore, obtaining the decisive information on Shin Shii was rather be difficult given that the corporation is still very murky and internationally less known.

Methodology and the theoretical framework In trying to answer the case study questions, there are methodologies and theoretical frameworks that are drawn on. For example, to properly analyze the case study, theories of marketing which relates to strategic SWOT analysis planning as well as marketing planning was used.

Kotler and Armstrong (2001, p.302) critically described each of these theories and both appear to have various components which were well-defined and critically deliberated on. Further research was similarly performed particularly those that pertain to the forecasting of corporations demands. The provisional non-numerical statistics was adequate to support the offered marketing strategies recommendations apart from the situations where the market shares were to be deliberated.

Strategic analysis of the case study The FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) market presents the market supply and demands trends which habitually fluctuate and are extremely volatile. When such circumstances materialize to be the case, it is advisable that corporations that enter this market ought to have well stipulated purpose and objectives in their strategic planning to guarantee their sustainability.

The Unilever for instance, universally aspires to accomplish the individuals every day’s requirements (Zhao et al. 2009, p.378). This is to be achieved through competitively and creatively responding to such needs with services and products that are branded and tailored towards augmenting the quality of people’s lives.

Since the strategic planning have been laid out, it now becomes significant to conduct the SWOT analysis for this corporation prior to embarking on the strategic market planning and a detailed evaluation of the brand positioning factors. The following matrix table highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that Kai Shii and Lipton faces in the global market operations.

Parameter Kai Shii Lipton Strengths a) Is a well-established Taiwan market dominant or leader having a total of seventy percent of its market shares in the oolong segment a) Is currently well known to the market leader due to its popular brand reputation. b) Has an all-embracing experience with respect to triumphant brand advertising. b) Has an extensive acquaintance to the domestic or local tastes and cultures. c) Has a broad range of products that depict hi-tech preeminence including products such as the canned hot tea for Brooke Bond. Weaknesses a) Has inadequate Westernized consumers experience a) Since it has different brand extensions, this might confuse and equally dilute the perception of the consumers. As a result, it might end up giving new market entrants and fresh competitors a chance to capture its global market share. b) Is completely unfamiliar to the Westernized consumers Opportunities a) Has recently introduced a new-fangled iced tea known as oolong. This might help it to generate inquisitiveness and emerge as the first corporation to bring such an iced tea into the market mainstream. a) Can form an alliance with reputed brands like Pepsi so as to have admittance into the substantial supply networks. Furthermore, the market demand could further be driven by the presence of the recognized market dominant partners. b) Appears to be much aware of the health benefits that tea provides. b) Is greatly aware of the health benefits that tea provides to the consumers. c) Can seize the declining markets that soft drinks and beverages seem to be losing. c) Has the opportunity to capture markets that brews like the soft drinks tend to loose. Threats a) Faces major rivalry from other big tea manufactures and market leaders such as Lipton. a) The market seems to be very congested while the alternatively available small markets have over two hundred different brands that may cause substantial reductions in Lipton brand demand. b) Might be probably be rejected while it tries to find the distributing partners. For instance, the retailers might be very reluctant to take newly introduced products like the Kai Shii. b) There are various other key market players including Nestle and Coca-Cola which the canned iced tea market through hard-hitting competitions. Bases for market planning strategies To enter into the emerging and the already existing markets, companies must first assume proper market planning by determining the types of bases or factors that could be used in apt market segmentation. Basically, market segmentation entails the division of customers or consumers into some distinctive groups that may require different marketing mixes or products (Krider et al. 2008, p.2).

We will write a custom Case Study on Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each of these groups must have behaviors, characteristics and different needs. Companies might similarly have their iced tea market segmented according to the consumers’ perceptions or the apparent trends depicted when they purchase similar products.

Therefore, to succeed in such a very competitive market environment, companies can use the following bases in segmenting the market for the iced tea.

Geographic segmentation base including taking account of factors such as towns, villages, city suburbs and urban centers.

Demographic bases which entails incorporating factors like the apparent consumers age groups.

Behavioral bases which include taking into consideration the consumers who seek and hassle for fresh and convenient iced tea refreshments.

From these iced tea market segmentation base factors, it is clear that prices might not be deemed as a key factor that influences the perception of canned iced teas consumers. This is because such products are less or more similarly priced with identical products like iced coffee and soft drinks (Zhao et al. 2009, p.379). Nevertheless, for companies that compete in the production of similar product sets, pricing is considered to play a very critical role.

The identified potential market segments After identifying the market segmentation bases for iced teas products, companies must target particular market segments that provide certain differential potentials which a company might use to gain the competitive edge or advantage over other market rivals (McCarthy, 1993). The selected market segment ought to assist the corporation to craft enduring clients’ values and consequently prop it up for a long time.

The designated market segment might however vary according to the resources possessed and the company size. Shin Shii for instance, has few resources which may force it to have few market segment targets as compared to the Unilever that might yearn for bigger market coverage as it targets various market segments (Greg 1992, p.46). The latter company has ample resources that could help it to meet market segmentation targets.

In the domestic Taiwanese markets, Shin Shii can exceptionally perform given that it has well established and aggressive advertising techniques that might help it create completely novel markets for the new product, iced tea oolong that was practically nonexistence (Sutherland, 2009).

These make the company to stand a chance of targeting each and every age group including the customary bound aged generations who previously enjoyed the consumption of hot tea and never showed any sign of relinquishing their habits.

The Kai Shii drinkers’ selling point should be the new breeds of individuals who consider themselves to be in a newfangled globe. The health benefits and natural ingredients that the product brags of should be made appealing to each consumer in the Far East not excluding the aged populace who very health cognizant.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the Shin Shii emerged to be different and unique, it became appealing to the youthful generations. In contrast, the iced tea seems to have therapeutic benefits which lured the middle age working classes that are stressed up in addition to offering a convenient canned drink that complemented their respective tiring routines (Grossman, 1994). The companies can also consider the geographical market segmentations even though the penetration levels could be difficult in some rural market areas.

While targeting specific market segments for Lipton, the Unilever Groups based their segmentation on identical factors including the iced tea health benefits. The company could nonetheless further narrow down its market segmentation by focusing on industrial workers and athletes who partake physical activities that are extremely mentally exhaustive (Krider et al. 2008, p.4). Most population in America is geographically situated within towns or urban centers which materialize to be well linked.

It therefore makes more sense if Lipton restricts its markets segmentation to appropriately serve the American town centers. Nevertheless, given that there are busy metropolises such as Chicago, Boston and New York City which pose unlimited potentiality for the working classes, Lipton iced teas need to be targeted to accomplish the demands of consumers in these areas because they always require quick refreshments amid lunch or snacks.

Conversely, for the Unilever Group, it becomes imperative to note that modifying the iced tea Lipton to serve the various demands within the country would be practically impossible. This follows the fact America is renowned to be a homogenously large market and barely has any assorted beverage tastes. On the other hand, Shin Shii may opt for the modification of oolong Kai Shii iced teas in order to suit the American consumers’ tastes and to equally counter the stringent market competitions through claiming it exclusiveness and superiority.

Forecasting the iced tea market demand Currently in America, iced tea is hugely demanded to an extent that it constitutes nearly eighty percent of the total consumed tea in the American environs. In fact, it has exceptionally emerged to be the Americans habit regardless of the fact that it has a comparatively shorter participation time span in the marketing and trade of teas.

Whereas the ready to drink beverages and iced teas attract the emerging tea consumers, it is anticipated that an upturn impact might take place in the demands for different kinds of teas, particularly those that are specialized. This will eventually cause the demand for tea such as the iced herbal tea to increase.

Thus, companies might employ different factors while forecasting the iced teas demands for their chosen diverse market segments. A great chunk of these factors relates to the current market segmentation base growth rate including certain nationality groups, income and age.

Variations in both socio economic conditions and lifestyles are among the decisive development factors which could significantly influence the iced teas demand particularly in the long-run. For instance, specific to the market for iced teas, when the working class proportionally decreases as result of the ageing populace, the demand for iced teas might be hindered in the metropolitan cities specifically within the commercial regions.

The iced tea beverages outlook generally is still however considerably optimistic with the emergence of instant tea which has become additionally essential in some global markets (Altman, 2002).

While studying the producing nations commodity supply management between the fiscal 1951 and 1970, Goradia showed that the universal liquid tea consumption steadily increased by approximately 145.07% but the tea-leaves consumption increased by just 92.01%. There is absolutely no doubt that these fast progressions will still continue even in the prospective future (Krider et al. 2008, p.6).

Market coverage strategy that Pepsi/Lipton should adopt Pepsi/Lipton has already differentiated the type of the market segment they want to enter into. Identifying and entering into the segment market depends on the company available facilities and resources. The problem of identifying and the segment market can only be sorted out by the market coverage strategy that the company utilizes to penetrate the market.

Normally the market coverage strategy is the method companies use to assess the various market segments in the marketplace (Boone

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The War On Drugs Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The war on drugs as the war against black women

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The war on drugs is often associated with controversy. Issues of gender and race have been raised on numerous occasions in the war against drugs. The war on drugs was declared in the United States over three decades ago, and individuals of color have been greatly affected by this war.

The policies that have been put in place in the war on drugs have exhibited a discriminatory element. In particular, black women and individuals from the minority groups have been targeted in this war. In this case, such individuals are predisposed to harassment from the state officials.

It can be noted that black women have been made to bear the brunt of police cruelties in the name of war on drugs. Considering the plight of black women in the war on drugs, this paper discusses the concept of war on drugs as the war against black women.

The war on drugs as the war against black women The period between 1986 and 1991 was a critical time for the African American community as a whole. At this time, the community was facing a high amount of oppression making them take out their frustration on the use of drugs. Essentially, top of the list of substance abusers were the black females who recorded twice the number of drug offences compared to their male counterparts. Despite the high number of black women incarcerated for drug abuse, authorities do not place emphasis on this issue.

Criminologists often focus on male oriented cases ignoring the plight of the female community. Feminists specialized in criminology have thus dubbed the exclusion of black female drug offenders as discriminatory policies. This has given rise the campaign that accuse criminologist on the war on drugs as the war against black women (Bush-Baskette, p. 5).

The legislations on drugs have been known to affect the black women more than any other group. It has been established that the black women form the rapidly expanding population that is arrested on drug related offences.

Notably, from the late 1980s, the number of black women who have been arrested on drug related offences increased by 800%. This was double the rate of women from other racial groups. In New York, the percentage of black women arrested on drug offences was over 90% while they make barely a third of the women population in the state (Bush-Baskette, p. 43).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The early form of the war on drugs constituted of the arrest of low level drug users and dealers, as opposed to high-ranking people in the trade. This removed the attention from the drug lords who control the dynamics of the industry across the globe.

Another issue regarding the control of drug use was the misrepresentation and improper recording of the people arrested. Fabricated statistics saw the Increase in the number of blacks arrested for the use of drugs and the decrease in the arrest of whites. This triggered a national out raw which advocated for the equal treatment of all races regarding the eradication of drugs.

Women may get involved in drug dealings due to similar reasons as the male culprits. Nonetheless, there are certain gender-specific aspects that should be considered. It can be observed that black women are faced with various forms of oppressions and thus find it difficult to support their families.

In this case, they are forced to engage in street crimes for survival. Most of these women become involved with males who are drug traffickers and find themselves using the prohibited drugs. These women are often threatened with violence and abusive relationship if they refuse to cooperate with their male partners in drug activities (Bush-Baskette, p. 14).

Though the drug trade is said to be profitable, it can be observed that women do not accrue the benefits associated with this trade is equal measure to their male counterparts. Indeed it has been established that women are likely to spend more time in prison on drug related crimes compared to the male dealers. This is because women are likely not able to reveal their male accomplices to earn shorter sentence. On the other hand, males are known to reveal their female counterparts in the trade when required to do so (Chesney-Lind, p. 37).

Heroin was mostly abused by blacks as opposed to whites faring differently from marijuana which was consumed equality by both blacks and whites. The term the war on drugs as the war on women is used to display the level of disregard the society has for the welfare of the black women.

Women associated with drug use recorded fewer cases of the application of force and violence during their consumption or purchase. Poverty and unemployment are the leading factors for the reason of drug on both male and female cases (Stevens and Wexler, p. 28).

We will write a custom Essay on The War On Drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The state of Florida recorded drug peddling as the single most recurring primary offence in the years of 1993-1994. Drug peddling was the main offence reported in the criminal files and records. These records only represent the cases concerning drug use, as opposed to drug use accompanied with lesser charges (Nelson, p. 184).

An analysis of the statistics of the incarcerated women lists black women who take the lead representing 51% of the population. Black males take the second slot recording 49% of the country’s population. In the third position are white women who record a competitive 43%. White males take the last slot recording 38% representing the lowest group in reference to the consumption of drugs (Gartner and Kruttschnitt, p. 29).

The police and state authorities are often accused of racial profiling when it comes to war on drugs. This is because there are significant racial disparities observed in arresting, convicting, and incarcerating black women. Arrest, conviction, and incarceration depend on the discretion of the law enforcers in their war on drugs. It is assumed that black women are vessels for prohibited drugs. In this case, the black women are often perceived by the law enforcers as couriers in the drug trade (Stevens and Wexler, p. 19).

Consequently, these women are targeted by the state and federal officers for strip search aimed at identifying drugs. Therefore, black women have been stereotypes as possible drug dealers. It has been established that black women are most likely to be subjected to X-rays after being frisked than white women. On the contrary, the chance of finding black women with contraband products is half compared to white women who stand a high chance of carrying contraband products (Bush-Baskette, p. 45).

Black women are often exposed to regular and offensive strips and searches by the law enforcement agents in the war against drugs. The war on drugs has gone to the extreme. Enhanced surveillance and policing of the reproduction of black women has been reported in the fight against drugs.

Essentially, discriminatory testing of black women who are pregnant to establish drug use is carried out by state officials. Also, there is enhanced surveillance and policing of poor women of African descent under the guise of monitoring child abuse and neglect. This can be argued as being part of a wider scheme in the protracted war on drugs (Bush-Baskette, p. 32).

It is estimated that about two hundred women in over thirty states have faced prosecution on drug related crimes. In some instances, child or fetal abuse is associated with the use of drugs when the woman is pregnant.

In South Carolina State, there is legislation that women who use drugs during while pregnant can be charged with child abuse. In this case, such women are reported to the state authorities by their doctors. Instead of offering rehabilitation services to such women, they are arrested and prosecuted based on child abuse laws (Bush-Baskette, p. 51).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The War On Drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the fight against drugs has come a long way for the time of its rise in the ten years ago. The U.S. has the greatest number of consumers owing to a number of factors. This rate has been on the rise due to the political, social and economic factors experienced today.

Top of the list are black women who are notorious for the frequent consumption of the substance. This is not ideal because a large number of the same culprits are single mothers. It is thus ideal for authorities to place more emphasis on black women so as to tackle the bulk of the problem.

Works Cited Bush-Baskette, Stephanie. Misguided Justice: The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Black Women. Bloomington, IN: Universe, Inc, 2010. Print.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. London [u.a.: SAGE, 2004. Print.

Gartner, Rosemary, and Candace Kruttschnitt. Marking Time in the Golden State: Women’s Imprisonment in California. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Nelson, Jennifer. Women of Color and the Reproductive Rights Movement. New York [u.a.: New York Univ. Press, 2003. Print.

Stevens, Sally J. and Harry K. Wexler. Women and Substance Abuse: Gender Transparency. New York: Routledge, 1998. Print.

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Roles of an International HR Manager to Identify Possible HR Issues, Which Have Led to Crisis Report (Assessment) college essay help

Critical evaluation of roles of an International HR Manager (IHRM) to help identify possible HR issues, which have led to this crisis International HR (IHR) management aspects have numerous roles influencing operations of any given multinational corporation (MNC). Similarly, it can affect the financial performance of any given country; however, this varies from one state to the next. Contextually, it is possible to unveil the HR issues that led to the crisis (evident in the case provided) upon critical evaluation of IHR Managers’ roles.

Financial meltdown, recessions, and inflations are some of the crisis evident in the case. IHR manager’s roles in any MNC might eventually affect the prosperity and financial aspects of the concerned organization and the country of operation. There are HR issues that have led to the noticed economic meltdown (Davies 2010). Firstly, IHR managers should ascertain the nature of international operations that the business intends to assume.

This means that IHR manager must recognize the international labour demands, focus on the available human capital, create more employment opportunities, and provide lucrative working conditions to increase the productivity of the workforce, reduce unemployment cases, and help in averting the localized and globalized economic hitches witnessed in the case provided. This forms the roles of IHR helpful in identifying the possible HR issues evident in the case provided.

HR has the role of sourcing viable employees who can propel the operations and growth of the concerned companies in order to realize remarkable economic results. It is from this context that an IHR can contribute massively to an economic crisis or flourish. It is evident that the aspects of international labour market similarly contribute to the ultimate global production and financial stability. Failure to manage such international human capital properly has a devastating impact on the national and international economic downturn.

In this context, it is the mandate of IHR manager to ensure that he or she sources cheap and competent labour that will help in propelling the productivity of the concerned MNCs (Forrest 2011). For example, the mentioned internationalized banking corporations like Bank of England, European Central Bank, and Halifax Bank of Scotland among others (MNCs) can utilize their IHR provisions in order to avert the witnessed economic meltdown (Ferrell

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