Understanding The Concepts Of Collective Teacher Efficacy And Personal Teacher Efficacy Essay (Critical Writing) Essay Help Online

The main challenge of improving students’ academic performance is to define how personal qualities of teachers, as well as the overall school organization influence the educational outcomes. In this respect, personal teacher efficacy is confined to personal conviction that a person is capable enough of producing desired outcomes, regardless of difficulties he/she may encounter.

In order to surpass the challenges a teacher should be persistent, consistent, and enthusiastic to bring the highest results and make students improve their knowledge and skills. In contrast, collective efficacy refers to the common perceptions of instructions in a school about that their effect will definitely have positive influence on students. Because people operate with broader social networks, socio-cultural influences are inevitable and, therefore, they should be taken into consideration while evaluating efficacy expectations.

An analysis of the student test scores have revealed that the concept of collective teacher efficacy is a single and independent concept consisting of two interrelated notions – task understanding and group competence.

Therefore, it has been proved that collective teacher efficacy actually characterizes the culture of Ohio school because it has a potent impact on the social environment (Goddard, Hoy,


Business Analysis of Dell Inc Essay essay help site:edu

Background Dell Computers was named after its founder and Chairman Michael Dell (Hoovers 2012). The company began functioning in the early 80s to design and manufacture computers. Michael believed in efficiency. He created a company that had extremely efficient operations and responded to customer needs very fast.

The highlight of his business model was the ability of customers to make their computers to their preferred designs. Customers could log on to the company website and choose their preferred features when placing an order. The company would then ship the new computer to the customers’ address. During the 90s and early 2000, Dell was the leading computer company worldwide.

Its woes began when customers began to slow down on their PC purchases. Dell no longer sold as many computers and its growth was slow and painful. Things became worse when the company’s legal trouble began. Advanced Internet Technologies sued Dell for knowingly selling faulty computers to its customers.

This was around the year 2010. Later, Dell got into trouble with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The company was accused of accounting fraud. The result was a restatement of its financials over a five-year period ending 2007. The company also paid several hefty fines to the SEC. As expected, its stock price declined tremendously.

An incident involving a Dell laptop that caught fire during the year 2006 also damaged the company’s public image. This incident led to a move by the company to recall batteries that were suspected to be faulty. Though Sony was the company responsible for manufacturing the batteries, Dell still took the fall for the faulty batteries.

Profits at Dell reached an all time low in 2009. Since then, the company has been re-organizing and re-aligning its business. There has been an attempt to diversify from the PC industry, given the slow growth of the market. The company hopes to attain much needed growth by focusing on corporate IT solutions rather than lone customers. In line with this, it has acquired several smaller companies. These include Perot Systems, sonicWALL, AppAssure and Force 10 Networks.

This paper seeks to explore expansion into the tablet market as a strategic option for Dell Inc. This paper adopts the Balanced Scorecard as the major tool of analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competition

Dell’s major competitors are Hewlett Packard (HP) and Apple Inc. Apple Inc has created a niche with its innovative products. It is currently the market leader in tablet PCs and smart phones. Customers wait eagerly to acquire new Apple devices (Business Wire 2011). This rarely happens for other PC companies, least of all Dell. The company has invested heavily in Research and Design and it has paid off handsomely. The market has not received any other tablet with so much enthusiasm. The company stock price has also taken an upward trend (Vaitilingam 2005).

HP on the other had has experienced growth due to its merger with Compaq and outsourced operations. The company transferred its laptop manufacturing to China, where labour is cheaper. This enabled it to grow its profit margins and overtake Dell in PC sales. Appendix A shows the industry statistics for the years 2009 and 2010. HP was ahead by 8%-9% during the years under review. This trend has not changed much (Digital Trends 2011). Evidently, if Dell is to regain its market leadership, it has to come up with some new strategies.

The Technological Environment There has been a slow-down in the purchase of Personal Computers worldwide. The uptake of smart phones and tablets is the major cause of this trend (Canalys 2012). People are moving to a world of convenience and PCs do not fit well into this world. The immobility of PCs has driven customers to seek flexible options such as tablets and smart phones.

Currently, the market leader in the tablet market is Apple Inc with its iPad. It therefore follows that if Dell wants to beat competition, it has to respond to market needs. There is no gain in continuing to manufacture PCs when demand is declining.

Appendix B shows evidence of the shrinking PC market and growing tablet market. This means that any computer company seeking growth in this age should seriously consider selling tablets instead of the traditional PCs. This paper seeks to explore the feasibility of tablet making and its implications for Dell.

The Balanced Scorecard Learning and Innovation

Dell has been accused of spending very little on research compared to its competitors. Currently, the company is spending almost one percent of its revenues on Research. Over the past three years under study, Dell’s R


Organization Structure – Benson Metal Company Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organization Structure

Reporting Relationships



Introduction My colleague Carswell has raised a valid point of view regarding the problems we now face. I have only worked in this company for the past four years as an I/O consultant, and frankly, I have witnessed a lot of changes, not all of them in the positive direction. It is clearly evident that Benson Metal Company is under crises.

It is also clear that the main cause of this crisis has not been investigated and it is due to this that the situation has escalated this much. It is sad that at this point in time, when the industry is harsh and struggling, that we are about to lose one of our most dedicated customers. As I see it, the main problem lies in our organization structure and conflicting lines of authority.

Organization Structure As some of you know, a company’s organization structure defines the formal reporting relationships in the company including the level of power welded by the supervisors and the amount of levels within the organization (Daft, 2009).

The organization structure also identifies the grouping together of individuals into departments within the organization as well as the design of systems that will guarantee effective coordination and communication between different departments (Baligh, 2006). Clearly, the organization structure of Benson Metal Company has failed to meet its intended purpose.

The organization structure specifies three main things that include: required work activities, the reporting relationships and departmental groupings. The company main problem lays in reporting relationships while the other two factors are quite stable.

Reporting Relationships The biggest problem in the company is and has always been reporting relationships or more specifically, the chain of command. The chain of command denotes the uninterrupted lines of authority that links everyone in the company and indicates who reports to whom (Jones, 2010). Most of the individual holding places of power within the company are finding it hard to carry out their tasks.

This may be attributed to people being designated jobs that they are unfamiliar with and have no skills in. The assistant to the president position is occupied with an individual who does not have the correct skills or experiences required for running the company or overseeing the welfare of our employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Our vice president has been unable to effectively lay out the correct lines of authority and has poor management skills. Generally, a body cannot function without a head and that is one of the main problems.

Reporting relationships also involves setting up lines of authority important to ensure effective coordination between the departments. Honestly, Ramsey Stockwell has failed in this regard. Time and time again, Mr. Stockwell has been antagonistic in our efforts to improve communication and coordination.

He has not designed effective reporting relationships within his own department and even though those who serve beneath him are loyal, his attitudes are affecting the general attitude of his department regarding the company. Mr. Stockwell has proved to be very effective in ensuring that his department is up and running.

However, his job does not end there and involves improving morale in his department, developing a schedule for his workers, laying out the correct reporting relationship within his department to avoid conflicts and respecting the general chain of command in the company.

Mr. Stockwell has taken over the department and seeks to carry out all the jobs in his company. This would be well and good if he could actually deliver however as it can be seen, he is unable to deliver the required results and his actions have only led to increased confusion in his department as well as others in the company.

The relationship between Mr. Stockwell and the sales department is truly disturbing. Mr. Stockwell should learn that this is not a research facility but a company that needs to sell items in order to gain profits as well as meet its expenses. His antagonism and opposition to provide relevant information to the sales department is making us shortsighted thus losing our competitive advantage.

We have failed to deliver products in time to our most trusted customers and frankly that is unacceptable. Information sharing within the department is of outmost importance but Mr. Stockwell has set up a bureaucratic system that most members within his organization seldom know what is required of them or the progress they are making.

We will write a custom Case Study on Organization Structure – Benson Metal Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Looking at the above problems, we can conclude that several things have to change. First of all, the required work activities should be specified especially considering the strain the production of the aerospace materials has on the company. Secondly, communication both within the departments and across different departments has to be improved.

Communication and coordination between the departments can be improved in several ways. The first method is through improving teamwork between the two departments i.e. production and sales. Members of the two departments should freely intermix and be involved in the actual process involved in both departments.

Another method is by setting up an organization structure based on divisional grouping. Divisional grouping involves organizing employees according to whatever products the company produces (Fow, 2007).

Members of both the sales team and the production team should be grouped together under one department ensuring information flow between the in every stop of material production. I thank you for your time and hope we can resolve these issues in the shortest time possible.

References Baligh, H. (2006). Organization Structures: Theory and Design, Analysis and Prescription. New York: Springer Science Media Inc.

Daft, R. (2009). Organization Theory and Design. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Fow, W. (2007). Managing Organizational Behavior. Cape Town: Junta


Student Athletes and Education Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Importance of Education

A Conflicted Soul

Inspiration and Assistance

Dealing with Detractors


Works Cited

Baseball, basketball, football, hockey, and lawn tennis are some of the major sports in the United States. But these activities are not considered as mere games by many Americans. The purpose of sports in their lives is more than its capability to entertain. It is more than an excuse to spend the weekends and holidays. For many Americans, sports is like religion. It is a path to happiness and fulfillment, something that truly captivated their imagination.

A sport is also the best way to distract people from the cares of the world. Thus, it must not come as a surprise that professional sports generate billions of dollars in revenue. Athletes are not only celebrities; they are also multi-millionaires. It is no wonder, then, that the search for athletes begins at the High School and collegiate level. But, it has become clear that students must only focus on the enhancement of their skills, they must also focus on their studies.

Athletes must learn to value education. This assertion holds true, especially for black students who come from poor families. There is the tendency to focus on sports as means to an end. The mindset must be changed and instead, education must be the means to an end. Sports must be used to enable them to secure a scholarship and once they have that scholarship the goal is to study hard and graduate. However, it has become clear that athletes focus on their chance to earn a spot in a professional sports club.

Their major goal is not to receive a diploma but to be drafted in sports clubs that belong to sports organizations like the National Basketball Association. National Hockey League, National Football League and others. Student athletes require assistance and inspiration for them to change their priorities and value education more than their chance to play professional sports.

Importance of Education The physical body requires training in order to be physically fit. The philosophy behind athletics training is to obtain good body structure that fit into the demands of a specific sport. It is about rigorous training that forces the body to accomplish extraordinary physical feats like soaring through the air for a dunk and rushing a hundred yards against tremendous opposition for a touchdown.

However, just as the body plays an important part in sports, the psychological aspect of life is also very important. The importance of having a superb mental conditioning among athletes cannot be underestimated. It is also very important for fill the mind with appropriate knowledge in order to develop a skill that can help students land a job outside the sports industry.

This issue is important in light of recent findings that the population of student athletes in U.S colleges and universities is increasing on a yearly basis (Simiyu 16). There is major concern over allegations that student athletes receive preferential treatment during admission because they do not have the capability to compete with non-athletes in the academic aspect of their student life (Simiyu 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This kind of treatment isolates them from the larger campus culture and it may diminish their opportunities for personal growth. However, results of other studies seem to indicate that there are student athletes who performed well even if one considers the demand on their schedules (Simiyu 16).

Knowledge gained from school is not only important when it comes to employment. These skills and knowledge are also very valuable when it comes to dealing with other aspects of life especially when it comes to the duty of a person to become a productive member of society. Those who do not have at least a high school diploma struggle to find decent jobs. But, more importantly, they do not possess the capability to plan for their future and manage their finances in such a way that they can live comfortably.

Most athletes struggle during the post-retirement season in their lives because of lack of education. Successful athletes are able to accomplish great physical acts that enable them to win accolades. But, it does not mean that they can handle social pressures (Athletic Journal 17). Their physical strength does not guarantee that they are able to manage a sustainable way of life the moment their multi-million dollar contracts are rescinded due to injury.

It must be made clear that if recruiters, the coaching staff and school administrators fail to help student athletes earn a college degree, then, it can be considered as a form of exploitation. It is difficult to make an outright judgment that they are exploiting their student athletes if they fail to bring them to the final stage of their education. But it can be argued that in a way they are exploiting their athletes if they only use them to win games.

There must a revolution in the way people view student athletes. There is a need to focus on what is more important. Most of the time, the educational component of a student athlete’s life is neglected as the bulk of the effort is focused on training and physical development. But, more importantly, the exploitation of talented athletes begins even before they set foot in college. When a scout finds out that a particular child can run, jump, or throw better than others, that person becomes an object of interest for a particular school.

They become attractive products for high school recruiters. Early on they are made to feel that their academic performance is a second priority to their physical attributes and their skills on the court or playing field. In recent times, there is a clamor to change how student athletes are treated by recruiters and sports programs under the control of a college or university.

For example, there are proactive steps taken to compel colleges and universities to enhance their standards when it comes to providing scholarship for student athletes (Athletic performance in exchange for an education- a contract unfulfilled 5). In other words, student athletes are only eligible for a scholarship if they can demonstrate on a regular basis that they perform well in their studies in the same way that they perform well in the track and field or a basketball court.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Student Athletes and Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Conflicted Soul The actions of the National Association for College Admission Counseling must be commended in their effort to promote education among athletes. The association brings to mind the importance of balancing the athletic, social, and academic priorities of student-athletes.

One of the main goals of the National Association for College Admission Counseling is to transform the recruiting process of student athletes. It provides its members with the necessary steps that must be observed when recruiting and advising student-athletes about college selection and attendance (Sanders, Gardner,


Financial Analysis of Bayer AG Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Abstract This paper demonstrates use of real financial data in financial analysis. The objective is to carry out a broad financial analysis for an actual company. It explores the various techniques and tools used for financial analysis. In the analysis, we use financial data for Bayer AG for five year period from 2006 to 2010. The study is based on comparative analysis of historical data of the Corporation.

The study concentrates on the statistical highlights of the Corporation, ratio analysis (ratios on profitability, liquidity, safety and efficiency). In addition, percentages are used in the analysis to monitor changes overtime. Graphs are also used to portray trend of various variables in the study over the five year period. Finally, the results are interpreted based on ideal situations and recommendations are made based on the findings

Introduction Bayer AG is a multinational company dealing with pharmaceutical products with its head office located in Germany. Vast proportion of returns on sale comes from pharmaceutical segment. From 2005 to 2010, series of financial performances characterize operation of Bayer AG Company especially on the periphery of ratio performance.

Over this period, there has been no substantial change in capital structure in the operations of Bayer AG Company. Bayer AG has market across the world with substantial segment in America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Specifically, in 2007, this segment generated over $ 50 million in sales which is 49% of total sales (Bloomberg Business 02).

Indicated below are figures representing financial performance of Bayer AG Company for a six year interlude from 2006 to 2011.

Summary of financial feat from 2006 to 2011

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Net sales 31, 778 30,766 29, 879 27, 789 27, 970 28,034 Profit after tax 10, 199 7,730 873 3,246 3,230 2,546 Change in profit after tax 19.1% 49.6% 43.% 95.6% 200.1% 211.7% Dividend per share 0.42 0.51 0.44 0.43 0.40 0.41 Earnings per share 1.01 1.43 1.06 1.06 0.978 0.50 Table 1

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the figure given above, performance across the six year period was erratic. However, no loss was reported in any year. The sales were at its highest in 2007 and lowest in 2009. Despite steady dividend per share averaging to 1, earnings for the same performed dismally.

Key: Horizontal axis-years

Vertical axis-sales

Scope and Objective of the Study This paper attempts to comprehensively and explicitly analyze financial statements of Bayer AG Company covering performance in sales from 2006 to 2010.

In summary, the paper will present an inclusive location of Bayer AG on the facets of financial position as part of liquidity, profitability, and efficiency. In addition, the treatise makes informed suggestions and predictions into the future survival analysis of the company based on the findings from the study.

Literature Review Bayer AG Company makes audited comprehensive financial reports after every twelve months, that is, annually. This is in line with stipulated laws for review by government, stakeholders, and creditors, among others. Well audited financial statements are essential as they reveal a narrow reflection on weakness and strengths of the business (Clauss 19).

Thus, in order to give a comprehensive financial performance over a period of time, an in depth financial analysis is vital in managing relations between different entities and giving informed information for proper and adequate decision making science.

We will write a custom Case Study on Financial Analysis of Bayer AG specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ratio Analysis The process of financial analysis involves the science of evaluating finance-related variances that facilitate in-depth determination of investment viability and sustainability both in short and long term. Intrinsically, financial statements are reviewed for a company to establish the stability, liquidity, solvency, and profitability to perform within the dynamics of business environment.

The focus in financial analysis concentrates on change in equity statements, cash flow statements, and financial position statements (Vance 34). As a tool for financial analysis, ratio analysis is important as it entails an entity’s previous, present, future extrapolation based on results obtained. In inferring and forecasting into the future performance, the aspect of money having a definite time value is factored in at every analysis level.

Profitability Ratio

By definition, this concept refers to the ability of a company to sustain growth and earn income in long and short term. Ratios used in this analysis include operation profit, gross profit, net profit, ROE (Return on Equity), and (ROA) Return on Assets. Profitability at Bayer AG is analyzed via in-depth review of expenditure and income account.

Series of simultaneously functioning ratios are computed to present the company’s profitability in the six year financial performance period from 2006 to 2011. As presented below, this table presents a comparative profitability analysis of Bayer AG over the six year financial period.

Year of operation Profitability ratios 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Return on Assets = Net profit Average Total Assets 4,203/ 22,345 18.4% 4,283/ 30,197 21.4% 3,608/ 38,671 12.1% 5,773/ 37,500 0.9% 5,849/ 37,412 3.5% Net Profit Margin = Net profit Net Sales 4,514/ 40,121 9.6% 6,546/ 49,058 12.2% 3,765/ 49,720 8.7% 1,208/ 39,964 2.6% 1,543/ 43,416 4.2% Gross profit margin Gross profit Net sales 12,369/ 40,121 32.5% 18,354/ 51,058 33.9% 16,363/ 50,710 34.3% 12,265 0,984 32.3% 12,117/ 42,446 30.2% Return on Equity = Net profit before taxes Net worth 5,723/ 12,060 47.5% 8,268/ 17,338 47.7% 4,970/ 16,510 30.1% 962/ 13,088 7.4% 1,786/ 14,384 12.4% Table 2

From data in the above table, the analysis computes ROE, ROA, net profit margin, and gross profit margins. These ratios indicate depreciating profit apart from the year 2007. However, the margin for gross profit is relatively stable implying a proper inventory control, efficiency in production, and sustainable pricing policy to offer comparative advantage.

In addition, the margin for net profit is relatively unstable probably due to the economic climate on the late last decade, inability to generate adequate revenue on sales to cushion fixed costs and eventually stabilize profitability margin. Besides, it is vital to note that ROE and ROA vary as net profit margin changes from time to time (Clauss 81).

The declining performance can also be attributed to global financial instability, weaker corporate and customer spending, volatility in currency market, and limited credit availability. However, change in strategy could be attributed to performance in 2007, and that of 2010 through to 2011. Illustrated below are the graph and table reflecting varies in profitability and trends in ratios.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Analysis of Bayer AG by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Key: Horizontal-years


Liquidity ratio

Liquidity ratio is vital in establishing the strength of a company to maintain and sustain positive cash flow within the range of immediate obligation satisfaction of settling debts (Vance 56). In order to compute this ratio, the analysis dwells on liquid assets or cash flow.

The concept of liquid asset refers to trade in market that is active and is easily convertible into cash and the current best price in the market. The techniques employed in this analysis include the quick and current ratios. The table below presents the outcome of the analysis.

Year of operation Liquidity ratios 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Current ratio = Current assets Current liabilities 18,586/ 10,161 1.8 29,294/ 18,976 1.5 24,470/ 20,355 1.2 23,613/ 15,188 1.6 27,145/17,540 1.5 Quick ratio = Quick Asset Current liabilities 17,032/ 10,161 1.7 26,418/ 18,976 1.4 21,937/ 20,355 1.1 21,748/ 15,188 1.4 24,622/17,540 1.4 Table 3

Values obtained indicate current ratio for Bayer AG ranging from 1.7 t0 1.0 across the period of analysis. From this performance indicator, it is apparent that Bayer AG has a strong liquidity ratio and is within the boundaries of the 2:1 ideal current ratio.


This concept reflects on vulnerability of an organization to uncertainty or the risk factor and the magnitude of protection in place for debts in the business (Helfert 38). Series of simultaneous ratios can be employed to reveal the current state of safety in Bayer AG Company. Among the techniques include Debt to Equity ratio. The results are displayed in the table below.

Year of operation Safety ratios 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Debt to equity ratio = Total liabilities/ net worth 10,557/ 12,060 0.8 20,261/ 17,338 1.2 23,072/ 16,510 1.4 20,989/ 13,088 1.6 22,892/ 14,384 1.6 Table 4

The ratio of debt to equity affirms the quantitative interaction between creditors’ funds and investment by investors and owners in terms of capital. Reflectively, a higher ratio of the same directly translates into higher risk to both present and prospect creditors. In comparison, the smaller the ratio, the lower the cumulative risk on present and future investments.

Therefore, lower rations translate into financial stability and predictable probability to be financially worthy to borrow at present and latter (Vance 67). However, extreme low figure in the ratio is an indication of excessive precaution and conservativeness. As showed in the graph below, this ratio changes from 0.8 in 2006 to 1.59 in 2010. The positive changes indicate higher risk to present and prospect creditors.


This ratio indicates the management science and how appropriate they are in resource use to generate income and sales. As reflected in the turnover ratio, efficiency analysis also indicates the activity level. In this analysis, account payable, and account receivable turnovers are intrinsically employed simultaneously (Clauss 38).

These computations are presented in the table below. From the data generated, it is clear that the performance on this grid is erratic. This is because both positive and negative variations are noted across the six year period. Therefore, predictability of the future may not be accurate when account payable and account receivable turnover ratios are used. This is indicated in nature of graph generated.

Year of operation Efficiency ratios 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Accounts receivable turnover = Net sales/ Accounts receivable 41,121/ 5,888 7.0 51,058/ 11,200 4.6 50,710/ 9,444 5.3 40,984/ 7,981 5.1 42,446/ 7,570 5.6 Accounts receivable collection period = 365days/ accounts receivable turnover 52.1 79.3 68.7 71.6 65.2 Accounts payable turnover = cost of goods sold/ Accounts payable 27,742/ 3,732 7.4 33,781/ 7,074 4.8 33,337/ 5,225 6.4 27,720/ 6,101 4.5 29,629/ 4,950 6.0 Days payable = 365 days/ accounts payable turnover 49.3 76.0 57.0 81.1 60.8 Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold/inventory 27,742/ 1,554 17.9 33,781/ 2,876 11.7 33,337/ 2,533 13.2 27,720/ 2,523 11.0 29,629/ 1,865 15.9 Days inventory = 365days/ inventory turnover 20.4 31.2 27.7 33.2 23.0 Sales to net worth = Total sales/Net worth 41,121/ 12,060 3.4 51,058/ 17,338 2.9 50,710/ 16,510 3.1 40,984/ 14,749 2.8 42,446/ 16,231 2.6 Sales to total assets = Total sales/total assets 41,121/ 22,617 1.8 51,058/ 37,599 1.4 50,710/ 39,582 1.3 40,984/ 35,738 1.1 42,446/ 39,123 1.1 Table 5

Notably, sales to total assets and that of net worth declines across the years. As an indicator, sales to net worth reveals the number of units of sales achieved for every unit bundle of investment. On the other hand, sales to total assets show how efficient the company realizes sales for every unit of its assets.

Therefore, it a measure of the ability of a company’s assets to efficiently and sustainably generate sales in short, mid, and long terms (Helfert 34). As indicated above, Bayer AG’s ability to realize sales form assets and noteworthy is unreliable and is on declining trend. Unfortunately, this trend has a negative effect of lowering the confidence of investors to invest their capital in short term especially if the motive is partially speculative.

Methodology In the process of carrying out the comprehensive financial analysis, financial statements of Bayer AG Company were reviewed for a six year period from 2006 to 2011. This analysis employed varies analysis tools such as liquidity, profitability, liquidity, capital structure, and percentage.

These techniques and tools were employed simultaneously in cash flow, financial, and income statements (Helfert 56). Outcome from these techniques were extrapolated and explained and use in forecasting into future.

Conclusion Depending on the structure of a company, financial analysis can sometimes be tricky. Since Bayer AG fall in different industry in terms of product orientation, analysis of its financial statements is complex. This industry of operation is competitive. Thus, decision making science should resonate on the periphery of accounting science and qualitative analysis of data derived from financial performance.

From the analysis discussed above, it is apparent that Bayer AG Company has performed relatively well especially on the facets of sustainable business operations. Reflectively, the 2007 financial year was outstanding. This better performance can be attributed to strategies aimed at facilitating financial turnaround.

In the six year financial period of analysis, Bayer AG has been able to meet obligations and beyond. As noted, current performance in finance alone cannot extrapolate forecasting into future sustainability due to series of inconsistencies in previous performances. In addition, the current financial ground may not paint out a clear future for shareholders for short term investment profitability (Brigham and Houston 121).

However, due to a compact structural system, investment in the long run is viable within the operations of Bayer AG Company. Therefore, before further capital injection, further review should be ascertained as a function of present trend in profitability and sustainability.

Works Cited “Bloomberg Business: Bayer AG-REG (BAYN:Xetra).” Investing.Businessweek.com. Bloomberg Businessweek, 18 Sept. 2010. Web.

Brigham, Eugene F. and Joel F. Houston. Fundamentals of Financial Management. 12th ed. USA: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Clauss, Francis J. Corporate Financial Analysis with Microsoft Excel. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2010. Print.

Helfert, Erich A. Financial Analysis, Tools and Techniques: Assessment of Business Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill books, 2001. Print.

Vance, David E. Financial Analysis and Decision Making: Tools and Techniques to Solve Financial Problems and Make Effective Business Decisions. New York: McGraw-Hill Books, 2003. Print.


Joe Salatino, President of Great Northern American Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Individual perceptions

Learning theories applicable

The value of self Efficacy


Organization behavior is defined as the knowledge and application of how individuals, groups or the whole organization relate to each other within the context of the organization. It is an important area of study more so for persons seeking to understand how people relate to each other as individuals or groups with the aim of achieving organizational, self, and social objectives (Newstrom


Fundamental Obstacles to Effectiveness Within the Intelligence Community Coursework writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Complexities with Coordination

Congress’s resilience and Budgetary Defects

Multi-Dimensional Nature of Global Crime




Introduction The United States has always improved its security and defence through the utilization of human intelligence and technological systems. However, it was when the Pearl Harbor was attacked that the National Security Act was structured in 1947 to better the application of intelligence to crime prevention, crime control and to improve governance.

A combined investigation by the congress which held a year previously resolved that the attack on the Pearl Harbor was a clear indication for the need to restructure and conglomerate intelligence forces to a singular statutory function.

Until recently, the 9/11 assault further informed the need to reequip application of intelligence to crime mitigation through the CIA. Presently, the US has structured a complex Intelligence Community (IC) that orbits defense with the primary aim of forestalling anti-social attacks on the country.

Obstacles standing against the effectiveness of the intelligence community, however, are continually generating worry to critics, and several suggestions are made to improving the community. This paper considers the greatest blockages to the IC.

Complexities with Coordination The 1947 Act on National Security instituted independence of the various forces and the civil community which formed the intelligence community, and by implication indented the coordination and smooth alliance within the community and the CIA. Ever since the decree was passed and the Central Intelligence effected, several DCIs have struggled to produce results under the wooly mandate.

Research has shown that DCIs have been responsible for the coordination of communal intelligence whereof they are not conveniently able to utilize the necessary authority for producing results.1,2

This has created frustrating and faceless challenges against the expression of solutions that will benefit the general community. May noted however that the impulse in the centralization has instigated several reforms through the NSC-Intelligence in the hope to better the functionality of the IC.3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Congress’s resilience and Budgetary Defects Another huge obstacle to effectiveness within the IC has been delays to respond to demands of the CI by government. In E.O.12333, there is the delegation of power on the DCI that is supposed to strengthen financial provisions for the intelligence community.4

This intelligence-organization Act stipulates the incorporation of IC budgets into a singular source which would gain the approval of DCIs- however, funds accessibility is questioned.5,6

The intelligence-organization Act, nevertheless, presented something quite fresh for the IC as directors could meticulously limit and shift both human resources and funds across NFIP projects, as may be approved by government.

Multi-Dimensional Nature of Global Crime The intelligence community is equally faced with the challenge of addressing global crime due to its multi-dimensional, highly dynamic nature, complexly natured networks, as well as lack of adequate analysis in other parts of the world.7 Wastage and less-demanding effort for duplications have been noted to be elemental to the retardation found with the intelligence community.8

One will always say that the DNI is given ample authority to curtail this challenge, however. But the reality remains that there is a sort of complexity in relating the defense agencies pivoting the IC.9,10 Once the variance in conductance of international crime is removed, the IC would be fast tracking towards more fundamental realizations.

Conclusion This paper considers some of the most fundamental obstacles to effectiveness within the intelligence community, specifically in the 21st century. The paper notes the commitment of the United States to improved security and defence through the utilization of human intelligence and technological systems.

However, the IC is continually daunted with challenges through ‘Complexities with Coordination’, ‘Congress’s resilience and Budgetary Defects’, and ‘Multi-Dimensional Nature of Global crime’.

We will write a custom Coursework on Fundamental Obstacles to Effectiveness Within the Intelligence Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The paper however agrees that the 9/11 assault informed both the government and other stakeholders (on security) of the need to reequip the Intelligence Community (IC).

Bibliography Bazan, Elizabeth. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions. Washington: CRS report for Congress, 2007

Berkowitz, Bruce. “Information Age Intelligence.” Foreign Policy (1996): 41-2.

Best, Richard. Intelligence Issues for Congress. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2009.

Burch, James. “A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security.” Homeland Security Affairs III (June 2007): 1.

Hart, Liddell. Strategy. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1968

May, Ernest. “Intelligence: Backing into the Future.” Foreign Affairs 71 (1992): 64.

Office of the President. National Strategy for Homeland Security. Washington DC: GPO, 2002.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fundamental Obstacles to Effectiveness Within the Intelligence Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schlesinger, James. A Review of the Intelligence Community. Washington DC: National Security Council, 1971.

Treverton, Gregory. The Next Steps in Reshaping Intelligence. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2005.

Warner, Michael. Central Intelligence: Origin and Evolution. Washington, DC: CIA History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency, 2001.

Footnotes 1 Michael Warner, Central Intelligence: Origin and Evolution (Washington, DC: CIA History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency, 2001), 7.

2 Liddell Hart, Strategy (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1968), 43.

3 Ernest May, “Intelligence: Backing into the Future.” Foreign Affairs 71 (1992): 64.

4 Office of the President, National Strategy for Homeland Security (Washington DC: GPO, 2002), 102.

5 Schlesinger, James. A Review of the Intelligence Community (Washington DC: National Security Council, 1971), 23.

6 Gregory Treverton, The Next Steps in Reshaping Intelligence (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2005), 13.

7 Bruce Berkowitz, “Information Age Intelligence.” Foreign Policy (1996): 41-2.

8 Elizabeth Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions (Washington: CRS report for Congress, 2007), 6

9 Richard Best, Intelligence Issues for Congress (Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2009), 5.

10 James Burch, “A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security.” Homeland Security Affairs III (June 2007): 1.


Welcome Robotic for Abu Dhabi Women College Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction In the year 1988, the Abu Dhabi Women College opened its doors as one of the higher colleges of technology. The college was started with the aim of attending to the educational needs of the female students in a country where education was predominated by male student. This college has realized increased growth in the number of student since its inception. It is rated as the largest college among the existing 14 campuses.

The current enrollment of students exceeds 2500 per year. In the year 2009, the college opened a second banch in the city of khalifa to cater for the students who encounter problems relocating to the capital city. The college has several faculties namely business, communication and information technology, education, and health sciences. The instruction language of the college is English.

The college offers its study programs as diplomas, higher diplomas, bachelor degree, masters and doctorate degrees. The main administration personnel and building are found at the main campus in Abu Dhabi. The senior management includes chancellor, vice chancellor, deputy vice chancellor and deans. This report targets at implementing a robot that can make tours for visitors to the Abu Dhabi women college.

Current system The college provides third level education that is conducted in universities. ADWC, also, hosts pupils who are in the 10 to 12 grade from both government and private institutions. The purpose of this hosting is to enlighten the upcoming student on what they should expect in the higher education institutions.

Furthermore, the students are advised on methods that they can apply to reach their academic goals. The occasion is steered by school faculty staff and volunteer students who take the junior student through the experience of high school education and introduce them to tertiary education experience.

The lectures and teachers play another role of providing technical information. The lecturers are responsible for informing the visiting student on the various programs that the university offers within their area of expertise. In addition, lectures explain how each of the degree programs is subdivided to facilitate specialization.

This means that, the lectures take the student through combination of subjects that a student needs to take at the 12th grade and the required points that are needed for one to be enrolled in a certain program. Also, lectures take the student through the careers opportunities that are associated with a certain line of specialization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Faculty members play a role in the tours. The staffs are responsible for taking the young women through the operation of the university. In this regard, staff members take up position at their station of duty. For instance, the student will be guided through the operation procedural of the library by the librarians while laboratory procedures will be handled by the laboratory technicians.

Student volunteers take up the bulk part of the work that goes on during these tours. First, these volunteer students are responsible on preparing the operations for those students who will visit to the university. This means that they will design tour places and tour schedule for the visiting students. Secondly, they identify the number of student that could be handled effectively.

The university allows 120 students from each school. The student will, therefore, identify which schools to invite and how to balance the schools in order to expose as many students as possible from different school to expectations of university education.

The assembly hall serves as the convergence point. This is where the students are subdivided into smaller groups of 30 students. At the assembly hall, the lectures step in to explain on various issues as mentioned earlier. This role is carried out by a minimum of six lecturers. After the talk, the students are taken through various school facilities where they are guided by the people in charge.

The role of the students is to guide the visiting students in finding directions and controlling their movement. After the tour, another bunch of volunteer student will be waiting at block B to help the student fill in the survey forms. This survey helps the university to evaluate whether these students benefited from the tour.

The current system is manual and slows the operation of the university. Although the program has a good intent, it should not be at the expense of the efficient learning process of the current students. As such, the following are the challenges, advantages and disadvantages of this system.

Challenges of the current system Adherence to the number limit is not always observed. This means that the student send invitation to school requesting them to send 120 students per school. Some school has violated that requirement concessionary. This will result to confusion among the volunteer who are compelled to guide a large number of student.

We will write a custom Report on Welcome Robotic for Abu Dhabi Women College specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In several occasions, the student service has been forced to seek additional staff from other departments since they are overwhelmed by the number of visiting pupils. This happens especially when the student are filling in the survey form.

When invitation is sent, the invited institution is required to confirm its attendance. In many occasions, some institutions have cancelled their attendance during the last minutes. This is disadvantageous to the university since it will amount to wastage of resources. Other invited schools confirm their attendance but fail to show on the event.

This causes a lot of mix up and time wastage since the organizers have planned for a specific number of visitor but they experience a short fall in that number. This, further, means that the volunteering students will have wasted their time preparing for that day.

The university ensures balances on invitation to ensure that each school within their reach has a fair chance for invitation. This means that not all available schools are invited. As a result, the university invites specific schools each year. However, some schools do not get in touch with the university to confirm or cancel their attendance. This, therefore, causes the difficulties in the planning process.

The process lowers the functioning rate of school operation. This is because of some personnel taking part in the event organization and actualization not being available to conduct their routine duties. This means that some services will not be available. If the services are available, they will be at a slow pace.

Advantages of the current system The tour offers exposure to young students which will help them to psychological prepare for higher education.

The students interact with other students from other institutions. This helps them to share ideas and establish useful peer networks.

The students gain information on career paths and career opportunities that are associated with certain degree specialties.

The students get insights on how to match their talent and career choices.

The tour helps the university in fulfilling its social obligation of nurturing young talents.

The volunteer students develop role of civic and professional responsibility to taking part in shaping of the society.

The tour provides an interactive platform between university student and pupils.

Disadvantages of the current system The students miss crucial classes especially those taking practical classes.

The teachers waste a lot of student’s class time when the pupils go on this tour.

The lecturers miss lectures since they are involved in guiding the students on degree programs.

The tour slows university operations due to involvement of student, lecturers and faculty staff in this tour.

The main disadvantage of this system is loss of time. This has led to a thought of development of robotic system that will take over from the manual system. The system is meant to improve on the advantages that are associated with current system and eliminate disadvantages of the current system.

Robot system The robot set for development focuses on doing real human tasks. The success of the robot will be facilitated by coupling with specificities that are developed through feasibility study.

The application space that is meant to influence the development of this robot involves manipulation of tasks in human scale. The study case relies on the event where the college hosts pupils in 10th to 12th grade which are the most complex. The robot should fulfill the following essentials.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Welcome Robotic for Abu Dhabi Women College by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Safety A robot is meant to function in a human capacity scale. This means that it will interact with human beings especially in taking instruction.

The robot will, therefore, have measures to secure and guarantee safety during execution of activities. This safety is emphasized through robotic structure and design. At this point, structure of the robot must be rigid enough to handle breakage, obstacle, weather fluctuation and movement (Baer, 2008).

Machine learning Adopting a robot will translate into making the tour an occasion of machine learning. In this mode of learning, the robot will take the responsibility of explaining and taking pupils through the required curriculum coverage of the tour. This means that the tour will be generalized in order to facilitate uniformity of content coverage.

Information management systems The flow of information in an organization is facilitated by an established information management system (Hunt, 1983). The system should be well structured to meet the dynamic and organizational structure. It should, therefore, convey accurate information.

Communication breakdown is caused by failure of information management system which leads to confusion and inappropriate decision making. The following are systems that should be installed to enable effective operation of the robotic system.

Artificial intelligence system

Artificial intelligence system is a wide range of research that facilities development of computer based systems capable of simulating human behavior. The robot is required to have this system for its semi-autonomous nature.

This will be vital in saving time to execute routine instruction as well reprogramming non-routine actions. The robots will not only be used in the tours, but also in other functions that the university undertakes that involves visitors.

Expert system

This is an advanced artificial intelligence system technology. The system will ask users a series of questions in order to determine the required answer. Under this system, it attempts to codify and manipulate knowledge other than information.

The installation of the system is important in handling the explanations of technical issues such as explaining the career opportunities and explaining degree programs offered by the university. In addition, this system will help the robots to assist the controlling staff on the event progress. This is due to its capacity on addressing certain issues at a particular time.

Executive information system

This is the highest level of information system that will be installed in the robot. The system will be accessed by the senior management staff. It will help in collecting data from the visiting pupils and presenting it to the senior management staff. This will enhance policy makers to get the data without any human error or manipulation.

Data categorization Various departments in an organization require different information in order to function effectively (Kang, 2011). The information management should, therefore, establish a criterion to categorize, differentiate and move data to a step further in establishing the most effective means of relaying information to the relevant audience.

There will be relatively large amount of data that is supposed to be collected and disseminated during that event. This means that the robot must have a system that will categorize data at a given period. In addition, the categorization criterion will be needed in storing acquired information in the right section of storage devices of the computer.

Data Collection Confidentiality Organizations are sometimes caught up in wrangles that require information gathering through investigations. In such cases, there should be a well established system and strict rules regarding confidentiality (Harres, 2013). The organization should prioritize the safety of information sources first. Such systems should, also, be applied in handling of complains, recommendations and complements.

In cases where there are more than professional relations and personal relationships, there should be a clear directions to uphold professionalism. The robot will serve as a good method to enhance confidentiality of the data. This is because a pupil who may experience some unpleasant behavior from a student or staff can file a complaint with the robot without fears.

Information control There are two methods used in information controls. These are decentralized information control system and centralized control system. The technicalities of these two systems arise with relative sizes of events. Decentralized control strategy involves controlling information from various automated centers. However, they must follow the guidelines provided by the head office.

On the other hand, centralized strategy control involves coordination of information from one central point. These two aspects of information management will be applied by the robotic system.

This means that the robots will be programmed to disseminate certain level of information relating to the university. This will be regulated by the university head office. In addition, the level of information disseminated by the various faculties and departments will be determined from the people in charge.

Relevance of the Information Information management should incorporate a system of filtering out unnecessary information from reaching the target audience. Relevance of data saves time in the decision making process and improves the quality of decisions made. The pupils who attend the tour are in 10th to 12th grade. This means that the robot has to manage the information so that it covers on the universal needs of each of the three grades.

For instance, if a student attends the tour in her 10th, 11th and 12th grades, she will only learn about the same thing for the three visits. A robotic system will ensure that the pupils in the three grades cover different material such that the pupils are assured of different topic coverage if they visit thrice to the university. This helps the system to deliver relevant information for each grade.

Challenges to the Robotic System The main challenge is controlling information. There is no standard measure of determining the needs of every pupil. Each student will have unique expectation from visiting to the university. The robotic system is generalized and sidelines cases that are unique. The system will, therefore, face challenges in answering questions.

The student may be reluctant to interact with the robot. Considering the state of technological advancement in the United Arab Emirates, few pupils have ever seen a robot. This will create excitement among students or disseminate others into induction of fear. The system fails to deliver due to limited interaction with the system.


The robotic system saves student time. This is because the students will not be required to aid in visiting students through the institution. This will be done by the robots.

The system will save preparation time. Student, staff and lecturers spend a lot of time preparing materials that to be used for the educational tour in the university. This will be eliminated since only one copy will be required to update all the robots.

Pupils will be interested in understanding how the robots work. This may influence students into taking a lot of interest in science and technology.

The robotic system enables automated collection of data and data categorization during the end of tour survey.

The robotic system enables the university to study on methods of improving machine learning.

The robotic system will not be affected by the number of pupils who turn up for the event.

The robot can be taken to the individual schools instead of arranging journeys to transport students to the college.

The robotic system eliminates time wastage since it is effective in implementing its tasks without delays.

The system eliminates the chance of slowing down university operations


The robotics system eliminates the platform where university and pupils can interact.

The method may not determine the optimal information to disseminate especially when responding to non-structured questions.

The robot will still require supervision since the pupil may tamper with it

The system is disadvantageous to people with disabilities such as sight and hearing.

Conclusion Technology has revolutionized the way human beings have been carrying out their activities. In this regard, robots have become knowledgeable friends to man. This is because they have the ability to carry out human simulations.

Although there is no university that is known to have a robotic system responsible for taking visitors around the school, there are reasons to believe that such a system will come to be in the future. It will be an honor if our university was the first to generate such a system.

References Baer, P. A. (2008). Platform-Independent Development of Robot Communication Software. Kassel: Kassel Univ. Press.

Harres, D. (2013). MSP430-based Robot Applications A Guide to Developing Embedded Systems. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Hunt, V. D. (1983). Industrial robotics handbook. New York, N.Y: Industrial Press.

Kang, S. (2011). Robot development using Microsoft Robotics Developer Studio. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


The Liberal Person Essay college admission essay help

The world has different kinds of people and they hold varying views and have different attitudes. The outlook that the person has determines how he will react to the views and behaviours of other people. It will also influence the level of tolerance that a person has.

One of the types of people is the liberal person. This essay will set out to define who a liberal person is. It will engage in a detailed discussion of some of the characteristics that this person has and the values that he holds.

The liberal person welcomes diversity in life. He understands that the world is made up of people of different races and cultures. He does not fear differences but instead appreciates it. The liberal person is of the opinion that respect should be accorded to the different beliefs that people have.

In addition to this, individuals should have the freedom to express their non-traditional views. Because of these attitudes, the liberal person shows a great amount of tolerance for people from different cultural backgrounds and beliefs.

A liberal person has an open attitude and he is not tied down by tradition. When the person encounters views that are different from the normal ones, he does not reject them immediately. As such, when a new idea is presented, the liberal will not react rigidly.

Instead, he is open to the strange views and gives them the necessary consideration. As a result, the liberal person gains a lot of new knowledge since he is willing to learn even from views he does not necessarily endorse. His accommodative nature opens him up to new realities making his life rich in experiences.

Change is one of the realities that the liberal person embraces. He appreciates that the world is in a constant state of change and people must keep on adapting themselves as the world around them changes. He does not see change as something that should be resisted against and generally avoided.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The liberal welcomes change in both the society and in his personal life. He is likely to support progressive reforms even when others are holding on to the traditional views or ways of doing things.

The liberal person shows a lot of concern for the welfare of other people. He cares about the health, livelihood, and social well-being of the members of the society.

For this reason, the liberal person will in most times support greater assistance to the needy members of the society and reduced charges on essential services such as healthcare. For the liberal person, government programs designed to take care of the social welfare of the citizens are very desirable. The government which runs such programs is the most beneficial for the entire society.

The liberal person greatly values the freedoms of the individual. For this person, the liberties of the individual are of great importance and the government should always protect them. At the same time, each person should respect the individual rights and liberties of other people and avoid imposing on them.

These beliefs explain why the liberal person thinks that people should be allowed to make their own decisions on issues such as abortion. To ensure that the personal freedoms are always guaranteed, the liberal person supports great government power to protect the freedoms of citizens.

Objectivism is another virtue that the liberal person upholds. For him, no doctrine or ideology is right for every situation. As such, the liberal person will examine each situation in a fair manner. He will not look at the issue through the lens of religion or political ideology.

By adopting this subjective approach, the liberal person will be able to act in a just and fair manner since each case will be judged based on its merits. The liberal person is not influenced by the opinions of other people who might have bias on an issue.

We will write a custom Essay on The Liberal Person specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The liberal person has a strong believe in the ability of the government and because of this, he supports domestic government interventions. This is especially true in democratic countries where the people have empowered the government through the electoral process.

For the liberal person, the government has the power needed to act in the interest of the individual. To him, the society needs the government’s hand to regulate institutions such as the market and big corporation. Through this government intervention, people are protected from any exploitation that big corporations might want to engage in.

Having many liberal people might be a good thing for the society. Such people will support progress and reform in the country. They will not discriminate against people who have different views, ideologies, or traditions. Instead, they will show great tolerance and coexist with them in a harmonious way.

In a world that is becoming very multicultural, the liberal person is the most desirable person. The liberal view of government and society will ensure that that everyone is treated in a fair and just manner.


Somatic Intervention in Trauma Psychotherapy Essay custom essay help

Awareness is one of the greatest characteristic of all successful actions by man. The ability to act with full conscience helps an individual to overcome distractions by expectations, habits, or even uncertainties (Schuyler, 2010). This indicates that every human being must be trained to act according to strong psychological conviction as well as deep guiding principles of life.

Leaders are particularly expected to demonstrate outstanding value systems that can be sustained over a long period of time. Different approaches of training people’s mental capacities have been developed and have proved very efficient especially in psychotherapeutic interventions. This essay will discuss somatic interventions from a broader perspective.

It will then elaborate in detail the somatic experiencing (SE) interventions following the impact of disasters among social workers and also the understanding of somatization and meaning for abuse victims. The essay will then focus on somatic interventions for the treatment of trauma.

For a long period of time, many organizations have used similar approaches to train their organizational leaders. Organizational consultants have employed various methods of training executives to help them become better leaders and enhance their performance in general.

Some consultants, however, have been making a lot of attempts to explore other interventions that may help in the enhancement of organizational performance. Schuyler, a renowned consultant, has made various attempts to conduct research that does not only focus on the training of the mind, but also on the mind-body relationship, particularly as one matures (2010).

Earlier researchers pointed out a very key element of knowledge development and leadership: that the most significant learning can be traced to bodily experiences. However, most organizational consultants have ignored the significance of embodied knowing and this is what Schuyler sought to explore.

He supports the assertion that well formed leaders can live with extreme levels of stress as well as personal understanding of system dynamics (Schuyler, 2010). The exploration of the physical foundations of integrity is also part of Schuyler’s research. Integrity is defined as the capacity of an individual to hold together and resist the temptation and pressure of external forces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research findings have revealed that bodily experience-based learning originates from the increasingly known domain of brain plasticity. Different parts of the world, as neuroscientists argue, have varying ways of training the mind and hence significantly different levels of the ability to control the functions of the brain (Schuyler, 2010).

In his article, Schuyler presents a comprehensive approach to developing leadership which includes the use of somatic awareness and deliberate training of the mind with an intention of enhancing integrity. This somatic approach incorporates different embodied learning practices and eastern ways of mind training.

Many researchers appreciate the fact that somatic approach is still a developing field which seeks to put more emphasize on the role of first hand experiences of an individual in relation to scientific and medical importance.

There are two major somatic practices that are recognized internationally for transforming people of all ages. There is the Feldenkrais Method and the Anat Baniel Method. A significant number of researches have been conducted in different parts of the world, especially on medical, physical therapy, or psychotherapy perspectives.

Somatic interventions have been found to be very effective since they result in decreased pain and enhances function, improves functioning after strokes, there is enhanced functioning after spinal injury, as well as increasing balance among the elderly, and decreases levels of perceived stress.

Moreover, there is reduced anxiety among people with multiple sclerosis, increased self-confidence, and improvement in the quality of life in general (Schuyler, 2010).

The primary objective of the research conducted by Feldenkrais was the development of flexible minds and not bodies. However, he ended up exploring the development of the physical bodies. It is these somatic approaches that Schuyler applies to organizational consultancy, particularly in the development of leaders with integrity.

We will write a custom Essay on Somatic Intervention in Trauma Psychotherapy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Feldenkrais’ approach to learning involved complex processes that were aimed at enhancing the learning and performance among students. He designed a method for controlling how students learnt and moved. This method ensured the distribution of movement through the entire body especially the spine and the ribs. This ensures that no single part of the body bears the extra burden.

These key considerations helped him in realizing that the human nervous system and the role of the brain in movement is crucial and work closely with other aspects of a person, for instance feelings, perceptions, and ambitions in life.

The two methods used non-habitual movements to help learners to detect how to move with less effort and powerfully to facilitate both physical and broader change. These approaches enable learners to control their use of force and hence avoid unnecessary force.

The practitioners of these methods help learners through the use of more complex patterns of movement similar to the learning among young children which relies mostly on the brain plasticity. Schuyler (2010) used these two major experiential approaches in creating awareness and training the mind. The somatic approaches have been known to help learners focus keenly on their movement, breathing, and their states of mind.

For a long time, leadership has been known to primarily involve cognitive and conceptual aspects where language is used to conceive actions. Such training has been found to be very effective in training people. It can be concluded that the use of both mind training and somatic learning can foster integrity and self-awareness which in turn leads to appropriate action (Schuyler, 2010).

Somatic interventions, apart from shaping the desired behavior, can be used in addressing different distressing situations in life. People undergo different experiences especially in times of disaster and will most likely need treatment measures in order to enable them live normal lives (Leitich, Vanslyke,


The Importance of therapeutic alliance and its implications for therapists. Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

The aim of the of the research was to try and establish the appropriate outcome measurement techniques and in turn use the research outcome to establish whether psychotherapy is effective.The length of therapy and its relation to effective treatment was also observed.

It is a challenge to measure outcome in psychotherapy but despite this huddle, a few clinicians still monitor outcome. Research has built evidence that if a patient’s progress is monitored, then it becomes less of a task to measure the resulting patient outcome.

A sharp increase in the cost of medical care was the driving force that led more and more clinicians to start getting involved in patient outcome measurement. This resulted in the need to identify effective methods by which this could be achieved. Several methods with different characteristics have been suggested by Ogles, Lambert, and Masters (1996).

The different characteristics of these methods include the content, time orientation of the instrument and the method of data collection. The psychological element that is measured by an instrument is referred to as the content of the measure; multiple elements can however be measured using the same instrument depending on the scope of the measurement.

Papers written by between-study meta-analytic review writers employ a sample of studies and then code the treatment effect size and a numerical code of the length of experience of the therapist and or the different levels of education of the therapist e.g. a master’s clinician versus a PhD. These are then correlated to establish the relationship between the effect size and level of experience.

Investigations done within a study carried to establish the relationship between years of therapist training and outcome were reanalyzed using meta-analytic methods. The outcome was that out of 154 comparisons, thirty nine showed that patients who seek assistance from paraprofessionals stood a better chance of having their issues resolved than those who saw professionals.

Other sub comparisons also indicated that patients got better results seeing therapists who were still or had just completed training. Long practicing paraprofessionals were found to be more effective than the beginners. Hattie et al. (1984) review interestingly noted that the amount of training received by paraprofessionals had a positive effect on the patient outcome.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As would be expected, different indices of change are bound to be obtained if different methodologies are used to arrive at them (Smith, Glass,


Microglandular Hyperplasia Cells Report best essay help

Microglandular hyperplasia refers to polypoid cell growth in the adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Measuring about 1 to 2 cm, the glandular lesions normally occur in pregnant or postpartum women on oral contraceptive therapy, clinically referred to us Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate. These lesions mostly occur in women of productive age and a few cases in postmenopausal women.

According to Medeiros and Bell, microglandular hyperplasia cells can described as “tightly packed glandular units, lined with epithelium cells that consists of eosinophilic granular cytoplasm containing quantities of mucin” (1). Microscopically, nuclei appear vesicular and are uniform in pattern while the mitotic figures are rare.

Microglandular hyperplasia patters can be confusingly similar especially in the benign endocervical glandular proliferation and adenocarcinoma formation in the endocervical and endometrial. These close resemblances often pose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically since they resemble malignant cells.

Medeiros and Bell in their clinical studies characterise microglandular hyperplasia cells to present either polyp or erosion lesion, appear in singular forms or multifocal and sometimes located deeply or superficially.

Histologically, an extreme variety of patterns with unusual regularity and uniformity are often cited in their closely packed, small tubular with areas of cystic dilatation which are sometimes acute and other times chronic inflammation typically associated with the lesions present within luminal secretions. Cytoplasm contains subnuclear clear values while the nuclei are deceptively bland in nature and present rare mitotic figures (1)

The unusual microglandular hyperplasia patterns that pose diagnostic challenges are stated by Medeiros and Bell as “solid, sheetlike proliferation of cells, pseudoinfiltrate growth, signet ring cells, hobnail-like cells, increased nuclear atypia and mitotic figures”(1).

Usually, the difficult distinction between endocervical microglandular hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma in biopsy is the major reasons why a patient should see a gynaecological pathologist.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Padrao and Andrade replicated this studies by adding that florid microglandular hyperplasia presents itself in pregnant women with Aria-Stella reaction, which is a closely simulated adenocarcinoma and emerge in areas of microglandular hyperplasia (2).

Microglandular hyperplasia cells originate from hormonal stimulation in the female genital tract and may sometimes accumulate on non-detectable levels. They act on cellular proliferation that may sometimes mimic malignant tumours, but their morphologic features distinguish them from other proliferative processes.

Pathology of microglandular hyperplasia occurs as a result of hormonal pregnancy changes in the ovarian cells resulting to pregnancy luteoma and large solitary luteinised follicular cysts pregnancy and puerperium. Due to hyperplasic changes in the endometriosis and the pregnancy changes in ovary, early diagnosis is critically important to prevent overtreatment in young women with reproductive (1, 3).

It’s clinically proven that mucinous can either be pure or intermixed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Sometimes the age of a patient may pose a challenge when doing a diagnosis and is, however, recommended to exercise extreme caution when doing a diagnosis of microglandular hyperplasia of older patients.

Conclusively, it’s further recommended that any traces of mild nuclear atypia or even mitotic activity in a postmenopausal woman should prompt for further investigation (1, 3).

Conclusion Cervical changes in pregnant women as a result of microglandular hyperplasia should carefully be diagnosed to avoid overtreatment.

Although the differentiation between endocervical microglandular hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma often pose challenges, a well-sampled specimen will help facilitate correct diagnosis. The hyperplasic changes in the endometriosis and the pregnancy changes in ovary require early diagnosis to prevent overtreatment in young women.

We will write a custom Report on Microglandular Hyperplasia Cells specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Medeiros, F.,


Tourism essay help: essay help

The present paper develops a focused and sustained understanding on how tourism impacts cultural change at the global level, the benefits and drawbacks arising from the interrelationship between tourism and local cultures, and what stakeholders can do to ensure that tourism does not submerge dominant cultural issues as it seeks to generate more deterministic forms of culture. The following are the major findings:



AT scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Holding the fact that oligopoly is the market that is dominated by a limited number of players (sellers and suppliers) who determine the amount or the rate of profit they expect irrespective of the economic situation. It is important for the government to regulate their operations in order to shield the common citizen’s interests.

In the oligopoly market structure, there is a possibility that the stakeholders might agree to fix a price of their goods and services without reflecting the customer’s economic interests. In other words, oligopoly market structure is controlled by few corporate institutions hence limiting a chance for others to enter the market (Robert, 2011).

The basic factors to determine who is to join and not to join the market are determined by the few players with an intention to avoid fair competition or allow natural price setting in the market where market forces dictate the prices of goods and services. In this case few companies in the oligopoly market structure strive to retain power of determining the prices of goods and services regardless of other factors in the market.

With this kind of a market structure, there is a possibility that citizens are subjects to extortion by the few companies. In addition, other interested players are denied or shortchanged their constitutional rights to do business anywhere and in any area of interests. It is therefore the role of the government to regulate these trends in the market (Robert, 2011).

The Government is therefore mandated by the citizens to control the pricing structures of such markets formations. By controlling the pricing structure, the government will ensure that the citizens are free from exploitation and their social interests are considered when fixing prices.

If the few companies are let to operate freely without government hand in price and operational control, then there is a possibility that they will control the market, as well as exploiting the locals. Considering the fact that some of the services are basic, the government should be interested in making sure that some of these services are available to all.

If government fails to control the operations of these companies, the country’s economy will be dented, hence putting at risk the economic growth projected and the job creation in the industry. If this happens, it is possible for the country to witness social unrest hence making the country ungovernable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To avoid this, basic service providers, such as telephone service companies, should be regulated well to avoid inconveniences in the market place. considering the fact that the government promotes entrepreneurship, it is therefore important for the government to regulate the industry whereby it is expected to provide a platform where fair competition is enhanced.

In oligopoly market structure, price competition is not one of the elements and they set prices out of agreement between the stakeholders. Thus, it is important for the government to provide quality competition in prices and services as the way of promoting innovativeness and creativity in the industry.

Fair competition will enhance job creation and fair pricing structures emanating from natural price forces within the industry (Hyman, 2011). These provisions allow the government to intervene and control market despite of the economic consequences that are determined by government’s direct involvement in the market.

The United States economy is not healthy since the cost of living has gone higher than it was expected by its citizens. Euro crisis has also been felt in the United States economy. This therefore calls for the government to put all economic structures and requirements in order to protect common citizen’s interests.

To reduce human suffering and ensure that government prevents the loss of jobs, and instead supports a program where job creation is possible, the government must be willing and able to intervene in the operation of the oligopoly market structure in the economy. Oligopoly market situation is an exploitive system which does not support the government economic justifications.

To avoid the occurrence of economic crisis, the United States government stands to control the prices of goods and services in all areas of the economy. This will ensure that the cost of living is controlled and inflation rate does not go up from the expected. It is also important to note that the economy stands to grow by creating alternative means in all sectors of the economy.

With this regard, the government is expected to protect the upcoming companies. The entry of other players in a large basic services ensures job creation and standardization of the prices in the industry. By this, there will be competition hence providing better and fair prices to the locals.

We will write a custom Research Paper on AT


English for Special Purposes Coursework essay help site:edu

Identifying Characteristics of Taxi Drivers as Learners of English for Specific Purposes

The group of students includes taxi drivers who will need to meet the existing standards of the language proficiency. The age of the focus group varies significantly from 25 to 45 years. Specifically, a group under the age category 30 amounts to 60 % whereas group under the age category from 30-45 years is 40 %. All taxi drivers should learn English as a second language for using it in their professional environment.

Specifically, the purpose of learning language consists in reaching communicational purposes, instructional purposes, and pragmatic functions. In particular, the task of taxi drivers is to learn speech patterns that are most commonly used in the workplace. They should also be able to adjust to various cultural varieties and, therefore, their language should be politically correct.

Study of language, therefore, will also be connected with intercultural issues, including the analysis of various nationalities, essentials of cross-cultural communication, and the basics of interpersonal communication. Finally, the students will have to be able to learn the linguistic patterns and sentence structures that are often used in dialogues.

Specific attention should be paid to the analysis of language proficiency. In the given course, it is purposeful to apply to holistic strategies and start learning languages from the general vocabulary, or high-frequency words, and proceed with learning more specific terms and lexis related to the professional environment.

The fact that students have various cultural and ethnic origins as well should also be taken in consideration because it has a great impact on the curriculum design and the actual duration of the course.

Strategies to Conduct A Needs Analysis and Rationale for the Chosen Strategies in Terms of the Theoretical Perspectives

Introducing course design for studying English for specific purposes is much more beneficial for learners seeking to learn the language for achieving either academic or professional goals (Dudley-Evans


Comparative Education: Benefits, Usefulness and Validity Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Such academic field as comparative education can benefit both educators and policy-makers, even though its usefulness and validity is sometimes questioned. This essay will show that the critique of comparative education can be explained by its multidisciplinary nature and the use of various research methods which appear to be inconsistent.

Nonetheless, the findings derived in such a way can still be of great use for understanding international policy trends in education. Moreover, they can help policy-makers improve the work of educational institutions. This is the main argument that should be explained and illustrated in this paper.

First, one should note that comparative education strongly relies on other academic fields, for instance, psychology, political science, economics, sociology, history, or even anthropology (Cook, Hite,


Tourism as an Ambassador of Promoting International Peace Report custom essay help

In essence, there are many definitions of peace. In the context of this paper, peace is defined as insubstantial attribute which is hard to compute or otherwise quantify. Peace is usually defined as the nonexistence of war, random violence and actions of terrorism.

However, this characterization is narrow and, does not put into consideration the major causes of conflict and sustainability of worldwide peace, which is not a sufficient necessity for peace. When defined dynamically, peace calls for existence of justice and fairness in accordance to the rule of law (Richie, 2004, pp.669-675).

Sustenance of tourism has become an issue of equivalent significance in both developing and developed countries. This essay is designed for both. However, the sense of balance of concerns may differ between them.

The resolve of this paper is to provide administrations with leadership and structure for the growth of strategies that sustains tourism as a toolbox of mechanisms they can use in the implementation of those.

Over time, tourism has increasingly become a fundamental part of our lives with the tourism industry being said to be among the fastest growing global industries.

A report documented by the International Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Devel­opment (ITF-STD)-Marrakech (2009) documents that 903 Million tourist travelled in 2007 and the number increased in 2008 as well as 2009 in spite of the economic and financial hiccups that were faced in between that duration.

Additionally, the report further estimates that the number may sky-rocket to as high as 1.6 billion people by the year 2020.This is majorly based on the various forms of activities that people engage in tourism thus giving us an ample time for relaxation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lindsay (2003) additionally states that global tourism generates close to 3 trillion dollars while it importantly contributes to approximately 11% of the global Gross National Product which makes it the largest industry in the world.

Even more importantly, tourism has been a great income generating activity for not just individuals but also corporations and even governments (Dabour, 2003, pp.24-30). Recent studies also attest to the immense progress of the tourism industry in spite of the admitted presence of challenges and limitations in the industry.

Tourism occurs when people choose to move from one place to another visiting with friends and family purposely for play, business, study, work, service and, pilgrimage (Rodriguez


Definition of Gospel Parables Essay writing essay help

Gospel Parables refers to the simple allegorical stories that were commonly applied by Jesus in most of His teachings to the multitudes, as it is evident in the Gospel books of the New Testament. Those parables were designed to teach or illustrate some moral lessons or religious principles, among other key aspects.

The parables in the synoptic gospels basically proclaimed the Kingdom of God and were used as a way of defining the Kingdom itself (Green, 1997). In this case, certain things or symbols would be compared to the various aspects that surrounded the kingdom.

One good example of a parable that was used by Jesus to tell about the Kingdom of God was the story of the ten virgins, which is highlighted in chapter 25 of the book of Matthew, from verse one to thirteen. This parable tells the story of ten maidens who prepared for a wedding feast and were waiting for the bridegroom, so that they could receive him to the feast.

In this parable, Jesus compares the Kingdom of Heaven to ten virgins who were preparing to meet the bridegroom (Hultgren, 2002). However, half of the ten maidens were wise, while the other half were foolish. Those who were wise knew better and were much informed than the foolish ones.

In this regard, they proved to be much prepared to meet the bridegroom compared to the foolish ones, and when the moment came, they would take oil in their vessels along with their lamps. However, the foolish ones took their lamps as well, but without any spare oil with them. Now it happened that the bridegroom had delayed to appear in the expected time, and all the ten maidens had fallen into sleep.

Come in the midnight, the air was full of cries signaling the eventual arrival of the bridegroom. Suddenly, the ten maidens arose and lit up their lamps. The wise ones had their lamps full of oil and could burn for long hours, but the foolish lot was facing the fate of getting into darkness, for their lamps were going out for lack of extra oil.

Meanwhile, the five foolish maidens approached the wise ones and pleaded with them for a share of oil to sustain their lamps, which were almost going out. However, the wise dismissed them by claiming that the oil won’t be enough to be shared among them and that it would be rather good for their friends to go to the sellers and get to buys oil for themselves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The foolish maidens had no other option, but to go out in search for oil and it was while they were away when the bridegroom finally showed up for the feast. The bunch that was ready accompanied him into the feast, and the doors were finally closed, locking out any intruder who might try to force their way into the feast.

Later on, the other five maidens also came and they cried out loudly, calling for the Lord of the feast to open the door for them, but the master responded by claiming that, he didn’t know them (“The Parables of Jesus Christ,” 2009). Jesus ended this story by warning his followers to remain watchful and alert all the time, for no one can tell of the moment when the Son of Man will show up.

The message of this parable to the contemporary Christian is not different from what Jesus was trying to teach his followers then; to remain watchful. This simply means that, Christians should always be prepared to receive Jesus, when He returns. Several symbolic aspects have been used in the story, to bring out the real meaning of the parable, as it was intended by Jesus Himself.

First of all, the oil represents the Holy Spirit and the things He uses to guide Christians to Christ. The two categories of maidens, on the other hand, are used to represent the two types of Christians; those who follow Christ with their full hearts and those who follow Him only in a nominal sense.

The ones who follow Him with their complete sense are strong and they dwell in Him, rather than beside him in every situation (Wood, 2005). However, the other lot of Christians has been likened to the foolish girls, who quickly fall away, whenever troubles or temptations present.

This parable teaches the contemporary Christian society to remain loyal to Christ and His teachings. In this regard, it is the responsibility of each and every Christian to abide by the teachings of Christ and to live by His directives all the times. Christians are expected to take their Christian faith and belief seriously, and avoid any form of temptation which is likely to betray their salvation status.

More importantly, it is also the responsibility of Christians to ensure that their actions do indicate the levels of faith which are acceptable by God. Christians should not be too presumptuous, but they ought to be fully prepared for the Kingdom of Heaven, which had been promised to them by the master Himself.

We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Gospel Parables specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just like in the case presented in the parable, only those who’d be found prepared are the ones the master would take along with Him, to join the Kingdom of Heaven.

References Green, J. (1997). The gospel of Luke. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Hultgren, A. (2002). The parables of Jesus: A commentary. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

The Parables of Jesus Christ: The Parable of the Ten Virgins. (2009, Feb 9). The Berean Christian Bible Study Resources, pp. 32-45. Retrieved from http://www.bcbsr.com/survey/pbl20.html

Wood, J. (2005). The parable of the ten virgins. Montana: Kessinger Publishing.


Ethical Issues in GlaxoSmithKline Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

GlaxoSmithKline Ethical Lapses Over the last decade, ethical issues affecting quality of GlaxoSmithKline’s products have emerged. These issues occurred because the company failed to follow production procedures. The need to make profit contributed to unethical activities in GlaxoSmithKline. The company has been has been sued for selling Paxil and Avandia even after research results showed that their side effects were serious.

GlaxoSmithKline released the two drugs to the market without informing its customers of the side effects. Paxil was not suitable for children under the age of 18 but GlaxoSmithKline kept the information.

Use of Paxil led to addictive behavior, withdrawal symptoms, birth defects and serious suicidal tendencies. Earlier on, a GlaxoSmithKline physician had enrolled children with no major depression or obsessive compulsive disorders for purposes of research (Moynitan


Management of change at BNP Paribas Case Study best college essay help

A descriptive case study of BNP Paribas BNP Paribas S.A. is a major global banking company that was formed way back in the year 2000 from a merger between Paribas and the Banque Nationale de Paris (BNP). It has two headquarters, a global one based in London and another in Paris. The merger was lauded for having reduced unhealthy competition and increased service delivery in the banking industry all over the world.

Its continuous successful performance and current policy status are attributed to the main objective of serving its retail end of the market while widening its investment base throughout the world. Through its leadership, it has been able to diversify its service and products portfolio to the consumers all over the globe making it to be ranked as a major bank in terms of provisions.

The same ranking in 2011 revealed that the measurement of its total assets was US$ 2.670 trillion. Despite the global crisis of 2007-2009, the bank was able to make massive profits of about €3 billion and €5.8 billion in 2008 and 2009 respectively.

Other sources also reveal that the bank has several interests in investment solutions, corporate and investment banking as well as retail banking as its strategic business units which have helped it rise above other market competitors in terms of performance. In addition, it has four domestic markets namely Luxemburg, Belgium, Italy and France. Its retail operations are found in almost all the continents of the world.

In terms of revolutionizing its operations, the management team at BNP Paribus has in the previous months focused on management of change as one of the most important aspects of enhancing its performance both at local and international levels. Management of change in leadership has given the bank an opportunity to improve its service delivery while focusing on the goal of raising overall profitability.

Surveys on the bank reveal that its leadership has embarked on the process of management of change especially in the area of management to enhance performance.

This company has been one of the leading banks in the provision of consumer financial services, investment banking, commercial banking and small scale businesses, processing financial transactions, private equity and assets management as shall be noted in its case study in relation to management of change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective leadership at BNP Paribas has remained one of the most remarkable models that have brought out the much needed organizational change. This has been through the creation of favorable working environment, moderation of organizational operations and staff motivation that are all aimed at attaining organizational goals.

The leadership practice in this bank has continued to be outstanding in driving the organization towards change and linking its operations to long-term objectives. One would agree from past surveys that its leadership has indeed been the driving force for the much needed organizational change and is quite crucial in defining its effectiveness in terms asset management.

Needless to say, the ability by the management of the bank to spearhead positive change in the operations of the bank has been invaluable. It goes without saying that its regular positive change in leadership strategies has seen the organization thriving where others have fallen.

Since its inception, the management at BNP Paribas has been concerned with the need to foster change. Its leadership has been inherently value-based and has developed close ties with staff and stakeholders making it a group process. The enormous successes the bank has enjoyed are highly credited on leadership, change and professionalism employed at all levels of its operations.

This growth has been maintained through well founded change management strategies used in recruitment and selection of the different staff, shared values and systems, therefore serving as a major link between performance and practical skills.

Through its leadership, the bank has emphasized on the need to maintain high quality levels of services to employees and the diversification of products and services as core factors in maintaining a competitive advantage in the fast changing global market.

Emerging difficulties –leadership and management problems Leadership issues

The report by the Worldwide Nicosia Business Review dated May 24, 2012 brings out one of the major issues facing BNP Paribas as leadership challenge. The bank has been blamed for using low-key leaders to run its operations in spite the fact that it has recorded significant growth in the past few years.

We will write a custom Case Study on Management of change at BNP Paribas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, it is imperative to note that some of the loopholes in its leadership structure may not yield immediate visible impacts but may take quite a considerable length of time before such effects are realized.

Even though its performance has been steady in the last few years, its leadership has never been able to competently effect necessary changes in terms of systems, building cohesion among its diverse workers and policies. The calls for change among its stakeholders could perhaps be the reason why there was an earlier than expected departure of its former leader Michael Pebereau.

His departure came after the realization that under his leadership as well as the market position of the company was not going to improve in the foreseeable future.

Ineffective teamwork and discrimination

The management approach that BNP Paribas has been using is based on diversity, a consideration which has seen it employ over 205,300 employees from 160 nationalities in the 84 countries where its offices are located. Even with its ambitions, commitment, creativity and responsiveness, its team of leadership has not been efficient in establishing strong working network.

One would sharply disagree with this argument on the basis that the bank has embraced corporate values and opted to work through groups to attain success. While that may be true, it still falls short of reflecting teamwork, a factor seen in its constant discrimination troubles featuring among its 30 operational risks.

Lack of team work is a critical challenge at BNP Paribas and might greatly affect the realization of its vision, objectives and long term goals. Teamwork is a critical component and a tool which the bank has not fully established and which when employed, can enhance performance and work success.

While its leadership understands the need to foster teamwork as a process of change and achieve established objectives, it has not been able to carry out its operations effectively due to issues of team dynamics.

Areas that need change Structure

One of the areas that require immediate change interventions at BNP Paribas is its leadership structure. An effective leadership structure within BNP Paribas will improve the level of productivity by encouraging efficient and effective work. It is important to note that it is growing faster and becoming more complex.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management of change at BNP Paribas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, it endeavors to catch up with the growing complexity of market trends. Its leadership understands and acknowledges the fact that better and efficient provision of services is important towards growth. Using McKinsey 7s model, the structure of an organization which represents how units of an organization relate is critical in enhancing performance.

BNP Paribas organizational structure should comprise that which incorporates speed in decision making, increasing the flow of information in and out of the banking environment and offering mobility and value to all its workers.

One cannot doubt the effectiveness of leadership at BNP Paribas, but cannot also fail to admit that its leadership structure has not been keen on ensuring a top-down functional division, networking and organization of effective working systems.

As matter of fact, it is imperative to mention that for effective management of organizational resources including human capital demands good leadership roles within various departments of an organization. As it is the case with PNB Paribas at present, it is clearly evident that there are myriads of missing links in the leadership structure of the organization which ought to be addressed if positive growth is to be realized.

While the current leadership structure at BNP Paribas is decentralized and quite active, it should have a strong structure, as this will make it more competent and will form the organization’s greatest asset. Its leadership structure should represent how well the organization can execute its strategies.

There is need for a strong establishment of the existing leadership structure with competent leaders and the elimination of low key leaders. A poor leadership structure full of low-keyed leaders negatively impacts on organizational performance.

It is without doubt that the current management at BNP Paribas has a strenuous task of making sure that it maintains brilliant market performance while at the same time harmonizes its workforce in a manner that will boost the morale of employees. While balancing between the two extremes may be a cumbersome duty, it is worth to note that it can still be achieved by proper restructuring of leadership of various departments.

It is imperative for leaders at BNP Paribas to develop knowledge on leadership styles that will create change and curb the challenges posed by discriminatory practices. In order to strengthen the competitive position BNP Paribas has, proper and efficient leadership structures should be put in place.

Through changing and strengthening leadership structures, BNP Paribus will be able to establish new competitive structural abilities that will boost its global image. This will also see to it that its International participation via virtual management systems and modernization of the new branches in other countries contribute towards great success.

Its success requires high level and dynamic orientation of the management structures in order to overcome the stiff competition. Flexibility in the management of all the departments of the bank should be clear for international outlook and profits to be realized (Valentine 2012, p.41).


Strategic leadership as a means of change remains one of the important ways through which BNP Paribas can remain progressive in terms of planning, performance and resource allocation, and be responsive to the market. Strategy, from the 7s model focuses on the allocation of resources which may be scarce and focusing on customers, competition and the business environment with a mission of reaching identified goals.

Being strategic at BNP Paribas leadership is critical in the management of change bearing in mind that it will act as a strong force that will continuously reenergize diverse workforce, refresh the informal and formal systems of the organization and propel it to a higher level.

Without strategic leadership, management of change and subsequent continuity in BNP Paribas, productivity and profitability will be an elusive practice. Indeed, in spite of the massive studies directed at re-evaluating management of change in the banking sector, without strategic leadership, banks fail to make great advances in implementing change. This scenario has been noted as a common case in the banking industry.

Having enjoyed a long period of continued profitability, the leadership of BNP Paribus should be aware of the need to restructure itself strategically as part and parcel of capturing diverse marketing opportunities and also counter emerging uncertainties. Therefore, there is need for it to have its strategies centered on a strong change process aimed at decentralizing its structures and creating newer units in its operations to accelerate growth.

In addition, this change process needs to involve all departments, encourage them to liaise with other structures and work together in enhancing service provision, relaying of feedbacks and re-evaluation of progress.

Skills and shared values

Skills are distinctive capabilities which individuals or personnel in an organization possess at their disposal. On the other hand, shared values are attitudes and central beliefs the aforementioned members of an organization have. The development of skills among workers in BNP Paribas plays a crucial role of elevating performance levels to a position whereby an organization enjoys profitability.

This practice of developing human capital is an attribute of strategic leadership. Implementing change in terms of developing skills among staff has been a model that has brought immense benefit to the business. At BNP Paribus, human capital is an integral factor which has continually boosted the capability and overall performance.

In order to improve its output and limit low-key staff, the top leadership of this bank ought to organize training to enhance workers’ skills. Trained and adequately skilled workers will form the bank’s capital resource and will also be a source of gaining a competitive edge. Forming of development and training programs are some of the best strategies of developing human capital.

This management of change model targets constructing a vision that is common to a firm will facilitate communication and helps in building skills. Besides, skill development programs will be critical in inculcating core values, enhancing social levels and promoting cohesion among the workforce.

Staff and style

Successful changes usually pick intensity and speed as they progress through different stages in the change process. BNP Paribas’ leaders must account for the new behavior and cultural development in the institution by nurturing the tender change and avoiding identity crisis for different employees. Special cases must be addressed in the bank for slow learners to avoid drifting behind due to their inefficiency.

Increased credibility of the employees and structures is therefore built on to anchor the change progress after establishing the short term win situations.Policies that do not cohere with the change process should either modified or dropped completely in order to maintain the direction of the vision.

Assessment at this stage will be necessary to make sure that the overall services delivery and the expected results are attained alongside the short term individual attainment.


System in PNB Paribas is a critical component that encompasses routines, processes, and procedures an organization has. Its leaders must be in a position to align all the systems of an organization to meet organizational goals.

At BNP Paribas, its leadership needs to characterize its systems to reflect the importance of managing assets, information systems, performance appraisal systems, promotion, hiring and financial systems for better performance.

Some of the areas that were changed It is imperative to note that the leadership in BNP Paribas has been able to effect certain changes in areas of its operation. Notably, its profitability has been based on the ability to factor leadership changes in prevailing internal and external situations and infusing its mission with articulate objectivity of improved performance and high profitability.

In light of staffing, skills and shared values, it has set up mechanisms for training, development, recruitment and employee selections based on critical outlook of the prevailing conditions and the balance between implications of the program’s effects to the employees. A sense of stability and decisiveness that focuses on the employees to a better future has been generated as a tool for maintaining commitment and hard work.

Questions What is the function of leadership in creating and managing change?

Should the leadership of an organization involve change agents to implement organizational change?

What impact has workers, staff and stakeholders in effecting change?

Analyze the management of change using various theories.

Main learning points One of the key learning points from the case study is that management of change in organizations remains to be a core practice that cannot be ignored if positive growth and performance is to be realized. In addition, the ability to manage change especially in regards to leadership within an organization stands out as an integral need in the banking industry.

As noted in the case of PNB Paribas, low key leadership is a factor that has seen its growth slowdown compared to its former years. Thus, a sustainable growth and performance of an organization will largely depend on how well change is introduced, embraced and implemented within an organization.

Another factor that has come out from the case study is that the role of strategic leadership in creating change sprouts from various driving forces which compel an organization to seek intrinsic outsets for improvements.

This reflects the perspective which Albanese (2012, p. 13) holds in his article when quoting the change management model by Kurt Lewin’s and indicating that leadership must be flexible and anchored on a strong force to facilitate re-evaluation and acceptance and implementation of the ideology. This can also be implemented when both internal and external orientations of strategic leadership are considered.

A further learning point from the case study mirrors, Cohen’s (2002 p. 53) sentiment from the model of organization change. He indicates that there is need for management of an organization to develop a desire for change before shifting to seek change in an organization.

Under this model and with regards to the case study, it becomes clear that a leadership must be able to consider an organization’s internal and external factors and move towards implementing them. Besides, it reflects the connection that exists between strategic leadership, change management and innovation.

Answers and discussions to questions on the case study What is the role of leadership in creating and managing change?

Leadership according to Bielski (2005, p. 57) plays a critical role of providing direction, vision and opportunity for organizational change. It achieves this by evaluating performance of various departments and systems within an organization.

In agreement, Toegel and Barsoux (2012, p. 55) indicate that leaders must become aware of change and the need to create it at any given time during the lifetime of an organization. This should be carefully articulated by being actively involved in the change process.

Should the leadership of an organization involve change agents to implement organizational change?

Clark (2012, p. 1) points out that for an effective change to take place in an organization, all stakeholders, workers and departmental leaders in an organization must be included in defining change and its application.

While change as noted in the case study is a crucial aspect which BNP Paribus needs.to improve its leadership and business operations, Hernandez-Lopez (2003, p. 180) is of the view that it should enhance involvement of all entities as agents of change.

Hernandez-Lopez (2003, p. 180) continues to point out that in banking institutions, the changing and highly dynamic trends of various operations call for involvement of all workers as change agents for greater efficiencies in services delivery and asset management.

This concurs with the view held by most management scholars who indicate that the participation of all entities as change agents is crucial in introducing fresh ideas and practices in leadership and organization management (Palmer, Dunford


Bioethics – nutrition and hydration Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reluctance to withhold food

Nutrition and Hydration in Australia

Legal provisions in Australia

Australian Statutory Provisions





Introduction Development in clinical medicine has made it possible for medical practitioners and care givers to supply nutrition and hydration to patients whose medical conditions do not allow normal eating processes.1 In most cases, these life-supporting substances are given through a host of methods, including but not limited to intravenous tubes, nasogastric tubes, hyperalimentation and surgical gastrostomy tubes.

This procedural provision of food to patients has, however, been viewed by others as a form of treatment, being compared to a respirator, used to allow breathing in patients. On the other hand, this form of feeding is perceived as a form of basic care, which should not be denied patients in need of it.2

Numerous cases have been decided, involving this matter with no consensus being reached, regarding the implication of tube-feeding in the health of a patient. 3

This essay discusses the question of whether nutrition and hydration should be withheld or withdrawn from patients or not. Even though the discussion is two-sided, this analysis supports the fact that nutrition and hydration should be withheld or withdrawn under medical and ethical circumstances. In particular, the arguments presented in this essay will focus on laws and ethical issues in Australia.

Reluctance to withhold food In cases where a person cannot eat because of his or her medical condition, a decision is usually made about providing food through the available feeding methods for such patients. However, emphasis for this decision is based on medical needs of the patient, challenges and benefits of carrying out the process.4

While physicians find no difficulty in initiating this mode of feeding, it is evident that the main challenge arises when they are supposed to withhold or withdraw nutrition and hydration towards the end of life. Although most physicians are qualified in making other medical-ethical decisions of terminating treatment or life, forgoing feeding is still a problematic issue.

Whilst most decisions concerning medical issues are supposed to be weighed thoroughly, there is a notion that decisions to withdraw or withheld nutrition and hydration in patients are never based on advantages and disadvantages of the process. In some cases, physicians are usually reluctant to terminate feeding even when the demerits of the process evidently outweigh the benefits.5

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it has been observed that some medical practitioners become biased on the kind of treatment to be forgone when a patient is in a critical situation and is not willing to withdraw or withhold feeding. It is essential to note that this reluctance persists although medical organizations do recognize withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration from patients under proper ethical and medical conditions.

By considering this kind of feeding as a form of life-prolonging treatment, similar principles of terminating treatment have to be observed within the confines of ethical and medical implications.6 In fact, there are several professional organizations around the world, which have gone ahead to list nutrition and hydration under life-sustaining treatment, while others do criminalize the withdrawing or withholding of feeding.

Moreover, medically provided food and water is viewed a basic human need, which patients in all situations are entitled to. As a result, physicians may develop the fear of subjecting patients to unfair pain or denying them their right to feed and live.7

While addressing this issue, it is extremely important to appreciate the fact that it can be viewed from a legal, ethical and religious point of view. This further implies that different countries or societies may hold varying views concerning the issue, due to the diverse nature of human ideologies.8

The following segment narrows down to Australia and how it ethically and legally views the issue of withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration from patients.

Nutrition and Hydration in Australia The question of withdrawing or withholding feeding in certain circumstances has drawn international attention, from the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada and Australia among other countries around the world.

For instance, Australia has witnessed court rulings revolving around the issue of terminating feeding in incompetent patients and its implications. The most mentioned case is Gardner; re BWV in which the Victorian Supreme Court issued a landmark verdict that was to influence the society’s perception towards assisted-feeding in hospitals.9

We will write a custom Essay on Bioethics – nutrition and hydration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legal provisions in Australia Currently, any life-supporting systems in Australia are partly covered under the country’s common law and statutes from various territories. For example, the first law was the Natural Death Act of 1983, in South Australia, Natural Death Act (NT) 1989, Natural Death Regulations (NT) 1989 and the Medical Treatment Act (Vic) 1988.

Unlike these territorial acts, it is worth noting that the common law addresses the issue of withdrawing or withholding treatment in all states, including the Australian Capital Territory.

Australian Statutory Provisions The Natural Death Act was enacted by the Australian authorities in 1983. This act gives incompetent patients the freedom to withdraw life-supporting systems under certain circumstances. Notably, it applies to patients suffering from terminal health complications; the illness is incurable, irreversible and any support system would simply prolong the patient’s dying process.10

In essence, NDA gives power to terminal patients who possess soundness of the mind to direct physicians not to expose them to extraordinary measures, which could be aimed at prolonging life. In this context, extraordinary measures are intended to prolong a patient’s life by supporting certain body operations that cannot operate independently.

It is worth noting that patients exposed to this act have to be sound in mind when the direction is being made but incompetent when it is being executed. Additionally, this act does not recognize the withdrawal of extraordinary measures as a cause of death, especially when there is a direction to be acted upon.

The implication of this is that physicians who comply with the direction issued by patients are not held responsible for causing the death, by acting accordingly, even when the patient lacked soundness of the mind during the execution time. The Northern Territory of Australia also has similar provisions as those recognized by the South Australian Natural Death Act of 1983.

On the other hand, the Victorian statute holds a different stance, regarding the issue of withdrawing or withholding medical treatment from patients. The Medical Treatment Act was enacted in the year 1988 and has undergone a series of amendments to address the changing dynamics of ethical and professional issues in medicine, which present dilemmas for physicians.

Unlike NDA which applies only to terminally-ill patients who are incompetent, the MTA applies to terminally-ill patients together with all adult Australians under medical care.11

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bioethics – nutrition and hydration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, the decision by a competent patient to be denied treatment is applicable depending on the status of the patient at the time of such a refusal. This means that the decision to withdraw or withhold life-supporting systems cannot be based on the patient’s anticipation of incompetency, but the current medical status.

Under the MTA, it is essential to note that a patient is allowed to have medical agents during treatment to ensure that he or she has control over medical decisions made by physicians.

These agents are legally permitted to request for termination of extraordinary measures as directed by the patient, while she, or he was competent, based on the health status.

As stated under common law, a person is allowed to appoint a medical agent while he or she is in a sound mode, even though the attorney’s powers are withdrawn once the donor is legally out of mind.12 Of great significance is the fact that the statutory does not give the agent or a competent patient the power to refuse palliative care.

The MTA defines palliative care as any form of treatment given by physicians for the well-being of the patient through relieve of pain without curing the illness.

Provision of reasonable food and water is also included under this act, and it encompasses life-supporting measures like induced nutrition and hydration. In essence, MTA does not allow patients and their agents to direct physicians to withdraw or withhold artificial feeding like tube-feeding and intravenous feeding.

From an analytical point of view, it can be argued that the Medical Treatment Act protects physicians who may consider discontinuing support-treatment from being guilty of causing death of incompetent patients.

However, the same immunity is not applied to medical practitioners who may choose to withdraw or withhold “reasonable provision of food and water.” Withdrawal of life-supporting systems from incompetent patients can be supported on the basis that the result would be unreasonably disturbing and that such procedures were not meant to save life but to sustain or prolong the dying process.13

Despite the course taken by this debate, it is essential to note that the issue of withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration is a weighty matter that deserves serious attention and caution in debating it. Importantly, the MTA is not an exception across the globe.

In twenty American states, the law favours living wills of patients and further detaches termination of one’s life from denial of reasonable supply of food and water.

In summary, the South Australian and Northern Territory laws allow patients to direct the termination of extraordinary measures, which are usually aimed at supporting the biological functioning of the body.14 On the other hand, the Victorian law gives adult patients the right to appoint a medical agent, to give consent to the withdrawal of life-support measures from a patient who is out of his or her sound mind.

Arguments In analyzing the concept of forgoing life-support, it is paramount to consider the implication of certain words and phrases, which are commonly used by medical practitioners. For instance, ordinary and extraordinary measures are used to prolong the life of a person regardless of their status.15

However, the difference arises in their application and perceived impact in the society. Generally, ordinary measures must be applied by physicians to ensure that a healthy status of the patient is restored. On the other hand, extraordinary measures are commonly applied when handling patients with terminal-illnesses.

As a result, extraordinary measures can be withdrawn based on the fact that their continued application would only increase the treatment burden and prolong the dying process of the patient. Based on this argument, there is confusion in deciding whether assisted nutrition and hydration is ordinary or extraordinary.

Moreover, some procedures, which are recommended by physicians, may be a composition of medical support and comfort. For instance, Pope John Paul II is historically remembered for having considered assisted nutrition as a normal care, contrary to the view that the practice is a medical act.16

Although this can be argued from various view points, it suffices to mention that assisted nutrition and hydration procedures involve a lot of medical and professional skills, including surgery. This is commonly used by those who argue against assisted-feeding being considered as a normal act.

Nevertheless, the material or food which, is usually given to the patients is natural, thus coupling with idea that the process is a normal act that promotes life. In fact, it would be better to argue that assisted nutrition and hydration encompass natural and medical aspects of supporting life.

When one talks about withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration, the emotional impact is what dominates the mind of most people. This is highly anticipated since one is expected to die shortly after these life-support measures are withdrawn.

The main purpose of maintaining or withdrawing nutrition and hydration depends on the benefits are likely to be witnessed against the burden of prolonging the life of such a patient.17 In general, the goal of medical care is to restore or preserve one’s health by minimizing the pain.

In other words, medical procedures like assisted-feeding are supposed to promote the optimum functioning of the body, so that a meaningful state of health is achieved. Therefore, medical processes do not necessarily cure infections or prolong life.

Unlike other medical approaches applied in prolonging life, nutrition and hydration are principally aimed at promoting physiological and psychological aspects of life. In other words, it is capable of offering spiritual and social nourishment to the body.

This kind of care is essential in ensuring that a sick person enjoys his or her life to the fullest. They also help a person in ordering his relationship with the maker and are often bestowed in the mind of the patient, through the evaluation of living a better life.

Should burdens be considered when deciding whether to withdraw or withhold nutrition and hydration? This is a question, which has drawn a host of controversies in the society. According to religious approaches, medical burdens have the potential of affecting that which is supposed to be enjoyed in life by both the sick and those who are healthy. As such, nobody would prefer being exposed to any form of burdens in life.

However, for one to forgo life based on medical and other forms of burdens, it is essential for several factors to be considered.18 The commonest is the degree and impact of the burden. How excess is the burden?

There is no doubt that the determination of the excessive nature of a burden is the greatest challenge encountered in justifying burdens as a reason to withdraw or withhold nutrition and hydration from patients. Needless to say that any form of medical care is a burden and has the potential of making it difficult for one to enjoy life.

Theologians, therefore, support the need for one to acquire fortitude, which is a virtue in handling some of the burdens experienced in life. When discussing medical burdens, it is equally important to note that burdens can occur during medication and even in the future.

For instance, maintaining a person’s health on assisted nutrition and hydration may be seen as a future problem, on the ability of family members and other caregivers to enjoy their lives normally. Under this, a decision may be considered to withdraw or withhold a life-supporting program like assisted-feeding as a way of averting future burdens.

Another aspect of human life that is essential in determining whether or not assisted feeding should be terminated is the quality of life. Even though “quality of life” is medically viewed as a measure of human functioning, it is imperative to note that human life is sacred.

In this case, the right to live or die is commonly seen to be beyond human power but rather within the powers of the Supreme Being.19 It is on this basis that Pope John Paul II argued that assisted-feeding ought not to be terminated.

Based on the arguments presented in this discussion, it suffices to mention that withdrawing or withholding of nutrition and hydration remains a controversial issue. Nevertheless, the decision to discontinue assisted–feeding should be based on medical and ethical issues surrounding the patient.

With regard to medical factors, physicians are better placed to make this decision even though all parties involved like family members and other caregivers have to be consulted.20 Generally, medical decisions can also be guided by professional provisions. Legal statues defined by countries’ constitutions equally play a major role in helping family members and physicians to achieve a credible consensus.

Conclusion The issue of withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration remains contentious around the world. Nevertheless, a concise decision can only be achieved if ethical and medical aspects of the situation are considered. This is important to ensure that all parties involved are treated fairly with dignity while handling incompetent patients.

Bibliography Ashby, Michael, and Danuta Mendelson, “Gardner; re BWV: Victorian Supreme Court makes landmark Australian ruling on tube feeding.” Medical Journal of Australia 181, no. 8 (2004): 442-445. Web.

Buckley, Tom, et al. “Ethics roundtable debate: Withdrawal of tube feeding in a patient with persistent vegetative state where the patient’s wishes are unclear and there is family dissension.” Critical Care 8, no. 2 (2004): 79–84. Web.

Fisher, Anthony. Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Hamel, Ronald, and James Walter. Artificial Nutrition and Hydration and the Permanently Unconscious Patient: The Catholic Debate. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press, 2007.

Mendelson, Danuta. “Legal and Ethical Ramifications of Withdrawal of Life Support Systems from Incompetent Patients.” School of Law Deakin University Victoria. 1993. Web.

O’ Rourke, Kevin. “The Catholic Tradition on Forgoing Life Support.” The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5, no. 3 (2005): 537-553. Web.

Slomka, Jacquelyn. “Withholding nutrition at the end of life: Clinical and ethical issues.” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 70, no. 6 (2003): 548-552.

Staunton, Patricia, and Mary Chiarella. Nursing and the Law. Sydney: Elsevier Australia, 2007.

Stewart, Cameron, Ian Kerridge, and Malcolm Parker. The Australian Medico-legal Handbook with Pda Software. Sydney: Elsevier Australia, 2007.

Tollefsen, Christopher. Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: The New Catholic Debate. London: Springer, 2007.

Footnotes 1 Patricia Staunton and Mary Chiarella, Nursing and the Law (Sydney: Elsevier Australia, 2007) 130.

2 Ibid.

3 Anthony Fisher, Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) 229.

4 Jacquelyn Slomka, “Withholding nutrition at the end of life: Clinical and ethical issues,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 70, no. 6 (2003): 548.

5 Ibid., p. 549.

6 Tom Buckley et al., “Ethics roundtable debate: Withdrawal of tube feeding in a patient with persistent vegetative state where the patient’s wishes are unclear and there is family dissension,” Critical Care 8, no. 2 (2004): 79.

7 Ibid.

8 Cameron Stewart, Ian Kerridge, and Malcolm Parker, The Australian Medico-legal Handbook with Pda Software, (Sydney: Elsevier Australia, 2007) 159.

9 Michael Ashby and Danuta Mendelson, “Gardner; re BWV: Victorian Supreme Court makes landmark Australian ruling on tube feeding,” Medical Journal of Australia 181, no. 8 (2004): 442-445.

10 Ibid.

11 Danuta Mendelson, “Legal and Ethical Ramifications of Withdrawal of Life Support Systems from Incompetent Patients,” School of Law Deakin University Victoria, 1993.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Kevin O’ Rourke, “The Catholic Tradition on Forgoing Life Support,” The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5, no. 3 (2005): 537.

16 Ibid.

17 Christopher Tollefsen, Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: The New Catholic Debate (London: Springer, 2007) 180.

18 Ibid., p. 181.

19 Ronald Hamel and James Walter, Artificial Nutrition and Hydration and the Permanently Unconscious Patient: The Catholic Debate (Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press, 2007) 119.

20 Ibid.


The Green Mountain University Case Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

John met the qualified standard

Bob met the otherwise qualified standard

Justification in Admission Decisions



Introduction In the analysis of this paper, we will be bringing into perspective the sensitive issue of admission. This will unveil serious dimensions that must be brought into focus as in the case of Green Mountain University. This paper looks at an analysis into the admission decisions that were carried out in Green Mountain University.

The decision was that two students were not admitted to join the university based on their being handicapped. One of the students, John, was blinded due to an auto accident that took place in his junior year of high school.

The other student, Bob, had been blind right from birth. Looking into the situation, the two students managed to be admitted in other schools and graduated with a degree in history and biology respectively.

John met the qualified standard By the very fact that John graduated with a degree in History, it means that he met the qualified standard. This could mean that the admission process in the Green Mountain University was not done conclusively.

The student had fulfilled the admission requirements and the only thing in question was perhaps the aspect of the student being blind. According to Kneller (1964), a learner should be accorded the rightful duty of pursuing education and the ability to join an institution so long as he is capable of meeting the instructional requirements.

The Green Mountain University is seen to defy this aspect. It does not consider that John can be able to receive instructions inspite of his blindedness and does not provide learning options that cater for this kind of challenge. This is indeed discriminative.

Bob met the otherwise qualified standard Based on the fact that Bob was blind right from birth; it shows that he was capable since his adaptability rate was good. He was able to weather the hostile condition in which he found himself and to excel in the field of bilogy.It is to be admitted that it is not easy to pursue and excel in the field of biology without the proper competencies as biology is very involving both in theory and practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I base this on long term life experience. In the end he managed to graduate as well in the field of biology. Additionally, his leadership roles in his school of admission show that he was serious and more accommodative with his surrounding environment and society at large.

Justification in Admission Decisions The admissions unit in the Green Mountain University carried out enrolment but denied admission of two students based on their disabilities (Kneller, 1964). It is important to note that they may have lacked the right facilities to cater for the disabled. It is however crucial to realize that if that was the case, thus it was an opportunity to expand study probabilities so as to be more accommodative.

The Green Mountain University should have seen this as a challenge and addressed it promptly. Some of the options it should have explored would be to look for funding to buy the right facilities and to pay staff that would be specifically trained to handle students that are visually challenged.

The aspect of merging the two students with others in the learning process is also another dimension that should have been looked at closely. The two students are in principle not supposed to be isolated from the rest in the learning process. Isolating them would stigmatize them and this is also another form of discrimination.

Conclusion According to Kaplin and Lee (2007), there are two federal laws that is, the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disability Act. The two acts strongly forbid discrimination based on disability. In line with this, it means that admission policies should not be discriminatory in term of characteristics like sex, age, citizenship, disability among others.

The two students were disabled but that did not mean that they were unfit to join the university. Green Mountain University thus needed to have a concrete reason for refusal of admission. The acts can only provide provisions for denial of admission based on very technical criteria.

These criteria can be based on the fact the degree of the challenge is beyond the capacity that modern equipments meant to facilitate learning for the specific challenges can handle. In this way the cases of John and Bob do not fall into that kind of category because the two applicants had already demonstrated a history of academic excellence in history and biology respectively.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Green Mountain University Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The selection process of student admission into educational facilities ought to be arbitrarily and capriciously done with extreme caution so as to avoid scenarios of discrimination like in the above cases.

As Velez (2009) believes, everybody including the learning institutions is liable to each other. This thus means that all stakeholders should be considered and informed decisions should be made based on equality and understanding.

It is therefore imperative that educational institutions should brace themselves to meet the educational challenges that come their way as far as provision of educational opportunities for all is concerned. The physically challenged like Bob and John ought to be given these learning opportunities in all institutions of learning of which the Green Mountain University is not an exception.

References Kaplin, W. A.,


Company Valuation Report: Goodman Fielder Report argumentative essay help

Introduction In this report, we have tried to present a comprehensive evaluation of Goodman Fielder Company. By considering the market and financial environment in which Goodman fielder operates, we have employed the use of several helpful tools to evaluate Goodman Fielder. Here, historical data on share returns, market returns and financial statements will be used to approximate the value of Goodman Fielder shares.

The calculated values will then be compared with the actual values of shares at the market. The period of our interest runs from 1st January 2006 to 2nd February 2012. The Du Pont approach has been used to compute for equity returns.

Later on, we used the CAPM model to estimate for the required rate of return. We then considered the DDM model, the cash flow model, the earnings ratio model and the price book ratio (Tobin 1969). These approaches have been helpful in understanding various facets (including price value and competitiveness) of the share pricing for Goodman Fielder (a major indicator of a company’s performance) (Viney 2009).

Often, we found it necessary to identify a number of actions that can be undertaken by the management of Goodman Fielder to better the prospects of their company. Background Information

Goodman Fielder is a food processing and retail company with base operations in Australia (Kenneth 1982). Among the products that are produced and marketed by the Goodman Fielder Company include bread, mayonnaise, milk, pizzas, cooking oils and pies (Kenneth 1982). The company ranks top among the main producers and distributors of food within Australia and the rest of the pacific Islands (Keown 2002).

In New Zealand, it (Goodman Fielder) is the largest supplier of flour ands commercial fat to manufacturing industries (Oliver 2009). Thus, apart from being a major producer and distributor of grocery commodities, Goodman Fielder is also a supplier of edible fat and flour to commercial food companies (Ross


The History of Great War Essay essay help free: essay help free

World war one also known as the Great War took place between 1915 and 1918. It involved the major powers of Europe of that time (Henig, 2002). Its causes were as varied as the nations involved in the war. But it is widely believed that it was a battle for supremacy.

The Germans wanted to exert their authority in Europe but the British resisted them (Henig, 2002). The war had a major impact on what is known today as the western culture. It introduced a new perspective of war into Europe. War was widely regarded afterwards as undesirable.

One of the most prominent lessons for humanity from the war was that war always wins (Fusell, 1975). The magnitude of destruction that this war left behind was enormous. To begin with, millions of soldiers were involved in this war. Several hundred thousands died in the war and other large numbers of soldiers were maimed.

It has been argued that the lifespan of a British fighter pilot at the time was reduced to a couple of days (Chikering, Forster, Greiner, 2005). Civilians were not spared either. Many people who did not directly take part in the war often found themselves in the middle of heavy fighting. Empires collapsed and others almost collapsed.

The war left a trail of destruction in Europe (Chikering, Forster, Greiner, 2005). There was no clear winner amongst humankind. It seemed like war had won because in more ways than one war had retained its destructive nature. The Great War turned out to be more expensive than earlier anticipated. The realization that war was causing more harm than good might have prompted the warring sides to seek peace.

After the war, attempts to nurture long lasting peace were made. For instance, the League of Nations, a precursor of the current day United Nations was formed. This was a reaction to the realization that future wars would be more expensive and more destructive.

The Great War also clearly brought out the irony of war (Fusell, 1975). War is a punishment for a wrong committed against a nation or a country yet it is also a wrong in itself. The nations which took part in this war wanted to punish their enemies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A country would invade another country because it failed to sign a peace treaty with them or was friendly to an enemy state. A lot of innocent lives were lost during these invasions. Therefore, war became a punishment for a crime and a crime by and in itself.

World war one was a dividing line between ideals of the warring nations. This war demonstrated the sadism and brutality of humankind. War may make soldiers impulsive and brutal. It is clear that in the Great War the enemy was always demonized giving rise to two sharply divided sides. In World War One it appears that the urge to fight was drawn from already established divisions.

This division was similar in manner and character to the ‘us versus them’ ideals that characterized other previous and later wars. However, it has been observed that these ideals were not unique to world war one. It is human nature to put forth some divisions based on certain ideals. Therefore, world war one was just a reflection of human nature.

The truth was largely hidden from the public during World War One. The purveyors of information did not want the public to find out how much the war had cost. This information would have encouraged public resistance of the war. Withholding information was a powerful tool of war. During the war, propaganda became an integral part of fighting the enemy.

Each side wanted to be seen at home as the winner. What the public got to know was seriously controlled by the governments of the time. It was thought that sharing of casualty information freely would affect the number of recruits to the armies. The nations at war needed more military personnel owing to the heavy losses each had suffered.

The Great War represented a pivotal point in the development of military technology. Before world war one military technology had developed at a slow rate. Nevertheless, by the time it begun military technology had become more lethal than before. There was an arms race between the warring sides to develop the best weapons at that time during the war.

This prompted particularly the Great Britain and Germany to invest heavily on military development. By the time the war ended, tactics had shifted to reflect the new developments. For example, this war saw the introduction of war planes or fighter jets. The use of planes revolutionized the war. It conferred an enormous advantage over ground troops.

We will write a custom Essay on The History of Great War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Early forms of chemical warfare began to emerge during the Great War. Poisonous gasses were developed and used to annihilate the enemy. There was also a contest for naval supremacy.

The British and Germans battled at sea. Of particular importance are the design, construction, and use of submarines towards the end of the war. World war one also provided an opportunity to test new innovations. The war saw the emergence and the use of the machine gun.

New developments in military technology brought old war tactics to an end. The war was largely fought in trenches because the available technology could not break the protection they offered. However, as hand grenades and tankers were developed, the trenches become vulnerable.

In the trenches troops had been organized in groups of hundred individuals. However, with new realities troops were now organized in groups of ten troops each. This was a change that offered both tactical and operational advantage.

World war one eventually spread to other parts of the world. The Great War had begun as a conflict between the powerful nations of Europe. But towards the middle of the war it had attracted many countries. At first it was confined to Europe. As time went by the geographic area in which it was fought expanded. It spread to Africa and Asia. Many of the colonies and protectorates joined the war.

World war one began around 1914 and ended in the late 1918. It was mainly seen as a battle of supremacy between the powers of Europe. It later became a contest between the British and the Germans. The Great War was a dividing line between the powers. It showed that man is sadistic and brutal in nature. The soldiers often demonized the enemy. World war one accelerated the introduction of new military technology.

By the time it ended new military machines and equipment like tankers, machine guns, grenades, planes, and submarines had been introduced. This war marked the beginning of attempts to seek long lasting peace.

References Henig, B. (2002). The Origins of the First World War. London: Routledge.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Great War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fusell, P. (1975). The Great War and Modern Memory. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Chikering, R., Forster, S., Greiner, B. (2005). A world at Total war: Global Conflict and the Politics of Destruction. Cambrige: Cambridge UP.


Analysing image-language Relation in picture Books Essay college essay help near me

Abstract Children picture books have had an increasingly significantly important place in early childhood learning. Visual communication relies on both the eyes that see the images and the brain that processes and makes sense of the information received. An active mind therefore is capable of remembering visual images; consequently having both text and images enables one to analyze the pictures.

As a result educators are progressively acknowledging that it is imperative to integrate images in the texts and comprehension as it helps the readers and viewers to make meaning faster.

The paper analyses the image language relations in two text book chapters with special attention to the way in which the ideational, interpersonal and compositional meanings constructed verbally extend, contradict, subvert, or overlap with those constructed visually.

Summary: Little Red Riding Hood by Anderson Hans Christian (1935) and Royal Ravens by Wilhelm Hans (1996)

The first chapter, the Little Red Riding Hood by Anderson Hans Christian is a story of a little girl living with her mother and father in a small beautiful cottage. The family stays next to the cottage of the little girl’s grandmother. The little girl-Little Red Riding Hood-is sent to take some food items to her grandmother who is unwell.

The excited girl goes to the woods to pick flowers to take her grandmother when she is approached by the wolf. The wolf cunningly obtains information from the little girl and plans to eat her. Fortunately, before the wolf eats her, her father comes to her rescue by killing the wolf with an axe. Both stories are intended for children from across all races and cultural settings as they endeavor to teach family values among children.

The second story, Royal Ravens describes a Crawford that has just hatched from the egg. The Crawford, however, quickly realizes that nobody is around to welcome him to the world. Moreover, he felt that the other birds were different from him, making him to start looking down upon himself.

Despite the earlier encounters, the Crawford still believes he is special and different. The Crawford is furious about the reception that he receives and wishes he looked different.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crawford attempted to change this in vain. In the end, Crawford went to see a magician woman who transformed him. Crawford, in his effort to get noticed, moved to the Royal Garden where he eventually got noticed by the princess. However, it was not long before Crawford was kicked out of the royal garden.

Introduction Children literature should meet certain criteria defined by the intended audience. A picture in children books therefore should be accompanied by a caption that provides salient information about the picture to helps a reader to conceptualize and appreciate the work. However, many literatures in the area of Multi-modal communication analysis explore the grammar of different semiotic modes (Kress


Analyses of Online/ Internet Advertising as a Marketing Communication Tool Essay online essay help

Introduction More than any other form of communication tool internet advertising is one of the most precise and effective marketing tool in the modern world. Essentially, internet advertising are distinct from each other but used as a combination to bring out the meaning of internet advertising as a tool for marketing communication.

Internet is an amalgamation of networks operating on a laid down technical protocol that make users all over the world to have an access to as well as exchange information. The information exchange and access is usually achieved through the use of tools such as emails, World Wide Web and chart rooms.

In contrast, advertising is the paid reconciled form of communication whose source is known and intended to convince the recipient or the target to take the future or an immediate action (Richards


Earnings Differentials for Women by Full-Time or Part-Time Work Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction


Research questions and hypothesis


Literature Review

Research Methods

Research Model

Sampling Methods

Secondary Data Used

Primary Data

Validity and Reliability


List of References

Introduction In the last 50 decades, there has been a huge shift in the roles of men and women as was previously defined in the traditional societal structure. Initially, women were supposed to take care of children at home, and do other house hold chores. However, this changed drastically within this period, and with policies like the affirmative action, women have gained access to the corporate world.

Currently, women can do virtually anything that men do and they earn just as much as men. The stigmatization has completely died down and the society has come to accept this new role of women.

Although some societies, majorly in the Muslim world are yet to give women full liberation, many countries have liberated their women to go after their dreams to the highest limits possible. One such country is United Kingdom, which had even had a woman as their head of state. This was a sign that the limits that were put for women were completely brought down.

In their different professions, women earn differently based on a number of factors. Holbrook (2003, p. 45), in his work titled allure of 100 hours a week, says that there is a new crop of women coming up with new zeal to their different professions.

When women decided to storm into what was initially a preserve for men, men felt threatened and thought that they would be displaced by these women who, by look of things, were as good in performing their duties as men, but look a little more determined than men.

They therefore thought that the only way to beat women in this was to work for an extended period after the normal period in order to be at the top when the pay day comes.

This was done bearing in mind that women would be forced to leave for home by five in the evening, specifically because of the need to take care of the children who were left at home. However, this new crop of women has proven beyond reasonable doubt that they are willing to do anything just to ensure that they earn good money.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper seeks to analyze earning differentials for women by full time or part time work.

Rationale For a long time, the issue of earnings has raised a lot of heat among different individuals in different places. Labor laws have been developed as a way of regulating they pay of employees to ensure that they do not demand for too much than they can be given by their employers, and that the employers do not give too minimal salaries than should be expected. This ensures a tradeoff between the two.

However, because some employees work on full time, while others work on part time basis, there results in earning differentials between the two groups. This study seeks to analyze this difference to ascertain the reason behind this and which of the two groups earn better. This study would therefore help explain the reason why many female workers are currently going for part time jobs and not full time.

It would help bring out the reasons behind the current popularity of part timers at many of the firms within various cities in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. It would also help explain who stands to benefit between the employer and the employee in the two outfits.

Research questions and hypothesis Flint, Woodruff, and Fisher (2002, p. 67) say that a good research should be pegged on one or two specific questions that the researcher seeks to find their answers. This scholar says that research is like a sea of knowledge which is as interesting as they are useful.

Getting into a research process without a clear research question would be very dangerous because the researcher would meet many interesting information, most of which are irrelevant to the research but appear important all the same.

In such a case, the researcher may be tempted to explore such irrelevant information, making him or her drift away from the main focus of the research. In this study, the researcher developed some questions that would help in maintaining the focus of this research.

We will write a custom Proposal on Earnings Differentials for Women by Full-Time or Part-Time Work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How much, on average, do a full time female worker earn in United Kingdom?

How much, on average, do a part time female worker earn in United Kingdom?

Which of the two groups earn higher and why?

The above questions would lead us to three hypotheses that the researcher would be confirming or rejecting in the dissertation of this proposal. The hypotheses are as below:

H10. Full time female workers do not earn more than part time female workers in United Kingdom

H1a. Full time female workers earn more than part time female workers in United Kingdom.

H20. There is no comparable difference in earnings of female full time and part time workers in the United Kingdom

H2a. There is comparable difference in earnings of female full time and part time workers in the United Kingdom

The above hypothesis would help reach out for the desired conclusion in the research dissertation.

Scope The purpose of a research is always to help further information available in a given field. A research would always be useful to various individuals in various categories.

In every research, it would therefore be appropriate that the researcher categorically states the scope of his work in order to help guide users of the paper (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman,


The Advantages and Disadvantages of PMA Essay essay help online free

Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) is an approval for manufacturing aircraft replacement parts and products which is granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to those companies which are not the Type Certificate holders. PMA can be licensed and independent, and the peculiar advantages or disadvantages of PMA are often associated with its type.

HEICO Corporation is one of the leading companies in providing the independent PMA parts approved by FAA which sells them to 19 top airlines of the world including Emirates Airlines, KLM, and Air France. To analyse the advantages and disadvantages of PMA, it is necessary to pay attention to the specific characteristics of the licensed and independent PMAs.

The difference between the licensed and independent PMA is in the character of the cooperation between the companies and the features of producing the PMA parts. The main advantage of using PMA parts is the possibility to reduce the company’s costs.

Thus, the aviation companies and Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) provide licensed PMA manufacturers with the necessary drawings. Then the companies receive the parts with the qualities, functions, and numbers identical to the original ones while the process is controlled by the manufacturer’s quality control system (Flaherty 2012).

Therefore, identicality is the main criterion for the licensed and independent PMA parts. Independent PMAs create their own drawings, and this fact makes the process of approving the parts more difficult because only simple parts can be considered as identical in this case, and it is necessary to have the access to the original component provided by the OEM to make complex identical parts.

Moreover, the process of manufacturing simple parts should be associated with the Designated Engineering Representative (DER) who has to assess the part according to such standards as the fit (dimension), the form (physical shape) and the function of the part. These measures are evaluated according to the Testing and Computation data (Flaherty 2012).

Sometimes airlines and aviation companies do not use PMA because of the definite disadvantages and difficulties which are connected with the procedure of utilizing the PMA parts. Thus, the engineers of the company must approve the fact that the product provided by the manufacturer is well-developed, fits to the aeroplane, and it can be used effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This procedure is more difficult for using the parts produced by the independent PMA manufacturer because the parts’ numbers are not identical to the original ones and should be approved additionally (Flaherty 2012).

Independent PMA manufacturers are greatly responsible for all the possible changes in the instructions and the quality of their products. Lufthansa Technik has the 40 million dollar contract with HEICO as an independent PMA manufacturer when Boeing prefers to use only licensed PMA parts. Moreover, Lufthansa Technik holds a 20 percent share in HEICO to have the opportunity to reduce the costs on the parts and control the process of their producing.

Those companies which develop the strategic partnership with HEICO (Japan Airlines, American Airlines, Air Canada, Iberia Airlines, British Airways, China Aviation Import and Export Group, Lufthansa and Delta Airlines) focus on the economic advantage of using the PMA parts produced by the independent PMA manufacturer (Flaherty 2012). These partnerships are significant for helping the airlines to control their operating costs, and they are economically successful for HEICO and its partners.

Reference List Flaherty, J 2012, The peculiarities of PMA, audio file. Web.


Satellite-Based Remote Sensing Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The Aqua (EOS PM-1) and Terra (EOS AM-1) satellites were launched by NASA in 2002 and 1999 respectively, and each of them contains the MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. These satellites form a portion of the Earth’s Observing System, or NASA EOS, and work synchronously around the sun while orbiting near the poles of the earth. Up to date, the five-year lifespan Aqua and Terra MODIS sensors obtain high quality data.

Specifically, the MODIS sensor was engineered to assist in global atmospheric research, that is, both in the ocean and on land. With a viewing swath of about 2 330 kilometers, the satellites have the ability of making complete cycles in less than two days. While the Aqua satellite travels from south to north around 1:30 p.m., the Terra satellite moves in the opposite direction about 10:30 a.m. local time (Esaias, 1998, p. 1255).

Accordingly, the two satellites receive data in over 36 spectral bands. The MODIS remote sensor products vary from land, cryosphere, calibration, oceans, and to the atmosphere. Again, the instrument has resolutions of 250m, 500m and 1000m. Additionally, most of the MODIS products and ocean color bands resemble the SeaWiFS, which have a 1000m resolution size. There are various types of ocean color coded channels and their applications as shown in the table below (Morel, 1977, p. 720).

Primary Application Band Bandwidth (nm) Central Wavelength (nm) Pixel size (nm) Ozone 8 405 – 420 411.3 1000 Cloud top 9 438 – 448 442.0 1000 Water vapor 10 483 – 493 486.9 1000 Cloud 11 526 – 536 529.6 1000 Biogeochemistry 12 546 – 556 546.8 1000 Water vapor 13 662 – 672 665.5 1000 Ozone 14 673 – 683 676.8 1000 Cloud top 15 743 – 753 746.4 1000 Altitude 16 862 – 877 886.2 1000 Moreover, MODIS sensors have got several quality water applications. One such application was done in Lake Flathead, Montana. In regard to the general features of the lake, it is 113m deep, covers a total area of 480 km2, and is among the largest naturally occurring freshwater lakes at the moment.

However, this oligotrophic lake underwent rising eutrophication processes in 1977 and 2001. In addition, it experienced two macroalgae lakewide blooms that significantly reduced its water quality as a result of anthropogenic nutrient input. Consequently, when it was surveyed during 2004 and 2005, the results revealed a temperature range that was between 8.3 and 22.60C, Secchi depths between 1.5 and 17 m, and chlorophyll-a levels between 0.1 to 0.9 mg/m3 (Clark et al., 1970, p. 1120).

After that, the researchers used transmissometers and fluorometers to obtain various depths of the lake at different intervals. Also, productivity indicators such as chlorophyll content and turbidity concentrations were determined using a medium resolution MODIS sensor.

Furthermore, water quality parameters were retrieved from the sensor by application of the Single Correlated Scattering Radiance and the Atmospherically Corrected Reflectance approaches. Results indicated that the highest level of turbidity and chlorophyll content occurred at the thermocline and at a depth of about 20m.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, the researchers concluded that Single Correlated Scattering Radiance was a better approach since it provided reliable and credible data. However, it was noted that either of the two approaches could be used at different times of the year since there was co-variance of parameters. The researchers concluded that problems were presented when a specific consistent algorithm was used.

To determine if the sensor was able to evaluate water quality fluctuations, the researchers formulated a daily Two Time Complete Series approach. From the results, the sensor detected inputs from river discharges and particulate depositions from the atmosphere at weekly or monthly basis. Having obtained this information, the researchers concluded that the MODIS remote sensor was able to monitor the quality of water in Lake Flathead (Reza, 2008, p. 801).

On the other hand, the coastal areas of the United Arab Emirates often experience oil spills, and this presents serious environmental concerns. Such catastrophe often worsens once proper monitoring mechanisms are not put into place. Fortunately, the MODIS remote sensor can guarantee maximum surveillance if put into use and properly managed. During its application, key responsibilities of the MODIS remote sensor include detecting and evaluating the amount of oil spillage.

To discriminate oil spills, a 250m spatial resolution of the MODIS sensor is set since oil spills involve a small surface area. To help the investigator distinguish surface water phenomena from objects like ships, it is important to enhance data contrast by making some adjustments on the 250m bands2 of the sensor (Li et al., 2003, p.559).

Again, to ensure that the region of interest enables the researcher to determine both the maximum and minimum values regarding the area of oil spillage, shadows resulting from oil are excluded since they may give a false impression of oil (Fingas, 2000, p.25). In the Republic of South Africa, a similar application of the sensor was successfully done, and the following figure representing oil spillage under sunlight was then generated in 25th May, 2005.

Reference List Clark, G. L., Ewing, G. C.,


Festivals Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Macro Analysis of the Festival Industry

Micro Analysis of Festivals

Shareholders of Festivals

SWOT Analysis of Sonar Music Festival


Introduction Festivals have been part of our culture since time immemorial. Every community in the world has a variety of festivals whereby its members celebrate a unique occurrence or happening. In modern times, several annual festivals are celebrated in different communities all around the world. Different festivals are usually carried out for different reasons. Therefore, the manner in which they are carried out are different.

However, unlike the traditional festivals that were usually carried out and attended by members of a specific community, culture, or background, festivals of modern times usually attract people from different cultures, backgrounds, religion, and nationalities. Sonar Music Festival is a prime example. This festival has been carried out in the month of June for the last 17 years in Barcelona. It usually attracts people from different cultures, backgrounds, and nationalities.

The event not only embraces art but is also acts as a major tourist attraction earning the city of Barcelona millions of dollars in the three days in which it is operational. This paper shall therefore conduct a micro and macro analysis of the festival industry and determine its stakeholders. In addition, a SWOT analysis of Sonar Music Festival shall be conducted. This will bring a clear understanding of the festival industry and the impacts that Sonar Music Festival has.

Macro Analysis of the Festival Industry To understand the external factors that affect the operations of the festival industry, it is essential to conduct a macro analysis. To achieve this, a PESTEL analysis shall be conducted to determine the political, economic, social, technological, and legal factors that affect the industry. This shall bring out essential information that surrounding the operations of festivals in their external operating environment.

Due to their nature, politics and society have always been inseparable. It is due to this fact that politicians get involved in almost all societal and community events. Festivals are one of the events in which politicians attend to get in touch with the people. At the same time, it is through such events that individuals get to learn about the political norms and ideologies of a given community, society, or nation. As a result, festivals have always been regarded as one of the ways in which politics of a given region can be developed from.

Traditional festivals did not have a lot of economic impacts on the locality in which they were held at. This was because most of the people who attended such events were locals hence they used locally available materials to sustain the function. However, festivals of modern times are different. These events not only attract people from one locality or region but they also attract fans from all around the world.

Therefore, at the time when such events are in progress, there is always a high influx of non-locals into the region. Through their expenditures, these individuals manage to boost the revenues of the towns or cities that they are being held at. These festivals are also essential arenas for the marketing of new and existing brands of local or international companies. This greatly increases the popularity of brands made by small and medium sized enterprises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, these festivals create employment opportunities for the local population. This in turn increases their living standards and the GDP of the nations in which such events are held (Hooves, 2006). The diagram below shows the expenditure of locals and non-locals in the Buxton International Festival held in England in 2010 (Hooves, 2006).

From the graph, non-locals spent over £275,000 while locals only spent roughly over £45,000. This therefore shows the importance of non-locals in the promotion of festivals. Given the high revenues that these events have, it is this essential for the organizing committee and the local authorities to come up with effective planning and marketing strategies to ensure that their towns and cities fully benefits from them.

Festivals are mainly cultural events that aim at depicting a specific part of the host communitys culture. Given the fact that modern festivals normally attract a lot of people from different cultures and backgrounds, festivals such as Mardi Garr, Sonar Music Festival and Buxton International Arts Festivals provide an opportunity for people from different cultures and backgrounds who have a common interest to meet and interact.

This is essential in the building and development of close ties with people who have different ideologies and come from different cultures and backgrounds. At the same time, the non-locals have the opportunity of understanding and appreciating the culture of the host community. Additionally, festivals also give the people who have attended such ceremonies a deeper and better understanding of the passion or interest that attracted them to the event in the first place.

This is achieved through performances and exhibitions from different individuals within the arena. This makes the individuals who have attended the event not only to appreciate the event itself, but also to develop their interest in arts. This is essential in building the character of an individual and the community at large.

Festivals are often viewed as galleries in which the participants showcase their latest developments in their respective fields. It is due to this fact that festivals and galleries embrace technology and provide a favourable platform upon which it can be developed on a variety of aspects.

Sonar Music Festival, for instance, provides an avenue through which music technology can be presented to the public. At the same time, the same technology can be developed to bring out better results in music and live performances. At the same time, such events utilize hi-tech technology to ensure that the audience has the best experience ever.

We will write a custom Report on Festivals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is achieved through hi-tech audio systems, visual systems including High Definition (HD) displays, cameras all over and so on. It has also been a tradition for such events to be aired on TV for fans back at home. The use if ICT has also been incorporated to enhance the process of purchasing tickets, accommodation bookings and so on. Thus, the success of modern festivals highly relies on technology.

To ensure that festivals are successful in the end, they have to abide by the rules and regulations of the local authorities of the towns or cities and nations that they are in. In most cases, attendants are made aware of the rules.

This not only ensures that peace and security is maintained but also guarantees that the operations of the festivals are conducted in an effective and efficient manner. However, there have been reports of riots, looting, and use of illegal drugs. Local police have always been on patrol to prevent such events from happening and if they do, the perpetrators are always arrested to face the justice system.

Micro Analysis of Festivals To fully understand the festival industry, it is essential to conduct a Porter 5 forces analysis. This analysis normally focuses on the five main factors that affect the operations in a specific industry. With this understanding, it shall be much easier for organizers of festivals to have a clear cut understanding of the industry hence come up with effective strategies that will make them stand at a competitive edge over their rivals.

The level of competition in the festival industry is very high. This is due to the fact that numerous festivals are held all around the world all year round. In terms of genre, similar festivals are also held all around the world either within the same locality or internationally. In Europe for example, several music festivals are to be held in May 2012. These include:

Sonar Music Festival in Barcelona

Nuits Snores in France

Rock in Rio Lisboan in Portugal

These are just but music festivals. There are several festivals of other genres that are to be held especially during the summer season.

The high number of rival festivals present in the festival industry has created a high substitution effect. People who attend such events have the opportunity of choosing from a variety of events to determine which one they will attend.

This has thus reduced the overall revenue that a specific event would have earned. Thus, to avoid this, modern events have been organized in a manner that the attendants experience a different and better event. This differentiation strategy has been successful in several events and has increased sales tremendously.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Festivals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The buyers in this industry are also powerful. This is due to the high level of substitution that is present in the festival industry. To receive high attendance rates, festivals have been reducing the prices of their tickets in addition to other auxiliary services that the customers can enjoy. This has greatly increased the level of competition in the industry.

However, it is essential to note that most of the buyers in this industry are non-residence. Thus, to attend these events, these individuals have saved for a long time hence they expect maximum satisfaction on the time and money they spend in these festivals. It is due to this fact that the organizers of these events try to ensure that their events become better with time to attract new customers and maintain existing ones.

Entrants into this industry do not face a lot of barriers. However, conducting a major festival is capital intensive. In addition, for an event to be popular and successful, it needs a lot of time to grow, develop and to gain recognition among the general public. Most importantly, several formalities have to be adhered to. This greatly reduces the threats of new entrants in the short run. However, once established, new entrants can greatly affect the operations of established festivals.

Shareholders of Festivals The main shareholders of festivals are the local community. It is the local community that benefits from festivals in terms of the experience and revenue earned from the event. Local authorities also benefit from festivals in terms of the revenue earned and the rise in popularity of their towns, cities and states.

The organizers of festivals are also stakeholders of the events. They benefit from the event by passing information and messages through the themes presented in the event. In addition, they also benefit from the profit earned by organizing the event. The last group of shareholders are the individuals who attend the festival. This group benefits by satisfying their interests, socializing and gathering new information and ideas from the entire event.

SWOT Analysis of Sonar Music Festival Sonar Music Festival has been taking place since 1994 this years event expected to be its 18th event. This event showcases a variety of music a multimedia art displays. The event has been held in various parts of Barcelona, Spain and has become a cultural mark of the city. To facilitate its operations, Sonar Music Festival has several strengths.

One of its major strength is its name. As it has been stated earlier, the event has been held for the last 17 years. In all these instances, it has been successful and has managed to meet the needs and expectations of the attendants who come from all the corners of the globe. In the process, the event has managed to become popular and develop a strong name and desirable reputation. This is essential to its success.

The manner in which the event is planned and advertised is also strategic. The event is advertised in all forms of media including social media and network sites. This manages to capture the attention millions of people from all around the world hence increasing its attendance and revenues earned. However, the major strength of the festival is its organization. The event occurs in the third week of June at a time when the weather is conducive for outdoor activities.

The event is also held for three straight days. This ensures that the people who attend the festival have ample time to enjoy the event to the fullest. The festival is also divided into day and night each one having different events. However, the night event showcases performance from renowned local and international artist. The organization in terms of security, transportation, and accommodation is also superb. In 2010, the event attracted over 80,000 individuals (Sonar, 2012).

The major weakness of the event is the lack of proper law enforcement due to the huge number of attendances. It has been common for people to use illegal drugs, loot and commit other petty offences. In addition, instances of sexual misconduct that goes against the local norms have also been reported on several occasions. To ensure that future events are successful, the management needs to come with measures of controlling them.

The increase in popularity of the event gives it a great opportunity to grow and earn more revenue in future. At the same time, the stabilization of the world economy from the financial crisis that commenced in 2008 has increased the spending capability of individuals who attend the event. Furthermore, as more people understand and appreciate the theme of the festival, the number of people attending the festival is expected to increase.

Despite this, the major threat of this festival is competition posed from other festivals. During this period, there are several festivals that occur in Spain and all around Europe. Therefore, to ensure that the event stands at a competitive edge, the organizers need to ensure that the people attending the festival achieve their needs and expectations at the best cost possible. This will guarantee the sustainability of the festival in the long run.

References Hooves, T 2006, Maintaining the Global Competitive Edge of Edinburgh’s Festivals. Web.

Sonar 2012, What is Sonar. Web.


Marketing Strategies of Major Car Manufacturers in Emerging Markets Proposal college application essay help

Introduction and Research Problem Motor vehicle industry is rapidly growing. The demand for new car models is on the rise thus forcing major car manufactures to strategize their businesses in order to enhance their market share and global presence. Concurrently, there are emerging markets for major car manufactures.

It is evident that such manufacturers strive to enhance the sales of their automobiles, augment revenues, and realize remarkable profitability (Norcliffe 2006, p. 56). Vehicles are demanded internationally despite the noticeable competition; thus, manufactures must enhance their production rates, cost effectiveness, supply chain, and customer satisfaction to meet the changing market demands. This will augment their competitiveness and increase their market share in different countries globally.

To collect viable, reliable, justifiable, and valid data, marketing managers of different major car manufacturers in Turkey will be the main source of information for this dissertation. Various automobile companies must realize the increasing demands for cost effective vehicles in the realms of fuel consumption, performance, and other environmental concerns.

Nonetheless, there are special marketing strategies that chief motor vehicle manufacturers must establish, ratify, and embrace in order to capture and retain clients in emerging markets. These range from the production of cost effective cars to intensive promotions.

Contextually, providing customers with variety (from which they can select their preferences based on their taste) is equally important. It is important to agree that the motor vehicle industry is quite competitive. This is shown by the emergence of new manufactures, distributors, and variety of products from which clients can choose from.

It is crucial to consider such facts when developing appropriate business strategies in order to remain competitive and relevant in such markets. Additionally, major companies like General Motors, Nissan, Peugeot, Toyota, Mitsubishi, and others have formulated appropriate business strategies in order to enhance their competitiveness, market visibility, and customer services (Appiah-Adu 1998, p. 118).

Research methodology that will be utilized in this research incorporates a systematic approach structured to solve the concerned research problem systematically. All the research methods and techniques that will be used in this study as well as the logic behind them (why they have been preferred) will be demonstrated for clarity. Besides reliable/valid secondary data, marketing managers of different major car manufacturers in Turkey will be the main source of information for the prospected dissertation as mentioned earlier.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem Definition Due to challenges fronted by emerging markets in the automobile industry, it is important to investigate further on the matter. This considers how different automobile organizations are handling their businesses and marketing strategies in the emerging markets. Firstly, it is hypothetical that emerging markets (in the automobile industry) such as Turkey have fronted various challenges to the major car manufacturing companies.

Hence, they require special attention in order to meet the demands of such markets. If this is true, then, there must be viable marketing strategies assumed by these companies in order to remain competitive in such markets (Khanna, 2010). It is crucial to recognize such provisions in the marketing contexts so as to remain relevant and uphold competitiveness. The questions provided are of some concern when considered critically and can be subjected to investigations as mandated by this research proposal (McDonald 1992, p. 54).

Additionally, enacting proper business and marketing strategies in such contexts is considerable and proper. It is evident that investigating such matters can actually help in knowing the exact marketing strategies assumed by major motor vehicle companies in the emerging markets (Bandyopadhyay 2001, p. 13). Additionally, it is crucial to elaborate on such matters with due precision and other mattering concerns.

Numerous organizations in the automobile manufacturing industry have managed to grasp considerable market share and vitality in their businesses by attaining remarkable customer satisfaction. This is quite crucial when considered critically in the business context. Precisely, it is debatable and researchable whether the major car manufacturing companies use special marketing strategies in order to conquer emerging markets with their products (Chilisa 2012, p. 2).

Aims and objectives Accordingly, the intended research will unveil the marketing strategies that major car manufacturers in emerging markets assume in order to remain competitive in such markets. This objective has been narrowed down in order to enhance some precisions in the entire study. Additionally, the objective has been drafted considering the most available data that can be helpful in the forthcoming research.

The research will use the readily available data in order to emerge with viable research findings. As indicated before, automobile industry is quite competitive hence require appropriate business strategies that would allow its players to attain competitiveness. Since there are numerous players in this industry, every company must strategize appropriately in order to outdo the rest and remain aggressive in the similar industry (Carson


The Organizational Structure and Design of Veema Enterprises Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction There is no single organizational design and structure, which can be applied to all businesses; though all businesses show some level of organizational design and structure, which define the groups, and offers coordination for the different roles to be performed in the business.

This paper is a review of the organizational structure and the design of Veema Ltd., a business specializing in the delivery of IT appliances, including computers, across the host state. Things to be discussed include work specialization, centralization and decentralization, departmentalization, formalization, chain of command, and the span of control at Veema Ltd (Adair 134).

Discussion The field of work specialization

Different jobs, roles and tasks, are assigned to the various departments within the design, after being grouped into classes, placing those that are closely related together, and assigning them to the relevant departments. At Veema, the employees working at the administrative centers are those trained and skilled in administration, thus may not be able to work at the business units, for example, the technical department.

An example here is the case of Janet Walters, who was required to work at the marketing department, during an internal case study, designed to evaluate the ability of different workers to operate at departments, other than those which they are specialized in. Ordinarily, she worked at the technical center; and had maintained top performance since her appointment. However, when placed at the sales department, she could not perform well, as comparable to the performance of the sales team members recruited one month before.

The promotion of top management takes place, often, within the division or the department, which the workers operate under, as these are the fields that they are specialized in. For example, 3 months ago, John Smith, who was the marketing manager, was promoted to become the president of marketing, which fall under the same department of sales.

These two variables under work specialization, show the importance of specialization, with regard to roles and skills of workers at Veema. The study offered insights into the management of operations and resources at the organization, as well as the significance of teams in pursuing organizational goals (Adair 134).


Veema Ltd. runs on a design characteristic with mixed product and functional departmentalization. These can be split into two: the administrative units and the business center units, which are further split into different divisions and departments. Business units and subunits, are distinguishable on the basis of product departmentalization, which is simply the line of products that they trade in or supply.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These include the computer sales division, which deals in computers and laptops; the internet set up and supplies division, which offers the services of internet installation and maintenance; the software division, which deals in the supply and trading of software applications; and the parts and accessories section, which trades in the parts and accessories of computers.

These divisions create specialization zones, which allow for effective addressing of the needs of the customers. The administrative unit consists of a number of departments, which are departmentalized on the basis of the functions they play at the business. These include marketing, human resource, financial, technical, and global development (Handy 76).

The marketing department is responsible for all the marketing activities of the venture, these including any sales promotions to be carried out by the business, and the allocation of sales staff and representatives, as well as the creation, communication, delivery and exchange offerings carried out between the business and its customers.

Other minor roles are not listed here. The human resource department is responsible for the selection, assessment of performance, training, sourcing of workers and the rewarding of employees. This department further plays the role of overseeing organizational culture and leadership, as well as guaranteeing compliance to the laws on employment and labor at the areas of operation.

The financial department is responsible for business budgeting, administration of funds, the employment of expenditure and economy measures, manning all monetary activities and checking tax compliance. The technical department is responsible for the technical functions of the venture, these including software and hardware testing, as well as the checking of faulty products still under warranty.

The global development department is responsible for the standardization of the processes and operational levels of the company, to ensure that they keep up to date, with reference to global levels of technical and software advancement (Covey 47).

The chain of command

Like at many other modernly run organizations, the chain of command has less significance at Veema Ltd. This is because the role of authority managers and supervisors is kept at minimum; as the employees of Veema are trained to act at exert levels across the different operational zones.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Organizational Structure and Design of Veema Enterprises specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, different from the traditional chain of command model, which runs orders from top to bottom, managers at the different operational centers engage in the oversight of the performance and the progress of the employees. At Veema, the expectation and obligation towards performance is expressed at the teams or individual levels. This is to mean that at Veema, the managers will oversee the operations of workers, without assigning roles and tasks to each worker.

This is the case, as the teams take full responsibility for the division of work amongst the different players, who carry out their roles towards the realization of the common goals. On the basis of the account offered, unity of command is virtually not existent at Veema, as the majority of employees, who operate under teams, will report to the oversight manager or the managers from related departments (Handy 76).

The span of control

The trends in the structure and design of organizations are moving towards the establishment of larger control spans, as this helps reduce the costs. Also, this is helpful in speeding up decision-making and is a factor leading to an increase in the flexibility of organizations, with regard to change or other change demanding situations.

The wide control spans, further help the business in drawing closer to its customers and the principal impact of empowerment and the motivation of workers, which play a critical role in determining organizational success. The span of control for Veema is similar to the one described above, as depicted by the operational functions of the different oversight managers and other support management staff, including the top staff at the business.

For example, Dr Jacob Jones, who is the managing director of the venture, is a player in the oversight of 8 dissimilar sectors, these including the internet services provision division. Dr. Jacobs is also an active player in corporate marketing, the technical support division and the global development division. The wide span of Dr. Jacob’s duties draws from his high competence in running such ventures, as he has run five different companies in a span of 25 years.

Therefore, he is capable of offering support across a major number of the different departments and sectors. The second case is that of Janet Walters, who acts as a player and the oversight manager in charge of the technical department. She is also responsible for the running of three other divisions, including the software development, the parts and accessories department, as well as the computers sale section, as she is highly proficient with the running of technical application and operations.

Miss Janet Walters has also been accorded the wide range of contribution, responsibility and oversight authority, as she has worked under the technical department for 3 IT establishments, over the past twelve years. However, the wide span of control does not mean that one worker can operate efficiently at every sector, as from her example, she was not able to perform at the sales department, which implies the need for a careful selection of the extension spans (Boddy 145).

Under span of control, Veema calls for highly developed skills and intensive training, especially from those working at the key product sectors. As a result, the company offers further training to every worker on a two months basis, after which, it administers a skills-base evaluation to evaluate the level of competence.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Organizational Structure and Design of Veema Enterprises by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is evident from the fact that, at the business units of Veema, the workers are able to arrange themselves into teams and arrive at decisions in a quick effective manner. At these centers, the workers also show that they are capable of carrying out their duties and responsibilities in an effective manner, without the supervision of top management or oversight control.

Further, considering the wide coverage of the venture; the huge number of employees and the variety of operational locations which are operated from four reference departments, the operational abilities of the different workers is skilled and effective. This shows that the different workers at Veema are highly skilled and proficient (Covey 47).

Centralization and Decentralization at Veema

From The operational design and the duty execution lines of the company, the company is fairly decentralized. The operational teams under the different departments and divisions at Veema formulate their own plans regarding projects. However, all these are done with reference to their skills and knowledge base, towards the realization of the goals set by the divisions, departments or the company as a whole.

The managers at Veema rely on the experience and the expertise of the team members at the departmental or divisional levels of decision-making, these including those on goal setting. Additionally, the roles of the managers are more restricted to the oversight or progress and the provision of suggestions to the players when necessary. Decentralization is also evident from the mutual dependence of the different departments and divisions, which may request for the provision of the resources available at others.

From this case, it is also evident that decision-making at the organizational level cannot be carried out by one department, managerial level or other positional leaders. From the appearance that decision-making at Veema is not concentrated around certain departments, divisions or authorities, it is clear that Veema is operated on a decentralized mode of operation (Collins 145).

Formalization at Veema

From the account of Veema, it is clear that the company has spent a considerable effort, towards ensuring that the working environment available to its workers is highly flexible, and one with less boundaries. Further, the company encourages and promotes their employees to live a learning-process, whether at work or outside, as the company operates principally, on the highly developed employee skills-base.

From following this approach, the company has created a highly skilled and intelligent workforce, which offers it competitive advantage, towards the meeting of company goals at a considerable level of freedom. From the account therefore, it is clear that job behaviors are considerably not structured, which offers employees a substantial level of freedom as they do their work, thus are highly capable of exercising creativity and developing more effective problem-solving tactics (Handy 76).

Conclusion There is no single organizational design or structure, which can be applied and used at different institutions or organizations. This is the case, as the design or structure adopted, depends on the needs of the organization, the area of coverage and the extent of service to be offered. For instance, a sole proprietorship may rely on the input of one individual, and still meet its obligations, while a company must have a large number of players working in harmony.

This paper is an analysis of the organizational structure and design of Veema, an IT supplies company. Under work specialization, different departments and divisions are assigned different roles and responsibilities. Under departmentalization, the company has an administrative and a business unit, which are further split into different divisions, which are the socialization zones.

At Veema, the chain of command is virtually non-existent, as there are no definite lines of authority. In the area of span of control, the company’s management covers a wide coverage of duties, which are run through the input of the lower level employees.

Under centralization, the company’s decisions are made at the different levels of operation and the different authority and functional roles, thus the company adopts a decentralized operation model. Under formalization, Veema is low; therefore the employees work in a highly free environment, which promotes personal responsibility.

Works Cited Adair, John. 100 Greatest Ideas for Effective Leadership. Chichester: Capstone Publishing, 2011. Print.

Boddy, David. Management – An Introduction. Harlow: Pearson, 2005. Print.

Collins, David. Narrating the Management Guru: In Search of Tom Peters. Oxford: Rutledge, 2007. Print.

Covey, Stephen. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. London: Simon


Marketing Plan for the School of International Business Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Situation analysis

SWOT Analysis


Introduction A marketing plan is a segment of an overall business plan (Buttell 2009, p. 6). A brilliant marketing strategy will lead to a well structured marketing plan (Goetsch 1981, p. 54). Coming up with a solid marketing plan requires one to undertake several procedures (Kotler, Keller


Olympics Raising the UK’s Profile Report college essay help

Executive Summary The Summer Olympics is among the world’s favorite sporting event. The popularity of this event means that the sport has a global audience. Apart from the sporting aspect of the Games, the Olympics are also seen as an avenue by sponsors to market their products.

With the next Olympics scheduled for the summer of 2012 in London, preparations are underway. The body tasked with this responsibility is the London Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. This report examines the marketing practices that the organisation is using to raise its profile, as well as the technological challenges and opportunities at its disposal.

Introduction Every four years, in recent decades, thousands of athletes all over the globe, with a similar number of coaches and officials, and accredited media representatives and hundreds of thousands of spectators have gathered for more than two weeks to participate in, report on and watch a sporting event which is in turn viewed on television, listened to on the radio, read about in the print media and followed on the Internet by billion of people around the world.

Each Olympic Games has cost enormous sums of money to stage, funded by the taxpayers, sponsors, and television companies and their advertisers. Sporting records have invariably been broken, and national and international heroes created. It is the world’s biggest peace-time event: the Summer Olympic Games (Girginov


Success Factors of Implementing E-Services Project Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

E-Service Projects According to the Hill (2006) there are many challenges that come from the implementation and administration of e-based projects. These constraints resemble the challenges that are faced in implementing information technology projects in the world. Many organizations are finding it very hard to manage information technology projects.

The management of information technology based projects is hindered by a number of factors among them sourcing of the right talent as well as well as locational problems. Issues of governance and policy cycles as well as culture and differences in the organizational orientations in relation to the national programs also hinder the administration of the projects [13].

E-Procurement systems In the modern times, there has been the adoption of e-Procurement to help improve the efficiency in the procurement processes. Different types of procurement systems have been developed. Examples include buyer and seller e-Procurement systems as well as the online intermediaries.

The implementation of e-Procurement by governments that have tried using this system has proven to be difficult. Engagement of small suppliers in the system has been quite hard. This is majorly due to the magnitude of investment that has to be done fro such a project to work [2].

Failures have been reported in the e-procurement projects that have been tested in different states. The states include United States, New Zealand and United Kingdom. It is also argued that e-procurement encourages pumping resources in the e-procurement projects without the assurance of getting the full results out of it.

A number of cases concerning this have been reported. For instance, the United Kingdom government rejected to extend an e-tendering pilot project in Whitehall. The British Defense ministry has not yet attained services even after three years of the running of e- procurement service [3].

E-government Implementation Barriers There are a number of problems that hinders the application of e-Commerce in governance. The problems also perceived as risks include uncertainties in prediction of time, cost and delay, poor decisions – making f decisions without proper thinking, full reliance on technology, security constraints and unpredictability of the nature of information and communication technologies [6].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective communication is one of the most important factors in in the implementation of e- governance projects. There must be effective communication between all parties that are involved in the projects. The government has to factor in citizens by ensuring that its citizenry is well trained. Training should be accompanied with access to public electronic and information and communication technology systems.

The engagement with the public servants may become electronic and automated using these technologies thereby forcing the citizens to communicate with public administrators only by way of using the electronic and information communication technology systems. Governments do sometimes provide very limited policies concerning the adoption and use of e-services.

Such cases bring a negative perception to the citizens concerning the use of information and communication technologies as most services utilize e- technologies in the private sector while these technologies are not available in the government and or public sector [6].

It has also been observed that majority of services in e-governance need a heightened investment level in resources that are related to technology. The resources range from hardware goods to software and specialized personnel. There needs to be proper collaboration because most public sectors and even governments in whole are deficient of means of achieving the requirements.

The use of information and communication technologies has not resulted in the betterment of public services. However, the considerations more so those that concern the provision of free services. This is common in the European Union where members follow the provisions of the treaties concerning regulations of procurement at the state level.

In the European Union, member countries that decide to give digital signature services related to electronic identification have to ensure that they do guarantee the utilization of other digital certificates which are provided by other Certified Providers in the public and private sectors [6].

Internet emergence and advancements made in processing capacities as well as the storage of data in the 1990s have changed the environment for the use of ICT services both in societies and also the government. The effects of the revolution in ICT have been so profound that they have already piled pressure on the public sectors to adopt the services in order to increase efficiency in the public sector.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Success Factors of Implementing E-Services Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modernization of technology gives an opportunity to beat the challenge in the modern public bodies. The implementation of e-governance services calls for high level cooperation between the public administrators and information technology firms. The reason behind the need for cooperation is that the process is marked with a lot of technological difficulties [9].

The embracing of e-services is a step towards success. Many of the benefits that come from adoption and use of e-services are proportionate the number of people who use the services. There is a need to full develop the e-services for use by the citizens. In Turkey, the share of people services that are fully operational is lower as compared to the business services.

The number of business services which are fully operational is very high compared to other European Union states. The e-services that are friendly to the consumers can be developed though consulting the consumers about the consumer needs and the satisfaction derived by the consumers in the prevailing services.

A survey that was carried out by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development concerning the needs of users indicated that the needs of users and their satisfaction levels with the prevailing e-services are not commonly used in ensuring the attainment of user focused services [9].

The European Union defined a set of twenty e-services. The organization carries out an assessment of the services in terms of the existence and levels of maturity of the e-services in a number of states that belong to the union. Majority of the states have made it a priority to put up the services. Some states have focused on prioritizing e-service development by focusing on the more intense services [9].

Application of e-service in infrastructure Projects were set up in the year 2002 to implement the delivery of e-services. The projects were mostly undertaken in ITU regions. The main focus of the projects was to put to practice IP infrastructure that has the capability of delivering different kinds of e-service that focus on e-commerce. In the conference that was discussing this, there was representation from both developed and developing countries.

During that period, the e-service projects were set up in eight countries. Apart from the projects in the eight countries, many other projects were set up in different countries and are still in operation.

ITU and BDT played a crucial role in the provision of assistance in relation to feasibility, technological strategies, coordination of the projects as well as the technical expertise in the course of implementing the projects. Countries in which the e-service projects were established include Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Ecuador, Peru, Senegal, Turkey and Vietnam.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Success Factors of Implementing E-Services Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the year 2003, more projects were launched in other countries which include Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritania, Mali, Mongolia, Paraguay and Seychelles [14].

Capacity building in e-service projects Many initiatives and programs have been rolled out to strengthen the local capacity to adopt and use e-commerce, security technologies and legal parameters that appertain to the use of the e-technologies. A number of training workshops have been run in different parts of the world.

The workshops have been held in America region more specific in Chile, in Africa to be specific in Senegal, and in Pakistan for the Asia and the Pacific region.

In the workshops, over twenty seven seminars and courses on information and communication technologies have been issued out in the ‘Center for Training and Development’ which was set up in Venezuela. The creation of the center resulted from the ITU agreement that was reached with [14].

In the workshop, there was the providence of policy guide and assistance of countries on adoption of appropriate strategies from all parts of the globe though seminars, direct aid/assistance, workshops and conferences.

Many countries have been given support on adoption of national and even regional policies as well as strategies for introducing newer technologies more so in the field of Internet Protocol and e-service strategies. BDT further provided assistance to a number of countries to help the countries to adopt best legal framework appertaining to e-applications.

The countries and regions where the actions were undertaken include Pakistan, the Caribbean region, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde and the Andean Community. In this era where there is rapid technological evolution, streamlined policies and comprehensive legal frameworks are important tools in cultivating a favorable environment to enhance secure e-services and applications more so in the developing world [14].

Delivering of e-services in the Civil Society The use of ICT e-services and applications by people in their daily chores has proven to be fruitful more so in the recent times. The mainstreaming of the information and communication technologies with ancient services improves efficiency in a big way besides saving time and energy.

It also aids in speeding up of processing, promotes the virtue of participation, it encourages participation, speeds up the dissemination of information and knowledge as well as bringing about newer economic opportunities. Owing to these benefits, state level and regional conferences and workshops have voiced the need to adopt and implement Information and communication technology services and applications.

The World Summit on Information and Society (WSIS) outlined the benefit of ICT and the role of applying it in public sector administration and also in sustainable development, in business, education, health, agriculture, science, environment and even employment [2].

Non- Governmental organizations are major stakeholders when it comes to the construction and shaping of the information society. They have diversities and approaches to many issues thus this makes them to be key players in ensuring that there is equitability and affordability in the access to ICTS, e-services and applications more so to disadvantaged society members.

The NGOs do have access to rural areas therefore giving them room to understand the culture of the citizens in those areas. This strengthens gives a plus to the NGOs in delivering of e- services to a wider populace [2].

Risk Assessment of e-service projects In the recent years, there has been speedy development in the usage of the internet and other services related to it. Information technologies and its related applications are brought up through projects which in many instances last for longer periods of time. Moreover, the projects are run through a combination of efforts from different institutions and external actors.

Implementation of the e-projects and applications entail significant changes and alterations of technology, the processes and the functions performed by people. Therefore, the resultant e- government service has valuable influence on the life of the citizens. Because of the longevity of the projects, a lot of vacuums do come in therefore it is important to carry out a risk assessment for such projects before setting up the project [7].

Management of e-governance projects E-governance has a big potential of bringing about positive developments more so in he delivery of better services to the citizenry. It also raises the potential of transforming the structures of the governments. Nonetheless, e-governance initiatives do face numerous constraints of complexities and risks thus it is not easy to handle e-government initiatives. Most e-service projects do fail.

Similar challenges are also encountered projects related to information development systems. Public servants usually find themselves in positions where they have to make decisions concerning information technology; something which they have too little information about.

A research on the e-projects is important. It helps in the understanding of reasons that stand behind the success of some projects and what causes other projects to fail. It is vital to learn from past projects and or initiatives in order to be able to launch and develop e-services in the public sector [8].

Inter governmental aspects play a central role in the development of e- government. Topics concerning intergovernmental organizations – e- service aspects are contained in the e-government research.

In e- governance research, identification of normative statement concerning the ways of dealing with e-governance problems can de done. This can be done in general as it applies to the project. It could also be displayed as critical success factors for instance top administration commitment, business linkages, technical inclinations as well as user involvement [8].

E-governance developmental constraints can also be likened to a number of issues among them information technology itself, issues to do with information and data, organizational and management issues, legal and regulatory issues and issues to do with the overall institution and the environment generated factors.

Another problem is that e-governance initiatives for example one-stop government solution more often than not require a combination of efforts from several agencies of the government. However, the major constraint is related to organizational problems [8].

In the structuring and organization of e-governance projects, the major thing that is needed is the understanding of the developmental process as in the different phases of development. The methods of developing systems tend to fall under four stages. The stages are analysis, design stage, construction and the implementation stage. Project assessment can be inserted in the stages [8].

E-government projects can be developed by following the following five stages. The stages are assessment of the project, analysis of the prevailing realities, designation of new systems, construction of the new system and implementation which is accompanied by other developments and improvements. All the steps below must be adhered to in order to attain positive results [8].

A survey that was conducted to ascertain the key strategies of ISD initiatives in government came up with a number of findings. The success factors in the government ISD initiatives include the commitment of the top administration, Linkage of the services or initiatives to business, knowledgeable personnel, technical alignment and involvement of users [8].

Implementation of e-service: Case Study of Lillesand Town Lillesand town in Norway has been making efforts to raise the utilization of digital application forms to ease citizen access to services and interaction with the municipality while cutting administrative expenses and burdens on the employees. In the course of doing this, the municipality identified twenty businesses processes that lay in its documentation system. It realized that the twenty businesses could be digitalized.

The town has now developed a service on its website. Through the website, citizens of the town get access to their case files and get an opportunity to have a look at their query status and applications.

The achievements of this tracking system have come as a result of description and the reengineering of the process related to digital forms, use of specific designed databases warehousing of data as well as digital archives integration and multiplicity of publishing in different channels.

Most of the communication in the municipality happens through digital formats. Moreover, most of the administration functions of the municipality have also been digitalized easing communication [5].

Customers usually play a big role in the improvement of e-service. Customers take part in business processes. An instance is the triggering of process by virtue of submitting requests online through the website. Customers also act as co-producers and influence the way in which e-service projects perform. This depends on their ability as well as experience of the e-service at differing points of delivery of the services [1].

A range of improvements can be useful in the restructuring of prevailing e-service delivery in order to come up with better services therefore establishing new means of working as applied in municipalities.

It is very important to have a shared comprehension of the whole process in the development of customer service strategies and also complicated e-services before gaining the ability to link customer service for instance the website and the back services which entails the processes and systems of business.

Surveys that have been conducted have deduced that customers see municipalities as being single, integrated provider of service; therefore, e-services that involve different departments and other agencies of the government must be made available to the customers and experienced in a manner as it would be experienced when the service is provided by single and or integrated service providers [5].

Technical specifications of whatever products or services of information and communication technology e-services included have to be based on the full comprehension of all business operational processes.

E-services don’t just revolve around information technology but also needs the establishment of effective and efficient business processes and also the deployment of appropriate information and communication technologies to deliver customer friendly solutions [5].

Trust factor in E-service In the modern days, web technologies enable business processing with the aid of ICT. Nonetheless, numerous questions remain pending before setting up and access of the information systems of partnering bodies.

In building e-services there is a need to have trust between the partnering parties. Protection of the information systems from unauthorized access and use is one of the means that are used to overcome the problem of trust [11].

E-government Framework According to Janowski, Estevez


Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays Report college admissions essay help

David Stephens and Dack Anderson discussed the theory of short-term benefits as guide to animal feeding decisions. In a series of experiments conducted in an operant laboratory, blue jay birds were the subjects of the study. The foraging animals were tested in two situations namely the self control paradigm and the patch-use problems.

The article details how natural selection among the foraging blue jays favour short term rules which result to long term consequences.

The paper discusses how to combine time and amount in a suitable currency that mirrors the fitness consequences of different time/ amount sequences and determines the decision rules foragers apply to select the currency maximizing time/ amount sequence from a determined set of possibilities and investigating the relationship between decision rules and currencies.

Foragers’ farsighted way in choosing is contradicted by laboratory experiments where the blue jays made short sighted decisions. The logic of farsightedness is best illustrated in the traditional studies of Stephens and Krebs (1986) where long term rate maximizing currency is infinite gain/ infinite time however this logic cannot be generally valid because food gained after starvation is not of any use thus the expression is too farsighted.

Two groups of scholars presented an alternative to this proposal where the best rate is attained one at a time thus being short sighted (Bateson and Kacelnik, 1996; Baum and Rachlin, 1969) but Stephens and Krebs (1986) argued that when the maximum rate is taken from each chance, time may be exhausted on a mediocre alternative.

The authors concluded that both long term and short term models presented are of extremes thus introducing a discount rate which measures the comparative loss of value in order to create intermediate term models.

In this notion the long term model is determined when the discount rate is zero since the value of the gain is the same even if it was obtained early or late in a sequence but as the discount rate becomes larger the approach becomes that of the short term model. The discount rates are expected to be non-zero.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the authors, the long term model is the most sensible because it provides a rational estimate of rate even in a restricted time horizon. It is farsighted enough to pass over bad options and rational discount rates are small. Short sightedness is evident in the notion that animals often make prejudiced decisions which was concluded in the self control experiment.

In a self control situation long term rate model predicts that animals will choose Gain1 over inter-trial interval plus delay before the small amount plus post feeding delay over the second alternative which is post feeding delay over inter-trial interval plus delay before the large amount as long as the former is greater than the later with consideration to temporal rates such as delay to food, post feeding delay and inter-trial delay.

However these temporal rates are not treated equally by animals according to experiments. Evolutionary models can accommodate small discounting outcomes but they challenge the predictions of self control experiments. The latter show that short term hindrances have large effects. Scholars interpret such disagreements by disregarding the model and accepting the data.

The blue jays were given a binary choice in the self control situation while the same subjects were given a choice to continue or leave where they follow a future patch alternative in the patch-use exploitation. The latter shows the effects of travel time on rate maximizing patch residence time.

In the patch-use situation, the jays’ choice has comparable consequences but the subjects choose whether to wait in the patch and gather (G2 – G1) extra units of food or to leave at once after attaining a small amount (G1). In order to determine the different patterns of choices in the self control and patch-use contexts, the authors considered such in the context of 50 and 5 discount rate levels of delay to small.

Results of the experiment concluded that when the delay to small was of ample amount (50) preferences of the blue jays were not affected by the ITI thus large outcome in the patch-use context was more favourable but when the delay to small was few (5), outcome was more complex.

In the control situation, the jays’ favour for large decreased together with the ITI while in the patch-use situation the subjects’ favour increased for the large together with the ITI. The jays preferred large when the ITI was small in the self control situation while in the patch-use situation, the foraging animals preferred large when the ITI was large.

We will write a custom Report on Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As predicted in the long term theory, the patch-use situation showed that the jays favoured large delayed outcomes as ITI increased but in the self control situation the outcomes are not the same. The authors presented situations that prove how results from both experiments (patch-use and self control) lead to long term rate maximizing.

In the long term model situation results show that the patch-use context is in line with the long term rate model while the self control situation contradicts. According to the short term rate model, results of the self control treatment of binary choice conform to short term rate models while the outcomes of patch-use exploitation conforms to the long term rate currency.

Both the self control and patch use situations were compared in the same rule different outcome analysis. This analysis resulted in the conclusion that in the patch-use experiment, short term rates were obtained with long term rate maximization but in the self control situation the conclusion differs.

The authors concluded that short term rule always agrees with the difference in long term rates according to the patch-use exploitation situation though such rule produces outcomes in relation to short sighted behaviour in the self control situation thus the subjects use the same short term rule in deciding for both cases but producing different outcomes.

For the adaptive short term rules scenario, it has been found out that the natural process of selection among foraging animals has favoured short term rate comparisons for they measure long term rate maximization in natural decision contexts. The hypothesis deals with the usage of the same rule in patch-use and self control contexts and the representation of patch condition as natural foraging problems.

The long term rate currency of foraging theory has been contradicted by self control studies and risk sensitive preferences. According to the risk sensitivity studies of Kacelnik and Bateson (1996), foraging animals favour changeable postponements even though unlimited time horizon rate models forecast indifference to unpredictability.

The authors of the article argue that the evidence of self control of short term rules is not evidence of short term currency because in natural decision context, short term rules can have long term consequences.

Finally the authors theorized that pragmatic patterns of favour can be accounted by long term rate currency which includes reasonable levels of discounting. Foraging species favour attaining short term rewards with a minimal advantage over long term ones in abundance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The usual technique of elicitation of the inter-temporal discount rate has been critically challenged by scholars over the years when empirical studies discovered systematic violations of assumptions such as time consistency of preferences, stationary, constant discounting and utility maximization (Kalenscher and Pennartz, 2007).

The discounted utility theory has limited descriptive validity because it fails to effectively depict the authenticity of inter-temporal choice behaviour.

“Common difference and immediacy effects and the fact that preference reversals occur after deferring all choice alternatives into the future by the same interval, violate assumptions of consistent choice: (Kalenscher and Pennartz, 2007).

Foraging animals’ preferences do not depend on the proportion of gains and time in between such achievements but rather on the waiting time prior to the rewards. The technique becomes incoherent with the original and most favourable foraging formulation where animals are seen to sacrifice rather than maximize.

The inter-temporal choice notion that it can be compressed into a single discount function is challenged by other variances such as the sign, magnitude and framing effects. When making inter-temporal decisions, foraging animals break vital assumptions in discount rates.

Other limitations of such technique include the inability of long term theory to predict consistently the increase of favour for large together with ITI because choice in proportion cannot exceed 100% thus broad conditions exist where ITI has no effect.

In the patch-use situation, ITI is hard to detect when favour for large is high, another drawback is with regards to the linear relationship in focusing on temporal elements, where in reality the relationship between the amount and value can never be linear and lastly the authors’ assumption of animals’ preferences of short term rules over long term rules are not mutually exclusive.

Critics of the usual technique of elicitation of the inter-temporal discount rate methods can be traced to their inability to provide consistent outcomes over time. Systematic violations also occur with regards to assumptions such as time consistency of preferences, stationary, constant discounting and utility maximization.

These factors gravely affect results thus the method is questionable in providing valid outcomes in experiments. Hyperbolic discounting is inconsistent because it only measures the discounted outcomes of the near future and rather than the far future. The pattern of discounting is also inconsistent because how one subject’s decisions may be based on different aspects one considers than the other.

In human behaviour discounting is influenced by the person’s expectations, moods, sign, glucose levels and the like which may differ from one person to another.

Experimental ecology has provided a method in testing the inter-temporal choice behaviours of human beings though discounting can only provide outcomes of the near future and is limited to predict results in the far future, experimental ecology enables scholars to study patterns of choice.

Patterns can be explained through discounting methods offered by the experiment in distinguishing the delay and interval of discounting. The experiment can help scholars analyse human behaviours in terms of people’s decisions and the future consequences they regard in making such choices by considering the variability of discount rates the experiment may provide.

Experimental ecology provides scholars close to accurate approximations of outcomes through a series of controlled examinations of hypothesis and theories. It enables scholars to manipulate evidences and test models where distractions in their natural habitats may disrupt findings. If a model disagrees with data, the former will be rejected and the latter will be followed accordingly.

In determining the feeding decisions of foraging animals such as blue jays, Stephen and Anderson compared the self control and patch-use experiments where in the former the jays were given a binary choice, obtain gains in a short period of time even if it is a few in quantity or wait for a period of time and obtain more gains while the in the latter case jays are given a choice to attain a gain and leave or continue and receive more gains.

In both experiments the approach is similar but outcomes vary. In the self control approach the authors found out that it tends to lean on the short term model and that the patch-use situation is associated with the long term model.

Techniques in the elicitation of inter-temporal discount rates help predict outcomes in behaviours of foraging animals in their decisions towards feeding but it presents limitations such as the violations of the theory’s assumptions and the consistency of predictions which may present as a problem in synthesizing conclusions for experiments.

Furthermore, the assumption of linear relationships in the experiment deemed itself inconsistent because in reality relationships can never be linear. Though experimental ecology has its critics, contributions of such in the field can be attributed to its ability to control external factors that may disrupt results of the study and through experimentations theories and hypothesis can be proven through actual examinations.

Reference List Bateson, M and Kacclnik, A 1996. “Rate currencies and the foraging starling: the fallacy of the averages revisited”, Behavioural Ecology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp.341-352.

Baum, W and Rachlin, H 1969. “Choice as time allocation”, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, vol.12, no. 6, pp.861-874.

Kacclnik, A and Bateson, M 1996, “Risky theories – the effects of variance on foraging decisions”, American Zoology, vol. 36, pp.402-434.

Kalenscher, T and Pennartz, C 2007, “Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? The neuroeconomics of inter-temporal decision making”, Progressive in Neurobiology, pp.1-32. Available from: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/progress-in-neurobiology [26 December 2011].

Stephen, D and Krebs, J 1986, Foraging theory: Monographs in behaviour and ecology, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.


Starbucks Marketing Plan for VIA Instant Coffee in India Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Since ages Indians have been more inclined towards tea rather than coffee. As such, marketing coffee in India can be a tough job. But owing to the marketing strategies of companies like Starbucks, a trend of coffee drinking has started picking up, especially among the younger generation.

It should be understood that the market trends differ from country to country. The existing managerial literature proves that the marketing strategies available for internalization are not basically the same across cultures (Cayla


Health and Health Inequity Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


The Commission’s final report on Health Inequity

Global Health Action in Nigeria (GHAIN)

Halt Aids


Reference List

Introduction Nigeria detected its first HIV/AIDS case in 1986, and since then, the country has gradually registered HIV/AIDS statistics that qualify for an AIDS epidemic. In 1991, the prevalence was 1.8%. In 1996, it shot up to 4.5%. In 2001, it recorded a high of 5.8% and finally in 2003, the figure was 5%.

The decline that Nigeria registered in 2003 is an improvement in its health standards, but it is still far from leaving the epidemic zone. Unfortunately, sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria are more susceptible to breeding the virus because of certain circumstances and conditions, which are prevalent in them but absent in other systems.

The way people live, work, feed, school, and even engage in recreational activities determines how their health shall fare. Moreover, HIV/AIDS awareness programs are on the increase and a country like Nigeria is yet to reap the fruits of the knowledge dispatched by such programs. It has become apparent that the government alone cannot possibly bear the burden of a nation’s health crisis.

It requires all the assistance it can get from the civil society, nongovernmental organizations, and other parastatals. However, Nigerians are presently experiencing health inequalities that the government, with the assistance of the civil society, can easily alleviate if they collaborate to put in place a self-sufficient system of health that will serve its population adequately.

Thesis This paper reviews the Nigerian system of health from both the governmental and nongovernmental perspectives giving special attention to the activities of two civil society organizations in Nigeria, GHAIN-Global Health Action in Nigeria, managed by Family Health International FHI and HALT AIDS.

There are numerous repercussions of having a HIV / Aids epidemic in a nation but due to a limitation of space and subject, this paper shall only handle issues on HIV / AIDS and infant / mortality rate in Nigeria.

Of specific interest will be the causes, effects, and prevention, as well as treatment strategies adopted by the various civil society organizations to reduce infection, maintain the sickly, and cater for orphans and vulnerable children, (OVC). It shall also address possible solutions to the various problems that these civil society organizations face.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that these two health issues are somewhat related and so for the purposes of this paper shall be studied as an integrated problem. HIV/ AIDs is a major cause of infant / maternal mortality with other factors also being major contributors, but likewise, these other factors, such as early sexual encounters are also causes of HIV / AIDS prevalence.

The Commission’s final report on Health Inequity According to the Commission on Social Determinant of Health, hereafter referred to as ‘the commission,’ stated in its final report to the World Health organization, “Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes, and values.

In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family, and market though, in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family, and market are complex.

Civil society is often populated by organizations such as registered charities, development nongovernmental organizations, community groups, women’s organizations, faith-based organizations, professional organizations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions, and advocacy groups” (Commission on Social Determinants of Health 2008, p. 7).

Riding on this definition, Global Heath Action in Nigeria, (GHAIN), is definitely a civil society and its contribution to the management of the Nigerian HIV / AIDS epidemic is vital to that country. Moreover, the commission’s report highlighted a summary of the causes of health inequity and several possible solutions to this quagmire.

The problems include poor daily living conditions across the borders from youth to the elderly and among both men and women. The effects of such conditions are mirrored a generation’s productivity and in most cases, there is heath inequity as a direct consequence of lack of proper living standards.

The recommended solution to this problem relies heavily on the education of young mothers of both girls and boys on how to take care of infants as well as how to nurture and provide for these newly born. By improving the well-being of both girls and women, one also guarantees that the circumstances in which their children are born will be friendly and supportive of a better and healthier lifestyle.

We will write a custom Essay on Health and Health Inequity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can happen by putting emphasis on early childhood development, improvement of living and working conditions, vouching for social policies that cater for everybody and finally, certifying that people can enjoy benefits accruing at their old age. Of course, for one to achieve all this, the government, civil society and the private sector need to collaborate to come up with results.

The second problem addressed by the commission is that of inequitable distribution of power, money and resources. Simply, poverty and exploitation of the poor by the wealthy and politically powerful is counterproductive to any nation’s healthcare.

The commission’s solution to the problem of health inequity lies in addressing other inherent inequities such as equity between men and women in the society, thus, it proposes that women empowerment should take place in patriarchal societies.

It also requires that the private sector exercise accountability and the civil sector as well as the government respect collective action. This means that they should earn their legitimacy from the people in the nation and so act in accordance with what these people feel is appropriate in various circumstances. As a result, they shall be more trustworthy and people shall take heed to their regulations and policies.

In a way, it is citizen ownership in the projects. Such a government, civil society or private organization cannot possibly seek to defraud, manipulate, or oppress its publics and so equity is a guarantee. The final problem is that of lack of proper knowledge.

Most countries are unaware of the existence the issue of health inequity and consequently cannot realistically solve it. It starts with a realization that this problem exists, followed by a decision to resolve it and consequently putting in place measures to analyze and evaluate the extent of the problem in order to solve it.

With the above causes and solutions of health inequity, the next step is to zero in on Nigeria. In Nigeria, as noted above, specific regard is on the matter of HIV / AIDS and maternal / infant mortality. More specifically, the activities of GHAIN and HALT AIDS, both civil societies as per the definition given by the commission, and working to some extent in collaboration with the government to alleviate the HIV / AIDS epidemic.

Nigeria has a population of 133 million and out of these; four million are infected with HIV / AIDS (GHAIN 2009, p. 1). Two million have died of this infection or HIV / AIDS related diseases and the number of people affected by the virus is indefinite but quite high. In 2003, there were seven million orphans and out of these; 1.8 million were HIV / AIDS orphans.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Health and Health Inequity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is, therefore, apparent that the issue of HIV / AIDS in Nigeria requires special attention as it is claiming many lives and leaving others in ruin in its wake. The repercussion of this is that the economy is in a precarious position, as sickly people cannot work to improve their economy.

Global Health Action in Nigeria (GHAIN) Research indicates that among the factors contributing to HIV / AIDS prevalence include multiplicity of sexual partners, mother-to-child transmission, although now that is being referred to as parent-to-child transmission, blood transfusion, low condom use, untreated sexually transmitted infections, and denial by a majority of Nigerians of the possibility of being infected with HIV.

Besides, widespread poverty, ignorance or illiteracy, lack of women empowerment, and an overcrowded healthcare system further compound the situation in Nigeria. The government alone cannot bear the burden of the epidemic as numerous issues occupy its attention and scarce resources.

Consequently, it lies on the civil society, faith-based, and nongovernmental organizations in Nigeria to salvage the situation. One such organization is GHAIN, the Global Health Action in Nigeria. Since its launching in 2004, this organization has achieved quite a lot in the short time it has been in action.

GHAIN receives its funding from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS through the United States Agency for International Development, (USAID). It comprises of seven partners including Family Heath International at its head.

The rest include the American Red Cross and Nigerian Red Cross Society, the Axios Foundation, the Center for Development and Population Activities, German Leprosy and Tuberculosis Relief Association, and Howard University (GHAIN 2009, p. 1).

With its headquarters at Abuja and regional offices in various states within the nation including Kano and Lagos among others, GHAIN has played a major role in cutting back on HIV infection and spreading. It does this through various avenues including awareness education, provisions of voluntary testing and counseling services, anti-retroviral therapy, and provision of palliative care among other means.

Under the umbrella of GHAIN, Family Health International together with its local partners in Nigeria has been instrumental in the provision of technical support to the National Action Committee on AIDS. They have also assisted the National AIDS


Two Emergency Response Scenario Case Study essay help online free

Table of Contents Response action plan

Press brief

Coordination of immediate actions

Crisis response plan


The Incident Command System (ICS) provides guidelines that highlight problems and coordination of incident response resources. The ICS has become the most used system of coordinating events in the world.

The ICS has five elements, which include command, planning, operations, logistics, and finance and administration. The event at scenario 1 heavily borrows from the ICS in order to draw a concrete response action plan (McEntire, 2007).

Response action plan Recognition: the regional incident commander has recognized the hazardous event of two trains’ collision. A chemical hauler and a high speed commuter train collide near the intersection of a major interstate highway in a very congested area. The response effort then commence in earnest in order to save lives.

Search and rescue: most disaster result in victims trapped under debris. The involvements of hazardous materials released by the hauler train require organized search and rescue. Search and rescue should focus on three main areas. These include locating the victims, rescuing the victims from traps and providing initial first aid treatment in order to stabilize the victims’ conditions (Coppola, 2007).

The incident Commander must take note of the citizens who might come to the initial rescue. Rescue process must be performed within the next six hours in order to prevent further loss of lives and damages to property. The Incident commander must plan for more organized and technical search and rescue efforts through his formal search and rescue team to replace unequipped civilians.

He must ensure that the search and rescue team have full cache of equipment and supplies. The team may focus on general search and rescue, and in the case involving Boron trichloride, he must call in chemical specialists and urban search and rescue for swift action.

Allocation of scarce resources: emergencies raise issues concerning scarcity of resources. The incident at scenario one is no exception. Therefore, the incident commander must allocate scarce resources using ethical and clinical guidelines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critical supplies that may be in short supplies include medication for the survivors, surgical supplies, and rescue team personal protective gears. The Incident Commander must ensure that these resources have controlled distribution to serve the majority.

First aid medical treatment: the incident commander must note that the accident involves wounded people whose number may be above normal. Therefore, the victims may overwhelm the capacity of local clinics and hospitals. This is a case of mass casualty event.

The regional incident commander must make arrangement quickly to locate the injured victims, provide them with the first aid to maintain their conditions, and move them to nearby facilities for treatment needed to save their lives.

The nature of chemical, Boron trichloride needs immediate onsite first aid and fire suppression. In order to avoid depletion of resources, the incident commander must take into account the supplies of basic first aid supplies, medical technicians, and transportation in a busy interstate junction to access adequate facilities for further treatment.

Evacuation: the Boron trichloride seeks for immediate evacuation of the victims due to possibilities of fire breakout. The incident commander must move the victims away from the site of collision and its consequences. Evacuation will reduce the effects of many disasters by simply removing the victims from the site of risk.

Disaster assessments: the incident commander must assess the extents and impacts of train collisions. The incident commander must begin collecting data for information needed to facilitate the response processes. The Incident Commander must be able to know at any given moment what is taking place, where it is occurring, what the responders need, and what resources are available.

The nature of incident at scenario 1 may increase in complexity due to its size and scope. In order to ease the task, incident commander must group the assessment into two groups. Situation or damage assessment to determine what has happened as a result of the two trains collisions. This will enable to determine geographic scope of the disaster, how it has affected people and structures.

We will write a custom Case Study on Two Emergency Response Scenario specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, he must seek data related to the area affected, number of people affected, number of injured (morbidity) and killed (mortality), types of injuries and illnesses, conditions and characteristics of the victims. At the same time, data on medical, health, nutritional, water, and sanitation conditions of the victims are also necessary.

The need assessments also involve a collection of data on ongoing or emerging hazards because of spread of Boron trichloride, damage to infrastructures and critical facilities, since the area is interstates connection point, residential and commercial structures affected, vulnerability of the affected population to ongoing, or expected related and unrelated hazards, and current response effort in progress.

The need assessment involves the collecting data on services, resources and assistance the incident commander will require in addressing the train collision disaster.

Treating the hazard: the consequences of the two trains collision may persist for a long duration due to chemical spreading around the scene. However, the incident commander must ensure that the responders must limit or eliminate the spread and hazardous effects of Boron trichloride. He must call in specialists with special equipment and training on the chemical managements.

Responders must suppress fire, ensure hazardous Boron trichloride containment and decontamination, arrest of flows, remove snow and ice, manage possible public health consequences, and enforce the law to curtail rioting and looting.

Provision of water, food, and shelter: the disaster is most likely to isolate the whole area for a long period of time. However, victims of the collision must drink, eat, and given shelter in cold winter season if they are to survive. The incident commander must plan for the interrupted normal supply line, and limited provisions of supplies to the victims.

Likewise, there should be nonexistent of disaster management officials needed to start provisions of immediate assistance. Incident Commander must ensure that food, water, and shelter options are available to the victims. He must focus on both short-term immediate response and long-term provision of aid. However, he must arrange for first few hours of confusion that occurs and brings about haphazard responses.

Safety and security: the incident at scenario 1 disrupted the entire social order of the affected area of downtown Oakland California. The regional incident commander must take into account that the police and other response officials are engaged to their limits, paying most or all their time and resources on managing the hazardous consequences and spilled the chemicals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Two Emergency Response Scenario by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, many security and safety problems still occur and even grow during disasters. The incident commander must be able to ensure the safety and security of the victims in commuter train, people unaffected but within the jurisdiction, and outside responders. Looting is a major challenge. Boron trichloride is a highly valuable chemical with many functions.

Criminals get power to steal from the victims, cars as well as in the neighboring businesses and homes affected. In fact, the threat of looting is the major security threat the Oakland disaster is likely to experience, and it is most likely to disrupt the evacuation and rescue efforts. Occasionally, assault on victims and response and recovery team may occur forcing the response efforts to be called off till security is restored.

Emergency social services: victims of the train collision are likely to experience extreme psychological stress. Consequences of the Oakland tragedy may results into loss of spouses, parents, children, friends and other associates. There are also losses of business for the two train companies, Boron trichloride owners and other nearby affected businesses.

The regional incident commander must arrange for proper psychological care so that victims do not slip into depression. Arranging for proper counseling will limit the extreme effects of depression. The Incident Commander must also arrange for the provision of counseling services to the respondent team because they experience emotional pain and suffering of the crash victims.

Donations management: this disaster will experience donations of all kinds. Individuals, private business, governments and religious groups will tend to donate generously to support the crash victims who may have nothing at the moment. The Incident Commander must manage what is called a second disaster due to the presence of these donations.

Cash is the most appropriate form of a donation because it can easily be used to purchase the supplies from local area. Cash is easily available and eliminates delays of transportation. Cash has no logistics-related costs and needs no storage space.

The incident manager must put up action plan to cater for accepting, receiving, accounting, and distributing cash in a transparent manner. The incident manager must handle donations well to ensure that they benefit the intended stakeholders.

Coordination: the incident commander must development an action plan for disaster coordination. Coordination is a vital and immediate component of disaster response because of the number of responding agencies that come to rescue of the victims.

In order to save many lives, property, and alleviate suffering, the incident commander must ensure successful coordination and cooperation in safe and efficient use of response resources. Coordination process ensures that there are limited wastages, infighting, nonparticipation, confusions and inefficient use of resources during emergency situations.

In order to ensure most effective coordination, the incident commander should ensure that the local government administration, emergency manager, fire officer, and police department should maintain leadership at all times.

This is because the local response leaders are familiar with the crash area, affected people, infrastructure, geography and other issues necessary for successful response. In case the local leadership is unable to take leadership coordination, then the Incident Manager should ensure that the national government takes charge.

Declaration of disaster: the Oakland California disaster is severe. The incident commander must arrange for disaster declaration. The government must acknowledge that response resources are limited and more support is necessary particularly to handle the spread of Boron trichloride. He must also put in legal requirements depending on the laws of Oakland California as established in emergency operations planning.

The incident commander must allow the local government who has primary responsibility to respond to the emergency. The approach must be step-by-step as it goes high the national ladder. This only happens when the local authority cannot handle the disaster at the local level.

The local authority must communicate this information to the local executives who then decide to declare the collision as a disaster and appeal to the next level of authority (California state government) for assistance. If the Boron trichloride is difficult to handle, then the state government must appeal to the federal government for assistance.

Press brief “Hi, my name is John Dee, Senior Disaster Response Coordinator. I am giving a press brief concerning the Airbus 320 crash. On Friday of 16th December 2011, on or about 1720 PST, an Airbus 320 with 275 onboard missed the Lindberg Field and crashed. We suspect that the aircraft lost the field in the dense fog and lost the Lindberg Field. We have confirmed that the aircraft impacted on the vicinity of the City Hall.

The crash happened at a densely populated area of San Diego. However, we have not confirmed the extent of the damages, and number of casualties involved. We have also confirmed that the aircraft hit three building. These are the Sempre Tower, the next building to it and the City Jail. We also have the report that the Sempre Tower is on fire and in danger of collapsing.

There is aircraft debris scattered in the area around the three blocks in the northwest area of the impact zone. I must also let you that happened to have seen the crash site from my office and smell the smoke and when the building manager sounded the fire alarm system.

I will keep you posted with new developments as soon as we receive. I also wanted to know how you prefer to receive our press briefs via mail, fax or press conference. Thanks!”

Coordination of immediate actions The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator shall coordinate the crash immediate response based on the Incident Command System (ICS). The ICS is necessary to provide a tool for command, control and coordination of immediate actions.

It also provides means to coordinate the efforts of individual agencies to achieve a common goal of stabilizing the emergency and saving lives, property and protecting the environment. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must coordinate immediate action through the following (Damon and Erin, 2009).

Command: Response coordinator must establish a framework within which a single leader or committee can control the growing disaster response effort. The coordinator must address all the activities taking place throughout the crash scene.

The San Diego crash may lead to an establishment of Unified Command for development of common set of rescue objectives and strategies, without requiring the local emergency authority to give up their power, responsibility, or accountability within their individual jurisdictions. The command structure must have representatives from all major rescue agencies.

Planning: the Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must ensure that the planning section provides support through gathering, evaluating, disseminating and using information about the progress of the incident and the functional status of all the available responders and resources. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must create the Incident Action Plan (IAP) to provide overall management for the response.

He must focus on collecting, evaluating and displaying incident information and intelligence. This part also looks into preparation of and documentation of IAPs, doing long-range contingency planning, creating plans for demobilization and tracking incident resources.

Operations: operations look into response plan in IAP. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator creates operation section to coordinate and manage all the activities of the crash responders geared towards saving lives, reducing immediate hazard, saving property and focus on activities moving towards recovery phase. Operation section has emergency services, public works and law enforcement.

Logistics: the response of the crash depends on all the support and logistical provisions, which start as soon as the resources are deployed. Response tools include rescue team, equipment, facilities and vehicles.

Logistics section looks into acquisition, transport and distribution of resources, provision of water, food and medical attention. Logistics section also ensures that there are personnel to operate the equipment and perform other logistics tasks.

Finance and administration: this section tracks all the costs of the response process. The federal government must support the state of San Diego through its emergency funds. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must guarantee local and regional response agencies that he will cover for expenditures, supply uses, and activities.

The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must coordinate the activities form a central location known as an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). This is where all information and communications is collected, processed and disseminated.

Crisis response plan Situation awareness: the Airbus 320 with 275 onboard has crashed. The aircraft landed on a highly populated commercial area vicinity of the City Hall. The aircraft has hit two to three large towers. These include Sempre Energy Tower, the next building to it, and the City Hall. There are scattered aircraft debris, and the Sempre building is on fire. Therefore, there is a need for emergency response.

Emergency response: this should begin as soon as the Senior Disaster Response Coordinator has recognized the problem. The first responder at the scene of crash must make a preliminary assessment and notify the officials. The Incident Commander must take charge and direct all emergency issues. Senior Fire Officer must take control of the fire at Sempre building.

The Incident Commander takes control and establishes the resources needed. The Law Enforcement instruments will take charge of security and traffic control. The Incident Commander must ensure the removal of plane debris, cargo, and passengers’ luggage. Medical rescue team will take charge of the 275 onboard passengers involved in the crash.

All communication must be directed to the operations section in the Command Post. All the officers in charge of the response must also direct all their communication to the Command Post.

There must be coordination of air traffic next to the Lindberg Field to control airspace, keep it clear and limit the landings or takeoffs.

Recovery: this comes after the emergency response. It attempts to restore normalcy in the area of Airbus crash. It involves declaration of the disaster, controlling access and clearing the remains, debris and restoring public infrastructures.

Recovery also involves looking into insurance claims, providing social services, investigations, readjusting traffic, providing counseling services, and restoring the economic activities of San Diego crash scene.

Directions and controls: the Incident Commander must look into all activities and control them. In case of disaster declaration, the senior officials exercise all controls and give directions. They must establish Command Post near the crash scene to control all emergency operations.

References Coppola, D. P. (2007). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Boston: Elsevier Inc.

Coppola, D. and Erin, K. M. (2009). Communicating Emergency Preparedness: Strategies for Creating a Disaster Resilient Public. New York: Auerbach Publications.

McEntire, D. A. (2007). Disaster Response and Recovery. New York: John Wiley.


Has the European Integration Process since 1950s Reflect Carl Schmitt’s Critique on Universalism? Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction In the course of history, the basis of political universalism has been on the assumption that human beings are no longer plausible. The arguments supporting universalism have for a long time taken lightly the common core of humanity that surpasses every social or historical context. Universalist critics argue on the basis of the complicated role that both culture and tradition play in all human judgments.

However, it is difficult for human beings to reject cultures and practices as an inherent part of humanity and instead purchase on other ways of living politically. Critics view universalism as only necessary for defending the interests of the Western democracies including human rights.

Modern critics believe that an appropriate universalism must consider the very multiplicities of our cultures and traditions that the old universalism so much ignored. This paper seeks to establish whether the European integration process since 1950s reflect Carl Schmitt’s critique on universalism.

The concept of political: enemy and friend In 1927, an essay entitled “the concept of the political” found its way in the local dailies. The paper was published by Carl Schmitt.

The essays by Carl Schmidt were built upon the ideology of Woodrow Wilson who asserted in an address on the conditions of peace on January 8, 1918, that ‘the final war for human liberty’ could be justified in upholding ‘the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities, and their right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety with one another, whether they be strong or weak”.

It is upon this notion that, ‘the structure of international justice’ was built. Wilson asserted that the principle necessitated the acceptance of the principle of national self-determination and consequently, the territorial re-arrangement of Europe and its colonies.

Wilson’s 14 point principle called for a general association of nations of the world to “…be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike” (Tokár, 2001).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To this end, President Woodrow Wilson legitimized the principle of human rights and grasped the notion of abstract humanity. In fact, Wilson called for the formation of the ‘league of nations’ which should include great and small states. As evident, Wilson accepted the reality of pluriverse of sovereignty and as such, stated that they were equal but with politically distinct humanity.

For Wilson, the protection of humanity, democracy and human rights, freedom, justice and self-government were the only justification for war. In effect, Wilson was arguing that there had to be a difference between ‘just’ and ‘unjust’ wars. He rationalized that in just wars, remaining neutral was not a possibility.

Carl Schmitt’s reflection on international politics was a criticism of Wilsonian ideology coupled with the defeat of German in the WWI. His essays on international politics were intercalated with polemical political commentaries that were published in newspapers with the aim of contributing to political debate and mobilization. Schmitt was displeased with the principle of ‘humanity’ and ‘universalism’ as adopted by Wilson.

According to Schmitt, ‘humanity’, ‘is not a political concept’. Political motives and actions could not be reduced to ‘humanity’ but to a relationship between friend and enemy. Enmity and friendship were differentiated by the utmost level of intensity of a union or a separation.

Schmitt argued that politics derived its energy from a variety of human efforts would it be religious, economic, moral, ethical and so on. Each of these endeavors transforms itself into a political agenda ‘if it is strong to group human beings effectively according to friend and enemy’ (Tokár, 2001).

The quality of the political lay in the decision, in which the alien or the other, is said to negate one’s own existence and thus necessitates to be defined as being different, and hence an enemy. It is against this enemy that war must be conducted.

This war may justly and rightly result in the extermination of the enemy. Schmitt drew attention to the west which he said had become the holder of monopoly of political possibility of physical killing.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Has the European Integration Process since 1950s Reflect Carl Schmitt’s Critique on Universalism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is upon this decision that one became labeled either as an enemy or a friend, ‘The state as the decisive political entity possesses an enormous power: the possibility of waging war and thereby publicly disposing of the lives of men. The jus belli contains such a disposition. It implies a double possibility: the right to demand from its own members the readiness to die and unhesitatingly to kill enemies’ (Schmitt, 2007).

Schmitt conceptualized that war emanated from enmity. It is ‘existential of negation of the enemy’. Because war is inevitable in the history of the humans, eternal peace is an inconceivable dream. Schmitt considered this a dominant problem of international politics.

He stated that the sovereign equality of states was an essential component of wars as it ensured the relativization of enmity and safeguarded against a prejudiced notion of war that would ultimately discern between ‘just wars’ hence ‘just enemies’ and ‘unjust wars’ and so ‘unjust enemies’.

Schmitt’s political background to this reasoning was built upon the Versailles and war guilt and much later, Nuremberg and Tokyo and the resulting war tribunals to try criminals of war. Accordingly, Schmitt reasoned that the principle of sovereign equality had been desecrated by the Treaty of Versailles and, therefore, Germany suffered wrongly.

Schmitt was continually unconvinced by the invocation of the ‘sovereign equality’ of states as a way of resolving against the emergence of war. This made him conceive that the era of nations was coming to an end. As earlier stated, Schmitt perceived that the state was the monopolist of political decision.

It acted as the highest entity as to prevent all antagonistic groupings from leading to life-threatening enmity, i.e. from provoking each other in a civil strife. However, Schmitt saw the state as becoming a captive of social groups. This is what he called the societalization of the state which resulted from democratization (Schmitt, 2007).

Theorists of the 19th century saw the state withering away in the rise of economic and civil societies. In fact, all aspect of life had become politicized as political will was seized by political parties which represented the interests and motives of the economists. The emergence of these ‘total states’ meant that the state could not be distinguished from all other kinds of affairs.

Based on this notion, Schmitt saw Germany as the only ‘total’ state in a purely qualitative sense. Such a state was easy to set apart from the ‘quantitatively total state’. He saw Mussolini’s regime ‘stato totalitario’ as a good example of ‘qualitatively total state’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Has the European Integration Process since 1950s Reflect Carl Schmitt’s Critique on Universalism? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He saw this type of state as the one capable of distinguishing friends from enemies and, therefore, could not allow hostile forces to it or those that led to its division to advance within it. Such a state, he suggested, was ‘total’ in both intensity and political energy, unlike a ‘quantitative total state’ that lacked the capacity to resist social alignments.

Total states arose due to two different reasons; a total state could occur as a result of weakness to have lost its monopoly of making decisions under the influence of political parties and interests of organized groups.

The other way is through the total state resulting from strength; such a state is in tune with the capabilities of modernity such as technomilitary instruments. An example was the fascist victory experienced in Italy as a ‘qualitatively total state’ became established.

Schmitt theorized that ‘liberal’ universalism achieved from what democratization had already achieved from within. He called this a wholesale attack on state sovereignty. He viewed the crisis in Germany at the time as the one that have originated from its position under the treaty of Versailles.

The dictate had changed his country into a ‘debtor nation’ and an outlaw state whose sovereignty had been restricted while a part of it remained under international rule. Germany had been demilitarized and subjected to foreign intervention (Schmitt, 2007).

Wilsonian ideology of national self-determination was no longer applicable to Germany. The people of Germany were no longer subjected to their political existence as a state, but the state had instead become an object.

He cited Britain’s intervention in Egypt, the US in the Caribbean and France’s engagement in the Middle East. Likewise, the treatment of Germany was unjust in the spirit of war defeat, rather, it was an element within the emerging system of liberal imperialism (Bartelson, 1995).

The Rise of a Spatial Revolution Schmitt’s analysis of the Monroe doctrine revealed that it held a candid political feature. The doctrine emanated from a concern by Britain and the US that European powers would try to restore the dominance of Spain in Latin America colonies. Most of these states were newly independent. The doctrine was founded on the notion that both the old and the new worlds were distinct systems and had to remain as such.

The US was given mandate to resist any attempts to colonize the western hemisphere. Any such attempt would be interpreted as a hostile act. If the European power abstained from intervening with the American space, on its part America would abstain from intervening outside her space (Antaki, 2004).

To Schmitt, the Monroe doctrine was expressing the idea of Grossraum, a large area in which ‘alien’ authorities’ intervention was restricted.

Schmitt likened this idea to that of the British Empire which was made up of uneven possessions scattered across the globe and that were without any clear concept of political legitimacy. Therefore, the Monroe Doctrine endorsed the supreme control by the US of the American subcontinent.

The Woodrow Wilson policy changed the Monroe Doctrine to something universal. Wilson’s ideology of liberal democracy and associated ideas were put in the place of geopolitical principle of the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine as regarding to space was an in opposition to new ideology that neglected space and instead emphasized on an abstract world and a capital market.

The blending of the Monroe doctrine with the league of nation, the goals of the universalism put in forth by the US were made into an international law. After the league was formed, de facto powers in the western hemisphere were handed over to the US. At the same time, the US was allowed to intervene in the affairs of European politics (Odysseos,


Comparing French and Japanese Employment Systems Report college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction and Thesis Statement

French Employment System

Japanese Employment System



Reference List

Introduction and Thesis Statement There are about 63,000 international organizations that dominate the world trade today (Budwar, 2005). The success of these organizations lies in their Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies, policies and practices. In the light of globalization, HRM is crucial for Multi-National Companies (MNCs) for it can act as an instrument for the harmonization and control of global operations.

Through various studies, it has been found out that internal problems may occur in organizations when management tries implementing global strategies that are not compatible with the local offices’ cultural and institutional framework (Transfer of HRM Practices in MNCs, 2011).

In employment relations, though the focus is on the regulation of jobs, must also consider economic and social influences of capital and labour and the relationship between employers, workers, organizations and the state to which an MNC is operating on.

It is important that comparative employment relations have a background and information of different national contexts and insights from disciplines such as history, sociology, politics, law, economics, accounting and elements of management studies. (eds Bamber, Russel


Labor Market in Corporations Report college essay help

Introduction and Executive Summary Labor market consists of four sections. This includes skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled and professional labor. This paper analyzes the labor market from the professional perspective. It narrows down to Management Consulting.

The paper also looks at the applicability of views of Scholars in a Literature Review. Finally, I analyze the requirements for entry into this market and employment prospects in the medium-term and long-term.

General and Specific Analysis Labor market is of a forum where people trade their skills and knowledge. This forum consists of those who want the skills and knowledge and those who wish to provide them. Demand and supply may not always be the same. Sometimes supply exceeds demand. Employers are the people who buy these skills or enter into this market to seek people with particular skills. The holders of the skills are employees.

The labor market has four major sections. This includes the skilled labor, unskilled labor, professional labor and semi-skilled labor. In this paper, I will discuss Management Consulting.

This falls under professional labor. In summary, the rest consist of a different set of skills. If I may use a typical organization that manufactures vehicles as an example, skilled labor includes the persons whose technical skills form the core business. They design the vehicles and look into the intricacies that follow.

Semi-skilled labor includes the others who make the organization to flow smoothly. This includes secretaries and bookkeepers. Lastly, the unskilled labor includes messengers and gatekeepers among others. This last set does not require any skills to enable them complete assignments.

In this paper, I will discuss Management Consulting. This falls in the category of professional labor. The people who offer this are highly trained in their fields. They have in-depth knowledge acquired through experience and education. Their advice is paramount to the success of an organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They undertake highly specialized duties. A professional takes quite some time to acquire that expertise. Hence, growth in only one area seems logical. This category consists of doctors, consultants, health practitioners and lawyers. The former list is an example of a possible long list.

Literature Review Different scholars present different but related views on this subject.

In his article in Harvard Business Review, Kim Chan looks at fair Knowledge Management in a perceived unfair economy. He presents this idea by looking at a case study involving a woman and a police officer. Apparently, there is a big gap between integrity and the need to offer good services.

Considering this is a public figure and the women goes ahead to demand her rightful duties, it is clear to me that the context has completely changed. The economy both at the micro and macro levels present a different operating context as opposed to what was happening some time back.

Does this mean that we use unfair means to justify our ends? In the above case, the writer brings about the perspective of bad labor use. He insinuates that big corporations use the exceedingly available labor in the world to oppress both the givers of labor and overcharge the recipients of the products at their advantage (Kim Chan 2003).

Ballou and Heitger, also writing for the Harvard Business Review, look at a risky section of the labor market. This labor market consists of unskilled workers. This article is critical to my discussion as it points out the intricate nature of the labor market. With governments and rights organizations constantly pressuring business organizations to uphold human rights in hiring, there is an immediate need to look for cheaper solutions.

That is the reason some American companies shifted to China to tap into the lowly paid and highly available unskilled workforce. Additionally, China does not have strict labor laws as compared to USA. To me, this is a pointer of the things to come in future. A worker will have a clear backing from any quarter. On the other hand, organizations may have to rethink strategy.

We will write a custom Report on Labor Market in Corporations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Professional workforce in different countries receives different remunerations. Studies show that even in the smallest regional area like a country, payment may vary a lot. As the geographical area increases, so does the discrepancy. For example, in south and East Africa, professionals receive very different payments.

South Africa pays professional quite well followed by Kenya. In the remaining countries, professional labor does not attract good remuneration. However, payments in western countries cannot compare with the African counterparts (Ballou and Heitger 2006).

In another Article Michael Yaziji asks whether time to rethink capitalism has come. He looks at a situation where an investor would put up so much capital and offer employment in a firm. This capital is at risk of depletion if factors such as poor reception or mismanagement come into play. Hence, he has enough justification to pay workers poorly to compensate for the huge risk he takes.

The article, further, puts this into a context sometime back and concludes that this is what happened. The laborers received poor pays and their working packages did not include permanency. The writer continues to asses this as regards the current set up. Tables have turned and employees form a core business outlook in any organization (Yaziji 2008).

Skills, Knowledge and Aptitudes for Entry Professional labor requires expertise in the field of entry. Management Consultants must understand most of the organizational functions.

For example, it is critical for a Management Consultant to understand personnel, core business strengths and weaknesses, an external environmental analysis and goals plus objectives formulation. He should also have an exceptional knowledge in risk assessment using various models and intuition. A Management Consultant should also have a visionary attitude (Schmidt 2000).

It is paramount that the person has prior knowledge in management and an education in that field. This includes professional and academic fronts. This way he will understand different models and theories proposed by other scholars and appreciate them.

He may incorporate them in his consultancy work. Considering that work in this field changes constantly, it is paramount to have adequate flexibility and ability to handle different situations differently. This will ensure that a consultant meets clients’ specific needs (Schmidt 2000).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Labor Market in Corporations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other skills that help a consultant in line of duty include time management skills, discipline, interpersonal, people skills, and good oral and writing skills. He should also have the ability to bond well with people from different backgrounds. He should also have exceptional creativity and analytical ability.

Statistics show that Management Consultants’ demand has increased over the last decade. Most businesses required a professional dimension. Many people run business from a personal or a family level. It is not common to find a business whose foundation is professionalism.

Hence, there is a huge gap to ensure that there is a professional dimension to the running of a business. This is not willingness. Rather, it is the demand of the current market where competition and sophistication of end users dictate requirements (Schmidt 2000).

Normal Career Path Professional jobs do not have a particular career path. This is because they are not a normal job. It is possible to start immediately after completing a Master’s class. This is the minimum recommendation for entry. After that, the person may enter into formal employment. This is not mandatory but it is important. A person acquires experience of a real work environment.

In the case of a Management Consultant, understanding various functions of the organization is critical. However, it means that one has to incorporate wide knowledge in quick assessment of an organization and offer quick solutions.

Hence, experience matters extensively. A Management Consultant does not retire early. However, that is not dependent upon outside factors as a person can decide to retire at whatever age or time in his career (Schmidt 2000).

Employment Prospects: Long Term and Medium Term Studies show that there is a promising positive trend as far as Management Consulting goes. As we approach the first quarter of the 21st century, the market for both goods and services becomes more complicated. Liberalization is the order of the day. This leads to cut throat competition. Companies try to outdo each other to win the majority share in the market.

The market, on the other hand, is sophisticated and more demanding compared to the last century. This trend will continue as information becomes easily accessible to everyone. Currently, a customer can easily get a huge number of similar products at the click of a button. Therefore, what makes a company stand out is the selling point (Schmidt 2000).

There is also the government. It defines the rules of the game. Government involvement in the livelihoods of its citizens in the current century is beyond expectation. As more governments become democratic, the power shifts to the people. Hence, regulations and policies formulations are in line with the demands of the people. Consequently, corporations have no choice but to give people what they want.

At the backdrop of the above discussion, it follows that organizations need to reengineer to meet different needs. Hence, as we live this era, there is need for professionals to ensure organizations achieve this goal. Management Consultants are those professionals. This trend will continue as more people become increasingly aware of their rights as citizens and information becomes more available.

Demographic studies show that the world’s population is growing at a high rate. Estimations show that it currently stands at over seven billion. This is a very huge market. Hence, many small and medium enterprises will come up to meet the inherent demand in goods and services (Schmidt 2000).

Value of Internship and Work Experience Most professional jobs require in-depth experience. In most cases, there is a direct relationship between growth plus subsequent remuneration at work and the years of experience. When people hire expertise, they pay differently. Normally, the professional with a high reputational standing and experience receives the highest payment. Sometimes, certain group of people can hire a certain professional.

It is also important to have mentorship while at school. The value of internship is enormous. However, just as the value of these two is indispensable, learning and education is paramount. A person learns some of these jobs best while actually doing them.

For example, a doctor needs real patients to learn. A Management Consultant needs real organizations to learn. Normally, attaining this education is a costly affair. It also takes a lot of time (Schmidt 2000).

Feedback from Learning Set Management Consulting is a professional job that requires enormous input. In the labor market, emphasis on this labor type has not been explicit. However, it is increasingly becoming a required business tool to ensure success.

From what I learnt, the drivers of this change are the people who form the market, governments, rights organizations and the competitive environment because of free availability of information. It also brings out a clearer understanding of labor market (Schmidt 2000).

Conclusion It is evident that the market for labor is different from what it was a decade ago. Free information and availability of rights organizations makes it mandatory for corporations to have a sense of responsibility. In the professional world, this is not too common. This is because in most cases organizations hire the best they can get to tackle one-off tasks.

However, the case is quite different in the unskilled and semiskilled departments. These form majority of the workforce. Corporations do not respect the rights of these segments. It is also evident that professionals require longer times to learn and gain experience. He should also have the ability to bond well with people from different backgrounds.

Reference List Ballou, B.


The Effects of IT Outsourcing on Retail Companies Proposal scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Information technology has changed the business processes tremendously. This technological revolution has transformed organizations and businesses such that transactions can be initiated and executed within the shortest span of time. The introduction of the Internet further contributed to the revolution with remote sites able to connect over the Internet and exchanging data, information, and currency.

The businesses that pioneered information technology quickly included this technology in their business processes. These developed into showcase models in information technology. The cost of implementing these technologies increased over time. As such an opportunity gave itself in which information technology service providers would offer tailored and business-oriented services to willing businesses at a fee.

This option was considered against the rising costs of setting up an IT department. It is this process of outsourcing that has taken the information technology age to the next level.

Outsourcing has enabled businesses in need of technologically knowledgeable processes but lack the technical and human capacity to outsource such services and processes to technological experts at a stipulated cost (Pinnington and Woolcook 1999; Stakes 1995).

Outsourcing has opened up frontiers in IT standardization, especially in the business world where these businesses can acquire IT services from third party organizations and as such benchmark their processes to the global standards. This study is specifically going to address the effects of information technology outsourcing among retail businesses in the United Kingdom.

Background and research problem definition IT outsourcing has been around before the turn of the century. Indeed as more businesses discovered the need and advantages of including IT in their business processing, information technology became the most expensive form of technology then.

However, in this a business opportunity arose where information technology astute organizations would lend out their technology by outsourcing to those businesses and organizations that had need then.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is during this period that businesses such as the British Steel turned to Gap Gemini to outsource their central management service (CMS) unit. British Steel has a workforce of about 50,000 with a turnover of more than 7000 million UK pounds (Brown and Wilson 2005; Linder, Cole and Jacobson, 2002).

This company runs a central management services unit to provide exceptional IT support for the company’s finance, payroll, and human resources. CMS also covers some processes within the company’s operational system. The British Steel case study is indicative that IT has brought with it special organizational need to ensure facility management.

On acquiring new systems through business re-engineering, organizations often realize that they are not able to optimize these systems and therefore have minimal benefit. This is mainly caused by resistive organizational culture that offers little room for change to take place within the organization.

Such organizations or businesses turn to outsource such processes to ensure to ensure the processes are carried out professionally and at exceptional standards because IT has a global scope. Therefore, British Steel just like many retail businesses in the United Kingdom turned to Cap Gemini a world class IT Company that the steel manufacturer outsourced about one third of its processes covered within their CMS.

British Steel intention to outsource was to gain competitive advantage by maintaining high quality standards with more tahn 99% for key indicators, establish perpetual improvement programs even through the British Steel business improvement program; ensuring a smooth transition of IT responsibilities with minimal disruption to the existing IT system, and safeguarding the interests of its workforce.

Several years down the line, the British Steel management intimate that it is about the right IT that can help a company gain competitive advantage in the global market and to this company, outsourcing was the key.

Research Questions The British Steel case is just one among the many cases that has experienced the benefits of, IT outsourcing considered a vital undertaking and has vast influence on the economies of countries over the world (Sullivan and Steven 2003).

We will write a custom Proposal on The Effects of IT Outsourcing on Retail Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Retail businesses form an important stratum of the general business economy. Retail businesses must have the capability to support evolutionary business processes as the customer needs continue to change. It is this flexibility that can enable such businesses to remain competitive.

However, these technology changes come at a high cost of implementation. Faced with such a dilemma, retail businesses will undoubtedly resort to outsourcing to maintain competitive advantage.

This research proposal therefore aims at studying the effects of outsourcing in IT and their effects on retail companies, especially in the UK. In so doing, the research will be guided the following main research questions:

What are the factors that lead to IT outsourcing among retail companies?

What are the effects of IT outsourcing among retail companies?

What is the general trend among retail companies in the UK as concerns IT outsourcing?

Upon answering the above research questions, a conclusion could be made on the relationship between IT outsourcing and retail companies (De Vaus 2002). Recommendations will also be made after this study on the emerging retail business trends in the UK poised to benefit from IT outsourcing to establish competitive advantage.

Research Objectives Based on the research questions, the research objectives can be derived. As stated earlier, the main aim of this research is to establish what effect IT outsourcing has on retail companies in the UK (Bryman and Bell 2007). This research focuses at clearly identifying the IT outsourcing processes with reference to retail business and how the two are related. This implies that the research objectives will include:-

To determine reasons IT outsourcing is gaining attention among retail companies.

To determine typical effects of IT outsourcing among retail companies in the UK.

To determine the general IT outsourcing trends among retail companies in the UK.

Literature review IT outsourcing continues to draw much attention from many scholars, academicians, professionals, and business experts. This has resulted in a continuous expanding knowledge base focusing on outsourcing and its effects on business processes.

However, a review of most of these articles reveals that even though writers differ in some instances, the fact still remains that IT outsourcing has had a significant impact on retail companies all over the world (Jack 2009). This impact affects countries’ economies in many ways. In the article; How Outsourcing Affects the U.S. Economy, Hasan (2008) agrees that indeed outsourcing has brought with it a mixture of effects.

Some of the effects according to the articles have been beneficial, especially to retail business. The author notes that the dynamitic advantage that outsourcing brings with it has benefited retail industry because of cheap imports and subsequently stronger exports. It has also saved money for these companies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of IT Outsourcing on Retail Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gordijn (2002) concurs that the outsourcing process is currently considered as a positive contributor to any country’s economy.

Research has shown that service jobs generate less income as compared to manufacturing jobs. In fact, the latter are considered as those responsible for creating the wealth in any nation. On the contrary, service jobs consume this wealth. Research findings further indicate that more businesses are currently depending on IT to gain the needed competitive edge.

However, it is also true that information technology implementation, especially for a business critical process has a high price tag. As such, IT outsourcing puts the country’s economy on the line (Stern and El-Ansary 1992). The trend is not any different with retail companies that must adhere to the state of economy.

The outsourcing practice can apply to nearly all types of business. This process is preferred by most business experts because it is considered cost effective. It has been statistically proven that outsourcing can result into reduced costs by between 50 and 60%.

For instance, companies in Europe outsource up to $19 trillion spent on a daily basis on processes like sales and administration. Nevertheless, in Futurist (2011) review of literature, he states, “despite outsourcing being cost-effective, efficient, productive and strategic, it is also condemned as evil, money-grabbing, destructive, ruthless, exploiting the poor, destroying communities and nations” (Futurist 2011, p. 1).

Futurist (2011) further asserts that outsourcing has compromised low-cost nations. This is evident with the increased migration from the high-earning nations to the compromised ones. This has led to labour shortages. China and India are a perfect example in this context (Outsource mag, 2011).

These two nations, especially China, are experiencing close to 100% salary inflation, and India has been hit by an acute shortage of corporate leadership as a result of large-scale outsourcing.

Some of the typical business processes that qualify to be outsourced to IT- oriented companies are those involving electronic data interchange (EDI). According to Fernie (1999), sending financial information is a vital undertaking for any business. However, the process is considered very sensitive.

Retail companies continue to focus on electronic automation of such processes as invoicing, order processing dispatch, and other routine processes. Such processes will definitely require EDI to simplify trading cycles and accelerate transactions.

However, based on the sensitive nature of the data and information handled by the EDI systems, the cost of their implementation remains high and beyond the reach of many retail companies in the UK and around the world. According to Pinnington and Woolcook (1999) electronic commerce that fundamentally relies on EDI is quickly becoming standard based.

Accordingly companies such as Microgen UK are seeing an opportunity to provide the EDI functions to small and medium enterprises who cannot afford to implement EDI full-scale. With companies such as Microgen UK, these retail companies have an opportunity to outsource their EDI processes and therefore compete effectively on the global market.

Generally, there is much literature on the outsourcing process and the effect and benefits to the business or organization. However, little is available in this domain, especially related to the effects of IT outsourcing among retail companies within the United Kingdom (Linder, Cole and Jacobson, 2002).

This research focuses on this area of study and intends to draw vital conclusions that can be used by professionals, academicians, and businesspeople.

Theoretical framework Theories are usually developed to try to predict certain happenings. These happenings may include events of behaviour. A theoretical framework of the study here will include a structure capable of holding a theory during the research. The study here is about the effects of IT outsourcing among retail companies in the UK. The research problem addresses IT outsourcing among retail companies in the UK.

The purpose of this research is to relate IT outsourcing to retail businesses in the UK and highlight the effects of outsourcing on retail businesses. The theoretical framework here will represent a theory that can be used as a basis for conducting the research. This research is likely to build a theory in line with the objective of this research.

The researcher will use inductive reasoning to address the research problem the effects of IT outsourcing among retail companies in the UK. The research proposal will focus on all variable involved in the relationship between IT outsourcing and retail companies (Halvey and Melby, 2005). Based on the literature review it has been established that the two are interconnected and affect each other.

The research proposal therefore aims at determining the link between them. The variables will also be vital in determining statistical relationship between IT outsourcing and the performance of retail companies (Eriksson and Kovalainen 2008).

Research methods and sampling techniques to be used Collection, sampling, and analyzing of data should be done methodically and with much keenness (Veal 2005). There are a number of research approaches proposed for this study. In the article; The Research Process, Bouma (2004) states that the researcher during the inductive approach makes specific observations from the collected data and arrives at a new theory by observation and hypotheses (Stakes 1995; Yin 2008).

The deductive approach starts by reviewing and gathering theory, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. However, these two research approaches are not mutually exclusive; hence a research study may have elements of both (Hamel 2000).

This research will also take a quantitative research approach. In this approach the problem t be addressed will require an in depth explanation (Saunders 2009). Additionally, this approach will identify the variables within the problem and establish a correlation between these variables.

This research is mainly literature-based where the researcher is intending “to rely on scholarly evidence to justify the research problem” (Saunders 2009, p. 58). There will be a deliberate attempt to address the inadequate knowledge that exists in this field of research.

The research approach will also attempt to quantify the data collected. According to Kumar (2005), the quantitative approach examines and interprets data quantifiable, measurable, and finite. Acquiring quantitative data can be by experimentation, testing, and calculation. The results from this approach are usually displayed in a statistical format (Neuman 2006).

Data analysis techniques to be used During this research the data collection strategy to be used will include transcription of the interview responses and field notes. These data will be categorized after open coding that includes an analysis of each interview question described as an item on term approach.

Cross analysis as a data analysis technique is used for this research and will ensure that the process is analytically exhausted. The study must also be calibrated for credibility. The data on evaluation should be credible. Credibility involves truthfulness and value of the data. The proposed study will use triangulation where multiple data sources are considered. This enhances the data’s validity.

Data validity and reliability Validity measures the extent to which an instrument used in data collection gives a true picture of what has been measured. Validity also refers to the accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences derived from research data. Validity describes the degree to which the findings retrieved from a research are reflective of the concept under study.

Structuring the interviews including the items selected for the interview schedule must be closely related to the variables under investigation for the instrument under consideration to qualify (Saunders 2009). The instruments used for this research study will be further evaluated as the study makes use of construct validity.

This means that the instruments used will be constructed as suitable as possible to evaluate the theoretical concepts under study. As described earlier the effectiveness of the sampling process will work in conjunction with a sampling technique like snowball sampling at some point. The instruments used here will be constructed by the researcher with reference to the research objectives and under the supervision of a number of experts.

Expected outcomes and research contributions The research will proceed on using the quantitative approach in which case the researcher will gather data using data collection instruments such as questionnaires and interviews. The researcher will also carry out document inspections and observations to identify data accurately that is pertinent to the study.

The resulting data will be indicative of the fact that IT outsourcing has had various effects on retail companies in the UK. Ultimately, the outcome of this research is will determine that IT outsourcing is increasingly becoming a necessity for all retail business organizations that intend to harness the present technological advancement to their advantage.

As such, target respondents will include retail business owners, scholars, government officials, and consumers. Based on the research questions practical and accountable the results are likely to be authoritative and can be used to develop a hypothesis and assist in decision making (Fink 2003). The hypothesis of the research is based on factual literature views from previous researches.

Similarly, the literature review will help give facts about the problem as it appears in different contexts and the various measures put in place and basing on the outcomes from these measures, the researcher will make recommendations (Collis and Hussy, 2009).

Ethical issues and research limitations Most research studies have limitations and in this case, the following are the limitations and ethical issues expected in this research:

The research will “quote some facts from secondary sources” (Saunders 2009, p. 256). There are high chances that the gathered information may be biased or outdated.

Some vital information to help answer the researcher’s questions might not be made available because of limited research on the topic. Similarly, the study will heavily rely on the information collected from respondents. Therefore, selfish or biased response may affect the results of the whole project rendering it inaccurate.

Due to financial constraint coupled with limited time, all effects of IT outsourcing on retail companies might not be adequately brought to light.

The complexity of the whole process of theoretical study brings with it many processes that can lead to some aspects of the topics being forgotten. However, I will address this by being very careful to ensure that every aspect in the research questions and aims are adequately addressed (Neelankavil 2007).

The limitation of using a descriptive survey research method is that a large descriptive survey may give superficial results. Alternatively, a small-scale descriptive survey with an emphasis on “qualitative” or “rich” detail has the limitation as poor generalization. Such small surveys are difficult to know how far the results can be applied elsewhere.

The research may also suffer time constraints due to delayed approval by targeted study sample population, especially organizations.

Project plan The research proposal includes a number of key activities. It is important that each of these activities is carried out comprehensively. From the methodology and research design, the project can follow the plan highlighted in the table below.

Key activities for the project plan Setting up of the research questions and objectives (this includes deciding on the hypotheses of the expected results). Appropriately prepare the research instruments. This includes setting up the required mechanisms to facilitate research proposal such as recording materials and so forth. Paying a pre-visit to sights of the research. This will help in estimating various variables of the proposal like the expected budget as well as time scheduling. Reviewing the study objectives and questions based on the pre-visit findings. Carrying out the study and collecting data through the various methodologies highlighted. The collected data should be sampled and grouped for analysis and testing the hypotheses to answer the research questions. Making conclusions and recommendations based on the research findings with reference to the literature reviews. Recording and present the research results. Reference List Bouma, G.D., 2004. The Research Process. 5th ed. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brown, D. and Wilson, S., 2005. The black book of outsourcing: How to manage the changes, challenges, and opportunities. New York: Wiley.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2007. Business Research Methods. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Collis, J. and Hussy, R., 2009. Business Research: A practical Guide for Undergraduate


The influx of wireless technologies in organizations Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion of literature



Introduction The advent of wireless communication and mobile technologies played a significant role in enhancing mobility during communication, which is gradually becoming a primary necessity for organizations due to the nature of the present business environment that is based on the global environment (Basole, 2008).

It implies that wireless communication and mobile technologies are essential for any organization to remain competitive in the current business context. There are various wireless technologies that organizations can adopt depending on the volume of data of the organization, the purpose for the wireless network such as voice and data, and the geographical scope of business performance (Connolly, 2011).

Businesses are significantly benefitting from the integration of wireless communication technologies into their strategic plans. Some of the core benefits of adopting wireless communication technologies in the organization include the establishment of a position through which the business can develop sustainable competitive advantage in the industry and offer solutions to the common business problems (Gupta et al., 2005).

In addition, the increase in mobile professionals simply means that adopting wireless technologies is in line with this business need, which can in turn translate to enhanced productivity through better collaboration among the workforce. This business approach can play an integral role in creating value for the business that the organization can exploit to increase its profitability.

The effectiveness of wireless communication technologies cannot be realized unless they are implemented in a manner that is cost-effective and enhances information management and security for the organization.

The basic inference from this observation is that mobile and wireless communication technologies should be incorporated into the business-level strategies of an organization. This paper explores the significance of incorporating mobile and wireless technologies in an organizational strategic planning (Bott et al., 2010).

Discussion of literature The first strategic advantage associated with the incorporation of mobile and wireless technologies in the strategic planning of an organization is that it helps in improving communications among the members of the organization and mobile personnel.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Remote working is increasingly becoming an important element of effective execution of organizational processes of individuals who are increasingly preferring to work from home (Puertas, 2010). In addition, some business processes require high levels of mobility of the organizational members.

Gupta et al. (2005) asserts that wireless and mobile technologies come in handy in addressing this business need by ensuring efficient and timely information delivery on a real-time manner.

This implies that wireless and mobile technologies plays a significant role in the expansion of the communication lines within the organization, which in turn increases the capability and the capacity of the organization to respond to various business situation and demands (Connolly, 2011).

Wireless and mobile communication can be adopted at all the functional units of the business to facilitate interdepartmental coordination and communication, which in turn makes significant contributions towards organizational efficiency.

For instance, the logistics can use wireless communication technologies to coordinate the supply chain operations, while sales department can receive constant updates from their site personnel (Puertas, 2010).

A practical application of wireless communication and mobile technologies is through the use of Sales Force Automation, which primarily involves the use of software modules for streamlining all the activities pertaining to sales and to aid in the reduction of time that sales representatives need to spend on each of the steps of the sales process.

The basic implication of this is that it allows business enterprises to make use of a few sales representatives for the purposes of management of their customers (Bott et al., 2010).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The influx of wireless technologies in organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizations are increasingly becoming knowledge-based, implying that business-level strategies are significantly relying on information shared within the organization. Adopting wireless and mobile communication devices is in line with this strategic goal of knowledge sharing at the organizational level (Gupta et al., 2005).

Wireless communication plays an integral role in fostering knowledge sharing culture within the organization. The knowledge-sharing culture principally involves sharing knowledge with the internal employees and stakeholders and external entities such as the government, its suppliers, customers and financial institutions. This is important in increasing the competitive advantage of the organization (Bott et al., 2010).

Knowledge management systems are vital in the present economy that is knowledge-based. Knowledge sharing strategies can be deployed by organizations to facilitate the creation, distribution, representation and the implementation of organizational insights (Ruhi


Curriculum Design Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The best way to design a curriculum would be developing an initial perception of how the curriculum is viewed. For instance, a curriculum can be viewed as a product or a means that produces something out of the people who go through it. It can also be viewed as a process; meaning that there is no clearly defined content that learners are expected to know.

The content can be adjusted any time depending on the need of the learners. However, having an integrated approach to designing a curriculum is more effective than dealing with individual models of curriculum design. Since the aspects of each model are very important, then combining them into one would yield more efficient and effective curriculum.

Resources have to be considered in the designing of a curriculum. The resources are aligned with the curriculum in sense that each of the identified learning experiences and teaching lessons would require the aid of learning resources to enhance learning process. For instance, sometimes it requires instructors to use external teaching aid in order for a concept to be understood by learners.

A good strategy has to be used to ensure that the curriculum is implemented effectively. The first thing is that the instructors and the school heads have to be in serviced since they are the main agents of implementation. The purpose of in servicing is to update the main implementers on any changes, discoveries and new knowledge that the curriculum will contain.

This is necessary since in this time and age, the world is experiencing a revolution in Information technology. There are new discoveries and innovations that can be custom made to fit the needs of an educational system within a district or an individual institution. In servicing is also good for instructors since it helps them to overcome some of the cultural limitations that they may have.

Another way in which implementation of the curriculum is done in the school is actual teaching. Here the teacher communicates the content of the curriculum using the recommended methods of teaching.

The quality assurance education officers from the city or state government would also visit the school once in a while to ensure that the actual process of instruction is done accurately and that the instructors are observing all the requirements for maintaining high standards. In cases where the instructors have little bit of limitation, the officers would offer suggestions for positive adjustments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order for curriculum to measure up to standards by yielding the intended results, it has to be evaluated constantly. This is done by the implementers of curriculum especially the instructors. The instructors are the ones who have the greater responsibility of implementing curriculum since they are the ones who interact with the students.

The performance of the students is one of the ways in which the curriculum is evaluated. The process of evaluation that was conducted in the school involved the following evaluation principles: continuity, comprehensiveness, consistency with the objectives, and validity and reliability.

Continuity implies that the curriculum continues from one level to another. The contents of one level must be linked to the contents of another level, by offering a foundation. The process of evaluating the comprehensiveness of the curriculum involved finding out the level, depth, and breadth of its coverage.

Validity as one of the principles of assessments, is finding out whether the content presented by the curriculum is relevant in the society. In order for the evaluation to be effective, both summative and formative evaluations have to be done. The agents involved in the both implementation and evaluation include learners, instructors and government education agencies.

Based on the interview, there were several things about curriculum development design and evaluation that one could learn. For instance there is a need for learners to be actively involved in the process of curriculum development. Despite the model that should be selected for curriculum design, the learners should always be included in the picture.

Learning process is based on the needs of the learners since they are the ones being trained. Therefore the curriculum selected within a learning institution should be one that focuses on the needs of the learners. It is important to first of all evaluate the learners and note their diversity in terms of social and experiential background, developmental levels, motivational levels, and entry knowledge level.

The needs of the learners can be identified and then set the ground for selection of the curriculum objectives. Similarly, once the objectives are set, the content can easily be picked that would meet the goals and objectives set.

We will write a custom Essay on Curriculum Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The deployment or implementation of the curriculum is vested upon the instructors, the school leadership staff, and the some of the subordinate staff. The instructors are the ones who play a key role in the implementation process. They interact with the learners directly and get to learn more about each of their learners on daily basis.

They are supposed to conduct formative evaluation regularly to determine the progress of the learners. At the same time they are meant to conduct summative evaluation to determine whether the goals and objectives that were initially set have been achieved. In order to be accountable for the implementation process, the instructors are also required to be evaluated based on their methodology and how they interact with the learners.

Subject matter experts are essential for the delivery of the expected content in curriculum design. The district specifically uses them for secondary level of curriculum mapping since the learners at this level are more advanced and require subject matter experts in order for them to effectively learn the advanced content in the curriculum.

However in elementary level, the content is very basic and therefore the subject matter experts are not necessary. Funding curriculum is important for sustaining the process of implementation. It impacts implementation in the sense that some of the learning experiences require money in order for effective learning to be achieved.

Curriculum mapping is gathering all the information that relates to curriculum, identifying all the important content and skills that need to be taught, coming up with an appropriate instructional method that will be employed, and designing an effective and efficient means of assessment. A curriculum map is very useful as it is able to identify all the important activities for curricula.

It is in fact an effective guideline for an instructor to use in the classroom to effectively cover all the important content and classroom activities that are needed to complete a program.

It provides a clear range or scope of the knowledge and skills that the learners have to gain over a specific period of time. Through the designing of a curriculum map, the necessary resources can be linked and used appropriately for the effective delivery of subject content.

Following the assessment that was conducted on my instructional unit learners, the model for curriculum implemented at the school is the Tyler model. The diversity in the learners contributed to the selection of the Tyler model. It is based on the view of curriculum as a product where there is an agreed content of knowledge that each of the learners is expected to gain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Curriculum Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition to knowledge, there are also specific skills that the learners have to master as well. With this model, the skills and knowledge that the learners are expected to gain are viewed as a product that is manufactured in the learning process. The learners have to first gain the knowledge and then transmit the knowledge into action.

This means that they have to apply the knowledge they gain. Curriculum theory that views learning as a product is one that is quite organized in the sense it has stipulated steps that needs to be accurately followed in order achieve the ultimate product manufactured from learning.

References Bloom, B. (1986). Taxonomy of Educational objectives: the classification of educational goals. New york: David Mackay Company.

Gerald, B. (1999). Curriculum development: a text book for students. London: McMillian Publishers.

Kerr, J. (1996). Changing the curriculum. London: University of London Press.


Big Role of the Internet in Business Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents How the internet influences the 4ps of marketing

Marketing opportunities arising from the Internet

Physical evidence

The interplay between Social media and marketing

The cartoon by Peter Steiner

Works Cited

How the internet influences the 4ps of marketing The internet plays a big role as it influences most aspects of human life. The business field is among those areas that have been largely affected by the recent developments in information technology, especially the internet. The four Ps in marketing refers to Product or Service, Place, Price and Advertisement. Regarding the first P, the central issue is on what a customer needs in a service or a product.

This implies that both the marketers and the customers look at the ingredients and features of a service or a product. The developments regarding the internet have influenced this P since marketers or producers primarily focus on influencing customer choices by making both covert and overt attempts to alter how they perceive services and products.

In recent times, businesses concentrate on using the internet to show the differences in the products they offer from those offered by competitors (Stokes 1-10).

The second P refers to the place where products or services are located. As such, the focus is on outlets or supply centres. The development in internet has changed this P since marketers are now able to offer products online. Regarding advertising, it is noticeable that this P has changed since the internet has widened the platforms that marketers use to advertise.

Referring to the second P, Price reflects the value attached to a product. The price consumers are willing to pay for a product reflects the value they attach to a product. The internet has altered this P by playing a useful role. Customers are able to compare prices of products.

In the same way, marketers are able to assess prices of competitors. As such, the internet has influenced the pricing levels as competitors aim to control the market, while the customers aspire to enjoy the cheapest rates.

Marketing opportunities arising from the Internet In the recent past, the internet has emerged as a force to reckon with in the marketing industry. The internet offers an additional outlet to businesses. Before the development of the internet, firms had to use physical channels to distribute products. This requirement is no longer mandatory since the internet offers a new platform that is available to all businesses (Stokes 10-20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is visible to keen observers that the internet presents a cheaper option in terms of marketing. As raised above, the internet changes how product distribution is carried out. As an illustration, products can be distributed using online approaches. Additionally, companies are in a position to advertise using the online platform. This implies that firms have a big opportunity to cut operation costs.

Operational costs are reduced since companies would no longer require large numbers of employees to carry out business activities such as selling. Cutting operational costs is important as it helps businesses save funds that could be used in other ventures. In addition, it is important to note that the internet offers a fast approach to solicit customer feedbacks on products. This enhances the provision of quality services.

Physical evidence Marketing needs to be packaged in a manner that promotes the goals of an organization. The act of packaging marketing captures the element of physical evidence. Marketing has such important attributes as People and Processes. However, the role of Physical evidence is indispensable in the marketing mix. Physical evidence relates to how a business entity presents its products or services and office arrangement to the market.

Organizations need to structure its physical appearance in the best way it desires the public to perceive it. Concisely, physical evidence revolves around assuring customers that the organization is credible. Such demands force organizations to comply with regulations.

At another level, physical evidence is viewed in terms of the qualifications of people working in offices. Individuals with top qualifications present a more acceptable picture than those of lesser credentials. In addition, the location of the offices of an organisation may influence how people look at an entity.

The AlertPay website is a good example that illustrates how companies show physical evidence. The website shows a picture of a woman and a man, probably browsing. Beside the picture are writings indicating that AlertPay is an equivalent of an online wallet. In addition, the website details the use of the payment system. The website also proves that it is compliant with the relevant rules and regulations.

The interplay between Social media and marketing The advancement is social media coincides with developments in the internet. Hence, it is not surprising that social media is among the tools that have changed the conduct of marketing. Social media comes with many advantages to users, especially marketers. To begin with, marketers are able to reach a big number of customers instantaneously.

We will write a custom Essay on Big Role of the Internet in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This facilitates the gathering of information regarding customer preferences in addition to understanding the market dynamics. Moreover, social media is among the cheapest platforms available to marketers today.

It is however noticeable that those companies using social media should take measures to guard against hackers who have the potential of ruining reputations. Regarding against hacking is thus critical in guaranteeing the success chances of any organization.

Although the development in social media enables companies to market their products easily, it is important to take caution. This need arises out of the realization that social media is not available to all consumers. As such, the issue of targeting in marketing emerges.

Firms that use the social media approach should ensure that their target market is reachable using the media. However, without paying focus to the target market, it is highly likely that business entities may make losses. This holds if the major customers of a product do not belong to social media clubs.

The cartoon by Peter Steiner The cartoon by Peter Steiner is valuable as it captures the changing face of the marketing industry. The main agenda held by Peter Steiner rests on the view that it is almost impossible to determine the identity of online participants in any forum.

Further, Peter Steiner uses the cartoon in reference to the determination of the accuracy of the information one receives on the internet. It is true that with the recent rise in the use of the internet, it is important to guard against fraudsters who may take advantage of unsuspecting parties.

The focal point of the cartoon rests on the notion that online advertising or marketing is based on the creation of impressions. While pursuing business goals, marketers do whatever it takes to present a picture that they are the best in the business. In practice, such representations may be false. This is the main aspect captured in the cartoon by Peter Steiner.

Works Cited Stokes, Rob. eMarketing the essential guide to online marketing. Quirk Education, 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Big Role of the Internet in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Negotiation in construction industrial dispute, an assessment of UAE situation Proposal essay help online free

Introduction Projects relating to constructions and contracts have greatly increased and are now recognized in the UAE over the past years. This has significantly given rise to great numbers of claims either between contractors and employers or even between contractors and sub-contractors (Hinchey and Schor 2002, 63).

These disagreements are mostly solved by conciliation or arbitration and are predominantly held in the universal language which is English, where specialist arbitrators are appointed due to the nature of the subjects involved (Ren 2011, 123).

Assessments of UAE situation and the negotiations in the construction industries Negotiation is another important mechanism for arranging construction contracts in the construction industry. Project managers may often find themselves as participants in negotiations, either as principal negotiators or as expert advisors. These negotiations may be complicated and often present important opportunities and risks for the various parties involved.

For example, negotiation on work contracts could involve issues such as completion date, arbitration procedures, special work item compensation, contingency allowances as well as the overall price (Essam 2006, 453). However, exogenous factors such as the history of a contractor and the general economic climate in the construction industry will determine the results of negotiations.

The skill of a negotiator can affect the possibility of reaching an agreement, the profitability of the project, and the scope of any eventual disputes, and the possibility for additional work among the participants. Therefore, negotiations are an important task for many project managers.

However, even after a contract is awarded on the basis of competitive bidding, there are many occasions in which subsequent negotiations are required as conditions change over time (Fleming 2003, 13; Harmon 2004, 47).

Poor negotiating strategies adopted by one or the other party may also preclude an agreement even with the existence of a feasible agreement range.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, one party may be so demanding that the other party may simply decide to break off the negotiations. In this effect, negotiations are not a well behaved solution methodology for the resolution of disputes (Kumaraswamy and Chang 1998, 12; Al-Khalil and Al-Ghafly 1999, 647).

Therefore, the possibility of negotiating failures in the land sale example highlights the importance of negotiating style and strategy with respect to revealing information.

Style includes the extent to which negotiators are willing to seem reasonable, the type of arguments chosen, the forcefulness of language used, etc. Clearly, different negotiating styles can be more or less effective in one way or another.

Cultural factors are also extremely important and play a major role in negotiation processes. American and Japanese negotiating styles are very different (Cheung, Yiu and Yeung 2006, 132). For example, Revealing information is also considered as a negotiating decision.

In the land sale case, some negotiators would readily reveal their reserve or constraint prices, whereas others would conceal as much information as possible or provide misleading information (Groton 1997, 76; Kumarasamy 1998, 56).

Due to these problems, it is often beneficial to all parties to adopt objective standards in determining appropriate contract provisions. These standards would help in coming up with an agreement or a method to arrive at appropriate values in a negotiation (Ho and Liu 2004, 95; Scott 1993, 143).

When it comes to additional issues, negotiations may become more complicated both in procedure and in result. The sequence in which issues are defined or considered can be very important. Negotiations, for example, may proceed on an issue-by-issue basis, and the outcome may depend upon the exact sequence of issues considered.

We will write a custom Proposal on Negotiation in construction industrial dispute, an assessment of UAE situation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Alternatively, the parties may decide to proceed by proposing complete agreement packages and then proceed to compare packages. When it comes to the outcomes, the possibility of the parties having different valuations or weights on particular issues may arise. When this happens, it is possible to trade-off the outcomes on different issues to the benefit of both parties (Brams and Lerner 1996, 59).

Key questions Questions that are frequently asked are:

What do you do in order to have a successful negotiation?

What ways do you use to negotiate in the UAE construction industry?

What types of negotiations that mostly occur in UAE construction industry?

Have these negotiations ever occurred in the past or is this the first time they are happening?

How have negotiations among contactors affected employer or the employee relationship in UAE construction industries?

The Literature review This study reviews the pertinent literature on the subject of negotiations in order to attain the objectives; a thorough review is to be conducted by the use of books, referring to the journals on how disputes among contractors were solved in the past years and also by looking at conference papers to get information and find a solution to these negotiations (Kangari 1995, 65).

According to Fleming (2003, 21), the most important items to consider in ADR include; the factors that currently impede the efficient, productive, timely and cost effective performance of projects, source of disputes and practical strategies to avoid disagreements or reduce the impact of disputes in negotiation, general degree of the direct and indirect costs of disputes to clients, contractors, other industry stakeholders and the community, primary principles of conflict management in the context of commercial disputes and practical dispute resolution strategies for facilitating the equitable, certain, amicable, timely and cost effective resolution of disputes (El- Sayegh 2006, 1169).

Main reasons for study and analysis Coming up with an analyzed alternative on negotiating methods in construction industry in the United Arab Emirates so as to identify and analyze projects in which various ADR methods were used, to analyze the responses from questionnaires and interviews, to recommend compatible methods and further research and to conduct interviews with the selected representatives (Harmon 2004, 47).

Interviews involving construction professionals Questionnaires are prepared and distributed to contractors and their employees to fill in information about their disagreements, the main causes of these negotiations and their recommendations about these negotiations and what they think should be done to avoid these disagreements in the UAE industries.

Writing research reports When writing research reports on negotiation in the construction industry is the main source of concern for anyone concerned with the construction process (Essex 1996, 67).Negotiation, mediation and arbitration remained the main methods for resolving the disputes but new techniques were being explored.

When writing a research report inquires the introduction, background of the study, methodology, data analysis, and the conclusion. The construction industry has greatly increased in complexity over the past decades (Essex 1996, 76).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Negotiation in construction industrial dispute, an assessment of UAE situation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A Proposed structure of dissertation Introduction

This chapter talks about the construction industry in UAE and how the contractors manage to solve their disputes, talk about the construction projects and how they have increased or decreased in the last decade, introduce any complaints made by contractors or owners and employers or between contractors and sub- contractors and how they solve their disputes and lastly introduce future plans of the construction industry.

An overview of negotiations

This chapter will talk about:

Negotiating method.

Negotiations in the UAE construction industries.

Institutional and legal framework for negotiating in the UAE construction industries.

The UAE construction industries.

Negotiating methods

This chapter talks about the different types of negotiations that are there in a construction industry and these are; domestic or family, personal injuries, workers compensation, construction, bankruptcy, employee benefits and many more negotiations that arise in the UAE construction industry from the information you get from the employees through the questionnaires.

It examines the relationship between negotiating when it comes to contracts. It will demonstrate the negotiating processes and how they have affected the employees and the employer’s relationship in the construction industry.

The main causes of negotiation in the UAE construction industry

This chapter talks about the main causes of misunderstandings, lack of communication, delay in delivery of materials, shortage of labor, financial difficulties by contractors, poor site management, slowness in decision making by client and many more causes as stated by contractors in the questionnaires.

Ways of negotiating

This chapter talks about all the methods used in negotiation in contraction disputes for example, mediation, conciliation, and arbitration and dispute resolution boards.

Conclusion It focuses on conclusions of the study according to the information that was got from the questionnaires that were distributed to the contractors and employees of the UAE contraction companies.

References Al-Khalil, M. and Al-Ghafly, M., 1999. Important causes of delay in the public uitility projects in Saudi Arabia. Construction Management and Economics 17, (5) 647-55.

Brams, R. and Lerner, C., 1996. Construction Claims Deskbook. Aspen Law


What Made Pericles an Outstanding Leader in Athens Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Astute Leader and a Commander

Courageous Leader

Strong Oratory Skills



Works Cited

Introduction Pericles was an Athenian leader during the Peloponnesian war; he was the leader responsible for the reconstruction of Athens after the war. Pericles was killed by plague, which descended upon the city. Pericles was the General during the Peloponnesian war, and he was of the opinion that Athens should firmly remain in the war. He organized approximately 100 ships for that purpose.

When several soldiers died from the war and from plague, the people of Athens began blaming Pericles for having forced them to go to war, and they wanted him to be held responsible for all the calamities and the misfortunes that had befallen them. Pericles also felt bad about the situation, but he was prepared to tackle the outcome.

The outstanding qualities of Pericles were espoused during the funeral oratory speech which he was asked to deliver as a routine and custom during funerals; in Athens, speeches were made as a way of honoring and praising the departed.

During the burial of the people who had died during the Peloponnesian war, Pericles, the son of Xanthippus was chosen to deliver a speech in their praise, and it is in his speech that some of the outstanding qualities of Pericles were brought to fore (Thucydides 35).

Astute Leader and a Commander Pericles was an astute leader and a commander. Despite the misfortunes that had befallen his people, he still managed to convince them that the course was justified and argued that it was for the benefit of the whole state and city. He defended himself by arguing that he knew he was doing what was to be done, and he described himself one who loved the city and could not be influenced by money or any form of bribery.

From his words, he came out as a man of knowledge despite his limited power. His words and speeches depicted him as an authoritative leader. As a courageous and respected General, Pericles summoned the assembly of the city to instill into them some sense of courage and to rejuvenate their fighting spirit and to push fresh for a war with Sparta.

According to him, the freedom of Athens could only be bought through war and work (Thucydides 44). He could not allow himself to be swayed by euphoria or people’s demands but instead he came out as a person who guided the people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Courageous Leader Pericles also came out as a man who was willing to stand up for danger contrary to someone who could run away from the danger. He demonstrated this when he urged the people to be prepared for all the disasters. Pericles was willing to fight in order to preserve the dignity of Athens. He was a good fighter. Despite him having been defeated, he successfully convinced the people that they had won.

He preferred to endure hatred and to be unpopular as long as his eyes were focused on the goal. He considered hatred and unpopularity as temporary and what mattered was the glory and the brilliance of the future that followed the success (Thucydides 60). He was considered as an individual who was willing to undergo suffering and hardships for the benefit of the city.

He demonstrated courage in the face of the enemy due to his determination to defend his native land. Pericles was one of those people who fought evil with good and had the zeal to fight and more so do service to the people of Athens despite the dangers and harm it could do to their private lives.

Strong Oratory Skills The oratorical skills of Pericles made him an outstanding leader; he had the courage to articulate, the charisma to lead and the ability to convince and manipulate the population. He demonstrated this character when the people vehemently complained about their misfortunes, and he gave them a speech that rejuvenated their courage, will and confidence to continue with the war.

The oratorical skills enhanced his persuasive capability, which was largely due to his application of rationality, logic and knowledge. It is through his speeches and particularly the one he gave at the course of the war that fostered his capacity to effectively capture the minds of the people and allowed him to give reasons as to why the war with Spartans was justified.

He was a demagogue and an aristocrat who had an effective voice. Pericles took advantage of his strong articulate nature, his eloquence and perfect speaking skills to achieve support for his plans and objectives. His poetic imagery silenced every friend and fore (Thucydides 34).

Patriotism The patriotic character of Pericles made him an effective leader in Athens. According to him, the formation or the establishment of the Athenian empire was a noble duty that the citizens ought to be willing to sacrifice for, even if it meant going to war. For him, the glory of Athens was paramount.

We will write a custom Essay on What Made Pericles an Outstanding Leader in Athens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His actions indicated how dedicated he was to his city. In his funeral oration, Pericles espoused several qualities of the city of Athens, and he brought them strictly into the light. His speech centered on the principle that the Athenians should be willing to put their personal demands aside and strive hard for the benefit of the city. This line of argument was a clear demonstration of the patriotic nature of Pericles.

He came out as a proud political ambassador; on several occasions, he stressed on the spirit of the people of Athens, in his argument that the defeat from the war was not anticipated and that the people of Athens should not desert their houses, he came out as a popular and respected leader of the Athenian city.

In his funeral oration speech, he hurled praises on the nature of Athenian morale and the way of life of the Athenian people while at the same time raising the spirits of the citizens. His patriotism was demonstrated clearly during the funeral oration speech when he praised the people of Athens, the city of Athens, the dead, the superiority of Athenian military training and the democratic ideals of the state of Athens.

Consequently, his repetition of the phrase “the power of the city” in his speech and the arguments that the intelligence of the leaders of Athens and the zeal of its population was what fueled the power of the city was an indication of his strong passion for Athens and an appeal to the citizens of Athens to be patriotic to their city and to fight for the sake of the city (Thucydides 62).

Self-trust Pericles also had trust in himself; he left success and failure in the hands of hope and when the reality of war dawned on him, he still trusted in his courage and efforts. He considered it more honorable to fight and to risk death and to maintain their position than to surrender and save their lives.

Pericles was so daring that he did not fear to face the enemy that he rallied various people of the city of Athens because he wished for the greatness of the city that he had fallen in love with. He had a distaste for apathetic people.

He pleaded with the people not to be angry with him, but instead he be given the opportunity to guide them away from their immediate suffering. He believed that there was strength in the city as a whole and not in an individual and at the end people began believing in him because Athens emerged victorious during the war (Thucydides 65).

Pericles was ashamed of falling below his or a certain standard. He displayed enthusiasm in fighting for the city, and he gave the best contribution that he could give to war. He sacrificed his life for the benefit of the city and other people of Athens. His blatant self-praise nature cemented his outstanding position in the society as an undisputed leader.

Not sure if you can write a paper on What Made Pericles an Outstanding Leader in Athens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His strong belief that he was bestowed with better qualities to lead the people of Athens relieved him of several complains from the people, his argument that he could not be charged with misconduct just by persuading the people to go to war brought out a sense of his modesty arrogance.

He just wanted the people of Athens to believe and to accept the true condition they were in and directed them to follow his advice and go for war by declaring that he was above par in patriotism, knowledge and exposition skills. According to him, it was these three qualities that made the Athenians to allow themselves to get persuaded, and his decisions and advice were unquestionable.

His behavior of self-praise and that people should not blame him for the decisions that he was entrusted to make was aimed at eliciting some sense of collective responsibility.

Consequently, Pericles maintained some sense of principled personal constancy when he asserted that he still held his previous opinion, which could not be changed until his plans were made or accomplished. In his arguments, he urged the citizens to imitate people like him (Thucydides 64).

Works Cited Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian war (book 2: 59-65). New York, NY: Penguin books, 1972. Print.

Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian war (book 2: 34-46). New York, NY: Penguin books, 1972. Print.


Chesapeake Energy Company Report best essay help

Chesapeake Energy Company is a natural gas producer (CSRHUB 1). The corporation incorporates its actions and possesses immense compression, midstream, oilfield and drilling properties. Oklahoma City is where the head office of the company is located. Chesapeake holds principal places in Marcellus, Fayetteville, Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Granite Wash and Bossier natural gas shale plays among other oil plays (CSRHUB 2).

In April 2011, the corporation experienced an explosion, which caused deaths of three personnel and made poisonous fracking liquids flow into Pennsylvania farmland, Bradford County, and a close by the stream. The corporation was condemned for its fracking actions, which violated the Clean Water Act, the Recovery Act and the Federal Resource Conservation (Chesapeake Energy 5).

Since then, the company has had to incorporate the issue of hydraulic fracturing into its overall corporate strategy so as to address the needs of its stakeholders, such as the national Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The Regulatory Response Mechanism; Structures and Issues

Following this happening, Chesapeake willingly suspended conclusion actions in the Eastern Division to carry out an assessment of the reliability of similar wellheads. Each wellhead in the assessment was disintegrated so that the apparatus could be studied and pressure examined.

Currently, Chesapeake has dedicated itself to assessing water sources and the soil, in addition to presenting regular information, to DEP. The corporation has decided to make use of local well-control experts, for future reasons.

Chesapeake has planned to work intimately with DEP to devise a plan for re-establishment of the site. For upcoming processes, Chesapeake has employed transformations in its omission of the service providers, who gather and assess wellheads. Qualifications of contract workers will be assessed carefully, and broad citations for all stages of pressure assessment and tools calibration will be needed.

International Lobbying

Chesapeake Energy has lobbied the legislature on hydraulic fracturing (Business week 1). It also used $720,000 in the last quarter to hall the national regime on weather transformation and natural gas concerns (Business week 1). This was a 19% increase from the amount that was used in the third quarter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hydraulic fracturing entails instilling enormous quantities of sand, water and other compounds in the ground so as to release enormous natural gas stores. By use of this technique, Chesapeake has emerged to be a leading gas producer. It asserts that the practice is secure. In addition, Chesapeake has pressed for larger utilization of natural gas since it emits less hazardous substances than coal and other fuels.

The multi Stakeholder Environment of Business

Chesapeake makes use of social media and magazines to develop trust in societies opposed to hydraulic fracturing actions, and converting masses support into broad community approval. The corporation also employs social media in guaranteeing sustainability of eccentric gas and oil making, in order to design an efficient society, stakeholder, media and communal plan to surmount distress over hydraulic fracturing.

Globalization and the Multinational Firm

The main office of the company is located in Oklahoma City. Chesapeake operates many oil plays including Marcellus, Mississippi Lime, Fayetteville, Barnett, Haynesville, Pearsall, Eagle Ford, Cleveland, Granite Wash and Bossier natural gas shale plays among other oil plays. These operating regions are typified by long-lasting oil and natural gas reserves, recognized production potential and plentiful growth openings.

The life Cycle of Social Issues

A life cycle scrutiny denotes the carbon footprint of an exacting production fuel basis over its total manufacture, incineration and dumping cycle, instead of investigating the GHG emissions formed by igniting the fuel to produce electricity. Examining the GHG emissions created to produce electricity, for instance, natural gas is usually said to be about two times cleaner than coal.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Chesapeake Energy has a well- built Corporate Responsibility Policy, which summarizes its dedication to executing businesses morally, lawfully and in a financial, communal and environmental conscientious style. It also pledges to go on delivering sustainable productions to its members via excellent economic performance.

Social Influences; Non-Governmental Organizations and their Effects on Business Operations

The US State of Maryland, RepRisk and local groups, are among the non-governmental organizations that influence the business operations of Chesapeake. The US State of Maryland accused the corporation early this year for infringing several environmental Acts.

RepRisk argues against the hydraulic fracturing method used by Chesapeake. Local societies argue that the actions of the corporation endanger the fragile ecological equilibrium.

We will write a custom Report on Chesapeake Energy Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other non-governmental organizations that raised concerns included Union of Concerned Scientists, the Nature Conservancy and the Wilderness Society. As a result, the corporation came up with a code of conduct, which relates to securities, ecological fortification and justice in conducting business.

Social Influences; Socially Responsible Investing

Socially responsible investing explains an investment approach which attempts to exploit the fiscal profit and communal well being. Chesapeake Energy employs corporate actions that encourage environmental preservation and user fortification through corporate governance.

Anatomy of a Corporate Campaign

Chesapeake has instigated a campaign called Rescue America. The objective of this campaign is to support transformation in the energy prospect of America, through hastening the move to compressed natural gas (CNG) as a shipping energy (Chesapeake Energy 3). First, the campaign seeks to institute bipartisan backing for liable federal reasons, in order to hasten the production of CNG-powered automobiles.

Second, the campaign seeks to institute bipartisan backing for liable national and state reasons, in order to lay CNG dispensing entities at about 20% of the current service centers. Finally, it seeks to institute bipartisan backing for the expansion of the presented $1,000 national tax credit for the fitting of in-home CNG dispensing entities, which are linked to the current home gas lines.

Codes of Conduct

Chesapeake Energy Company and its subdivisions are dedicated to high values of moral behavior. Managers and workers of the corporation are required to abide by all pertinent rules, and to operate with sincerity and honor when executing duties at the corporation. The Code of conduct is divided into three key parts including accountability to the community; interaction with business cohorts and rivals; as well as securing assets.

The corporation is dependent on the necessities, limitations and agreement principles of diverse regulatory groups, which relate to securities, ecological fortification and justice in conducting business among others. In its endeavors to promote excellent corporate citizenship, the corporation expects all its workers to conform to all policies of the company.

Governance in the Sustainable Corporation

The Board of Directors is liable for the supervision of the company and its dealings (Chesapeake Energy 2). This responsibility is normally executed by a senior administration team, which is entrusted with managing the daily actions of the company, in addition to implementing the proposed, business objectives and policies.

The Board counsels, confers with and supervises the work of the leading management group. The Chief Executive Officer is accountable for instituting efficient infrastructure with stakeholder societies including members, clients, affiliates, the public, creditors, suppliers, states, supervisory bodies and corporate allies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chesapeake Energy Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is the rule of the company that executive communicates for the firm. The corporate has instituted plans to train workers and hearten them to be brand representatives of positive corporation icons.

Environmental Issues in the Sustainable Corporation

Chesapeake Energy has been condemned for its fracking actions, which violate a number of environmental policies (Chesapeake Energy 5).

Early this year, the US State of Maryland litigated the corporation for infringing the Clean Water Act, the Recovery Act and the Federal Resource Conservation (Chesapeake Energy 5). This was in reaction to a massive spill that took place on April 19, 2011 causing many gallons of fracking fluid to run into Towanda Creek (Natural Gas Watch 2).

Social Issues in the Sustainable Corporation

Chesapeake Energy has also been condemned for assumed infringements on occupational wellbeing and protection. Early this year, an explosion at the Chesapeake hurt three personnel. The event apparently happened while they were transmitting water that was employed in the fracking procedure.

Lately, Chesapeake was investigated, in South Africa, for its concern in shale discovery, in the Karoo Reserve (Chesapeake Energy 5). Local societies argued that the actions of the corporation would endanger the fragile ecological equilibrium of the reserve.

In conclusion, the April 19 explosion at a natural gas well run by Chesapeake Energy has been a significant issue of concern. Since then, the company has had to incorporate the issue of hydraulic fracturing into its overall corporate strategy so as to address the needs of its stakeholders, such as the national Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Chesapeake Energy lobbied for the legislature on hydraulic fracturing, in the last quarter of the year. Chesapeake makes use of social media and magazines to develop trust in societies opposed to hydraulic fracturing actions, and converting masses support into broad community approval.

The corporation also employs social media in guaranteeing sustainability of eccentric gas and oil making, in order to design an efficient society, stakeholder, media and communal plan to surmount distress over hydraulic fracturing.

Chesapeake Energy has a well- built Corporate Responsibility Policy, which summarizes its dedication to executing businesses morally, lawfully and in a financial, communal and environmental conscientious style.

Local societies argued that the actions of the corporation endanger the fragile ecological equilibrium. As a result, the corporation came up with a code of conduct, which relates to securities, ecological fortification and justice in conducting business.

Chesapeake Energy employs corporate actions that encourage environmental preservation and user fortification through corporate governance. Chesapeake has instigated a campaign called Rescue America, which aims at supporting transformation in the energy prospect of America, through hastening the move to compressed natural gas (CNG) as a shipping energy.

The Codes of conduct at Chesapeake Energy are divided into three key parts including accountability to the community; interaction with business cohorts and rivals; as well as securing assets. The corporation is dependent on the necessities, limitations and agreement principles of diverse regulatory groups, which relate to securities, ecological fortification and justice in conducting business among others.

Works Cited Business Week. ”Chesapeake Energy spent $720,000 Lobbying in 4Q.” The Associated Press, 26 March 2010. Web.

Chesapeake Energy. Chesapeake Energy Corporation Unveils National Campaign to Encourage Switch from Foreign Oil to American Natural Gas in U.S. Transportation Sector. Web..

CSRHUB. Chesapeake Energy Corporation. Web.

Natural Gas Watch. What Really Happened at the Chesapeake Blowout? Web.


The concept of corporate environmental responsibility Essay custom essay help

Background The concept of corporate environmental responsibility has been widely debated. There has been a contention over what should be the responsibility of corporate entities to ensure the environment is sustainably utilized.

While some actors have argued that the sole responsibility of corporate entities remains to make profit for the shareholders, others are of the view that there are scenarios where corporate entities should have their contributions in ensuring that there are sound environmental practices so that all organizational ventures are sustainable.

The relevance of having corporate taking responsibility for their environmental actions has been exacerbated by the repercussions that have been seen as far as environmental factors are concerned where it is believed that the years of irresponsible business practices and the motive for profit has led to acute degradation of the environment leading to notable problems such as drying water sources, pollution of the oceans and worse still, presence of harmful products in what is consumed.

Ethical Grid In an attempt to demystify the role that should be played by the corporate sector in environmental conservation, Hoffman’s case identifies several ethical standpoints that have been pointed out in the ethical greed.

Going by the philosophy of Norman Bowie, who is of the view that ethical responsibility for environmental conservation is a responsibility of the government as opposed to corporate entities, one can argue that the relationship between business and environment should be viewed form the Prima-facie ethics point of view.

This means that even though it may be an individual’s obligation to take good care of the surrounding, the most fundamental obligation of business entities is to make profits and thus they can override all other obligations to ensure that the profit pursuit is achieved.

One can also address the issue form a Supererogatory point of view by arguing that although it is good to take care of the environment, corporate entities that may feel that they are not willing to pump their money towards conservation efforts will not have violated any law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the utilitarian point of view, the main idea being presented by Hoffman views that corporate entities should be the driving forces towards the environmental conservation. From the utilitarian point of view, it can be said that companies should ensure that they structure their production in such a way that they reduce the strain to the environment while ensuring that they do not overcharge the customers for this.

From the libertarian point of view, firms are at liberty to follow only the laws that have been set by the government as opposed to engaging in activities meant to go beyond what the government specifies in their conservation efforts.

Solutions From the assigned case, it is evident that the principles of utilitarian ethics were grossly violated. Corporate entities should ensure that their pursuit for profit does not endanger the lives of others, either in the future generation or in the present generation.

Thus, organizations should ensure that they engage only in ethical principles that are geared towards producing the best benefit to the populace as opposed to harming the populations in some ways.

Arguments that have been advanced by Norman Bowie are thus misleading as it should be the responsibility of corporate entities to ensure that whatever they do is not in the contrary to their ability to be in the same business sustainably in the future. Companies should not be blinded by the profit motive as this may make them engage in unethical practices.

In this case, the ethical reasoning that ought to have been applied is that advanced by the utilitarian school of thought. This is because matters that concern the environment should not be left to the government only as every person is ethically responsible to ensure that he/she has a stake in protecting the environment.

Therefore, it is imperative that corporate entities should have viewed the issue of environmental ethics as their own responsibility as opposed to viewing their role as though it is only defined by the government.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of corporate environmental responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate entities should keep away from the argument that views the responsibility of conserving the environment as discretion of the government as they should also assist in policy formulation and also, ensure that their acts are far above the minimal accepted standards for effective conservation.

If corporate entities accept to adopt the utilitarian approach to matters that concern environmental management, then the issue of the future of the environmental condition is brilliant.

This is because a responsible corporate entity will seek to engage in environmental friendly practices beyond the basic levels as defined by the government. It is also evident that a responsible corporate sector will help come up with more sustainable policies since, as major stakeholders in the environment; the corporate sector will be in a position to offer helpful advice to the concerned policymakers.

Besides this, corporates will undertake the responsibility of educating its consumers on some aspects of the environment and why they should take part in the process of environmental conservation.


Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: A merger proposal Coursework college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction This is a course work on an analysis of a merger. So what is a merger? A Merger is an integration of one business with another and sharing of control of the combined businesses. It is a common way of expanding a business.

Stockholders of the two companies are allowed to keep equal interest in the new company (Business Link, 2011). It usually happens between two former competitors and is considerably managed by investment bankers who transfer ownership via stock sales (Brainz, 2010). In this case, we shall look into the Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: A Merger Proposal.

Background Information Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: A merger proposal was a proposed merger of two organizations; Utah Symphony and Utah Opera, with the voting on whether to merge or not by the boards of the two organizations scheduled for July 8, 2002. The outcome of the voting would have been very important for the general director of Utah Opera, Anne Ewers for she had been requested to lead the new merged entity if the deal went through.

This paper will show how motivational concepts can be used to enhance organizational performance. It will also determine how power and influence can be used to achieve organizational objectives. The course work will equally demonstrate how conflict management concepts can be used to improve organizational performance.

It will achieve this by reviewing the various human interactions, cultural and organizational, that can emerge during the merger process in the “Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: A Merger Proposal” case study. Conclusively, the course work will help Anne Ewers think through issues that may result from the merger process.

Most specifically, the course work will illustrate how Bill Bailey, chairman of the board of the Utah Opera Organization, might use one theory of motivation to oppose or support the merger, how Scott Parker, chairman of the board of the Utah Symphony Organization, might use one theory of motivation to convince Mrs. Abravenal to support the merger.

It will also describe Anne’s positional power in relation to her personal power, how Anne could use her positional power to successfully lead the merger efforts and how Anne could use her personal power to empower Keith Lockhart.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, the paper will discuss influence tactics Anne could use to persuade the Opera’s full-time staff and artists under contract to endorse the merger. It will additionally present a potential issue with the musicians that, if not resolved, would jeopardize the continuing organizational performance. In conclusion, the course work will recommend how Anne could deal with the issue.

Motivation and Organizational Performance In this context, we will look into how Bill Bailey, chairman of the board of the Utah Opera Organization, might use one theory of motivation to oppose or support the merger and how Scott Parker, chairman of the board of the Utah Symphony Organization, might use one theory of motivation to convince Mrs. Abravenal to support the merger.

Motivation is what drives us to act. There are different types of motivational theories: Intrinsic, extrinsic, drive, needs, investment model, and expectancy motivational theory e.t.c. Motivational concepts give individuals in an organization the power and strength to face adversity and personal challenges.

Bill Bailey might use the needs theory of motivation to support the merger by denoting the financial strength that the merger will have, recognizing the financial stability of opera and the flexibility that the business model will inherit from this stability.

By pointing to the superiority of the merger to be formed, it will be easy to convince all the stakeholders involved that the merger will be better placed to meet their objectives and desires, be they career wise, making profits or expanding wide (Delong


An Analysis of Marketing Strategies of Local vs. International Brands in the Fast Food Sector Essay essay help online

Introduction In this paper, the marketing strategies of two fast food restaurants, McDonald’s and Little Chef, are reviewed and compared to one another. Both companies are in the fast food sector. Little Chef serves customers from only one country while McDonald’s serves clients from different countries across the world, and this creates a significant difference in their marketing strategies. This difference is discussed in the paper.

The paper is divided into four distinct parts: definition of terms, overview of the organizations, the marketing strategies and conclusion. Important terms used throughout the paper are defined and explained briefly.

The overview helps readers to understand the organizations better, which in turn enables them to understand the marketing mix better. In the marketing strategies, market segmentation, targeting, positioning and marketing mix are thoroughly reviewed before the paper is concluded.

Definition of Terms Marketing Strategy

Every organization has a number of marketing goals all put together at the start of the business year or the start of the business. In order to achieve these goals, the marketing manager, together with his team, have to sit down and come up with a way to attain these goals.

This is the organization’s marketing strategy. The marketing strategy is based on market research done by the organization’s marketing team and focuses on the best product mix that will maximize profits. Once the strategy is complete, it is set out in a marketing plan and executed (BusinessDictionary, 2011).

Critical Analysis

In academic writing, the critical analysis of a subject or topic involves consideration and evaluation of material authored by other bodies, investigating whether the basis of these claims is sound, and scrutinising whether or not these the claims made by these authors apply to the situation being examined.

A critical analysis must not be based purely on description, but must examine the content of other authors and judge how applicable and relevant they are to the topic at hand using knowledge gained in the field, at work, through study or by experience. Not everything written by the authors is to be taken at face value (Birmingham City University, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A critical analysis is a piece of subjective writing, since it expresses the opinion of the writer, and how the writer evaluates a text. An analysis breaks down a topic into study parts to ease the analysis process (LeJeune, 2001).

Product Mix

In order to achieve maximum profit potential, some of its products have to be marketed together to minimize cost. The process of marketing a range of products that are related to one another and help reduce marketing cost – hence maximising profit – is what finding the organization’s product mix is all about (BusinessDictonary, 2011).

Overview of the Two Organizations McDonald’s

McDonald’s started as a small restaurant, founded by brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald. Despite slow beginnings, McDonald’s soon picked up and became a fast-food selling restaurant, a business idea that was picking up in the 1940s. Success for the company, however, came when the McDonald brothers’ equity in the firm was purchased by Ray Kroc, an American investor and businessman.

With aggressive business tactics and tactical genius, Kroc expanded the business into one of the most recognizable brands in the world today. With 64 million customers served daily in its restaurants, it is the globe’s largest hamburger fast food restaurant. Hamburgers and other fast foods are not the only source of income for McDonald’s. It also gains large amounts of income from fees paid by franchises, royalties and rents.

The company’s financial performance over the last five years, despite the recession, has been steadily growing, partly because of its marketing strategy.

According to figures released by the company in October 2011, the company’s revenue rose by 5.5 per cent because of the popularity of its Monopoly game in the United States. Revenues also rose in Europe by 4.8 per cent and in the Middle East/Asia Pacific/Africa region by 6.1 per cent (Associated Press, 2011).

Little Chef

Little Chef is one of Britain’s most successful, and most controversial, fast food restaurants. The fast food chain identifies itself as a ‘roadside restaurant’ that serves over ten million people every year. It was established in 1958, the same year that Britain got its first motorway.

We will write a custom Essay on An Analysis of Marketing Strategies of Local vs. International Brands in the Fast Food Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It has grown from a single, 11-seat restaurant to a 162-restaurant chain. Apart from serving tea, bacon eggs and sausages, it offers its customers additional services like Wi-Fi internet connectivity, free ice cream for children under ten, and a ‘to go’ menu for customers who want to take their food away (Little Chef, 2011).

The company went into administration in 2007 after it was revealed that it was losing over three million pounds per year. It was purchased by the investment company RCapital, and revamped to ‘keep up with the needs of customers’ (Baker, 2011).

Its marketing campaign after it was bought out of administration also involved a marketing campaign by celebrity chef Heston Blumenthal (Warman, 2009). Little Chef is now picking up, thriving and looking fabulous under the new management.

Marketing Strategy Segmentation

Market segmentation refers to a marketing practice where organizations divide their target markets into smaller units – or segments – and apply different marketing strategies depending on the nature of each segment. Market segments are demographic, geographic, psychographic, transaction or functional (Wedel


Bank Mergers and Cost of Capital Coursework best college essay help: best college essay help

Merging, as defined by many scholars, means combining two independent firms to form one company while acquisition refers to a situation where one firm buys another one that is perceived to be financially stable. It is apparent that both vertical and horizontal merging is associated with disadvantages and advantages. In recent times, there have been so many cases of merging between banks over and above other financial institutions.

For instance, the recent mergers formed between JP Morgan and Washington Mutual, Wells Fargo and Wachovia among other mergers are some examples. However, it is scaring that current and future merging would increasingly pose more problems that would see many banks suffer from financial constraints as well as technical problems.

Due to increasing levels of technology, diverse banks are embracing different technologies that would make it difficult for the two merged firms to match their diverse technologies. In addition, management system practiced by different banks would as well create a problem considering that today’s management system is tending to vary across financial institutions due to increased levels of competition.

It is also noted that large banks are merging creating a monopoly problem in the market that subsequently leads to low levels of competition in the market. Loss of employment and uneven distribution of stocks is as well becoming a central issue that may stop merging practices in future (Rosenbaum,


Poverty Prevalence in the United States Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Poverty prevalence in the United States

Policy Recommendations

Reference List

Introduction Over the past years, the issue of poverty has been one of the major targets of many policy makers. Many efforts have been directed towards poverty elimination. However, the issue of poverty remains a big threat to the society. The increasing rates of poverty have significantly affected the community (Garcia, 2011).

For a long time, poverty has been perceived to constitute lack or inadequacy of basic needs, including food, clothing, and shelter. The levels by which different societies achieve these three basic essentials vary, and this explains the differences in poverty levels among different societies.

Poverty can be viewed as a violation to the human dignity. It implies that people does not have an access to enough and equality in food, health care services, and other basic goods and services. Poverty also denies people access to education hence perpetuating their poverty cycle.

Today, America is seen to have the highest level of poverty rate compared to other industrialized countries (Garcia, 2011). To justify this, the recent and most current statistics from the Census Bureau shows that the level and rate of poverty in USA is increasing, with minority ethnic groups being the most disadvantaged (Dye, 2010).

In the past decade, numerous poverty reduction policies have been formulated and implemented, but their overall impact remains below expectations, as the main beneficiaries are the middle class in expense of the poor (Dye, 2010).

The policies that are in place therefore contribute very little in helping those who don’t have. Therefore, the situation calls for paradigm shift in policy formulation and implementation. It is only through policy reformulation that the current trends in poverty will change. Otherwise, the level of poverty will remain high.

Poverty prevalence in the United States Over the recent past, the level of poverty in USA has increased significantly. Past studies have revealed that the level of poverty in the USA is increasing at a very high rate. For instance, the level of poverty increased by approximately 1% between the year 2009 and 2010 when it increased from 15.1percent to 14.3 percent (USA Census Bureau, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is estimated that the rate of poverty has been increasing at an average rate of 2.6 percent. This implies the living standards may be worsening at the same rate. According to the USA Census Bureau (2011), about 46.2 million Americans are poor and it affects all the ethnic groups that live in America.

The statistics presents the highest level of poverty that has ever been recorded since 1993. In other words, poverty is a serious issue in the USA that needs to be addressed in order to come up with a lasting solution. In this case, the policy makers have a significant role in coming up with a lasting solution to the prevailing problem.

These statistics clearly reveal that the level of poverty has been increasing in the USA over the recent past. This implies that the level of poverty will reach devastating levels in the future if appropriate policies are not implemented. The fact that the level of poverty has been increasing for the last few years raise a critical issue about the policies that has been implemented in addressing the issue of poverty in the United States.

The rising trend of the level of poverty implies that there is a need for an urgent action in order to change this trend. This calls for the implementation of effective policies in order to overcome this problem. It is necessary to address and investigate the existing strategies in order to come up with the most effective measures to solve the problem.

In order to meet the American Dream, the issue of poverty needs to be addressed in the US in order to pave the way for the realization of these goals. Poverty is the major obstacle that can hinder any country from meeting its development goals. Therefore, there is a need to address the issue of poverty appropriately in order to promote the achievement of development goals.

Social inclusion goals and objectives postulate that the well-being of humankind is the essence of stability, peace, and societal development. Therefore, addressing poverty is one way of achieving social inclusion goals.

At the same time, there is need for an effective public policy that comprehensively addresses the issues of poverty in the country. This study proposes some of the strategies that can be applied in eradicating poverty in the USA.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Poverty Prevalence in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the main characteristic of poverty is poor health. People living in poverty are not able to access quality food while others even starve to death. A large number of people across the world have died from hunger with the most affected being women and children. Poverty also contributes to high level of child mortality.

The increase in the costs of living makes more people incapable of accessing their basic needs. Basically, the poor spends a larger proportion of their budget on food (Veritta, 2008). This implies that the poor are the ones who are more affected by increase in food prices than the rich are.

Another characteristic of poverty is educational underachievement. The system that is being applied in the US tends to favor those children from the more advantaged backgrounds. Therefore, the children from poor family backgrounds have a difficulty in attaining good grades.

The rates of child delinquency are also very high among the children from the poor family. Another indication of poverty is housing. The poor members of the society are unable to access good housing. Poverty increases the chances of being homeless (Veritta, 2008).

The discussion above implies that the best policy to eliminate poverty in USA is by addressing these issues. Addressing such issues will help in suppressing the level of poverty in the society. Therefore, the best policy must be able to address the largest fraction of these problems.

Policy Recommendations From the above discussion, it is clear that the issue of poverty in USA has reached levels where there is a need to take serious actions in order to address the issue. The approach used to eliminate the issue of poverty in USA has assumed and utilized unilateral public policy models that in turn have led to inadequacy in tackling the issue of poverty.

For instance, many of the convectional poverty policies address education, employment, social security, health, economic growth, and tax (Haughton and Khandker, 2009).

The implementation of these strategies has been detached, the fact that has led to the construction, formulation, and implementation of skewed and weak poverty reduction models. This implies that there is a need for a more broad approach in addressing the issues of poverty.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Poverty Prevalence in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most effective approaches in elimination of poverty in the society is by involving the people affected by poverty in making policies (Corak, 2005). Community involvement plays a pivotal role in coming up with the most effective measures of eliminating poverty in the society. The people affected can be able to identify the most urgent issues of poverty that needs to be addressed.

They are also able to easily recognize the issues like the projects that can help in lifting the living standards of the local community. The views from the community members on social and physical infrastructure are therefore important in addressing the issue of poverty in the society.

The local community members must be involved at both the implementation and monitoring levels of various projects. Involving the local communities in the formulation of the necessary policies helps in promoting the accountability of the government officials involved in the implementation process. The local community is also able to prioritize their needs depending on how they are affected.

One of the most distinguishing characteristic of poverty is inequality among the people. The higher is the gap between the poor and the rich, the higher the level of poverty in the society. Poverty eradication policies must therefore be directed towards the realization of equitable distribution of resources.

This can be promoted through redistribution of resources in such a way that the poor can access the resources that can help to lift their living standards. Such disparities have contributed to an increasing rate of crimes in the society. It has also contributed to the rate of substance abuse.

Efforts of poverty elimination have been taking place for a very long period in the past. However, it is ironical that it is persisting in one of the richest countries in the world. Therefore, poverty in USA can be attributed to inequality where the poor does not have enough resources for their use.

Some of the strategies that the government has implemented in an effort to fight poverty is through taxation, foot stamps, and other kinds of welfare (Veritta, 2008). For instance, the government has been applying progressive taxation system in order to improve the living standards of the poor individuals in the society.

Progressive taxation is a kind of tax where the rich are taxed at higher rate than the poor. This helps in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor in the society. The tax collected from the rich could for instance be provided in providing other needs. Tax breaks or tax relief can also help in reducing the disparities between the rich and the poor in the society. The tax burden can then be transferred to the richest fraction of the society.

This can significantly help in reducing the level of poverty in USA. The Earned Income Tax Credit has however helped in assisting the people who earn low and moderate levels of income. Such efforts have helped the poor in lifting their living standards. This policy cannot be helpful in eliminating poverty from the whole population in the country.

For instance, it may not significantly benefit those people who do not have access to regular source of income. It only benefits those people who are earning. In this case, the most vulnerable part of population like the immigrants will not be able to benefit from such arrangements. It is therefore advisable to supplement such policies in order to cover the whole population.

As already noted, poverty in USA has left many people living below the minimum standards of living. However, the country has adequate resources to provide at least minimum living standard for every citizen. It can therefore be advisable for the government to come up with programs that guarantees minimum standards of living for every person. These efforts will consequently lead to reduction of poverty in the society.

In order for the society to enable every member of the society to access the basic goods, it is necessary to provide income grants especially to the poor fraction of the society. Providing minimum income ensures that every person in the society has access to all the basic needs. Although the government has put some efforts to ensure that every individual has access to their basic needs there is still a gap that needs to be filled.

Such programs have worked very well in other countries where they have been applied. For instance, this program has helped many people in Namibia to access education, reduce malnutrition, and increase economic activities at a very high rate. In USA, a similar program that has been applied is the minimum wages.

However, this has not been effective in eliminating poverty among the people. For instance, minimum wage is associated with high marginal tax that undermines its effectiveness. The aids groups have also been using such methods like giving cash to the poor or cash vouchers so that they can be able to purchase food.

This is however ineffective because it leads to wastage of money through transportation. It would be more effective to buy food from the donor countries instead of giving people the cash.

Health complications are one of the factors that adversely affect people’s level of productivity. Health individuals are more productive than unhealthy individuals are. Therefore, it is advisable for the government to ensure that people have access to health care. This will also help in eliminating poverty in the society. A healthy person will be able to provide for their basic needs.

Another important strategy in eliminating poverty in USA is by promoting quality education to everyone in the society. As already noted, the prevailing system tends to favor the children from the rich backgrounds. It therefore becomes more difficult for the children from the poor families to get good grades. This has contributed in perpetuating the poverty cycle.

The children from the poor families also have high chances of dropping out of school. Chances of juveniles’ delinquency are also prevalent among the children from poor families. This arises from overdependence on their parents who basically have too low levels of income to satisfy their children’s needs.

All these problems threaten the education of a child from the poor families. The policies also need to address such issues. That is, ensuring that the children from the poor families receive enough coverage for their tuition and other expenses in order to facilitate their learning process.

In the United States, both the government and non-governmental organizations has been actively involved in poverty elimination. There have been various campaigns targeting the most vulnerable and affected groups. These include the children, immigrants, and the homeless people.

Most of these groups have been targeting mainly education and advocacy. However, in order to have effective poverty elimination measures, it is advisable to implement the policies that can help in reducing both income and asset poverty.

One of the major obstacles that undermine the efforts to reduce the level of poverty in the society is over population. This is because even if the government allocates average income benefits per family, it will not be helpful in some families because they have big number of members.

Generally, overpopulation leads to a drastic increase in the level of population at a higher rate than the food production and other resources (Haughton and Khandker, 2009). Recently, the level of population has been increasing significantly exceeding the food production. This implies that the level of poverty will be increasing as the number of births increase.

Therefore, advocating for birth control is important in eliminating poverty among the people. It is necessary to educate the society on the need for family planning. Otherwise, other measures to eliminate poverty in the society will not be effective.

Economic freedom is also necessary in eliminating poverty in the society. In most parts of USA, it is expensive and time consuming to open a business. The registration process includes many procedures, which make the whole process cumbersome and expensive. In order to eliminate poverty in the country, it will be necessary to promote entrepreneurship.

These barriers trend to obstruct larger farms and obstructing small firms. This is despite the fact that small firms are the ones that creates the largest number of employment. The government therefore needs to remove such barriers in order to boost small firms. This will help in reducing the level of unemployment and hence reducing the level of poverty in the society.

In conclusion, this discussion has clearly revealed that poverty is a major issue that continues to affect a large part of population in the USA. Despite of the efforts that the government has put in place in the fight against poverty over the past, the level of poverty remains high in the country. Poverty remains a social issue that requires clear strategies to address it.

Efforts in the past have bore fruits, but given recent trends of increasing cases of poverty in the society, there is an urgent need to address poverty comprehensively. It is from this fact that it is recommended that addressing poverty in modern America require an action plan originating from an inclusive and integrated social equity policy strategy.

Since USA has adequate resources, the best option to eliminate poverty is by ensuring that every citizen get the minimum level of living standards. It is from here that other strategies will become more effective. It is also necessary to implement those efforts that can help in improving the level of income of the poor fraction of the society.

This can be done through progressive taxation system where the rich are charged more than the poor. This will help in reallocating resources from those who have to those who do not have. This will reduce disparities among the members of the society.

It is also advisable to come up with strategies that promote quality education for the children from poor backgrounds. Currently, the education system is biased towards the children from the rich backgrounds. Therefore, it becomes very difficult for the poor families to break their poverty cycle.

Reference List Corak, M. (2005). Equality of Opportunity and Inequality across the Generations: Challenges Ahead. Policy Options, 26(3), 78–83.

Dye, T.R. (2010). Understanding Public Policy (13th ed.). Longman: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Garcia, G. (2011). Mexican American and Immigrant Poverty in the United States. NY: Springer.

Haughton, J.H. and Khandker, S.R. (2009). Handbook on Poverty and Inequality. Danvers, MA: World Bank Publications.

USA Census Bureau. (2011). Poverty Highlights. Web.

Veritta, L.B. (2008). Poverty Alleviation: 21st Century Issues and Challenges. New York: Nova Publishers.


Job evaluation and pay structure Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Effectiveness of the Armed Forces pays structure policies

Systems used in paying salaries and wages to the Armed Forces

Comparison with the defence department for civilians


Job evaluation is the process of establishing a structure for jobs in an organisation. The concern for job evaluation is not for people, but the job itself. A pay structure is the procedure of administering its pay philosophy.

There are different types of pay structures, for example, internal equity method and market pricing. The purpose of a pay structure is to take the role of each person and reason why people receive different compensation. It also deals with opportunities of incentives.

The following are objectives of job evaluation: determining how much people who perform the job, should be paid, means of comparing jobs, and pay rates with those of other organisations.

Effectiveness of the Armed Forces pays structure policies Wage policies vary in different organisations. Army pays should be at least equal to similar civilian jobs, but there should be an extra pay on top of that. The Army receives policies under different conditions. For example, when the army goes for a fight or defends a country, they may work in extremely harsh conditions with serious injures involved.

Therefore, they receive compensation in relation to harsh conditions. This is a policy that favours the army since they receive extra payments. Offering this policy is as a result of choosing the best pay structure. The armed forces get favours to the national guards. They receive bonuses and incentives.

Personnel maintain electronic equipment as a requirement in the military. Those who repair them normally specialize in certain equipment. Also, these individuals use weapons that have electronic components that help, for instance, in firing the weapon. They receive training so that they can handle these electrical weapons (Henderson, 2003). This is a form of policy.

Armed forces training and working conditions are terribly dangerous. Even when there is peace, time and working conditions can be devilishly hard on the individuals. This is because personnel must strictly follow the military rules at all times. The soldiers do not even have time for their families. This leads to split of the families sometimes. They are compensated for their devotion to work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Protection of individuals and property on military bases and vessels is left to the protective service officers. This is a policy that significantly favours the militants.

Systems used in paying salaries and wages to the Armed Forces Some work conditions depend on the branch of service and other factors. Military individuals live or work near military facilities. For one to make complete military personnel, he or she must be physically fit, not insane, and ready to participate.

The system used in paying wages and salaries is job evaluation method. It is evident that compensation of individuals is according to their working conditions. Also, offering of salaries is according to the services.

Slotting is a method that compares an organization with another, that is already existing (Husband, 1976). The only disadvantage is that it cannot be used as the only system for job evaluation.

Comparison with the defence department for civilians The defence department seeks the ability to recruit some civilians into the military. It also forms a civilian expeditionally workforce that will train and equip the civilians to deploy overseas in support of the military missions all over the world. This program also lets in former and retired civilian’s employees who are willing to return to federal service.

References Henderson, R. I. (2003).Compensation management in a knowledge-based world (9. ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Higher Education.

Husband, T. M. (1976). Work analysis and pay structure. London: McGraw-Hill

We will write a custom Essay on Job evaluation and pay structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Strategic Marketing Management of Tim Hortons Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Executive Summary Tim Hortons is a Canadian restaurant that has recorded a very high level of performance over the past years. The company is widely known for their quality product that has attracted a large number of customers from all over the world. The company is widely known for its coffee and doughnuts. It has more than 3000 stores across the nation. The company was founded in 1964 by Tim Horton who was a hockey player.

This study examines the strategic management process employed in the company. This analysis begins by outlining the role of marketing in the company. The marketing tactics adapted by the company are given and their merits are outlined.

The role and process of strategic marketing in Tim Hortons Tim Horton is one of the companies that have managed to develop the most successful marketing strategy. Marketing plan forms one of the most important parts in the overall business plans in Tim Hortons. The organization has integrated its marketing plans with its strategies, mission, and vision. By so doing, the organisation has managed to maintain a high level of performance.

Marketing is a very important element in any organization. It is therefore necessary to have a clearly designed marketing plan or strategy in order to have a successful organization. In marketing of existing products, it is necessary to understand the customer’s needs. This understanding will act as guidance in molding the product and service to maximize customer satisfaction

The success by Tim Horton’s restaurants can be attributed to its strategic marketing plans. The company has managed to improve the quality of its brand through marketing. The fast food industry has recently recorded a tremendous growth by marketing the product across the media.

Marketing has a significant role in determining an organization’s competitive advantage. Tim Hortons has managed to attract a large number of customers through its unique marketing plans.

For instance, it has managed to increase the quality of its brand across the world, the fact that has sigjnificantly contributed to its success. It also helps in corporate positioning. At Tim Hortons, the strategic marketing are developed and implemented by the Chief marketing officers. They play a significant role in the entire implementation process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Links between strategic marketing strategy and corporate Strategy of Tim Hortons The Company has managed to align its marketing plans with its mission and vision. The company’s vision is to be the quality leader in everything they do (Tim Horton 2011). By aligning its marketing plan with its mission, the organisation has managed to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction.

This has significantly contributed to the performance of the organization. The company’s mission is to deliver quality products and services to their guests and communities by maintaining continued innovation, quality leadership, and partnership. These are the guiding principles in the company. They have been integrated in the company’s day to day operations and plans.

In order to maintain a high level of performance within an organization, it is always necessary to have a market oriented mission. One of the most important things in every business is a clear understanding of what their business is and the customer needs that are met. Tim Hortons has integrated this in its mission.

In the contemporary world, consumers in the food industry are more concerned about the health implications of the food. However, this does not imply that they have ignored the prices. Therefore, companies in the food industry must be in a position to satisfy all these needs at once. Tim Horton’s mission is aligned with these needs, that is, delivering quality products and continued innovation.

Tim Hortons has been ranked as one of the companies with the most effective marketing strategies in Canada (Redpath 2011). The company has managed to apply various tactics successfully, the fact that has won it a significant number of customers.

However, the company has been facing tough competition from its competitors like McDonalds (Redpath 2011). Through a successful branding process, the company has managed to attain a top class position in fast food industry in Canada. The strongly developed brand has won the company a large number of customers.

Models of strategic marketing planning Over the past decade, several organizations have recorded high level of performance by adopting various models of marketing planning. There are a number of models that has been proposed. While implementing marketing strategies within an organization, it is always necessary to consider the internal and external environment.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Strategic Marketing Management of Tim Hortons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internal analysis involves consideration of the organization’s values, aspirations, desired objectives, and competencies. This analysis model is critical while conducting strategic planning. It ensures that the marketing strategies lead to realization of organizational goals and objectives.

Market segmentation is another important model that has been applied by many organizations. Through segmentation, an organisation is able to realize the needs of its customers. In segmentation, an organisation divides its market based on certain aspects such as characteristics, demographics, income among others. This helps an organization in meeting the needs of its customers (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel 2011).

External environment is also necessary in strategic marketing planning. This analysis helps an organisation in identifying the consumer needs as well as their characteristics. This analysis is very important since it helps an organisation to identify the best marketing strategies.

Tim Horton’s success can be attributed to its ability to adopt these strategies effectively. The company’s marketing efforts reflects its values and object jives. This means that the company has critically analyzed its internal environment in coming up with its marketing strategies.

External environment scanning has also played an important role in Tim Hortons. By analyzing its external environment, the company has identified the consumer needs in the market. For instance, the company has identified the customers’ needs for freshness and diet. This has helped the company to incorporate these needs in its marketing tactics.

Promotion is also another important strategy that has been employed in marketing in the company. Promotion strategy is of great importance in creating customer awareness especially in the initial stages of organization’s development. This method has helped the company reach a large number of its customers.

One advantage of using sales promotion is that it can stimulate quick increases in sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products. These can significantly help in improving the performance of the organization in the short run. Sales promotion also plays a significant role in creating consumer awareness. In this case, the potential consumers are not aware of the upcoming products.

Sales promotions will, therefore, play a significant role in informing potential customers of the products available from the gallery. Tim Hortons has successfully applied this strategy in its operations. The company uses various promotion activities in marketing its products. This has significantly contributed to its success. Sales and promotions help to sway consumers to risk buying a new product.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Marketing Management of Tim Hortons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Product specials encourage a customer to try the product, often giving the much needed boost to sales. This is an aspect that has been utilized in the company, for instance, through lowering of prices (Trehan and Trehan 2009).

Marketing tactics used at Tim Hortons and their benefits In order to achieve its current position, Tim Hortons has managed to maintain various marketing tactics that has enabled the company to maximize its sales. When the founder of Tim Hortons opened the first store, he thought that his products will sell themselves since he had a good status in the society.

He was widely known as a hockey champion and for actively participating in social activities. In other words, he applied the testimonial approach in entering into the market. This approach is usually applied by well known people in the society.

Soon after its establishment, Tim Hortons applied the slogan ‘Always Fresh’ to attract its customers. This slogan played a significant role in attracting customers by promising them freshly baked menu (Tim Hortons 2011).

The company managed to attract a significant number of customers by promising quality foods and services through marketing. In fact, it was the first company to promise its customers quality products and services.

One of the most famous promotion strategies that the company has used is the ‘Roll up the Rim’. This is one of the most famous marketing campaigns that the company has ever had. This is a promotion contest that has attracted the attention of many people across the world.

In this contest, the company makes the use of figures to emphasize and guarantee that a significant fraction of the cups were winners (Tim Hortons 2011). People have an opportunity to win variety of different prizes in every year.

In its promotion efforts, the commercials promised of extra ordinary nature of the company’s product. For instance, the company insisted that their product was part of the people’s routine. The company associated its products with quality life styles. This convinced a great number of people to divert their consumption styles where a significant number of people began consuming the company’s products.

Tim Hortons advertises its products through various media. These include the billboards and television. The company also advertises its products through children’s foundation and other activities like funding programs that are involved in children games. This has significantly helped the company to market its products. This has also helped in building the company’s brand.

Advertisement is another tactic that has been used to win a significantly large number of customers. The company is widely known for sponsoring the Brier; the championships that has attracted a large number of people. Through such activities, the company has managed to market its products while building its brand as well.

Tim Hortons has applied various advertising slogans in its operations. Some of the slogans used are ‘You Have Always Got Time for Tim Hortons’ (Tim Hortons 2011). Such slogans have helped the company to attract a large number of customers to its products. Later in 2000, the company adopted a new slogan; ‘Always Fresh, Always Tim Hortons.’

This slogan was mainly meant to guarantee the consumers about the freshness of the company’s products. A large number of people in the market were becoming more concerned about the freshness. This slogan therefore played a significant role in attracting customers with such interests or tastes.

Advertisement as a method of promotion is associated with a number of advantages. To start with, advertisement is effective in reaching a wide range of audience (Trehan and Trehan 2009). This is especially when advertising is conducted through a media which reaches a large number of people. The method will reach greater number of people compared to other methods like the sales promotion.

Marketing a product directly to the public is another great way to advertise a new product. This is an aspect that Tim Hortons’ has utilized to the maximum and has contributed greatly to its overall success. Positive peer pressure is achieved through direct marketing and thus it is an excellent advertising campaign that raises awareness for the company’s products and services.

In pricing, there will be a need to conduct a research on the market. This will enable the firm in analyzing what the competitors are providing and the prices they offer at the market. This will help in determining the most competitive price offer.

Tim Hortons is one of the few restaurants across the world that is known to offer health food at very reasonable products (Tim Hortons 2011). The company is widely known for its low priced foods. The company has managed to achieve this by minimizing its operational costs. The company has managed to adopt very low operational costs.

Price refers to the amount of money that the consumers will be willing to pay for the Tim Horton’s products and services in the market. Before deciding on the price to impose on the products and services, the company compares the prices of the competitors so as to make sure that their prices are at par. For a long time, the company has managed to attract a large number of customers due to its extremely low prices.

Advertisement Marketing Strategy Its Merits to Tim Hortons Advertisement as a method of promotion is associated with a number of advantages. To start with, advertisement is effective in reaching a wide range of audience (Trehan and Trehan 2009). This is more so when advertising is conducted through a media, which reaches a large number of people. The method will reach greater number of people compared to other methods like the sales promotion.

Therefore, this method will not only reach the people who shop in that particular supermarket, but also to other people who shop from other stores. Another advantage of this method is that it is most effective in creating awareness. When the audience views a certain advert on television regularly, this increases their awareness of the presence of the product in the market.

This builds their curiosity to try the new product; a thing that significantly helps in increasing the level of sales. Again, advertising helps in building customer trust through repetition of the main brand and product. In the process, the company will be able to maximize on the level of sales made.

Recommendations This discussion has clearly shown that Tim Hortons has successful marketing strategy, the fact that has contributed to its success. However, the company has been losing from its competitors. This has significantly undermined the organization’s performance. In orders to avoid such loses, the company must try to balance its marketing strategies. It must give all the products adequate attention.

These will promote high performance in all the products. The company has not fully utilized the social networks like the Facebook and the Twitter. This is despite the fact that such strategies have helped many organizations’ reach a large number of people. The company must therefore improve on its marketing strategies through the social networks.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that Tim Hortons has recorded good performance in its operations. The company has managed to maintain a high level competitiveness due to its effective marketing strategies. The company has successfully applied strategies such as promotions, the fact that has significantly contributed to a high level of sales.

However, the company is losing on some products from its competitors. This can be mitigated by expanding its marketing strategies, for instance, through the social networks. By so doing, the company can massively increase its sales.

Reference List Lamb, C., 2009. Marketing. Canada, Cengage Learning.

Lamb,C., Hair, J. and McDaniel, C., 2011. Essentials of Marketing. Mason, Cengage Learning.

Redpath, T., 2011. Roll Up the Rim to Win Sweet Profits at Tim Hortons. Web.

Tim Hortons. 2011. Products. Web.

Trehan, M. and Trehan, R., 2009. Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi, FK Publications.


Analysis of Trends in UK Employment and GDP as A Measure of a Country’s Wealth Coursework college essay help

Table of Contents UK Unemployment Trends

Using Philips Curve to Explain Unemployment in the UK

GDP as A Measure of How Well-Off a Country and Its People Are

Alternative Measures

Works Cited

UK Unemployment Trends Most people have viewed unemployment as being an indicator of economy showing the number of individuals in a particular economy who have a will and ability to work but they have no jobs. If a person is found in this situation, then that person is unemployed. Individuals who lack the will of working for any reason are not categorized as being unemployment, but they are just economically inactive.

Economists have concluded that in case the levels of unemployment are too high in an economy, then that particular economy is just struggling to maintain its population. Under this situation, then the economy is not utilizing its resources in the best way possible.

From the graph of UK unemployment 1950-2001, in 1950s and 1960s, unemployment rates in UK were very low. According to Politics.co.uk par1 this amounts to about 3% on average. This was attributed to what is referred to as Post-war boom.

During Second World War, those individuals who served as servicemen in military were promised to be given full employment after winning. At this time, there was no government that was ready to break this promise.

It has been stated that, advancement in technology along with international trade that was stable and “the success of Keynesian economics and the stability of the Phillips Curve created a situation which did approach full employment – although of course, at that time the majority of women remained in the category of the economically inactive” (Politics.co.uk, par. 6).

Moreover, in 1950s to late 1960s, the interest rates were very low; there were lots of incentives for those carrying out research and development as well as on general investment. As a result, there were many investments springing up month after month due to the above mentioned escalator mechanisms. Though this strategy worked in those times, in the current times the strategy is ineffective.

This is because, in the current times, this strategy will make government budget to increase, the government has no additional sources of revenue. In case the government tries to increase tax, it will affect consumption as well as investments negatively. As a result, it will be very important for the government to raise PSBR with the aim of countering this problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the current UK government can increase tax, and ensure that it’s spending also increases at the same rate. This balanced budget multiplier will helps the government to increase its national income in general. This is because not all extra money paid inform of tax will be spend. This extra tax will be as a result of increased investment and consumption.

In 1970s, unemployment rates in UK started to increase. This has been attributed to the collapse of orthodox boom. This was caused by the energy crisis in 1973, and the ‘generated stagflation’ in 1979. These impacts resulted to high inflation rates as well as high unemployment rates in Europe. In 1972, unemployment rates topped a million for the first time in history.

This is because; labours through unions were demanding more salary rates. In around 1979, there was a situation referred to as ‘winter of discontent’, where even grave diggers protested pay freezes by calling for a strike. At this time, unemployment was a 1.1 million. This was the time the Labour party was swept out of power by the Conservatives in the name that the labour party was not doing anything to deal with the situation.

When conservatives were in power, it was thought that unemployment rates will decrease in 1980s, but to peoples’ surprise, unemployment rates escalated further. At this time, the number of unemployed people clocked 3 million, which was about 12 percent of the population that was working.

However, this was just an average because in some parts of the country, the number was even higher. For instance, in the northern parts of Ireland, unemployment clocked 20 percent of that population that was working. Moreover, those areas that declining industries dominated, for instance coal mining industries, unemployed population was even very large.

Early 1990s experienced a fall in unemployment percentage. And by late 1990s, that is 1999, the number was still bellow 2.2 million individuals. This kind of trend went on till 2005, with official figures putting the rate at around 1.398 million individuals. Nevertheless, in the last two years of Blair’s era, unemployment rates went up again.

In 2008, when Gordon Brown was dealing with global recessions, figures of unemployment clocked 1.79 million, which has been considered as being the highest in the last decade. In May 2010, by the time the coalition government was coming to power, unemployed population was clocking 2.5 million people.

We will write a custom Coursework on Analysis of Trends in UK Employment and GDP as A Measure of a Country’s Wealth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the current Prime Minister, (David Cameron) has promised that unemployment rates are expected to fall in the coming years under his government. He said, “At the end of this Parliament unemployment will be falling” (Politics.co.uk par. 4)

Moreover, there was a fall in unemployment rate in early 1990s because most industries moved from manual production to technological production. It is clear that, though there was slight unemployment, but those who remained working ended up receiving higher salary rates as a result of increased production, hence increasing aggregate demand for money.

Moreover, increased technology led to lower production costs; hence UK commodities gained lots of competitive advantage on global market, hence increased government revenues through tax. These two effects led to unemployment rate reduction in UK (Anderton 1993, 56).

However, according to civil societies, unemployment has been rising month after month. For instance, between June and August 2011, unemployment has increased to 2.57 million individuals, which has been considered as being the highest since 1994.

To explain this trend, it has been shown that in the entire history, policy makers have been holding a view that macroeconomic advantages of having high unemployment rates are much more as compared to its negative effects on the economy and social openness.

This is what happened in 1980s. On the other hand, the government has not been having a will to allow high unemployment rates of unemployment as a result of its effects on social environment, the economy, as well as public costs.

Moreover, figures of unemployment in UK just explain a partial story of what is happening in UK. This is because, for many years, there have been structural differences among UK regions making some parts of UK to experience higher percentages of unemployment as compared to others.

For instance, unemployment in Wales and Scotland is much higher as compared to other developed areas like London and South East (Curwin


Analysis of Trends in UK Employment and GDP as A Measure of a Country’s Wealth Coursework a level english language essay help

Table of Contents UK Unemployment Trends

Using Philips Curve to Explain Unemployment in the UK

GDP as A Measure of How Well-Off a Country and Its People Are

Alternative Measures

Works Cited

UK Unemployment Trends Most people have viewed unemployment as being an indicator of economy showing the number of individuals in a particular economy who have a will and ability to work but they have no jobs. If a person is found in this situation, then that person is unemployed. Individuals who lack the will of working for any reason are not categorized as being unemployment, but they are just economically inactive.

Economists have concluded that in case the levels of unemployment are too high in an economy, then that particular economy is just struggling to maintain its population. Under this situation, then the economy is not utilizing its resources in the best way possible.

From the graph of UK unemployment 1950-2001, in 1950s and 1960s, unemployment rates in UK were very low. According to Politics.co.uk par1 this amounts to about 3% on average. This was attributed to what is referred to as Post-war boom.

During Second World War, those individuals who served as servicemen in military were promised to be given full employment after winning. At this time, there was no government that was ready to break this promise.

It has been stated that, advancement in technology along with international trade that was stable and “the success of Keynesian economics and the stability of the Phillips Curve created a situation which did approach full employment – although of course, at that time the majority of women remained in the category of the economically inactive” (Politics.co.uk, par. 6).

Moreover, in 1950s to late 1960s, the interest rates were very low; there were lots of incentives for those carrying out research and development as well as on general investment. As a result, there were many investments springing up month after month due to the above mentioned escalator mechanisms. Though this strategy worked in those times, in the current times the strategy is ineffective.

This is because, in the current times, this strategy will make government budget to increase, the government has no additional sources of revenue. In case the government tries to increase tax, it will affect consumption as well as investments negatively. As a result, it will be very important for the government to raise PSBR with the aim of countering this problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the current UK government can increase tax, and ensure that it’s spending also increases at the same rate. This balanced budget multiplier will helps the government to increase its national income in general. This is because not all extra money paid inform of tax will be spend. This extra tax will be as a result of increased investment and consumption.

In 1970s, unemployment rates in UK started to increase. This has been attributed to the collapse of orthodox boom. This was caused by the energy crisis in 1973, and the ‘generated stagflation’ in 1979. These impacts resulted to high inflation rates as well as high unemployment rates in Europe. In 1972, unemployment rates topped a million for the first time in history.

This is because; labours through unions were demanding more salary rates. In around 1979, there was a situation referred to as ‘winter of discontent’, where even grave diggers protested pay freezes by calling for a strike. At this time, unemployment was a 1.1 million. This was the time the Labour party was swept out of power by the Conservatives in the name that the labour party was not doing anything to deal with the situation.

When conservatives were in power, it was thought that unemployment rates will decrease in 1980s, but to peoples’ surprise, unemployment rates escalated further. At this time, the number of unemployed people clocked 3 million, which was about 12 percent of the population that was working.

However, this was just an average because in some parts of the country, the number was even higher. For instance, in the northern parts of Ireland, unemployment clocked 20 percent of that population that was working. Moreover, those areas that declining industries dominated, for instance coal mining industries, unemployed population was even very large.

Early 1990s experienced a fall in unemployment percentage. And by late 1990s, that is 1999, the number was still bellow 2.2 million individuals. This kind of trend went on till 2005, with official figures putting the rate at around 1.398 million individuals. Nevertheless, in the last two years of Blair’s era, unemployment rates went up again.

In 2008, when Gordon Brown was dealing with global recessions, figures of unemployment clocked 1.79 million, which has been considered as being the highest in the last decade. In May 2010, by the time the coalition government was coming to power, unemployed population was clocking 2.5 million people.

We will write a custom Coursework on Analysis of Trends in UK Employment and GDP as A Measure of a Country’s Wealth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the current Prime Minister, (David Cameron) has promised that unemployment rates are expected to fall in the coming years under his government. He said, “At the end of this Parliament unemployment will be falling” (Politics.co.uk par. 4)

Moreover, there was a fall in unemployment rate in early 1990s because most industries moved from manual production to technological production. It is clear that, though there was slight unemployment, but those who remained working ended up receiving higher salary rates as a result of increased production, hence increasing aggregate demand for money.

Moreover, increased technology led to lower production costs; hence UK commodities gained lots of competitive advantage on global market, hence increased government revenues through tax. These two effects led to unemployment rate reduction in UK (Anderton 1993, 56).

However, according to civil societies, unemployment has been rising month after month. For instance, between June and August 2011, unemployment has increased to 2.57 million individuals, which has been considered as being the highest since 1994.

To explain this trend, it has been shown that in the entire history, policy makers have been holding a view that macroeconomic advantages of having high unemployment rates are much more as compared to its negative effects on the economy and social openness.

This is what happened in 1980s. On the other hand, the government has not been having a will to allow high unemployment rates of unemployment as a result of its effects on social environment, the economy, as well as public costs.

Moreover, figures of unemployment in UK just explain a partial story of what is happening in UK. This is because, for many years, there have been structural differences among UK regions making some parts of UK to experience higher percentages of unemployment as compared to others.

For instance, unemployment in Wales and Scotland is much higher as compared to other developed areas like London and South East (Curwin


Fundraising and Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations Coursework best college essay help: best college essay help

In marketing terms, a firm that is unable to promote itself is unlikely to sell their products or services no matter how good they are. Thus, organizations always actively ensure that public awareness of their merchandise is present.

The most basic form of marketing for fundraising programs can just involve using fliers and broadcasting announcements while in other cases may need more intense marketing to promote the products to the targeted audience. Good marketing campaigns aid in promoting programs undertaken by the organization in addition to the fundraising activities thus creating an awareness of the organization to the public.

This paper thus attempts to demonstrate the interlocking objectives existing between fundraising and marketing promotions by nonprofit organizations.

Marketing Promotions for Fundraising Although marketing promotions can involve much expense expended, non-profit organizations generally seek gratuitous publicity or those offered at subsidized fees. These promotions though are initiated from within the organizations core group who can be relied upon to be more aggressively involved in marketing the organization.

Promotions are also decisive in arousing the proper interest to the targeted attendees to enlist others enjoin the campaign. Thus, the fundraising campaign must be well planned with concise unambiguous ideas and goals while acknowledging that a well-marketed event is critical to worthwhile fundraising.

Nevertheless, informal personal reports involving diverse stakeholders fanned by friends and acquaintances pushes the fundraising agenda further than formal pronouncements in the mainstream media. Upgrading and maintaining close amity within the cycle can thus have greater impact on the campaign.

This entails keeping the nonprofits contributors updated on the events that have been held due to their benevolence thus evolving a closer relationship with them for possible future donations. These close-knit groups of regular donors eventually have greater impact to the fundraising efforts than seeking fresh donors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Major Types of Donors There are six major types of donors as illustrated below including:


casual donor;

high impact;

faith/ religious based;

localized causes donors,

personalized donors.

Stapley (2010) has consequently categorised five basic sources for fundraising including: trust and endowments; society and events; business, subsidies, citizens donating once; habitual, crucial benefactors and bequest assistance; inheritances; and corporate/governmental grants.

Figure 1

Source: http://www.multivu.com/players/English/52621-guidestar-and-hope-consulting-money-for-good-II/

Capital campaigns conducted to raise funds from the public or seek grants from the government or corporations may require competing with other nonprofits similarly seeking funding for their own causes.

Nevertheless, most of the funding generally stem from habitual donors hence charitable organizations are always eager to cultivate amiable working relations with these category of donors by upholding accord with them through relationship building (Sargeant and Jay, 2004).

Hart et al. (2010) have asserted that personal relationships are the most critical aspects during fundraising as compared to dealing specifically with corporations. Engendering closer bonds with critical leaders within the donor institution will probably generate greater success.

We will write a custom Coursework on Fundraising and Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors thus assert that a more personalized relationship is more beneficial to the organization as key leaders within the institutions evolve closer working relationship enabling the donor further scrutinize the cause advocated. The fundraiser will seem more authentic and genuine as open communication enable the storyline delivered. A poignant narrative is likely to elicit greater impulse or instinct to assist the program.

Marketing Nonprofit Organizations Marketing is one of the surest ways of ensuring nonprofit organization backing in the community particularly to ostensibly fresh supporters thus vital to fundraising.

Marketing nonprofit organizations follows the same ideals practiced in typical trading firms, which encompass designing market plans, setting goals and objectives, market research, marketing mix, media draft; constructing, and trying out the designs; executing and appraising the sketch, that are identical amongst most businesses.

Goals and Objectives

The goals of the nonprofit organization commonly outlined in its tactical plans may encompass creating awareness of a project, fundraising, or offering services to the society.

The organization’s marketer should initially categorize and prioritize the key marketing objectives, for instance establishing trademark visibility to the public thus assisting the nonprofit organization accomplish its goals. Ultimately, the nonprofits marketers realize that these tactical plans resemble those used by the profit-making enterprises.

Marketing Analysis and Strategy

The marketers then evaluate the background, particularly all those aspects that could have an effect on the nonprofits capacity to attain its goals.

These can embrace rival nonprofits organizations, the performance of those the organization provides for, official statutes, and also the organization’s individual effectiveness and limitation. From this scrutiny, the fundraisers can establish the excellent probable tactics to realize the marketing aspirations.

Marketing Mix and Media Plan

In lieu of the approach preferred, the marketer should opt for the finest strategy to execute the plan. This incorporates establishing a marketing mix, or the correct types of medium to utilize to communicate the significance of the nonprofit organization – such as, online marketing to target the youth as opposed to radio.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fundraising and Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Subsequently, the media strategy is established including the precise websites, publications, and other mediums the nonprofit organization can utilize to execute its promotion.

Creative and Testing

The fundraiser in alliance with vendors will afterwards plan to create creative commercials and artefacts that efficiently express the communication vital to the attainment of the marketing plan.

Prior to displaying the advert to the public still, the promoter must pan out a pilot plan for assessing its usefulness. This may entail soliciting the help of a target group, and subsequently improve the plan as per their observations prior to the launch.

Implementation and Assessment

The marketer, through the printed marketing plan, will subsequently present the timeline over which the scheme will be carried out, the proposed overheads and proposed proceeds, and the financial plan. The marketer must also clarify how the plan’s accomplishment will be gauged both throughout the operation and subsequent to the scheme execution.

Andresen (2006) has thus outlined some wide-ranging marketing concepts applied by large corporate illustrating some of the most successful marketing campaigns in the past. The author aims at demystifying marketing thus enabling it applicable to good causes by the nonprofits in “a business-minded marketing approach by a nonprofit organization” (p. 137).

Figure 2: Sample Marketing Plan for a Fundraising Campaign Strategy

Marketing and Fundraising through Social Media Nonprofit organizations just like the commercialized firms are gradually turning to the increasingly popular online marketing channels including social media like Twitter and Facebook for fundraising purposes and marketing for the promotion of future events.

These mediums entail a more reactive role with real time updates necessary to generate interest in the cause while other turn to other interactive media like blogging and YouTube to generate enough interest for the fundraiser.

Social media have enabled organizations to be more accountable to the donors who are in a position to question how their donations have been utilized unlike the traditional fund raising arrangement in which the donors relied on delayed feedbacks.

Social media also enables donors to directly get acquainted with the recipients of their funding while also getting a pool of young people who cannot be relied on to attend fundraising dinners but can otherwise be enjoined on online marketing techniques.

The mobile phone has also given rise to a fresh medium for communication as more people are connected over smart phones. During the Haiti Earthquake catastrophe, over 20 percent of the donations were via cell phones text messages with the usage cutting across the demographic lines evenly, thus rivaling online donations the modern new frontiers.

Cell phones will in future be more compelling due to the ease of use as it requires minimal transactions, cards, or even internet access to send a donation being a text away. A Cisco survey in 2008 established that the number of mobile phones is triples that of internet users whilst mobile phone technology entails use of both internet and text messaging (Barke, 2008).

As the global economic recession continue to impact negatively on consumer spending, fundraising has also being hard hit with most of the regular donors losing heavily in the equity markets in addition to lowered demands for products and services leading to less revenue. Donations have thus plummeted hence underlining the need to rethink the traditional fundraising concepts.

Some of the new ideas and forums advanced include tapping the younger generation through social media and mobile phones, active online marketing tactics, and proactive marketing techniques that promise more liable response to donors.

Grassroots Mobilisation Techniques Although most organisations rely on conventional and modern grassroots mobilisation techniques, some organisations have been known to hire the services of professional fundraises who are retained at an agreed fee.

This practice is illegal in most jurisdictions and has been banned by the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP) thus most organisations retain reputable fundraisers as part of the executive staff to solicit for funding (Lorenzen, 2009). Religious organisations are some of the most effective grassroots fundraisers particularly the evangelical movements.

They are able to mobilise local, national and international supporters to either donate or seek funds on their behalf for aiding the underprivileged or for spreading evangelism. Other major non-profit organisations that are renowned for effortless fundraising include political parties and politicians at large.

Despite strict campaign finance statues, political parties are able to harness sizable funding while some associated interest groups like the National Rifle Association (NRA) and the Jewish lobby groups raise vast sums to support political candidates of their choice (Horwitz,


Analysis of No God but God by Reza Aslan and Formations of Persecuting Society by Richard Moore Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Table of Contents Book aspects

Religious and State Connections

Power and Persecution


Works Cited

Book aspects Over the years, Islam and Christianity have grown in several ways that have impacted society in a notable way. Two writers, Reza Aslan and Moore have written No God but God and Formations of Persecuting Society respectively in order to shed light on these weighty religion groups. Further information is also provided by Ward and White in their work sources of world societies.

Aslan tells about the emergence of Islam beginning from the pre-Islamic era. His expose runs from geopolitical to religious themes. For instance, we are told about the time when the Arabian desert was inhabited with tribes that were always at war. Pluralism was also on the downtrend.

The tribes believed in own different gods. However, each of these tribes reserved great reverence to their respective one god. It is against this background that Aslan suggests Muhammad might have been influenced by the religious state of affairs of that pre-Islamic Arabia (17). It is also around the same period that suffered great changes.

Religious and State Connections The connection between the states and religion has been in existence for some time. Though the recently years, there has been a clamor for the separation between the state and religious interests, this is a problem that had got itself entrenched in the early empires (Ward and White 256). Secularizing the state has been a difficult issue for many governments.

A clear analogy from what Aslan states is feeling that Mohammed, coupled with his background in tribal areas, might have started own group of adherents who, according to him, were like a tribe under his leadership.

It is due to his influence on the group that Islam spread sporadically into a group that came up with its own laws governing its members. These laws have been extend to social governance. This connection shows the basis of state religion relationships. The Islamic empires did not detach from the today governance.

The European state systems had great connection with the state (Ward and White 290). This was before a tumult, as it is seen from previous persecutions of Christians. But we are told that emperor Constantine the Great converted to Christianity, and after having done this, he managed to grant various concessions to Christianity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Here the state and religion got connected though they were distinct. And thus, Constantine people (believed Rome) raised Christianity above other groups such as the pagans. We are informed on how Christianity eventually became the official religion of the state.

The state could also have its presence felt by some political leaders having taken some positions of influence in the church. Bishops also had the state’s ear in the early empires. Rulings made by the emperors made granted the bishops immense powers in the state. All in all, it can be seen that these early empires had a strong relation with religious groups. It was actually difficult to tell.

Aslan, however, vouches for a situation where Islam and democracy can exist hand in hand in such a way that only Islam stays in the background to guide on the moral and religious aspects as opposed to the members of the faith that have political powers in the running of state affairs (265).

Power and Persecution Persecution was rife in the empires. Whenever dissent was expressed, it would be met with full force. The way, for example, with which heretics were persecuted showed the dissent. Even based on religious beliefs would be met with eventual persecution. (Moore 1). The empires could use several ways of containing such dissenting groups. For example, this could be done by clearly stipulating laws that could clearly identify such groups.

Such monitoring ensured that whatever they were pursuing was checked. These laws would be made to gag them: they did not have freedom of expression. Moore further clearly says in the chronicles that institutions of containment have been established specifically for such groups.

Moore feels persecution targeted mostly the Jews, lepers, sodomists and many others. The decrees that were put in place essentially bordered on flimsy excuses of protection.

For example, Moore says that one of the “last three cannons required the Jews to distinguish themselves from Christians in their dress, and prohibited them from holding public office” (17). This could therefore force some of the Jews to pretend to have converted so as to avoid persecution.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Analysis of No God but God by Reza Aslan and Formations of Persecuting Society by Richard Moore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immense power was a tool that the church leaders to effect the harsh treatment. For example, if one could be suspected of heresy, he or she would be excommunicated. Even whole regions would, at the direction of the Pope, be taken over and bestowed to groups that were faithful. One sees the power of the church here was immense in such a way that it could be difficult to tell if the church was in itself a state organ.

The Pope himself would not be free to let the heretics to leave freely. It any complacency could be seen or suspected on the side of the Pope then he would be deposed.

Persecution was not only directed towards the heresy, but it also targeted its adherents to defended, including even the magistrates who refused to take actions (Moore). The judicial officers and other accused officials would eventually be denied inheritance, legal redress and their business could even be boycotted.

Those who would sympathize with this group faced excommunication. If a cleric was sympathetic then they would be forbidden from giving sacraments (Moore 10). In a nutshell, this punishment would be bolstered by an array of legal measures. It was therefore difficult to find an escape route.

The law, as seen here, was crafted from a central authority that it was not easy to circumvent it. The church got its foundation in the very core of catholic leadership. This was in such a way that even the pope did not have the powers to implement a certain measure as described in the cannon law.

There was also the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, the one that was formed at the height of anti-heresy. It is this council that actually laid down the specific ways in which persecution could be carried out.

These mechanisms would be eventually extended to other groups e.g. the lepers, Jews or even the sodomists. One was either seen to be in line with the expectations of the society or not. So those that were labeled as unorthodox were routinely the victims of these punitive mechanisms laid down.

A good example of one such mechanism was the Papal inquisition (Moore 9). Here the inquisition kept giving itself more duties and powers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of No God but God by Reza Aslan and Formations of Persecuting Society by Richard Moore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Persecution was widespread in European empires. The Jews were the ones who faced a lot of trouble. For instance, after having been expelled from the kingdom of France in 1182, they fall into other hostile hands in England. According to Moore, there was a massacre of the Jews in 1198.

Whenever they had come from, they faced economic frustration as their property was confiscated. Lepers were not spared either, they were to live in segregated quarters, away from other members of the society.

In the Moore’s work, we can see that this persecution was not invented in the twelfth century, but it was a thing that traced its way back in the centuries of antiquity (11). A clear collaboration between the religion powers and the secular powers can be seen at play in Moore’s expose. For example, first of all, the religion powers could identify the heretics and then hand them over to secular powers for punishment.

Such highhanded collaboration also made sure that the economic life of the segregated was affected. It has clearly come out that the collaboration had some symbolic advantages between the two sides. Let’s take, for instance, the possessions of the disinherited; one wonders who benefited from such a ‘windfall’.

Though we are not given a direct link to show us the beneficiary, one can only but speculate that both the church and state benefited from these dispossessions. Another clear point to be gleaned from Moore’s expose is that beyond the face value of the institutions put in place then, there was a deeper self purpose.

In other words, the judiciary and the police force were not created to serve all but to perform or advance the selfish interests of the regime and church.

Looking at the trends in both Islam and Christianity, one sees notices a trend that is based on change. Though some of the contemporary changes appear to have bordered on the absurd, they have some of their foundations in the medieval periods.

One sees an urgent need to reform on several fronts. For example, in Islam Aslan does not shy away from stating his conclusion that Islam is in a state of transition, the one that Christianity faced when the protestant movement came to the fore. He feels that it may seem that Christianity can be in conflict with Islam; this may not be the real truth.

It is only that there is internal rivalry over the one who will direct the next cause of events. There is actually some internal war. This is true given that Islam today cannot be said to be homogenous; there are factors and groups.

In one line, there are the moderate Muslims, while on the other, there seems to be a group that is advancing fundamentalist tendencies. He feels that it is not actually a battle between Islam and the West. He likens the impending reform in Islam to that of Christianity which took 1500 years to occur.

To illustrate his point, Aslan tells how Mohammed advanced radical social and economic justice. He is the one that assumes that the Sunni have continued to advance. Issues like Islam’s view of women or even its attitude to the Jews and Christians do not worry him so much. He expresses an optimistic tone by saying that this are just signs of an internal conflict that will hit a climax through the reform that is revolutionary in nature.

Just like Christianity, Islam is a religion that is compassionate. He feels that some people have picked words like Jihad, Fatwa to shed religion. The richness of the religion is seen in its compassion for human piece and universal brotherhood. Thus, he well illustrates it by giving us the setting of his book which is remote village where Jews and even Pagan Arabs used to coexist.

He says that they used to share even their practices without any major conflict. In other words, the cultures were connected in a very peaceful way. In fact, he says that Islam in those medieval ages was more accommodative than Christianity. That Christianity actually persecuted Jews and other Christians who were believed to non-orthodox.

In certain instances, death penalty was resorted to. According to the author, Islam is merciful. Indeed, from a factual historical account, we can truly say that Islam was more tolerant. This is seen from the fact that nowhere are we told of forceful conversions as we are told of early Christianity.

Aslan says that Islam and democracy can still coexist (253). This is true from Iran, Aslan’s homeland. He says that democracy can still co-exist with democracy. This is unlike the feeling of many who feel that democracy is a creation of the west, and therefore not compatible with the Islamic faith.

This factual presentation by Aslan perhaps explains what is happening today. Many factors in the Islamic world have emotionally based their actions on what true Islam does not stand for. They have managed to capitalize on the death of Muhammed to mislead many.

By this, certain terrorist movements have been borne. This work carefully shows that today’s events are actually a result of what some opinion leaders have wrongly or rightly put in the minds of many.

Conclusion We have seen that far the mainstream religions have had a controversial relationship with the various states. However, from the facts presented, many people took and have continued to use religion to advance their selfish parochial interests.

It can be said therefore that it is good for a religion to concentrate on its core values of morality and leave the state to do work. However, this does not mean that relationship between the state and religion should not be there.

Works Cited Aslan, Reza. No God but God. Glenfield: Random House Press, 2005. Print

Moore, Richard. The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Oxford: Blackwell, 1987. Print

Ward, Walter and Carol White. Sources of World Societies, 1: To 1715. Boston: Bedford/st Martins. Print.


Economic Reforms of the 1990s Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction India’s financial system, the major economy in the earth in terms of buying power, is going to touch novel heights in upcoming years. By 2035, India is forecasted to be the third major financial system of the earth just after US and China. It is prospected to grow to 60% of the range of the US financial system.

This thriving financial system of today has to bypass through many stages before it can attain the present milestone of 9% GDP (Bosworth


Why are there different theories of the state? Which one do you find most useful and why? Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rationale for different theories of the state

Corporatist theory


Introduction The purpose of this essay is to provide an overview of the different theories of the state, highlight the various reasons why there are different theories of the state, and finally, identify the most useful theory as well as providing a justification of the choice.

Theories forms the basis of explaining complex phenomenon in a more practical way, and as such the relations that exist in a nation-state can only be understood with the help of a theory. There exist different theories of the state such as pluralism, elite theory, classic Marxist theory, realism and corporatism (Barzel, 2002, p. 75).

The main proponents of the Pluralism are Talcott Parsons, Arnold Rose, Nail Smelser and Peter Bently. This theory is based on functionalism and its emphases are; stability, equilibrium, conservative perspective and gradual change. This theory maintains that societal power is widely shared, fragmented, decentralized and deriving from a number of sources (Duncan, 2009, p. 34).

It also opine that society consist of groups and associations that are many and diverse with conflicting interests that are balanced by the state, and as such the groups have considerable influences on major institutions and government policy. It also assumes a natural power balance among different groups coupled with democratic traditions, consensus of values, procedures and principles.

In addition, governmental and economic institutions are separate thus they are not overlapping sources of power. In this theory, the state performs roles which include; it represents institutionalized authority and power, it is the supreme guardian of democracy, it acts as the mediator or bargaining agent, as well as policing conflict of interest and promoting harmony to attain order and equilibrium (Dubbink, 2003, p. 179).

The second theory of the state is elite theory. This theory opine that the societal power rests in the hands of a few individuals who have power over key institutions resources, and at the same time the elite group are not accountable to the citizens. They derive their power from social organizations meaning that they possess a lot of power, and as such, they do anything to ensure that they retain power.

They theory opine that there is stratification in societies, the present power is utilized for societal welfare and benefit or for personal gain, there are one or other ruling elites, and that the powerful and the elite are the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The elites have such resources as cunning and skills, as well as intelligence, this variation sets them apart from the populace with the masses being characterized by incompetence, apathy and not able to govern themselves. In addition, the prevailing organizational complexities necessitate for a leader.

The relations that are built are in relation to power and wealth. For instance, power in United States rests in control of the Pentagon, that is, the state, the economy and the military (Smith, 1995, p. 91).

The third theory is classic Marxist theory, which maintains that individuals who have power over the means of production rule society. They further asserts that the main determinant of political phenomenon is the politics class basis, that individuals realize themselves through work, and the basis or foundation of the society is the economy.

It continues to maintain that political conflict equates to class conflict since political groups are composed of classes. In addition, economic dominance translates to power with power flowing from economic relations. The state performs functions such as; legitimizing and perpetuation of the existing social class system, and accumulating role, as well (Hay, Marsh


Orange Telecommunication Company: Alternative Organizations Ideologies Promotion Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction An alternative organization refers to non-governmental organizations which have alleviating and reducing poverty in the developing countries as their main aim. Poverty is a major issue facing developing countries and most developing countries are finding it hard to alleviate poverty. As a result, most developing countries will seek financial aid in the developed countries.

This relationship creates a diplomatic tie between the developed and developing countries. In some cases, the aftermath of the diplomatic ties is the establishment of alternate organizations in the developing countries by the developed countries.

These organizations usually have set modalities to be able to achieve their aims and objectives. They provide a system that allows traders in the developing countries to access the global market in developed countries (Spulber, 1979, p.60)

Global capitalism is a concept derived from two main words, “globalization “and “capitalism”. Globalization in economic terms refers to the global interaction of various economies on the global front.

According to Levin institute (n. d, pg.1), globalization can be defined as the process by which there is increased interaction among individuals, companies or governments. It may also refer to the global distribution of services and goods. According to Bloomberg (2000, p.1), global capitalism has created a lot of job opportunities in the developing countries.

Globalization can also be defined as the process by which various countries interact in order to facilitate and develop the economy globally. Globalization is aimed at distributing the various means of production of goods and services among various countries.

Globalization has various diverse definitions but the commonly accepted definition is that globalization is the increase in interaction of people, culture and economic activities on the global front (Spulber, 1979, p.60).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, capitalism refers to an economic system in which the means of production as well as distribution of resources is corporately or privately owned (Case, 2004). Capitalism can be seen as being characterized by private control of the means of production.

Capitalism is also characterized by free market for services and goods. Global capitalism may be defined as the concept of advancing the capitalistic ideologies throughout the various economies around the world (Uluorta, 2009, p.20)

This essay is going to analyze how alternative organizations advance their ideologies. A case study of orange company is going to be used.

Case Study Orange Telecommunication Company is one of the leading companies in the industry. According to orange.com (2011), Orange is a key brand of France telecom and it emerged with the aim of shifting from using wired connections to wireless mobile telephony. It is a mobile network and internet service provider that was founded in the United Kingdom.

The company was established in 1994 and was a constituent company of FTSE 100 that was purchased by France Telecom in the early 2000. It was in 2000 when the company adopted the name Orange.

This is a brand name that has exposed the company to the rest of the world, especially in the developing countries. In addition, the company has formed a joint venture after it merged with Deutsche Telekom’s T Mobile UK (Marangos, 2004, p. 56).

Because of the competition in the industry, the company has managed to get 17 million customers globally. The company has been improving its services by adopting new technology. This has helped the company compete favorably with other companies in the industry such as Safaricom, Zain and Yu.

We will write a custom Essay on Orange Telecommunication Company: Alternative Organizations Ideologies Promotion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Telecommunication industry is one of the factors that are improving lifestyles and reducing poverty level among people. Orange company has been improving its services in the country so that it can compete favorably with other companies (Lippit, 2005, p. 123).

According to Strangio (2006, p.1), the aim of the company is to improve telecommunication services, especially in the developing countries. The company is highly reputed in the countries in which the company has operations. Orange is one of the companies that have helped many developing nations reduce poverty (Orange.com, 2011).

As stated earlier, Orange is an alternative organization that has an objective of improving the lifestyles of poor people in the developing countries. In addition to the services provided by the company, the management is highly reputed. The reputation is because of the hard work and commitment that the employees are exhibiting (Ager, 2007).

Ways in which the company has reduced poverty in developing countries First, the company has created many job opportunities, hence, making locals get income to sustain themselves and their families. The unfortunate in the society are employed as clerks, finance officers, technicians, network specialists, engineers, marketers and many other positions offered by the company (Rowstow, 1990).

People who had no jobs have gotten a chance to improve on their lifestyle due to regular income in form of salaries, wages and allowances (Ingham, 2008, p. 85).

Secondly, the government gets revenue from the company in form of tax. This means that the tax collected by the government is used to improve services provided to the citizens. Because the company is generating as lot of revenues from its customers, it has helped the government by offering communication services that are effective, efficient and reliable. This is critical in improving the lives of the less fortunate in the society.

Rural health care Rural health care is a program that the company has been engaging itself in to offer health services to the public (Herotheos, 2008). The company has been organizing for mobile clinics so that those who cannot afford can get the services at a lower cost.

The company provides subsidies in what is called tele-medicine or tele-health. The clinics and health centers that have been constructed have created jobs and improved the health conditions of the people. The hospitals in the rural areas have enabled them get affordable rates because of their situation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Orange Telecommunication Company: Alternative Organizations Ideologies Promotion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schools and libraries In addition to construction of the rural hospitals, the company has been in a position to construct schools and libraries in the rural areas. The illiteracy levels will reduce when the children are educated. Only then will the poverty level reduce. This means that the people will get access to internet, information, knowledge and other services that will help them improve their lifestyles.

After the people have got education, they will be able to secure good jobs and get some income. The company has been offering scholarships to the bright needy students from poor background. This will help them get out of poverty after they have gotten the education and knowledge that will ensure they live a comfortable life (Schumpeter


Leading Innovation and Change Management Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

An Evaluation of a Successful and Less Successful Innovation / Change of Which You Have Personal Experience, Related to Relevant Theory

Clegg, Kornberger, and Pitsis (2005) are sure that it is impossible to predict the outcomes of the change, therefore some projects appear to be successful, other projects turn to be less successful. Having personal experience in many situations where innovation and change have been applied, I would like to discuss two specific situations, one of which turned out to be successful and another one had less successful outcome.

It should be mentioned that implementing an innovation and change it is important to plan the consequences and try to predict the outcomes. A good manager always considers the future goals and makes all possible to meet those. The correct choice of the methods for implementing of the innovation and change is the half of success.

Having considered personal experience in implementing innovation and change, the merge of Credit Lyonnais with Credit Agricole should be considered. However, the implementation of Islamic banking in the newly appeared organization failed to be completed successfully.

Therefore, we have two processes, a successful merger of two banks and a less successful application of Islamic banking in the organization, which are going to be considered in this report for better understanding the models for innovation and change implementation.

Considering the situation devoted to the merger of two investment Banks in New York, Credit Agricole and Credit Lyonnais, it should be stated that the change is rather successful if considered from many aspects. The main reasons for successful outcomes of the affair are that the innovation and change followed particular scheme or theory and managed to meet the requirements put before the organization.

The merger of Credit Agricole and Credit Lyonnais followed the exploring corporate strategy model (Appendix 1) based on Kotter’s eight steps of successful innovations and change. The model can be easily referred to the case under consideration, however, the very idea of the situation should be described for understanding the means for success of the affair.

The merge of the Credit Agricole and Credit Lyonnais banks resulted in creation of the largest bank in France. One of the main changes which occurred in the company was related to the Human Resources department as being the newly emerged organization it enumerated about 60,000 employees. To organize the work in the department, the IT systems were reorganized and reconfigured.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly appeared company had to agree on the processes and start working together synchronising their performance. One of the main reasons for reconfiguring the HR information system was the desire to meet three specific objects, “controlling the applications, guiding conjoined projects and optimizing developments” (‘The mapping and merger of Credit Agricole SA’ n.d., p. 3).

Both of the organizations had to reassess their positions and roles in the newly appeared company. Strategic management in the newly appeared organization was completed by means of exploring strategy model which comprised three main elements and included “understanding the strategic position of the organization, making strategic choices and managing strategy into action” (Johnson, Scholes,


Civil Rights Initiatives, Their Chronology and Impacts Research Paper essay help site:edu

Introduction During the 20th century, there have been numerous federal legislations for purposes of improving the quality of lives of the people. Insufficient civil rights laws had played a pivotal position in the obstruction of the federal government.

The protection of the people’s democratic institutions and the enjoyment of people’s rights and the constitution required development and improvement of the feeble and insufficient laws. The United States had been in war against a world’s racist known as Adolf Hitler.

There was also a rumbling racial war on the return of black American veterans perceived to be unshackled (Gardner, 2002). Consequently, in order to attain racial impartiality, it would be achieved through armless protests and breaking of the pattern of racial segregation that was in the south.

In addition, there was the equal rights legislation for blacks. For instance, the Supreme Court made a decision that enabled the black Americans and the white followers to stop the deep-rooted segregation practices.

Civil Rights initiatives of the 20th century They included the Truman and the California civil rights initiatives. The Truman’s initiative was a campaign for then civil rights formed by President Henry Truman (Conrad, 2005).

Truman formed a committee that produced a report on civil rights The California civil rights initiative ended the affirmative action for women, and the marginalized groups in California. Following the rumbling racial segregation, several civil rights came into place.

Chronology of civil rights during the 20th century First in 1910, there was creation of a national association. The association was in the forefront to ensure that all people received equal treatment thus the enhancement of equality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, there was a revolution in Mexico thus the influx of immigrants looking for work in US. Secondly, there was the 1920 constitutional amendment, which permitted women to vote. This enhanced the empowerment of women thus gender equal opportunity among the gender.

In 1941, an executive order, which banned unfairness against all the marginalized groups, was issued. This order enabled the creation of rights for the minorities (Raiford, 2011). The minorities could now participate in the administrative practices.

In 1966, there was formation of an organization aimed at enhancing equality within genders. In 1973, the congress passed an act for job rehabilitation. This act barred inequity against disabled people on the usage of funds. Additionally, the national conference held in Texas, necessitated the reforms.

These reforms aimed at empowering women and providing them equivalent opportunity to men. Remarkably, in 1988 the Supreme Court approved the congress’s act, which provided for the restoration of the civil rights. This act overturned the Supreme Court’s declaration of 1984.

The declaration had objected the federal government from using the existing remedy to fight against biased regulations to private organizations receiving government subvention. In 1990 president, Bush signed an act that was targeting the disabled Americans. The act banned discrimination in jobs against the disabled. The act also required enhanced access to businesses and transportation.

Impacts of the civil rights on the current public policies The above initiatives have had a profound impact on race relations. In the recent past, there has been a positive adjustment regarding the perceptions of both African Americans and the whites. Importantly, the change was evident in the 2008 general elections where an African American won the elections.

These civil rights initiatives have resulted to the racial preference policies in schools. The original objective is that having preference for black Americans would help remedy the past chronological injustices. Schools have also included other rationalizations such as omitting the insignificant representation of the marginalized groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Civil Rights Initiatives, Their Chronology and Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effects of the civil rights initiatives on future public policies In future, the initiatives of the civil rights will increase the capacity and power of the government by informing the people and organizations on the most appropriate thing to undertake in controlling it. In addition, through this initiative the government shall increase its activities of protecting people’s rights thus enhanced checks on government by beneficiaries from the protections (Raiford, 2011).

Secondly, the civil rights initiatives advocate for equality the basic system of democracy. Therefore, equality and individual autonomy would cause conflict in democracy. This would result when the majority wishes to repute judgments that fail to favor them. However the marginalized would also benefit even without their vote.

Conclusion The California Civil Rights Initiative has transformed into a law. The government agencies may not demonstrate favoritism, or award privileged treatment based on race, gender, background, and national basis in public service, education, and contracting.

As well, the initiative has a striking impact within its scale of operation; however, this capacity covers only a restricted area of government action. The California Civil Rights Initiatives outlaws discrimination and inclinations based on the aspects of inclination, favoritism, and impartiality.

Consequently, the current public policies, forms their foundation on the civil rights initiatives. Accordingly, there is equivalent access to the public services and utilities in the administration of public resources. Discrimination based on gender and other aspects has also reduced to insignificant percentages. Concisely, the government should emphasize the efforts of the initiatives for the realization of proper policies.

References Conrad, C. (2005). African Americans in the US economy. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Gardner, R. (2002). Harry Truman and civil rights: moral courage and political risks. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Raiford, L. (2011). The civil rights movement in American memory. Caledonia, CN: The University of Georgia Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Civil Rights Initiatives, Their Chronology and Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Basic Functions of Memory and Language Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents The Nature and Function of Semantic Memory

The Basic Functions of Language

The Stages of Language Production

The relationship between Semantic Memory and Language Production


The Nature and Function of Semantic Memory The area of semantic memory involves stored information regarding the features and characteristics, which determine the processes of retrieving, using, and producing information in various cognitive processes such as thought and language comprehension/production (Martin


The Concept of Autobiographical Memory Essay essay help online: essay help online

Article Summary Considering that relationships form the core of human needs, it is obvious that interpersonal relationships influence people’s psychological functioning, mental health, and wellbeing. For example, individuals experiencing attachment security are known to possess high levels of self-esteem and excellent adaptive or coping strategies.

On the other hand, individuals experiencing attachment anxiety and/or avoidance have been found to suffer from psychopathology and emotional distress (Sutin


Childhood and Development Term Paper essay help online free

Identity development Research has shown that the desire to know self dominates the minds of many adolescents. This is motivated by a combination of factors such as physical, cognitive and social changes, present in the life of any human being.

This is also spurred by the important life choices that are to be made, ranging from career choice to life partners (Erikson, 1968). Research findings illustrate that, adolescent behaviors vary depending on where they are and whom they are with. For example, one can be outgoing when with friends but shy at home (Sarnecka


European Macroeconomic Policies and Risks Report essay help free: essay help free

Entrepreneurs intending to invest in new territories need to consider a number of factors before venturing into new markets. Although these factors vary, entrepreneurs who are interested in investing within the European Union need to examine macroeconomic policies and risks carefully and determine their effects on business.

New entrepreneurs need to consider key macroeconomic factors such as aggregate demand polices, aggregate supply policies, fiscal policies (for example, EU single monetary union), and the policies for the integration of the macroeconomic factors with the European social model. Suffice to state that the EU macroeconomic policies expose enterprises to certain risks.

For instance, the EU single currency polices impinge on business flexibility. In addition, the single monetary union is at risk of falling into a severe debt crisis, among other risks.

However, these risks can be curtailed through several measures, including inflation targeting, controlled budget deficits, and reduced national debts. All these are aimed at promoting equitable and sustained economic growth within the Eurozone. This has a direct impact on business growth and development.

European economists hold conflicting views regarding the role of aggregate demand policies. However, this should not negate the relevance of aggregate demand polices in trying to stabilize the economies of EU member states (Baily 2010). Most of the aggregate demand policies within the EU mainly focus on the business growth and stability of employment.

Most economists see active demand policies as risky in the following manner: to begin with, critics of active demand policies argue that increase in demand leads to high inflation rates. Secondly, economists see the risk on monetary stability leads to increase in interest rates However, the EU control on inflation complicates fiscal and monetary policies (Begg and Ward 2006).

In addition, aggregate demand is at risk of falling if active aggregate demand polices are not strictly adhered to (Gazier and Lechevalier, 2006). However, active aggregate demand policies focus purely on economic growth. Additionally, policymakers dissociate active aggregate demand from policies on pricing of commodities and the attainment of financial stability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Begg and Ward (2006) have noted, developing inappropriate pricing strategies diminishes the prospects of realizing profits. Thus, pricing and financial stability are the concerns of fiscal policies, rather than macroeconomic policies on aggregate demand (Radulescu n.d.; Watt and Janssen 2005).

Additionally, Baily (2010) while modeling along Keynesianism explains that the European aggregate demand policies in most of the EU member countries encourages the development of safety nets that ‘automatize’ stability of the demand-supply mechanism. This protects the existing businesses from collapse.

Additionally, Begg and Ward (2006) explain that prices and demand have a direct relationship to changes in prices affecting demand. In this case, entrepreneurs need to understand the European consumer dynamics so that they can develop appropriate pricing strategies.

Both, aggregate demand and aggregate supply, have an effect on the overall economic growth. Aggregate supply within the European Union has a direct relationship with economic growth.

Aggregate supply determines the level at which the GDP is at equilibrium. As such, an increase in aggregate supply results in economic growth since such an increase results into corresponding growth in the GDP, and this keeps inflation rates low. Since economic growth has a direct link to changes in aggregate supply, governments within the EU protects aggregate supply from falling.

Aggregate supply high leads to competitiveness, which spurs and sustains economic growth. As such, entrepreneurs who want to invest in the EU know that government controlled aggregate supply protects the business environment. With regard to aggregate supply, governments offer incentives to manufacturers to boost manufacturing competitiveness.

Governments give manufacturers incentives to invest in human resources and manufacturing technologies, and this improves production efficiencies. The attainment of production efficiencies leads to manufacturing competitiveness, resulting in positive implications on both the economy and businesses. Production efficiency leads to growth of business, as well as increasing employment opportunities.

We will write a custom Report on European Macroeconomic Policies and Risks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, manufacturing competiveness allows governments to sustain a healthy (and not surplus) balance of payment, since growth in manufacturing industry allows governments to fund imports. The main reason why the EU has opted for a healthy rather than a surplus balance of payment is to support the production capacities (resulting to increased exports) and the ability to finance imports (Begg and Ward 2006).

One of the major objectives for the formation of the EU is to promote a single market. To facilitate a single market structure, the EU was converted into a monetary union with a single currency, the Euro (Motamen-Scobie 1998). This has a number of advantages for businesses. For instance, businesses do not have to worry about the risks associated with exchange rates.

Additionally, this ensures a stable business environment as well as enables increased competition, which is good for business (Farina


Biometric Security Systems Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Biometric Methods to be used for the National Identity Cards Over the years, there have been numerous concerns about the issue of identification. At first, authentication was simple and was guided by two key factors. One of these factors was what a user needed to have, such as a badge.

The badge was a vital identification tool that would allow the one in possession to enter a restricted facility. The other factor is something that one knows about such as a personal identification number for use with an ATM or an appropriate password assigned to a user to guarantee him or her access to confidential or restricted information.

However, with a continuous change in technology being experienced all over the world, a third factor has become a necessity. This third factor is something that someone really is and is represented by biometrics (Janker 2002).

The use of a biometric security system provides an effective means for ensuring that the privacy rights of any citizen can be secured by accurately and timely identifying individuals without the need to rely on the use of identification papers or information that an individual must provide such as his or her social security number (Zhang 2002).

The technology helps in empowering users with the ability to securely prove who they are to anyone, for any purpose, using their biometrics. Of great benefit is the fact that users are able to prove their identities without having to disclose the biometric data itself. The only time that a user’s record will be decrypted and displayed is when there is a positive match.

Without a positive match being realized, all the information about the user is made completely inaccessible even to the system administrator (Li


Comparison Between two Operating Systems Report best essay help

Introduction An operating system (OS) refers to a set of programs which make the computer usable. The programs present in the operating system make it easy to operate a computer. The common types of operating systems include Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Mac OS. These types of operating systems are used in Desktop Computers and Laptops. However, there are other types of operating systems which are used in mobile phones and they include Android, iOS, and Symbian (Smith, 2005).

A computer becomes useful when it has an operating system running in it. In order for a person to distinguish between the different types of operating systems, he should take time to understand the most important concepts that are used in operating systems. The main concepts applied in operating systems include kernel services and application level services. These services play a very vital role in determining how the operating systems perform when it is installed in a computer.

An operating system should be capable of managing all the resources of a computer efficiently. There are many tasks that an operating system helps a computer to accomplish. An operating system enables users to share the same computer and it applies the user interface on the desktop.

It refrains users from interfering with data which that belongs to other users and also allows people to share data stored in a computer. It is also the responsibility of the operating system to schedules resources among the users. The Operating system also allows computers to communicate to other computers through networks. Moreover, it enables the computer to recover from errors, and it also organizes files so that they can be accessed easily and in a more secure manner (Parsons


Homosexuals and Marriage Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The topic regarding homosexuals and their right to marry has created widespread controversies. This has prompted scholars to identify and weigh the benefits and disadvantages regarding this practice. Being a sensitive issue, it requires thorough understanding before taking a stance. Based on the meticulous research conducted in this regard, homosexuals should be allowed to marry.

The term homosexual refers to people of the same sex engaged in a sexual relationship. Some countries such as the US, prohibit the use of the word as it depicts a lot of negativity. Consequently, the accepted words in such countries are Gay, for man-man relationships, and Lesbian, for woman-woman relationship.

Different cultures have different definitions of marriage. All these definitions converge on the idea that marriage is a legal or societal union between two people for the purpose of extending family lineage. In general, marriage is an establishment in which sexual intimacy is acknowledged (May, 1995). This union concerns interpersonal relationships that vary from one person to another. There are several reasons why people marry. These include emotional and legal security, religious and societal obligation, and economical purposes.

A significant number of people prefer the heterosexual marriages which are widely accepted. Homosexuality is not a new phenomenon. Its history dates back to the 19th century. In fact, most countries in East of Asia have documented same-sex marriage for the last 1000 years. Some scholars who have developed interest regarding this topic argue that homosexuality is a present social construct perpetuated by the West.

However, on the contrary, science has proved that being gay or lesbian is not a individual’s choice. Parents bring up their children in a way that none of them should develop sexual attraction towards individuals of his or her sex. Even in schools, teachers discourage students against homosexual acts.

Homosexuals develop attraction towards individuals of their sex just as a man develops attraction towards a woman and vice versa. Love has no limit or boundary. When two people fall in love and decide to get married, it should not matter whether they are of the same sex or not.

Marriages are built on the pillar of love. This pillar does not prevent people of the same sex loving each other. Thus, it should not limit such people in matters of marriage. In this regard, it would be denying them their right to enter into a union which should not only apply to the heterosexuals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Allowing gay marriages will not in any way affect the lives of other person in the society. The allegations that encouraging gay marriages will corrupt the moral of the society are unfounded. Every human being has the power of free will. The power to choose what one wants to do with his or her life, and in this case one’s believes, should not be controlled by the society. The few individuals who turn out to be gay or lesbian grew up knowing from their parents that being a homosexual is morally wrong.

However, they cannot get the fulfillment that they derive from homosexual relationships in heterosexual ones. Stealing, drug abuse and killing, are some of the vices that every parent teaches his or her children to avoid at all costs. These vices harm the society in a considerable manner.

Treating homosexuals as villains whose acts pose a considerable threat to the society is unfair. Every day, activists hold demonstrations in lobbying for the acknowledgment of human rights and recognition of minority groups. Most countries have laws acknowledging the right to freedom of association (Williams, 2012). Denying a gay or lesbian couple the freedom to enter into a marriage contract clearly violates their freedom to associate.

Homosexual should enjoy the same rights as anybody else without any restrictions based on their sexuality (Paul, 2012). The recognition of their rights should also include the right to marry. Prohibiting a lesbian or gay couple to marry has no ethical or rational basis (Paul, 2012). This is because the prohibition is just centered on the history that gays are a minority group, and allowing them to marry would give them recognition as important members of the society.

This notion is morally wrong and it should not be tolerated in the modern world (OJALVO, 2009). The majority of the opponents of homosexual marriage have been the religious community. Most religions view same sex marriages as morally wrong (Williams, 2012). Although the Catholic church regards the sexual intimacy between homosexuals as an abomination, no marriage can be complete without the aspect of sex.

The religious conviction that homosexuals should not be allowed to marry is totally misguided. The claim from the religious fraternity is that the institution of marriage should solely be between a man and a woman. In this regard, legalizing gay marriages will make the whole idea of marriage and procreation to nurture future generations baseless. From the religious perspective, marriage is the foundation of a family (May, 1995)

This unit is supposed to bear children and bring them up in the belief that they will adopt the same moral principles as their parents. They believe that a gay or lesbian couple cannot procreate. Since God commanded man to multiply and fill the earth, supporting gay marriages amounts to disobedience and the tendency to prove God wrong. Religious doctrines also oppose the idea of child adoption by gay couples.

We will write a custom Essay on Homosexuals and Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Adopting a child instead of bearing one undermines the institution of marriage. This scenario is only allowed if there are medical reasons as to why the woman cannot conceive.

A child adopted by a gay couple will have problems differentiating between the role of a father and those of a mother in a family. Thus, the child will grow up confused concerning the role that individuals play in a couple. The religious opposition of the legalizing of gay marriage is facilitated by the fact this practice dents the whole concept of family values. These values are vital in cementing bonding in the society.

Encouraging gay lifestyle will put the society at a risk as gay people have high chances of substance addiction and mental illness all of which are detrimental to the proper growth of a child and the moral standards of the society. According to the religious populaces, there is nowhere in the Holy Books that gay marriage is supported.

However, the Holy Books do not refute gay marriages. Religious leaders teach us to love. In addition, they encourage us not to discriminate other people especially the minority groups. The number of gay couples who want to get married is insignificant compared to the heterosexual marriages. Homosexuals are the minority in the society and should not be discriminated against in matters of marriage because they did not choose their sexual orientation. Furthermore, no one chooses who to love.

The claim that a gay couple cannot raise a child properly is misinformed. Research has proven that children raised by same-sex couples develop at par with those raised heterosexual couples (Williams, 2012). What a child needs most from his or her family is parental love (May, 1995). There are many children in the children homes who yearn for this love. Thus, it would be cruel to deny it to them on the basis that they will be brought up by same-sex couples.

There are many children growing up in broken families. The effects in this regard adversely affect a child as compared to the religious claims attributed to the children brought up by gay couples. In opposing same-sex marriages, religious leaders fail to consider that there are many single parents raising children by their own. These single parents play both the role of a father and a mother.

There is no reason whatsoever warranting the denial of gay couples to get married. Marriage has numerous benefits for the individuals involved. A couple needs financial sustainability which can be achieved through marriage (Paul, 2012). The emotional connection between two people is not planned or chosen.

Therefore, gay people should be allowed to fully enjoy the benefits that heterosexual couples enjoy without any restriction whatsoever. The legal and financial benefits that heterosexual couples enjoy should also be available to gay couples (Paul, 2012).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Homosexuals and Marriage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The basis for the opponents of same-sex marriage does not provide any reasonable justification to warrant the prohibition of such unions. Concerning the claims of promiscuity, such occurrences will decline because individuals will engage in relationships that cater for their sexual orientation (Williams, 2012).

Thus, cases of homosexuals engaging in heterosexual relationships in order to conform to the societal norms, but still engaging in homosexuality will decline. Consequently, there will be more stable homes supporting the appropriate growth of children. There will also be a reduction in the transmission sexual diseases due to double-dealing.

No parent brings up a child to become a gay or lesbian. Being gay is more of a biological matter than one’s own choice. Even if homosexuality was an individual’s choice of a lifestyle, it does pose a threat in any way to other members of the society who only embrace heterosexual relationships.

Every human being is entitled to all rights irrespective of his or her sexual preference (OJALVO, 2009). By denying homosexuals the right to marry, we become insensitive to their feelings and preferences. Forcing them to conform to the set norm of heterosexual relationships will cause them more harm than good.

Allowing homosexual marriage should not be a war between religion and the law. The law ensures equality for all, but one should choose what to believe when it comes to matters of religion. Therefore, denying a loving gay or lesbian couple the right to marry goes against all morals and the law.

It takes a lot of courage for the gay people to accept their sexual orientation as they are afraid of how the society will treat them. This sense of knowing your real self should never be taken away by anybody. It is only fair to allow gay marriages and treat gay couples with the respect and dignity that they deserve.

References May, W. E. (1995). Marriage: the rock on which the family is built. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

OJALVO, H. E. (2009, November 5). Should Gay Couples Be Allowed to Marry? – NYTimes.com. The Learning Network – The Learning Network Blog – NYTimes.com. Web.

Paul, G. (2012, January 1). Pros and Cons for Gay Marriage Legalization. PaulGoodman67 on HubPages. Web.

Williams, r., MA., Oakland, P. o., CA., Group, c. f., 17, w. i., et al. (2012, March 27).

Should gay marriage be legal? – Gay Marriage – ProCon.org. Gay Marriage ProCon.org. Web.


Performance Measures and Communicating Performance Expectations to Garcia Meyer Center Report essay help online

This paper is going to identify performance measures that can be used to evaluate a potential managing director in charge of operation. In addition, the paper will also look at ways the board of directors can communicate their performance expectations.

As a consultant hired by the board of directors of Gracia Meyer Center I have developed a method that can be used in identifying performance measures and communicate performance expectations for the new managing director. One of the methods that can be used in identifying performance measures and communicating them to the potential managing director is the top-down director evaluation tool.

Gracia Meyer Center is non-profit organization with a board of directors from different backgrounds. Therefore, the board of directors will be capable of evaluating the new managing director from a perspective that favors the success of the organization. Generally, the board of directors should look for a managing director in charge of operations who has the ability to achieve the goals of the organization, strong leadership skills, and sound financial management (Davila, Epstein