Understanding Of Christian Sacraments Essay College Essay Help

Different religions have different symbols, which denote different meanings that might be peculiar to a given religion. For instance, the Catholic Church has the rosary, which is the centre of their prayers. Most Catholics and orthodox churches have sacraments, which the pastors or the priests confer to the congregation.

Each Christian church has its own form of a sacrament, which depend on how the pioneers of the faith interpreted the bible. Conventionally, the pastor, priest, bishop, or pope (incase of Catholicism and Orthodox) who confers the ceremonies to the congregation. The next discussion analyses the sacrament as the major symbol in the Christian religion highlighting the importance of the ceremonies.

Significantly, the sacrament is a crucial religious practice in Christianity especially Catholicism. Depending on the religion sacrament can be in the form of Eucharist, baptism, repentance, confirmation, matrimony, orders, or extreme unction. All participants have to attend religious training on Christian virtues, the bible, and other moral practices in order to receive the sacraments (Gula Para.10). The sacrament of baptism precedes all the other seven.

Therefore, the sacrament is a symbol of cleanliness or purity in Christianity. Baptism is through water whereby Christians believe that they are free from sins immediately after the ceremony. The sacrament of penance/repentance ensures that Christians promote love, peace, and unity in their relationships. The ceremony of sacrament usually takes place in a large congregation.

In most cases, bread, the symbol of the body of Christ grace, the ceremonies. In the contemporary society, the sacraments promote humanity because staunch Christians strictly follow the religious teachings of the sacraments. Depending on the calendar of the church, most Christians believe that, for any of them to succeed or prosper in life, s/he have to respect/practice the sacraments.

Originally, the world had two common religions; Islam and Catholicism but the emergence of protestant churches has led to diverse doctrines about Christianity and more so the sacraments. Although the rate of participation of the ceremony of the sacrament is high, the participants in the protestant churches are less when compared to the catholic. The disparity lies in the perception that most of the catholic sacramental ceremonies are rituals and not based on Jesus Christ or Christian virtues (Reumann Para.4).

Secondly, the attitudes and satisfaction of leadership and subsequent faith in churches also affects the participation in the sacraments. Sometimes most participants especially the youths do so if they have attended Christian based institutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, criticisms of some sacraments by people have also affected the participation in the ceremonies. For instance, the sacrament of repentance/penance in the Catholic Church has drawn critical views from people. Catholics repent through their priest by reciting the following words “Bless me, Father, for I have sinned” (Gula Para.1).

However, according to Protestants the death of Jesus enabled all Christians to communicate directly to God/Jesus and not through the priests or human beings. In addition, the variation of participation in the sacraments also depends at, which age a person started practicing his/her religion. For example, infants who are born within the religion may either drop or hold on it while new participants are likely to hold on it forever (Menninger 50).

Commonly, the people who uphold the sacraments are elderly people and consistently participate in the other activities of the church. Finally, the bible scriptures, which led to the establishment of the Sacraments, are the basis of Catholic and Orthodox faith. On the contrary, the protestant churches have specialized in the interpretation of the New Testament, which the worshippers strictly uphold.

The sacraments of Christianity determine the personality and moral behavior of either a community or a person. Believers who practice the same sacramental ceremonies promote similar human and moral virtues.

Through sacraments, Christians not only express their faith, but also practice sanctity (Neal 96). For instance, the sacrament of penance calls for repentance and reconciliation among the believers and communities. Therefore, any person who adheres to the doctrines will undoubtedly promote peace, love, and unity in the society. Secondly, the sacraments also promote a sense of belonging among the Christians.

Each religion has a given symbol like attire, practice, or object, which is unique. Salvation is a crucial belief in Christianity; however, in Catholicism, an individual has to practice or celebrate all the sacraments to acquire salvation. Ideally, salvation not only promotes holiness but also purity, personality virtues like self-esteem, patience, and confidence among others. Therefore, sacrament ceremonies instill the virtues of Christianity in both communities and people who practice them.

In summary, Christianity is one of the commonly practiced religions in the world. Protestant and catholic are the common churches in the world. However, although all the churches allude from the bible, the Catholics and Orthodox churches depend solely on the scriptures and Sacraments. The Protestants mainly elaborate the New Testaments relating their interpretation with the contemporary world. The Christians who depend on the sacraments promote their faith through rituals, but this has led to criticisms from the non-believers. The sacramental rituals shape the personality, behavior, and daily practices of the Christians.

We will write a custom Essay on Understanding of Christian Sacraments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gula, Richard. Understanding Sin Today. Americancatholic.Org. N.D. Web.

Menninger, Karl. Whatever Became Of Sin? New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973.

Neal, Gregory. Grace upon Grace. Texas: Koinonia Press, 2000.

Reumann, John. Justification by Faith: The Lutheran-Catholic Convergence, Nd. Web.


Strong Copyright Law, a Necessity for Modern Media Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Digital libraries




Introduction It is undeniable that technology has revolutionized the way modern society interacts with information. Moreover, there have been more types of media are on the rise recently. Certainly, this undermines the Copyright Law since modern media content can easily be modified, used, or transferred across media platforms. In order to protect intellectual property in modern media, stringent measures need to be considered. This paper discusses the necessity of a stronger copyright law on modern media.

Internet Internet consists of many applications such as file sharing, blogging, video and file sharing, tagging, video logs, YouTube, digital libraries among others. It also offers a platform in which trade for media content takes place.

All these technologies present loopholes in which the existing copyright laws are infringed. It thus becomes necessary to have stronger and more stringent copyright law to protect authors from misuse of their intellectual property. This also goes hand in hand with digitizing the law to ensure that it takes into account possible breach (Bailey 2006).

Television Television has become an integral part of the modern society. Modern television is characterized by wide variety of intellectual properties pertaining to movies, news, music, adverts, and documentaries, among others. In addition, video sharing technology has changed the way information is passed on through television.

For instance, it is possible to present an interview of several people through web conferencing. Intellectual property relating to graphics, illustrations, content among others need to be protected from this digital revolution (Verbauwhede, 2005). Strong copyright law is essential in guarding any intellectual property presented through television. This may include strong copyright law on consumer profiles, means of advertisements, adverts slogans, persona, and product endorsements among others.

Films Film industry has not been left behind by the technological advancement. Shooting, recording, development, distribution, and sale of film products solely depend on modern technology. The filming process uses technology such as video editing that can make it possible to use parts or sections of other person’s film or literary work.

For instance, there are many movies done from themes in novel. Original authors of such works need to be adequately covered from copyright infringement. On the other hand, the film industry needs to be covered from unauthorized sharing, distribution, sharing, and sale of their work (Overbeck


Health Policy in US Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction This paper seeks to describe public policy in relation to the first source provided in which it explains the policy arena, the policy endpoints and the policy options, major political actors involved in the debate, how the political actors choose to influence political process and whether there is an attempt for the national strategy.

Public policy is a program of action already in effect or planned for implementation whose aim is to improve the situation of the public. Some of the components of public policy include; the methods for its implementation and specification of resources requirements, its relevance and guidelines for the said action and the rules and regulations prescribed to it.

The arena of the health policy selected for this assignment is focused towards defining various strategies for strengthening governance, improving the allocation of resources, decentralization of the health services, shifting the resources from just the curative healthcare to preventive healthcare services, provision of the autonomy to provincial and national hospitals, enhancing collaboration with the stakeholders and implementing social and health insurance programs.

The policy endpoints and policy options being discussed is the health care overhaul law and the legislative achievement of President Obama’s signature. The policy options here include; upholding the law by the justices, duck a definitive decision premature entirely and strike down its most controversial provisions. In the matter, the Supreme Court and President Obama are likely to give rise to the constitutional and political blockbuster (Liptak 1).

The health policy here is however faced with various challenges that need be discussed by the political bigwigs. Some of the challenges include; lack of accountability, poor policy implementation, the pressure from the United Nations, insufficient funds, lack of enough qualified staff and failure to embrace the health insurance by some groups.

The policy endpoints are associated with certain factors that affect its formulation and implementation. Factors such as situational factors, structural factors, political culture, democratic factors and environmental factors hinder the course of policy action.

The major political actors involved in the public debate of the health policy include the government, the media and the interest groups. Service providers, professional bodies and advocacy groups may be involved, but they majorly contribute in the policy planning process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These political actors ensure that the policy is addressed in the best way possible. They do this by influencing the political process of the policy. These political actors choose to influence the policy process through lobby groups, media campaigns, propaganda mechanisms, and agents of socialization, agents of legitimacy and by playing key roles in the agenda setting (Warren, 100).

The strategy does not play out inside the Beltway, but there is an attempt to come up with a national strategy that will ensure the process of health policy planning is done effectively.

Some of the components of the national strategy suggested include; the visioning exercises, creation of the mission and goals, objective establishments, creating a monitoring plan, establishing strategic directions and developing a framework that will establish and monitor success. According to the national strategy to be established, a health policy planning should be done in the following steps;

Perform an environmental scanning

Set goals and directions

Identify possible problems and challenges

Identify range of possible solutions to the problems and challenges

Determine the best possible solution from the suggested ones to implement

Implement the chosen solution

Evaluate the results of the implemented solution

A plausible scenario for public policy change from the status quo would be the shift from the initial health policy framework to the current health policy.

Initially, the health policy framework would ensure the equitable allocation of government resources in order to reduce disparities in the health status, increase cost effectiveness and cost efficiency of the allocation of the resources and use, the management of the growth of the population, enhancing the regulatory role of the government, creating and enabling the environment for the increased private sector and community involvement in the provision of the health services and increasing and diversifying the per capita finance flow in the health sector. This has however changed with the current health policy framework (Warren 102).

Currently, the health policy framework is strengthening the central public policy role of the state in health matters and concerns. Apart from that, the health policy framework does other things like adopting the explicit strategy in order to reduce the burden of disease among the population, shifting part of the financial burden to the insurance, generating increased levels of financial resources and strengthening local authorities, private and mission sectors that provide health services.

In summary, this paper has described the public policy in relation to source one that was provided where it explained the policy endpoints, the policy arena and the policy options, major political actors involved in the debate, how the political actors choose to influence political process and whether there is an attempt for the national strategy.

We will write a custom Essay on Health Policy in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The major political actors involved in the public debate of the health policy described in the paper include the government, the media and the interest groups. Service providers, professional bodies and advocacy groups may be involved, but they majorly contribute in the policy planning process.

Works Cited Liptak, Adam. Justices to Hear Health Care Case as Race Heats Up. Washington: New York Times Company, 2011

Warren, James. Liberal or Conservative: the problem is ignorance. New York: Lexis, 2011


Ethical case: facebook gossip or cyberbullying? Case Study essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Ethical model or decision-making approach

Own model

Primary research

Secondary research


Gossip is unethical behavior based on the various approaches in evaluating what is ethical and what is not ethical. According to the rights approach in evaluating ethical cases, ethical actions should respect and protect moral rights of other people. This view stresses that people have dignity based on their nature or their ability to decide freely what they do with themselves and their lives.

The moral right to make one’s own choices and decisions about a lifestyle, truth, harm, some privacy are essential elements of ethics that persons have rights to possess and know. This is a case of individual respecting others rights and choices. Paige should respect choices Cheyenne makes as a person who has rights to her life. The gossips spreading through facebook comments are nasty, causing harm, and further invading privacy of Cheyenne.

Utilitarian approach to ethics posits that ethical actions should produce greatest good and least harm to the party concerned i.e. produces greatest right over harm. Paige reacts to Cheyenne behavior not knowing of consequences her friends will post on facebook.

Such comments increased the injuries caused to Cheyenne’s character and personality. Gossip serves to increase the amount of harm caused. For the common benefit of everyone, the University should act as an arbitrator in settling the emerging problems in its community (Velasquez and Moberg, 2010).

Ethical model or decision-making approach The framework for ethical decision-making requires that we recognize an ethical issue as the initial step. The issue under focus is Facebook gossip or cyber-bullying, which is damaging the character of Cheyenne, which to some extent can result into a legal case. Laying down facts is the second element of ethical decision-making approach.

Cheyenne is a party girl and likes to sleep. Paige posts what she has observed on her facebook. Ivy reacts to the facebook post in her own view by posting her radical comments. Tara confronts Paige about cyber-bullying Cheyenne. However, Tara has not consulted all the relevant groups. She has chosen the creative approach of talking about the issue with Paige.

Another significant element is to evaluate the alternative actions. We shall base the alternative options on the utilitarian approach, which aims to give the greatest good and eliminate harm. Facebook gossip is harming the reputation of Cheyenne. The best option to Paige is to apologize publicly and withdraw her comments. At the same time, Cheyenne should get advice about partying and its consequence. The rights approach requires Paige to leave Cheyenne live her life as she chooses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In consideration of all the approaches, the utilitarian approach is the best solution since it will produce common good to all parties. Paige will know the dangers of gossiping and Cheyenne will learn to take her studies seriously and desist from partying.

The final stage is to act and reflect the outcome of the choice made. The arbitrator (Tara) must reflect how her approach to talk about the issue with Paige will affect her and Ivy. Tara must evaluate all the outcomes and learning points of her action to confront Paige.

Own model This model is analytical and hierarchical system, which provides an effective way to deal with the ethical decision-making issues. It prevents drastic decision-making approaches. The first step is to arrange the problem into manageable pieces from general to specific approach. The general problem is that Paige gossiped about Cheyenne, and the distinctive problem arising is Facebook gossip and cyber-bullying. This will give us the objectives, criteria of evaluation and alternative adequacy of solutions (Perry, 2011).

We assign weight to each branch of the problem. Paige might feel that her facebook comment was in a light touch. However, Ivy comments cannot be taken lightly. This creates a wide issue of cyber-bullying. We generate alternatives and evaluate them. Evaluation of alternatives involves weighing all the branches of the problem and giving them the alternative responses and actions. We based the approaches on utilitarian and rights approach.

The final step involves section of the best approach to the issue. This model requires that we face the problem and give the best solution for all parties. In this regard, utilitarian approach fits the case.

Primary research A primary research conducted among fellow students indicates that cyber-bullying is wrong and unethical. Jane says that “I feel cyberbullying is getting worse among college students, and we should address it to promote harmony among students.” Paul sees cyberbullying as a modern form of bullying emerging to replace the traditional forms.

He blames technology for it by saying, “We recognize the value of social media in life. However, we should only use it to address vital issues concerning us”. Shan believes that “people cannot avoid gossiping and bullying. However, they should beware of the damage caused to the other parties”.

We will write a custom Case Study on Ethical case: facebook gossip or cyberbullying? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondary research Patchin and Hinduja show that cyberbullying is a serious problem among the youths with serious repercussions on their social lives. Robinson Kowalski notes that cyberbullying is rare in some places. However, when cyberbullying happens it can lead to serious depression, isolation and withdrawals in peers. Susan Limber observes that other forms of cyberbullying include harassment, denigration, trickery, ostracism, and cyber stalking (Patchin and Hinduja, 2011).

References Patchin, J. and Hinduja, S. (2011). Cyberbullying prevention and response: Expert Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

Perry, P. (2011). Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Québec: RFP Evaluation Centers.

Velasquez, M. and Moberg, D. (2010, March 5). Ethics Home. Retrieved from Markkula Center of Applied Ethics: https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/a-framework-for-ethical-decision-making/


Benefits of Post 9/11 Security Measures Fails to Outway Harm on Personal Freedom and Privacy Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects on Solders in War and their Families

Thesis Statement


Works Cited

Introduction A critical analysis of war on terror can easily reflect some of the common pros and cons that are involved, particularly the effects on human rights. Introduction of security measure to cover-up terror threats such as the September 11th attack in U.S. often emerges as a government counter-terrorism plan.

The sole reason the government consider such measures is to enhance security and protect citizens against similar terror attacks (white, 30). Arguably, war on terror emerges due to the negative executive assertions that the government builds regarding terrorism. War on terror and the countermeasures on terror threats such as security appraisals have pushed citizens to a point of critically analyzing the benefits and outweighing them against the compromised privacy and personal freedom.

The administration often links and catalyzes its peacekeeping missions to need for protecting citizens against similar possible attacks. A good example has been the war on terror in Iraq. The U.S. and British government started the war in Iraq on March 2003 and the Bush administration was quick to ascertain that Iraq had violated some U.N. Security Councils’ Resolutions, such as being in possession of weapons of mass destruction.

Former president of the United States, G. W Bush condemned Iraq for utter contempt (The Guardian, 1). He emphasized that they had violated the United Nations regulations and argued that the “end of Sadam Hussein and his regime would deprive terrorist a wealthy patron”. According to Bush’s administration, Iraq was aiding, protecting and arming terrorists with the weapons.

The reasons for engaging the war was a counter measure to protect its citizens against attacks similar to that of September 11, 2001. What followed were tight security measures in United States especially at the ports and public places. A large percentage of the American citizens supported the invasions by America’s military and justified the war and security measures placed in U.S., even without the approval by U.N. Were these security measures viable and did they compromise on privacy and freedom of the citizens in any way?

According to Keegan, the government’s reaction is proactive; hence, its reactions to enforce security measures may be compromising some human social rights. The administration uses all resources in its power to protect citizens against such terror enemies, (p 14). Researchers often raise questions concerning the power of command involved when certain security measures are engaged to protect citizens.

For instance, is it morally justifiable to declare war without basing such pronouncements on some solid proof, reasons and consultations? Security measures against terror war and possible threats from terrorists may be negatively affecting human lifestyles and sometimes depriving innocent victims their rights. Citizens are forced to live under specified conditions due to security confrontations. Those in war zones also suffer from lack of basic needs such as food, shelter, education and health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects on Solders in War and their Families Solders have lost lives during combats such as the U.S. war confrontations in Afghanistan and Iraq (Keegan, 14). The Iraq coalition casualty count indicated that over 4,300 U.S. and 4,693 coalition solders died during the Iraq war (Keegan, 31). Iraq recorded an even greater number of casualties during the Iraq war (Keegan, 31). The actions to engage war has huge positive as well as negative effects on human rights both on the battlefields and to the citizens of involved countries.

Since the 9/11 attack, the U.S. government immediately placed strict screening measures in major public offices and places that were prone to similar terror attacks. Evidently, the administrators rushed into such plans. Were there greater destructions of personal freedom and privacy of the citizens, compared to urgent enforcement of security measures by the government, to ensure citizens’ safety?

The world war II caused formation of the Department of Defence (DOD) in U.S. while the 9/11 attack founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The attack also catalyzed formation of law that caused stricter handling of suspected terrorists.

Could this have caused harassment of foreign-born but legal immigrants in the U.S. as well as those seeking entry? In October 2001, former president Bush signed to law the “USA Patriot Act” that empowered law enforcement agencies at boarder-points, allowing them to thoroughly search, and monitor travellers.

The courts were also mandated to detain and deport illegal immigrants (Abrams, 72). The government also enforced security measures regarding visa entry procedures, where more strict visa screening, border-point inspection and tracking procedures for foreigners were enhanced. Although the new standards were to tighten security, would such strengthened boarder protection rules provide loopholes for harassment for the asylum seekers?

The Post 9/11 attack in U.S. has caused changes on federal rules and therefore courts have a different interpretation regarding violation of individuals’ privacy. The technological advancement has also changed the procedures engaged by security personnel in their surveillance. In accordance with Bloss, there might be some direct infringement of civil rights especially the rights to privacy (39).

The increase in police surveillance techniques since the 9/11 attack has drastically diminished the privacy of individuals. The technology may no longer be protecting the privacy but negatively affecting some aspects of civil rights (Bloss, 39).

We will write a custom Essay on Benefits of Post 9/11 Security Measures Fails to Outway Harm on Personal Freedom and Privacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Post 9/11 attack caused an increase in police surveillance activities. Arguably, due to the inability to keep up-to-date with the technologically advanced of terrorists and similar criminals, the security forces have instead widened their surveillance competence.

The personnel collaborate with private sectors and other business enterprises such as communication firms to retrieve personal data or to eavesdrop for any possible terror threats. Due to the 9/11 terror attack, lawmakers/administration in collaboration with the courts may have over-reacted against such threats of terrorism by enacting modifications to the already establish protection rules, which were in line with civil privacy (Peterson, 13).

The “Prevention Law Enforcement” law gives enforcers (police) more powers to undertake broader surveillance. The law enforcers have transformed their approaches to handle security operations and thus focus keenly on intelligent ways of gathering information through the technological tools such as radio frequency scanners, CCTVs and other public cameras (Peterson, 13).

The public today reacts to the surveillance measures in an awkward manner. There is more anxiety and people tend to avoid converging in public. Crowding often increases suspicion, triggers police reaction, and is perceived such as a threat to security. The security measures are mainly implemented via electronic media such as biometric mechanism, data-vigilance or virtually in the public places where there are no physical boundaries.

Post 9/11 security measures also included implementation of inconspicuous methods of gathering information, which remained undercover, unless there were need to react publically over a targeted area of investigation. This means that the public is often unaware of areas with strict surveillance equipments. The ubiquitous police surveillance mechanism causes unnecessary anxiety.

Do such measures deprive citizens their freedom of movement and privacy compared to the positive effect of tightened security? Collection of information through biometric identification, virtual identity and analysis of personal data means that the security measures may have compromised movement, identity and private transactions, since most private information is readily accessible by police. There security systems have also allowed burgeoning of private information from various databases (Peterson, 47).

Thesis Statement ‘The increase on surveillance measures has thus amplified public reactions and freedom in a negative manner.’ Evidently, more surveillance has a negative impact over public behaviours. Freedom to movement is highly compromised by the new security measures especially for immigrants or foreigners.

The U.S. security policies after the 9/11 attack changed dramatically by reducing free movement within public places. Although the measures do not restrict movement in a direct manner, the strict search policies and increased barriers such as checkpoints are often a nuisance. People habitually prefer to stay away and restrict their movements to avoid unnecessary surveillance and searches.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Benefits of Post 9/11 Security Measures Fails to Outway Harm on Personal Freedom and Privacy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Common luggage searchers in major public places became more frequent after the 9/11 attack. Such intensive explorations have caused great threat to privacy and people’s freedom. The security measures seem a mere inconvenience with great security benefits, but these are major and direct disruptions to civil lifestyles.

The U.S.’s Department of Defence proposed total disclosure of information through the “Total Information Awareness” project (White, 31). The significance of these measures was reminiscent of methods implemented during the twentieth century by the totalitarian governments.

To many citizens, these extreme measures control citizens’ private social lives. It is the beginning of demise on democratic rights or lack of fundamental democratic supremacy that recent governments have been promising its citizens. According to White, the surveillance practices have broken the fragile link between the roles of administration to enforce rules and need to protect civil liberty (p 31).

The legal jurisprudence of the U.S. government shows a clear difference between its role of providing protection against crime and protecting civil rights such as privacy. However, research fails to indicate the intensity of policing such as public surveillances. Determining the positive or negative impacts of these security measures helps to judge on the social or psychological impacts of such security policies.

The lawmakers, courts and enforcers react by perceiving the potential threats at hand. In line with Bloss, government actions to enforce strict security measures on terror threats after the 9/11-attack has nevertheless produced some unforeseen effects on freedom and privacy of civil life (p 39). Further research is however required to monitor the political doctrine and the psychosocial effects on individuals in a constant way.

Conclusion The government is quick to restore peace and order and ensure citizen’s protection after a terror attack. However, such an administration fails to consider vital humanitarian needs such as privacy issue and freedom. Human rights ought to be considered as essential factors during arrangement to safeguard citizens against attacks of similar nature.

In general, the government fails to understand the limits and enforce laws after a terror attacks or civil war. Such laws cause violation of human rights. Poor implementation of laws to enforce protective measures therefore equally compromises a wide range of humanitarian rights.

Evidently, the post 9/11 security measures caused numerous transformations in the relationship between government necessitate to prevent global terror threats and protection of human rights such as freedom of movement and privacy. The U.S. government security measures have changes to accommodate the dynamism brought by technological advancement and the global effects connected to technology.

The situation especially the escalating surveillance has thus given birth to a myriad of political, legal, social and psychological effects on citizens. There is thus an indistinguishable balance between the security measures to prevent crime and infringement of human privacy or individuals’ rights.

Works Cited Abrams, Norman. Anti-Terrorism and Criminal Enforcement, Second Edition, St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West Publishing. 2005. Print.

Bloss, William. Transnational Crime and Terrorism in a Global Context, Boston: McGraw-Hill Publishers. 2006. Print.

Keegan, John. The Iraq War: UK: Vintage Series publishers. 2005. Print

Peterson, Marilyn. Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture. 2005

The Guardian. George Bush’s Address on the Start of War. Web.

White, Jonathan. Terrorism and Homeland Security, 5th Edition, Thomson/Wadsworth. 2006. Print.


Minimum Wage Employees Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help

A minimum wage is the lowest form of compensation that employees may receive, be it hourly, daily or in a monthly form. On other terms, it may also be defined as the lowest wage that an employee may peddle his/her labor. Despite the minimal wages law exhibiting great jurisdictions, most opinion makers’ epic large proportions of differences in terms of the pros and the cons that the said minimal wages exhibit.

Some of the pros brought forth about the minimal wages include the opinion that with the existence of minimum wages, the standards of living are bound to improve immensely with some quarters, confessing of a reduction in poverty while others saying that the business has become more and more efficient.

The cons that have been associated with the minimum wages include the increase in the rate of unemployment and the low productivity among some workers due to the inexperience among some workers hence benefiting the more skilled workers over the lesser skilled ones.

Economists differ on the presumed impact of minimum wages in the real world. The distress usually comes as a result of competing and comparing the empirical tests of demand and supply and the degree of efficiency in the labor markets that models most efficiently predict competition (Letcher 31). Some of the empirical studies that have been studied about these minimal wages include among others the effects on the employment sector which until now stands as the most studied aspect.

Rates of the minimal wages vary widely across different scopes around the world, not only in a specific monetary rate for instance the difference in the monetary rates in the United States and the United Kingdom, where it is $8.67 in Washington in the United States and 6.08 pounds in the United Kingdom for those that are over the age of 21, but also the period in which the rates are paid greatly differs (Blackman 93).

It is explicitly hard to disintegrate the minimal wage facts from other variables that may have any considerable effects on employment. There are some thought out facts that try to argue in favor of the minimum wages, some of the in scripted pros include the belief that even the standards of living of the most vulnerable class in the most ravaged societies greatly increases. Another advantage depicted is that it encourages the workers to work harder and motivates them more (Carmen 89).

It is good to know that with each passing day people try to get money legally due to their work but not in any way that is out of the law. It also encourages automation and efficiency is also encouraged more in the industry. Some researchers are also of the opinion that the low paying jobs are scrapped and in this regard more and more people are forced to work harder and earn payments from the highest earning jobs. Some researchers who are for these minimum wages epic that there is increased developments in the technological departments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand the criticizers of this law epic that it tends to hurt the small business and alternatively favoring the larger ones. These criticizers continue to epic that the minimum wage tends to reduce the demand expected of workers where they argue that this is greatly caused by the reduction in the number of the jobs and also, by the reduction in the number of hours.

The inflation in terms of price also tends to increase as the prices of goods are raised by the respective business while trying to compensate. They also argue that the poorest and less productive workers are left out in favor of others.

The researchers also argue that small salaries can easily result in the reduction of the working places. They continue to argue further that the smallest firms with payroll budgets that are limited find it extremely hard to retain their most valuable workers, since they are unable to give them considerable attractive wages as compared to the unskilled workers, who are paid the artificial high minimum and so the task of adding more workers become great.

These cons have also rendered it ineffective when trying to reduce poverty and also more damaging to business than other methods. It has also been proved that it discourages further education since most people are lured into the job market. Finally, it exudes the con of wiping off the low cost competitors from the markets and impedes the different organizations from reducing the costs of the wages during trade recessions, which augurs into inefficiencies in the economic sectors of the various industries (Lewinsky 11).

Despite the cons that have been put across by various researchers, proof across various sections in the world Diaspora has only explicated immense pros brought forth by these minimal wages. One example that clearly demonstrates this is a study carried out in the US that showed that the payrolls and the rank of the working places increase with each passing year thanks to the minimum wages (Lewinsky 11).

Another example is the introduction of the minimal wage in the United Kingdom in 1999, where it was initially strongly opposed by the conservative party but it is no longer opposed and the conservatives even reversed their stand in the year 2000 after it reduced the hiring rates. It also reduced the working hours and the prices have increased greatly coupled by the increase in the production of the current workers.

This research paper will look in a great perspective on the different minimum wages that have been put in different states (cities) of the United States of America. Due to the outsized state of the states, the paper will only give examples of some of the most common states or cities that have developed considerable efforts in the introduction of the minimum wages and for jobs that have been shielded by the minimum wage laws of the federal state.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Minimum Wage Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A common exclusion of the minimum wage of the federal system is a company that exudes revenues that are way below 500000 US dollars per annum while not being involved in any business of the interstates. In addition, the employees that receive a certain part of their salaries from tips are expected to have their whole compensation including tips meet those minimum wages.

So on often basis, their hourly wages before tips is occasionally lesser than the minimum wages (Willis 75). Moreover, some cities within states may experience higher minimum wages that the rest of the cities. The paper will look into seven different states namely, Washington, Texas, Ohio, New York, Kansas, Iowa, California.

The first city that will give us a close overview of the different minimum wages in US is the city of Washington. The 2011 figures put the minimum wage as 8.67 US dollars. The minimum wage applies to both the agriculture and the jobs that are non-agriculture, but despite this the people that are 14 and 15 years in age may receive 85% of the minimum wage that is 7.37 in US dollars.

Business Analysts have gone further to predict an impressive minimum wage of 9.04 US dollars by the beginning of the year 2012. The minimum wage of Texas is 7.25 similar to that of New York which also enjoys a minimum for relieved workers of 536.10 US dollars.

The minimum wage of Ohio exceeds that of New York and Texas to post at 7.40 US dollars and researchers expect it to increase to 7.70 US dollars by the beginning of the year 2012. Employees who are 16 years old and where the employers gross is less than 237,000 US dollars per annum receive a minimum wage of 7.25 US dollars. For most years, the minimum wage of Kansas was the lowest in the whole nation, a partly 2.65 US dollars but it has since been increased to meet the federal level and now stands high on 7.25 US dollars.

The minimum wage of Iowa stands at the same level as that of Kansas. Service establishments and small retailers do not necessarily require to pay the minimum wage, mostly those that receive less than 300,000 annually (Willis 75). Sometimes, 60% of the minimum wage which is presently about 4.35 US dollars is given to tipped workers.

The last of the sample states is California with a minimum wage of 8.00 US dollars and San Francisco city which receives a considerably high minimum wage of 9.92 US dollars. The minimum wage decree in this state and city states that relieved workers must at least make twice the minimum wage of the state.

Works Cited Blackman, William. The employer’s legal handbook: manage your employees and workplace. New Jersey, NJ: Lewis Publishers, 2001. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Minimum Wage Employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Carmen, Reinhart. Minimum wage fixing: an international review of practices and problems. New York, NY: Princeton University Press, 2009. Print.

Letcher, Trevor, and Daniel, Vallero. Biennial report of the industrial welfare commission of the state. Oxford, UK: Academic Press, 2011. Print.

Lewinsky, Allison. Minimum wage policy in Great Britain and the United States. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2007. Print.

Willis, Nordlund. The quest for a living wage: the history of the federal minimum wage, New York, NY: Greenwood publishing Group, 2007. Print.


How a Film Interprets Hamlet Explicatory Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

De-emphasizing tradition

Hamlet as a man that reasons

Oedipus complex

Olivier’s key mistake


Works Cited

Introduction Laurence Olivier’s need to focus on less traditional approaches, his need to shorten the production, and the need to perform a psychological analysis of the characters determine his interpretation of the play ‘Hamlet’. He illustrates this through various scenes, settings and themes in the film.

De-emphasizing tradition When the ghost appears to Prince Hamlet in the original Shakespearean play, he talks about purgatory and his wanderings on earth before describing the details of his death (Shakespeare 1. 3. 14). These same descriptions are not prevalent in the 1948 film. One of the possible reasons for deletions of these lines could be Olivier’s need to remove politics and tradition from this new film.

It should be noted that he designed his previous production to inspire patriotic sentiments among the British people. The presiding British Prime Minister – Sir Winston Churchill – had instructed him to do so because the country was fighting a war. However, after the end of the war, there was no need to focus on these elements anymore.

Director Laurence Olivier wanted to dwell on the characters in the play. He did this mostly through the main character Hamlet. In his version of the play, the ghost of Hamlet’s father does not talk about purgatory and other after life issues. Instead, the ghost dwells mostly on the circumstances surrounding his death. During Shakespeare’s lifetime, the Catholic Church played a pivotal role in the daily lives of its people.

Therefore, most citizens ascribed to the values and beliefs taught by members of the Catholic Church such as receiving ordinances from the latter and going to heaven. If Olivier had included this part in his 1948 film, then he would have upheld Shakespeare’s belief in the traditional. Since he wanted to depart from this, then he made the right choice by omitting that scene from the play.

Hamlet as a man that reasons The ghost in Shakespeare’s play describes most of the incidents surrounding his death verbally. While the same thing takes place in Olivier’s 1948 version, something slightly different happens when he adds a flashback (Play within a play) in the film.

The director gives the audience a visual summary of the plot surrounding his death. One can see Claudius pouring poison into the dead King’s ear (Olivier). This makes the allegations made by the dead King appear logical. Therefore, when Hamlet refuses to accept these claims, then he appears to be more analytical than he needs to be.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Shakespeare shows a skeptical Hamlet in the original play, the playwright does not emphasize Hamlet’s analytical nature in the play as much as Olivier does; audiences can see the Ghost’s narrative visually in the 1948 film. Hamlet now seems like a reasoning man in the film because he does not accept assertions at face value, even when the story seems quite convincing; he chooses to investigate for himself the truth behind the assertions. This ghost scene was pivotal in depicting a distinct character in the name of Hamlet.

Many writers have interpreted Hamlet in their own way. Olivier’s Hamlet seems deeply distressed but still in firm control of his actions. The Ghost gave him a pretty reasonable explanation, but he still chose to investigate whether the information was accurate or not. The actor’s reaction to this news conveys his degree of reasonableness. For the most part, he is a man who is distinctly aware of the consequences of his actions.

More about Hamlet What conflict(s) does Hamlet Experience Inside Himself? 5 154 What words suggest that Claudius plans to control Hamlet? 5 26 What Does Hamlet Mean When He Refers to the “Pangs of Dispriz’d Love”? 5 458 What Incident Serves to Initiate the Conflict in Hamlet? 5 70 Olivier realized the importance of the Ghost’s instructions, and this was why he decided to portray that scene with impressive accuracy. The Ghost was the one who gave Prince Hamlet a mission, and he needed to follow those instructions in order to restore honor to the kingdom. Olivier did not want to distort the meaning of the play by eliminating the Ghost scene or dramatically altering the words stated by the Ghost. It was necessary to make audiences understand the mission that Hamlet received.

The ghost’s instructions were the source of trouble in the Shakespearean play as well as the 1948 film. Two values tear Hamlet apart; revenge and his conscious. Shakespeare does not emphasize this matter in the same way as the film does. The director even starts the film by asserting that this was a story about a man who could not make up his mind (Olivier).

Indeed, Olivier depicted a character who cannot decide whether he needs to stop thinking and start acting. The director emphasizes his brooding nature more in this production than in the play. Olivier makes this point through setting and costume design choices in the film. For example, Hamlet was wearing black in most scenes, in the motion picture, yet he had lightly colored skin and hair. This brought out the dual nature of the ghost scene.

It represented Hamlet’s struggle with sanity versus insanity or revenge versus his conscious. The Ghost told him something that he needed to address. It was almost as if this director wanted to present to the audience a visual metaphor through these costumes. Additionally, the film emphasizes the dual nature of the Ghost scene through the setting, as well. When Hamlet speaks with the ghost, he does this in a gothic-like castle.

The place looks old and horror-like, and this only creates an effect of a brave individual who confronts the Ghost without letting his reservations or fears stop him. His surroundings mirror the decisions he must make. The play did not realize these same effects when William Shakespeare wrote it.

We will write a custom Essay on How a Film Interprets Hamlet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Olivier’s film starts with the Elsinore battlements where two sentries discuss the Ghost of King Hamlet. This creates a degree of suspense in the film because one wonders whether those speculations are true or not. Eventually, the ghost appears but never gets a chance to speak to the men who see it.

That disappearance adds to the gothic nature of the film. It can be argued that the director made this choice in order to focus on the issues that led the main character to his predicaments. Since the film was a two-hour adaptation of the original four-hour long play, it needed to focus on segments of the film that mattered. The ghost scene was a vital determinant of these predicaments hence the need to include it in the play.

Oedipus complex Film critics deeply respect Olivier for his ability to bring out psychological concepts in a motion picture as was the case in this film. These were all elements that were not prevalent in the original Shakespeare. In the 1600 play, Shakespeare emphasizes how Hamlet’s anger stems from his mother’s dishonorable acts.

She marries her dead husband’s brother and jumps into this too quickly (Shakespeare 2.1. 12). Hamlet feels that his father deserves greater respect; his mother’s failure to show this respect led to his distaste for her. Conversely, Olivier interpreted Hamlet’s disdain for his mother in a different way.

To this director, Hamlet was jealous of King Claudius because he had feelings for his mother. Failure to realize his sexual desires for his mother led him to resent his mother. The physically dominant Hamlet in the film exemplifies this approach.

Laurence Olivier is a 41 year old male, and the lady who took Gertrude’s role in the movie was 28. Consequently, it was plausible to envisage a sexual conquest. In psychological circles, experts define this odd relationship as the Oedipus complex, which Freud developed. In his developmental theory, Freud explains that male children secretly long for their mothers and get jealous of their parents’ relationship.

Conversely, girls feel jealous of their mothers because they secretly long for their fathers. With time, these feelings should wear out as children tend to outgrow this behavior. Nonetheless, some adults never get rid of these sentiments, and it can affect their future relationships as well as their perceptions towards their parents.

Olivier illustrates this Oedipus complex through a number of scenarios; one such instance was the closet scene. A lot of sexual energy is prevalent in this scene. A Queen’s bedroom is an extremely private and personal space. Society would not expect anyone other than a queen’s husband to enter her bedroom.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How a Film Interprets Hamlet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, in Olivier’s version of the film, Gertrude calls her son into her room (Olivier). Hamlet goes to the closet, and this indicates that there might be some erotic connotations in their relationship. Hamlet’s lack of respect for her privacy blurs the line between mother and son.

In addition, Hamlet’s treatment of his mother strengthens the Oedipus case even more. At one point, Hamlet’s and Gertrude’s faces are too close together. When Hamlet has to leave, the two kiss each other on the mouth, and this kiss is quite prolonged; it is something that two lovers would do (Olivier). Even the center of attention in the scene is indicative of this sexual tension. Gertrude’s bed is quite well lit throughout the closet scene.

Hamlet’s and Gertrude’s shadows fall on the bed as the two characters kiss each other. At the end of the scene, one sees Gertrude by the bed, and she remains the main area of focus in this instance. The director, therefore, makes his point about the unlikely relationship between the two. This interpretation causes audiences to dwell on other areas other than Gertrude’s dishonorable act towards her husband. Therefore, Olivier’s film is quite distinct from the Shakespearean version.

Olivier’s key mistake One can argue that Olivier oversimplified Hamlet’s character through his assertion at the beginning of the play. In this instance, he claims that the film is about a man who could not make up his mind. This was quite reductive because the original Shakespearean play had a decidedly versatile ‘Hamlet’.

The playwright gave audiences the freedom to decide who Hamlet was; he could be mad, angry, undecided, or rash. Shakespeare did not give any thesis about his play as Olivier did. Because Hamlet would face so many challenges, it is likely that he was going to be a fairly complex being.

Therefore, one can even argue that this was an erroneous deduction of Hamlet’s character. In the 1948 film, one realizes that Hamlet eventually makes up his mind. When he learns about the grand plot that King Claudius had instated against him, he marches towards the King’s direction and kills him. Hamlet gained confidence in his fate, which differed tremendously from the thesis made by Olivier, at the beginning of the film.

More on the Topic If Shakespeare kills the character of Hamlet, what dramatic convention would he be using? 5 236 Which passage from Hamlet, act 2, scene 1 is an example of setting? 5 154 Which excerpt from act 5 of Hamlet best provides evidence of the rules of society are often based on wealth and power rather than fairness? 5 48 What excerpt from act 3 of Hamlet supports the conclusion that Hamlet is critical of women? 5 163 Another grand mistake that Olivier does in his adaptation of the Shakespearean film is the elimination of Fortinbras, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz. For a director who wanted to bring out the psychological intensity of his lead character, these characters did not seem to be that significant, however, for someone who wanted to present a well-rounded character, then he should not have eliminated these individuals.

In the original Shakespearean play, these individuals were instrumental in highlighting Hamlet’s character. When Hamlet continuous to display erratic behavior, the King sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to investigate Hamlet’s change in behavior. However, Hamlet quickly discerns this. These individuals thus illustrate how sharp the character of Olivier was. Furthermore, Hamlet’s uncle tells them to accompany him during the diplomatic mission in order to ascertain that the King accomplishes his evil plans for Hamlet.

Their loyalty to the King outweighs their relationship and attachment to Olivier. Guildenstern’s and Rosencrantz’ flimsy relationship with Olivier contrasted to this Prince’s disregard for tradition when it mattered. Fortinbras was a crucial part of the play because he developed a contrast for Hamlet’s character. Fortinbras was interested in conquering Denmark because he wanted to avenge his father’s death (Shakespeare 5. 2. 23).

He was swift and firm with his decisions. Conversely, Hamlet was hesitant and confused about the necessary actions that needed to be taken. If Olivier wanted to bring out Hamlet’s indecision in his film, he should have introduced Fortinbras in his piece. These characters were crucial to the depiction of a fully-developed Hamlet. Olivier sacrificed this component in his motion picture. Therefore, the 1948 adaptation is not as strong as the original play.

Conclusion The 1948 film is a depiction of how film can limit certain components of an older play. Shakespeare intended to create an all-rounded main character in his 1600 play, and one sees this through the characters that surrounded Hamlet. Olivier eliminated some of these characters and thus presented a weaker main character than Shakespeare’s.

Furthermore, Olivier’s focus on the Oedipus complex shifts attention away from Gertrude’s dishonorable as was the case in Shakespeare’s original play. Lastly, Olivier gives a thesis statement of his main character while Shakespeare does not. By doing this, Olivier impedes a viewer’s own interpretation of Hamlet. In the original play, one can choose to view Hamlet in one’s own way since Shakespeare makes no reductions.

Works Cited Hamlet. Dir. Laurence Olivier. Rank Film Distributors Ltd., 1948. Film.

Shakespeare, William. “Hamlet.” Mit.edu. MIT, n.d. Web.


Evaluating San Clemente Dam Removal Project based on the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Analytical Essay best college essay help

San Clemente Dam is a concrete-arch dam which was built in 1921 on river Carmel. It is 106 feet high and about 18 miles from the Pacific Ocean (Business wire 1). It was intended to be a source of water of the then fast growing population of Monterey Peninsula as well as serve the tourism industry.

Currently the dam has more than its 90% capacity filled with sediment and its capability to supply water is no more. In the year 1991 a branch of CDWR-California Department of Water Resources, which deals with the safety of dams and other reservoirs, in conjunction with CAW-California American Water, resolved that the dam did not satisfy seismic stability standards (Chapman 1). This meant that something needed to be done to address the safety issues.

A task force from both the CDWR and the USACE-U.S. Army corps Engineers explored several ways of improving the condition of the dam so that it could conform to the seismic safety standards (Coastal conservancy 12).

In the year 2007, CDWR which is the lead agency of the project under the CEQA certified the projects final EIR-Environmental Impact Report also referred to as Environmental Impact Statement (Coastal conservancy 12). The document was also reviewed and approved by the conservancy. The project proposes the rerouting a portion of river Carmel at least half mile down and transforming the arm of the river which is already filled with sediment into a permanent storage area for sediment. I will use the EIR to review the project.

The EIR establishes the major effects that will arise as a result of the project being implemented. The effects cut across the fields of Air quality, cultural resources, fisheries, geology and soils hydrology and water resources, noise, recreation, traffic and circulation, terrestrial biology, water quality and wetlands. Effects in each field will be reviewed separately.

The EIR shows that most of these effects can be mitigated in such a way that they become almost nonexistent through both construction management measures and changes in the design. For instance effects such as loss of habitat for quality fish, increased turbidity, loss of vegetation and increased transport of sediment are all as a result of erosion. In this regard the mitigative measure to be taken is one aimed at reducing soil erosion by strengthening the valley walls and the river banks (Coastal conservancy 13).

Construction management measures have been incorporated in the EIR and will be taken to minimize erosion as well as minimize the effects that could result in loss of rare species and special habitats. Through construction management measures and design changes more than thirty seven impacts are mitigated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The EIR identifies 26 environmental effects which are very significant but that cannot be mitigated. Out of the 26 effects 23 can only be mitigated up to a certain point and not beyond. Out of the 26 effects 21 are short term and the remaining 5 are long term. The five long term effects cannot be avoided (Coastal conservancy 13).

One of these long term effects include expected increase of days that suspended sediment concentration surpasses 500 parts per million, which is expected to go beyond the baseline by at most 11 days in a period of 41 years(Coastal conservancy 13).

The second long term effect has to do with the excavation of the rerouting channel which will cause complete loss of riparian habitat and brush land. The third long term effect will arise as a result of lost historic structures with reference to the dam itself which has been in existence for more than 90 years.

This will go hand in hand with the fourth long term effect which will be as a result of the setting changes due to the alteration of the dam surrounding and even to the larger historic district of San Clemente Dam and finally the visual integrity of the same historic district will be lost as a result which will be long term effect.



Is Race Prejudice a Product of Group Position? Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Race prejudice can be defined as the act of having prior judgment and or assumption of a person or something without having enough knowledge about the person or something in order to do so. Race prejudice has been here for the last few centuries and though a lot has been done to minimize it, it has not been wiped out entirely.

It has been said that it is a product of a group position which is partly true but it is also limited to an individual. Normally, an individual will tend to do things and be around people one is familiar with. Trudging in unfamiliar new grounds and doing things which are out of what someone is used to, in most circumstances will cause resistance and inherent need to eliminate the threat.

According to Blumer, racial prejudice comes from different group relationships other than an individual point of view. People from a specific group come together because their way of life is similar and it is easy to get along and live together (Blumer, 1979). This leads to the rise of a group that feels it is more superior, also known as the in-group, and every other group that is deemed less superior becomes known as the out-group.

The in-group which is the dominant group discriminates on individuals from the inferior groups which are subordinate. He also argues that the dominant group believes that the subordinate group is fundamentally different and estranged. Believing this is the case, they feel more entitled to some rights, resources and certain standing in society.

The superior group has constant threat from the desire of the members of the subordinate group who want to be on the same pedestal as them. Members of the superior group want to maintain their society status, power over the rest of the group and maintain their livelihood, if this is threatened; they develop apprehension, fear, bitterness and resentment.

Therefore, prejudice against the subordinate members stems out from these feelings of the superior group. This prejudice is merely a protective mechanism which aims at safe guarding the interest of the dominant group.

Blumer never forgot to highlight how race had power to shape and influence the economy and social classes in the society. He did so knowing that other factors like technology and history dynamics played an important role in shaping and maintaining the racial order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the changing economy, the dominant group will take up key managerial roles and leave the lesser groups to the lower positions. Basically, these clear cut racial systems bring about oppression, hierarchy and inequality. Organized racial groups with defined agendas may influence the public and achieve a political standing (Blumer, 1979).

Allport on the other hand argues that prejudice is brought about by an individual’s prior experiences, decisions and training. He defines prejudice as hostile feeling toward someone because they belong to a group one has ascribed abhorrent qualities (Allport, 1958).

He further adds that this hostile feeling is not just a hastened prior judgment before one gets to know all the facts but it is judgment resisting facts and is oblivious to the truth and honesty. The prejudice may be channeled to an individual or a group as a whole, he goes on to explain that this act makes one feel more powerful and heighten their self esteem. It is just a way of venting out someone’s or a group’s underlying problems.

He analyzes further the various levels of violence escalating from negative prejudice and discrimination. The first level is Antilocution which is the spoken abuse. People here talk freely to their neighbors, family and friends about their feelings but they do not act on this, it is very mild at this level.

The next level is the avoidance, in cases where the prejudice is intense; an individual avoids members from the sidelined group. The person being prejudiced against is not harmed in any way; instead the prejudicing party takes the entire burden and accommodates the other person. Third on line is discrimination which is leaving out members of a certain group from certain functions, employment, residential houses and even schools.

Next on the list is physical attack, here violence is directed towards the people being discriminated on. In cases when the discrimination is extreme, there is extermination which is getting rid of the person or people being discriminated against. In this level there is lynching, killings and genocide which crown the highest degree of violence. An individual is fully responsible for their feelings and actions (Allport, 1958).

In conclusion Allpor’s argument is true but only to some extent. This is because if someone from a particular group chooses not to act on the group’s interest, they may end up being discriminated against. Therefore, an individual will not have a big impact on these unending differences. Blumer’s argument stands out more because when you act out as one, there is no fear of discrimination hence a positive impact can be made.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Race Prejudice a Product of Group Position? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Allport, Gordon W. “The Nature of Prejudice.” The Pacific sociological review 1. 1 (1958). Print.

Blumer, Hebert. Race prejudice as a sense of group position. San Diego: Perseus books, 1979. Print.


Headlines twice the size of the events Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Headlines are texts that appear at the top of newspaper articles and they usually indicate the nature of the article below it. The purpose of a headline is to provide a quick preview of the story and it is usually meant to draw the reader’s attention. The editor, coeditor or other writers may compose a headline.

Those headlines that appear at the front page of the newspapers are usually bigger than those that are within the paper. Sometimes, headlines are written in such a way as to suggest that the story is actually more interesting or catchy that it really is. This is done to draw the attention of people as much as possible or to show the seriousness of the article.

Headlines twice the size of the event This statement is used to show how the headlines are usually exaggerated. When a person reads the headline, another thought or expectation may arise but that perception may change ones the person sits down to read it.

Sometimes, the headlines might appear greater than the events within its context if the reader – due to the short nature of the headlines – misunderstands it. The headlines should be short, precise and straight to the point. This might lead to the use of puns or alliteration in order to shorten it or make it as brief as possible.

This form of word play may lead to double meaning and this is usually unintentional. Some may make the story appear to be something completely different from what is being reflected from the heading. Headlines are meant to be catchy and draw the attention of readers and that is why writers try to make it more exciting than the story itself.

One method in which writers make the headlines catchy and make it grab the attention of reader is through diction. This is whereby the choice of words is used to interpret some set of events. For example, the words died and killed are different in terms of the semantic and emotional effect.

Similarly, the words kill and murder have different effects to the perceptions of the reader. The use of the word murder on the headline would make the story appear more gruesome and hence catchy. When the word kill is used in place of the word murder, it would not appear to be as serious.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another method used to make the headlines bigger than the event is through sensationalism or exaggeration. This is whereby the writer writes a headline that exaggerates the actual event in the story. In this case, the writer tries to increase the publication of the event or to increase the broadcast’s consumption.

They may also exaggerate stories in order to maximize the emotional response of the readers. However, this may appear to be a form of biasing since the writers may only do this to get the attention of the readers and compromise the truthfulness of the event itself.

Conclusion Headlines are important to readers since it gives them a preview of the story or the event within the article. A good headline gives a good understanding of the story and is self-explanatory. One would not require reading the whole story in order to understand the headline but the reverse is true. The reader should understand the story just by reading the headline. However, some headlines are usually exaggerated in order to be catchier to the readers.


The variations in handwriting that lead to individual characteristics Essay essay help free

Handwriting identification relies on the principle that there are individual characteristics that distinguish a person’s handwriting from that of another person. There are no two people in the world, who have the same handwriting just like fingerprints. Handwriting identification is based on the following concepts.

One, there are no two people who have the same writing manner. Two although a person’s handwriting varies, there is habitual features that appear in his or her handwriting and lastly the characteristics that are used to identify each persons’ handwriting vary to a lesser extent than the same characteristics in samples written by other people (Saferstein, 2010).

The differences in handwritings have made handwriting identification important in the modern world. Handwriting identification is a comparison study that tries to establish the writing in question was done by a specific person through comparison with other texts or samples.

In handwriting identification the aspect of variation in handwriting that are considered include; size of the letters, consistency or lack of it while writing, proximity of the letters to the base line, pressure applied while writing, alignment, and the writing instrument used (Mansikki, 2003).

How a forensic document examiner analyzes evidence from a photocopier, fax machine, printer, and typewriter The application of various sciences in law is referred to as forensic science. Forensic document examination is the application of allied sciences and analytical techniques to investigate documents. The examination of documents involves analysis and comparison of photocopies, handwriting, typewriting, printing, inks, and other materials in order to establish originality of the materials and detect any alterations.

Forensic document examiners may be asked to determine the machine or equipment that was use to produce a document. They may also be asked to establish the specific printer, photocopier, fax, or typewriter that was used to make the document. When examining documents written by a typewriter an examiner tries to look at several things. One, different typewriters are known to cut letters differently. The examiner may also look at the date on the paper and see if it is consistent with the age of the ribbon used in the typewriter.

Faxed documents are reduced slightly in size and the line quality is bad. In older models, the faxed document diagonal lines have jagged edges. When a forensic document examiner is investigating these documents, it is important to look at the original document to make comparisons and detect any alterations made. It is also important to look at the TTI (Transmit Terminal Identification) and the RTI (Receiving Terminal Identifier) to see if the document that are in question are authentic (Koppenhaver, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Photocopiers leaves trash marks on the copies made. These trash marks are caused by nicks on the drum and dirt on the glass. A forensic document examiner will seek to see if the trash marks on the paper will be consistent with the ones made on the sample he is trying to seek authenticity. Because of slippage when the paper goes through the photocopier the location of the marks may vary slightly but the marks from each page will align properly (Koppenhaver, 2007).

Color printers and photocopiers work by applying multi color and ink on to a paper or any other supporting medium. Many of these machines will form a repeated sequence of inconspicuous yellow dots on the entire surface of the paper or document. These yellow dots are inconspicuous to the eye, but can be seen in the non-printed part of the document when shone with ultraviolet light.

Where the relationship and location of the dot relative to the next indicates the serial number of the machine and the date and time the document or paper was made. Forensic document examiners look at these characteristics to make their conclusion about the machine and authenticity of the document (Koppenhaver, 2007).

References Huber, R. A.


Origins of Human Languages Descriptive Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The mother tongue hypothesis

The obligatory reciprocal altruism hypothesis

The gossip and grooming hypothesis


Works Cited

Introduction The origin of human languages can be termed as the surfacing of language among humans (Kenneally 10). This topic has remained highly controversial for a very long time. There is very little empirical evidence that can be used to guide research in this area. Numerous hypotheses have been put in place by different scholars to try and explain why and how language might have emerged and developed in human beings (Lieberman, McCarthy and Strait 1441).

This paper seeks to describe three hypotheses concerning the origin of human languages and set a personal point of view in regard to each hypothesis.

The mother tongue hypothesis This hypothesis was put forward in the year 2004 to try and get a solution to the problem of language origin. The theory seems to suggest that the Darwinian principle of “kin selection- convergence of genetic interests between relatives- may be part of the solution” (Harrub, Thompson and Miller pp. 5).

Mother tongue hypothesis was put forward by Tecumseh Fitch who suggests that language initially developed as a form of communication between mothers and their own off springs in what is often described as mother tongue. (Kenneally 56)

This extended later to other relatives such as siblings and other close relatives. The theory dwells on the idea that the interests of closely associated speakers and listeners were common. According to Fitch, the shared genetic makeup enabled relatives to build a considerable amount of trust and cooperation for the intrinsically unreliable signals which were later accepted as trustworthy words fit for communication (Lieberman, McCarthy and Strait 1441, pp. 4).

The mother tongue hypothesis may offer some explanation as to how human language came about but it does not provide any empirical data to support the thinking. In my view, the theory does not offer any reason as to why language developed only in the human species. All other animals, including apes share genes and live in some form of communities. The theory does not explain why language did not develop in such animals. The theory does not offer any substantive reasons as to why early humans restricted communication to relatives.

Though the theory might offer some important leads to unraveling the mystery behind human language development but it needs more empirical data to substantiate the argument (Kenneally 57).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The obligatory reciprocal altruism hypothesis It was put forward by Ib Ulbaek and it utilizes some principles from the Darwinian theory-reciprocal altruism, specifically to try and explain the high levels of confidence and honesty required for language development (Lieberman, McCarthy and Strait 1441). Reciprocal altruism can be described as the idea that “if you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours” (Kenneally 102, pp. 5).

Reciprocal altruism as used in this theory can be depicted as the relationship that is natured between people or individuals who interact constantly. However, language development at community level requires universal reciprocity rather than individual. Ulbaek explains this by pointing out that early human society must have had some form of moral regulation.

Again, this hypothesis does not provide any evidence to support the thinking. It does not give a clear picture of what mechanisms were in place to ensure that obligatory reciprocal altruism was enforced at the community level (Harrub, Thompson and Miller, pp. 6). Although proponents have offered some explanations, its not enough validate the theory.

Some critics have pointed out that verbal communication doesn’t really work in terms reciprocal altruism. I find this to be true as people do not always talk to other people or individuals who are willing to listen to them. It’s common to see people offering information or communicating to any person who is willing to listen without expecting anything in return (Kenneally 125).

The gossip and grooming hypothesis This hypothesis is based on the principle that “if you scratch my back I will scratch yours” and was put forward by Robin Dunbar (Kenneally 45, pp. 6). According to him, gossiping achieves the same objective for a group of humans living together as grooming in other primate species. Dunbar explains that, when human social groups began to swell up and become extremely large, the practice of grooming one’s associates became tiresome and problematic.

To counter this challenge, the early humans invented verbal communication as an efficient and cheap form of grooming (Harrub, Thompson and Miller, pp. 8). Thus to impress friends and other acquaintances, one only needed to utter some sounds. This would ensure that a large number of friends are kept happy simultaneously. Vocal grooming then gradually evolved into spoken language (Kenneally 120).

In my view, vocal grooming, as Dunbar calls it, could not have been a satisfactory alternative to manual grooming. The theory is however much better than the others as it offers a better explanation of what triggered verbal communication. But just like the others, it fails to offer any substantive explanation of how this verbal grooming transformed into a complex language (Kenneally 134).

We will write a custom Essay on Origins of Human Languages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion This paper sought to describe three hypotheses concerning the origin of human languages and set a personal point of view in regard to each hypothesis. The hypotheses identified include: the mother tongue hypothesis; the obligatory reciprocal altruism hypothesis; and the gossip and grooming hypothesis.

Proponents of three hypotheses try to offer some explanation of how human language came about but they extensively lack empirical evidence to support their arguments. More research is required to establish a more convincing explanation to this phenomenon.

Works Cited Harrub, Brad, Bert Thompson and Dave Miller. “The Origin of Langauge and

Communication:True Origin Archive.” 2003. 22 November 2011 .

Kenneally, Christine. The First Word: The Search for the Origins of Language. New York: Viking, 2007.

Lieberman, Philip, Robert McCarthy and David Strait. “The recent origin of human speech.” J Acoust. Soc. Am (2006): 119(5): 3441-3441.


Child Trafficking for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature review

Research methods


Discussion of results


Reference List

Abstract This paper focuses on child trafficking for sex exploitation, the factors that facilitate its growth and the reason why it is hard to detect and deter. Additionally, the paper focuses on the multiplicity of the issues and how this negates the gains made in efforts to combat the crime. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate child trafficking for the purpose of sex exploitation.

As such, the paper reviews existing literature. Since the paper aims at borrowing heavily from recent research, the study discriminates against studies conducted more than ten years ago. This research revels that child trafficking has grown into fully fledged trade. Child trafficking tends to transform, with time. This calls for continued research.

Introduction Human trafficking is a complicated problem. However, to understand scope within which the problem can be defined, UNICEF through the Palermo Protocol has provided a working definition.

Regardless of this, human trafficking assumed numerous dimensions. Coupled with the fact that human trafficking keeps transforming complicates it further. Numerous efforts have been initiated to curb the vice. However, lack of coordination affects progress towards successfully curbing the vice. Additionally lack information negates any anti child trafficking initiatives.

While trafficking of children for sex exploitation has flourished as a trade, the issue is obscured by overall efforts targeting the human trafficking. This necessitates further studies focusing on child trafficking for sex exploitation. This study focuses on the various issues dealing with child trafficking for exploitation as sex slaves and also proposes numerous ingenious recommendations (UNICEF, 2005).

Literature review Human trafficking is an age old tradition, and common in many parts of the world. This phenomenon is manifested in various ways. Additionally, human trafficking has undergone transformation over time. This makes it difficult to detect, define and deter (Norris, 2008).

While human trade has been there since time immemorial, the complexity of the matter is intensified by the fact that the term trafficking is used to refer to the various activities that involves the illegal transfer of people across borders (Dottridge, 2008). Because these activities are varied, it is thus difficult to develop a universally acceptable definition of the term human trafficking. Human trafficking is precipitated by a combination of factors, which further increases the complexity of the matter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major factors that precipitate human trafficking are: demand for cheap labor across national borders, the evolution of sex as an economic activity and the restrictions imposed on legal cross border migration (Norris, 2008). Additionally, globalization has facilitated human trafficking since it has opened opportunities for people to legally cross international border in such of better economic opportunities (Vadura, 2009).

Despite the fact that there are existing difficulties involved in defining and understating human trafficking (Dottridge’s 2008), the United Nations has developed a definition within which human trafficking is perceived. This definition is contained in the Palermo Protocol, which sets to harmonize the various issues involved in human trafficking.

According to UNICEF Article 3(a) of the Palermo Protocol, human trafficking is defined as “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion … for the purpose of exploitation” (UNICEF, 2005).

Within this definition, the scope of children trafficking is alluded to, in that UNICEF refers to human trafficking as involving the transfer of people in vulnerable positions for the purposes of exploitation, which including sexual exploitation (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006). Since children are some of the most vulnerable social groups, their plight is recognized within this definition.

Children are the biggest victims of trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation as well as to supply cheap labor (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006). There seems to be two major markets for child slaves: countries within conflict zones, and rich countries mostly in Europe.

According to UNICEF, Poverty seems to be the motivating factor for traffic of children to these two markets (UNICEF, 2005). In conflict zones, children are recruited into armies and act as soldiers, chefs, messengers and other minor duties related to war. Eventually, they are introduced to sex slavery. However, children are trafficked to economically developed countries with the promise of good jobs. They are gradually forced into sex trade (Wolthuis and Blaak 2001).

Governments as well as local and International Non Governmental Organizations and other human rights organizations have with time increased surveillance activities to deter human trafficking (Dottridge (2008). This phenomenon obscures child trafficking, since the interests of children vulnerable to trafficking are largely ignored.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Child Trafficking for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This phenomenon makes children trafficking especially for sexual exploitation successful. Additionally, that little data exists on the number of children trafficked throughout the world (Dottridge, 2008). With regards to the notion that there exists minimal data on the magnitude of child traficking, answer to Dottridge (2008) assertions, UNICEF confirms that by the year 2001, the number of children trafficked annually had reached 1.8 million (Staiger, 2005).

This indicates that child trafficking has matured as a trade and is necessitated by a number of factors. As such, due to the ever changing nature of child trafficking, there needs to be concerted efforts aimed at curbing this vice. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the latest developments and propose workable solutions.

Research methods The purpose of this research paper is to evaluate the extent of child trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation by reviewing existing research results. As such, archival research method seems relevant for this paper. To arrive at conclusive results, data was sought from scholarly articles as well as from standard documents from recognized bodies such as UNICEF.

Researching for this paper required that a working definition be established. As such, to arrive at this definition, various sources were consulted, all of which pointed to the UN Palermo Protocol. This was thus taken as the standard working definition for this paper. Once the standard definition was established, various recent documents were sought with the aim of establishing latest research results.

These documents were organized into those dealing with the nature of the industry, this dealing with causative factors and those highlighting suggested recommendations. To arrive at a well informed paper, ideas within these papers were compared and contrasted. This was not only intended at highlighting the differences in ideas within but also attempted to harmonize these ideas into a workable solutions. Conclusions were then drawn from these varied sources.

Findings Human trafficking is a fledging global problem despite the concerted efforts to curb it. Despite the numerous laws developed to curtail the growth of human trade, the vice has continuously been transformed, making it difficult to deter. Human trafficking is multifaceted; it takes various forms which usually go undetected.

The scope within which child trafficking is perceived as can be termed as: any illegal transfer of persons in positions of vulnerability for the purposes of exploitation (UNICEF 2005; Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics (2006).

These include servitude, exploitation for sex, trade of human parts, slavery and any other purpose which is against the basic human rights. UNICEF in this case does not mention child trafficking (UNICEF, 2005). However, the plight of children vulnerable to trafficking is alluded to in this definition by the mere mentioned of the term vulnerable groups (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Child Trafficking for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Existing data indicate variation in the number of children involved in child trafficking. Different sources indicate varying figures. About 1.8 million children are trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation (UNICEF, 2005). But by 2007 the figure had risen to puts the figure at 2 million (Rafferty, 2007).

Child trafficking seems to be precipitated by economic factors and that it is estimated that the industry is worth more than US $ 5m (UNICEF, 2005). In his regard it is imperative to mention that there are two major markets for child trafficking, an idea that is loosely alluded to by (Wolthuis and Blaak, 2001; Staiger, 2005).

The biggest market is into the rich nations especially in Europe and the United States of America. Within this market children are lured from poorer countries in Africa, Europe and Asia with the promise of good jobs. Most of the risky groups for this market are women in their teens, especially those who come from poverty prone areas (Wolthuis and Blaak, 2001).

Additionally, these teen girls have low levels of education. This makes them more vulnerable to trafficking since their low level of education only qualifies them for low paying jobs. Children are coerced, or manipulated into sex slavery and prostitution. These children are recruited for production of pornographic films and movies for sale (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006; Wolthuis and Blaak, 2001).

The second biggest market for child trafficking is within the conflict regions. Within these regions, children are usually recruited as soldiered, couriers, chefs, cleaners and other jobs related to war. Those vulnerable for trafficking into conflict zones are children vulnerable to economic hardships as well as those with low levels of education (Wolthuis and Blaak 2001).

Regardless of the market into which these children are trafficked, the consequences are usually similar. These children are subject to both physical and psychological abuse. They are also exposed to abuse of drugs, infection of dangerous STDs such as HIV, as well as death. Isolation from family members, relatives and friends has negative socio-psychological impact on the victims (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics 2006).

Child trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation thrives due to a number of factors. Globalization is one of the major factor which facilities which has led to elimination of strict legal cross border restrictions (Vadura, 2009). However, this notion is not universally acceptable since economic benefits seem to trigger child trafficking (Norris, 2008).

However, international migration laws have necessitated child trafficking, as cunning child traffickers seek to exploit the gains of globalization. These children end up being sex slaves. Rise of sex an economic activity, the imposition of cross border migration laws and the demand for cheap labor in developed countries mainly contributes to child trafficking (Norris, 2008). Combined, these four factors have made it easier to develop a thriving trade of children for the purposes of sex exploitation.

Currently, efforts to deter human trafficking are minimal and less effective. However, there needs to be development of guidelines specifically targeting trafficking of children for sexual exploitation. Additionally, these guidelines should be multi layered: should have the ability to be implemented at both the national and international level (Dottridge, 2008).

Furthermore, there should be a multi layered anti child trafficking guidelines (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006; Dottridge 2008). However the most effective means to curb child trafficking for sexual exploitation should mainly involve bridging the existing information gaps (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006). This will largely involve establishing a system that coordinates anti child trafficking initiatives at both national and international levels.

Additionally, there needs to be public forum to discuss the issue. These forums should target men, especially with the aim of educating them on the negative elements of the vice since men “create the demand for sex slavery” (Dottridge, 2008). Thus, there is need to implement findings of research done with regards child trafficking, as well as increase financial backing to anti child trafficking initiatives (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006)

Discussion of results Child trafficking for sexual exploitation is a thriving industry, worth more than US $ 5m (UNICEF 2005). This involves trafficking of more than about 2 million children annually. This is indicative of the enormous economic value of child trafficking. a combination of demand for cheap labor, demand for sex, globalization and the limitation of migration laws seems to include child trafficking (Norris, 2008; Vadura, 2009).

However, all these factors seem to conglomerate around a number of issues directly related to economics. To begin with, victims of child trafficking are venerable because of economics reasons. As explained by risky groups come from areas hard hit by poverty and economic decline (UNICEF, 2005; Wolthuis and Blaak, 2001).

As such, these victims see the opportunity to move abroad in search of better jobs as chances not only to empower themselves economically but also their families. Additionally, victims of child trafficking for sexual exploitation have low levels of education. This makes them only qualify for low levels jobs, and subject to exploitation. This adds to their vulnerability. The promise of well paying jobs abroad seems an opportunity for personal economic growth

Child traffickers take advantage of such vulnerability. The lure of better jobs abroad especially in economically developed countries makes these children easy targets. Once inside the child trafficking rings, these children are manipulated coerced and threatened into sexual prostitution, production of pornographic films and sex slavery. The fact that these children are illegal immigrants with no chance for legal recourse traps them inside the vice. This makes them into objects of trade for the benefit of child traffickers.

Human trafficking is complicated by its multifaceted nature, making efforts to deter it almost impossible. However a combination of initiatives would go along way into curbing this menace. As explained by the formulation of multi layered legal framework would enable anti child trafficking forces deter this vice (Dottridge, 2008).

These guidelines would be implemented at both the national and international level. While this implies the need for cross national cooperation, these guidelines would not be beneficial without proper coordination efforts.

As such, implementation of intergovernmental coordination seems relevant (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006). Additionally, the fact that child trafficking is a multi million dollar industry need an equal amount of funding to effectively deal with powerful cartels that control child trafficking. As such, increased funding would go along way in giving anti child trafficking agents the necessary financial might (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006).

Since child trafficking is in constant state of transformation, it should be subject to constant review. As such, continuous studies need to be done, to assist the anti child trafficking agents understand its changing dynamics. Findings of these studies should be implemented (Tiurukanova and Institute for Urban Economics, 2006). Combinedly, all these efforts would not only target to bridge the information gap that exists but also help reduce cases of child trafficking significantly.

Conclusion Child trafficking for the purpose of sex exploitation has grown into a multi million dollar industry. Victims of this heinous act are usually left with both physical and psychological scars. A lot of efforts seem to be directed towards combating human trafficking. This obscures the trafficking of children for the purposes of sex exploitation.

To combat this crime, new initiatives needs to be directed towards curbing trafficking of children. This will only be achieved through continued research and implementation of research findings. Additionally increased coordination of anti trafficking initiates coupled with increased funding would enable anti child trafficking agents deal with the menace more efficiently

Reference List Dottridge, M., (2008). Child trafficking for sexual purposes. Web.

This is a theme paper on child trafficking. The paper provides insights into the general issues involved in child trafficking, challenges and possible solutions. The paper also notes that there has been very little effort in developing guidelines to deal with child trafficking for sexual exploitation.

Norris, L., (2008). Child Trafficking in the UK: An examination of contemporary approaches. Internet Journal of Criminology. Web.

This is an exploratory study into the current thinking with regards to human trafficking. Norris focuses on trafficking of children into UK, and suggests three major factors which facilitate trafficking children into UK. Additionally, child trafficking is seen as an ever changing phenomenon.

Rafferty, Y., (2007). Children for Sale: Child Trafficking in Southeast Asia. Child Abuse Review 16:401-422.

This is an exploratory study into sale of children in Asia as sex slaves. The paper focuses on numbers of children trafficked. Additionally the paper describes the various types of children sex slaves as well as the various types of sex crime offenders

Staiger, I. (2005). Trafficking in Children for the purpose of Sexual Exploitation in the EU. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 13(4):603-624.

This is an expository study that focuses on the statistics of children being trafficked into the European Union. Other than focusing on other issues related to child trafficking, the study also highlights the economic value of the European child slave industry.

Tiurukanova, E. and Institute for Urban Economics. (2006). Human trafficking in the Russian federation Inventory and analysis of the current Situation and responses. Web.

This is an extensive report on the human trafficking situation in Russia. The report focuses on the transit of human from countries of origin into Russia. Additionally, this report provides novel recommendation on how to curb the human trafficking vice.

UNICEF. (2005). Combating Child Trafficking. UNICEF. Web.

This is the blue print document as pertaining child trafficking. The paper provides the legal scope of human trafficking, the statistics as well as other legal enforcement procedure implemented in efforts to curb human trafficking.

Vadura, K., (2009). Globalization and human commodities: combating child trafficking in the European Union. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. Web.

This is an expository study which reveals a number of issues concerning the trafficking of children and women. The paper defines human trafficking as an issue that violates basic human rights. Additionally, globalization is highlighted as major factor which facilitates human trafficking.

Wolthuis, A., and Blaak, M., (2001). Trafficking in children for sexual purposes from Eastern Europe to Western Europe. Web.

This is a special study that focuses on the trafficking of children for sexual exploitation within the European Union. The study not only focuses on the movement of children from Eastern to Western Europe but also described vulnerable groups at risk of trafficking.


Importance of Civic Engagement Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Factors Influencing Civic Engagement

History of Civic Engagement

Effects of Civic Engagement



Civic engagement is whereby people work to make a difference in the local life of their communities and society, and developing combination of skills, knowledge, motivation and values in order to make that difference. Civic engagement can also mean “promoting the life value of the people in a community through both nonpolitical and political processes.”[1]

There are different forms of engagement. First is political engagement. Here, the community is engaged in political activities, like voting, which involves partisan advocacy. The second form is civic engagement. This is whereby the community takes place in organizing and development activities which involves social justice.

The community also engages in civic reflection that is, they are able to get into debates and discussion in the public sphere. In this case, it involves journalism and environmentalism. The third form is religious engagement. Religious engagement is faith-based, where initiatives are acted upon based on faith and religion of the community or society. In this case, there’s involvement of inter-faith dialogues and action.

Factors Influencing Civic Engagement There are several factors that affect and / or influence civic engagement within the communities in the United States of America. These may influence civic engagement positively or negatively. First are strong traditions and beliefs, attaching them with philanthropy or humanity towards the community or “individuals (public and private).”[2] Second, strong and robust civil society organizations and nonprofit organizations in the country influence civic engagement.

Third, different viewpoints of communities in the public sphere may influence civil engagement. Consecutively, government also influences civic engagement by having its policies and support of service. For instance, there are Peace Corps and AmeriCorps in America. Lastly, there exists many pressing social concerns and needs in the society which influence civil engagement in America.

History of Civic Engagement Civic engagement originated between 1880 and 1900. This was due to the emergence of social work in response to the needs of immigrants in urban centers, in America. Civic engagement was also developed in civic engagement centers in university campuses due to settlement house movement.

Jane Addams was the first woman in history to receive a Nobel Peace Prize in the year 1931, after coming up with the Jane Addams Hull House foundation, which seeks to improve communities’ social conditions in Chicago and Illinois area. The Civil Rights Movement (CRM) was between 1950s and 1960s whereby there was the Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus boycott. Martin Luther King Jr. said, “Everybody can be distinguished… because anybody can serve, one does not need a college degree to serve. [3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More American Democratic Protest (ADP) was introduced for civic engagement of the public. Most people may think that the American Democratic Protests only works with democratic causes, like voter registration. ADP promotes voter registration also encourages other activities.

The ADP’s goals were aimed at getting students in campuses involved in advocacy activities like protests and community meetings, with the hopes of causing positive change in the social environment. The ADP also created opportunities, for example, Fishing Has No Boundaries, whereby students run the group which allows disabled people to have fun relaxing. This has facilitated students to volunteer their time on such activities.

Effects of Civic Engagement Civic engagement earns the community social capital: this is the cover title of all positive effects of interactions in the community. The benefits that come with social capital are education for the community dwellers, increased safety in the community, decreased crime, illiteracy, and health and socioeconomic disparity. Depending on engagement in civic activities, social capital can either be gained or lost according to the behavior.

Civic engagement service as a strategy aimed to meet the challenges in the community and the nation at large, for instance, strengthening the schools in the community and addressing the dropout crises in the community. This improves the education in the community and the country in extension.

Civic engagement also helps in improving energy efficiency also safeguarding available energy in the community. This facilitates safeguarding the environment and its resources. This in turn also helps in improving health care; it also expands the economic opportunities in communities which have low income.

Civic engagement helps in preparing for and responding to disasters and emergencies in the community and the country. All these contemporary examples of civic engagement practice and policies came into shape after the recent passing of the Edward M. Kennedy: Serve America Act.

The supporters of direct democracy, since the Progressive Era, claim that the use of a ballot initiative results in strengthening democracy in the country by encouraging a more active and engaged citizenry. Advocates argued that the ballot initiative process would help in the reformation of voters by encouraging them in participative public policy making. Allowing citizens to act as lawmakers increases their interest in politics.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Importance of Civic Engagement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, civil engagement is an overriding theme in civil dialogues as social commentators and policy-makers search for more democratic and collective ways to send messages to the government.

While the Progressive reformers in the 20th century aimed in the creation of bureaucratic, hierarchical, rule-based organizations in the administrative state to prevent corruption in politics, the current reformers, support less hierarchical governmental organizations in order to increase civil participation in enhancing government responsiveness to citizen demands and policy making.

This model of participation suggests that there’s improved and strengthened relation between policy-makers and citizens that will improve policy-making. This is a core element of moral governance. Digital democracy, e-government, deliberative democracy and strong democracy are participatory mechanisms, which are designed in expanding the circle of people involved in policy-making, thus allowing civic officials to get new sources of information and ideas when making decisions.

Proponents of these mechanisms of civic engagement also suggest that they will help in building public trust in the country’s government, also strengthen civic capacity of the community. As per Progressive reformers and contemporary normative theorists, in order to make the government to function well, one needs to foster collective and individual participation in decision-making processes.

While civic engagement is public-based, with the public deciding on public issues by a direct vote, political scientists have begun to explore empirically whether giving the public a direct voice in the legislature procedure, in fact, improves the public’s participation and interest in politics.

Recent studies conclude that civic engagement or direct democracy have a positive effect on voter turnout. The state-level data was the basis of this conclusion. The ballot data from 1972 to 1996 indicates that, the presence of outstanding initiatives and popular referenda increases the turnout in interim elections by around 3% above the states without civic engagement, but not present in the presidential election years.

It is evident that the states with more public initiatives on the ballot have higher voter turnout in both presidential election and interim elections, around 4% and around 8% respectively, than states without ballot initiative.

These studies suggest that there is more pronounced turnout in interim elections, which have low information, low turnout affairs and fewer mobilization sources, because of the initiative. In such elections, the marginal voters may be sensitive to the mobilization sources that exist, such as ballot propositions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Civic Engagement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ballot initiatives may generate interest and bring information in an election, which may further lead to higher voter turnout. On the other hand, presidential elections have high information, high motivation, which may weaken the mobilization influence on ballot measures.

Using more recent data and sophisticated methods for research challenge previous studies that did not find a positive impact of ballot measures on voter turnout. There is lower turnout in the American electorate compared to other western countries, especially among the less affluent, younger, non-white, and less partisan citizens.

If citizen political participation is preferred in a country and ballot measures increases voter turnout, then the initiatives are a reasonable thing despite their content, policy or outcome. Scholars of electoral studies should be interested in the impacts of initiatives on voter turnout, as there are more initiatives on local and state ballots presently more than ever before.

Another civic engagement or political participation, in addition to voting, is the contribution of money to political causes. The exposure to initiative campaigns enables citizens to donate money to political parties, candidates, and interest groups. The enhanced image and visibility of worth that groups receive from this activity may stimulate more individuals to make donations. Such process would be necessary for implications for democratic theory.

Pluralist scholars have been arguing that wide civic engagement ensures that the diverse interests will add into the political process. Recent research suggest that the states with civic engagement have more diverse, and larger interest group systems compared to states without civic engagement.

Other scholars suggest that citizen groups are the main beneficiaries in direct democracy elections, rather than economic groups. A mechanism through which the initiative process may increase the diversity and size of interest group representation is through citizen contributions to them. It has been proven that citizens living in states with civic engagement are more likely to give money to interest groups, than those living in states which do not have this institutional mechanism.

Civic engagement or direct legislation would make the voter recognize that he/she is independent, since decision making on ballot actions bring voters into a nearer touch with vast affairs, and allows voters to start taking shape and becoming a sovereign in both fact and fancy.

If ballot initiatives help in producing a more engaged and politically self-confident electorate, they also create a more informed electorate. The exposure effects on civic engagement at political knowledge may be similar to the effect of media exposure. Watching the news on TV has been positively associated with knowledge on politics.

While an extensive prose, documents how citizens can make voting decisions on the initiative with clear directives from the elected officials, media, interest groups and political party endorsements, scholars have not systematically explored how civic engagement campaigns may advance political knowledge among citizens.

Scholars have found, from pioneers of political surveys and contemporary researchers, that Americans have little interest in political knowledge. However, it is evident that political learning is profoundly influenced by the political environment. Sophistication politically is endogenous to three broad factors: the ability to organize and assimilate political information; the desire or motive to follow political affairs; and exposure to information on politics.

Exposure to information on politics may be a function of the quantity of times with which such information is availed, media use, and communications technology. Civic engagement campaigns may create marginal opportunities for political learning, thus increasing political sophistication and political knowledge.

In relation to civic engagement, there are nonprofit organizations, which are involved in civic engagement campaigns and initiatives. “Citizen Schools” is a nationally recognized organization that is dedicated to educating using service learning outside of the classroom.

They provide programs for middle-school-aged youths, connecting them with businesses, adult volunteers and nonprofit organizations, in order for them to learn about their roles as citizens and learn more about their communities. “Do something” is an initiative aimed at making the service more appealing to the youth.

The program includes ideas floated monthly to “challenge the youth to engage in the community and presents awards to service role-models.”[4] They have come up with a magazine titled BUILD. “Hands on a Network” is an organization that seeks to solve the hardships in a society through service.

This network realizes the dimensionality of civic engagement and service by emphasizing the work done by volunteers and the meaning of experience to them. “Sustainable Seattle” is an organization which utilizes the social capital building and civic engagement in its economic, ecological and community sustainability programs. This organization is an example of a metropolitan level model of civic engagement, focusing on education, local business and neighborhood development.

There are also websites that are related to civic engagement. “American Psychological Association’s Civic Engagement and Service-Learning” is a site which emphasizes on the psychological connection between service-learning and civic engagement. “Journal of Civic Commitment” is an online academic journal that provides research and ideas on how to slot in commitment to the community with learning.

“Community College National Center for Community Engagement”, is a site that provides information on current and past issues. “Learn and Serve America” is part of Corporation for National


Marketing mix of Corolla Toyota car Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Product





Works Cited

Corolla Toyota car is one of the many products of the Toyota Group, a Japanese car maker. Corolla Toyota is a brand name that was introduced in 1966 and it became a best seller in 1997. Under the Toyota Corolla, there are numerous brands that have been designed to meet the demands, expectations and tastes of the people. The research paper analyses the marketing mix of Toyota Corolla using the 4ps to determine its competitive advantage. The 4ps are product, price, place, and promotion.

Product Toyota Corolla is the most successful product of all the Toyota group products. This is because of its adaptability, reliability, dependability, and affordable price. Toyota corolla is small, fuel efficient, inexpensive, and dependable car compared to other brands of Toyota group (Edmund para.1).

It can be used by any person regardless of the gender. Since its introduction in US, it has been designed in various body styles like the wagon, hatchback, coupe, and sedan. The sedan is the latest design of the Toyota Corolla car which is some expensive than the past model although it has been successful. Sedans from other competitors have also been giving the brand a huge competition.

The competitors of the Toyota Corolla are Mazda, Hyundai, Honda, and Chevrolet, Honda, Hyundai and Mazda (Edmunds para.5). It has been outdone by its competitors in its value, driving pleasure, and interior quality. Toyota Corolla has increased its sales through branding and public imaging. For example, Corolla is a household name in US for the brand is affordable, reliable, and dependable.

Product life cycle of Toyota Corolla

Source: Anonymous

The development of Toyota corolla was initiated through market research and development. The product was developed with features that met the requirements of a middle class citizen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the aspects that were considered during the development of the product include affordability, cost, dependability, and rate of fuel consumptions. During its introduction in the markets, Toyota corolla was well marketed to create brand awareness. The product was well accepted in the market upon its introduction. High sales were reported in U.S especially from the middle class families.

This was followed by the growth stage that saw Toyota corolla establish a strong market. For example, a strong brand was established in the US and other parts upon its introduction in the market (Edmunds n.d). Through advertisements and promotions, the Corolla was able to gain a large market share competing with other motor vehicle products like the Mazda and Chevrolet. However, the product had little competition at this phase as it was at the epitome of its success.

During the maturity phase, Corolla become stable but somehow started to decline as competitors started to catch up in the competitive market. However, the product had to be differentiated through the introduction of new features.

For example, the 2011 Toyota Corolla has more features than the 2010 Corolla. According to the U.S News (2011), the Corolla is struggling to compete with other vehicles. This can support that the vehicle has reached its maturity stage. The company has expanded the distribution channels of the Corolla to Middle East and other nations in south and Latin America.

The Toyota Corolla has reached its decline phase since the market has become saturated. For example, most of the 2009 and 2010 Corollas have been recalled because of the faulty technical problems (US News 2011). This has threatened the reputation of the brand as well as the brand image. It is all evident that Corolla is now unable to compete with other reliable cars like Honda Civic and the Ford Fiesta (US News 2011).

Price Toyota corolla cars are known for their affordable prices. The current price of the cars ranges from $16,300 – $18,600 at retail price (Edmunds n.d). Because of its affordable prices, Corolla has become the most economical and affordable car for different customers. Pricing is also based on segmentation where different geographical regions have different prices based on aspects like tax, transport and warehousing costs.

Toyota corolla uses both the penetration pricing and the economy pricing strategies to reach the demands of its customers. For instances, during the introduction of the Corolla Toyota in U.S, it used the penetration strategy. This pricing strategy is based on low price and high quality of the vehicles.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing mix of Corolla Toyota car specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The objective of this pricing strategy was to reach middle class and working customers. The strategy also ensured that the targeted customers would enjoy the high quality dependability, reliability, and affordable costs. The strategy was used to gain the US markets thus making them the number one selling cars.

On the other hand, the current Toyota Corolla prices are based on the economy pricing. Economy pricing strategy is based on low price and low quality strategy. The strategy objective has been developed to reach a wide number of customers. It has also been used to offer a competitive price that is affordable to a wide spectrum of its customers.

Place/distribution Toyota Corolla cars are distributed through a wide range of networks that reach the targeted population in the required time frame. The primary markets of the Toyota Corolla are Japan, North America Asia, Europe, and Africa. Toyota Corolla itself is a distribution channel that is used by Toyota Group to distribute the product to its consumers. In Japan, Toyota corolla has 67 independent dealership channels, 7 which are owned by Toyota and 74 outlets which are used to sell the products (Toyota, p.25).

The sale subsidiaries are used to support the sale of vehicles outside Japan in markets like Asia, Europe, and North America. The sales channels that have been used to distribute and sale the Corollas have been credited for the success of the products. The Corolla channel is used to focus on the customers at retail levels. The compact models are distributed through these channels reaching the wide range of customers (Toyota p.25).

Promotion Toyota Corolla is promoted and advertised using different methods. Some of the commonly used aspects of promotion of Toyota Corolla include advertising, sales promotions, personal selling and public relations. For example, the Toyota corolla 2011 was promoted through the television where a Japanese renowned artiste was featured (Nutley 2011).

The advert was also availed to different Toyota Corolla fans through Androids and iTunes. The adverts are also featured on the Toyota website where the prices and features. By the use of female celebrity in advertising the Toyota Corolla, sex appeal is applied to reach the consumers. It portrays a car that is comfortable, easy to use, and dependable. Female models are also used during the launch of the cars in the market giving a feminine aspect of care as portrayed by women.

The 2011 Toyota corolla

Source: Walker (2011)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing mix of Corolla Toyota car by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Toyota corolla uses personal selling to reach its customers. For example, the sale s distribution network for Toyota products is largest in Japan where sales personnel are used to sale the products (Toyota p.24). The sales persons visit the customers in the offices and homes and persuade them to buy the products.

However, this form of advertising is being replaced by the use of showrooms sales (Toyota p.24). The use showrooms have the capacity of giving the customer first hand information and it gives the customers the chance to see the Corolla cars. The company Toyota Group has also established partnership dealerships were the Toyota corolla are availed in different markets in the world (Toyota p.25).

Toyota Corolla cars are advertised in magazines like the Motor sports that features other cars. The magazine is able to reach a large number of customers. Other magazines include the Automobile and top gear. Other forms of advertising Toyota Corolla include the use of leaflets, posters and brochures that are used to showcase the cars. The descriptions such as dependability, reliability, and affordability are also included.

Conclusion Based on analysis, Toyota Corolla has been a successful product in the market since its introduction. This has been necessitated by some of the aspects like affordability, dependability, efficient fuel consumption, and reliability. However, Toyota Corolla has reached its decline phase as it has become less competitive compared to other products like Honda Civic and Mazda. This has been because of producing better cars by the competitors.

Works Cited Edmunds. “Toyota Corolla Review.” Web.

Nutley, Michael. “Virtual Pop Star Performs in AR to Promote Toyota Corolla.”. N.p., September 2011. Web.

Toyota., “Life Cycle Analysis.” Toyota, 2011. Web.

Toyota., “Toyota motor corporation.” 2011. Web.

U.S News. “2011 Toyota Corolla.” U.S News, : 8/26/11. Web.

Walker, Allen. “the 2011 Toyota Corolla mark’s US debut(updated).” 2011. Web.


Do Violent Video Games Cause Behavior Problems? Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Prevalence of Video Games in the United States

Why Video Games Increase Aggression and Violence

GAAM: Input Variables and Internal States

Long-Term Effects of Video Game Violence

Unique Dangers of Violent Video Games

Works Cited

One’s mode of living can be affected by entertainment media. Most behaviors that kids and adults deem suitable come, partially, from the lessons they obtain from movies and television. There exist solid theoretical rationales to suppose that violent video games will include analogous, and perhaps additional, impacts on aggression.

Nevertheless, there exist few writings on the impact of exposure to video game violence since it is a new area of concern in the present U.S. culture. Hence, some people argue that video games do not cause as much aggression as that caused by watching violent TV and movies. This paper proofs that video games have severe, long term and short term behavior effects, which are worse than those of TV and movies.

Prevalence of Video Games in the United States Media violence is vastly consumed by the U.S. residents. Children and youths with years between 8 and 18 use over 40 hours every week on media excluding time spent on homework and school assignments (Ballard and Jefferson 717). Although television is the most common form of media used, electronic, video games have speedily gained popularity.

A number of children between the ages 2 to 18, approximately 10%, spend over one hour each day playing computer video games (Fling 39). Amongst boys aged between 8 to 13 years, the average number of hours spent on these games is over 7.5 hour each week (Harris and Williams 306). Learners in higher institutions of learning as well play video games frequently. By 1998, 13.3% of men joining universities spent at least 6 hr per week on video games (Irwin 337).

A year later, the number had augmented to 14.8%. Besides, 2% of the men accounted playing video games over 20 hour each week in 1998. A year later, the number enlarged to 2.5%. While the initial video games surfaced in the late 1970s, violent video games became popular in 1990s, with the homicide games Street Fighter, Wolfenstein 3D and Mortal Kombat (Ballard and Jefferson 717). All these three games involve murdering or hurting enemies.

The graphics, for instance, blood and echoes of these games were radical at the phase of their establishment. Before the last part of the 20th century, further graphically violent games grew to be accessible to all players, regardless of age (Gerbner 10). Although a number of enlightening, nonviolent, games subsist, the most profoundly advertised and utilized games are those that are violent.

Girls and boys in the fourth grade, 59% and 73% respectively, report that most of their preferred games are those that contain acts of violence (Dietz 425). A key area of concern is the lack of parental supervision. Most youths in grades 8 up to 12 details that merely 1% of their parents ever disallowed a purchase due to its rating, and 90% of their parents never verified the ratings of the games ahead of their purchase (Kirsh 180).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Video Games Increase Aggression and Violence A number of reasons for predicting exposure to violent video games to augment aggressive conduct in both the long term (constant exposure over a phase of years) and short term (in about 20 minutes of the game) exist.

Founded on some former models of human aggression, the General Aggression Model is a valuable framework for appreciating the impacts of violent media. The act of aggression is mainly founded on the learning, stimulating, and use of aggression-associated knowledge constructions amassed in the memory, such as schemas and scripts.

Conditional input variables, such as latest exposure to violent media games, pressure aggressive behavior via their effect on the individual’s current internal state, symbolized by affective, cognitive and stimulation variables.

Violent media augment aggression through teaching spectators how to be hostile, through priming violent cognitions, counting, formerly, learned aggressive perceptual schemata and aggressive scripts, by mounting arousal, or by forming an aggressive affective condition (Anderson and Deuser 166). Long-term impacts, as well, engross learning procedures. From childhood, humans discover how to perceive, understand, critic, and react to actions in the social and physical surroundings (Geen and Mathew 15).

A variety of knowledge constructions for these actions builds up ultimately. They are normally founded on daily interpretations and relations with other persons. Every violent-media incident becomes a new learning experience. As the cognitions constructions are repeated, they grow to be highly differentiated, composite and hard to modify.

Another model of academic and social impacts of exposure to media violence has been created by Huesmann (Huesmann 37). This model demonstrates that as a child grows to be aggressive regularly, the qualities and social relations that she/he practices also vary. All told the amalgamations of long-term and short-term procedures create the positive relation linking aggressive-violent behavior and exposure to media violence.

GAAM: Input Variables and Internal States Both situational and personal variables can alter an individual’s character through affective, arousal and cognitive variables. For instance, individuals who score high on tests of aggressive traits have highly available information structures for aggression-associated knowledge. They assume aggressive views more regularly than do those persons who attain less on aggressive personality tests, and have social acuity schemas that result to aggressive perception, belief, and provenance prejudices.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Do Violent Video Games Cause Behavior Problems? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The present accessibility of aggression-associated cognitive structures can as well be influenced by situational input variables. Being affronted may lead an individual to consider of how to revenge the insult in a destructive manner.

Playing a violent video game, as well, can augment the availability of violent cognitions by semantic priming procedures. Just seeing an image of a gun or other arm can augment the availability of aggressive feelings. Both input variables control an individual’s existing affective condition, for instance, aggression-associated feelings of aggression or rage.

Several individuals feel irritated nearly at all times. A number of circumstances can make someone irritated. Nevertheless, we do anticipate that playing violent video games will habitually boost thoughts of rage, weighed against playing a peaceful game. Certainly, playing an annoying game is apt to amplify rage (Bandura 91). Nevertheless violent material, in the lack of another aggravation, is liable to have small direct effect on affect.

Long-Term Effects of Video Game Violence Impacts of long-term media violence on aggression emerge from over-learning, growth and reinforcement of aggression-linked cognition systems. Every occasion persons play violent video games they practice aggressive scripts that edify and strengthen violent acts against others, positive thinking about the use of violence, caution for opponents, anticipations that others will act in violent ways and viewpoints that aggressive solutions are efficient and suitable.

Moreover, frequent exposure to graphic acts of violence is apt to be desensitizing. The formation of these aggression-linked cognitive structures and the desensitization outcomes transform the individual’s character.

Players involved in video game for long can emerge more aggressive in attitudes, perceptual prejudices, attitudes, values, and actions than they were prior to the frequent exposure or would have befallen with no such exposure. Hypothetically, these long-term transformations in aggressive behavior function in the instant situation via both input variables explained in GAAM; situation and person variables.

The relation to person variables is clear–the individual is now violent in attitude and tendency. However, the way long-term impacts of frequent contact to violent video games can alter situational variables is less apparent. Nevertheless, Huesmann has constructed a lucid model of the academic and social impacts of experience to violence on television (Huesmann 37).

When an individual grows to be aggressive, the social surroundings react. Persons who are ready to interrelate with them, the nature of exchanges that are made, and the circumstances made accessible to the individual all transform. Relations with parents, teachers, and nonviolent peers are apt to deteriorate, whereas exchanges with other aggressive peers might augment. Hence, we anticipate getting a positive relationship between an individual’s height of experience to violent video games and his/her aggressive actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Do Violent Video Games Cause Behavior Problems? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unique Dangers of Violent Video Games Current information indicates that concern regarding the potentially harmful effects of playing violent video games is not mislaid. Additional reflection on some key traits of violent video games denotes that their risks may well be larger than the risks of violent movies or violent television. Three motives can elucidate this. The first is the desire to identify with the aggressive person (Leyens 375). The player presumes the characteristics of the champion, and at times, selects a trait whose qualities the player then adopts.

The player directs the act of this character and frequently visualizes the video game globe via that character’s sight. Hence, the chief character is identical with the game player, latently intensifying the effect of the game. The second cause of concern is the active contribution pertaining video games. Study on the catharsis hypothesis discloses that aggressive behavior typically augments later aggressive mannerisms (Bushman 955).

The dynamic task of the video game player entails opting to aggress and behaving g in an aggressive way. This preference and action constituent of video games might lead to the building of a more whole aggressive script, than would happen in the inert role adopted in watching violent TV shows and movies.

The final reason to suppose video games to include a larger effect than movies or TV engrosses their addictive character. The strengthening distinctiveness of violent video games can also boost the training and presentation of violent scripts.

Video games obsession can stem, partially, from the penalties and rewards, which the game accords the player (Griffiths and Newton 473), similar to the reward construction of slot apparatus. Logically, violent video games present an absolute learning atmosphere for aggression, with concurrent exposure to reinforcement, modeling and practice of behaviors. This amalgamation of learning approach has been revealed to be more potent than any other technique employed (Klein, 395).

In conclusion, video games, which are violent, give a forum for discovering and practicing aggressive resolutions to conflict circumstances. The outcome of violent video games seems to be cognitive in trait. In the short term, playing violent video games influences aggression through priming violent thoughts.

Long term impacts are apt to stay for long, as the player discovers and practices novel aggression-linked scripts that grow to be progressively available for utilization when real-life conflict circumstances occur. If frequent, exposure to violent video games can lead to the formation and heightened availability of a range of aggressive cognitive constructions, hence, varying the individual’s basic persona structure.

The resultant changes in daily social relations might also lead to steady augments in the aggressive change. The lively nature of the learning atmosphere of the video game puts forward that this medium is more risky than the more profoundly explored movie and TV media. With the latest drift toward vast realism and graphic aggression in video games, in addition to, the growing recognition of these games, users of violent video games, as well as parents of users, are supposed to be aware of these latent hazards.

Topical proceedings in the news, for instance, the relation between youth killers in Colorado and violent video game play, have flickered civic debate regarding the impacts of video game violence. While the debate goes on, video games are growing to be increasingly violent, explicit and rampant. Scientists must add new research to the presently small and lacking text on video game violence impacts and elucidate for society what these dangers involve precisely.

The General Affective Aggression Model has been demonstrated as helpful in organizing a broad array of research results on human aggression and in creating testable schemes, including the current exploration on video game violence. Further short-term investigation on the impacts of violent video games is required in order to identify the natures of game players and games that decrease and deepen the aggression-linked impacts.

Works Cited Anderson, Karl and Deuser Anderson. “The Interactive Relations between Trait Hostility, Pain, and Aggressive Thoughts.” Aggressive Behavior 24 (1998): 161-171.

Ballard, Michael and Jefferson Weist. “Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Game Play on Males’ Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26 (1996): 717-730.

Bandura, Alois. Aggression: A social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973

Bushman, Beckham. “Moderating Role of Trait Aggressiveness in the Effects of Violent Media on Aggression.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (1995): 950-960.

Dietz, Tyre. “An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior.” Sex Roles 38(1998): 425-442.

Fling, Smith. “Videogames, Aggression, and Self-Esteem: A Survey.” Social Behavior and Personality 20 (1992): 39-46.

Geen, Robert and Mathew Quanty. “The Catharsis of Aggression: An Evaluation of a Hypothesis.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 10 (1977): 1-37

Gerbner, Gilbert. “The Mainstreaming of America: Violence Profile No. II.” Journal of Communication 30 (1980):10-29.

Griffiths, Michael and Newton Hunt. “Dependence on Computer Games by Adolescents.” Psychological Reports 82(1990): 475-480.

Harris, Morris and Williams, Reagan. “Video Games and School Performance.” Education 105 (1980): 306-309.

Huesmann, Lois. Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press, 1994

Irwin, Gross. “Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.” Journal of Family Violence 10 (1995): 337-350.

Kirsh, Smith. “Seeing the World through Mortal Kombat-Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and the Development of a Short-Term Hostile Attribution Bias.” Childhood 5(1998): 177-184.

Klein, Morris. “The Bite of Pac-Man.” The Journal of Psychohistory 11(1984): 395-401.

Leyens, Picus. “Identification with the Winner of a Fight and Name Mediation: Their Differential Effects upon Subsequent Aggressive Behavior.” British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12(1973): 374-377.


Advantages of working for Large Corporations Essay best essay help: best essay help

The decision to work for a large or small business is one of the toughest to make especially for new college graduates. Making a wrong decision on choice of job can ruin ones entire career life. Therefore, such a decision requires a good understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each choice. Despite the benefits of working for small businesses, I believe working for a large corporation is more satisfying.

There are many benefits of working for large corporations. Most of these benefits are a result of access of large pool of capital. First, large corporations offer their workers better pay as compared to small businesses. With a better pay, employees are able to improve the quality of their lives, and are motivated. According to Shin, employees of large corporations earn competitive salaries because the corporations make huge profits (60).

econdly, large corporations provide their employees better chances for advancing their career. This is because of the availability of many positions to fill as compared to small companies. Further, large corporations have a high degree of job specialization, which gives a wide range of positions to fill and advance to as compared to small businesses where one employee may carry out so many roles in a position.

For example, small businesses have only one manager who recruits, plans, and coordinates its affairs, while such roles have different persons assigned in large corporations. Interestingly, most large corporations’ jobs are too specialized that “duplication of roles has become a common phenomenon” leading to departmental struggles (Ryan-Flynn 213).

Gordon argues that, “Another advantage of working for large corporations…is their ability to employ many people” (96). Since large corporations employ many people, “an employee gets the opportunity to learn and gain experience” from these people, most of whom have varied qualifications in different disciplines (Gordon 96).

These colleagues often become one’s friends. Lastly, large corporations offer more lucrative health benefits and vocational leave packages. In fact, large corporations do not deduct employees’ salaries for failing to come to job, a phenomenon common in small businesses. Those in support of working for small businesses obviously disagree. They claim working for a small business is more satisfying as employees, especially those at management levels, take on a lot of responsibilities, which enhance their job experience.

Secondly, they argue that the employees of small businesses understand each other more and work as a family since they are few as compared to large corporations. It is impossible to ignore these advantages. However, the opportunity provided by small businesses to their managers to carry out many roles is self-limiting. It is like being “a jack of all trade, but a master of none.” There is power in role specialization, which large corporations provide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, many large corporations have different departments, which provide workers with opportunity for closer relationships. Piercy explains that “…the qualification must be expressed that it would be expected that a sample of medium-sized firms would show a lower level of departmentation than a sample biased towards larger firms” (318). The need for small businesses will forever exist. In fact, small businesses grouped together, employ more people than those employed by large corporations.

“Those smaller enterprises, sometimes called mom and pop operations, indeed form the backbone of our economy…those small businesses employ more people than the corporate giants” (Congress 23011).

However, better pay, good insurance packages, job specialization, traveling adventures, and many opportunities for promotion, make working for large corporations the best decision an individual can make in his or her career. Therefore, if you need an almost stress free and exciting career, a large corporation is the place to work.

Works Cited Congress. Congressional Record. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 1998. Print.

Gordon, Robert Aaron. Business leadership in the large corporation: with a new pref. California: University of California Press, 1961. Print.

Piercy, Nigel. Marketing budgeting. New Hampshire: Taylor


The Quran: Treatment and Status of Women Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents The Quran: Relationship between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity

The Quran: Marriage, Divorce, and Polygamy

The Quran: Justification of Jihad



Islam is based on the traditions and ideals, which are stipulated in the Quran. The directives and examples of the Prophet Muhammad reinforce these traditions and ideals. The Quran repeatedly gives expression on the need for treating men and women with equity and reproaches those who believe women to be inferior to men.

Women’s role in the formation of Islamic society in its first decades is well documented. Despite the historical data available, the fundamentalist and conservative forces that control the modern images of women have suppressed Islamic women’s place in religious history.

The various restrictions, social rules, and seclusion, isolation has emerged as one of the dominant features which characterizes the life and activities of Muslim women. The implicit view is that the existing social system, of the Muslim communities and women’s position there in has been maintained largely because of historical isolation.

The ideal image of women, as advocated by Quran, is not reflected in populist representation of Muslim women in contextual situation (Dawood, 2004). The women’s passivity, seclusion, and marginal place in Muslim society have little to do with Islamic tradition. However, they are, on the contrary, ideological constructs that are alien to Islam and effects of the misuse of power by reactionary forces.

The Quran: Relationship between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity In relation to Islam, the position of Judaism and Christianity is both similar and different. The Jewish and Christian scriptures do not mention Muslims; they are not the subject of any doctrine or jurisdiction. However, the Church’s position toward Muslim differs from its position toward Jews.

Christianity does not proclaim that it was the True Islam (Verus Islam); it did not drive the Muslims out of Mecca by forbidding them to reside there. Unlike Jewry, deprived of any political power, Christians and Muslims built empires that were in constant confrontation.

Islam, on the contrary, places Judaism and Christianity in an identical position. Islam is considered as the “True Judaism” and the “True Christianity.” Jews and Christians are mentioned frequently in the Quran, the Sunna, and in biographies of the prophet (Dawood, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These normative writings formulate a doctrine concerning them, and a theological jurisdiction which they must be forced to abide by, as an obligation imposed on them. It is this Judeo-Christian bonding which makes it impossible for Christians to achieve a reconciliation with Islam against Israel.

However, reconciliation with Israel involves rejecting the theologies of substitution, abandonment of jihad, and liberation from dhimmitude. Hence, the road to freedom for Christians is contrary to the knavery of dhimmi clergies. In addition, the doctrinal position concerning the Jews and Christians, inscribed in the Islamic revelation, unlike the Bible, constitutes the key obstacle to rapprochement with Islam.

The Quran: Marriage, Divorce, and Polygamy Rules regarding marriage and divorce are highlighted in the Quran, and prophet Muhammad also reported that a Muslim has to perfect half of his religion when he marries. The Quran states that, God created mankind from one living soul, and from that soul a spouse was created so that man might find comfort in her (Quran 4:1; 7:107). Therefore, asceticism is not encouraged. Marriage was intended to be permanent.

Muhammad condemned men and women who frequently changed marriage partners and described divorce as the most detestable of all lawful things before God. However, provisions were made for divorce (Quran 2: 228-241). Traditionally, a husband could divorce a wife by reciting before witnesses three times, “I divorce you.” In modern Islamic societies, various laws prescribe the rules of divorce and the benefits of each party.

A major stereotype of Islam is that it allows a man to have many wives. It is true that the Quran permits a man to have up to four wives under certain conditions. It is a conditional permission and not a matter of necessity. A prerequisite of polygamy is for the wives to have the same rights and privileges.

The Quran insists that they be treated justly (4:3; 4:129). Although the Quran and tradition demonstrate that polygamy was permitted but practiced, it is not the rule of thumb in modern times. Many Islamic nations prohibit it; other control polygamy. The social and economic conditions of an individual affect his/her choice to have only one wife.

The Quran: Justification of Jihad Jihad, in the Holy Quran, is declared warfare against injustice and oppression; which can only be carried out by an organized Muslim state. As such, an Islamic State has been given permission to fight against persecution in the society. The taking of any human life is not allowed, and this is stated in the Holy Quran, “Whosoever killed a single soul, except being a punishment for murder-is as if he killed the whole of mankind” (Quran 5:32).

We will write a custom Essay on The Quran: Treatment and Status of Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, strict laws and rules that are derived from the Holy Quran govern the term Jihad. These teachings were ascribed to the Prophet Muhammad. In addition to Jihad’s strict laws and rules, there are moral and ethical teachings regarding them, as well. These teachings are based on fundamental teachings of the Holy Quran.

Conclusion Quran, like the Christian Bible, depicts morality to its followers. Rules and guidelines are illustrated in an attempt to realize peaceful co-existence among the Muslim and Non-Muslim communities in the society. Occasionally, Non-Muslim communities have associated Islamic tradition and culture with war. This is the common stereotypes especially on the minimal understanding on Jihad’s rules and guidelines. As such, Quran focuses on spiritual and social harmony in the society.

Reference Dawood, N. J. (2004). The Koran. London: Penguin.


Crisis of the Modern World Essay college essay help

Introduction The pursuit of knowledge has been the order of most working scientists as well as philosophers of science in the past years. This knowledge referred to is treated as synonymous with natural and physical science. However, there have been different schools of thought in the field of science and during the pursuit of the knowledge. These different schools have caused great difference between the philosophers of science and the working scientists.

The differences range from the position of realism, idealism, criticism, falsification, empiricism, rationalism and instrumentalism with relation to various philosophers as well as scientist who stand to defend their position. This paper therefore seeks to address the crisis of modern science, how and why the religion and metaphysics continue with their long and slow decline as well the role of Romanticism in the crisis of modern science in reference to Tarnas book the Passion of the Western Mind.

The crisis of the modern science: Science was the only solution to the differences and

problems created by philosophy and religion (Tarnas 355). He asserts that science

attained a golden age in the 19th and early 20th centuries due to researches from

institutional and academic organizations that linked science with technology (Tarnas

355). However, though science was viewed as a solution to problems, it had its own

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More drawbacks. The crisis of science started with the Einstein’s theories of relativity (Tarnas

355). The fundamental transformation in the scientific world was staggering and only

physicists understood what was happening (Tarnas 356). In addition, when Einstein’s

was” confronted with the Contradictions on his description of an atom”, he wrote, “all my attempts to adapt the theoretical foundation of physics knowledge failed completely” (Tarnas 356). These challenges made the people who had considered science as the solution to their problems loose hope of science as well being confused, as they had no ideas of what was happening (Tarnas 358). Moreover, this formed the foundation of scientists to challenge each other as well as proving the other scientists who had their effort in past discoveries, that their findings were naïve.

Science a solution to the problems of reality failed when the physicists failed to come to a consensus on how to interpret the existing evidence with respect to defining the ultimate nature of reality (Tarnas 358). “The problems that were encountered in the human psyche now emerged in the structure of physical world that was not only difficult for the layperson to comprehend, but also to human intuition in general” (Tarnas 358).

The effort to search for a solution was affected by contradictions, disjunctions and paradoxes. Though man had a peculiar capacity of consciousness, these contradictions among the physicists led him to more disaster (Tarnas 358). The situation deteriorated further when the physicists failed to have a compelling answer to the question of “big bang” birth of the universe (Tarnas 358).

They only came with “scientific abstractions, mathematical symbols, “shadows,” that seemed not of the human cognition” (Tarnas 358). Karl Popper even further reinforced the contradictions through his remarks that “science can never produce knowledge that is certain, nor even probable” (Tarnas 360). Poper asserted, “Structure and workings of the universe are from observations and imaginations” (Tarnas 360).

We will write a custom Essay on Crisis of the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The development of science to technology made the human life more dangerous. Technology was taking over and dehumanizing man and it turned man from a live nature to an artificial substances and gadgets (Tarnas 362). It created more problems to man through industrial labor requirements, and perception of solutions to problems must be solved through technical research rather than genuine existential responses (Tarnas 362).

The major drawback of science rose after the discovery of atomic bombs from development made from Einsteinian discovery of the equivalence of mass and energy (Tarnas 362). This came under great critics during the Second World War when atomic bombs were dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Tarnas 262). All these brought contradiction of what man believed on the universe that brought crisis between science and religion/metaphysics.

How and why did religion and metaphysics continue their long and slow decline? The decline of religion and metaphysics started because of tremendous improvement in science (Tarnas 355). Science brought valid knowledge of the world, criticized the post philosophies and formed a great foundation that its knowledge seemed scarcely questionable (Tarnas 355).

Science compelled religion to define their position in relation to science but it presented the most reliable picture of the world (Tarnas 355). The development of science radically changed the cultural status, perceptions and the theories they had in the past (Tarnas 357). In addition, as science created intellectual contradictions and obscurities in the human mind, the modern man started questioning the faith he had inherited that the world was in a manner clearly accessible to human intelligence (Tarnas 358).

Human beings having seen that the world was beyond the compass of human cognition he could not further believe in this classical Greek faith (Tarnas 358). In addition, the belief that scientific mind had unique access to the truth of the world also added more threat to religion and metaphysics (Tarnas 362).

Man believed that scientific mind could register extra historical and universal objective reality (Tarnas 362). All these changed and there was the belief that man had no religion and metaphysics. As science develops, more discoveries relating to the universe are made that negate the beliefs of man in religion and metaphysics, which result to their long and slow decline.

Role of Romanticism in the crisis of modern science: The Romantic temperaments focused much on enlightening human beings on their perception of the universe (Tarnas 368). The temperaments found classical culture rich source of insight and values. The Romantic introspection used various methods with an aim of exploring uncertainties in the life of man as well as to bring unconsciousness to consciousness (Tarnas 368).

Unlike the scientists whose quest was for general laws defining a single objective reality, the Romantic focused on multiplicity of realities especially those that affect the inward man (Tarnas 368). The Romantic thus focused on the plurality of perspectives whether religious, scientific or philosophical that would mirror truth (Tarnas 370). The Romantic impulse was to bring human minds into overall movement towards realism (Tarnas 374). They also focus on solving the disparities of man in relation to the universe (Tarnas 375).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Crisis of the Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romantics focused on the realities between the religion and scientists as well as their view on the same (Tarnas 376). They were able to rediscover man from his increased sense of alienation from the nature’s womb, his unitary being and his confinement to an absurd universe of possibilities (Tarnas 376). Further, Goethe united poet and scientist in the analysis of the nature in reference to religion (Tarnas 378).

In addition, “Romantic sensibility had new standards and values for human knowledge” (Tarnas 371). It made modern man comprehend the unborn realities and invisible of human nature and universe as well as making him understanding the traditions of western culture, Greco-Roman classicism and the Judeo-Christian religion (Tarnas 371).

In nutshell, the Romanticism and revolution meant to enlighten the modern man on the uncertainties and contradictions created in the human life by religious, philosophical and scientific perspectives. Their role was to bring man from the dark back to light, from a state of unconsciousness to consciousness and make him view the world as a world of chance and necessity.

Works Cited Tarnas, Richard. The Passion of the Western Mind. New York: Harmony Books, 1991.


State of nature and the fundamental purpose of political society Essay college essay help: college essay help

The society is made up of different phenomena. Scholars, and especially those studying philosophy, have been involved in explaining the different phenomena life contains. This paper will focus on the different views that have been established with regards to the state of nature and the fundamental purpose of politics in a society.

Why are things the way they are in the natural? What evidence is there to back the theory or theories that seem most fit to explain the state of nature? Which scholars have been most convincing with regards to explaining the state of nature? What is the role of politics in the society? What is the origin of politics in the society? What is the fundamental purpose of politics in the society? Can a society exist without politics? What are the major differences between a society with politics and one without politics? These are the questions that will form the basis through which the paper will communicate its core message.

There have been a lot of scholars who have sought to set forth explanation with regards to the state of nature and the fundamental purpose of politics in the society. To clearly evaluate this, this paper will focus on two great philosophers – Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

Although there have been contribution by other scholars on the topic being tackled in the paper, the focus will be set on Hobbes and Locke. The main aim of the paper is to compare and contrast the principles set forth by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke with regards to the fundamental purpose of political society and the state of nature. What did each of them say about these two life aspects? Whose account is most plausible? Why? These questions form the guide that will direct the course of the paper. (Zaborowski, 2010)

Thomas Hobbes is regarded to as a great philosopher. He lived in the 17th century and has been responsible for some of the most important principles set forth to explain the state of nature and politics. His works are compared to those of Aristotle Rousseau, Locke, Rawls, Kant and Plato.

He is credited for the social contract theory and his laws on the association between nature and moral philosophies. The main point that Thomas Hobbes used in explain the state of nature is the comparison of life with regards to government. According to Hobbes, the perfect state of nature is characterized by the ability to privately make judgment which is not influenced by any exterior motive or by any agency.

The power to make and enforce a decision under Hobbes’ explanation lies within the will of a person. Although he gives an explanation, he goes on to dispute the existence of a society under the perfect state of nature. He talks of how impossible it is for the existence of masterless men who are not subjected to any law. He also looks at coercive power in the explanation of the inexistence of a society under the perfect state of nature. (Beattie, 2010)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More John Locke has also been credited with explaining the state of nature. With regards to Locke’s explanation on the topic, a society might actually experience the state of nature without experiencing excessive force and lawlessness. According to Locke, a perfect state of nature exists in situations where reason is the main driving force.

Locke states that it is possible for people to exist together in harmony without one man seeking to harm another. According to Locke, a state of nature translates to a situation where all the men are free and responsible for their actions. This also includes the ability to dispose or order their different persons and possessions in the manner they deem well fit.

All this is to be done within the boundaries that have been set by the default laws of nature. According to the condition presented by Locke, the main reason that dictates the boundaries set forth is reason. Unlike Hobbes’ explanation, Locke states that there is harmony in such an environment that is rooted from the respect of liberty, property, and life. The explanation that is given by Locke also covers the punishment for different transgressions.

According to Locke, people in such a state of nature are cautious as there is an attachment or consequence to the actions they take. Unlike Hobbes’ explanation, the principles set forth by Locke have a theology attachment. The argument that has been set forth by Locke makes him as popular other philosophers who have discussed the state of nature. These include Robert Filner, Rawls, Plato, Aristotle Rousseau, and Kant. (Zaborowski, 2010)

Thomas Hobbes has also looked at the purpose and politics in the analysis of the state of nature. According to Hobbes, the society has to have a system through which order is maintained. Without a governing body, Hobbes talks of rampant destruction in the society as well as misuse of power.

According to the principles Hobbes has used in explaining the state of nature, the establishment of a central organized unit through which order is maintained is the key element in government and politics. Politics erupts in a bid to control the governing system and in quest for power. Hobbes argues that effective governance is established through absolute authority. According to Hobbes, the more absolute authority a government has the more effective it is with regards to controlling its subjects. (Beattie, 2010)

John Locke looks at politics and government from 2 main principles. He states that politics is founded on reason, social contract, and tolerance. These are important in dealing with the human nature and the selfish desires. Both Locke and Hobbes believe that the nature of men allows them to be selfish beings and this is evident through the introduction of currency.

We will write a custom Essay on State of nature and the fundamental purpose of political society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Establishing defense for the state alone is not enough. This is the main cause that has led to the development of civil societies. According to the principles set forth by Locke, it is clear to note that he advocated for the separation of powers in government so as to improve the efficiency of government. (Parry, 2003)

In conclusion, both Locke and Hobbes have presented a wealth of information with regards to the analysis of the state of nature and the purpose of politics in the society. Hobbes views on the state of nature are more plausible whereas Locke’s views on the purpose of politics are more plausible.

Hobbes principles on the state of nature are more acceptable compared to the views of Locke. He has dealt with the situation as it presents itself and his arguments are widely acceptable and applicable. With regards to the establishment of government, Locke has presented the fundamental purpose for the establishment of government as well as analyzing the effectiveness of governance.

References Beattie, A.R. (2010). Justice and morality: human suffering, natural law and international politics. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishers.

Parry, G. (2003). John Locke. London: Routledge.

Zaborowski, H. (2010). Natural moral law in contemporary society. Washington D.C: Catholic University of America Press


The Effect of Sex Appeal on Commercials Research Paper custom essay help

Introduction The contemporary business world is complex and characterized by a lot of attributes all aimed at achieving success in the business operations.

Competition is a major concern in business and business organizations have to engage in strategic measures to ensure that they attain a competitive advantage in relation to other business enterprises especially those that are involved in production and sale of similar products and services.

Advertisement is one effective strategy that is deemed to play a great role in enhancing an organization’s productivity and profitability through boosting the sales level.

There are different ways through which advertisement can be carried out depending on the results desired and the effectiveness of a given advertising method. The use of sexual appeal is one method. It entails the use of erotic or sexual imagery in advertising with an aim of drawing attention and interest to a particular product or service to enhance its sales (Loyalty


Locke and Hobbes’ Views on State of Nature Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction The state of nature, in political philosophy, is a term used in social contract theories to refer to the hypothetical condition that preceded governments.

In a broader sense, state of nature can be described as the condition before rule of positive law comes into being, thus it is a synonym for anarchy (Schochet, 1967). State of nature is fundamental in social contract theory since people seek to be governed by persons in higher authority in order to maintain their social stability. Hobbes and Locke were among the few philosophers who contributed immensely to the concept of state of nature.

They were both natural law and social contract theorists who lived in the same era but had different views and arguments on the state of nature, justification of governments and the motives to move out of the state of nature. All other natural law theorists, except Hobbes, assumed that man was a social animal by nature. On contrary, Hobbes assumed very different conclusions and was infamous for several other unconventional results in mathematics and physics.

Differences Thomas Hobbes wrote in his greatest work Leviathan, that nothing could be as worst as life without the state protection. As a materialist he borrowed a lot from the principle of conservation in motion from Galileo’s theory. He noted, that an object is eternally supposed to be in motion unless someone disturbs it.

Using the principle of conservation of motion, he argued that, human beings are perpetually seeking for new things (Macpherson, 1990). In addition stated that, life itself is in a state of motion and can never be enjoyed without desire to move. He argued that, it is only through the search of well-being that human beings go to war with one another and that the fear of death is the only leading factor to the creation of a state. The state of nature is pictured by Hobbes as a state where all are at war with each other.

The search for felicity results to men constantly trying to aggravate their power. According to Hobbes, human beings are made equal by nature since what they possess is equal in terms of strengths and skills. He argued that the weakest has strength enough to kill the most formidable, either by secret maneuvers or by coordinating with others.

Hobbes cited that in a state of nature three reasons motivate human beings to attack each other, which included the desire for safety, glory, reputation or for selfish gains. According to Hobbes’ theory, in a state of nature there is no room for the unjust hence there is no space for immorality, something that he referred to as the National Right of Liberty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals with collective rationality are contrasted by Hobbes. When explaining the peculiarity of “prisoner’s dilemma” Hobbes argued that it is difficult to achieve cooperation when individuals with collective rationality diverge.

He believed that an individual’s rational behavior leads to attack of other people. According to him, it is our duty to obey the laws of nature just as other people around us are obedient to it. Incases where an individual feels endangered by other people’s standing, in just an occasion one is termed as acting jealously.

According to Hobbes theory the level of collective suspicion and fear is very high such that we are excused for not obeying the law and that we only act in a morally upright way when others act the same way. Hobbes assumes that one concedes his rights to the government in return for life. To him, the role of the society is to direct creation of state and a reflection of the will of the ruler and that whatever the state does is just by definition.

On the contrary, Locke’s views and arguments differ a lot when compared to Hobbes’. John Locke believed he could live in a state of nature and in a life without a state government. According to Locke, the state of nature is a state of perfect freedom and a state of equality that is only bound by the law of nature.

In his theory, Locke adds a moral and technological aspect where he states that due to the fact that we are all creatures of God we should not harm others except for purposes of self defense. All people have a duty to protect and help others without doing harming themselves. On matters of liberty, we have the freedom to do what is morally upright. Here Locke’s view clearly contrasts Hobbes’ who cited that every one has a right over every thing in a state of nature, even the right over other people’s bodies.

Locke advocated for equality among human beings and stated that everyone has the power to enforce the law of nature within a state of nature. According to Locke, harming somebody is only allowed in self defense and those who break the laws of nature should face punishment as a natural right.

He argued that each offense should be severely punished according to its magnitude so as to act as an ill bargain for the offenders and to make them repent, thus terrifying others who may be wanting to commit the same transgressions (Olivecrona, 1998).

We will write a custom Essay on Locke and Hobbes’ Views on State of Nature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Locke the most important right to be secured in a state nature is private property. He claims that God created us to own property and live in satisfaction but not to end up starving. Locke cited that there is a natural reason to own property in the sense that if man was to ask permission from another man to use the earth then it would amount to starvation.

Locke’s picture of the state of nature is very optimistic. He argues that nature is not ruled by morality and individuals act for their best but not for the best of the community as whole. According to Locke, the reasons that led to creation of states were; increase in resource scarcity and the invention of cash that is a means of non perishable exchange.

People could exchange land produce for money avoiding loss, creating wealth and imbalances that Hobbes termed as a state of war. According to him, the role of the society was to ensure justice was done.

Similarities There are similarities between Hobbes’ and Locke’s views on state of nature. Both are political philosophers and their writings have influenced to a great extent development of modern political thought. Both refer to the state of nature in which man lives without a government and both point out risks in the state.

Both, Hobbes and Locke talk about the dangers of the state of nature. Man is referred by both of them as being equal to the state (Macpherson, 1990). Locke describes nature as a state of perfect equality where superiority over one another is not exercised but despite the equality both warn of dangers of state of nature.

For instance, Hobbes says that if two men cannot enjoy the same thing they turn out to be enemies, something that ends in a state of war. Locke points out risks in cases where the law of nature is lacking and everyone executes duties, this may result to what Hobbes refers to as a state of war. Both Locke and Hobbes somehow seem to agree on the law of nature. They seem to agree the concept of law to imply a law enforcer; otherwise the law would be an empty concept.

Conclusion I tend to agree with Locke’s point of view in his argument, that in a state of nature there are moral codes which guide and inspire human beings (Macpherson, 1990). My reluctance to support Hobbes argument is supported by the fact that people may choose follow individual reasoning instead of a collective reason. However, Locke’s law of nature is somehow weak since it requires somebody to enforce it and his argument that everybody is empowered may not be true and may result to what Hobbes termed as state of war.

References Macpherson, C.B.(1990). The political theory of possessive individualism. Oxford:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Locke and Hobbes’ Views on State of Nature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Clarendon Press Oxford

Olivecrona, K.L.(1998). Appropriation in the State of Nature: Locke on the Origin of Property. Journal of the History of Ideas,78(67),90-123.

Schochet, G.J.(1967). Thomas Hobbes on the Family and the State of Nature. Political Science Quarterly,90,78-80


Cracker Barrel’s top three Business strategies Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Strategic Differentiation The Cracker Barrel Restaurant and retail business has focused on the strategic differentiation of its products from other players in the market. Its differentiated concept is a difficult element to list in the America restaurant industry (Harvard Business School Press, 2006). In a bid to enable this strategy, Cracker Barrel has achieved several components that remain a unique combination compared to other casual dining restaurants within the industry (Dess, Lumpkin


Store Cashier Incentive Analytical Essay essay help free

Introduction Entrepreneurs start businesses with a view to make profit. Profits do not happen by themselves except through a process that executes relevant business functions. The place of the employee or staff is essential towards the achievement of the business goals and objectives.

This places the question of staff motivation as key to the fulfillment of business objectives. The relationship between motivation and performance is crucial.

Staff motivation has to do with the provision of a pleasant working environment for the workers. It involves the creation of relevant work ethics, clarification of responsibilities and documentation of effective performance appraisal and rewarding system.

A company will not be able to achieve desired results without motivated staff. Business owners must ensure that employees derive meaning from the work they do. This will guarantee their commitment and excellence in performance. The success of the company depends more or less on the passion and concentration of workers. Staff motivation is the key to business excellence (Bruce and Pepitone, 1999). The store must invest in motivation.

Purpose does not exist in most of today’s business enterprises. One of the reasons why staff become demoralized has to do with lack of clarity for the purpose within the business. The store cashier has a vital role of ensuring that the customers of the store get satisfied. This means that the cashier must undertake such tasks and activities that ensure excellent customer service and satisfaction. They must also perform those tasks with the utmost excellence. The incentive program should include clarity of work purposes.

The incentive program details the activities involved in the fulfillment of work tasks. The purposes for which those tasks become undertaken must be clarified. Purpose will help workers in making the right choices about work activities and find meaning in what they do.

The external needs of the cashiers should be met as a means of providing a pleasant working environment. The program should work around dealing with external uncertainties surrounding customer satisfaction – dealing with customer moods, tastes and preferences (Thomas, 2009). The other components to be considered include – creation of a high performance culture environment and rewarding outstanding implementation and performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The incentive program should address critical work issues – staff satisfaction with job assignment, recognition, management support and understanding. The components of the incentive program should be integrated within the human resource training module. It should be entrenched in the employee team building program. The business monitoring and evaluation matrices should reflect the adopted components of the incentive program.

Excellent feedback mechanism systems should be developed to allow continuous interaction between the employees and the human resource managers and business owners. All the components of the individual incentive program can be adopted for implementation at the corporation or store level. The other store or group incentives include developing a model for corporation wide staff motivation.

The store managers should also refine the store’s core values. The store values should focus the cashiers and other employees towards the store purpose. The same store incentives should be channeled creatively through the store managers and during employees team building activities. The store wide incentives should be entrenched within the store policies and implemented by the managers using a relevant store wide structure.

Conclusion The priority of store owners should be to develop incentives that motivate the staff. This will result in excellent staff performance and customer satisfaction.

References Bruce, A.,


Social and Political Issues Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ruler of the United States of America

What the society should be doing to help the family

Relevance of religion to a culture


Introduction This paper discusses a number of social and political issues. First, it discusses about the actual rulers of the United States of America. Second, it discusses about problems affecting the family and how the society can help solve those problems. Lastly, the paper examines the relevance of religion in a culture.

Ruler of the United States of America The politics of 12st century in the United States of America is quite different. This is because it no longer centers on leadership but on the pursuit of private interests. The rulers of the United States of America are the multibillion dollar corporations and the wealthy individuals. The wealthy Americans who own means of production have very significant influence in the United States of America.

It is important to point out that the corporations and the wealthy individuals have business interests both locally and internationally. Due to this, their primary interest is to protect their local and international investments. This can only be done effectively when they have significant say on the way United States is being ruled. The corporations and the wealthy have powerful influence on both domestic and foreign policies, especially those with economic implications.

The men and women in the United States’ political scene are both owners of businesses and investments. They are also representatives of major corporations with significant influence on national and foreign policies.

Vividly, these corporations and wealthy Americans are the ones controlling the nation’s economy; they are to be found in the real estate industry, agricultural and financial industries. These are key industries in the development of the nations.

Therefore, they will do everything possible to ensure they influence the way policies are formulated and implemented both domestically and internationally. Besides, the wealthy, corporate organizations and the military personnel also have significant control over the nation’s rule.

The military has been used by the corporations and the wealthy individuals to protect the interests of the nation, which are actually the interests of the corporations and the wealthy. The military is therefore rewarded by being allowed to have some influence on the rule of the United States, especially when it comes to implementation of foreign policies with respect to national and international security.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What the society should be doing to help the family One of the major problems facing the families today is that of divorce. Divorce in the American society is rising at an alarming rate. The consequence of this has been the broken families. Many children are being brought up in dysfunctional families; this is quite detrimental to the society at large since families are the primary units of the entire society.

Moreover, with the growing information technology, information has become so easy to obtain that the contents of information are not being appropriately regulated to ensure only target recipients are reached. This has led to the problem of pornography in families. Children can now access pornographic materials. This has contributed to moral and ethical decadence not only within the family, but also within the society at large.

The federal government should take an initiative to reduce the rate of divorce. This should be made a national goal and every citizen be sensitized on the importance of maintaining marital sanity within the family units.

The non-governmental organizations, in collaboration with the government, should also play an important role in finding out the real courses of divorce and hence recommend and encourage the citizens on the dangers of divorce on individual selves and the children.

Besides, even though there is freedom of worship within the entire American society, it is important that Christians and Muslims take a lead in teaching the public on the importance of having a unity family where children grow up with both parents, unless either of them dies.

The marriage principles of both religious groups promote a harmonious family environment. In relation to pornography, both the federal government and the parents should be obliged to ensure children and underage individuals do not access pornographic materials. The government should play the part of coming up with legislations prohibiting use of pornographic materials in public places.

The legislations should also restrict the availability of pornographic materials in certain websites. Parents’ role is to openly talk to their children about the dangers of accessing the pornographic materials and the moral implications such materials have on them.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Social and Political Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relevance of religion to a culture Religion is good for a culture. At individual level, everyone has some spiritual need that needs to be satisfied. In this case, it is important for the social cultures to tolerate religion irrespective of the kind of religion one subscribes to.

Moreover, religion has played a major role in creating harmony in the society. For instance, the Christian belief on forgiveness and good neighborliness has served to promote good morals amongst the members of many cultures.

In other words, religion creates a sense of togetherness and belonging amongst a group of individual subscribing to particular religious beliefs. The fact is that culture defines what a society is, but it does not tell where life originates from. This is where religion comes in to bridge the gap. Culture may explain what kind of society there is; however, religion plays a major role in helping the societal members to reflect on the beginning of life and existence.

Conclusion The big corporations, the wealthy and also the military are the ones ruling the United States of America. Also, families have problems related to divorce and pornography. The government and parents should be concerned. Religion also is important to cultures for various reasons.


Contribution of Education in Carbon Emissions Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction Education plays a key role in carbon emissions. Use of papers, electricity, wood, private transport and computers are the key ways in which educational institutions contribute to increased carbon emissions.

Different approaches can be employed so as to reduce carbon emissions from institutions of earning. Such approaches may include use of solar energy as a substitute for electricity, green computing and use of public transport. Whereas these approaches may be effective, they could also have some disadvantages such as reduced face-face interaction and delays in transport.

In this study, we also focused on government initiatives for controlling carbon emissions in Australia and Saudi Arabia. Carbon pollution in Australia is growing swiftly. It is projected that it will augment by 22% between the years 2000 and 2020. Conversely, Saudi Arabia is the world’s prime oil maker and ranks at position 14, among countries with the highest rates of carbon emissions.

Utilization of petroleum goods represents the mass of the nation’s fossil-fuel CO2 productions. A remarkable aspect of the time cycle for Saudi Arabia is the emissions ensuing from flaring gas. During 1974, gas flickering was liable for 76% of Saudi Arabia’s fossil-fuel discharges (Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, n. d.).

Saudi Arabia was a chief protester at the international climate meeting in Copenhagen, where councils from over 190 nations we re trying to concur, on a new global initiative, to fight climate change. A number of environmental societies say that the oil-producing monster has long played an opposing role in climate change conferences. Saudi bureaucrats fear that decreasing g emissions will lessen oil exports and be disastrous for their nation.

Government Initiatives in Saudi Arabia and Australia Both Australia and Saudi Arabia have vast emissions- rigorous economy, with far elevated emissions per capita as compared to most nations. Both countries agreed to sign the Kyoto Protocol on reducing carbon emissions. The Kyoto Protocol was an accord negotiated by several states in 1997.

The objectives of Kyoto were to see members jointly lessening the rates of carbon emissions by 5.2 percent before 2012. Again, at the 2010 forum in Cancun, and at the United Nations 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, both nations concurred to limit carbon effluence so that the standard worldwide temperature rise could be maintained lower than two degrees Celsius.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the mutual commitment to the objectives of these agreements, Australia has achieved a larger share than Saudi Arabia. Australia persists to be vigorously involved in reducing carbon effluence and has constructed an inclusive plan to progress to a Clean Energy Future.

This Clean Energy Future plan will reduce emission by approximately 5%. This plan will also force investment, and aid in ensuring that Australia can participate and stay prosperous in prospect. The instigation of a carbon price will guarantee that pollution is decreased at the lowest rate for the nation.

Within the carbon price, approximately 500 of the prime polluters in Australia will give a tax to the Australian regime for each tonne of carbon effluence they emit (Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, n. d.). The government of Australia has, in addition, devoted to a long-term goal to reduce emission of carbon by 52% before 2020.

Fig 1: Adopted from (Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, n. d.).

On the other hand, Saudi Arabia is divergent to binding pledges in future climate conferences and supposes that just the industrialized states, which are devoted to reductions of carbon emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, ought to have potential emissions goals (Yeo, 2011). Saudi Arabia deems that emerging nations ought to have intended and nonspecific obligations to carbon emissions. Saudi Arabia’s prime climate negotiator, Mohammed Al-Sabban, was quoted in an email to BBC News saying

“The differentiated responsibility between developed and developing countries was based on the historical responsibility of the developed countries, and has nothing to do with the new economic reality of some developing countries” (Black, 2011, November 24).

The country relies on oil and it thinks that switch to renewable energy sources would engross an irrational cost and would obstruct the sustained growth of the country. From the standpoint of Saudi Arabia, endeavors to resolve the climate concern ought not to be restricted to decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, but ought to include actions to acclimatize the change that may occur.

We will write a custom Assessment on Contribution of Education in Carbon Emissions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These reasons explain why Saudi Arabia has a lesser share in the reduction of carbon emissions than Australia. This is why carbon emissions have been on steady increase in Saudi Arabia, as the figure below demonstrates.

Fig 2 Adopted from (Yeo, 2011).

Nevertheless, Saudi Arabia has begun to develop public transportation, in order to lessen the carbon emission that is experienced during traffic jams. Furthermore, it has inspired companies, such as Aramco, to lessen the quantity of carbon emissions.

Education and how it Contributes to Carbon Emissions Education can be defined as the course or act of obtaining and sharing information, increasing the capabilities of thinking critically and train an individual rationally for adult life. In the course of education, learners use books and papers, which are made from wood, for writing notes, completing assignments, as well as, taking exams. This implies that trees, which lead to decrease in oxygen and increase carbon emissions, are cut so as to obtain papers and wood.

The use of forests for papers and wood products adds to the immense deforestation of the globe. Forests eliminate and amass carbon dioxide from the air, and deforestation causes vast amounts of carbon discharge, in addition to, decreasing the quantity of carbon capture on the globe. Learners are also frequently ferried from and to their residential areas, as well as, their attached areas (Robin and Potter, 2005). In this course of transportation, huge quantities of fuels are burnt, thus resulting to carbon emission.

Furthermore, learners make use of electricity during their laboratory sections, as a source of light at night, in operating computers, and in printing their assignments (Robin and Potter, 2005). Coal burning power plants, which generate electricity, emits enormous quantities of carbon dioxide, thus increasing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Studies reveal that 40% of U.S. carbon emissions are as a result of electricity generation, and coal burning is liable for 93% of releases from the industries supplying electricity.

Carbon Reduction Strategies in Education Learners and instructors can make use of the solar systems as a source of light and power. Hence, numerous quantities of electricity will be saved, thus reducing the amount of coal burnt in the generation of electricity. Attempts to decrease the energy consumption related to private computers is usually called green computing.

Green computing is the act of making use of computing resources in a way that is sensitive to the surroundings. School administrators can employ multiple techniques to lessen energy use with private computers including power management of desktop computer systems, email and online lining (Thompson, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contribution of Education in Carbon Emissions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Power management aids to control the power provision to a desktop PC, so that it reduces the power utilization of the computer without interfering the quality and amount of the work completed. Users of PCs can, as well, make use of e-mail to decrease energy utilization through sending e-mail notes as a substitute for notes that are printed on paper.

Finally, Online learning alternatives by means of learning management methods and video/web conferencing can decrease the call for customary physical classrooms, whilst also lessening travel expenses and related utilization of energy (Robin and Potter, 2005; Thompson, 2009). Additionally, learners can be encouraged to use public transport rather than using their private vehicles to school. Hence, less electricity will be used, thus reducing the amount of coal burnt.

Analysis and valuation of Carbon Reduction Strategies Power Management of Desktop Computer Systems

Computers and their components can be logged off or put into sleep mode when, not in operation. IT directors have recognized shutting down the machines when not being utilized, as a chief method, to decrease energy expenses (Hasimah and Rahman, 2007; Thompson, 2009). Another easy technique to reduce power consumption is to regulate the power management settings, which are accessible to PCs and systems.

Private users can, additionally, set monitor and PC controls of power-management, in order to covert them into low-energy sleep mode following a set time, for instance, after 13 minutes of idleness (Hasimah and Rahman, 2007). Furthermore, users can connect computers and devices to a power strip, which can be switched off after shutting the computer down, since computers and their devices utilize some energy even when switched off.


Users may add a note in color at the foot of their e-mails appealing that addressees save paper by thinking twice ahead of printing e-mails, to emphasize the non-use of papers (Thompson, 2009). However, individual habits and work approaches require review occasionally. For instance, a number of administrators have their subordinates print out all e-mails in order that they can examine and possibly answer back the mails.

Such habits are expensive in terms of printer ink, paper utilization and energy. In case e-mails have to be printed out, an appliance such as Green Print can aid avoid printing unnecessary papers (Thompson, 2009). To decrease their carbon footprints further by means of e-mail, schools can reflect on outsourcing e-mail to a web-based appliance such as Microsoft’s [email protected] or Google Gmail (Thompson, 2009).

Online Arrangements

An institution’s carbon footprint and energy costs can also be decreased by moving academic and administrative tasks online. Every institution must select the online scheme that best ensembles its operation and customs (Thompson, 2009). Learners can enroll in an online training seminar or college course, rather than driving to institutions for their classes, hence decreasing their carbon footprints (Robin and Potter, 2005). However, such online arrangements will decrease the level of face-face interactions.

Using personal vehicles for travel presents a twin problem, as it is among the largest contributors to CO2 discharges and outcomes in substantial costs. Online education also decreases the need for school utilities, with fewer classrooms required (Pribe, 2009, May 26). Also, less lighting, warming and air conditioning are required.

Additionally, customary face-to-face classrooms are apt to utilize a lot of paper for items such as course assignments and handouts. Online classes typically put most, if not all, subject communications in digital configuration. Rather than printing out and handing in their coursework, learners e-mail their teacher electronic paper or post assignments via an online course management structure.

Solar System

Solar system involves the conversion of natural sunlight into usable energy. It is cheap and can reduce the consumption of electricity to a good extent. The use of solar energy will have an extremely pivotal role in limiting the rise in carbon emissions.

Use of public Transport

The idea of using public transport is a brilliant idea that might serve to reduce the high carbon and help protect the environment. However, it may inconvenience learners as they have to spend time waiting for such vehicles.

Conclusion Education plays a significant role in carbon emissions. Learners use books and papers, which are made from wood, for writing notes, completing assignments, as well as, taking exams. This implies that trees, which lead to decrease in oxygen and increase carbon emissions, are cut so as to obtain papers and wood. Learners are also frequently ferried from and to their residential areas, as well as, their attached areas.

In this course of transportation, huge quantities of fuels are burnt, thus resulting to carbon emission. Furthermore, learners make use of electricity during their laboratory sections, as a source of light at night, in operating computers, and in printing their assignments. Coal burning power plants, which generate electricity, emits enormous quantities of carbon dioxide, thus increasing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

Use of solar energy, public transport, E-mail, online learning, and power management, are easily achievable approaches to ensuring that schools reduce the volume of carbon emission that they cause.

Glossary of Writing Terms Carbon emission: By products of burning fossil fuels

Carbon foot print: The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions Conference generated by an organization

Email: An electronic way of sending notes and messages

Fossil-fuels: Gas, coal and oil

Government initiatives: Steps that the government is taking

Green Computing: Using computers in a way that is environmental sensitive

PC: Desktop computers

Solar energy: A form of energy that is obtained from the sun

Annotated Bibliography Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (n. d.) National targets. Web.

This is an article by the Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. It highlights plans that Australia is taking so as to meet the national target of reducing carbon emissions by 2020. Some of the plans that are mentioned include the Clean Energy Future Plan and the Kyoto Protocol. The article also details the existence of carbon taxing in Australia.

This is a popular article that has well documented facts. Also, since the article is directly from the Department of Climate Change, it is reliable and non- prejudiced.

Black, R. (2011, November 24) UK calls for new legal climate deal by 2015. BBC News. Web.

This article gives details of the email written by Mohammed Al-Sabban, Saudi Arabia’s chief climate negotiator. He expresses concerns about the re-negotiation of the current UNFCCC convention in Saudi Arabia and other developing nations.

He feels that developing countries should not be forced to adhere to any international environmental accords, and instead, these nations should be left to adopt the accords willingly. The article is reliable as it comes from a globally recognized news anchor, BBC News, which details the actual quotations of the negotiator’s writings.

Hasimah, A. and Rahman, M. (2007) Energy savings through power management in the desktop computer. ELEKTRIKA, 9(2), 27-30.

This Journal demonstrates the latent for energy savings through power management, through a case study on the energy utilization of a PC in the Laboratory of a Malysian university. The journal is extremely reliable as it derives its conclusions from the findings of computer engineers at the University. Both authors are lecturers at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Hence, the journal is scholarly and extremely reliable.

Pribe, M.B. (2009, May 26) Is online learning better for the planet? National Wildlife Federation. Web.

The article discusses online learning as a way of reducing carbon print. It analyses the findings of Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) and the United Kingdom’s Open University Design Innovation Group (DIG) on environmental impacts of campus-based learning. The article also discusses the prevalence of online learning in U.S. schools.

The article is objective as it recommends further study on the findings of SEI and DIG. The author of the article is a staff at SEI and uses data from an environmental institute and a renown University in the article. Hence, the article is extremely reliable.

Robin, R. and Potter, S. (2005) Towards sustainable higher education: environmental impacts of campus-based and distance higher education systems. New York, Design Innovation Group.

This book gives the findings of a study on environmental impacts of diverse approaches of offering higher education lessons. The study reveals that, through the utilization online learning courses, it is feasible to reduce the emissions involved in offering higher education extensively compared to traditional systems of learning in campus.

The article discusses how use of computers reduces the need for printing papers. This article is scholarly and reliable as it is written by a Professor of Design and Environment and Professor of Transport Strategy at The Open University. The findings of the report are also reliable as the data was collected from university students and different departments of OU offered advice on information.

Thompson, J. (2009) Three approaches to green computing on campus. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 3(32), 15-17.

This journal discusses measures of energy cost savings, including online learning, power management and use of email. The article is extremely reliable and scholarly as the author is a professor at Buffalo State College. The article is, additionally, very appropriate for current use in most schools, which have the goal of saving energy and reducing carbon emissions.

Yeo, T. (2011) Carbon emissions in Saudi Arabia and international agreement on climate change. New York, Oxford University Press.

This book discusses the prevalence of carbon emissions and various international agreements regarding reduction of these emissions in Saudi Arabia. It details the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference. This source is scholarly and reliable as it is up to date. The author of the book is a senior professor at a university in Los Angeles.


Edgar Allan Poe Research Paper best essay help

Edgar Allan Poe was an American short fiction writer who lived a life of afflictions and tragedies such as the claiming of his loved ones by tuberculosis, which then had no cure.

Tuberculosis killed many people. It speared neither his mother nor his wife. As Penguin Readers Teachers Support Program reckons, “he was one of the earliest writers to use the short story form to write many chilling horror stories in the romantic tradition” (1).

He is also widely acclaimed as the originator of detective story. Edgar Allan Poe attempted to live by just writing. However, he faced quite a lot of challenges since the proceeds raised from the works were quite less to afford a decent living coupled with acts of plagiarism.

Interpreting his literary works from the author’s context perhaps ardently reveals these challenges. Additionally, his works arguably, are profoundly inspired by his close people who succumbed mainly to tuberculosis. Consequently, his life experiences prompted him to create stories that conveyed certain themes.

The short story, X-ing a Paragraph, perhaps well portrays the Edgar Alan Poe concerns for acts of plagiarism and non-protection of written works by the Copy Right law; something that immensely impeded his success and subsequent publication of his works.

Penguin Readers Teachers Support Program notes that, in X-Ing a Paragraph “a stubborn Mr. Touch-and-Go Bullet-head…settles down to Alexander-the-great-o-nopolis, where he opens the Nopolis Teapot, a newspaper” (2).

Right from the very first article, he enormously attacks the editor of a local daily newspaper, namely John smith, criticizing over usage of the letter “O” in his publications. In an attempt to show Mr. Smith how skillful he is in writing, Mr. Bullet- head finds himself overusing the letter “O” again. Before he prints the article, Bob discovers that Os were widely missing in the boxes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, his boss directs him to print the article in some way. Unfortunately, as Penguin Readers Teachers Support Program puts it, “Following the printer’s tradition, he replaces all Os with Xs”…making the article unreadable, which leads the population to believe that there was something devilish in it” (2). The angry mob tries to find me Mr. Bullet-head. Unfortunately, he ends up to have vanished.

Arguably, the theme of X-ing a Paragraph reflects on the Edgar Alan Poe’s experience in his writing career life. Congruent with this argument, Penguin Readers Teachers Support Program lament, “although Edgar Alan Poe is known for his tales of horror and mystery, X-ing a Paragraph is a sharp satire on newspapers, their editors and gullibility of their readers” (3). This argument largely has some substance especially bearing in mind that Edgar Alan Poe’s work had faced hefty criticisms.

For instance, Neimeyer claims how an anonymous critic suggested that works were unsuitable for the then readers in that they were “below the average of newspaper trash… wild, unmeaning, pointless, aimless…without anything of elevated fancy or praiseworthy humor” (207). Other critics such as Alexandra’s weekly massager commended the author’s creativity and cute use of his power of imagination and incredible powerful level of intellectualism while developing his literary works.

Considering these two commentaries of his literary works, some, levels of mixed criticisms appears just like there was confusions the usage of the Os and Xs in the X-ing a Paragraph. In this context, the theme of the X-ing a Paragraph, widely reflects on the author’s experiences in the writing career.

Horror and mystery were part of the Edgar Alan Poe life. He only attended the university for one semester and then dropped due to financial difficulties. Orphaned at a tender age, he attempted to join the army at the capacity of cadet but failed. Later, he left the people who took care of him, John and Frances Allan, to join the world of uncertainties. Therefore, it is not by coincidence that some of his works reflects terror and misery themes. Such works include The Black Cat amongst others.

Edgar Alan Poe’s literary works appear in three categories, with each category perhaps presenting the various phases of life experiences. Poe fell in love at an early age as sixteen with Elmira Royster. He engaged her despite the lack of parental consent.

Coincidentally, he dedicated his first wave of writing to themes of innocence and beauty coupled with “Love and Joy as dynamic life values in the poet’s feeling for the potentiality of the harmony of mind with nature, of the “soul” with “God” or the universal ‘Ens’” (Cornelius 5). This first category, between1827 to 1831, possessed impeccable romantic myths tantamount to the memoirs of paradise or perhaps if anything less than that, Eden. Edgar Alan Poe’s mother died when he was quite young.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Edgar Allan Poe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tragedy left him under foster care. Reflections of pain and loss of the close relatives arguably are evident in his publications of the 1831 to 1841 decade. In this end, Cornelius laments, “a radical change was reflected in poems and tales on the theme of death as finality in a cosmic void of darkness and silence” (13). Though not predicted, state of desperation associated with loss of loved ones in this generation of his literal works, were to turn around and afflict his life again when he lost his wife who he treasured so much in 1847.

Additionally, his works introspects critically the theme of love and hatred. Among the stories in which he ardently addresses hatred and love include William Wilson and Tell-Tale Heart. He looks at the two opposite emotions as complex in nature with deferring psychological impacts especially in the way they serve to blend with each other.

With regard to William Wilson and Tell-Tale Heart, hatred and love stand out as universal realities. It is impossible to separate one from the other. As a way of example, in Tell-Tale Heart, Edgar Alan Poe admits loving a man who he, in turn, murders violently. He presents a paradox between the early men that he loves to the dead man that he hates him.

Arguably, one might extend this paradox to the experiences of Edgar Alan Poe, which were full of instances of happiness. This is evident when he falls in love at sixteen, as well as the instances when he suffers psychologically from the loss of his loved ones where he feels as if the world hates him most.

Edgar Alan Poe was a poet right from his birth. His life experiences provide him with the vital tools for use in the development of his talent.

As Bits and pieces II comment, “He Delights in the wild and visionary, his mind penetrates the inmost recesses of the human soul, creating vast and magnificent dreams, eloquent fancies and terrible mysteries” (Para 10). His life encounters blends well with the recurring themes of horror in his vast literal works, about seventy of them. The Black Cat is one of the stories that bring out the themes of horror and misery.

Much similar to The Tell-Tale Heart, The Black Cat deploys the madness decent of the narrator. Right from the start of the story, he asserts that he is sane despite acknowledging that the tale that he is about to narrate is predominantly wild. The story does not just dwell on the preconceived narrator’s state of mind. It brings into the attention the likely cause of this mental state. The author contented that alcoholism had immensely contributed to this state of mind.

Alcoholism interfered with the manner in which the narrator conceived and grasped realities, as it produced swings of his mood. The cat, consequently, serves almost the same purpose like alcohol in that it interferes with the dynamics characterizing the plot development of the story. The incorporation of alcohol and its associated repercussions is somewhat significant in terms of reflection of the author’s life encounters in the themes of his works.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Edgar Allan Poe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, Edgar Allan Poe involved himself in the abuse of alcohol especially when he experienced challenges in his life. Perhaps congruent with this proposition, majority of his biographies contend that Edgar Allan Poe could have died of alcohol poisoning in Baltimore. However, others claim based on the impossibility of determining the actual cause of his death. They associate it with afflictions by deleterious effects arising from overconsumption of alcohol.

Conclusively, based on the expositions put forth in the paper, it suffices to declare the life experiences of playwrights and filmmakers the chief determinants of most of the themes they feature in their works. Poe is not an exception.

The paper has pointed out how the situation on the ground contributed towards the many themes: horror and misery, academic crimes, and financial challenges amongst others that are present in his works. Otherwise, Poe’s provides an informative piece of mastery that reflects the life he encountered right from his childhood.

Works Cited Bits and Pieces II. Selected Quotations about Edgar Allan Poe, 2010. Web. .

Cornelius, Kay. Bloom’s BioCritiques: Edgar Allan. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. Print.

Neimeyer, Mark. Poe and Popular Culture collected in the Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. London: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.

Penguin Readers Teachers Support Program. Outstanding Short Stories, 2008. Web.


Antegone by Sophocles Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Antegone by Sophocles is a tragedy which states the problem of relationships between relatives, family traditions, and the duty of a governor. It may be really complicated to combine the responsibilities of those two social characters as being a governor may mean to betray some family traditions that leads to betrayal of government responsibilities and obligations incase family is supported. The play under consideration clearly identifies this problem having presented a specific example.

The main points which should be discussed in the paper are as follows, no matter which position one occupies, family traditions must be followed as it is forever while the position in the government may be temporary. People should praise their roots and do not forget about their human qualities while running the country. Antegone by Sophocles is a good example when a governor has forgotten his roots.

Polyneices had to be given burial rituals in accordance with the family tradition. If the burial ceremony was followed, the situation would be absolutely different and would not lead to those disasters. Additionally, those who buried Polyneices in defiance of state should not be punished as well as Creon does not have the right to be entitled to the throne.

Polyneices should have been buried in accordance with the specific rituals inherent to the family tradition. Family is a sacred place, no one can destroy it or try to question its peculiarity. Creon has tried to put the priorities of the government under the priorities of the family. This is wrong.

Who are always near? Who will never betray? Who will do all possible to protect in case of problems? There is only one correct answer – family! Only the family will help in complicated situations and the failure to follow the family tradition means betrayal. This is exactly what Creon did by refusing to meet the family tradition and bury Polyneices in accordance wit the rules. Traditions which are followed from generation to generation bear great significance.

The connection with all the relatives, spiritual link to generations is felt via traditions and rude violation of the latter is inadmissible. It is impossible to ignore the reasons why Creon refused to bury Polyneices in accordance with particular family traditions, but he had a choice. People always have the right to choose what is more important for them. Creon’s decision cannot be justified as well as it cannot be explained by means of reasonable arguments.

Family should be at the first place for everyone and no matter which surrounding conditions make a person to change his/her attitude strong and self-assured people will never do that. They will remain faithful to their families, to people who spent much time on their up bringing. Thus, it may be stated that Creon’s decision as a betrayal and it is inadmissible to judge those who have decided to correct that terrible mistake.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those who buried Polyneices in defiance of state should not be punished as they tried to follow the call of their heart and correct the biggest mistake in Creon’s life. As it has already been stated, family ties are highly developed among many people and there is nothing strange that the wrong action wanted to be corrected. Other family members of Polyneices did not pay attention to Creon and his power and did all possible to protect their dignity and secure family traditions.

The question is whether these people should be punished or not. On the one hand, the direct order of the governor was violated; but on the other hand, people just wanted to remain just. The situation is rather complicated as on the one hand, the governor should listen to his heart and understand the reaction of other relatives who just wanted to follow traditions. On the other hand, having made a decision once a good governor should not change it. The family relations are involved, therefore, it is impossible to remain objective.

But family is not something that can be either supported or not. Moreover, it is inadmissible to judge a person who wanted to keep the tradition and not to allow Creon to remain careless in the relation to his relatives. The actions concerning punishing those who buried Polyneices were inadmissible as Creon should be heartless to do so. Reading the play, it is impossible to miss the careless attitude and heartless relation to those who tried to secure tradition of the family and the great name of the dead person.

Creon does not have the right to be entitled to the throne as he does not correspond to the number of particular features. Thus, being a ruler of the country Creon has to be powerful. Is it possible to run the country without having the power to protect a member of the family, to perform the final will and to bury Polyneices with other relatives?

The violation of the government rules is not that criminal like the violation of the family tradition. To be entitled to the throne, a person should have a dignity. I am not sure that a person who dared to betray a family can be respected.

Family is sacred and a family of a ruler should be even more protected. And what does Creon do? He makes all possible to show the people of his country that he does not respect his family. Governor’s family is a reflection of his reputation. Looking at the present times, the history of the families of the political leaders are carefully searched and discussed. The history should be clear. Even though the times considered in the play are much earlier, the rules are unchangeable.

Only a person who can be respected by the whole society has the tight to be entitled to the throne. A person who not only violates the tradition of the family, but who is able to betray the family cannot be respected. He cannot be trusted. Therefore, the actions conducted by Creon and the consequences those actions led to does not show Creon as a good leader.

We will write a custom Essay on Antegone by Sophocles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, it should be stated that that Creaon’s actions directed at the burial of Polyneices cannot be justified. He violated all the moral and ethical norms, showed himself as a person which cannot be trusted and respected. It is impossible to give a person an opportunity to be entitled at a throne who cannot keep the most honored and sacred institution, the institution of the family.

Family is everything for a person and the inability to organize family relations in an appropriate manner, the failure to remain connected with the roots should be considered as the inability to run the country.


Jesus in the Gospel Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The obedient nature of Jesus

Jesus as compassionate

Intimate nature of Jesus

Jesus as God

Jesus as the Greatest and the highest



Introduction Jesus was the famous human being who lived in this universe. Many Christians confront the question of whether he was actually a real person or not. In my opinion, I suppose that there is a possibility of Christians loosing Jesus because Jesus is blight on the tainted history that they have.

Jesus emphasized on sin that was original and the notion that someone else could pay for the sins of another person. Although Jesus had no external beauty that could make people desire Him, His personality drew people closer to him because he had a great character. Jesus was faultless and via studying the type of a person that he was, we are able to shape our lives to be like Him.

One of the features that we observe via the limited accounts of Jesus that we have is that Jesus was concerned about other people’s needs. Besides, He noticed the needs of others before the people in need could ask for His help and He was ever prepared to assist regardless of whether He was tired or not. Therefore, this essay will examine the type of a person that Jesus was.

The obedient nature of Jesus The most imperative quality that Jesus demonstrated was obedience to the Father who was in heaven. This obedience was because of the love for God and for humankind. Jesus demonstrated obedience in all His daily missions including the day that John the Baptist baptized Him. When Jesus discussed with John the Baptist about His baptism, John hesitated. This was because John knew that baptism was for remission of sins yet Jesus life was sinless.

Nevertheless, Jesus explained to John the Baptist that baptism was Gods commandment and he ought to respect it. Although it was not necessary for John the Baptist to baptize Jesus, Jesus decided to be exceptional and obeyed all the commandments even the commandments that were for the people who were wrong.

For instance, In the book of Mathew chapter three verse thirteen to fifteen (Mathew 3: 13-15), Jesus went to river Jordan to be baptized by John but John tried to make Jesus change His mind by telling Him that he was the one to be baptized by Him and not the other way round. Nonetheless, Jesus told John to let it be that way because that was God’s expectation (O’Day


Survey carried out at Tim Hortons Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The book, “The Oxford companion to American food and drink”, by Smith1 argues that coffee is one of the most preferred beverages all over the world. Coffee is brewed and usually exhibits a dark color and also has acidic flavor due to the brewing process.

The preparation of coffee is done from roasted seeds obtained from coffee plants. Individuals drink coffee for various personal reasons. Some drink coffee because they believe it gives them extra energy, especially those who like to stay awake for long during the night. Some people actually are fascinated by the taste and smell of coffee.

They just feel good when they can smell the nice aroma and feel the taste on their tongues as they drink coffee. Besides, for non-alcoholic drinkers, taking coffee is one of the best ways to spend time with friends in social joints. In fact, with increase in the number of coffee cafes like Tim Hortons, meeting for coffee has turned into a social event where friends meet to share good moments together.

Many people also drink coffee just as a form of habit. Tim Hortons is one of the most common coffee joints in Canada. It serves various customers with varied taste for coffee. It also offers other kinds of drinks the customers can choose from besides coffee. The surveyor issued questionnaires to respondents to find out how customers at the Tim Hortons purchase the company’s beverages and other products.

Methods/Procedures The survey focused on Tim Hortons and its coffee customers. Ten participants were randomly sampled to participate in the survey. They were each issued with a structured questionnaire containing matrix questions to answer. The questionnaires contained ten similar questions for every respondent. They were required to answer the questions independently without consulting one another. This was to ensure validity and reliability.

The first question asked the respondents the size of coffee they preferred. The responses varied a great deal. Amongst the ten participants, five stated that they preferred medium size; this represented 50% of the respondents. Then three people indicated they preferred small sizes and two indicated that they preferred big sizes. These represented 30% and 20% of the respondents respectively.

The respondents were also asked how frequent they bought stuff from Tim Hortons. Three of the respondents indicated that they bought coffee from Tim Hortons always, four indicated that they bought coffee most of the times, one indicated sometimes while two indicated rarely.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These statistics represented 30%, 40%, 10% and 20% respectively. A question was also asked on whether respondents ate at Tim Hortons every day. In this case, six of the respondents indicated that they ate there most of the time; three indicated some times while the remaining one indicated always. This implies that the respondent ate at Tim Hortons every day. In terms of percentages, these represented 60%, 30% and 10% respectively.

The respondents were also asked to indicate the frequency with which they took both lunch and breakfast at Tim Hortons. These two questions generated similar answers. Five respondents indicated that they always took both breakfast and lunch at Tim Hortons. Four of them indicated that they only sometimes took both lunch and breakfast.

This implies that some other times they may either eat from their houses or go to other restaurants. One respondent showed rarely for both lunch and breakfast. The implication of this could be that the respondent was never stationed at a work place but could be traveling during the day’s businesses.

There was a question regarding ordering of stuffs whenever the participants visited Tim Hortons. The question asked them how frequent they ordered other products apart from coffee.

Eight of the respondents showed that they rarely ordered other products besides coffee, one indicated sometimes while the remaining one showed he always ordered different things on various occasions. Since many people like taking coffee for various reasons, the respondents were asked whether or not they believed coffee was important for energy concentration. All of the respondents answered on the affirmative.

They all indicated that in deed coffee was a source of extra energy, especially during winter periods. When asked on whether they thought Tim Hortons was the best, seven of them agreed, one indicated somehow while the remaining one was not sure on the issue. Those answered it is the best showed that they had mostly relied on the coffee and other products from Tim Hortons for a long time. This could be because they liked the quality of products at Tim Hortons.

On whether they kept special amount of money for Tim Hortons, the respondents again had varied answers. Three indicated always, two indicated sometimes, two showed rarely while the remaining three never kept special money for Tim Hortons. Those who always kept special money might be very loyal to the company’s products. The reason could also be that they were always satisfied with the services they received whenever they visited Tim Hortons.

We will write a custom Essay on Survey carried out at Tim Hortons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coffee is one of the most preferred drinks at the Tim Hortons. However there are also other types of drinks offered at the meeting joint. With regards to this, the respondents were asked to respond on whether they bought other drinks different from coffee.

All the ten respondents indicated that at time or another they bought other drinks. However, three of the respondents indicated that they always bought drinks different from coffee; four indicated they did this sometimes while the rest of the three showed that they rarely bought other drinks apart from coffee.

Conclusion Tim Hortons is one of the companies offering coffee and other beverages to the population of Canada. The survey sought to find out the experience of customers with coffee brewed by Tim Hortons. The respondents were presented with structured questionnaires on which were matrix questions to answer. Ten respondents were selected to participate in the survey. They were asked to fill the questionnaires independently without consulting one another. This was to ensure reliability and validity of the survey.

The analysis of the data obtained during the survey indicated various outcomes from the respondents. The findings showed that the frequency with which customers bought coffee from Tim Hortons varies greatly from one customer to the other. Moreover, it also came out that customers do not only buy coffee from Tim Hortons, but sometimes buy drinks different from coffee; they also bought other things apart from drinks.

This implies that customers for Tim Hortons are not only attracted by the coffee itself, but also by other products in general. The survey also found out that other customer would buy other drinks unrelated to coffee despite the fact that they still preferred coffee most of the times. Again, a good number of respondents believed that Tim Hortons was the best place for them to buy coffee and other related products.

References Smith AF. The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007.


Disney culture in china and United States Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Disneyland is a park that is regarded as the happiest place on earth. The concept for Disneyland began with Disney Walt when he took his two daughters to visit Griffith Park in Los Angeles. He envisioned a place that both children and adults would go to and have fun. Thus, the idea of a magical land called Disneyland was born in America. It opened its doors to visitors in 1955. The park represents the American culture and it is a recognizable brand abroad.

There are two Disney lands in America; one is located in Los Angeles California and the other in Orlando Florida. Disneyland is also found in Hong Kong China. The focus of the paper will be on the differences between the cultures of Disneyland in the United States and China. The differences that will be looked into include, culture, food, architecture, food, interior decorations, products and railroad. The American and Chinese cultures are different and so are the two Disney lands in various ways.

Main Street, USA The Main Street is one of the four themed lands in Disneyland. The land is an inspiration of an old town in America. The difference between Hong Kong’s Main Street and American’s are that there is no restaurant at the entrance. It was not built because of budget constraints. The Hong Kong main street borrows its influence mainly from European immigrants. The Plaza Inn mimics a Chinese eatery.

The other restaurant is the called the Market House Bakery that is influenced by Vietnamese culture and created by a pastry chef from Vietnam. The biggest difference between Hong Kong Disneyland and American Disney lands is that it is made mostly from wood and not stone. The main street also does not have horse drawn streetcars. The streetcars are represented in concept art found at the park (Feng Shui at Hong Kong Disney 1).

Food Food in the Hong Kong’s Disneyland restaurants caters for the local people by proving local cuisines because the Chinese are fond of their local food. Unlike the Disney lands in America that serve predominantly American food such as the hamburger. The Chinese like their spicy foods and the restaurants have catered for that need well. There are also restaurants serving American food but they have cut down on the number of foods like hotdogs in order to serve Chinese dishes like noodles and dim sum (Grover, Wong and Leung 1).

Number of visitors Hong Kong Disney has the least number of daily visitors compared to other Disney lands. The low number is attributed to the small size of the park. Visitors who visited the park complain of its small size and overcrowding. The park could not accommodate 30, 000 visitors when it opened in 2005 and many had to wait for a minimum of forty-five minutes to be served at the eateries.

Some people had to wait for about two hours to get a ride and the experience left many disgruntled and thus lost customers. For example, one disappointed visitor said, “I won’t come again, even if I’m paid to” (Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler, 661). The other problems experienced at the Hong Kong Disneyland is ticketing as many visitors to the park had been turned away as the park was already full. The problem mainly occurred during the public holidays.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ticketing and capacity problems are teething problems that the management tried to resolve by revising their ticketing policies (Schuman 1). The American Disney lands have more visitor attractions compared to Hong Kong Disneyland that is smallest of all the Disney lands. The lack of many attractions may also be a contributing factor to the unsatisfactory number of visitors.

Culture The Chinese and American cultures are very different. The management at the Hong Kong Disneyland land at first did not appreciate the difference and operated the parks as if they are in America. They failed to take into account the Chinese cultural traditions and consumption habits.

The Chinese people may be open to the American culture but they value their culture so much that Hong Kong Disneyland must embrace the local culture to stay relevant. The movies shown in Disneyland such as The Secret of the Magic Gourd and Mulan have included Chinese elements in order to win audiences. On the other hand, the Disney lands in America represent the local culture and many people understand or are familiar with the Disney characters because of exposure through the Disney channel.

Therefore, they are more accepting of Disneyland because the stories relate to their culture and history. However in China Disneyland is a new phenomenon and effort has to be put to make the locals familiar with the Disney characters so that they can appreciate Disney world and not see it as an American form of invasion on their culture (Jingwei 1).

Architecture The Chinese people believe in Feng Shui and Chi. Feng Shui refers to wind and water. The Chinese tradition in building is to put the elements in harmony so that they can bring the people good luck. In line with the Chinese culture, Hong Kong Disneyland contracted Chinese masters in feng shui to incorporate it in the park.

Feng shui involves five earthly elements and they must be balanced in order to bring good luck. The five elements are properly positioned in Hong Kong Disneyland. For example, at the entrance, there is a rolling fire projection but in other areas, fire is forbidden. Moreover, the gate of the main entrance on Lantau Island was positioned in a north/south direction to bring good luck.

The entrance also has big entry portals to enhance feng shui. The park really went into great lengths to incorporate feng shui and its location in Penny’s bay was important for good luck as it is surrounded by the sea and hills, which are very important elements in the environment according to the Chinese(Feng Shui at Hong Kong Disney 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Disney culture in china and United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other notable feature at in Hong Kong Disneyland is a bend constructed near the Disney’s resort so that it can prevent energy from flowing into the South China Sea according to chi. Chi is a belief in positive and negative energy and it works hand in hand with feng shui. The Chinese value rocks because they bring stability in feng shui hence the park has many large rocks throughout the Hong Kong Disneyland. The hotels in the Disneyland have huge rocks located at their entrance for feng shui.

The rocks also prevent good luck from escaping and flowing away from the park hence brings good luck to the people. The other element that the Chinese believe brings luck is water. The Hong Kong Disneyland has many water features because water is very important in feng shui. The park ahs many streams, lakes and ponds scattered throughout to bring good fortune wealth and luck. At the entrance of the park is a huge fountain that greets visitors into the park to bring them god luck.

The Disney Hollywood and Hong Kong Disneyland hotel are constructed in special locations that have water and positioned in a southwest direction to make use of feng shi and bring forth prosperity. Besides there is a waterfront in front of Disneyland and it pours its water into the ocean and its position is good feng shui (Feng Shui at Hong Kong Disney 1).

On the contrary, the architecture at the Disney lands in Florida and Los Angeles is constructed to represent the different periods in American history without bearing in mind any cultural believes in the designs of the parks.

The parks are different from that in Hong Kong because they do not represent other cultures such as the Europeans or African Americans. The park does not show case the achievements made the minority races in America. The many minorities who visit Disneyland have find nothing they can identify with hence they are disappointed.

The parks do not show the values of the people but focuses on the financial success only (Fischer 1). The above cannot be said of Hong Kong Disneyland because the park incorporates the values of the people and the architecture of the park makes them feel comfortable because their important beliefs are represented in the designs. Thus, even though Disneyland is American the local people can see elements of their culture they can identify with and be proud of their own culture.

Interior decorations The interior decorations at the park are carefully done in line with chi and feng shui. The Disneyland hotel has 2,238 crystal lotuses for its decoration. The number of the lotuses is picked because it sounds like a phrase that says, “easily generate wealth” (Disney secrets 1).

The major ballroom in Hong Kong Disneyland is 888 square meters. The number 888 is a very important in Chinese because it means wealthy. The favourite color is red and many buildings in the park utilize it especially those in main street USA. The decorations in Plaza Inn are reproduced from the landscapes in the mulan Disney animated film for the Chinese market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Disney culture in china and United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The exterior of Plaza Inn is American in resemblance but inside it is Chinese from the paintings to paper lanterns. Another important fact to note about Hong Kong Disney is that elevators and buildings do not have the fourth floor because number four is associated with death. “The association with death occurs because number four sounds like Chinese word for death” (Jackson 147).

However, in American the Disney lands interior decorations in the stores look like the shopping malls of 1950s. The exterior design is modern and hence very attractive to visitors who escape into an ancient world but at the same time enjoy the castle (Fischer 1).

Products There are many products sold in Disney lands in the different countries. In the US all types of merchandize is sold such amusement, prestige, fun and joy other products include as costumes for the Disney characters, clothes, drinks, roller coasters and shows among others. However, in Hong Kong Disney land one cannot sell anything because some products are a taboo. For instance, clocks cannot be sold in the park because in Chinese giving clock is similar in sound to saying attending a funeral.

It seems that the Chinese are particularly afraid of death and anything surrounding it hence anything that suggests death is highly avoided. Another interesting thing to note about the Hong Kong Disney culture is that green hats are not stocked in the park’s stores. A green hat in Chinese usually means that the wearer is a cheating spouse and specifically being unfaithful to the wife or a poor goofy (Jackson 147). Thus if a trader stocks green hats the Chinese visitors will give them a wide berth.

Railroad The Hong Kong Disneyland railroad is similar to the Disneyland in Los Angeles. The parks have locomotives and trains that move visitors. The difference between Hong Kong and the two Disney lands in the United States is that the railroad in the USA stops at four stations but in Hong Kong it stop sonly at two stops that is Fantasyland and Main Street USA.

The rails road in Hong Kong goes around the park in a grand circle tour and travels for about 1500 meters unlike in the USA where the railroad travels clockwise through the four stations in eighteen minutes (Disneyland 1).

Conclusion The Disney lands in American and china are different in cultural terms. The differences in culture posed a major problem for Hong Kong Disneyland because it did not understand the culture of the people and many saw it a foreign intrusion.

However, the cultural differences can be bridged by learning the culture of the local people and incorporating it in the park so that the people can feel comfortable to visit the park. The park should also improve by constructing more attractions sites to cater for a wider clientele and build loyal customers who will help to keep the park open and profitable because that is the core goal of any business and Hong Kong Disneyland is no different.

Works Cited Disneyland railroad. 2009. Web.

Disney Secrets – Hong Kong Disneyland Secrets and Facts. 2009. Web.

Fischer, Reece. The creation of Disney World. 2004. Web.

Grover, Ronald, Stephanie Wong and Wendy Leung. Disney gets a second chance in China. Web.

Jackson, Kathy Merlock. Disneyland and Culture: Essays on the Parks and Their Influence. California: McFarland, 2010.

Jingwei, Zhang. Shanghai Disneyland: The Integration and Competition of Sino-U.S. Soft Power. 2011. Web.

Schuman, Michael. Disney’s Hon Kong Headache. 2011. Web.

Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J.,


General Education Requirements Essay writing essay help

Background General Education courses came into existence after the loss of thorough coordination and coherence in graduate programs. As a result, there were myriad of reform programs that were put in place which would make students more knowledgeable in many disciplines. This came into being since there was minimal need for specialization especially towards the end of the nineteenth onwards. As a result, college entrant students were forced to undertake general education in order to effectively fit into the job market.

Additionally, general education was also meant to pool together a wide array of knowledge for learners bearing in mind that specialization was perceived to be a narrow and more constraint way of attaining job competence. Furthermore, the aspect of specialization did not map itself much in major universities during the 19th century period. Therefore, after realization that there was lack of commonness in sets of electives in university courses, admission of more students into higher learning institutions began.

This was mainly fuelled by the perception that colleges and universities figured out that in order to meet the needs of these students, there was also need for creation of special programs that would suffice their needs by servicing as an open door in every field. These courses were intended to be introductory in all disciplines and thus created a structure that was to be distributed to all colleges (Gray 28).

Upon acceptance in the early twentieth century, implementation methods exhibited wide variances especially in regard to societal needs of that time. Gray (36) asserts that there were exclusions as regards contemporary issues that led to generalized perception of the whole society.

This type of education therefore lost relevance to immediate societal demands and thus became more generalized as the name suggests. Over a period some years, dimensions of general education provisions have remained unchanged and thus been likely subjected to challenges.

Due to this stagnation in education provision and ignorance of immediate societal demands, including student relevance, general education has been faced with a lot of emerging issues in curriculum, both to students and teachers. Students have been widely affected by the challenges in general education. In this light, this paper discusses the types of issues, in relation to content, requirements and impacts of general education as a program and its relevance to both student and the general society.

Content of general education General education entails provision of a generalized form of education, usually offered immediately after high school and junior years of university. This type of education has no specialization and considers a wide approach in its curriculum. Under general education, there is emphasis of attaining knowledge from all academic disciplines. Although this might sound as one of the most important forms of education, it actually offers a system of education which can be considered as basic in all disciplines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, general education primarily provides a basic form of education aimed at making its students conversant of general affairs in all disciples. With this approach, the content provided does not therefore make an individual highly valuable to the society or economy but rather equips the student with basic skills and knowledge in handling the immediate environment (Gray 58).

General education entails learning of all sciences and arts. For instance, mathematical education provided is aimed at providing basic mathematics skills which include algebra and basic calculus to students for advanced applications in universities or colleges. Additionally, basic sciences and humanities are taught which include, biology, chemistry and physics in the field of science while humanities entail history, geography and religious education. These sciences also offer introductory topics to detailed studies in universities or colleges.

Biology offered can not however render a student fit for study of medical sciences in advanced learning processes but makes the student conversant with medical and other biology-related fields’ terms. Similarly, humanities offered, as previously mentioned, include geography, history and religious studies which all center on lighting information on matters of the world.

Geography entails physical knowledge of the world; history entails origin of man and past notable events in the lives of human beings while religious studies offer knowledge in matter relating to supernaturalism, morality and a possible explanation of the origin of earth and the universe at large (Gray 57).

With this scope of knowledge, one ought to be greatly conversant with environmental challenges and thus be able to solve them as they keep arising in society from time to time. This is one of the perceptions whenever the provision of general education comes on board. Another perception of this type of education is to make students be relevant to the society as well. With such limited knowledge, matters of societal practicability become a challenge after its implementation (Thornton 45).

Requirements of general education As any other course out there, general education demands specific requirements before admission acceptance. Indeed, it is worth noting that for a long period of time, the entry requirements for general education has been perceived by many as relatively flexible and perhaps not very demanding.

Contrastingly, the latter scenario may not always be the case since general education, similar to any other While the requirements do not indicate rigidity in their statements, general education insists on prerequisite education, mainly primary or elementary education.

We will write a custom Essay on General Education Requirements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With good elementary education, admission to general education course is instant and fast. This is a major pre-admission requirement. In-course requirements include mastering of concepts provided therein. This requirement is met through various stage tests. Before procession to the next level of general education, various tests are administered. Administration of these tests takes place in person, unlike many other courses which administer tests online.

These tests are aimed at checking the level of knowledge concepts in a student. There are also measures in place to guide these tests while undergoing administration (Wehlburg 70). Thorough knowledge of general education forms a foundation for specialization at university level. General education thus provides requirements necessary for advanced education.

For instance, liberal education, which is provided with an aim of familiarizing students with concepts in social sciences, is aimed at providing knowledge to students wishing to pursue their education in social sciences. While it provides such familiarization platforms for future majoring in universities and other specialization colleges, general education requires students to be conversant in stated categories.

These categories or areas include communication and critical thinking, natural sciences, quantitative reasoning, humanities and social sciences. Communication entails oral communication and written communication while critical thinking involves application of basic philosophical concepts in reasoning. Natural sciences entail introductory topics into pure and applied sciences which include physical sciences, life sciences, laboratory sciences and elective sciences suitable for advanced learning.

Quantitative reasoning entails mathematical introductory skills necessary for computations in all fields. These skills greatly impact students’ arithmetic skills in a positive way while at the same time proving to be too limited to be applied deeply as standalone material (Wehlburg 85). The issue of transfers and its impacts on students’ performance related to attaining general education requirements.

Over the years, researchers and policymakers have expressed their concerns over the phenomenon of poor performance in general education among schools in the US as well as in international schools, due to the issues of students’ transferring or being required to transfer from a major subject area to another.

Indeed, whether internationally or locally, all schools have a similar mandate that they have been entrusted with of academic achievement. Impey et al. posits that a good and stable learning environment has been considered imperative for students’ achievement gains (32).

From the plethora of schools, as well as their improvement initiatives, of critical importance is managing the issue of transfer of students to units within a major subject area which may affect a student’s success. Inasmuch as that fact in itself may not be enough to justify the problem of student performance, studies indicate that in the US, poor levels of liberal art students performances are positively correlated to transfer of courses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on General Education Requirements by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More O’Leary, Quinlan and Richards point out in the US and in international schools, the learning opportunities and performance of most liberal studies students have been over the years disrupted by the potentially high transfer cases (100).

Pierre et al. point out that in general education, the transfer of students from a particular school to another or a specific study to another, with emphasis on liberal art students, provokes immeasurable loss of productivity (53). This is seen by the manner in which students are forced to shift from their normal study duties to spend their inordinate time dealing with registration issues. Besides, the issue of transfer impacts on performance of other students as they are sometimes called upon to provide guidance to new students.

This indeed is a setback to the industries effort and goal of promoting students’ achievement due to excessive loss of time. Besides, it consumes a lot of energy that individuals devote in order to have learning programs stabilize after some students leave their courses or study units. Scholars appear in agreement that this shift in focus causes students to take a temporary dip in the first and second semesters.

Insufficient resources and economic issues Most schools locally and internationally have not been left out by the effects of the many students who quit school or transfer from one school to another due to insufficient resources or economic difficulties.

Insufficient resources and economic hardships are some of the factors that hinder them from meeting general education requirements like, paying for their studies. The contemporary local and international student transfers and drop-out rates vary in different countries and are brought about by diverse issues that include: economic factors, poor learning environments and racism.

Power, Hobbs and Ober point out that economically, students in most schools are greatly affected by relational decisions involving payment of education fee, joining better performing schools and studying in schools that have adequate learning facilities for their major subject areas (95).

For instance, students taking liberal arts study consider their course to be very critical as it prepares them for better professions in any economy. With their work requiring greater commitment, further advancement in training, and sacrifice, most liberal arts students feel the need to shift to other areas of studies which offer better learning facilities or other schools with adequate infrastructure.

Poor learning conditions in some schools are mediated by lack of adequate infrastructure and uncooperative stakeholders. These also propel students to seek other areas that would give them greater peace of mind.

Ineffective management of educational systems In his theory of change management, Kurt Lewin argues that an organization should create structures that allow its people to not only to be effective, but to map their operations that suggest their value recognition (Yoder-Wise 51).

Indeed, the problem of ineffective management of educational systems and inconsistent curriculums creates a problem which affects the ability of students to attain academic requirements. Therefore, education bodies concerned with administration in the US and in bilingual schools should come up with measures that will change structures that aid students in meeting the general education requirements.

By adopting Kurt Lewin’s model of freezing-refreezing in organization management, students should be brought closer to administrations to encourage them to reflect issues that affect them. This would greatly create the needed interlink between teachers and students and the sense of progress in addressing their issues that repel them from attaining their educational requirements. Though this is not easy, it is achievable.

To shed more light, Power, Hobbs and Ober use the example of liberal arts students who are used to a teacher who is practical and more interactive after they are shifted to a new one with a totally different style of teaching (96). The students would take a lot of time before they adjust to the new style while others may be unable to adjust completely.

Effects of general education General education, in its course, greatly impacts the life of a student. The impact is so eminent that it largely affects the future of an individual. The effects are thus long lasting and consequently bound to be felt all along a lifetime of an individual. In this determination, the effects remain varied. Under this perception therefore, the effects of general education, specifically liberal arts can be classified as either positive or negative since they directly relate to a student.

While the effects of general education may be varied and versatile both to students and tutors, it is imperative to note that the outcomes of acquiring this form o education largely depends on how it is articulated in the actual work environment. In simple terms, general education should be well harnessed especially after it has been acquired in order to be fruitful to users.

Positive effects General education can greatly affect the life of a student positively. To begin with, general education creates a foundation for future majoring in courses relating to the interest of the involved student. For instance, liberal arts in general education provides relevant knowledge for specialization in courses offered in the faculty of social sciences. This foundation is vital for provision of requirements such as premises that form a prerequisite of the majors to be undertaken by the student.

Secondly, this form of education provides necessary skill for understanding the environment and thus being in a position to solve immediate challenges which people encounter. Since our immediate environments are full of challenging situations, provisions acquired from general education prove essential when crafting solutions to these challenges.

Background information provided at these levels of study presents great knowledge tools for solution arrivals. This is a positive effect because lack of information or skills necessary for challenge solutions would lead to creation of bigger problems in society (Howard 31).

The basic communication and critical thinking skills provided in general education are aimed at effective communication in spoken and written contents and thus lead to effective self-expressions.

Without effective communication, understanding and interpreting messages would be highly strenuous and thus they would be limited and greatly biased (Stickler 75). With such biases, it would be hard for someone in achieving goals in life especially as regards liberal arts and possible future majors in social sciences. Therefore this is a great positive effect of general education.

The quantitative techniques provided under the curriculum of general education provide a great platform for computational analysis and interpretation of research statistics at higher levels of learning. Since the purpose of learning is to continue researching specific contents, data collection is highly inevitable.

Analyzing the data collected and providing accurate interpretations require quantitative understanding provided in the general education program. Thus acquisition of such quantitative skills positively impacts required skills in the area of research (Thornton 46).

Negative effects Like many other forms of schedule or programs, generalized education does not escape provision of negative effects. To begin with, general education-for lack of specialization- provides too much content, most of which becomes highly irrelevant at specialization levels.

This content become forgotten and lack use in immediate environments and thus only remains useful to the individual and not the society. Secondly, accredited grades can limit individual interests in future persuasions. Each individual has an interest in a field of academic pursuit but with limitations, acquired from general education such as low grades in specific subjects, might limit this interest if not prevention (Allen 10).

Thirdly, general education does not seem to solve environmental challenges. The skills provided at general education level are of elementary form and thus not suitable for provision of accurate solutions to environmental problematic situations. Immediate environmental problems seem more technical and thus require slightly advanced skills in crafting of appropriate and effective solutions, which general education programs do not provide (Allen 14).

Conclusion From the discussion, it is evident that general education entails provision of a generalized form of education, usually offered immediately after high school and junior years of university, which greatly impacts educational needs of a student.

Along study lines of general education, there is inevitable encounter of issues associated with content, requirements and impacts on a student. Since the aim of general education is to open minds of students with a perspective preparation for majors in advanced education, it however brings with it issues and challenges.

The economic issues encountered become a challenge to successful completion of the general education course. Transfer issues complicate the progress of the course while academic issues related to content bring confusion to the mind of the student as regards choice of specialization. It also has both positive and negative effects, all of which create other issues in the completion of education and relevance to the society.

Works Cited Allen, Mary. Assessing general education programs. New York: Anker Pub. Co., 2006. Print.

Gray, William Scott. General education: its nature, scope, and essential elements. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1934. Print.

Howard, Craig. Theories of general education: a critical approach. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.Print.

Impey Chris, et al. “A twenty-year survey of science literacy among college undergraduates.” Journal of College Science Teaching 40.4 (2011): 31-37.

O’Leary, Patrick, Thomas Quinlan, and Randy Richards. “Insurance professionals’ perceptions of continuing education requirements”. Journal of Insurance Regulation, 30.4 (2011): 96-112.

Pierre, Eileen, et al. Reality check: Ok extension helps teachers meet financial education requirements. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 103.2 (2011): 52-56.

Power Mark, Jonathan Hobbs and Ashley Ober. “An empirical analysis of the effect of financial education on graduating business students’ perceptions of their retirement planning familiarity, motivation, and preparedness”. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 14.1 (2011): 89-105.

Stickler, William Hugh. General education: a university program in action. University of Michigan: W.C. Brown, 2000.Print.

Thornton, James. General education: establishing the program. Prepared for the National Committee on General Education. Association for Higher Education, 2008.Print.

Wehlburg, Catherine. Integrated General Education: New Directions for Teaching and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.Print.

Yoder-Wise, Patricia. “Continuing professional development: Taking the broad view”. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42.2 (2011): 51-55.


School is bad for children Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The current system of education is very different from the ancient system, because unlike the ancient one, it does not give school children the opportunity to develop hobbies. As such, it is normally referred to as a bad system of education. A child learns best by exploration and this is the best kind of learning.

When a child finds something fascinating, he or she will explore it systematically until all the mysteries are solved (Gyasto). If the child does not come up with a clear understanding of the subject matter, he will definitely ask an adult about it. By so doing, it means that the child is quite interested in the matter and this leads to development of hobbies. If the current system of education does not help children develop their hobbies, then it is bad for them.

In school, children are not allowed to learn through their mistakes. Remember the saying that goes ‘experience is the best teacher’. Everything is taught by the teacher and the children become lazy hence they do not develop their hobbies (Gyasto). The child gets to understand that the teacher does not accept wrong answers and develops mechanisms of getting the right answers.

This makes the teacher believe that the child knows what he does not know. Children get to learn the first language mainly by their own; they do not sit in class to be taught. They too learn many complicated things before going to school and by the time they do, they have already started developing hobbies (Holt). The moment they join school, they sit on their talents and hobbies because they do not have the time for them.

Discussion When a child is taken to school, he or she is introduced to a new environment with so many kids unknown to him or her. Having come from different backgrounds, kids can be very cunning.

They will exhibit different social standards and a child will find it difficult to learn much because he or she will be more concerned with the social standards that have been set by other kids. This will make them spend most of the time worrying about if they will be able to fit or risk being rejected. When a child is not able to fit into the social standards set by the other children, cases of bullying arise.

A kid will only bully a kid who is below his or her social standards and this is great torture. As a result, a child can suffer depression and be completely withdrawn. A good learning environment should not endanger the lives of children but should be able to help them get to learn that which will help them in future , what they will enjoy doing and what will be of much benefit to them(Gyasto). Disciplined children cannot bully or kill, but will work have in school to realize their dreams.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Schools do not teach what the children want to know. That is why many children dread going to school. There is nothing as boring as being taught something that you are not interested in especially mathematics (Holt). Sitting in a class the whole day listening to a boring class does not make sense at all because the child ends up getting nothing out of it and is equally or less the same as the one who did not attend the lesson.

It would be better to stay home and explore situations and by the end of the day get to learn something. When a child is confined in a school five or six days in a week, his or her ability to learn through exploration is limited and hence the child ends up not developing his hobbies fully but then the child gets to learn through the other children.

Those who prosper in school or higher learning institutions do it because they have found something interesting in what they are studying (Holt). For example, those who excel to become doctors and lawyers do that because they have a passion for it. Unfortunately, it is not a large number of students that end up taking the courses that they have liked since childhood.

The reason being that, their grades in high school do not permit them to do what they like. I take a very good example of my sister’s very own experience. She grew up wanting to become a nurse by profession but her grades failed her and she ended up taking a teaching course.

In her childhood, she liked acting ‘the nurse’, for example, she would make a symbol of a syringe and pretend to give us injections. For this and more, her dream was quit clear to everybody but it was never achieved. Perhaps she could be let to stay in a hospital rather than waste more than a decade in school; she would have acquired a lot of knowledge on what she liked. Then, how can one become what he or she wants without going to school? This will be difficult.

Children do not have the time to be kids anymore because they are so bogged down. They are given a lot of homework, which leaves them with no time for play and exploration even after a long day in school (Gyasto).

They are given a lot of homework to such extend that some cannot make it for dinner and this greatly affects the family life because it reduces the level of interaction between the child and the other family members. Many of the assignments they are given are simply busywork, therefore making learning a chore rather than a positive, constructive experience like a hobby.

We will write a custom Research Paper on School is bad for children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They spent most of their free time after school doing assignment from all the teachers. When a child is kept that busy, he has no time to develop his or her hobbies because for one, the child does not like what he or she is doing and as a result, the child starts to hate school. A child cannot hate school if the child likes what he or she does there.

To reverse the situation, if at all the schooling system cannot be fully abolished, parents should talk to teachers and more so the head teachers about the matter. The other option is to bring together all the other parents and approach the school board. It is possible and it can be done if only there is cooperation among the parents.

When this is done, at least the children will have moved a few steps ahead in developing their hobbies. Remember that the school is good because it offers a variety of activities that can lead to development of hobbies. If the heads of the schools see the importance of the matter and reduce the amount of homework given to children, it will create time for the children to explore, and above all develop their hobbies.

In school, the children learn many things. Although they learn some positive values and gain education, on the other end acquire other negative ones, which have a great impact on their life after. The teachers may not be aware what negative things the children are getting because it can take place unconsiously.

The children gets to learn that he or she should be right at all times since the teacher does not want them to get anything wrong at any particular time. As a result, the children learn how to cheat in order to get the right answers while in the real sense, they do not know anything. The greatest message that is passed on in school life is the fact that the teacher is the one who knows everything.

Therefore, the children learn not to ask questions where they feel that the teacher is not right and thus their curiosity is not satisfied. They also get to know how to read only when the teacher is looking and vice versa and to dodge and fake things none of which are good (Holt). Before going to school, a child is able to do a lot of work by his or her own without being supervised but on getting to school the situation changes. With all that, they can never develop their hobbies.

School is not good for children because they are so stressed up with the amount of work they do. They do not have enough time to release that tension and they end up projecting it to others. People may wonder why children especially in high school exhibit queer behaviors like bullying, and even killing. It is not one or two times that, cases of school riots have been reported, with the more serious ones resulting to burning of school’s facilities.

To make it worse, some of them have died in the infernos. There have been also cases of certain kids killing others, and to bring the point out clearly, why would a school going kid commit suicide? There is only one good answer to this question, the accumulated stress from schoolwork (Gyasto). On the contrary, stress can be relieved through clubs, games and sporting activities offered by the school. This way the school becomes good because it gets the children recreational activities that can develop their hobbies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on School is bad for children by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the negative effects of school out weigh the positive ones; therefore, school is generally bad for children. After looking at how the current system of education affects children negatively, it would be wise to start thinking of a different way in which knowledge can be impacted on children (Gyasto).

A learning experience that will allow them to learn at their own pace what they are interested in would be the best. Being confined in a classroom the whole day comes with its bad effects and results to problems that are more serious. To reverse the situation, the government should think of a better way to make learning more interesting.

Works Cited Gyasto, Tenzin. Our faith of Science. The Blair Reader. 7th ed. Ed. p527-529

Holt, John. School is Bad for Children. The Blair Reader. 7th Ed. p64-68.


Dream and Reality Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Dreams: A Historical Perspective

Dreams Vs Reality

Sleeping and Dreaming

Psychology Dreaming

Accessing Physical Experiences


Works Cited

Introduction The concept of dreams has eluded even the most renowned philosophers and psychologists, including Aristotle, Plato, and Sigmund Freud. Plato likened dreams to a presentation that we experience while sleeping (Hamilton, Cairns and Cooper 571). Modern psychology seems to have borrowed the definition of a dream from Plato’s, in that they have defined dreams as sequences of experiences borne of imagination during sleep (Dennett 129).

The aim of this statement of intent is to provide a more holistic definition of dreams from both a historical as well as a modern perspective. There is often a very thin line between “dreams” and “reality”. As such, it is indispensable to examine such a link.

Dreams: A Historical Perspective Sigmund Freud commenced his psychoanalytical study on dreams in 1900 with a complaint that philosophers viewed his idea of dreams as second-rate and intellectually unworthy (Freud 5). In his article, ‘Dreams’, Manser opines that Freud had “littler to say about the nature of dreams which is of interest to the philosopher” (415). There appears to be little attention devoted to the concept of dream by philosophers, even as the topic puzzled such renowned philosophers as Aristotle and Plato.

There is a need to define what dreaming is, and how one may distinguish between reality and dreams. From a historical point of view, dreams are a frightening and puzzling phenomenon. Prehistorically, ancestors also viewed dreams as messages sent to them by demons and gods. To the fatalist, dreams are portents or omens of future events.

Ancient Greek philosophers adopted a rather rational naturalist approach to dreams. Aristotle provided the definition of dreams as that experience one has in his/her sleep (Ross 56). On the other hand, Plato defined dreams as the visions that we always recall in our waking hours (Hamilton et al 571). Modern psychology appears to have adopted the Aristotelian stance: dreams are sequences of experiences borne of imagination during sleep (Dennett 129).

Nietzsche’s argument blaming the belief in ghosts, gods, resurrection and life after death on the doorstep of the dream was sensible (LaBerge 231). Supposing that, the idea of soul-body arose from subjective experiences in the dream world, whether or not the soul was an objective reality depended on reality insight placed on the dream.

If, in ancient times, human believed that they had discovered a second real world in a dream, what did that mean? Was it a mere intuitively verifiable existence? Few possibilities exist in an attempt to solve the mystery of these questions. Whether dreams are real and if they are, how do they compare to physical reality in terms of the mental truths (LaBerge 231).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Two issues emerged – one was the extent to which an experience appears to be subjectively real. The second was the extent the experience appears to be objectively real (this was independent of the first). Simple logic affirms that something exists only if it can cause an effect on another thing (LaBerge 233). Therefore, since it is extraordinarily difficult to interact with a dream physically, proving that it existed in reality was exceedingly difficult.

Dreams Vs Reality The line between dream and reality is often frightfully thin. Although one can hardly control the contents of their sleep compared with those of waken imagination and daydreams, on the other hand, dreams appear to have a stronger false impression of reality. Baudrillard opines that our cultural products do not distort or reflect a basic existing reality anymore; instead, the absence of reality seems to have been concealed (262).

The emergence of novel computer and media technologies presents yet another challenge to the reality vs. dream issue, because, through this interaction, we can immerse in virtual reality. Consequently, we cease being external observers per se and partake in a synthesis of “cyberspace” borne of our association with computer technology. Virtual reality has effectively ended the conventional technological dream of establishing an ideal illusion of reality.

From the historical perspective, it was understood that dream were mystifying, as human awoke to self-consciousness to consciousness of mortality. Many people came up with religious and magical explanations to explain the strange visions they experienced during sleep (Dennett 130). This introduced thoughts like the ability of the soul to depart the body and travel to other places. The possibility of the dead and the living interacting were a possibility. Some even believed that, dreams in sleep were messages from gods or destiny.

Philosophers like Plato emerged with rational naturalist approaches, characterizing dreams as visions in people (Plato 571), remembered in reality.

Aristotle, on the other hand, put it that dreams were some presentation or imagination, specifically those that occurred during sleep (Dennett 130). Aristotle affirms that dream were not God-sent neither did they present any future predictions (Ross 46). Yet, sometimes, dream could be an inspiration for future happenings.

Plato, being more imaginative, compared mad people with sleepers and found that, their thought were false, for instance, feeling of flying. Plato realized that, however much decent man appeared, there was always a low and licentious point of experiences during dreams (Plato 571). This thought anticipated that Freud’s idea of many-layered organization of human consciousness (Freud, “Introductory Lectures” 21).

We will write a custom Essay on Dream and Reality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freud’s theory purports rest as a function of sleep, which could be well experienced in dreamless sleep. However, when control of the daytime consciousness was resting in sleep, the subconscious mental process continues to work on an immature level (Freud “Introductory Lectures” 21).

Therefore, dreams were regressive. They go back to visual images, more so the primary sexual desires (Freud, “Interpretation of Dreams” 67). An idea that Freud added to Plato’s theory of dream-work: dreams guaranteed sleep, blocked censorship, by revisiting the original latent dream idea, and then disguising its manifestation (Plato 571).

Sleeping and Dreaming As people argue, we spend about one third of our lives in sleep, it is crucial to conduct extensive research to understand dream and sleep. Study of sleep and dream shows proof of principal experiences in sleep, for instance, the sleep-wake cycle, sleep disorders, sleep regulations and snoring among others (LaBerge 233).

Based on the nature of scientific studies, the studies of sleep often look at physical signs like body temperatures, eye movement, and blood pressure. philosophers cannot hence be able to use these data to draw conclusions. Philosophy is more interested in a dream while psychology deals with the sleeping process. Therefore, studying dreaming and sleeping will require the use of internal mental processes and reactions to interpret what happens in sleep in external viewpoint (Ross 49).

Connecting the internal and external features becomes intricate. Having no characteristics and stable variables to use for studying dreams, little research is available on the topic compared to other topics like reasoning, memory, Imagination and beliefs. Dreams still puzzle people since the times of Plato, and Aristotle. Concerns of how to identify dreams, individual and social function of dreams, and the logic behind dreaming, lead to metaphysics, mind philosophy, culture and epistemology. Dreaming hence remains fascinating.

Psychology Dreaming Dreaming is a fascinating experience and rather under-researched. Dreams also challenge the real life experiences and the fact that human think they understand consciousness and conscious (Freud, “Introductory Lectures” 21). There are numerous theories of the mind that do not dream and reality.

Hence, they are incomplete. Scholars can be motivated to be more imaginative about dreaming, and to include it in a number of philosophical topics because of they will draw defined pedagogical utilities. The study of sleep and dreaming by use of inventive experiments developed by psychologist form an exceptional way of studying physiology and phenomenology, and experiential and conceptual approaches in the study of mind.

Despite the discovery of the fascinating rapid eye movement (REM) sleep relationship with dreams, there has not been much thoughtful derivative of the mind philosophy. Epistemologists still use dream concepts to address skepticism, has barely influenced the active self-image of mainstream philosophy of mind.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Dream and Reality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is often difficult to measure dream for study especially when comparing dream and reality because, one has to do comparison against real-life events (Metzinger 528). However, the better way to study dream and reality is to compare dream metal event against wake mental events. A number of experiences can e improbable in physical reality but intensely easily to imagine in a dream. Only a broad perceptual (Hallucinatory) model of dreaming has compared dream and reality.

Accessing Physical Experiences There is a new focus on lucid dreaming and lucid. Some evidence has indicated that, people experiencing lucid dream were also likely to fluctuate between viewpoints dream and mental life. A lucid dreamer always knows that the existing world of the dream was not real (Metzinger 530).

Metzinger suggested that a lucid dreamer understood the phenomenon they experienced did not vary with external physical reality in content. To the farthest, lucid dreamer can recollect full memory and remember at least some characteristics of phenomenology of agency (Metzinger 530).

In his study on children’s dream, Foulkes recommended research on the connection between dreaming and skills of imagination and manipulation of patterns (Foulkes 9). Probably, visual-spatial capacities somehow assisted in generation of continuous kinematic imagery typical of happier dreams.

Too young children had rather static dreams. Foulkes connects the continued production of spontaneous kinematics imagery. In a study lab of young adults, participants were to respond on whether they saw themselves the way another person would do, or whether they saw the dream in their own eyes (Foulkes 9). A remarkably small percentage saw themselves in the dream. They did not experience kinematic imagery.

However, seeing the dream in their own eyes saw the dreamers experienced much kinematic imagery. Research that explicitly question subjects to specify a certain perspective of their dream and memory experience is not a vital choice in this fascinating domain. Most people impulsively flip between perspectives and confidence retrospective judgment of the dream is not always high.

Conclusion Our mental health depends on dreams. Through science, one can understand nature better is by first achieving harmony. However, perhaps we need not be so concerned with turning dreams into reality; instead, we should just let them remain dreams. Are Dreams Functional? Currently, there are many logical reasons of functional and the way dreams appeared different from sense of function.

Even though there are incredible adaptationist accounts for sleep and phases of the sleep-cycle itself, there is reason to perceive that mental activity that took place in sleep was an authentic example of byproduct of what was designed during sleep-wake cycle. If this was right, there would be a situation where dreaming was mysteriously an uncontrolled sequeale, a spandrel and exaptation.

Works Cited Baudrillard, Jean. The Precession of Simulacra. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984. Print.

Dennett, Dan. Are Dreams Experiences? In Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1981. Print.

Foulkes, David. Children’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1999. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1973. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. London: Allen


Germany and the United States Comparison Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


United States



Works Cited

Introduction Taxation and expenditure vary from one country to another because countries have different tax legislations, economies, and forms of government. Since the government has the responsibility of providing its citizens with essential goods and services, different countries have devised various means of providing these goods and services based on the form of government, tax structure, and economic and political ideologies.

Taxation and expenditure in countries that have federal form of government is different from that of countries that have state form of government. Countries like the United States and Germany have federal form of government where taxation and expenditure occur at federal, state, and local governments.

Shah argues that, government functions affect economic aspects of its citizens through taxation, expenditure, legislations of business, borrowing, and foreign policy, which influence both public and private sectors (5). Although federal governments may have similar patterns of governance, they have different ways of taxation and expenditure due to disparity in size of public and private sector.

Given that, the government has a primary responsibility of providing critical goods and services to its citizens, different governments have delegated their responsibility to the private sector, thus causing disparity in size of public expenditure from one country to another. Thus, this research paper compares taxation and expenditure of Germany and the United States.

Germany Germany is one of the countries in Europe that has the largest economy because it ranks fifth in the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In Europe, Germany has been a leading driver of economy because it depends on exports that make it the second largest exporter in the world after the United States. Thus, it means that the economy of Germany mainly relies on international trade.

However, since Germany does not have enough energy, it imports approximately two-thirds from leading trading partners across Europe. In economic sectors, service industry gives about 70% of GDP and manufacturing industry contributes about 29% of GDP, while agriculture contributes the least, about 1% of GDP. Therefore, government taxes mainly come from the service industry that contributes over a third of GDP.

Moreover, Germany has federal form of government in that it collects taxes at various levels of government such as federal, state, and municipality. Sources of taxes in Germany are income tax, corporation tax, trade tax, value-added-tax, capital tax, and real property tax amongst other sources.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Germany, rate of income tax ranges from 0% to 45%, which means that rate of taxation increases with the increase in taxable income. Currently, corporation tax rate stands at 15%, which government charges on cooperatives, partnerships, companies, foundations and associations. Individuals operating businesses in Germany are subject to income tax as well as trade tax. States and municipalities have the mandate of charging trade tax at a rate of 14% on profit that businesses make.

Moreover, Germany imposes value-added-tax rate of 19% on most goods and services except few that have tax exemption. Hence, federal, state, and municipal governments collaborate in the collection of taxes so that they can proportionately share them using a formula that German constitution prescribes to promote equitable distribution of revenue and resources.

United States Economically, the United States ranks first across the world with a GDP of about $15 trillion, which forms a significant part of world’s GDP. In North America, the United States is leading in trade as it dominates Canada and Mexico in international trade. The United States does not only have the highest GPD across the world, but also the highest purchasing power parity that makes it a leader in international trade.

Due to globalization of world markets, the United States dominates a considerable part of international trade, which makes it a pacesetter in global economies. Service and manufacturing industries are two principal sectors of the economy that boost economic growth and development since they contribute a significant amount to GDP.

The United States has maintained relatively stable growth rate of GDP for decades as it currently stands at about 4%, and is promising to increase despite global crisis of economy and globalization factors of economy. Moreover, the United States dominates financial markets, labor markets and trading markets that have made it invest billions of dollars in foreign investments.

Since the United States has a federal form of government, taxation occurs at federal, state, and local levels of government. Each level of government imposes tax differently basing on stipulations in the constitution that define and restrict taxation. Normally, the United States derives it taxes from income of individuals, corporations, companies, estates and other entities that generate income.

At state levels, income tax rates range from 1% to 16% depending on taxable income and region. In the United States, state and local authorities impose their tax rates in addition to federal taxes, which means state and local taxation is independent of federal taxation. Thus, although states and local authorities may have a basis of their taxation on federal law, there is a variation in the imposition of taxes across different states in the United States.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Germany and the United States Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison Economies of the United States and Germany are growing at different rates since each has different lucrative sectors that contribute to GDP. From 2003 to 2010, GDP of Germany has been increasing gradually from $2339 billion to $3044 billion, which is about growth rate of 3% per year. Comparatively, the United States GDP has also been increasing from $11089 billion in 2003 to $14447 billion in 2010, which is approximately a growth rate of 3%.

Thus, it means that economic growth rates of Germany and the United States in terms of GDP are almost the same although there are other parameters that can differentiate them. Given that growth rates of GDP are almost similar, it implies that taxation rates of Germany and Unite States should be proportional to GDP. Comparative, analysis of GDP of Germany and the United States shows that they have similar growth of GDP in spite of their differences in lucrative sectors of the economy.

Taxation in the United States and Germany seem to have different patterns due to differences in federal form of governments. Germany has three levels of governments, federal, state and municipality, which are not autonomous as they rely on central government in terms of policies and legislations that relate to taxation. On the other hand, the United States has three levels of government viz. federal, state, and local and they are independent and autonomous as they have their own legislations of taxation.

Therefore, differences in legislations of taxation are responsible for high rates of value-added-tax in Germany relative to the United States. In Germany, value-added-tax forms about 10% of GDP, while in the United States, value-added-tax forms approximately 5% of GDP, which implies that tax that Germany imposes on goods and services doubles that of the United States.

According to Holtz-Eakin, low rate of tax gives the United States’ goods and services competitive advantage in internationally markets (7). Hence, goods and services of the United States are exceptionally competitive due to low rate of tax imposed on them relative to those of Germany.

Germany and the United States have different rates of income tax. While income tax rates of Germany vary from 0% to 45%, the United States income tax range from 10% to 35% depending on the amount of taxable income. Both countries consider marriage status of an individual in imposing income tax to individuals.

Comparative analysis shows that Germany imposes a higher amount of income tax than the United States. For instance, while a single person without children is subject to 39% rate of income tax in Germany, in the United States, the same individual is subject to 23% rate of income tax. Thus, it indicates that Germany imposes an income tax rate on its citizens that doubles that of the United States.

However, Leetmaa, Rennie, and Thiry assert that, households in the United States are net borrowers because they have -3.7% of their disposable income, while Germany households have 8.2% of their disposable income (7). Differences in disposable income are due to dissimilar saving rates between households in Germany and the United States.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Germany and the United States Comparison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rates of corporate tax vary between Germany and the United States. Usually, corporate tax contributes significantly to the tax system of a country, particularly to those countries that rely on industrial economy. Comparative analysis shows that, corporate tax in Germany is about 1% of GDP, while in the United States it is about 1.8% of GDP. Disparity in the corporate tax is mainly due to the extent of industrialization of two countries.

Moreover, rate of corporate tax is also another factor that may enhance disparity in the corporate tax that different countries charge on corporate income. Holtz-Eakin states that, corporate tax rates of the United States are higher than that of G7 countries because of its corporate tax structure, and reliance on industrial economy (13). Thus, differences in the tax structure and nature of the economy are two factors that cause disparity in corporate income.

Tax expenditure differs in Germany and the United States due to differences in legislations and economic development. In Germany, federation, state and municipal governments impose taxes on various sources of income such as individual income, corporate income and trade income basing on different legislations. When different levels of government have collected their revenue, central government distributes them according to formula stipulated in the constitution.

In contrast, different levels of government in the United States have autonomy and independence in taxation and expenditure. According to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), income tax expenditure of Germany is 0.29% of GDP, while that of the United States is 6% (93,138). Hence, there is significant disparity in income tax expenditure between the two countries.

Conclusion Germany and the United States are both developed countries with almost the same growth rate of GDP and federal form of government, but they have different modes of taxation and expenditure. Differences in modes of taxation and expenditure are due to legislations and nature of the economy. While Germany relies on service industry in its economy, the United States relies on the manufacturing industry as well as the service industry.

Hence, rates of income tax and corporate tax vary in the two countries. Since Germany depends on service industry, it imposes greater rates of income tax on individual income. Similarly, given that the United States relies on the manufacturing industry, it imposes high rates of tax on corporate income. Thus, variation in economies and legislations are responsible for differences in taxation and expenditure among countries.

Works Cited Holtz-Eakin, Douglas. “Corporate Income Tax Rates: International Comparisons.” Congressional Budget Office, 2005. Web.

Leetmaa, Peeter, Herve Rennie, and Beatrice Thiry. “Household Saving Rate Higher in The EU than in the USA despite Lower Income.” Eurostat, 2009. Web.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Tax Expenditures in OECD Countries. France: OECD Publishing, 2010.

Shah, Anwar. “Public Sector Governance and Accountability Series: Public Expenditure Analysis.” World Bank, 2005. Web.


Gothic Theme and Tone in Old and Contemporary Poetry Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Preface

Gothic themes

Gothic tone


Works Cited

Preface Gothic literature is a genre that is built on horror and romance. In this regard, gothic themes border on love, dreams and grim aspects of life, notably death. Although it was initially a feature of novels, gothic themes are evident in both old and contemporary poetry. In addition to the thematic concerns, this paper will also examine aspects of gothic tone prevalent in the poems.

The poems are To One in Paradise and Serenade by Edgar Allan Poe, Go to the Grave and Address to the Moon by Nataniel Hawthorne and The Maldive Shark and Shiloh – a Requiem Begotten by Herman Melville. The two poems by Poe intertwine dreams and love, suggesting that the two human phenomena may be interrelated. Hawthorne depicts, though subtly, the grim theme of death in the poems selected. The theme of death also runs rampant in Melville’s poems, The Maldive Shark and Shiloh – a Requiem.

The selected poems are rife with the extensive use of specific figurative language that points to their gothic aspects. Figurative language in the poems includes use of imagery, symbolism, alliteration and, to a greater extent, irony. Through these styles, the poets are able to explore certain critical aspects of human nature that border on the gothic level.

Gothic themes The two poems by Poe grapple with the all-consuming theme of love and its attendant heartaches. In as much as love is supposed to be a source of happiness and joy, Poe brings to the fore the problems associated with the strong feeling of affection. The poem To One in Paradise highlights the loneliness faced by the speaker when the object of their love passes on: “The light of Life is o’er” (Poe, “To One in Paradise” stanza 3.2).

The second poem is a love poem addressed to Adeline, the speaker’s love: “Enthralling love, my Adeline” (Poe, “Serenade” line 17). The speaker looks forward to breaking his loneliness as he anticipates meeting the love of his life: “Thy lover’s voice tonight shall flow” (Poe, “Serenade” line 19).

Hawthorne’s poems tackle the theme of death. In the poem Go to the Grave, death is discussed through the imagery of the grave. However, the speaker consoles himself with the hope of life after death: “Where they will dwell through endless time / Who here on earth their Maker serve” (Hawthorne, “Address to the Moon” lines 8- 9).

Self-consolation is usually an easy refuge for those devastated by the death of a loved one. The speaker seeks to fortify himself by the assertion that man is but clay: “Learn that we are but dust and clay” (Hawthorne, “Address to the Moon” line 5). This points to the inevitability of death and so, people have to be ready for it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second poem by Hawthorne, Address to the Moon, is a nostalgic effusion directed to the moon. The moon has been used symbolically to represent the unfulfilled aspirations in people’s lives: “For who would wish a fairer home” (Hawthorne, “Go to the Moon” line 11). A home on the moon is clearly beyond the reach of the speaker – or any other person for that matter. This is a manifestation of man’s inner wishes that characterize their fantasy-oriented minds.

The poem also makes an allusion to death: “Departed spirits find their rest” (Hawthorne, “Go to the Moon” line 10). It may be assumed that the speaker has lost somebody so dear to him. Due to the resulting loneliness, the persona resorts to watching the moon. It is important to note that the motif of spirits is a major feature of gothic literature.

The theme of death is further advanced in the poem Shiloh – a Requiem by Melville. Death is occasioned by a deadly fight at the church of Shiloh: “That followed the Sunday fight” (Melville, “Shiloh, a Requiem” line 8). So serious is the brawl that a few people lose their lives in the process: “… dying foemen mingled there” (Melville, “Shiloh, a Requiem” line13).

It is a rather horrendous scene that readers are treated to as deathly silence reigns at Shiloh: “But now they lie low / While over them the swallows skim / And all is hushed at Shiloh” (Melville, “Shiloh, a Requiem” line 17-19). This is quite in keeping with the essence of gothic literature, which thrives on terror and mystery. It is mysterious that the men should be “foemen” (enemies) in the morning, but friends in the evening, at which time the harm has already been done.

Aspects of gothic fiction are also evident in the poem, The Maldive Shark by Melville. The poet’s use of irony is worth noting. Although the Maldive shark is seemingly harmless, the poet’s deliberate choice of diction betrays the dangerous nature of the animal. The shark has a “ghastly flank” and “serrated teeth” (Melville, “Maldive Shark” line 7


Organizational Behavior Term Paper essay help

Introduction Organizations often rely on human resource to implement set goals. The exploitation of the human resource capacity will always remain an important driver in implementing normal duties, purposes and goals of organizations.

As such, the behavior of employees will always remain an important element of interest to organizations. The control, regulation, monitoring and enhancement of desired behavior in workers are therefore an important area of interest to organizations.

So as to stimulate specific goals and achieve optimal performance from workers, it is useful to explore ways of stimulating fruitful behaviors from workers. Often, drastic changes in the behavior of workers may be required in an organization so as to achieve shifting goals.

An example of such an instance may occur during rebranding, change in marketing, or a need to increase output. Such instances may call for a corresponding change in the behavior of employees. In this paper, I have explored several ways in which organizational behavior can be applied so as to develop specific and desirable behaviors from employees. Here, I have explored and analyzed several academic literatures that have focused on this particular area (organizational behavior) of interest.

One of the issues that have been of interest to researchers in the area of organizational behavior is the issue of cultural intelligence. Here (so as to understand how diverse cultures at the workplace can be used for the benefit of increasing the output of workers) the characteristics of diverse cultures and values in the composition of workers are studied (Kevin, 2011). It is expected that in a few years to come, most of the employees in the United States will consist of current minorities.

In the next four decades, African Americans and Hispanics alone are expected to form more than half of the employees in the US (Kevin, 2011). In fact, by 2050, Hispanics, blacks, and Asians will compose half of the American population (Kevin, 2011). With a view of enhancing, and maintaining high productivity in organizations, it is therefore useful to study how such a change in the composition of employees may affect the output of employees.

In such a study, a demand for leaders with ability to unify and direct units with a diverse cultural composition is seen. Such leaders will be able to direct, motivate, and lead groups of employees from different ethnic groups, and with diverse values. Leaders that have the skills I have described above can be described as culturally intelligent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A culturally intelligent individual is one that has a capacity to operate optimally in an environment that is composed of multiple cultures. Three is a need for a culturally intelligent person to be aware of multiple perspectives on issues, which can originate from different cultural backgrounds. With such knowledge, one can revise and adjust his perspectives so as to amalgamate, and work with individuals from diverse cultures (Kevin, 2011).

Several researches including the one done by Kevin have tried to establish a relationship between cultural intelligence and output (Kevin, 2011). Theoretically, it is not difficult to see the positive relationship between cultural intelligence and the output of employees. However, there has been a limited empirical approach on the above relationship.

In their research, Kevin et al. used an empirical approach to study the relationship between cultural intelligence and performance (Kevin, 2011). The sample of their study consisted of departmental and managerial leaders that were in charge of groups that consisted of individuals with diverse cultural backgrounds (Kevin, 2011).

The management of a culturally diverse group so as to enhance output is a useful skill that will remain desirable for organizational leaders (Thomas, 2009).

The interest will always remain to create an enhancing environment that can collectively utilize talents from a culturally diverse workforce (Thomas, 2009). Currently, there is a shortage of culturally intelligent leaders in organizations. Many managers do not have high degrees of cultural intelligence which are required for the emerging workforce of culturally mixed employees.

A culturally diverse workforce will continue to emerge as many companies open and amalgamate their offices in various localities around the globe (Thomas, 2009). Apart from shifting demographics, economic globalization is therefore one among several factors that will fuel a more culturally diverse workforce in the future.

Thus, the need for leaders with cultural intelligence cannot be ignored. At trend where there could be a shortage of cultural intelligent leaders in the future may especially occur since the subject on cultural that touch on intelligence has not yet been incorporated in several professional curricula on organizational leadership (Kevin, 2011).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Organizational Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Still, it is noteworthy to observe that, to some extent, similar catalysts of performance that apply on a homogenous group of employees are applicable to a culturally diverse workforce. Such issues include the motivation of employees, the exploitation and enhancement of talents and the enhancement of discipline (Thomas, 2009). One does not therefore need to overhaul the whole management approach; rather, a leader will need to apply an existing approach to a cultural diverse workforce in an effective way.

As I had mentioned earlier, it is often necessary for an organizational leadership to effect change in a behavior of employees so as to initiate specific goals (Thomas, 2009). Such could be the case in situations of rebranding, and a desire to increase the market share of products.

Since it is always difficult to effect change within an organization, several studies have tried to understand the causes of this (effecting change) difficulty. In order to design a successful process of organizational change, it may be important to consider various elements that involve in the process of change. So as to stimulate a change in behaviors within an organization, a general belief is the necessity for leaders to focus on an approach that progressively engages with employees (Higgs, 2011).

On the other hand, a solitary and a non consultative approach will hardly be effective in implementing desired change within an organization. However, while some researchers have emphasized on the assumption that a change process in an organization is often dependant on the leadership that is effecting the change, some have argued that such a notion is not always true.

An examination of various parameters within an organization may be useful in understanding the process of change within an organization. Among such parameters include issues on structural adjustments, the capacity of employees, and change of timelines, among others.

Therefore, although the importance of leaders in effecting behavior change within organizations cannot be ignored, it is useful to explore how the capacity of leaders to effect change in an organization interacts with other important parameters that help to bring change (Berson, 2008).

So as to understand organizational change, we can consider three models of study on organizational change. In the shaping model, the focus is mainly on the behavior of organizational leaders in effecting change within an organization (Higgs, 2011). Often, such leaders will exhibit the following characteristics.

Often, they use past experiences to design and implement a process of change within an organization. Besides, they normally distribute tasks to specific employees, and demand feedback and accountability from employees that have been assigned specific tasks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, while holding to their perspectives and beliefs, such leaders are usually authoritative and overbearing in implementing organizational change. Another approach that may be employed to effect organizational change is through framing. Here, so as to initiate a process of change, an organizational leader will endeavor to relate with employees at an emotional level.

Such a direction will often help such a leader to bring out set goals that have necessitated change in an organization. In such a process, such a leader is often aware of dynamics that affect the pattern of initiated change in an organization. Such a leader is often desired to sacrifice personal desires and needs to widely work with all employees so as to effect change. Another approach that can be employed in effecting change is through the use of a creating technique.

Here, with recognition of diverse capabilities and talents in a workforce, creating leaders will often assign their workers with different emotional and physical roles that are desirable for implementing change. Thus, people are free to exploit their diverse capabilities as they learn on improving the organization’s system of change. Often, such an approach is applicable in situations where a leader has a high degree of trust and confidence in the workforce that has been assigned with the role of implementing change (Higgs, 2011).

In their study on organizational change, Higgs and Rawlings were able to show that for leaders to successfully effect change in their organizations, there is a need for them to adapt a creative and framing approach of effecting change.

Moreover, their research was able to show that it is often easier and fruitful for a change process to be effected from the low hierarchical employees to the top management (Higgs, 2011). Here, a change process should encompass the active involvement of all employees. In a suitable environment, it is often useful to adopt the process of change that has been described above.

However, depending on the environment, it may be fruitful to employ a different approach of change than the one that has been described above (Higgs, 2011). For example, it is hardly practical for a leader to adapt a creative approach in instances where he does not completely trust his workforce. Such trust will often rely on the capabilities and past experiences with his employees.

Therefore, while a combination of a creative and framing approach may be most useful in helping to effectively drive change within organizations, it is useful for a manager to understand his work environment so as to select an appropriate approach of driving change in his organization (Berson, 2008). It is thus useful for a leader to be creative and flexible while implementing change within an organization.

As it is often required, such a leader will be required to motivate, guide and include his workforce in implementing change within his organization. Since the leadership approaches on organizational change that I have described above are not an end in themselves irrespective of the approaches on change that they may have adopted, it is useful for leaders to be realistic and creative in effecting change (Higgs, 2011).

Below is an evaluation of an interview, which can help us to understand the process of organizational change better (Don, 2011). The director of Brooklyn Public library (Ginnie Cooper) was interviewed by Thomas about some on challenges faced while implementing changes in the library.

Overseeing a project on infrastructure, and implementing a complete change is the Brooklyn Public Library’s system were some of the important issues that were discussed in this interview (Don, 2011). Cooper understands leadership as a process of directing employees to implement a priority of changes, and goals in an institution.

As a leader in his library, specific goals of his library would include providing educational support to institutions, meeting the educational objectives of the government, and offering a wide array of literature to library users. With emerging challenges, there is a need for Brooklyn library to implement a number of changes in its system so as to serve the society better.

Such changes have been necessitated by an increasing number of library visitors, and technological changes that have affected reading behaviors. With such changes, Cooper has been able to recognize a need for library workers to frequently update and present desirable literatures to the increasing number of library visitors. Moreover, there has been a need for the Brooklyn library to adopt technological changes while presenting information to readers (For example through online presentation) (Don, 2011).

Copper does not just consider himself as a person in charge of library activities; rather, he has a responsibility of implementing a new library system at the Brooklyn library. So as to understand how he could improve the library system at Brooklyn, Cooper decided to visit other libraries in the neighborhood of Brooklyn public library. Here, he interacted with the public and various library employees so as to understand public expectations.

Furthermore, in an effort to understand the expectations of the public, he placed five types of bins at various localities in the neighborhood of Brooklyn with tags that guided the public to drop in written opinions on specific areas of interest to the library (Berson, 2008). With such a system in place, the management of Brooklyn’s public library is thus able to cater for the views of the public in its initiatives and programs (Don, 2011).

In cooper’s view, the management that is often burdened by the difficult of tasks is the middle management (Don, 2011). So as to promote leadership at his library, cooper implemented a training program with an initial target of 35 employees.

So as to understand the common difficulties that come with managing the library, the new managers were each assigned managerial duties for a single day (Don, 2011). The intention of the program above was to help in building a fruitful partnership between various departments at the library required for smooth library operations.

Among the challenges that have been faced by Cooper in running the Brooklyn public library is a deficit of budget funds. Instead of selecting specific models on budgeting that could help him in tackling the challenge of budget strains, Cooper decided to adopt a different approach; he decided to strike a balance between available expenditure and the library needs of the public. Here, deciding on priority programs is based on the impact of such programs in serving the public better.

According to this direction of measuring priorities, instead of buying more materials for the main library, it was more prudent for cooper to prioritize boosting literature materials at branch libraries (Don, 2011).

It is useful to note some of the important parameters in Cooper’s style of management which have helped to positively effect change at the Brooklyn’s public library (Bardi, 2003). As it is always useful for leaders, so as to effect any change, it is always fruitful to know about the drivers of such a change.

In the case of Cooper, the project to overhaul the entire system of the Brooklyn’s public library was not seen as just a program in itself, rather, so as to know the changes that were desired, multiple views of the public were considered. Besides it is always useful for a leader to be adaptive, innovative and involve his workers while implementing organizational change (Bardi, 2003).

Such a direction was the reason for the training of new managers at the Brooklyn’s public library. Moreover, it is also fruitful for leaders to explore positive ways of tackling challenges (such as budget deficits) that may be faced while implementing change in organizations.

Usually, the success of implementing change in organizations is often reliant of the perspectives of employees towards such changes. Several studies have been able to show the relationship between the rates of successful changes in organizations and the attitude of employees. Without the cooperation of employees, it is not possible for leaders to successfully implement changes in their organizations.

Here, it is useful for leaders to embrace fruitful relationships with their employees for beneficial cooperation in effecting change. Since the behavior of leaders can be associated with the pattern of attitudes and beliefs that develop in their workers, it is useful for leaders to adopt positive behaviors. Another important and determinant aspect that drives the attitude of workers in an organization is the value system of organizational leaders (Bardi, 2003).

A leader that has a self centered value system (rather that a self sacrificing system) may find it difficult to develop positive attitudes of change in his workforce. As such, the important challenge is for organizational managers to develop their leadership capabilities (which have been described above) so as to work with heir employees in effecting change.

Conclusion The management of employees so as to yield positive behaviors from them (employees) which are often required to implement important changes in organizations will remain a critical role of managers. As I have described in this paper, such an effort is reliant on the capability of organizational leaders to develop and implement prerequisite behaviors within themselves and their employees.

Since organizational behavior is mostly reliant on the ability of leaders to develop certain attributes in their workers, it is fruitful for leaders to understand beneficial ways in which they can develop positive behaviors in their employees. With recognition of the value of their employees in implementing a change process, positive leaders will create an environment that would help to stimulate fruitful behaviors (necessary for desirable change) within themselves, and their workforce.

Reference List Bardi, A. (2003). Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations. Personality and Social Psychology 29, 1207-1220.

Berson, Y. (2008). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29, 615-633.

Don, M. (2010) Leadership or Management? Management Quarterly 2, 51, 31-45

Higgs, M (2011). What does it take to implement change successfully? Journal of Applied Science 47, 309

Kevin, S. (2011). Group and Organizational management Group


NBC in Trouble Case Study college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Formation of NBC Universal

NBC in the 20th Century

Strengths of NBC Television Network

Weaknesses of NBC Television Network

Recommendations on NBC

Introduction NBC is a diverse international company. NBC stands for National Broadcasting Company. It is involved in media activities, especially television network. It is an American commercial broadcasting television and radio network. Radio Corporation of America was the radio network involved in NBC.

It is this Radio Corporation of America that started the television broadcasting. It was using the profit it made from radio broadcast to develop the television. It is from this that NBC started television broadcast, which was located in Empire State Building in New York. The radio continued to support the television until NBC gained significant popularity. It also became grouped among the best broadcasting business.

NBC television Network airs reality shows like sports news, business news, politics and many others. It also airs soap operas and children programs like cartoons and animation. However, NBC television seems to have lost taste since 2005. That’s the reason why it was ranked fourth in the year 2005 and 2006 in the television ranking of that season.

NBC has however tried to improve and attract some viewers by airing the National Football League around the end of 2006, thus managing to attract football fans. This game was a big accomplishment because improved its rating of that year.

Formation of NBC Universal Television network under the NBC came up with the NBC universal. This was after the acquisition of the Universal studio movie and the theme park business. NBC Universal was created around 2004. NBC was a subsidiary of industry giant of generic electric. Due to the prolonging disappointing performance by this merged business, general electric decided to reduce losses at the end of 2009. It was to fulfill this by transferring more than half of the business stake to the cable provider business called the Comcast.

Hence, Comcast became the controlling stake in the business. This deal ended at the beginning of the new 21st century. It was now Comcast time to come up with strategy and ideas which were to boost the business back to its leading position. There were a number of regional and cable stations owned by the NBC universal. These stations utilized effectively by Comcast, could have seen the business to the top.

NBC in the 20th Century 20th century started with bad news for NBC. It was around this time when the United States was experiencing a down turn in their economy. Most of the companies in the United States were closed especially the online ones. This also affected the NBC which was forced to reduce the number of its employers. Apart from laying off some of its employers, NBC also lost several millions of US dollars.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the same millennium period, NBC did not have a clear internet strategy. This lack of clearance made the internet not to differentiate NBC from other portals. According to some analysts, it had a general purpose portal. However, some of the analysts did not have a problem with the general purpose portal. They argued that there was nothing wrong with a media company having a general portal as the company itself is a network.

At the beginning of the 20th century NBC also experienced some financial problems caused by fall in the advertising revenue. Most of the television profits come from the advertising sector. Hence, dropping the advertising revenue meant a stiff financial crisis. It meant no enough money to run the business and even for paying the workers.

However, there is only one positive thing that happened in the 20th century. NBC purchased the broadcast and cable business of Telemundo Communication Group. This was a Spanish television network. The deal was done in 2002. NBC acquiring Telemundo became the only television that devorts a full channel to the Spanish people.

This was received positively, especially by the Spanish speaking population in the United States. This increased the popularity of NBC and also the viewership. Increase in the viewers’ number means an increase in revenue hence, there is an increase in profit margin.

Strengths of NBC Television Network NBC news has been the most watched newscast. This is because they have been able to divide the news to cables due to the expansion of the news. This led to launching different channels for a specific part of the news. There was a channel for business news, another one for general news with political orientation.

NBC Sports Network was responsible for airing sports news and events. There was also a weather channel which aired weather forecast. This increased the number of viewers as one could turn to the channel that he is interested in. This was made easier by the fact that NBC operates in a 24 hour regular network programming schedule. Hence, with this type of schedule, the viewers could watch what they wish at any time of the day.

NBC possess some technological knowledge. It is even known as the pioneer of new technologies. This knowledge has been used to bring good unique things for the viewers. This helps attract more viewers and also with the unique things to bring about a stiff competition with other networks.

We will write a custom Case Study on NBC in Trouble specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, in 1999, NBC launched NBCi which is a NBC internet. It was a publicly held internet firm. It was positioned as a general internet to attract much audience. NBCi was also to attract many advertisers by leveraging the rich and complicated content that they wanted to advertise. It also brought out the e-commerce experience of NBC.

NBC airs the winter and summer Olympics each time they are played. It sells some of its Olympic events that are on demand through its cable television, internet and video. By doing this, it is able to meet the viewers’ interest for real time highlights. NBC also got some cash from the cables, internet and video. It was also able to gain more viewers. Many people also brought in advertisements request due to the increased number of viewers. Increase in advertisement led to a higher profit margin.

Weaknesses of NBC Television Network NBC decision to make a full television season renewals is a drawback. This is because; the full season pick ups seem more of a sign of the network’s lack of program development. It shows mismanagement and also uncertainty as to what direction the network wants to go next season.

Although most of the shows are getting below average ratings, bringing new shows will make it even worse. Not many people would want to watch a new show especially if it is series type of a show. Therefore, it makes sense to retain some of the shows for a while. The shows that should not be cancelled are those that have a high network.

NBC was the first important network to put up its programming. This became a weakness because the program did not attract many viewers as expected. The network only saw a minor boost in viewers. The program did cost NBC much money but did not yield a good result. This reduced the NBC finances bringing it down even more.

NBC concentrated so much on airing football and athletics that it forgot about other shows which were also important. That is why in 2006, NBC’s revenue went down by 23%. NBC hoped for the winter Olympic to improve the situation. However, poor performance of the United State athletics was one reason which led to the drop of the number of viewers. The viewers could not sit down and watch their own athletics being defeated.

The other primary reason for the decrease in the number of viewers was the competition from other networks especially the ABC. These networks were able to take advantage of the fact that NBC was concentrating on Olympic coverage. They were able to come up with other interesting shows which attracted more viewers especially those from NBC. Hence, the Olympic coverage did not increase NBC viewership as other networks had put their best products forward.

Recommendations on NBC NBC has all it takes to entertain its viewers. It has 10 fully owned stations which are operational. It also has 200 affiliates on the territory of the States. It is therefore fully equipped to keep all its viewers and listeners well informed by making good use of the station and the affiliates. It can also use the same station to entertain their viewers which will attract more viewers.

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The internet as a method of recruitment Essay essay help online: essay help online

The internet is revolutionising the recruitment field; companies can now hire individuals in a matter of days, yet this process took months in the pre-internet era. Furthermore, many of them are attracting a wider client pool than they had ever imagined.

However, these benefits do not come without limitations. The internet cannot replace other recruitment methods because it is not the most effective process. Issues about low job satisfaction and high turnover are some of the problems that emanate out of the use of such a method for recruitment.

When assessing the effectiveness of the internet in recruitment, one must consider the parameters that the hiring process entails. If a company wants to recruit in the shortest time possible, then the internet would be regarded as the most effective route. Other enrolment platforms cannot rival the internet’s immediacy. Companies can post job applications in the morning, receive jobs applications by midday and recruit employees by the end of the day.

The online recruitment process has come of age; this occurred after organisations realised that the use of psychometric questionnaires could save a lot of time involved in test administrations. Furthermore, if they want to maximise on talent abilities, then the internet is the best place as geographical barriers do not limit it. When firms value immediacy and global staffing, then internet recruitments are effective (Crail, 2007).

However, not all HR personnel fit into this profile. Experts assert that it is difficult to do attitudinal tests on the internet. Therefore, companies may hire individuals who possess impressive features on paper, but lack the personality needed to make it in a certain job. This alters employees’ retention rates as they may fail to deliver.

Sometimes, the response rates are too many, and this may overwhelm recruiters. Highly qualified candidates can lose this chance quite easily in the midst of this large pool. For these competent applicants, the method is ineffective. Additionally, local companies continue to face competition from global firms that may seek out their potential employees through the internet.

Analysts assert that security concerns are arising out of this development. Many individuals now display their personal information on several websites, and this may make them susceptible to hackers. This problem puts off some IT professionals or tech-savvy candidates who may be unwilling to compromise their digital security. Companies can miss out on these promising individuals owing to those challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, direct referrals are still the number one recruitment method. This means that the internet is moderately effective. It can only yield maximum results when combined with other application processes.

Candidates who use online recruitment to secure job focus on job attributes rather than organisational qualities. This may work well for employees, but is not appropriate for companies who invest enormous sums on employment training. Such organisations tend to suffer from high attrition rates as loyalty is not a critical trait. In this regard, the method is not effective (Eaves, 2006).

Online recruitment is not that effective for employees, as well. Research has shown that online recruitments draw more qualified or better educated candidates than other recruitment methods. This means that organisations have an upper hand in recruitment. A number of them have responded by lowering benefits and giving employees smaller salaries.

This causes low job satisfaction among employees because they may feel as though they are getting unfair pay. Additionally, this method of recruitment offers employees few opportunities for advancement thus minimising their career prospects in an organisation. In this regard, it is not effective.

Why a business may want to use social networking websites in recruitment The most attractive quality about social networking websites as a recruitment tool is its low costs. Companies spend almost nothing in recruiting employees through this method because they simply have to use their connections. The organisations can do this by locating individuals who have graduated from universities or persons who need internships.

Alternatively, some employees may have lost their jobs and may need fresh opportunities. Posting this information on social networking websites allows such people to get a chance at a job. Even if, a certain person may not need a job right away, he or she may know someone else in his friendship network that does. That means that such individuals could be quite useful to the company in his or her capacity as an intermediary.

Online recruitment agencies and other platforms tend to be expensive because they require payments before recruitment completion. Furthermore, organisations do not have to spend thousands of pounds on the maintenance of an employee database as they can access this information easily through their social networking sites (Li, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on The internet as a method of recruitment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This approach is much faster than traditional approaches. Social networks act as reference checks for organisations. Furthermore, they facilitate screening processes easily. For instance, one may use keywords on these networking websites to search for candidates in specific geographical locations or those who possess certain traits.

LinkedIn, MySpace etc. contain graphical information about the applicants. Many users may post video CVs or infographic CVs in order to stand out from other potential workers. This allows recruiters to learn a lot about candidates’ personality and attitudes. Unlike other online recruitment methods, human resource personnel do the personality and fitting process quite easily through the use of social media.

Analysts have found that online resumes tend to be more accurate than printed ones. This is because most applicants will create a CV that talks about their personal qualifications and experiences. They may eventually post this information on their social networking accounts for perusal by interested parties.

Such CVs tend to be neutral because candidates are not trying to appear excessively attractive to a company. Prior to online recruitment, most applicants would first wait for a job application before making a CV. More often than not, those CVs would contain untrue information in order to impress the recruiting company.

Using social networking websites to recruit sends out the message that a company treats its brand seriously. Candidates respond well to organisations that take the time to make their recruitment processes technologically compatible. These potential employees may also assume that the firm would treat them seriously if they worked in it.

Surveys conducted by firms such as Jobvite.com indicate that approximately 67% of employers are using social networks for recruitment. The companies have explained that most of these processes are successful. This figure was a 6% increase from the previous year, i.e., in 2010 (Swallow, 2011). Many companies are investing more funds than they did before on social networking recruitments. Employers who have not tried this method should gain enough conviction from their peers who are already doing the same.

Organisations can use social networking websites to post information about them. Sometimes they may do this through their employees in order to appear natural. In such scenarios, people can upload videos about their work environment. This can illustrate how productive and fun the company is. Other individuals can relate to these graphical displays, and may send their applications there.

Social networking websites are an effective method of online recruitment because of their affordability, ease of use, personality-oriented features, and their diverse usage applications.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The internet as a method of recruitment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Crail, M. (2007). Recruitment methods: costs and effectiveness. [online]. London, Personnel Today. Web.

Eaves, E. (2006). Online Job Sites deliver too little – and too much. Reuters Business, 30 Sep., p. 24.

Li, S. (2011). Companies are like-minded on social media jobs. The Los Angeles Times, 5 Oct., p. 3.

Swallow, E. (2011). How businesses use social media for recruiting: infrographic. [online]. NY, Mashable. Web.


The concept of the organic state Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction


How the organic theory meets certain political ends



Introduction The organic state theory postulates that a connection exists between people and the state; all states are aggregate sums of their totals (the individuals). On paper, the theory seems like any other political premise; however, a careful analysis reveals that its adherents may support it in order to achieve selfish political goals.

Definitions The organic state theory is a school of thought that holds that states are more powerful than individuals. It advocates for a spirit of political collectivism because, as an organism, the state determines the outcomes of its organs; which are the people. These adherents, therefore, believe in the abandonment of individualistic thinking since a state cannot be regarded as an unresponsive machine. This school of thought opposed the assertion that states were mere tools designed to protect the individual’s interests, or meet certain ends.

How the organic theory meets certain political ends The theory holds that states, just like other biological organisms, could grow, develop, and even die. Philosophers such as Friedrich Ratzel came up with seven steps that strong states use to take over weak states. He explains that this was a natural offshoot of their strength. In his deterministic views, Ratzel argued that states grow by taking on smaller units. Furthermore, he believed that highly developed civilisations gave primitive states the momentum for growth.

To this scholar, territorial growth followed a similar path to developmental growth in organisms (Steinberger, 2009). This intellectual was not aware that his assertions could be translated into aggressive, expansionist policies. What seemed like a natural order to Ratzel would later become a significant source of world invasions. A case in point was Germany’s early twentieth-century extension attempt.

Leaders can use the organic state theory as a justification for imperialistic expansions. At the time, Germans operated under the assumption that they were engaging in a natural growth process. These violations were absurd, yet the organic state theory disguised that excessiveness.

Adolf Hitler wanted to dominate the European continent in 1914. His political philosophy mirrored the laws of growth in the organic state. These efforts contradicted the other political philosophies held by other European states. Political actors can utilise the organic theory in order to execute malicious motives as illustrated in this early twentieth-century case.

Leaders can also use the organic theory to support their legitimacy in power especially during crises. When catastrophes take place in a certain state, they tend to spark-off patriotic sentiments (Schulzke, 2005). These reactions are even more likely to occur when outsiders invade a nation than when something internal takes place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A case in point was the September eleventh twin tower attacks; the predicament led to a patriotic surge. The incident transformed President Bush, who seemed illegitimate, to a confident and able-bodied leader. Such a response came from his poise and self assuredness in post nine – eleven America. People in this state realised that they all had a common enemy.

They needed to sacrifice their individual needs for the good of the nation. These views mirrored organic state theories, which advocate for a greater focus on the nation rather than the people in that nation. Similar sentiments dominated the public sphere during Woodrow Wilson’s tenure as a United States president. At the time, industrialisation destroyed the individual’s importance in the country’s economy.

People felt vulnerable and insecure in the early 1900s. Furthermore, civil war and other social crises perpetuated this sense of uncertainty. US intellectuals responded to these dilemmas by postulating or supporting theories that moved away from individualistic perspectives such as the Lockean school of thought; the organic theory was one of these tools (Miller, 1999).

Crisis leadership is indeed a reality that this theory supports. Congress arguably controls The United States government. The president cannot make policies without consulting this group, and must try to reconcile partisan differences before his policies can be endorsed. As a result, the system undermines presidential powers tremendously in the US.

However, different dynamics come into play when a crisis occurs. In such scenarios, the president acts as a symbol of national leadership. Furthermore, the crisis situation creates openings that can allow presidents to mobilise public opinion. This forces congressional leaders to succumb to the President’s opinions. In this regard, the situation emphasizes the importance of the state as a central actor in politics.

As such, a President can circumvent the status quo and problems in parliamentary democracies through crisis leadership. He can achieve his own aims and restore legitimacy to his name during these events. In fact, history shows that the strategy is quite effective. Some political analysts have even accused presidential leaders of manufacturing crises in order to improve their authenticity.

It should be noted that individualistic perspectives can be quite limiting in certain democratic systems. Liberal and individualistic theories had their own strengths; they preserved the property and lives of a country’s citizenry. Democracies that operated under such beliefs allowed their executives to deal with unusual circumstances; however, their narrow mandate limited those responses.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of the organic state specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In individualist democracies, citizens had a right to engage in a revolution; as such, the state could not exercise its powers excessively. The theory of the organic state provided a platform to overcome the obstacles of liberal principles (Schulzke, 2005). If one could regard the individual as a part of the whole, then one may treat a person as a specimen who must consider his or her relationship to other partners in the nation. Because of this, the organic state theory grants greater power to state executives.

The Cold War is an ideal example of what can go wrong when entities with malicious intentions use the organic state theory. When this war began, the Soviet Union’s worldview contradicted that of the United States.

However, both these entities reflected views that were synonymous to the organic state theory as explained by Friedrich Ratzel. The Soviet thought that the United States’ form of capitalism was evil and that it would consume the word with self indulgent tendencies. Conversely, the US thought that communism, as perpetuated by the Soviets, was detrimental to mankind’s liberties and rights.

The US thought that the Soviet sought world domination, and so did the Soviet concerning the US (Glassner, 1996). These countries were each interested in security and survival. To achieve these ends, they needed to maximise their powers and weaken their enemy’s power. The concept of absorbing other territories is quite prevalent in Friedrich Ratzel’s organic theory.

Conclusion The organic theory postulates that a state’s needs should transcend individual needs as these latter needs are only a small component of the larger whole. However, the same theory creates patriotic sentiments during crises thus legitimising questionable leadership. Furthermore, it has sparked off key wars such as the Cold war and the First World War. Participating leaders in these conflicts perpetuated organic state principles such as state expansion and power maximisation.

References Glassner, M. (1996). Political geography. NY, Wiley and Sons.

Miller, N. (1999). In the shadow of the state: Intellectuals and the quest for national identity in twentieth century Spanish America. London, Verso publishers.

Schulzke, E. (2005). Wilsonian crisis leadership, the organic state, and the modern presidency. Polity, 37(2), 262-285.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of the organic state by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Steinberger, P. (2009). The organic state: democracy and freedom. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.


Immorality Of Human Execution By The State Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Human life is unquestionably the greatest treasure that any human being can have. It is something that cannot be measured in monetary terms. Indeed, human life is among the few things on planet earth whose value cannot be determined or even estimated. The value that the human society attaches to life has significantly subsided in the recent past (Rodden 12).

Human life is no longer treated with the same reverence that it was regarded with a few centuries ago. In the contemporary society, human life is not only taken by murderers but also by legal action imposed by the state. This essay will seek to posit that it is morally incorrect for the state to take human life. The essay will achieve its objective by relying on various illustrations from George Orwell’s essay “A Hanging.”

First and foremost, it is not morally correct for the state to take human life because such a brutal measure will not help in any way to discipline the convict. By taking the human life of the convict, the state does not give the prisoner a chance to reform his or her character. It is possible that just by serving a jail term, some convicts will reform their character and be transformed into normal and responsible members of the society.

It is immoral and unnecessary for a state to execute a convict because enclosing a person in a prison cell is enough to bring regret to such a person. The alienation that prisoners experience is an experience that they will not want to go through again after being released from prison. The time that the prisoners spend in the prisons makes them to waste away. In his article, Orwell describes the man executed in his story as a “puny wisp of a man” (613).

This description makes it clear that the man had had a rough time in prison. This is normally the case with prisoners. The difficult life in a prison makes them to grow miserable and waste away in virtually every part of their body. It is certain that anybody who is robust at their first day in prison will come out looking frail and beaten by the end of the jail term. It is unlikely that such a person will recidivate once released from prison. Therefore, the execution of such is clearly immoral and undeserved.

Furthermore, the taking of human life by the state is immoral because it causes overwhelming grief to those people who are attached to the convict. The pain that such persons go through at the realization that they will never see the convict again is agonizing. The narrator in the article keenly describes the emotional grief that grips the onlookers witnessing the execution of the convict (615).

It is obvious that these people did not know the man who was facing the execution. If these strangers sympathized with the man, then the pain that the family and friends of such convicts go through is unimaginable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the taking away of human life by the state is immoral because it leaves behind unfortunate orphans, widows and widowers. To permanently detach an individual from his or her family is an immoral act against humanity. There are cases where those executed are breadwinners in their families.

The families are therefore in a state of utter penury after their execution. The children of such a family are most likely to drop out of school and indulge in other illegal activities in a bid to overcome their stress or earn a living. Such activities include drug trafficking and child prostitution. Therefore, the execution of convicts by the state may lead to the proliferation of more criminal activities.

The state also acts immorally when it takes away human life because it compels some people to unwillingly carry out the execution. Once it is stipulated in the law, it is upon those instructed by the state to carry out the execution irrespective of whether they approve the act or not. Such acts cause emotional turmoil in the people who carry out the executions.

The emotional disturbance often comes about because the executioner could be having a lot of reverence and respect for human life. Orwell presents an ironical situation where the superintendent who sanctions the executions is assailed by feelings of remorse towards the man in the gallows (615).

The superintendent is unable to give the executioner a go-ahead to carry out the executioner because he is overcome with grief. The entire team of onlookers is also relieved after the execution has been completed. Everybody sighs that it is finally over. This also portends that the onlookers had a hard time witnessing the execution. The narrator in the story is also affected by the execution of the man. This is echoed in the words:

“When I saw the prisoner step aside to avoid the puddle I saw the mystery, the unspeakable wrongness, of cutting a life short when it is in full tide.” (Orwell 614).

This emotional disturbance caused by the state to other people by taking away human life rules the act as immoral. The state should look into such considerations and bring human execution to a permanent stop.

We will write a custom Essay on Immorality Of Human Execution By The State specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also an immoral act for the state to take away human life because it totally shatters the dreams and aspiration that such people could be having for their lives. The goals that the convicts could be having in their lives are brought to extinction with their executions. This is an immoral act that should be brought to a halt. In his article, Orwell vividly describes the hearty sobs made by the man while on the gallows (615). The man possibly wept because of the painful reality that his dreams would not come to any fruition.

Lastly, the state’s act of taking human life is immoral because it denies the convicts the chance to live their life to the length that they were destined to live. No one possesses the right to terminate a person’s life. This act is even worse because no one is capable of creating a human life. It is therefore immoral for the state to destroy that which it is not in a position to create. By doing so, the State contravenes the doctrine of natural rights accorded to all individuals, including the murderers themselves (Davison 3).

It is therefore evident from the above discussion that it is not morally right for the state to take the life of a person. This is because of the adverse effects that such an action has on the convicts and the people around them. Of most importance, however, is the fact that human life should always be revered and treated with the highest level of respect.

Works Cited Davison, Peter. The Complete Works of George Orwell. New York: Secker


The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Given the fact that, while addressing life’s challenges, people are expected to observe certain ethical principles, it does not make much of a surprise that there have traditionally been a number of objective preconditions for the philosophers to make qualitative inquires into the very essence of morality, as a driving force behind one’s behavior.

Nevertheless, as philosophers went about landing their views on morality and its implications, it was becoming increasingly clear that morality cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the particulars of its affiliates’ existential mode. The reason for this is simple – the number of morality’s qualitatively different definitions correlate with the number of philosophers, who argued in favor of specifically their view on the discussed subject matter.

In its turn, this implies that, contrary to the claims of moral realists, morality is an essential relativist notion. In this paper, I will aim to explore the legitimacy of an above statement at length, while arguing that the actual measure of particular moral convention’s objectivity is being reflected by the extent of this convention’s practical usefulness.

The philosophical tradition, concerned with discussing morality The philosophical tradition, concerned with discussing morality, can be traced back to the times of Greco-Roman antiquity. For example, Plato used to refer to the notion of morality as being synonymous to the notion of justice: “True’ city and the corrupted city are put forward for us (by Plato) as models of human nature in association which display both justice and injustice, to be contrasted with the ideally just city, which displays only justice” (Annas 78).

According to Plato, the objectivity/subjectivity of moral predicaments is reflective of these predicaments’ ability to serve some higher good.

If, for example, a particular individual decides in favor of ending another person’s life, as the ultimate mean of saving the lives of many others, such his or her decision should be deemed moral. In its turn, this allows us to refer to Plato’s moral conceptualizations as ‘social’ or ‘external’, as they are only being concerned with exposing solely rationale-driven motivations, behind people’s moral or immoral behavior.

Such Plato’s view on what should be used as criteria for defining the extent of a particular conscious act’s moral appropriateness/inappropriateness corresponds to Kant and Hegel’s views on the subject matter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless; whereas, Kant’s moral imperative (treat others in a manner as you yourself would like to be treated) appears rather utilitarian/subjective, Hegel’s moral imperative implies the de facto existence of metaphysical objectivity: “Act as if the maxim of thine action could be laid down as a universal principle” (Mitias 83).

Thus, it would not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that it was namely Hegel’s philosophy, out of which the method of moral realism originally derived.

As time went on, however, more and more philosophers were trying to analyze the significance of moral conventions from essentially ‘psychological’ perspective, which implied these conventions’ relativist nature.

For example, Schopenhauer used to draw direct parallels between the notion of morality and the notion of compassion, simply because the behavioral stimulants, not related to compassion, are being innately malicious: “There are generally only three fundamental incentives of human actions, and all possible motives operate solely through their stimulation: a) Egoism… b) Malice… c) Compassion” (Schopenhauer 145).

Apparently, it was becoming increasingly clear to the European intellectuals of the time that morality is best discussed as something that is being ‘created’ rather than something that it is being ‘discovered’.

Such point of view on morality is being prominently featured in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. According to Nietzsche, there are two types of morality: ‘slave morality’ and ‘master morality’. The defining characteristics of ‘master morality’ are -unemotional, pathos of distance, aesthetic refinement and cynicism.

The defining characteristics of ‘slave morality’, on the other hand, are – sentimentalism, strong adherence to the provisions of conventional ethics, religiousness and intellectual shallowness (Nietzsche 250). Thus, it would be safe to assume that, by the beginning of 20th century, there were already two well-established philosophical approaches to addressing the concept of morality, which can be generally defined as ‘objectivist’, on the one hand, and ‘relativist’, on the other.

We will write a custom Essay on The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, it was during the course of 20th century’s second half that these approaches sublimated themselves in the creation of three conceptually different moral philosophies: ‘moral realism’, ‘moral relativism’ and ‘moral utilitarianism’.

The theoretical premise, upon which the proponents of ‘moral realism’ base their line of argumentation, has been outlined in Timmons’s article: “There is a completely mind-independent world of physical facts (facts that concern physical objects and properties of such objects) and an objective fact is identical with or reducible to some such facts” (373).

In other words, people’s tendency to reflect upon the emanations of surrounding reality in terms of ‘morality’ or ‘immorality’ is indeed being consistent with the objective nature of these emanations. Therefore, moral statements do in fact represent an objective truth-value.

The proponents of ‘moral relativism’, however, are challenging such point of view. According to them, the cognitive mechanics of how a particular person comes up with a moral judgment cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the specifics of this person’s cultural, ethnic, social and religious affiliation: “According to the conventions of moral relativism, when I say that a certain action is right, my statement is elliptic.

What I am really saying is that, according to the system of morality in my culture, this action is right” (Torbjorn 123). Therefore, moral statements cannot represent any objective truth-value, by definition. After all, whatever one person may perceive as perfectly moral, another person may perceive as utterly immoral.

The comparatively recent times, however, saw the emergence of a qualitatively new approach to defining the extent of moral conventions’ appropriateness – a so-called ‘morally utilitarian’ one.

The foremost advocate of such an approach is Hilary Putnam. According to Putnam, the objectiveness/non-objectiveness of a particular moral convention cannot be discussed as ‘thing in itself’, but as such that is being reflective of this convention’s circumstantial ‘usefulness’: “What makes a (moral) statement… rationally acceptable is, in large part, its coherence and fit… Our conceptions of coherence and acceptability… are by no means ‘value-free’. But they are our conceptions, and they are conceptions of something real.

They define a kind of objectivity, objectivity for us…” (56). In the light of recent scientific breakthroughs in the field of physics, biology and psychology, Putnam’s conceptualization of morality appears perfectly legitimate. In the next part of this paper, I will discuss what accounts for the theoretical legitimacy of an earlier outlined Putnam’s view on morality at length.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What accounts for the theoretical legitimacy of a view on morality at length As it was pointed out earlier, moral realists base their line of argumentation upon the assumption that moral judgments are being inseparable from the objective essence of reality’s emanations, to which these judgments apply. The closer analysis of such an assumption, however, reveals its conceptual fallaciousness.

The reason for this is apparent – the manifestations of surrounding reality affect people irrespectively of whether these manifestations are being subjected to a moral evaluation or not. In its turn, this suggests that these manifestations are best discussed as ‘things in themselves’ and that the moral judgments that are being applied to the objective works of nature, are best discussed as ‘secondary derivatives’.

Apparently, moral judgments are nothing but informational models. Therefore, they are necessarily the subjects of ‘principle of complementarity’ (the ‘principle of complementarity’ refers to situations when two mutually exclusive theories can be applied to describe the essence of the same physical phenomenon).

For example, the statements ‘two parallel lines may never cross’ and ‘two parallel lines may cross’ are equally valid. The first statement is being valid within the theoretical framework of Euclidian geometry. The second statement is being valid within the framework of non-Euclidian geometry.

Another example – as contemporary physicists are being well aware of, an elementary particle can be simultaneously referred to as physical object or as the property of an electromagnetic wave (quantum dualism). A car that moves with the speed of 100 km/per hour can be simultaneously referred to by the spectators as ‘moving’ or ‘motionless’, depending on whether these spectators remain motionless or move with the same speed in a parallel lane.

The very fact that there can be two mutually irreconcilable but equally applicable/effective theories, concerned with exposing physical reality’s mechanics, points out to the absence of ‘truth’, as something independent of the particulars of people’s cognitive perception.

However, once there can be no universally recognized ‘truth’, than such a ‘truth’ cannot be referred to as the actual measure of moral judgments’ objectiveness. Therefore, it is quite inappropriate to suggest that the utterance of moral statements can be thought of as being impartial of the contextual specifics.

This is exactly the reason why moral statements cannot be regarded as representing some universally recognized truth-value, irrespective of the whole scope of affiliative circumstances. For example, the statement ‘pornography must be banned due to its immorality’ cannot possibly be thought of as being thoroughly objective, unless we assess its significance through the perceptional lenses of those people who came up with such a statement.

The manner of how people perceive surrounding reality and their place in it, however, is highly subjective. Moreover, there can be no any unified criteria for defining the legitimacy of ‘moral truth’, by definition. The validity of this statement can be illustrated in regards to what accounts for the actual realities of multicultural living in Western countries.

For example, the majority of Muslim immigrants to these countries think of their practice of cutting sheep’s throat and watching animal’s convulsions in the pool of blood, during the course of Eid al-Adha celebration, as perfectly moral. The native-born Westerners, however, regard such Muslim immigrants’ practice highly immoral.

Alternatively, even though it represents a commonplace practice for Western women to walk around while wearing mini-skirts, Muslims cannot help referring to this practice as morally despicable. This once again exposes the fallaciousness of moral realists’ assumption that moral judgments are being thoroughly objective – this could not possibly be the case, because there are as many ‘truths’ out there as there are people on this Earth.

The validity of an earlier suggestion can also be explored even in regards to a number of moral conventions, the legitimacy of which is being taken for granted. For example, it is commonly assumed that killing people represents a highly immoral deed.

This is the reason why committing murders has traditionally been considered the most dangerous criminal offense. During the time of war, however, one’s willingness to murder human beings (deemed ‘enemies’) on the line of duty, is being considered utterly virtuous and therefore – highly moral.

In its turn, this once again illustrates the full validity of Putnam’s suggestion that it is specifically the extent of moral conventions’ circumstantial ‘fitness’, which actually reflects the measure of these conventions’ objectiveness. Such Putnam’s idea correlates with that of one of Pragmatism’s founders William James: “The ideas (which themselves are but part of our experience) become true just in so far as they help us to get into satisfactory relation with other parts of our experience” (58).

Moral theories/conventions can only be recognized as thoroughly objective if our belief in these theories’ legitimacy helps us to gain practical benefits – pure and simple. To put it in plain words – if a particular moral convention proves ‘useful’, we can refer to it as ‘objective’ and vice versa.

The best proof to the legitimacy of an earlier suggestion’s can serve the fact that this suggestion is being fully correlative with empirically observable aspects of how people take a practical advantage of informational models. How do nuclear physicists go about choosing in favor of applying one or another physical theory, in every particular case when the measurement of atoms’ properties is being concerned?

They utilize an essentially utilitarian approach – they choose in favor of a theory, the application of which would simplify addressing the actual task. When it is easier to refer to atoms as physical particles, nuclear scientists refer to them as physical particles. When it is easier to refer to atoms as electromagnetic wave, nuclear scientists refer to them in terms of a wave.

Another example – when it comes to treating mentally inadequate patients, psychologists find themselves at liberty to resort to the utilization of a variety of often mutually contradictory psychological theories, such as the theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, the theory of gestalt-therapy, Habbard’s theory of dianetics, or the ‘regression method’.

However, in the end, it will matter very little which psychological theory has been utilized to treat patients’ anxieties – the most important objective would be ensuring positive dynamics in the process of patients’ recovery. The most important is the actual result.

The same can be said about moral conventions/theories. After all, as it was pointed out earlier, they are nothing but informational models. By coming up with moral judgments, we reflect upon the surrounding reality – hence, trying to adjust such reality’s emanations to correspond with the essence of our subconscious anxieties.

I go without saying, of course, that reality never ceases remaining what it is, despite being subjected to our moral judgments. Nevertheless, we do benefit from referring to reality in terms of morality, as it helps us to deal with life’s challenges.

This also explains why, just as it is the case with scientific conventions, moral conventions never cease undergoing the process of a qualitative transformation – hence, the notion of ‘moral progress’. As it was noted by Putnam: “It is important to recognize that moral rationality and justification are presupposed by the activity of criticizing and inventing paradigms and are not themselves defined by any single paradigm” (234).

After all, one does not have to hold a Ph.D. in history to be aware of a simple fact that, as time goes on; moral conventions continue to undergo an exponential change. For example, even as recent as hundred years ago, it was considered morally inappropriate for unmarried men and women to live together. Nowadays, however, in Western countries this practice became a commonplace occurrence.

Whereas, during the course of fifties, many White Americans thought of African-American students’ willingness to indulge in educational pursuits ‘morally despicable’, in today’s America it became morally despicable taboo to even think that African-Americans may be inferior, as compared to their White counterparts.

Whereas, when Christian fundamentalists were exerting a strong influence onto the process of designing socio-political policies, the act of masturbation used to be deemed a ‘morally wicked sin’, it is now being referred to as merely an instrument of releasing one’s sexual tension.

The fact that moral conventions continue to undergo a qualitative change, as we speak, is alone exposing the wrongness of moral realists’ belief in the unchangeable nature (objectiveness) of morals.

It is not only that, as time goes on, the validity of outdated moral dogmas continues to be revised, but it also appears that it is only the matter of short time, before the very concept of morality will be replaced by the concept of ethics. And, it is specifically the behavior of ‘strongly moral’ people, which through the lenses of ethics appears utterly immoral – whatever ironical this suggestion may sound.

Conclusion The line of argumentation, deployed throughout this paper’s discursive part, can be summarized as follows:

a) Morality is clearly subjective/relativist notion. It is not only that the specifics of people’s ethnic, cultural and social affiliation define the qualitative essence of their moral predispositions – the very course of socio-cultural and technological progress invariably results in undermining the validity of formerly legitimate moral conventions. In its turn, this suggests that morality is best discussed in terms of psychology, rather than in terms of a philosophy proper.

b) The measure of morality’s objectiveness is the extent of its practical ‘usefulness’. If the adoption of a particular moral convention serves the purpose of improving people’s lives than there can be no objections against such an adoption. Alternatively, if a particular moral convention appears to be hampering people’s chances to take a full advantage of their existential potential, than this convention should be revised or dropped altogether.

c) As time goes on, moral conventions will continue being replaced with ethical conventions. The reason why discussing morality’s implications was considered a legitimate philosophical pursuit in the past is that, until comparatively recent times, organized religion used to exert a strong influence on the very essence of public discourses in the West. Nowadays, however, this is being no longer the case.

I believe that the deployed earlier arguments are being fully consistent with paper’s initial thesis as to the fact that, given morality’s clearly relativist nature, it cannot be discussed as any objective property of physical reality’s manifestations. Morality is essentially a reflective byproduct of the process of people addressing cognitive tasks. Therefore, it is highly inappropriate to refer to morality as the notion synonymous to the notions of impartiality and objectiveness.

Bibliography Annas, Julia. An Introduction to Plato’s Republic and Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.

James, William. Pragmatism. Maryland: Wildside Press, (1907) 1999.

Mitias, Michael. Moral Foundation of the State in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right: Anatomy of an Argument. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1984. Print.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. London: Penguin Classics, 2003. Print.

Putnam, Hilary. “The Craving for Objectivity.” New Literary History 15.3 (1984): pp. 229-239. Print.

Putnam, Hilary. Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Print.

Schopenhauer, Arthur. On the Basis of Morality. London: Hackett Publishing Corporation, Inc., (1840) 1998. Print.

Tannsjo, Torbjorn. “Moral Relativism.” Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition 135.2 (2007): pp. 123-143. Print.

Timmons, Mark. “Putnam’s Moral Objectivism.” Erkenntnis 34.3 (1975): pp. 371-399. Print.


“Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison Essay college essay help near me

“Sula,” a novel written by Toni Morrison, is based on race, hatred, death, friendship, betrayal and reconciliation. In Medallion, Ohio, the Black community is regarded as the lowest or bottom of the rank. A black slave was given a gift by his master but the gift later became a trick. Being given a poor hilly land by the master, the slave was convinced that it was closer to god since it was hilly.

The black communities are considered ignorant and they are easily convinced to believe a lie because of their lack of knowledge, they settle for handouts thinking that it will benefit them in the future.

In “Sula,” two girls grow up as friends to become women and later are separated by different beliefs in their lifestyle. The author illustrates how the root and background can affect one’s belief when growing up. In the text, Toni Morrison describes the character Nel Wrights as being raised in a contemporary lifestyle by her parents while Sula Peace was raised by a loose parent and grandmother.

Sula ends up running away from the bottom community to have an independent lifestyle of prostitution. Betrayal is demonstrated by Toni Morrison when Sula decides to abandon her conventional lifestyle subscribed by her community (Morrison 12-23).

Despite of the differences of how Sula and Nel were raised, when they were young they became very close friends. This portrays the innocence that comes with being a child. The differences between them did not become a hindrance to their friendship. It also portrays the stages of friendship.

When one is young, the demand for friendship differs when one grows up. There are no boundaries that separate friendships because all you have in common are toys and companionship. They began to separate when an accident occurred in the community.

Sula was playing with a neighborhood boy called little chicken as she was swinging him by the hand. She lost grip and the boy fell in a pool of water and drowned. They kept the secret to themselves and the tension between them began to grow. One of the hindrances of friendship is tragedy. I am sure every time they disagreed concerning an issue the event concerning Little Chicken came up. Even if it was unrelated to their arguments, the tragedy had a way of cropping out.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is normal in issues that are unresolved and they are often called untied loose ends. Their failure to deal with issue of the accident allowed the ghost of little chicken to haunt their friendship. Opening up to such incidents not only helps the victim emotionally but also gives psychological freedom to the one that allowed the accident to occur. Unfortunately, Sula loses her mother through a fire accident where her dress catches fire and she dies of burns.

When the two completed high school, Nel decides to get married and live to play the role of a conventional wife and lifestyle. On the other hand Sula diverges from her conventional society to an independent lifestyle.

The decision that Sula takes is contrary to the black community because of the discrimination they faced by the white community. Intermingling with the whites was being a cast away especially having multiple sexual relations with them. As Sula went to explore the independent life, the nature of the effects of being raised by a loose parent began to surface.

She gave herself to strangers and some say she became a prostitute. This brings up the issue of parenting. As much as the black community secluded themselves from other races, their way of conventional lifestyle proved that one can turn out better in life. Why was Sula’s mother considered ‘loose’? Did they perceive the conventional lifestyle as being too strict? The outcome of Nel was favorable even among his people.

Through discrimination and hardship the black community went through, they considered the liberal lifestyle of the white community as evil. This can be illustrated in the text when Sula decides to return to Ohio. After ten years, she returns from having many affairs especially with white men.

Due to her staying away for so long she must have adapted the lifestyle of being loose and independent. Ten years is enough for someone to adapt to the environment in which they choose to dwell in. The unwelcome return of the lost daughter was perceived evil because of her disregard to the social convention.

Sula made a mistake by having an affair with Jude who was Nels’ husband. This proved the perception of the people in Bottom that they were right by calling her evil. The act proved their word and Jude abandoned Nel. This brought about tension in the lives of two women who were once friends.

We will write a custom Essay on “Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The separated completely. Fornication is a serious offense in the black community. This incident was an act of betrayal after Sula came back to reconcile with her long lost friend. She violated the code of friendship and destroyed the marriage and family of Nel. It would be hard for Sula to convince Nel to get back together. Trust is not give, it is earned and to build it back it takes a lot of sacrifice and selflessness. Before the death of Sula, the two tried to reconcile and to be at good harmony.

Race has been tackled diversely by author of this text. Morrison has done well to illustrate the complexities of racism that existed in America in the early 1970s. As a matter of fact, racism comes out strongly through the display of the lives of various characters in the novel as well as the social set-up of the environment.

First, racism is illustrated through the plot by the white master to give the black slave a gift of land in a hilly terrain. The master intentionally lies to the slave by telling him that the Bottom is near heaven due to its hilly terrain landscape. It is clear the Bottom was highly disregarded by the white community.

It is for this reason that they decide to dispose off the land in the form of a gift to the black slaves. It can be observed in this instance the white community are pure racists. This scenario as illustrated by the author clearly brings out the nature of racism that existed in America in the early 1970s. Racism was practiced through attempts to segregate the black community in Ohio into poor and degraded living conditions as the white masters occupied the best parts of the land.

In addition, this scene demonstrates that racism was employed through acts of trickery. The white community believed that the black people were stupid. It is for that reason that the black slave is given the Bottom as a gift by the white master who tells him that the hilly terrain is near heaven. This is a trick and clearly unrealistic.

Racism is also developed in novel through the change of mind by the white community to use part of the Bottom. When the white community realizes that the hilly Bottom terrain is good for construction of a golf course, they try to reoccupy the land in a bid to achieve their goals.

This shows an element of racism that is mixed with discrimination and exploitation of mentality. The author, at this point is clearly indicating to the readers the racism that was witnessed in the early 1970s in American was mainly composed of discrimination, application of force, and exploitation mentality.

Moreover, racism is highlighted by author of the novel through the relationship between the white and blacks in the community. This is evidenced by the fact that the communities in Ohio are socially immiscible. The white and black communities are known to be separate entities which are prohibited to socialize. Sula is regarded a cast away by her black community for forfeiting the customs and social conventions of her people.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She is disregarded by her people for having intimate relationships with the white men. This makes her lose favor with her people whose mindsets prohibit such kind of interactions. Evidently, this scene is significant in terms of understanding the nature of racism in the early 1970s. The author is basically informing the readers that racism in that time was mainly composed social hatred whereby the white and black communities were not supposed to socialize at any level.

Identity is another characteristic of this novel that effectively comes out through texts. There are a few characters that have been significantly used by the author to illustrate the search for identity in the novel.

First is Shadrack- an ex-WWI soldier who returns to the Bottom and is unable to reconcile his experiences during the war with realities of his surroundings. He manages to devise a ritual called “National Suicide Day,” an activity that he intends to introduce in the society. However, this fails in the beginning, but later the black community finally adopts it as culture.

This scene has been used categorically by the author to give the reader insight concerning the lifestyle of the black people in early 1970s. Morrison is basically making suggestions that the search for identity filled the hearts of most black Americans at that time. Another scene that illustrates the search for identity is in the difference of lifestyle that Nel and Sula decide to adopt after high school education.

While Nel chooses to identify herself as a mother and wife, Sula decides to take a different path by choosing to live independently of the social conventions of her people. It is clear in this instance that the characters in this scene are mainly in search of their own identities. Morrison is indicating to the readers that the entire black community experienced a season of search for the real identities in the early 1970s. This can be related to the nature of lifestyle they had during that time.

Difference is another issue that Morrison has clearly displayed through the displays of scenes in the novel. Evidently, Morrison has used this literary work to indicate the elements of difference that existed in the early part of 1970s.

In this regard, it can be noted that the element of difference is shown through various scenes in the novel. First is through residence of white and black community. The white community has settled in the wealthy part of the land. On the other hand, the black community has settled in the poor and degraded hilly side of the land called the Bottom.

This difference in residential places clearly indicates the nature lifestyle as well as the economic status that existed between the white and black community at the time of the production of this literary work. The wealthy whites mainly resided in good parts of the land while the poor black community resided in the bottom – which was poor and degraded.

Another instance of difference is in terms of lifestyle choices. While Sula chooses to adopt an independent lifestyle which is contrary to the customs and social conventions of her people, Nel decides to take a different path that is conventional and consistent with social conventions of her people.

She gets married and becomes a wife with the intention of settling as a mother. On the other hand, Sula chooses to do the opposite as she abhors her culture and decides to mix with the white community. In this case, Morrison is basically trying to indicate to the readers that while there was a search for identity amongst the black community, there are a few black who chose to remain to remain conservative.

In conclusion, it can be noted that “Sula,” a novel written by Toni Morrison, is based on race, hatred, death, friendship, betrayal and reconciliation. This is shown through the plot by the white master to give the black slave a gift of land in a hilly terrain, change of mind by the white community to use part of the Bottom, and through the relationship between the white and blacks in the community.

Works Cited Morrison, Tony. Sula. New York: Vintage, 2004. Print.


The foreign policy of the United States Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The post-Second World War United States of America had a different face from the one that existed during the First World War. The United States’ foreign policy moved from isolationism to interventionism after World War II. Therefore, this paper examines the changes in America’s foreign policy after the World War II. It also examines Kennan’s long Telegram and how the United States may implement the suggestions.

How United States’ foreign policy changed after World War II Before the Second World War, the United States of America practiced the policy of isolationism (Chandler


Marketing Mix Planning Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Pricing and distribution

Target market and promotion

Market place and growth prospects

Competitive strategy



Introduction Several marketing decisions are crucial while conducting an examination on a product before any given marketing strategy is implemented. The aspects whose consideration is of fundamental include current product, target market, distributor network, current competitor, financial analysis and external forces among other factors (Armstrong


Dancescape Company Case Study online essay help

The paper is a case study of a couple which wants to promote their services to their target market through different channels. The case study will analyze the background of the couple, the services that they are offering, their target market, their marketing strategies, the problems that they are facing and recommendations on how to face the problems. The paper will basically study the case, find out the problem and give recommendations on how to deal with the problem.

The case is talking about a couple, Robert and Beverly Tang who is former dancing champions and they want to use their talent to make money by starting dance lessons. Their target market is the population of ages above forty.

These are mainly the boomers. Within the target market, they want to concentrate more on the women. They have invested a lot of money in starting up a dance class at the Ukrainian church and they need a further investment to promote their dance company called dancescape in the internet via three websites so that their dance lessons can be easily downloaded and they can easily interact with current and potential consumers of their services.

The company also seeks advice from Lina KO who works with the national public relations, a company that carries out research on boomers and also Robert herjavec who owns a computer company. Their opinions are important in the success of the company.

The problem that Dancescape Company is facing is the poor marketing strategies that they are using. Robert and Beverly want build three websites that will help in marketing their company even though they do not have the $1.4 million required to build the three websites successfully.

Another problem is that they made a poor first impression to a potential investor in their business when Robert called Tim the investor Steve twice. This shows that they are not ready. Another problem that the company is facing is that they are using a lot of technology and internet to promote their services to a generation that is not so conversant with technology. Another problem that the couple is facing is that they are not using a revamp language that will appeal more to the boomers.

The company has already released a dance tape which is already being sold and they are also holding dance lessons to the boomers in the Ukrainian church hall. They have already made their presentation to Tim Draper and this shows how serious they are about getting this website started for them so that the company can be marketed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have also given a dance lesson to their potential investor Tim so that he can have a feel of the service that he wants to invest in. This shows that they are on the right track and they are making progress.

The company should convince Tim of the returns that he will get from the websites and that. They should carry out another demonstration and sales pitch to Tim and this time do it without any problems.

The company should also find other ways apart from the internet to market their services so as to reduce the use of internet. The company should also bring an element of being young in their lessons and videos and promotional messages so as to attract the boomers more by making them think that dancing will make them feel younger.


The Islam Concept Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Islam is among the major religions with many followers around the world. The number of Muslim adherents is about 1.2 billion across the globe. The founder of Islam is Muhammad. He was born in 570. Majority of Muslims attest that Allah (God) gave him the authority as a portent of timely news to mankind. His early influence through teachings made many people in Mecca admires Islam and its practices thus, contributing to its growth and expansion.

Islam has continued to hold the traditional practices anchored in the Quran (Islam holy book) and those created by their founders. Significant rituals of Islam include; the sacred time, the five pillars among other rituals and ceremonies which are normally performed in Mosques (Islam place of worship).

The rituals and ceremonies have continued to define their faith to date. Also, Islam has continued to increase their faith through their religion beliefs. Beliefs such as the sacred narratives, human nature and ultimate reality and divine being form the basis of Muslim faith.

Islam’s assume that most people mistake Jihad as a “holy war”. However, for them, Jihad appoints constant struggles that one is involved in protecting his/her faith and privileges of worship.

According to Maqsood, Muslims describes Jihad has having a strong connection in the Quran (85). Thus, it is a network of checks and balances that Allah left them with “to check one people with another. Hence, when a person or a group violates their limits or rights of others, Muslims have the right and duty to control them, so they can adapt to what is right.

According to Maqsood Islam does not tolerate unprovoked aggressions from their companion Muslims (77). They are commanded in the Quran not to create hostilities, violet the welfare and rights of other people, associate in acts of aggressions and harm the innocent. Moreover, even destroying or hurting trees or animals is forbidden. However, war is only a last resort waged to defend the Islam faith against oppression and harassment (Maqsood 94).

Islam’s classifies Jihad into three distinct groups. These groups are physical, verbal and personal Jihad. Muslims invoke physical Jihad when they are protecting themselves against exploitation and oppression from their perceived enemies and Allah.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They affirm that Allah allows Muslims to embrace peaceful lives and not to offend against anyone. However, when they are oppressed and persecuted, the Quran affirm that they need to migrate to tolerant and peaceful land. On some occasions, when the migration or relocation is not possible, then Allah allows Muslims to protect themselves against themselves by against those who fight them.

Verbal Jihad allows Muslims to aim for justice through words rather than threatening activities. Muslims believe that Mohammed encouraged them to ask for justice by pleading the name of Allah. During his life in Makkah (Mecca), he embraced non-violent methods.

However, after fixing his leadership in Medinah, by Allah permission, he used armed struggle against his transgressors whenever he thought it was unavoidable”. Muslims believe personal Jihad is the most fundamental form embraced by them. This form of Jihad is called the Jihadun-Nafs. It shows the profound campaign that one is involved in purifying his/her spirit against evil influences.

According to Syed Muslims describes different contexts in which the Quran and the Hadith (the sayings of Mohammed) use the word Jihad to refer to personal struggles (124),. Some of the explanation put forward is making Allah a priority rather than wealth, worldly ambitions, loved ones and our own lives (Syed 45).Others include, striving for righteous deeds, spreading the message of Islam and resisting pressures from the society, peers and parents.

Islam is believed to have begun in the 7th century C.E when Mohammed received and preached the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. Islam was an Arabic word which means “submission, acceptance, obligation or surrender” (Farah 191). A follower of Islam is called Muslims, literary, those who make peace.

Muslims are those people who submit to the will of Allah in all aspects of their lives and enjoy peace with Allah and one another in return (Robinson


Rani Singam Thrills her Fans in a Memorable Concert Essay (Article) online essay help

Rani Singam is a famous vocalist in Asia and one of the most respected jazz singers. Her first album which was recorded in Los Angeles with Jeremy Monteiro as the producer is found in many places in the US and Asia. According to the US Jazz Newsletter of 2008, the album scored 4|4.

The recording of her second album entitled ‘Contentment’ took place in 2011 at Bennett studios in the US. The question that arises is whether this album is a new approach to jazz vocals. Definitely, it is an album that portrays her skills in song writing and the ability to compose original songs.

This article reviews ‘Contentment’ which is the latest album to be performed by Rani Singam. The performance remained one of the greatest highlights of the singer and her fans.

In her own words, Rani described contentment as one of the albums that was driven by her desire to become a singer. On 16th November 2011, she held a performance at Esplanade Recital Studio which was aimed at promoting the album. The fans treated the concert like early Christmas for them. The show was attended by more than 160 fans including her son and husband.

As Rani made her way to the stage, it was evident that the fans were filled with enthusiasm about her performance due to the anxiety they portrayed. They applauded and shouted jovially as she took the stage. On stage, she was accompanied by Chok Kerong playing piano, Christy Smith playing the bass, Greg Lyons on saxophone while the drums were played by Soh Wenming.

She took a period of one hour and 15 minutes as she performed a set of 10 songs from her second album contentment. When she started the performance, she demonstrated her unique capabilities in music and performance by creating a compelling musical atmosphere. Her performance quickly convinced the audience that the music was her own composition.

During the performance, she maintained an entertaining rhythm with each of the movements she made during the performance leaving the audience thrilled. She made the performance lively through constant physical movement on the stage as the audience clapped and cheered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In composing the lyrics in the new album, Rani portrayed great effort as she did while doing live performances. All the ten songs in the album were created with the support of her musical partners. Blended with classical sounds, the lyrics were quite simple but undoubtedly touching.

Rani connected well with the audience through her stories in the songs and this created unforgettable memories of the performance in the minds of the fans. For instance the song ‘My Muse’ talked about her first crush in school while ‘Day Break’ was a story about her endearing memories in Switzerland.

As the concert approached its end, it reached its highest point as the crowd applauded Ran’s performance and requested for more songs. It was amazing that Rani managed such a performance considering that her earlier ambition was to become a lawyer. She changed her mind and decided to get into jazz music after attending Raffle Girl’s school. It was incredible that she had been a vocalist/composer of jazz music for only 10 years.

When the show ended, Rani Singam gave her fans a chance to sign on a table outside the studio. There was a long queue of people who wanted to meet her and talk to her. She embraced the love showed by her fans by smiling to them and initiating conversations with them. It was a good concert since all the fans left satisfied and hoped to attend her concerts once more.


Capstone Project Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction This paper seeks to describe how the Solow Building and the red object work together as well as their connection with each other. The paper will hence illustrated the form of the building, functions and the symbolic meaning of the building. This will be done by elaborating a brief history of the building and identifying some of the functions of the offices within the building and the activities taking place in the same. The role of the red object to the Solow building will also be discussed in order to show how the two connect with each other.

Solow building is a Manhattan skyscraper situated in the 57th street at 9 West. The building was constructed in 1974 and designed by Owings, Skidmore and Merrill’s Gordon Bun shaft. The building is sandwiched between the 58th and 57th street just in the west of Fifth Avenue next to other prominent buildings like the Plaza Hotel and the Bergdorf Goodman department store[1].

The red object 9 in the west that is in front of the building was actually part of the project. It was included in the project due to the complaints that the sloping building’s reflecting walls had revealed an unappealing sides of the historic buildings previously obscured in the neighborhood[2].

Solow building, also known as Solow Building Company is a skyscraper situated in the 57th street at 9 West within the Midtown neighborhood in the city of New York. The building was constructed from the year 1968 and completed in the year 1974[3]. It was designed by Owings, Skidmore and Merrill’s Gordon Bun shaft.

The building is sandwiched between the 58th and 57th street just in the west of Fifth Avenue next to other prominent buildings like the Plaza Hotel and the Bergdorf Goodman department store. Solow Building is 210.01m high with 50 floors above the ground (West Group 2007).

The building’s façade materials consist of concrete glasses with a façade system of curtain wall. It has a modernism architectural style. The building’s main usage is for commercial offices. The only existing competitor of the building in the vicinity by height is the GM Building which is located a block east and north[4]. The floors above the 23rd floor provide a complete view of the Central Park and unobstructed virtual view of northern Manhattan.

The concave vertical slope of the Solow Building of its south and north façade on the 57th and 58th Street forms one of the building’s notable aesthetic attribute. Similarly, the W.R. grace Building which is also a Bun Shaft creation is an attribute too to the building because of the used façade design that was rejected in the Solow Building (Dunford 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building has some of the most expensive rents within Manhattan. The top floor of the skyscraper is occupied permanently by the Solow Building Company. The Bank of American Securities is the largest tenant occupying several stories and other trading floors in the 3rd and 2nd floors.

Other known tenants that use the building for commercial purposes are the U.S. Headquarters of the French Corporate and Investment Bank, the Silver Lake Partners, the private Equity Firms, Highland Capital Management and the Apollo Management[5]. Some of the amenities provided by the Solow Building are the parking garage which is in the underground with available retail space in its northern side (Dunn 2004).

The underground spaces that is rented by the Brasserie restaurant, the lobby newsstand, trading floors and twenty four high-speed elevators that are subdivided into a set of floors. Some of the facts about the Solow Building are that it is one of the largest Midtown skyscrapers which has a façade sloping up from the base and that the 9 West chain stores is practically named after the Solow Building[6].

A part from the mentioned companies and the tenants using the building for commercial purposes, the building also has other services offered within its premises such as accessing data base of the designers, company and project tracking, export data functionality, contact information of the company, customer support that may be troubleshooting and other complimentary research (Bureau of National Affairs 2005).

The Solow Building and the red 9 object are connected such that the red colored sculpture distracts the eyes of the pedestrians or the passersby from noticing the unappealing walls of the historic buildings. The red object was designed by Ivan Chermayeff, a graphic artist in New York City (Edward 2000).

According to the Solow residual value and the production function by Cobb Douglas, the econometric model of building the performance of and industry is established and its quantitative analysis and influencing factors conducted[7]. The data used for this analysis resulted from the macroeconomic data between 1997 and 2008. The drawn conclusions and results indicate that the production of the industry’s building belongs to the incremental reward type (Chermayeff 2011).

In my economic point of view, the industry’s improvement on the performance may depend on the efficient and adequate investment, continuous scientific progress, appropriate economic reforms, high quality oriented labor force and technological innovations. I also think that the object 9 is a perfect connection with the Solow Building as it not only destructs the viewing of the unappealing walls of the historic buildings, but it’s also scenery on its own[8].

We will write a custom Essay on Capstone Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s beautiful and attractive enough to capture the attention of anyone. The position of the red object 9 in the west actually suits its purpose. It is therefore my perception that the building is of high economic importance and scenery as well due to the commercial activities going on within its premises.

Conclusion In summary, this paper has described the Solow Building and the red object and how the two work together as well as their connection with each other. The functions and the symbolic meaning of the building have been explained too. In the process of learning, I learnt the history of the building and the functions of the offices situated in it. The role of the red object has also been revealed in aid of the historic buildings which have varied implications to the unappealing walls of the previously obscured buildings.

Bibliography Bureau of National Affairs. Construction Labor Report. New York: Bureau of National Affairs, 2005.

Chermayeff, Ivan. Basic concepts in the identity design. New York: Cengage, 2011.

Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.

Dunn, Brian. New York. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

Edward, Jefferson. New York Supplement. New York: West Publishing Company, 2000.

West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Capstone Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes Bureau of National Affairs. Construction Labor Report. New York: Bureau of National Affairs, 2005

Chermayeff, Ivan. Basic concepts in the identity design. New York: Cengage, 2011.

Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.

Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.

West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.

Edward, Jefferson. New York Supplement. New York: West Publishing Company, 2000

West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.

West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.


South Korea’s Economy Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Timing and Severity of Nation’s Downturn

Comparison with the Experience of the US Economy

Transmission Mechanisms of the Global Financial Downturn

Response of Policymakers (Fiscal and Monetary)


Timing and Severity of Nation’s Downturn South Korea’s economy is deemed to be the biggest economy in Asia. Its economic superiority is only rivaled by other Asian giants such as Japan, China and India. The timing of South Korea’s economic downturn coincided with the 2007/2008 global financial downturn. This economic downturn affected South Korea’s economy because South Korea is predominantly and export-oriented economy.

When then global financial crisis hit, South Korea’s gross domestic product (GDP) shrunk from 5.1% in 2007 to 0.2% in 2009 (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009). The nation has since been able to recover from the economic meltdown after it posted better GDP projections in 2010.

Comparison with the Experience of the US Economy South Korea’s economic downturn has a strong resemblance to the US economic downturn. South Korea’s dominance in the Asian market is attributed to the resemblance of its economy to Taiwan (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009).

The resemblance to Taiwan’s economy makes South Korea the biggest export competitor of the US. Part of the reason advanced for South Korea’s economic downturn was the fluctuation in crude oil prices. This fluctuation in prices is widely similar to US’s experience of the global financial downturn because South Korea and the US share a strong reliance on international oil imports for production (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009, p. 6).

The slide of the US dollar during the global financial downturn also affected South Korea and the US in equal measure. The impact of exchange rate fluctuation on South Korea was especially witnessed by the fact that most of South Korea’s stock market was valued in foreign currencies. Obviously the weakening of the US dollar also affected the US economy because it amounted to a loss in value for US assets.

Transmission Mechanisms of the Global Financial Downturn The global economic downturn in South Korea was attributed to fluctuation in the prices of raw materials and energy. However, a significant portion of the downturn can be attributed to the weakness of the US economy. The US had a strong impact on South Korea because the US is South Korea’s second biggest trading partner.

In fact, after China, the US is considered to be South Korea’s biggest trading partner. The US accounts for about 10% of South Korea’s export (Top Foreign Stocks, 2010, p. 1). Similarly, this percentage amounts to $37.7 billion of South Korea’s export. The volume of South Korea’s export therefore significantly reduced with decreased imports from the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More South Korea’s economy is also supported by foreign investors because South Korea was able to attract a lot of foreign investments during its period of economic boom. For instance, South Korea was able to be less dependent on the US by increasing its trade relations with other foreign investors (such as European investors) (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009).

Due to the strong economic ties with foreign partners, the global economic downturn significantly affected South Korea’s economy because there were less capital inflows from foreign investors. The economy therefore slid into a slump.

Response of Policymakers (Fiscal and Monetary) After the global economic meltdown, South Korea’s policy makers have significantly relaxed their monetary policies. For instance, the country’s base rate lending has been reduced to significant lows. Other economic reform programs were also launched, including the 50 trillion KRW green new deal that was launched by the Korean government in 2009 (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009). This economic program is expected to be completed in 2013.

The main objective of the economic program is to create more jobs (about a million). Other auxiliary goals of the project is to create more “green” jobs for the Korean public in response to climate change concerns and environmental pollution (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009, p. 10).

References Taiwan Institute of Economic Research. (2009).The Analysis of Global Economic Crisis and Situations in Asia. Retrieved from: http://english.tier.org.tw/eng_analysis/FS200907.asp

Top Foreign Stocks. (2010). South Korea by the Numbers. Retrieved from: https://topforeignstocks.com/2010/11/11/the-top-trade-partners-of-south-korea/


American history: The Civil War (1861-1865) Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Civil War

Northern Versus Southern Interests

Causes of the Civil War

Aftermath of the Civil War




Introduction American history is considered as the most inquisitive worldwide. Traditionally, American history started by a declaration of independence in the year 1776. This declaration was due to threats of British government towards American self-governed system. Declaration of independence led to war in 1775 that was to liberate Americans.

With help of France in providing military and financial support, the patriots won American Revolution. In 1789, war hero George Washington became the first president of federal government by virtue of constitution. With influence of European community, coping with scope of central government proved to be a challenging issue for American people.

In 1790s, creation of political parties was initiated and later fighting for the second independence in 1812. Consequently, this brought about expansion of US territory westwards. With this, the US managed to overcome modernizers who were solely interested in deepening its economy rather than helping American people in expanding their geography.

Heavy demand for cotton in southern states encouraged slavery of Africans even though it was illegal in northern states. In 1860, came the election of Abraham Lincoln as president and this triggered a crisis in slave states as he dejected the expansion of slave trade. Amongst the slave states, some of them seceded in forming the Confederate States of America in 1861. This brought about American Civil War, which was from 1861 to 1865.[1]

The Civil War In the American history, Civil War is the most momentous event that ever happened in the US. This iconic event redefined the American nation, as it was a fight that aimed at preserving the Union, which was the United States of America. From inauguration of the Constitution, differing opinions existed on the role of federal government.

It was a belief of Federalists that in order to ensure the union does not collapse, there was need for the federal government to hold on to power. Anti-federalists on the other hand, were of the opinion that sovereignty of the new states were to remain within their countries. Anti-federalists believed that each state had the right to determine their own set of laws and it is not right to indict them in following mandates of the federal government.[2]

Northern Versus Southern Interests With the advent of the slavery, Northern states completely squared off against Southern states. The main reason for this being economic interests of north and south which were opposed to each other. In addition, Southerners largely depended on large-scale plantations of cotton, which was more labor intensive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, northerners were more of a manufacturing region who produced finished goods by making use of raw materials. Southern ingrained culture of the plantation era encouraged slavery because it gave them an inexpensive labor source. The compromise of each group was the fear that one could gain an unequal amount of power. For example, northerners feared that if more slave states existed, then they would garner an unequal power in the nation.[3]

Causes of the Civil War Causes of the American Civil war, which claimed of over 618,000 casualties, are traceable back to early days in history of the US when tensions escalated. The main cause was difference in economic and social capabilities between the North and the South. The south mainly depended on cotton, which meant the urgent need for cheap labor most probably slaves, as they become one crop economy. On the other hand, northerners depended solely on industrial products.

This disparity, which existed between the two, was the major difference in their economies. The second cause was due to the infighting between those who favored states’ rights and those who favored federal rights. Emergence of these two camps that had differences in opinions ignited the war.

Third, the American Civil war was caused by in-fight between those who were proponents of slavery and those who were against slavery. Another cause of the American Civil war was the growth of the abolition movement. The fact that northerners were against slavery led to the increase of abolitionists who were against slaveholders. Lastly, when Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, it catalyzed the civil war, as southerners believed that he favored interests of the northerners because he was against slavery.[4]

Aftermath of the Civil War Surrender of General Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865 marked an end to the confederacy era. However, this did not stop the war completely as some small battles continued to occur. This was later to end when the last general, Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865.

Abraham Lincoln’s vision of reconstructing the nation did not bear much fruit as it failed to become a reality because of his assassination on April 14, 1865. The Radical Republicans imposed military rule on the southerners dealing with them harshly until Rutherford B. Hayes ended it in 1876. In the American history, Civil War is a watershed event and most importantly an event that officially ended slavery.[5]

Conclusion In conclusion, the Civil War was an important event in history of the American people. Moreover, its iconic stature is very vital, as the proponents who were against slavery became victors because their wish of anti-slavery was satisfied. In addition, it helped in liberating the people who had different opinions and gave them reasons to live for better ideals.[6]

We will write a custom Essay on American history: The Civil War (1861-1865) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010.

Kelly Martin. “Overview of the American Civil War-Secession.” About. Web.

Kelly Martin. “Top Five Causes of the Civil War: Leading up to Secession and the Civil War.” About. Web.

The History Channel. “American Civil War.” History. Web.

Footnotes Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74.

Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74

The History Channel, “American Civil War,” History.com.

Martin Kelly, “Top Five Causes of the Civil War: Leading up to Secession and the Civil War,” About.com.

Martin Kelly, “Overview of the American Civil War-Secession,” About.com.

Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74.


Circus Maximus in Rome Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Analytical part



Thesis statement Even though that it has already been close to 1500 years, since Rome was sacked by Gothic barbarians, the cultural, political and social legacy of Roman Empire never ceased affecting just about all the aspects of Western living, as we know it. This continues to be the case even today. The soundness of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to what accounts for the political attributes of ‘Roman Empire’ of modern times – The United States of America.

After all, one does not have to possess extraordinary analytical abilities to be aware of a simple fact that the symbols of America’s statehood closely mimic those of Roman Empire – the Statue of Liberty (dressed in Roman toga), Capitol Hill (Capitolium), Senate, American Eagle (which strikingly resembles Roman Eagle), etc. The resemblances between today’s America and Roman Empire, however, do not only amount to solely external ones.

After all, just as it used to be the case with Roman citizens, during the course of Empire’s decline, more and more Americans grow comfortable with adopting the slogan ‘bread and circuses’, as their lives’ foremost guiding principle. Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that there is essentially no qualitative difference between America’s entertainment-driven mass culture and what used to account for the entertainment-driven mass culture of ancient Romans.

In this paper, I will aim to explore the validity of an above suggestion at length, while exposing the parallels between public spectacles, which used to be held at the Circus Maximus in Rome, and sport-related public spectacles, deeply embedded into the very matrix of American contemporary living.

Analytical part Ancient Roman historians, such as Livy, used to date the founding of the Circus Maximus back to the Etruscan era – around 600 B.C. Back then, the Circus Maximus was nothing but an essentially 621 meters-long and 118 meters-wide sandy strip, surrounded by a wooden fence. Nevertheless, as time went on, the Circus Maximus never ceased being subjected to a continuous improvement.

By the end of Rome’s Republican era, it became the equivalent of Greek hippodrome, featuring wooden starting stalls and amphitheater-styled rows of spectator seats. It is now being estimated that, even before the Circus Maximus’s architectural structure began to feature concrete and marble blocks, the hippodrome could already seat 150.000-200.000 people, which makes its holding capacities well comparable with the holding capacities of today’s largest stadiums (Goldsworthy 43).

Nevertheless, it was during the reign of Emperor Augustus that the Circus Maximus attained its classical dimensions. Through 50 B.C. – 540 A.D., the Circus Maximus remained a largest semi-architectural creation in the whole world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Circus has commonly been used for holding chariot-races in time of ludi (public games, dedicated to Roman gods and organized by Rome’s Emperors/politically influential citizens). Even though that initially, these games used to be held for no longer than for 34 days per year, by the time Trajan had taken over the Imperial throne, the overall duration of ludi was increased to 75 days per year.

The parallels between what used to be the specifics of holding chariot-races at the Circus Maximus and what account for the specifics of holding car-races in today’s America (such as NASCAR, for example) are quite apparent.

For example, just as it is being the case with contemporary car-races, in which drivers compete on behalf of their corporate sponsors, Roman charioteers also used to defend the colors of their teams, sponsored by Rome’s socially prominent citizens: “The traditional four racing stables (or factions), namely the Reds, Whites, Blues, and Greens, probably existed as early as the fourth century B.C. Like modern sports clubs, they (factions) traded drivers and possessed official quarters where supporters and others could meet regularly” (Crowther 130).

Thus, there is nothing utterly surprising about the fact, as time went on; chariot-races at the Circus Maximus were being gradually turned into nothing short of an extremely lucrative industry – just as it is being the case with today’s sports of hokey, football, NASCAR racing, etc.

Apparently, one of the foremost motivations behind Roman citizens’ enthusiasm to be present at chariot-races was the fact that, while in the Circus Maximus, they were able to bet money on their favorite charioteers. It is needless to mention, of course, that this accounts for another striking similarity between ancient Roman chariot-races and a number of contemporary sports, capable of gathering huge crowds of spectators.

As we are well aware of, today’s politicians often exploit the most popular sporting events in America to boost the spirit of patriotism in watching audience’s members.

For example, not a single opening of The Super Bowl goes without some popular singer being invited to sing the American National Anthem. The same can be said about the ritualistic aspects of holding ludi at the Circus Maximus. The games’ official opening used to be preceded by a ceremonial march (pompae), consisting of the actual participants (charioteers, gladiators, wild animals).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Circus Maximus in Rome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Emperor himself often headed this march. While watching the pompae marching procession, spectators were expected to give Roman salutes – hence, showing the strength of their patriotic feelings (Balsdon 316). Moreover, every chariot-race, held at the Circus Maximus, was dedicated to commemorating Rome’s victories over its enemies.

Apparently, the chariot-races, held at the Circus Maximus, were not merely meant to serve the purpose of entertainment, but also the purpose of endowing spectators with the sense of pride, on the account of their belonging to the greatest nation on Earth. This explains why Circus’s spina (barrier between racing tracks) was embellished with the obelisk, dedicated to the Egyptian god Osiris.

Given the fact that this obelisk was brought from Egypt, after this country agreed to submit to Roman ruling, having an Egyptian ‘artifact’ displayed on top of spina was meant to symbolize that Rome’s geopolitical dominance simply could not be challenged. This also explains why, on many occasions, the official opening of ludi at the Circus Maximus used to be followed by gruesome executions of barbarian tribes’ captured leaders.

Moreover, these races were also meant to increase the extent of Roman citizens’ loyalty to the Emperors, who used to take an active part in organizing ludi. This was the reason why most Roman Emperors would never skip the chance of being present at the Circus Maximus, during the course of ludi.

By presenting themselves to the cheering crowds, Roman Emperors wanted to show to the citizens that, despite their high Imperial status, they shared the values of Roman living to the same extent, as it was the case with the majority of ordinary Romans: “The Circus Maximus became a general meeting place for emperor and subjects, where the ruler tried to appear as a first citizen among equals, primus inter pares…

The circus became so socially and politically significant that the emperors never closed it on a permanent basis” (Crowther 131). It is needless to mention, of course, that there is an apparent similarity between Roman Emperors’ tendency to indulge in populist socialization with their subjects, while at the Circus Maximus, and many American politicians’ tendency to do the same, while showing up at some popular sporting event.

After all, just as it is used to be a tradition for Roman Emperors to ‘bless babies’, prior to the beginning of chariot-races at the Circus Maximus, the American Presidents, who ‘accidentally’ show up at the Super Bowl game or some other sporting event, also do not skip the chance of ‘holding babies’, in front of cameras.

Another similarity between mass-entertainment, provided to the Roman citizens by chariot-racing, and mass-entertainment, provided to the American citizens by sport-related public spectacles, such as NASCAR racing, is being concerned with the fact that, just as it used to the case with Romans, Americans attend sporting events for a variety of different reasons that do not necessarily relate to sport proper.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Circus Maximus in Rome by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apparently, the factor of socialization plays an important role in attracting entertainment-seeking individuals to sport-related mass events. By finding themselves amidst mind-likes, intellectually marginalized Americans attain an emotional comfort, which lasts well beyond the duration of the actual event. The same could be said about ancient Romans, who used to attend chariot racing.

Nevertheless, unlike what it is being usually the case with today’s Americans, there were strongly defined sexual undertones to how ancient Romans thought of socialization-related opportunities, provided to them by the popularity-seeking Emperors. According to Henderson: “The CM (Circus Maximus) audience came to eyeball displays of manhood in a muscular variety , brinkmanship and bravura, necks on the line… CM was thus made, even more obviously , the place to hunt down women, thanks to imperial legislation.

To get hunted here, women only needed to take their seats, next to men” (50). Therefore, it is fully explainable why; every nine months after the holding of ludi at the Circus Maximus, there would be a dramatic increase to the childbirth rate in Rome.

Nowadays, it would prove quite impossible to reflect upon the realities of American mass culture, without mentioning the phenomenon of ‘celebrities’. After all, it is namely by reporting ‘celebrity-news’ that even America’s mainstream TV Medias are able to dramatically increase the rate of their popularity of with the viewers.

As it was noted by Austin: “Unless you’ve been pushing up daisies for the last several months, you know all about what has been happening with Paris Hilton… One literally cannot get away from the coverage of her life, seen in American news outlets as the most important news of the day” (2007).

Yet, it would be wrong to think that the cult of ‘celebrities’ is an essentially 20th century’s phenomena, made possible by the continuous progress in the field of informational technologies. It appears that ancient Romans were just as obsessed with ‘celebrities’ as many of contemporary Americans are.

There is only one difference – whereas, the majority of American celebrities are movie stars, the celebrities of the Imperial Rome used to be exclusively gladiators and charioteers. Charioteers, who used to compete in the Circus Maximus, enjoyed a particular popularity with the representatives of Roman plebs, because unlike the majority of gladiators, they were free native-born Roman citizens.

Just as it is being the case with today’s movie-celebrities, the most distinguished Roman charioteers were enjoying ‘lives in the fast lane’, while never experiencing the lack of money. So great was the popularity of charioteers with their fans, that upon having heard of their idols’ deaths, many of these fans would simply throw themselves into the funeral pyres.

At the same time, however, many socially prominent Romans remained strongly resentful of most famous charioteers: “Charioteers had their critics among the writers in Rome. Juvenal disapproved of the fast money that they earned, declaring that they could receive up to 10 bags of gold in an hour and more than 100 times what a lawyer could make” (Horsfall 104).

This again allows us to draw a parallel between what used to be the specifics of ‘celebrities’ phenomenon in ancient Rome and in today’s America. After all, it is quite clear to the intellectually advanced Americans that the cult of celebrities, peddled by Medias, is nothing but a symptom of American nation’s degradation – just as the cult of celebrity-charioteers was the symptom of Roman Empire’s imminent decline.

It is important to understand that it was not ancient Romans’ endowment with a particularly strong sport-mindedness, which prompted them to think of attending chariot-races, held at the Circus Maximus, as one of their lives’ foremost priorities, but the fact that, as time went on, they were growing increasingly marginalized, in intellectual sense of this word.

By attending chariot-racing, these people were simply seeking cheep emotional thrills, as there was virtually not even a single instance of chariot-racing, during the course of which at least one charioteer had not lost its life (Kyle 34). It was namely the prospect of being exposed to people’s graphic deaths, which used to attract the representatives of Roman plebs to the shows, held at the Circus Maximus.

Essentially same can be said about the nature of marginalized Americans’ attraction to sport-related public spectacles. Even though that, as of yet, these spectacles do not feature people being purposefully killed for the sake of spectators’ amusement, there are nevertheless good chances for the participants of these shows to sustain life-threatening injuries.

Apparently, just as it was the case with continuously degrading Romans, who used to derive pleasure from being exposed to the sights of human suffering, a growing number of intellectually marginalized Americans also do not think that there is anything wrong about their animalistic anxieties to catch a glimpse of professional sportsmen hurting themselves.

Conclusion As it was shown earlier, there are indeed a number of good reasons to draw parallels between ancient Roman and contemporary American mass cultures. After all, it is namely people’s preoccupation with seeking cheap thrills, which established objective preconditions for both cultures to thrive.

The difference between American and Roman mass cultures appears merely superficial. Whereas, the symbols of Rome’s cultural decadence were the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus, the symbol of America’s cultural decadence may be well considered the Hollywood.

Therefore, it would only be logical, on my part, to conclude this paper by suggesting that there is nothing incidental about America’s current financial, socio-economic and demographic tribulations. These tribulations were dialectically predetermined by the fact that America continues to follow the footsteps of declining Roman Empire with utter precision. I believe that this conclusion is being fully consistent with paper’s initial thesis.

Bibliography Austin, Anastasia. “Why Are We So Obsessed with Celebrities?” Buzzle.Com. 7 Mar. 2007. Web. https://entertainism.com/why-are-we-so-obsessed-with-celebrities

Balsdon, John. Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. London: The Bodley Head Ltd., 1969. Print.

Crowther, Nigel. Sport in Ancient Times. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. Print.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. Print.

Henderson, John. “A Doo-Dah-Doo-Dah-Dey at the Races: Ovid Amores 3.2 and the Personal Politics of the Circus Maximus.” Classical Antiquity 21.1 (2002): pp. 41-65. Print.

Horsfall, Nicholas. “The Cultural Horizons of the ‘Plebs Romana’.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 41(1996): pp. 101-119. Print.

Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. Florence: Routledge, 1994. Print.


The Hermitage in US Essay essay help free

The Hermitage has significant mark on the United States history because it does not only represent the life history of Andrew Jackson, but also the presidency of the United States during 1828 to 1834. Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States who originated from a humble background as a Tennessean. During his early life before he entered politics, Andrew Jackson was a lawyer as well as a farmer.

He owned a large tract of land, approximately 1000 acres at Nashville, which was a cotton plantation. In the plantation, Andrew Jackson built a mansion, the Hermitage, in Nashville where he lived before and after his presidency. In his life, Andrew Jackson became a hero in both military and political arenas, which made him a significant figure in the United States history. The Hermitage is a historic landmark and museum that mirrors the life history of Andrew Jackson and the history of the United States.[1]

Thus, the hermitage is a historic site that reminds Americans of a great leader like Andrew Jackson, who made a considerable contribution to the United States history and presidency. Therefore, this essay explores the significance of the Hermitage and evaluates the effectiveness of its exhibits with the objective of establishing salient lesson learned about the site.

The Hermitage is tremendously significant to Americans because it is a historic landmark of the 19th century, a presidential home and a plantation. It depicts life history of Andrew Jackson as a Tennessean who rose from a humble background and ascended into power. During his childhood, Andrew Jackson was poor because he grew as an orphan. His father died before he was born, while his mother together with his brothers died before he attained the age of 14 years.

Thus, Andrew Jackson began his life as a lonely man who had no family ties to support him to achieve both financial and political stability. At the age of 21 years, Andrew Jackson became a lawyer and gradually started to own large tract of land in Nashville that eventually reached about 1000 acres. To achieve financial freedom, Andrew Jackson turned his farm into cotton plantation where he employed slave labor.

Moreover, Andrew Jackson entered politics and managed to lead American for two terms from 1828-1834. He built the Hermitage in 1819 and lived there with his wife, Rachel Donelson, who died in 1828 and 1945 respectively, and buried there.[2] Hence, the Hermitage depicts life history and family of Andrew Jackson as the United States president during the 19th century.

Since Andrew Jackson employed slave labor in cotton plantation, the Hermitage is a historic plantation. Andrew Jackson acquired immense tract of land gradually and progressively recruited slaves to work on his farm. While Andrew Jackson and his wife lived in the Hermitage mansion, the slaves lived in cabins within the farm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By 1850, the plantation had expanded to 1000 acres with 137 slaves who were working on it.[3] Therefore, history of the Hermitage plantation shows how slavery made significantly contribution to the farms of affluent people in Tennessee and across the United States. Given that Andrew Jackson rose from a humble background, slave labor enabled him to amass more wealth that led him to expand his farm and slaves with time.

Gradually expansion of the plantation and an increasing number of slaves indicate that Andrew Jackson was progressively achieving financial freedom that he has been grappling with a mere lawyer in Nashville. Hence, the Hermitage is a historic plantation due to the use of slavery in cultivation of cotton.

The hermitage is also significant to political history of the United States because Andrew Jackson mobilized his army and defeated the British army at the Battle of New of New Orleans. For three years, from 1812 and 1915, American army battled against British army, which invaded America.

In 1815, Andrew Jackson led his army of about 4000 American soldiers to battle against more than 10,000 British soldiers. Even the though the British army significantly outnumbered American army, Andrew Jackson employed his military prowess and tactics to overpower British invasion in the battle of New Orleans. Americans attributed the victory of the battle of New Orleans to Andrew Jackson and made him a military hero.

Thus, the battle of New Orleans did prepare the foundation for Andrew Jackson to ascend into the political arena and seize political power as American president for two terms, 1828 to 1834. The Americans voted for Andrew Jackson to become the seventh president because he was one of the dominant military heroes in the history of the United States.[4] Because of his victory in battle of New Orleans, Americans named him Old Hickory, a tough military leader who made Americans overcome its enemies.

After the battle of New Orleans, the Americans transformed the Hermitage from a mere cotton plantation to a historic site where diverse people across the world visited because military and political legend emerged from it. Prior to the battle of New Orleans, Americans hardly noticed Andrew Jackson as a national figure who would transform United States by offering critical leadership that shaped history of United States.

Battle of New Orleans and the presidency of Andrew Jackson are two significant events that have made the Hermitage a historic site where legendary leaders and ordinary people visit. Since the United States noted historic significance of the Hermitage, it bestowed Ladies’ Hermitage Association responsibility to manage the Hermitage as the national museum.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hermitage in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ladies’ Hermitage Association envisaged that the Hermitage would become a “Mecca” for all patriots and strangers to visit.[5] Hence, due to its historical significance, the Hermitage has become a historic site and a museum in the United States of America. It has also become a national model of preserving and conserving of historic things and a place of conducting archeological studies.

The Hermitage effectively presents its exhibits because visitors view them through the glass, thus preventing unnecessary damage due to constant touch or handling. Normally, the Hermitage receives approximately 180,000 visitors every year, who contribute millions of dollars that have enabled Ladies’ Hermitage Association to maintain exhibits as they were during the 19th century.

Currently, plans are underway to restore the magnificence of the Hermitage by painting, repairing columns and observing various architectural elements that are exceedingly fragile.[6] For more than a century, the Ladies’ Hermitage Association has managed the Hermitage remarkably well by ensuring that repairs and maintenance do not distort authenticity of original artifacts in the Hermitage.

Hence, repairs and maintenance efforts are effective in preservation of the Hermitage and its artifacts. Currently, exhibits and multimedia are still authentic as they were during the time of Andrew Jackson, implying that Ladies’ Hermitage association is effectively managing the site as a home and a farm of a legend that Americans celebrate.

The most fundamental lesson learned about the Hermitage is that it was a home and a plantation of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States during 1828 to 1834. Hence, the Hermitage depicts life history of not only Andrew Jackson, but also the United States. When patriots of the United States and strangers from across the world visit the Hermitage, they perceive how influential man like Andrew Jackson lived and managed to be a hero who led American army to conquer British army in the battle of New Orleans.

The Hermitage reminds visitors of how Andrew Jackson transformed the United States during the war against British invasion and as remarkable president who brought democracy. Moreover, the plantation is significant because it depicts how slavery played a critical role in cotton farms that extend to 1000 acres. Hence, battle of New Orleans and the presidency of Andrew Jackson are significant events associated with the Hermitage and the plantation.

The Hermitage is significant to history of the United States during early 19th century because it was a home and a plantation of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States. Andrew Jackson became a military hero when he led American army to defeat the British army in the battle of New Orleans.

Because of his military prowess and tactics, Americans made him a president for two terms, 1828 to 1834. Currently, the Hermitage is a magnificence museum that patriots and other people visit to celebrate the life of Andrew Jackson and history of the United States.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Hermitage in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Bartoy, Kevin. 2008. The Heritages of the Hermitage: Critical Archeology as Applied Anthropology at a Presidential Shrine. The Hermitage, 2, no.3, 1-14.

Haas, Irvin. 1991. Historic Home of the American Presidents. New York: Courier Dover Publications.

Hankins, Paula, Tony Guzzi and Howard Kittell. 2010. Roosters Declare the Hermitage Is Open: History Unveils a Face-Lift. The Hermitage: Home of President Andrew Jackson, 5, no. 1, 1-3.

Hoobler, James. 2008. A Guide to Historic Nashville, Tennessee. New York: The History Press.

Footnotes Irvin Haas. 1991. Historic Home of the American Presidents. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 35.

James Hoobler. 2008. A Guide to Historic Nashville, Tennessee. New York: The History Press, 27.

James Hoobler. 2008, 27.

Irvin Haas. 1991, 33.

Kevin Bartoy. 2008. The Heritages of the Hermitage: Critical Archeology as Applied Anthropology at a Presidential Shrine. The Hermitage, 2, no.3, 1

Paula Hankins, Tony Guzzi and Howard Kittell. 2010. Roosters Declare the Hermitage is Open: History Unveils a Face-Lift. The Hermitage: Home of President Andrew Jackson, 5, no. 1, 2.


London during the Roman Age: A Critical Overview Essay cheap essay help

Every city in the world has its foundation stones, often enfolded in legend, conjecture, traditional beliefs and odd truths (Hollis 21). In an attempt to scrutinize these stones for evidence, this essay aims to outline how London looked like during the Roman age, particularly in terms of possible layout, mode of business, size, religious orientation and other variants.

Historians are of the opinion that London emerged out of a river crossing, when merchants following the Roman soldiers fighting under Emperor Claudius settled on the Thames northern bank in AD 43 (Hollis 21).

It is imperative to note that the Roman age covers the period AD 1-200. In attempting to digest how the city of London looked like during the Roman age, extant literature demonstrate that the “…trail trenches dug in 1985 revealed distinct evidence of timber-built workshops and houses built in the period AD 60-100” (Williams 3). Other accounts demonstrate that London was built as a planned Roman town, with major public buildings, including a substantially large basilica, temples, bath houses, and a large military fortress.

Indeed, it has been claimed that the Romans transformed the city from an open commercial meeting place into an administrative centre and a military stronghold (Nicholas 58). However, this description serves to demonstrate the layout of London during the Roman age.

As reported by Roman historian Cassius Dio, the section where the merchants settled during the AD 43 war had a bridge even before it had a name (Hollis 21). It was this settlement that later came to be called the town of Londinium, but the bridge that had been constructed prior to the town’s existence, specifically in AD 55, had been build using long poles (piles) made of wood.

These piles were hammered into the soft ground until they reached the hard surface underneath to achieve stability, after which more wood was used to strengthen and reinforce the bridge (Morris 45).

Historical and archeological accounts of discovered coins demonstrate that the Roman-era merchants conducted business using currency as is normally done in present-day London. However, other accounts demonstrate that barter trade was used during this era for trade and commerce (Morris 64; Hollis 22).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popular view among historians is that the currency trade subsisted hand-in-hand with barter trade, where people of high social standing and soldiers normally traded in currency while people in the lower echelons of society exchanged goods.

The Londinium was home to one of the largest basilicas ever to be built by the Romans (Morris 27). The presence of the basilica, along with other buildings of worship such as temples and bath houses, serve as vivid pointers to the presence of religiosity among the inhabitants of the city of London during the Roman age (Hollis 22).

Archeologists have discovered tessellated pavements and roman tombs suggestive of the fact that concrete was used to pave the streets of London during the Roman age. The great London wall built by the Romans in the 2nd century is also suggestive that knowledge on the use of concrete to built critical infrastructure was present (Morris 65).

Lastly, in size, historical accounts demonstrate that London occupied a smaller but heavily fortified area, roughly equivalent to the size of present day Hyde Park, and with a population of an estimated 60,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century (Morris 42).

Works Cited Hollis, Leo. “Spanning Centuries.” History Today 59.7 (2009): 21-23. Print.

Morris, John. Londinium-London in the Roman Empire. London: Phoenix Giant, 2005. Print.

Nicholas, Dean. “Streetmuseum Londinium.” History Today 61.10 (2011): 58. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on London during the Roman Age: A Critical Overview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Williams, Stephen. “New Light on Dark Age London.” History Today 36.2 (1986): 3. Print.


Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company Proposal a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Corporate Objective Visite Brazil Company has the objective to be a leading provider of best-of-breed adventure and tour services to world tourist market. The company believes in offering the best quality services unmatched by other tour agencies in the industry.

Divisional Objectives The company embodies a culture of inclusivity that promotes the unity of purpose and teamwork. The core facet of the company is to offer the best environment for staff, customers and suppliers. Through this critical factor, all units endeavor to provide the best service within the provisions of harmonious coexistence.

Marketing Objectives The company’s emphasis will be underpinned by the need to provide completely specialized services based on the market knowledge of the vacation destination and the services that shall meet the demands of the customers. Visite Brazil company shall rely on the market research undertaken to underscore its market obligations.

Market Forecasts

The company projects that its sales shall increase substantially following the detailed market analysis based on the segment needs. According to Euro Monitor International (2009), the historical estimates indicate that tour needs have been neglected by lack of provision of customer-led services.

Sales estimates anticipate gaining a larger market share compared to its competitors. Using historical figures, the company has projected sales of over $500, 000 for the coming activities in Brazil and its environs. Additionally, Visite Brazil believes that the number of unit services shall increase to about 5,000 single-person unit services and 1000 corporate-based unit services. Profitability of the company would increase to register profits of 65% as a percentage of the total unit sales.


The company assessment suggests that the industry shall remain competitive in the next four years and later. While these challenges offer pressure for better business approaches, the company believes that its recognition of value and quality through provision of unique services shall aid to push it to an advantaged level (Euro Monitor International, 2009).

Currently, the company’s valuation and strategic market analysis has shown that its ability to beat the market lies in the eventful provision of first-class tour and travel services. Additionally, the company underpins its performance on the nature and quality of its employees in delivering these services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rationale

VB believes in respecting the varied cultural needs of its customers. Similarly, the company shall ensure that its service provision conforms to the legal and political legislations. The good relationships shared between the company and the legal bodies will enable its proper functioning without bridge of the provisions of the law.

Program Objective Pricing

The concept of pricing is a critical component in the general progress of the company. To design the most sustainable pricing model, the company shall rely on the market surveys and research. The researches taken by its marketing team will be essential in modeling a price package that appeals to the economic needs of its customers as well as the cost aspects of the company. These sets of information have proven that pricing shall be undertaken in a differentiated manner (Jeanine, 2010). This is because of the heterogeneous nature of the clientele projected as the target market.

Advertising and Promotion

The promotional strategy depends mainly on making the right information available to the right target customer. The company shall make sure that those who have the budget and appreciate the product know that it exists, and know where to find it.

The marketing team has to convey the sense of quality in every picture, every promotion, and every publication. The company anticipates shaping itself to appear in second-rate catalogs with poor illustrations that make the product look less than it is. They also need to leverage their presence using high-quality catalogs and specialty distributors.

Sales and distribution

Therefore, the service provision of the company shall follow a segmented marketing strategy. This is because the customers that shall be served by our company have varied needs and demands. The marketing unit has prepared inclusive approaches to help in boosting the sales of the business. Individualized and generalized marketing and distribution shall be helpful in meeting the marketing and sales prospects.


The company has received an appointment as an agency for major suppliers of tour vacation packages throughout Brazil. The company is still negotiating for the lucrative alliance and partnership with the leading and major travel tour companies in the region. This plans aim at ensuring that the company affords a wide service portfolio in order to maximize its profits during the festive period of world cup.

Apart from provision of the ordinary services, our company anticipates to differentiate its service offering from the rest of the competitors by promising safety and enjoyable customer service with a lasting experience. Some of the services shall include insurance, service directory, and informational services from both pre and post vacation packages.

We will write a custom Proposal on Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company believes that selling tour related products would have far-reaching influence on the company’s overall profits. In conjunction with other service providers, Visite Brazil projects to offer inclusive services that would render it a one-stop tour agency.

Monitoring and Controls

Secondary Data

In ensuring that the business gets on the right footing, the company has made use of the available historical records and data concerning the tour business. Comparative analysis of the previous sales, costs, profitability, and number of visitors shall serve to benefit the firm in respect of its projections.

Sales reports To succeed in monitoring its sales and measuring them against the projected sales, our company shall utilize the periodic sales reports in evaluating its progressive movement. All the respective units of the company shall remain committed to market the company’s services and goods to meet the expected goals.

Information Sources Primary Data

The company has focused on gaining market knowledge in order to approach it from a market-led perspective. This aims at making Visite Brazil a tour agency firm of choice by all the prospective visitors visiting Brazil and other neighboring countries for both football festivities and other recreational activities (Euro Monitor International, 2009) and (Mancini, 2009).

The company shall undertake a market research and surveys in order to demonstrate the need for gaining first-hand information about the customers. The market surveys shall offer the company with requisite data, which shall be analyze. The analysis will aim at achieving themes necessary in explaining the market scenario. Although the secondary, records and data are relevant in informing the company, the survey data shall display the real demographics necessary in developing strategic decisions.

Sales Records Actual sales reports shall be essential in enabling the sales and marketing department to estimate continuous progress in the company’s profitability and market share. The company estimates that it will achieve an average market share of about 20% of the total tour and travel market.

Specialized Consulting firms The business of tour agency cannot be approached from a unidirectional perspective. Analysis of the industry reveals the industry needs in tour agency and progress shall rely on the strategic business alliances and partnerships. In order to strategically position the business

Consumer Panel Contingency Plans and Other Miscellaneous Documents Contingency Plans

Although Visite Brazil has enacted strategic business plans that will take it through its operations, it believes that the challenges of the contemporary tourism industry. In order to enable Visite to cope with these inherent challenges, the management believes that setting up strategic plans capable of sustaining future uncertainties remain relevant to Visite Company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Visite Brazil Company is unique in its discovery and utilization of the high quality, executive level tour and travel niche. Therefore, it is possible that with our success and superior services, other well-established tour firms will release a competitive service line.

However, VB focuses specifically on the high-end, technologically integrated aspect of tour services. With this exclusive concentration, VB can continue to focus its resources on producing the best executive level tour and travel services. Another possible challenge would be the emergence of a new company in our niche.

This however, would not constitute a great threat, as their initial market share would be minuscule, allowing us to strategize further for continued success. Finally, and tour and travel company may choose to begin marketing to our target market. This would not be overly threatening because VB products and services are inherently the best available due to the true artisanship and design involved coupled with its well-known excellent customer service (Singh, 2008).

Alternative Strategies

Strategic business positioning demands that affirm develops alternative business models that would help to leverage it in the future. Although there are many other players in the industry, VB believes in its reserved strategies and their ability to offer best alternatives in beating the market.

The primary strategies shall include strategic expansion and differentiation in reaching the target markets and favorably competing (Mancini, 2009). However, the company believes that the application of the price leadership strategy would offer the best fallback means for positioning the business on a more competitive edge. This strategy shall be achieved by customizing the services in order to appeal to the loyalty of the customers (Jeanine, 2010) and (Singh, 2008).

References Euro Monitor International. (2010). Travel and Tourism in Brazil. Retrieved from https://www.euromonitor.com/online-travel-sales-to-residents-in-brazil/report

Jeanine, P. (2010). Brazil Wants You Clients. Retrieved from https://www.travelagentcentral.com/destinations/brazil-wants-your-clients

Mancini, M. (2009). Selling Destinations: Geography for the Travel Professional. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Singh, L.K. (2008). Marketing in service industry: airline, travel, tours and hotel. New York, NY: Gyan Publishing House.


Shakespeare’s Plays Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Lady Macbeth


Titus Andronicus



Works Cited

Introduction Power in the hands of good people is useful because they use it to serve and improve the lives of others. On the contrary, bad people with power may abuse it to promote their own selfish interests. Furthermore, they abuse the power to oppress and cause violence and pain to their fellow human beings.

Many leaders abuse their power and oppress the people they rule. Many of Shakespeare’s plays portray how power corrupts people. The abuse of power is evident in some characters in Shakespeare’s plays namely, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Macbeth, Titus Andronicus and Richard III. Some of the characters in the plays change once they receive power or get a promise of acquiring power; they allow greed and blind ambition to corrupt them until they meet their downfall.

Macbeth Macbeth is a good example of a person who becomes corrupt because he has been promised power. The play was written in England during the time when there was a threat to the king and his throne. The people loved the king and Shakespeare wrote the play in his honor just as other writers pen praise leaders they admire (Macbeth as Royal Play 1).

Macbeth first learns that he would become King in the future from the three witches. The once virtuous man starts to change and becomes a villain and wicked person full of evil, as the hunger for power begins to grow in him. The wife, Lady Macbeth, urges him to kill King Duncan and ascend to the throne and increases his ambition for power (Bloom 20).

Macbeth does not want to kill because he thinks sanely, and knows it is wrong to kill “Will great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood/clean from my hand?” (Shakespeare a 2. 2.58-59). He overcomes his doubts and decides to kill Kind Duncan because he thinks he is the obstacle to the throne.

He has become an evil man ready to betray even a friend like he did to King Duncan thought Macbeth is a genuine friend. Thus, blind ambition leads to cruelty like the one shown to King Duncan by his friend Macbeth and his wife. Power corrupts and makes people forget their morals and commit unspeakable deeds.

Greed is a vice that causes people to commit evil. The vice occurs to people who get into power through underhand dealings. They desire to consolidate their illegitimate power and in order to do so, they unleash violence on the people who are perceived to be threats to their power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macbeth ascends to the throne, he is determined to hold on to the throne, and so he must get rid of Banquo and his family because the witches had predicted that the throne would go to his sons. He kills Banquo and his son hence adding more blood on his hands. On the other hand, his ascension to the throne drives him and Lady Macbeth apart and she later commits suicide. Macbeth becomes more violent as he desperately tries to keep his power. He plans to kill Macduff as well.

He does not feel any remorse about his evil way as illustrated by his words “I am in blood/stepped in so far that, should I wade no more/returning were as tedious as go o’er” (Shakespeare a 3.4.153-137). He plans to kills Macduff and his family as well and yet he is not a threat to him “Seize upon Fife; give to the edge o’ the sword /His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls/That trace him in his line (Shakespeare a 4.1.131-135).

His greed is so strong that he seeks an oracle from the three sisters and he is told that he is invincible and cannot be harmed by a mortal man. He believes the oracle, and goes to war but he is killed in the war. His greed for power drives him to his death the ultimate downfall.

Lady Macbeth Lady Macbeth is a strong willed character. She desires to become powerful, and once she learns about the prophecy concerning her husband ascension to the throne her hunger for power heightens.

She wants King Duncan dead for her husband to become a king. She wishes to kill him herself but she cannot and tells her husband to do it instead. Macbeth is tempted by the power to execute the evil plan but backs out,”We will proceed no further in this business:” (Shakespeare a 1.6.33).

However, Lady Macbeth mocks him out of anger because she is ambitious, and wants to become the Queen. She attacks his manhood by telling him “And live a coward in thine own esteem, /Letting ‘I dare not’ wait upon ‘I would,” (Shakespeare a 1.6.46-47).

She is very ambitious and greedy for power. Her ambition makes her cruel, and shows no regard for the sanctity of human life. Eventually, Lady Macbeth becomes the queen but she does not enjoy the power that she fought so hard to gain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Shakespeare’s Plays specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She starts to think about her actions, and guilt consumes her. She keeps seeing the scenes from the murder of King Duncan ““Yet here’s a spot…/ Out, damned spot! Out, I say! – One; two; why, / then ‘tis time to dot. –Hell is murky. – Fie, my/ lord, fie! A soldier and afeard? What need we/ fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account? / Yet who would have thought the old man/ to have had so much blood in him?” (Shakespeare a 5.1.31-36).

In addition, the innocent death of Banquo disturbs her until the weight of her sins drive her crazy to commits suicides. Thus, the greed for power leads Lady Macbeth to her downfall.

Richard The play Richard III was written during the Elizabethan era. During that time, Calvinism, the religion that believes God determines human actions, and rewards good human behavior with good and returns evil with evil was gaining root in England.

Thus, Richard got the reward he deserved of dying in the war for all the evil he had committed against innocent people. Shakespeare wrote the play and incorporated the people’s belief about God’s punishment in Richard III. Richard was an evil man who had risen to power illegitimately and killed many people during his brief reign, and he would be punished at the end for his behavior.

The playwright also incorporated the beliefs of the Protestant Reform believers who believed in common grace from God and justice. Richard is an evil man and Margaret calls him “”hell’s black intelligencer” (Shakespeare b 4.4.7) Therefore, the downfall of Richard in the pay was a punishment from God to England for the way he had treated Richard II and Richard would help to root out the evil in the society in readiness for a new King.

The new King who gave hope to England was Henry VII who signified a new beginning after the death of Richard III (Baldwin, P and Baldwin T 62). Richard III dies in the war “God and your arms be praised, victorious friends,/ The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead” (Shakespeare b 5.1.1-2). Richard dies as a dog and Richmond takes over the reign and ushers in a new dawn.

Richard is ambitious for power, and does everything in his power to become King. He is physically challenged as he says in the opening scene of the play “I, that am rudely stamp’d, and want love’s majesty/ To strut before a wanton ambling nymph; / I, that am curtail’d of this fair proportion,/ Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,/Deformed, unfinish’d, sent before my time” (Shakespeare b 1.1.16-20).

During the renaissance period, the deformity of the body was as a curse and people with the deformity did not stand a chance of succeeding. Richard knew his disadvantages but he was a shrew character or a very clever cunning man, and he used his deformity to ascend the throne (Schaap 26).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shakespeare’s Plays by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His stature is not attractive, and he says that even dogs bark at him but he is determined to attain power and he will ensure that his brothers Clarence and King Edward IV turn against each other by falsely accusing Clarence of planning to kill the King. He kills his brother Clarence who was in line to the throne. Thus, after the death of King Edward IV, he ascends to the throne.

However, before he climbs the throne he has to clear his way by removing any obstacle that might hinder his quest for power. He pretends he is a good man even though we know he is a villain or a wicked man because of his ambition for power.

He is acting in his evil ways “But then I sigh; and, with a piece of scripture,/Tell them that God bids us do good for evil:/And thus I clothe my naked villainy/With old odd ends stolen out of holy writ;/ And seem a saint, when most I play the devil” (Shakespeare b1.3.28). He plots against his brother Clarence to be killed because he is greedy for power, and the brother would be a hindrance. The ambition for power engulfs Richard and he kills all the people considered supporters of the princess. His greed has made him blind.

Once on the throne Richard kills innocent people. He orders the assassination of his nephews the young princes. Power can corrupt, and Richard was no exception he did not care even for people close to him such as his wife Ann whom he killed. Finally, he lost the support of people and even his mother cursed him. He died in the war because his greed for power blinded him, and brought his downfall on himself.

Titus Andronicus Titus Andronicus a Roman general believes in Rome. He respects the Roman law, and follows it to the letter. He allows Sartininus to become King even though he had threatened him. Sartininus marries Queen of the Goth Tamora an enemy of Titus. Titus has power but he uses it wrongly first by killing Alarbus and his son Martius. The people in power kill his sons in jail and he swears to revenge their deaths.

Titus has suffered so much, he does not expect any justice for the wrongs committed against his loved ones, and he decides to take matters into his own hands. We see his gradual downfall from the war hero at the beginning of the play to a man who does not care much about his status when he puts on the uniform of a cook during the banquet (Escolà 72). Saturninus asks him why he is dressed as a cook and he says, “Because I would be sure to have all well / To entertain your highness and your Empress” (Shakespeare c 4.2.31-32).

However, his mission is not to serve but to seek revenge and he is able to disguise his intentions well. He later kills Tamora’s sons and bakes their remains in a pie that he serves Tamora and her husband. He decides to kill his daughter and put her out of her misery because she had become dependent on him for everything such as feeding her as he tells her during dinner “Come, let’s fall to, and, gentle girl, eat this (Shakespeare c 3.2.54).

Eventually he kills Tamora and Saturninus kills him. Lucius kills Saturninus to avenge his father’s death. Titus death is brought about by his abuse of power at the beginning of the play when he sacrifices Tamora’s son. The killing starts his downfall journey as revenge sets in and leaves many other people dead including him.

Oberon Furthermore, Oberon in A Midsummer Night’s Dream uses power against people close to him. For instance, Oberon is jealous about his wife, and hence he becomes cruel to her. He reduces her sexuality to that of an animal when he uses magic to cause her cuckold an donkey, it means Oberon can use his power to get whatever he requires without regard for other people.

He does not care how his wife would feel about getting involved with a donkey. He is vengeful towards his wife, and uses his power to exercise power over his wife. It is important to note that during the Elizabethan era when the play was written the society was patriarchal. Men dominated over the women and marriage served as the ultimate way to tame women.

The women who got married would be under the authority of their husbands and before marriage, their fathers controlled them. A woman who got married was seen to have achieved in the society and thus marriages were very important to women in order to gain respect in the society (The Life and roles of Elizabethan Era Women 1).

Oberon, the king of the fairies is the husband of Queen Titania. His character changes from time to time. He can be compassionate especially when he sympathizes Helena because of her troubles with Demetrius. He uses his magic to help her get the love and attention of Demetrius. Furthermore, he ensures the Athenian lovers get suitable partners and blesses them to bear beautiful children.

On the contrary, he uses his power to get his way. His jealous and abuse of power is evident when his wife refuses to give her foster child to him whom he desires.

Puck tells us the reason for Oberon’s jealous towards the child “And jealous Oberon would have the child/ Knight of his train, to trace the forests wild; / But she perforce withholds the loved boy, / Crowns him with flowers and makes him all her joy (Shakespeare d 2.1.23-26). Oberon is power hungry and wants to take away the boy from Titania to make him his slave. He wants to show his wife how much power he wields over her.

Oberon is even abusive of his wife, and calls her “Tarry, rash wanton: am not I thy lord?” (Shakespeare d 2.1.63). The king of the fairies will use his power to control everyone he desires. Power has corrupted him, and he does not hesitate to abuse for his self-interests. He does not show his wife respect, and reminds her he is the lord hence she should obey his commands without questioning. Surely, power has made Oberon a ruthless man.

His ruthlessness is seen clearly, after he decides to make his wife fall in love with Bottom. He gives Bottom an ass head, and makes his wife fall for him using his magic. His greed for the Indian boy blinds him to an extent of not caring whether his wife falls for a beast. His ambition to get the boy for himself is very great and nothing will stand in his way.

Oberon uses magic juice upon his wife as he tells his servant Punk “I’ll watch Titania when she is asleep, /And drop the liquor of it in her eyes. /The next thing then she waking looks upon,/Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull,/On meddling monkey, or on busy ape,/She shall pursue it with the soul of love:” (Shakespeare d 2.1.). He turns Bottom’s head into an donkey’s and Titania falls for him. Her attention shifts from the boy as she pursues her lover and Oberon gets the boy he desires. Therefore, power and greed makes Oberon ruthless.

Furthermore, Oberon uses his power to conquer women. He has a big love for other women apart from his wife. She accuses him of having affairs with women outside their marriage. For example, Titania accuses him about his affair with Hippolyta.

She also accuses of involvement with Philida “To amorous Philida. Why at thou here” (Shakespeare d 2.1.68). the affairs he has with a string of women show that Oberon uses his power to win over women and leaves one for another. He is not concerned about his wife’s feelings because he feels he is her lord. Thus, he can do anything he wants without fear or shame because he has power, which he can use to maneuver his wife.

Oberon’s power not only affects people close to him, but every other person too. Titania tells him that their fights have been very violent and they have affected even the seasons “But with thy brawls thou hast disturb’d our sport. /Therefore the winds, piping to us in vain,” (Shakespeare d 2.1.87-88).

The interruptions of the seasons by their brawls make other people suffer such as farmers who plant in vain “The ploughman lost his sweat, and the green corn” (Shakespeare d 2.1.94). The people face danger of starvation because of crop failure “The fold stands empty in the drowned field,” (Shakespeare d 2.1.96). The power does not directly lead to Oberon’s downfall but the power he possesses causes disruptions in the universe

Conclusion Lastly, power corrupts and some people use it wrongly for their own selfish gains. Many people admire power, try all means possible to attain it, and may kill some people to clear the way.

After killing and manipulating their way to power, they have to come up with ways of keeping the power and thus they continue the streak of evil ways that they used to acquire the power. Innocent people who appear as legitimate threats to power are eliminated because the leaders fear of losing it and become paranoid. Once in power leaders become greedy.

They cannot think of someone else ruling, and the desire to hold on to power intensifies. The more they try to hold on the more they become corrupt villains who hurt instead of protecting their subjects. Using the Machiavellian thinking, they do everything to remain in power. However, the greed and blind ambition for power leads to destruction of self and even society. The people corrupted by power end up in a downfall because they do not know when to stop committing evil and eventually it comes back to them and destroy them.

Works Cited Baldwin, Pat and Tom Baldwin, (eds.). Cambridge School Shakespeare: King Richard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Bloom, Harold. Macbeth. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2004.

Escolà, Jordi Coral. “Vengeance Is Yours: Reclaiming the Social Bond in the Spanish Tragedy and Titus Andronicus.” Atlantis, 29.2 (2007): 59-74.

Macbeth as a Royal Play. Web.

Schaap, Katherine. “Enabling Richard: the Rhetoric of Disability in Richard III.” Disability Studies Quartley, 29.4 (2009): 26.

Shakespeare, William a. The tragedy of Macbeth. Web.

Shakespeare, William b. Richard III. Web.

Shakespeare, William c. Titus Andronicus. Web.

Shakespeare, William d. A midsummer night’s dream. Web.

“The Life and roles of Elizabethan Era Women”. Web.


Europa Exploration: Exobiology Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Exobiology is a multidisciplinary field of study which explores the origin of life on earth and other planets. The human race has been interested in the origin and possibility of life on the other planets and moons. Reflectively, myths and beliefs exist on views of the universe components.

The core belief of exobiologists is that all matter in the solar system has a common origin as a component of myriad changes in the form of primordial stellar matter. Thus, this reflective paper attempts to weigh the gains in knowledge about exobiology against the risks of contamination should technological advancement penetrate onto the surface Europa moon on the orbit of Jupiter planet.

A continuous excitement has been witnessed in the resent past following a revelation that there might be a large mass of water body on its surface. It is natural to wonder about the kind of life in this water body and possibilities of microbial activities or aquatic fauna. The Europa Ocean has an ecosystem which is not fully self-sustaining like that on planet Earth.

Presuming an existence of tons and tons of ocean vents such as those spread across the ocean floors on planet Earth, there is a strong possibility of bacterial activities. These bacteria survive mainly on gases containing sulfur. Besides, there would be alien worm-like tiny creatures alongside clams directly depending on the nutrients made available by bacterial activities just like fungi and mosses plants common beneath the sea bed across the major water bodies on planet Earth’s surface (Greenberg 27).

To complete the food chain, unusual fish like creatures might exist to feed on these plants and smaller creature. Being to far away from the life supporting planet Earth, Europa’s ocean might lack planktons. Just like on the oceans across our planet, there is a strong possibility of finding dominant specie of a sea animal on top of the food chain (Greenberg 53). This might be due to variance in size, aggression, and other natural selection orientations same as those practiced by the Orca, commonly referred to as the apex predator.

After the successful unmanned NASA voyage to planet Jupiter in 1979, a Galilean moon called Europa was discovered. The visit proposed an existence of a planet-wide water body beneath hundreds of miles sulfur cover. In the images captured, Europa has magnetic and tidal characteristics and an icy surface.

Despite being a hostile environment for survival, for instance, there is no visible sunlight penetration, the surviving creatures might have evolved to rely on smell, electric fields and touch to sense variance in surrounding. Photosynthetic plants are incapable of surviving in such conditions. Thus, to cover up, the primary ecosystem producers would be bacterial organisms feeding on chemical emissions from the bottom of the ocean (Greenberg 51).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the publishing of the futurist view of Europa Ocean, it is in order to ascertain existence of life in this water body. Penetrating the surface of Europa into this section would seriously contaminate the atmosphere and alter survival of the alien creatures. Reflectively, drilling into the ocean bottom would release the tens of miles sulfur gas layer on to the surface of Europa.

Consequently, this is likely to directly affect bacteria colony and catalyze viral organism mutations. In the end, destructive radiation levels would certainly increase beyond the current levels as the populations of bacteria expected to breakdown the sulfur gas would not cope up with the quantities of emitted gas.

Also, the balance between fluorine and silicon components of this ecosystem might experience un-proportional energy input. In the end, there may be in existence another form of slow life due to increased radioactive levels. As a matter of fact, the cycle of complete digestion and degeneration of one form of life supporting component might end up being the silicon fluoride (Greenberg 81).

Since there is not evidence of existence of energy beneath the sulfur cover, breaking of this crust might open up way for some complex chain of molecular reaction capable of multiplying when in contact with energy. As a result, a chain of untested reaction might abruptly occur with dire consequences on the stability of the ecosystem.

Though this reaction and reengineering may be different from that in RNA and DNA, it might be in the form of hydrocarbon pollution. Before breaking the crust, the layers of this frozen sulfur consists of floating molecules which can easily react with foreign energy producing material in the simplest form of chemical fusion. The result may be complex and probably self destructive (Jacques 19).

Considering the fact that scanty knowledge exist on this expedition, the mission would be operational on guess work. The mission would be ignorant on the unlimited possibilities of activating a fermented energy fostered by the hostile and unique environment. There could be giant alien creatures swimming in the dark enclosure of this ice covered ocean equivalent of dolphins, Wales, and plesiosaurs. There might be rival intellectual life covered in this darkness.

Human beings lack the tools to determine such possibilities. Thus, the mission might be very risky in an attempt to know the ecosystem beyond the dark and deep world surrounded by a continuous landmark of frozen sulfur. The pressure of rushing gases through the opening created by human drills would leave innumerable ridges of pressure lines accompanied by deadly radiations as the gases escape into the atmosphere.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Europa Exploration: Exobiology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though this mission is essential in furthering knowledge into the surrounding world, it is important to appreciate the fact that mankind is intruding an environment which has not been interrupted since its formation. Since there are no known infrared reflectors on the predominantly organic grounds, scientific advancement might provide a solution for the same (Hornbeck 23).

Through the space technology, scientists, especially planetary scientists and exobiologists, are engaged in a search for earth-like planets that may have the capacity to support life.

It is through knowing how abundant such planets are that they are able to make informed decisions about where to search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what the basic chances are of finding intelligent life beyond humans’ own solar system.

Should it emerge that life is extremely rare in Europa, the future generation has a solemn responsibility of ensuring that the entire universe and its precious biological heritage is preserved.

On other hand, if life is found to be abundant throughout the galaxy then the future generations should strive to learn from its existence and ultimately become part of a galactic family of conscious and intelligent beings. And this exploration will finally answer scientifically the question: are we alone in this vast universe? However, the risks involved may be catastrophic as scientific studies on this moon are scanty and unreliable. Despite the risks of contamination, the benefits are long-term.

Works Cited Jacques, Arnold. Icarus’ Second Chance: The Basis and Perspectives of Space Ethics. New York: Springer, 2011. Print.

Hornbeck, George. “Life Sciences: Exobiology”. Proceedings of the symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission .Spec. issue of Birmingham Scientific Publication Journal 22.3, (1998): 21-25. Print.

Greenberg, Richard. Europa: the ocean moon: search for an alien biosphere. New York: Springer, 2005. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Europa Exploration: Exobiology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Travel For Abuse: Mail Order Brides From Asia Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Looking at the conceptual meaning of the word mail order brides, it will mostly revolve around marriages that find roots in ages that are partially, if not fully outdated. The marriages take place in distances that are extended. The device that orchestrated the pioneering of this idea was none other but the web which has grown to be a major boon in the vast world Diaspora.

The practice of organized marriages has been done all over the world and in the recent years, the aspect of the western world has on often terms executed away with it. Nevertheless, looking at the prevalent cultural practices of the Japanese people, one will notice that the areas have vogue organized marriages and will find a lot of Asian mail orders that have become forthcoming to the perception.

On the other hand, in other parts of the world like Japan, Thailand, China and India, there are large numbers of women who have warmed up and are open to this type of perception or notion. Moreover, in other parts of the world, men and also women have downed their opinions on the notion of mail order brides but the situation seems somehow different amongst the mail order brides of the Asian population (Alvarez 11).

The reason that falls behind this perception is basically due to the fact that the mail order brides of the Asian world are much more used to the idea of marriages that are arranged since they are all right with it.

The Asian mail order brides are also a better option compared to the rest of the brides since their prices are generally low. The reason behind the notion that the Asian international location are not in any way excessive in the alternative worth of the Forex world proves that the orders of the Asian brides are generally competitive.

Also, there is a disputed fact that the mail orders of the Asian brides are the lowest in terms of pricing. Another fact that makes them more preferable is the fact that they are not generally stunning and are considered by many as homely and this contributes much.

They also gain more in their preference due to their young age as compared to the other brides from other parts of the world and statistics have proven this fact. They are also known to marry at a very tender age as compared to the rest of the worlds’ population where by their late teenage years, or even their early twenties, they taken the big and bold step of tying the knot.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, basing on this point, it is evidently clear that they register for these websites at this very tender age (Trinh 102). Their indisputable fact in terms of their sensible and talented character is also a plus for them therefore, making large numbers of people from various parts of the globe to seek for these charming and complement the order mails from these Asian brides.

A mail-order bride is a term that is used to describe a woman who portrays or publishes her intent to marry another person from another country that is more endowed financially, with the main aim of seeking a better life.

Historically, these were the type of women who gave their lists in forms of catalogues and were later selected by men who wanted foreign women for marriage (Faller 39). Sometimes, the men and women who were involved came from different countries and on some other occasions, came from the same country. In this perspective, the situation involves different countries.

The situation currently revolves around women who originate from less developed countries migrating for marriage to more developed countries. Majority of these brides originate from countries of the south eastern Asia, the countries from the Former Soviet Union and the Latin America in the very least extent (So 113).

The nations that are the recipients of these mail order brides mainly are from the more developed nations in Northern America, Europe and Asia. Examples include South Korea, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan and Australia. The notion of the mail-order brides was first experienced in the frontier of the American land around the mid 1800s and the first company that is known to have pioneered in the industry is the Brooker


Price ceiling on gasoline prices Research Paper essay help

Introduction A price ceiling or limit refers to a restriction on the quantity that can be demanded as payment, for a certain commodity or service. In most instances, a price limit is enforced by a nation’s administration in a bid to sort out one or a number of issues touching on the general financial system, and it may at the same time, be used to look after the interests of consumers in general.

On the other hand, it is not odd for a number of industries to enforce a price control as a way of propping up the more advancement of that trade (Melanie, 2008). The use of price control for the latter purpose in most times has a lot to do with the association linking the supply and demand for the commodity or service. In order that a price limit comes out as effective, it has to be different from the free market price.

Whenever a price limit is enforced by an administration with a certain objective, a commodity or service that is well thought-out to be important is normally involved. For instance, an administration may enforce a restriction on charges that power firms can demand from clients for every unit of energy consumed.

The initiative is to look after the interests of customers through ensuring that dealers do not charge rates that are expected to make it unattainable for customers to come up with the money for something considered necessary for the basic standard of living. In the US, it is not odd for government-level entities to keep an eye on, and enforce price limits on utility expenses.

The enforcement of a price limit can be of assistance in the evening out a given market, and have a favorable effect on the economy. The approach mostly inspires traders who were charging very high prices for their commodities and/or services to either trim down on production or probably ditch the market altogether. This ends up in suppliers who are at a position to put forward commodities and/or services of up to standard quality at a cost that a customer can actually afford.

Again, the capacity to buy commodities and/or services at sound prices motivates customers to do so. Such consumers, as well, are left with more resources to use up on other purchases, which subsequently raise demand in a number of markets and has the result of fueling the economy. Price ceilings are not beneficial as will be discussed in this article. They are beneficial just at the onset before negative effects set in.

At times, cases of a restriction on how low a price can be demanded for a commodity or service that is seen to be essential occur (Hugh, 2008). This is referred to as a low price limit or ceiling. Such restrictions are aimed at preventing the emergence of a control or within a given industry, an occurrence that would undercut the capacity of a number of firms to be viable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Should a price ceiling be imposed on gasoline prices in the US market? Price ceilings should not be enforced on gasoline prices in the United States market. There are a good number of reasons for this, and they are going to be highlighted here. To begin with, gasoline firms sell their fuel at prices determined majorly by the global costs of the commodity. They are in business, and their major aim is to make profits just like any other business people.

These firms import the commodity and have to adjust their selling prices to make reasonable gains. When the prices at which they buy the gasoline go up, they as well have to raise the prices at which they sell to their consumers (Alston, Kearl


How To Prepare The Students To Travel To Foreign Country? Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

While preparing the students to trip, the teacher must think over the steps to be made to convince the students of the advantages of travelling. Thus, the first and most important issue is related to the experience which students can get while communicating with native speakers.

In my opinion, the most important advantage for students is an opportunity to improve communication skills as well as to obtain some knowledge concerning culture peculiarities of other country. The teacher may point out that students who have an opportunity to visit foreign countries can get not only emotional experience, but also mental and social one. Social experience is related to customs and traditions which a person can become familiar with.

Mental experience, in its turn, concerns with numerous cognitive processes which impact on intellect development. One more issue I would like to touch on concerns with the so-called subjective experience, which means the perception of other reality. Thus, the teacher is to explain his/her students that subjective experience appears when students interact with foreign environment.

One should keep in mind that understanding other reality is also to be taken into consideration. Thus, the teacher is to explain the students that foreign reality means world views or beliefs which differ from the reality of their own nation. Another point I would like to draw your attention to is related to the notion of concept. Thus, the teacher is to explain that most concepts which students must take into account are related to the linguistic origin.

For instance, it is a well-known fact that learning foreign languages is not an easy task, and in most cases the native speakers of English will not understand those who speak Russian. Thus, the main problem is not only the lack of practice, but some aspects which touch upon various countries mentality. So, the thing which is considered to be of primary importance is the teacher’s concentrating on the advantages which students are able to receive.

The idea to show the students some documentary films seems to be rather attractive too. For instance, watching a film is considered to be a necessary step to provide students with some general/basic knowledge about the country they want/can visit. On the other hand, they can become familiar with the realities (traditions, customs) of other country.

Some economic issues are also to be taken into account. Thus, the teacher must touch on certain contradictions concerning economic questions. Next step which the teacher is to draw his/her attention to concerns with educational quality improvement. Of course, nobody will deny the fact that direct communication with native speakers as well as feeling the atmosphere of foreign life can not be replaced by foreign literature reading/studying.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the theory is considered to be a good thing, but practice is more important. Finally, there is a great opportunity to enlarge students’ knowledge about the history and geography of the country they are going to visit. Thus, the students are able to become familiar not only with the social history, but also with cultural and economic history. In some cases, military history as well as environmental one is also to be taken into account.

The disadvantages are also to be touched on. Thus, the teacher is to describe some unpleasant situations which may occur while travelling.


Customer Relation Management Case Study essay help

In modern competitive business environments, managers need to enact policies that address challenges facing their organizations. Effective business strategic should have the ability to take advantage of business opportunities and mitigate against business risks and threats in their industry.

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a recent strategic management tool, strategy, and weapon that business leaders effect to build health customer portfolio; it is a comprehensive approach to creating, maintaining and expanding customer-business relationship; it has the main role of ensuring that the customer is satisfied with the products and services of a company.

Marketing is an integral part of business management; it involves policies and strategies implemented to facilitate selling of products and services manufactured in an organization (Kerin and Peterson, 45-90). This paper discusses strategic and competitive opportunities within customer relation management (CRM).

Customer relation management strategy Businesses can only prosper if the management has policies that ensure that the products and services produced address the need of their customers. To ensure that customer needs have been addressed, the management has the responsibility of undertaking wide and comprehensive research on the target market and making responsive business decisions. According to management gurus, customer is the most important segment of an organization; they need to be managed effectively and their loyalty developed.

Organizations that have enacted effective customer management approaches have remained competitive amidst challenging business environments they are engage in. For example Apple Inc. has become the world largest electronic industry in sale volumes and production due to its effective customer management procedures; the company adopts a customer relationship management (CRM) approach to attract and maintain customers.

In the definition of the company CRM is a management strategy where a company creates healthy relationship with the suppliers, customers and the public; at Apple Inc, customer is the most important stakeholder and all processes are aimed at increasing customers’ welfare.

The following are the main objectives that effective customer management programs endeavors to fulfill:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determine, develop, nurture, and develop mutual satisfaction of the organization and customers, this notion means that the customers’ needs are aligned with business goals and objectives

Create, develop, and maintain good customer rapport, the customer rapport will be an effective tool that will create customer loyalty. When an organization has attained high customer loyalty , it is able to sell its products at relatively low cost of marketing, the company is self marketing

Customer relation management have the goals and objective of creating a positive feelings in the organization and the customers

The most important parameter that an organization should consider when enacting customer relation management policy within its frameworks is the target market who will be consuming the products and services of the company.

Strategic opportunities offered by customer relations management (CRM) programs In contemporary competitive business arena, companies need to management the relationship they have with their customers. When customers are well managed, an organization benefits from loyalty and self marketing notion of their organization; customers are the backbone of a company; they are the sources of finance and the reason why a certain business exist.

CRM’s main objective is satisfying customers and developing close relationship that facilitates customer loyalty; to attract customers and persuade them buy ones products takes a combination of business processes; effective marketing and sales strategies have a direct effect on customer’s attainment and development of customer loyalty.

In customer acquisition and creation of loyalty, there are two main theories that a company needs to understand and decide the best approach to use; the theories are customer retention and customer acquisition.

Customer relation management policies link a company to its target customers; if this link is not effective, there will be a breakdown of communication between these two parties. Information is power; marketing offers much needed information for strategic decisions. When producing goods, there is a target market that company aims.

Human beings are not static; their needs change with time and space. Understanding of customers’ trend is important for an effective business. When a company produces goods and services, it does so with the aim of selling. Creating awareness and persuading the customers to buy a company’s goods is the role of the marketing department. It thus ensures that the main objective of a business that is profit making is attained.

Customer relation management assist, a company to compete effectively and probably win the competition. How well a company persuades its customers goes a long way in determining whether customers favor it or not. To satisfy customers, marketers provide much needed information on which products are on demand, to assist the company make products that meet customer-changing needs.

We will write a custom Case Study on Customer Relation Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, it advises a company when designing distribution channels, supply chain, and retiling systems. When determining the integrated marketing communications combinations to use then information from the marketing department is crucial.

An effective customer management procedure affects the overall operation of an organization; it aims at analyzing internal and external environment that a business operates in, to device mechanisms for effective product communication to the target customers.

When the internal and external environments have been noted, the process assists in analyzing consumer behavior both in domestic and global markets to ensure that it advises its company effectively on the best practices to adopt to remain competitive. Consumer behavior has an effect on decisions that consumers make pertaining buying a particular company’s products or consuming their services.

Customers are well managed using and effective marketing research, the responsible department is expected to advise other sections on product developments and the best approaches they should take to attain effective product differentiation. Through survey of the prevailing market conditions and analyzing competitors, marketing assists a company in setting prices.

It aims at advising a company in product development and differentiation; an effective marketing strategy fulfils all the above-mentioned objectives not in isolation but all at a go. When all the objectives are met, a company gains a competitive advantage, as it is able to relate with its customers well (Kerin and Peterson 45-90).

Competitive opportunities in customer relation management Customer relation management emphasizes on three main areas which are marketing management, product differentiation, and service differentiation.

Marketing management

After development of products, whether service or goods, a company needs to create awareness and sell the products to the target customers. Marketing in an integral part of a business, it starts way before a product has been developed; and continues through the life cycle of product.

The main objective of marketing is to create awareness and develop a repo between customers and a business. For this noble task, there is need to have an effective marketing strategy; no single strategy can effectively operate in all industries; however, there are some shared elements of an effective marketing strategy

Not sure if you can write a paper on Customer Relation Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When developing a marketing strategy, the first thing that marketer should do is to perform a marketing research; marketing research starts before a company has created the products required in the market and continues through the product cycle. It aims at recognizing a deficit that the current products in the market are not meeting, and developing product that can fill the gap.

When developing a marketing strategy, a company should aims developing a strategy that will give maximum results at the minimum cost possible; thus for an effective marketing strategy, timely, organized and relevant information is required. To get this information, a company needs to undertake market research and analyze the data for decision-making; information collected should be easily manipulated to reflect the changes in ad hoc requirements of information by management.

Market research has the role of collecting, interpolating, analyzing and storing internal and external data; the data collected should be presented in a form that enables informed decision-making.

Market research starts with a desk research where marketers use the available secondary materials to understand the situation and basic operations in the market; the information can be gotten from published and unpublished materials.

When developing a marketing strategy it is important to understand internal and external factors likely to affect the strategy; internally the company aims at understanding its strength and weaknesses, whereas an external analysis assist a company understand the position that it holds in the market as well as the effects of competitors.

If it is the case of new company, it is able to understand the market dynamics operating in certain industry for future marketing related decisions like marketing entry mechanism. External environment trend is likely to affect the behavior of consumers so when well understood better strategies will be made effectively.

When undertaking marketing research, the main aim is to understand Psycho-dynamics of the market and the underlying factors that can be used for the advantage of the company and developing mitigation measures against those factors that are likely to affect the business negatively.

Product/service differentiation and Brand Loyalty

The success of the company is dependent on the quality and reliability of the products; when products are of the right quality and meet the standards of the people, they are likely to be competitive amidst competitor products. When a company is developing a product, there should be the need that the product is supposed to fulfill.

For example fast food joints are places where consumers should get a quick service; this implies that they should have an effective queue flow to ensure that they have ready products adequate for the consumers at a particular point in time and still the products have not stayed in the restaurant for many hours. An organization in the hospitality/fast food industry has differentiated products if it is respected for its products quality, freshness, and production of tasty foods.

The trend that the customers follow at one given point is a change to the product that gives them a higher utility. When the product is developed, the team should always invest in offering something extra to the consumer. Products come with the idea of packaging, and how the product is presented to the final consumer, there is need to have a pleasant look as the way as the way the product is handled has an effect on its successes (Kotler and Kevin 6-67).

To attain brand loyalty, a company must ensure its products are differentiable in the market; this call for high quality good and making brand salience, the brand should be on top of a consumers mind so that they are willing to decide without much of consideration on the brand. It involves having a psychological attachment where a mention of certain industry products creates a stimulus in a consumers mind.

For example, by the mention of soft beverages, Coca-Cola Company has ensured that customers will think of the company first, in a rather unconscious way. The mention of a soda is sometimes associated with Coke- the most sold brand by Coca-Cola Company. It has created the need for emotional attachment with the brand.

Consumer attitude goes a long way in influencing the choice of brand; attitudes are created by experiences with the brand, information from other people who have had an experience and it is subject to marketing and advertising tools implemented by a company.

Consumer behavior keeps changing, they are persuadable though a company with a strong marketing team can correctly predict consumer behavior and implemented appropriate strategies. Having a strong brand awareness campaigns that ensures customers can recall involves creating mental attachments like brand names, logos and symbols. When this has been affected, then customers will be willing to buy a company’s products without much consideration.

Mercedes Benz manufacturing company has invested in creating mental pictures about the brand; it is believed that the model is classic, expensive and has status. It is seen to have a “niche” products kind of approach because of its uniqueness and division of the market between those people who want their social status respected in the society.

Customers who have purchased the brand in the past are operant conditioned to believe they have made it to a higher class than their counterparts who have other models like Toyota. For such a customer to buy another model, his mental picture as molded by the company will show him or her that he is losing status, something that consumers will always fight against, the end result is brand loyalty and attachment.

The longevity that Coca-Cola Company product has had in the market has favored the company in creating positive attitude towards its products. For a larger population in modern world, they are younger than the brand.

Since childhood, the brand name has been triggering in the mind of a person. He grows believing that a soft drink in a soda from the company. The positive attitude created by the company has made it easy to have effective brand extension with the latest as Coke Light a brand extension of Coke brand. Believes of the people which run down generations is that the company has unique products and is superior.

The company has invested in understanding consumer behavior; consumers keep changing with economic, social and age changes, the company keeps evolving with the needs of the customer. For example, with modern busy world where people are busy hopping from one place to another, it is rather difficult for someone to sit back and enjoy a bottle of a soft drink, realizing this, the company came up with disposable bottles soft drinks, the response has been positive (Joby 20).

Conclusion Customer relation management is strategic management tool that seeks to create, improve, and maintain healthy relationship between an organization and its customers. The management approach addresses internal and external operational factors to develop policies and strategic to create loyal customers; organizations that have adopted customer relation management strategic attain competitiveness over products made by their competitors.

Works Cited Joby, John. Fundamentals of Customer-Focused Management: Competing Through Service. Westport: Praeger, 2003. Print.

Kerin, Andrew, and Peterson Richards. Strategic Marketing Problems: Cases and Comments. London: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.

Kotler, Porter, and Kevin Keller. Marketing Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.


The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China Term Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Xu Beihong was born in Yixing, China in the province of Jiangsu. He was born into a poor background and all the skills that he acquired at an early age including seal engraving, Chinese classics, calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting were from his father who in turn had acquired them through self-teaching.

He was born on the 19th of July, 1895. He began commercially selling his work in 1915 when he relocated from his home town to Shanghai. He mainly sold paintings and other illustrations that were used in different publications. A government scholarship saw him enroll into the Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in France in 1919.

This is where he acquired the skills of oil painting and sketching as he travelled widely through Western Europe. He observed the works of western artists in different countries including Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, and Italy. He returned to China in 1927 and began teaching at what is presently Nanjing University and formerly the National Central University. Here, he taught in the department of fine arts and eventually headed it.

Xu Beihong is so influential in Chinese art that you cannot talk of the 20th century in terms of art without the mention of his name. He has over a thousand works done in ink, oil and also as sketches. The vastness of his works makes him a legend in themselves. The number of his works is however dwarfed by the amount of literature that has been written analyzing his work which has been both positive and negative.

He is regarded by many as the vanguard of 20th century Chinese art and has a whole museum dedicated to him. The major reason he is so highly regarded is the incorporation of western realism in his Chinese works. His style that is regarded as social realism has dominated the art scene in China up until the 1970’s.

Among the works that have become icons of Chinese art are: The Astute Judge of Horse, The Foolish Old Man Removing The Mountain, Tian Heng and His Five Hundred Followers and Awaiting For Deliverer. The art of this great artist is seen more as the perfect blend of traditional Chinese art with that of the West. They are lauded for depicting virtuosity and patriotic ideals.

While Mao Zedong was so moved by The Foolish Old Man Removing the Mountain that he incorporated it in his political rhetoric, critics like Michael Sullivan claim that the painting is “one of the most unpleasant works to ever come out of China” (50) and that the works of Xu Beihong are “seldom more than merely competent.” (Sullivan 72)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thought processes that make people take such extreme positions when discussing Beihong’s work are influenced by preconceptions of what modern Chinese art should be, political preferences and personal tastes.

Pheng Cheah concedes that these criticisms can be as a result of “dogmatic application of untested universalism” by the Western nations and “a dubious cultural relativism” by other nations in the East (54). This means that the work of an artist is viewed from a single dimension which may not produce the best results. There should be an appreciation of the arts present by the analyses of these works through a multidimensional scope (Eco 108).

This paper seeks to examine the work of Xu Beihong in a wide perspective and not just against the narrow scopes including modernism versus realism, western oil paintings versus Chinese traditional ink paintings or left versus right. Here, we are going to examine the influence that this artist had on Chinese art as a whole.

Discussion Xu Beihong was not the first Chinese artist to attempt modernizing Chinese art. He was however the most successful since he used the method of realism that was common in the 19th century and had long been proven in history as very effective. His works were successful partly because they depicted the problems that dogged the people of the time with relative accuracy. His however was a personal statement given his background.

Before he was born, the Chinese had lost in the First Sino-Japanese War (1884-5). The political upheavals that followed including reform and revolution undoubtedly affected the perspective of this artist (Shen 172). The background of Xu Beihong helps us to discern the thought that he was “modern” due to his role in modernizing Chinese art.

The experience that Xu Beihong had in the French school where he was enrolled made him view the world in a different perspective. First, it removed the pressures that are accompanied by being in familiar surroundings and helped him to be more objective even with himself. While studying the western way of art, he thought of the situation in his home country as he viewed himself an alien in another land.

Western art drew its inspiration from mythology and antiquity and thus was able to tell a story by looking at it. This was the inspiration that led Xu Beihong to produce paintings that were capable of telling stories. His major context was on historic Chinese texts while incorporating the western style of painting. T

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More hree of his most iconic works namely Awaiting for Deliverer, The Astute Judge of the Horse Jiu Fanggao and Tian Heng and His Five Thousand Followers were all produced immediately on his return from France in 1927. Tian Heng and His Five Thousand Followers told the story of Tian Heng who was a legendary figure and the ruler of the Qi dynasty. However towards the end of his reign (221-201 BCE), he chose to protect his integrity by committing suicide rather than be captured by Liu Bang who was the leader of the Han dynasty.

The Astute Judge of the Horse was painted in 1931 and incorporated the traditional Chinese methods of painting that only used paper, ink and brush. The story is of the protagonist Jiu Fanggao who was said to be an excellent judge of young men who were to serve the nation as scholars and were metaphorically referred to as horses. The last piece, Awaiting for Deliverer, was a very large oil painting.

The painting was depicting a suffering people in the era of the Xia dynasty (2000-1600 BCE) as they waited for a savior to deliver them from the oppressive regime. The concept was borrowed from the Book of Documents. The shift from contemporary styles to realism based on classical academics was a very effective tool for educating people and also for artistic convictions. This made the work of Xu Beihong distinguishable from that of other artists of his time including Lin Fengmian (1900-1991) and Liu Haisu (1896-1994).

The fame of Xu Beihong took him to many countries where he exhibited his work. In addition to his exhibitions in Europe and China, he went as far as South and Southeast Asia. It was in India in 1940 that he did his other very influential piece known as The Foolish Old Man Removing the Mountain. This was in the period of the Japanese Resistance War (1937-1945).

The painting was based on an ancient parable in the Leizi text that told the story of an old man who saw it prudent to remove a mountain that was in front of his house (Hsia 533). Even if it was a tall order for him, he was convinced that his children would continue in this endeavor long after he was gone. The sentiments that were being depicted in this painting were of a nationalistic nature and that is why Mao Zedong saw it prudent to incorporate the painting in his politics.

The role that Xu Beihong played in modernizing Chinese art culminated in him being named the president of the fine arts department in the Central University in 1950. This was immediately after the war and after the formation of the People’s Republic of China. The communist regime continued the work of this legendary artist after he passed away in 1953.

China was a country that was ruled by dynasties up until the 1900s. The speedy development of Japan and other European countries meant that China only had a single option in order to survive; westernization. The establishment of the May Fourth Movement was the first step towards the “westernization” of China (Spence 223). This meant that for China to succeed, she had to embrace the western ideals so that she could become a superpower like Japan.

This was achieved by emulating western ideals of romanticism, symbolism and realism that was possible under the banner of democracy and science and was the focal point of the May Fourth Movement. This was the genesis of the art reform that led to artists like Xu Beihong going into foreign countries in order to learn their art.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei, who were the mentors of Xu Beihong and were responsible for him securing a scholarship in France, were supporters of the May Fourth Movement. Xu Beihong was a major player in the revolutionalization of Chinese art. As a whole, Chinese art was progressing steadily until it was disrupted by the Japanese Resistance War.

The other artists who assisted in the revolution were Japanese educated Chen Baoyi (1893-1945), Guan Zilan (1903-1986) and Guan Liang (1900-1986) together with French trained Pan Yuliang (1902-1977) and Pang Xunqin (1906-1985). They all were instrumental in creating the necessary hype for Chinese art that was always in sync with that of other cities like Tokyo and Paris.

Chinese peace was an uneasy affair as there was always tension between warlords, a threat from the rapidly developing Japan and the rift between the Communist Party and the National government. Xu Beihong found himself very patriotic in this times and was always eager to make history by fostering peace through his artworks. The emphasis was thus on the importation of western ideas that would assist in determining the national fate of the Chinese people.

This was the backdrop in which Chinese modern art was determined. Many artists held the ideal that the best way to change Chinese art was along the traditional lines and contemporary styles whereas a few advocated for an amalgam of traditional styles and those of the West. The western style had the advantage of being more socially involved than did the literati art that had ceased to be as popular in the late 18th century.

It was held that the best way forward was integrating the western style of art into the traditional Chinese art. It was thus up to Xu Beihong and other western educated artists to come up with the best way forward. The array of western educated artists did not have a common idea and a quandary of ideas was brought forth. There was a tug of war between realists and modernists.

Those that advocated for the latter were Liu Hansi and Lin Feingman who believed in everything that was after Post-Impression (Andrews 29). They considered the works of Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Henri Matisse as the most fitting to decide the way forward for Chinese art (1869-1954) (Wong 91). The dissenting voice was however that of Xu Beihong who was convinced that the answer to Chinese art was in the 19th century classism and realism in Europe.

Xu Beihong did not however give in to the whole concept of modernization. He was not interested in the whole context of modernity that was occurring in the West (Clark 4). In fact, he was only focused on the depiction of realism in the Chinese context. He claimed that the definition of realism that the western critics and his Chinese counterparts held was not his understanding. His main aim was in depicting reality in his artwork.

Additionally, although he was a strong believer in academic realism, his works were broader than what was entailed in realism and contained other concepts including naturalism, romanticism and realism in the broader western sense. Xu Beihong groups all arts as either being based on realism or conceptualism. The latter he associates with traditional Chinese aesthetics.

Conclusion The Chinese culture is no different from any other in the world. The culture looks to the social function that art plays in politics and in the definition of culture itself. Xu Beihong depiction of moralistic overtones that were largely sourced from historical sources means that the artist was free of self inclination a far cry of other modernists.

It is remarkable that after eight years in France in the midst of fauvism and post-impressionism, Xu Beihong still had a fondness for 19th century classism. In a world where people are constantly changing with the times, remaining true to a single conviction can be a tall order.

Xu Beihong produced numerous works during his lifetime. However, his most profound works that gained international acclaim are five in number. The common feature of these pieces is that their concepts were borrowed from Chinese history that was a parallel to the success of European pieces based on mythology and antiquity. The pieces were also developed in the years after Xu Beihong returned from France.

The turbulent history of China and especially its war with Japan had a great influence on the way that Xu Beihong crafted his pieces. This was the reason that his works were used in political rhetoric. He is considered the father of modern Chinese art that borders on realism, rightly so as he undoubtedly shaped the way that art in China was viewed and presented a platform onto which modern Chinese art has blossomed.

Works Cited Andrews, Julia F. Painters and politics in the people’s republic of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Print

Cheah, Pheng. “Asian studies in a world in motion”. Trace, 1 (1993), 54-5

Clark, John. Modernity in Asian art. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1993. Print

Eco, Umberto. The open work. Translated by Ann Cancogni. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. Print

Hsia, C.T. A history of modern Chinese fiction, 3rd Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. Print

Shen, Kuiyi. A century in crisis: Modernity and tradition in the art of 20th century China. New York: Guggeiheim Museum, 1998. Print.

Spence, Jonathan D. The search for modern China, 2nd Ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. Print

Sullivan, Michael. Art and artists of the 20th century China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. Print

Sullivan, Michael. Chinese art in the 20th century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959. Print.

Wong, Fong C. between two cultures: late 19th and 20th century Chinese paintings form the Robert H. Ellsworth Collection in the metropolitan museum of art. New York: metropolitan museum of art, 2001. Print.


Historical Context of “All My Sons” by Arthur Miller: Analysis Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction This essay analyzes the historical context of “All My Sons” by Arthur Miller. The play appeared between 1940 and 1950, in an eventful decade for America and the rest of the world. America was recovering from the effects of the Great Depression that took place in the 1930s. The Second World War marked the first half of the 1940s, while the second half was characterized by the early stages of the Cold War.

The Second World War had significant effects on many countries around the world, including those in America, Asia, Europe and Africa. It influenced the formation of political alliances where countries came together against a common enemy in the war. The effects of this war persisted to the second half of the 1940-1950 decade, merging with the beginning of the Cold War (U.S. Timeline 8).

Apart from the war, there were other events taking place in America during this time. Those included changes in the lifestyle of the American people, among other things. After the prosperity associated with the war tapered off, the American economy experienced high rates of inflation. More than 25 per cent of the population had been living below the poverty line by the end of this decade (U. S. Timeline 9).

The family became a cherished social unit during this time. There were strong ties between family members as the population of the country and the size of the family increased. The average size of the family during this time was about 2.5 children. It was during this time that the country went through the infamous baby boom (Anonymous 5).

The effects of this boom persist to date, given the fact that those born during this time are in control of the country today. Discrimination against African Americans and other minorities, such as the Mexicans, also took place during this time period. Perhaps it happened as a result of the suspicion that the American people had towards outsiders as a result of the war (Anonymous 9).

The social and political situation of any country is reflected in the art taking place at that time. Art, to a large extent, mirrors the social and political situation of the society at that particular time. A historical analysis of art in a given time period will indicate the events that were taking place in that society at that time. The form of art, in this case, includes paintings, songs, poems, plays and sculptures, among others.

The events that took place in this society during that time can be discerned from various forms of art in that decade. It includes the plays staged in the country, the books written among other forms of art.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The play “All My Sons” by the famous American artist A.Miller was written in the year 1947, It opened on Broadway on January, 1947, closed on November, 1949, and ran for more than 300 performances. The play’s setting is America.

This paper is going to study the historical background that “All My Sons” was written and acted within. The author will go further to analyze if Arthur Miller addressed the identified social and political topics in his text. The problems addressed in the play will be separated from those not addressed.

“All My Sons”: Historical Context


Forgiveness in Martin Luther’s Movement for Rights Blacks Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The best way that blacks can learn to forgive is through seeking God. Martin Luther led the movement that blacks had fighting for their rights in America in the 60s. The bible teachings tell us that God exists in the holy trinity and the only way to forgive others is for us to be able to forgive our own transgressions.

God’s grace is the only way that we can achieve forgiveness. Worthington states that forgiveness is achieved when, “we yield ourselves to God and [are] guided by God’s Spirit.” (2009, p. 14) Once we have acquired the skills to be able to forgive ourselves, then, we can learn to forgive others as well. Although Everett Worthington Jr. cautions that forgiving oneself is particularly hard, the driving factor should be the end result.

No hurt or transgression is too big to bear once a person has learnt the art of forgiving him/herself. The best way of working through a hurtful thing like the way that African Americans were during their fight for their rights is to be in a group scenario. The forgiveness of transgressions against other people is very hard to fathom in many. There are transgressions or hurts that people consider too painful to easily forgive.

Martin Luther had a particularly tasking job in attempting to instill forgiveness in the hearts of the African Americans who had been hurt. He insisted repeatedly that the only way that their rights were going to be recognized was through peaceful means. However, a tall order this was, he had to convince his followers that the best option for them was to forgive those people that had hurt them.

Discussion There are steps that Everett has developed that are aimed at helping people to become more forgiving in their encounters. The foundation block for this program is that one has to dedicate oneself to discerning God’s heart. As such, one has to be a dedicated Christian for the steps advocated by this writer to work. The major idea here is that god is the most important agent in order to achieve forgiveness. Therefore, one has to allow God to use one’s actions as the vehicle through which he works.

Achieving forgiveness is equated to acquiring any other skill in the course of performing ones duties. Therefore, it is not expected that a person can be forgiving instantaneously. This means that people have to work on their forgiveness skills in order to achieve the forgiveness level that the gospel teaches. Martin Luther had to focus on the religion in order for people to translate the teaching of the bible and apply them in their every day lives so that they are capable of forgiveness.

Conclusion Forgiveness entails that a person does not seek revenge for a particular hurt that is done to them. This means that although African Americans felt that their rights were not being recognized by the regime in America, they should have desisted from taking any actions to avenge this wrongdoing. The only way that a person can achieve forgiveness is if the action warranting the forgiveness no longer hurts them. Events that are far in the past can be easily forgiven since the hurt occasioned by such wrongs is no longer potent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, African Americans should have first work on the hurt that they felt in order for them to be able to forgive the transgressors. Martin Luther was charged with the responsibility of ensuring that any ill feelings that the African Americans may have harbored were not eliciting hurtful sentiments from his followers. If this was achieved, then the process of forgiveness should not have been difficult.

Reference Worthington, E.L. Jr. (2009). A Just Forgiveness: Responsible Healing Without Excusing Injustice. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.


Learning English as a Second Language for Chinese Students Essay (Article) essay help online free: essay help online free

Learning English as a second language, students should pay much attention to the relationship between environment and language as these factors are very important. Students should learn not only the language itself, but pay much attention to the history of the country, its customs and values.

This paper is aimed at Chinese students who have just got down to learning English as a second language. These students should know the pitfalls and the difficulties they are going to face. Those who have never learnt another language are not really aware of the situation they are going to face with. Another language is not just a collection of the symbols which should be arranged in an appropriate order, it is another culture which may be understood only when collaboration is observed.

Only working together, only trying to understand the main idea of the American and British nature Chinese students will get the main idea of the language, will be able to learn it. Communication and cooperation with native speakers is exactly what is meant. Students should understand that they have great opportunity to cooperate with native speakers either in the centers or in other particular places, such as social networks, etc.

Therefore, it may be concluded that cooperation and the opportunity to speak with the native speakers are really important factors for becoming a good learner. This essay is created for those who have just begun to study English as a second language as they are to know the peculiarities of the learning process and the difficulties they are to overcome in the future to succeed.

Works Cited Facebook. Facebook.com. 2011. Web.

Love, Tim. What is culture? 2008. Yomiury: Media Kit. Web.


Social Studies Instruction and Diverse Students Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Education is a critical requirement for any society seeking prosperity within the global circles. Globalization is a new hurdle that educators now need to deal with as various cultures meet and interact within the school set up and if unregulated, this situation usually erupts in chaos and disruption of learning.

However, a greater loss is the stunted development of the minority cultures, which occurs because of the structures of the prevailing educational systems put in place with the majority cultures in mind. Consequently, there is need for a paradigm shift if the educational system is to provide equitable service to the entire population.

Multicultural social studies teaching is a merger between social studies as a discipline and multicultural education as a concept. The goal of social studies is to promote civil competence while that of multicultural education is to provide equal education opportunities to the entire population with the intent of producing “first class” citizens who are sensitive to “democratic ideals such as human dignity, equality, and freedom.” (Banks, 1999, p. 65)

Due to their complimentary nature, it is prudent to integrate these two concepts to achieve the intended purpose of each. This kind of teaching involves a shift from the conventional teacher-oriented classroom sessions to student-oriented discussions. It is flexible and allows students to select their own referencing material. It gives parents and the rest of the community a chance to participate in the students’ learning and encourages cooperation between students from diverse backgrounds.

It highlights the advantages of this diversity and reveals the possibility of better learning if the students take advantage of their differences to gain better understanding of various concepts. Finally, it discourages single-minded formulation of stereotypes by teachers, parents, the community and students while inhibiting self-destructive behavior in students from minority cultures acting out the frustration with a mono-cultural system of education. This type of teaching satisfies everybody’s needs.

The advantages of this type of teaching include harmony in the classroom as teachers strive to encourage cooperative learning. As they encourage their students to share cultural experiences, question, and challenge their dogmatic beliefs, students set aside their superficial differences and share in an enriching earning experiences where they use their different cultures as sources of information.

The different perspectives brought in by different students offer a variety of learning options that apply to each student in a classroom set up. The involvement of parents in their children’s learning also greases the educational processes as they know how best their children learn and they can divulge this information to teachers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multicultural social study teaching uses culture as the foundation upon which school-based knowledge builds. Consequently, students have a better grasp of a lesson’s content because they can relate to it on a cultural level. This way, learning becomes a natural activity and is not as taxing as the current system portrays it. This teaching involves every student in the classroom because each student has something he / she can allude to (Sleeter,


Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running Term Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction In the 21st century, the hospitality industry has thrived. Traditionally, there has been saturation of big monopolies of hotel brands, with their primary objective being provision of lodging accommodation for travelers.

A boutique hotel is a luxurious, personalized version of the traditional hotels whose focus is on the provision of a comfortable, intimate, and welcoming setting. According to Dubois (2010), the personalized service and design reflects the characteristics of the target market and is the distinguishing feature that categorizes a hotel as a boutique hotel.

Boutique hotels were started in the early eighties, with two of the world’s first boutique hotels opening in 1981 – these two hotels are The Blakes Hotel in South Keningston, London designed by Anouska Hempel, and The Bedford in Union Square San Fransisco, now a series of 35 such hotels of the Kimpton Group (Dubois, 2010).

Starting Up Location and Destination The most significant factor to consider when starting a hotel is the destination and location, although product quality, market demand, a well-defined marketing approach, and effective reservation coverage play a major role that contributes to the success of the business (Yanos, 2008). For a city destination, the location should be in a trendy neighborhood, central to other things that are going to complement the business. Indeed, good locations lead to guests’ loyalty and interest (Nickisch, 2011).

A city destination attracts a diverse market from leisure, business, events, and conventions all week long. Ideal city locations are fashion centers, media capitals, cities with vibrant economies, and trendy residential areas. For a resort destination, the more the indigenous a location, the better, as this gives guests a chance to explore the local feel without sacrificing luxury.

The hotel should be tucked well behind mountains, in valleys, deep in the jungle, near a lake or watering points in wildlife reserves or in deserted corners of islands. Indeed, the more difficult it is to reach the destination by conventional means, the more fashionable the location is considered (Yanos, 2008).

The location is dictated by the destination; this defines the style, décor, and architectural design of the hotel and hotel rooms. It is generally a good idea to avoid areas that are too saturated with boutique hotels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financing Boutique hotels are a big investment, as their start up costs are quite high and the marketing is costly, as it needs to be continuous (Enz, 2009). The cost varies depending on the location, number of rooms, and the additional amenities in the premises.

Buying an already existing property and renovating it to fit the desired design and needs is generally more cost effective than developing a new project from scratch. With limited finances, one should consider remote, scenic locations, suburban locations, or renovating an old city hotel in a transitional neighborhood, where property values are rising; this is not only cheaper, but it also has favorable future prospects (Yanos, 2008).

It is not easy to find funding for boutique hotels, as non-branded lifestyle hotels are seen as a risky investment (Dubois, 2010). One can also consider partnership with an investment group that will help with the financing of the project be it building, or acquiring reposition, to the desired standard under agreed terms.

This is particularly important because with the financial pressure reduced, one can concentrate on the quality of the project. Commercial loans, which are tailor-made to suit boutique hotel financing, are also a viable option although at a higher cost. Partnerships also play an important role in the financing of the business and the partners can vary from affluent hoteliers interested in new ventures to other businessmen.

Architecture and Design The focus should be in style, distinction, warmth, and intimacy. There are no standards, but each design should fulfill individual needs. The right design, destination, and location determine the success of the hotel (Yanos, 2008). The location determines style and materials used, be it stone, timber or even logs.

The hotel should be designed to reflect or blend with the area, taking advantage of what the area has to offer. For instance, beach resorts may take advantage of the oceanfronts and water for swimming or creating swimming pools using salty water, or log cabin rooms in the wild to blend in with nature. Successful resort boutique hotels unite traditional architecture with the comfort of luxury and modernization without losing the personality of the local community.

The design should have a theme, and the selected theme should attract all senses (Dubois, 2010). Different themes can be incorporated in different rooms to create a personal touch that appeals to individuals.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target market, which is usually between early 20’s to mid 50’s mid- to upper-income groups, should be represented and the style and design should describe their characteristics. Skilled operators in the boutique segment increasingly use psychographics to understand and define their customers.

Psychographic is a marketing classification used to define customers by attributes such as lifestyle, aspirations, interests, attitudes, and beliefs. For example, Joie de Vivre hotels- create each of its hotels around a reader-base of a popular but specialist magazine such as Rolling Stone. This is the theme behind their first hotel, The Phoenix, which opened in San Fransisco in 1987 (Dubois, 2010).

Themes could be romance, music, wildlife, historic details, or fashion. The lighting, colors, music, or art can be used selectively to appeal to all senses and create a feeling of intimacy (Yanos, 2008). The idea of a boutique hotel is entertainment in its own nature; hence, the exceptional themes and visually spectacular decorations are a necessity.

Amenities In the hospitality industry, the primary goal should be getting people to become regulars, hence the emphasis should be more on service than on the amenities; however, luxury is necessary (Stellin, 2007). Plan the amenities to meet the needs of the target clientele while at the same time defining the hotels’ niche. In addition, it is important to invest in fine furnishings, comfortable beds, quality artworks, fine linens, good quality toiletries, extra pillows, and comfortable chairs (Atkinson, 2007).

Small things matter to clients and hence there is need to pay attention to the fine details that make the whole difference in a room. Regardless of the comfort, luxury, and style, one should compete at a practical level, hence the need to have current trend amenities such as

Wi-Fi internet

Flat screen plasma televisions

Cable television networks

Air conditioning, traditional spa services

Rose petal baths

Fitness facilities

Bar and grill

Excellent food

These should be available to provide a competitive edge (Stellin, 2007). Moreover, the investor should always aim and be willing to go an extra mile in order to attract and retain clients with complementary packages such as honeymoon packages, wine and champagne art and painting sessions, guests’ favorite CD collection, and buffet breakfast.

Service The common feature that all boutique hotels have is the emphasis on quality service that is personalized in a professional manner. The approach and attitude, but not the size, defines a boutique hotel (Dubois, 2010). The stay-to-guest ratio should be high in order to cater for every possible need that a client may be having.

This may means a high payroll, but it pays off in customer loyalty and the clients do not mind paying extra for the comfort. Lastly, it is important to allow the staff to memorize guest names and encourage friendly interaction to make the guests’ stay memorable. The staff of a boutique hotel should predict or know in advance, the needs and requirements of the guests and deliver to their guests’ expectation (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketing Develop a high-quality product to appeal to an understanding clientele (Tisch, 2007). Simply, it is the experience and image that are sold, rather than the product itself. Marketing an independent boutique hotel has financial and other resources restrictions because marketing needs to be continuous (Dunne, Lusch,


Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of information Systems to a business



Introduction An information system comprises of all constituents that collect, proliferate and disseminate data. In most cases, these comprise the hardware, people, software, communication systems and the information itself. Information systems conduct various activities that include processing data in to information, input of data, data storage and the production of outputs (Moin, 2006). For these reasons, most contemporary businesses have integrated systems of information technology in their management.

Benefits of information Systems to a business Correct utilization of information systems by the management of a business can offer a great deal of operational effectiveness and accurateness. In contemporary business world, this is similar to the competitive advantage of the business (Sharrieff, 2011). Moin (2006) affirms that in most cases, information systems sustain and sometimes comprise the competitive advantage of a business. In this case, information systems sustain all the sustainable competitive advantages of a business.

Incorporation of information systems helps employees to give greater level of services to their consumers, especially the employees who are in contact with customers. This means that information systems are at most times fundamental in running business activities in the modern world since the employees offer better services to the consumers.

Businesses achieve more productive business decisions that have positive influence on the company’s bottom line due to suitable utilization of the information systems offered by the company (Sharrieff, 2011).

Information systems can decrease the number of administrative employees as well as the number of hours an employee will work in comparison with the manual performance of a similar process. This occurs since the duty that an employee was supposed to perform happen to be performed by the machine.

This effectiveness permits the organization to gather benefits in other areas. For instance, a company can offer a lower bid for a certain contract than its rival company due to the reduced costs linked with the execution of effective information systems (Webster, 2011).

In the modern world, computer networks permits the multinational companies to offer real time services at all times all over the world. Improved technology of the computers and the information systems helps in meeting consumers’ requests and their relocation across the nations and time zones even without the customers’ consent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Sealand Services Inc. which is a global based shipping company in the United States executed a new proprietary shipping management system that mechanized customer transactions worldwide. These customer transactions included order taking and document management (Stephens, 2011).

Information systems play a major role in supporting business processes and operations. They achieve this through recording and storing sales information, acquisition data, savings data, payroll data, and other accounting information. Information systems also aid in storing and recording inventory data, equipment repair and maintenance data, work in process data, supply chain data and other production records.

The human brain is not capable of storing all the necessary data that a company requires and thus the use of information systems is relevant. Information systems are also helpful in recording and storing customer purchase histories, market data, customer profiles, marketing research data, advertising data and other marketing records (Moin, 2006).

In most companies, execution of information systems occurs in order to offer self-services to employees and the consumers. If companies and businesses grant permission to customers and employees to gain access and make changes to their own account data rather than presenting a paper request, the response time will radically decrease. Electronic communications such as email reach the receiver faster than communication sent through traditional paper modes (Webster, 2011).

For a company to ensure that their management information system is pertinent and offers the greatest level of profit, they must plan purposely for their business entity. Even though most software packages offer a level of usefulness to a business venture, it is essential that the system that a business executes addresses the informational necessities and utilization behavior of every person who will take part in the operational effort (Sharrieff, 2011).

Information technology mechanizes some of the information systems. For instance, Dell Computers has a system where there is no human interference in their various operations including taking orders from customers, delivery of constituents to the Dell factory for assemblage as well as shipment to the consumers. Through the company’s website, the company can acquire an order for a personal computer directly from a customer (Moin, 2006).

Information systems aid in reducing errors that are common when performing processes manually. The access to error-free reports guarantees that the organizational leaders have access to the required information needed to make well-informed decisions. Reduction of response time enables leaders to make better verdicts than they might have otherwise done. With the aid of effective information systems, leaders can make efficient decisions in an appropriate manner (Webster, 2011).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is evident that information systems are vital components of a business. They increase the competitive advantage of a business in various ways. In addition, information systems accelerate the globalization of business and trade. This offers multinational companies a suitable ground to reach many customers. In contemporary business world, most businesses have integrated information systems in their business management to accelerate their business performance and eventually increase sales.

References Moin, U. (2006). Information Systems and Technology. Web.

Sharrieff, M. (2011). The Impact of a Management Information System. Web.

Stephens, D.O. (2011). The Globalization of Information Technology in Multinational Corporations. Web.

Webster, A. (2011). Tangible Benefits of Information Systems. Web.


Rise of England as a European Power Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents The War of the Roses (1455-1487)

Background information: War of the Roses

The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty

Reference List

The rise of England as a European power involved various strategies including use of religion, marriages, and weapons in war. In other cases, kings emphasized on trade, learning, and explorations. This document details the emergence of several kings of England and the strategies they used to conquer other empires. Kings also had various means of retaining power to protect their territories. This in turn facilitated the rise of England as a European power as discussed below.

The War of the Roses (1455-1487) The War of the Roses as discussed in history books compounded continuous battles that supporters of the House of Lancaster (Lancastrians) and the House of York (Yorkists) engaged in (Markham, 1983). The representation of the Yorkists by a white rose and the Lancastrians by a red rose led to the emergence of the name “War of the Roses” (Markham, 1983).

The dominant noble families inclined to any of the houses and fought in various Civil Wars, which culminated to the victory of Lancastrians and crowning of Henry Tudor as King (Markham, 1983).

Background information: War of the Roses The reign of Edward III and power struggles between his sons after his death is considered the primary cause of Wars of the Roses (Markham, 1983). The four eldest sons of King Edward included the Black Prince (heir apparent), Lionel of Antwerp (Duke of Clarence), John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) and Edmund of Langley (Duke of York) (Starkey, 2003).

After King Edward III’s death in 1377, his grandson Richard II became king arising from the fact that his eldest son had died from plague in1376. Richard II was hardly ten years old and therefore his uncle John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) took over to rule the country (Markham, 1983). Richard grew older and became rebellious to his uncle’s rule.

The death of John of Gaunt in 1399 brought forth a new dimension into the country’s rule. This is because after his uncle’s death, Richard II forcefully took the land owned by his uncle. However, John of Gaunt’s son Henry prepared an army, which saw the surrender of Richard. Consequently, Henry crowned himself Henry IV and took over the throne.

This saw the establishment of the reign of the Lancastrian as Kings. Soon after, Richard was imprisoned in Pontefract castle where he met his mysterious death in February 1400 (Starkey, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since Henry IV was not the rightful heir to the throne after the death of Richard II, he faced numerous setbacks. Arguably, Edmund Earl of March the great grandson of Lionel Duke of Clarence was the rightful heir to the throne (Starkey, 2003). Fortunately, Henry was able to consolidate his position on the throne. As such, when he died in 1413, his son Henry V succeeded him without setbacks (Starkey, 2003).

Henry V was a strong leader. He won the Battle of Agincourt in1415 among the numerous battles that he won (John, 2007). He also conquered Normandy and Rouen for England. He married the daughter of the King of France. Because of his premature death in 1422, his son Henry VI was crowned the king of England and France (John, 2007).

At his father’s death, Henry VI was hardly four months and therefore his uncle ruled the two countries on his behalf (John, 2007). The French monarchy was restored after Joan of Arc raised military in opposition to the English. Henry married Margaret of Anjou and as he became older, it was evident that he was going to be a weak (Markham, 1983).

Consequently, the Yorkists planned to take over the thrown from him. He condoned corruption and the country went broke despite of the high level of taxation. In his reign, trade declined while great Lords interfered with the judicial system and Parliamentary elections (Markham, 1983). Unrests were common and in 1450, there was a revolt in London headed by Jack Cade. Citizens laid their hopes on the duke of York to instigate change (Markham, 1983).

On 22 May 1455, the first battle of the Wars of the Roses occurred at St Albans (Markham, 1983). Richard, the Duke of York led the Yorkists to defeat the king’s army with ease. Subsequently, Henry VI was captured and imprisoned.

Richard of York was made protector of England after Henry suffered a bout of insanity from 1455 to February 1456 (Hawes, 2009). After his recovery, his wife Margret advised him to reverse many of the decisions made by the Yorkists. The decisions included the appointment of Warwick’s as the captain of Calais that was reverted back to Henry Beaufort the new III Duke of Somerset (Markham, 1983).

Lancastrians were ordered by Margaret to attack Salisbury at Blore Heath on September 1459. They lost to the Yorkists. Henry and Margaret later confronted York, Warwick and Salisbury with a force of 30,000 in the battle of Ludford Bridge on October 1459 (Markham, 1983). Calais men defected to the Henry’s side. The Yorkists dissolved and fled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Rise of England as a European Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Warwick fled to the South East and ended up in Sandwich. Here, he raised an army of 25000 people (Markham, 1983). With this, he confronted Henry’s army at the battle of Northampton on July 1460. Yorkists won because the commander in charge of Henry’s front line betrayed him and joined the Yorkists.

In addition, Buckingham, John Talbot V Earl of Shrewsbury, Beaumont, and Egremont were killed (Horrox, 1989). However, York on return from Ireland claimed the throne. In1460, the parliament passed an Act of Accord that left Henry as King, but York’s heirs would be Henry’s successor (Horrox, 1989).

Margaret was infuriated by the decision to deny her son (Edward) the right to the throne. On this account, she decided to form another Lancastrian army. Jasper Tudor organized an army in Wales, Holland, and Somerset in the West Country while Percy, III Earl of Northumberland with John Clifford rose in the north (Markham, 1983).

The combined total of forces was 15000 men (Horrox, 1989). York heard about Margaret’s location in Pontefract and decided to go to his castle at Sandal south of Wakefield. York infuriated by breaking of Christmas peace, marched out of his castle but he was ambushed in the Battle of Wakefield. York and Salisbury’s son Thomas Neville were murdered (Horrox, 1989).

On the other hand, York’s son was in Pembroke and Wiltshire where he had been sent. He won the battle of Mortimer’s Cross on 2 February 1461. Margaret’s forces at the second battle of St. Albans intercepted Warwick on 17 February 1461, as he left London to meet with March (Horrox, 1989). The Lancastrians won prompting Warwick to flee with the remainder of his soldiers.

Norfolk Warwick and his uncle Lord Fauconberg formed forces in the south East, Midlands, and West Country. They combined forces with the rest of the Yorkists army led by Richard’s son Edward, the Earl of March. In the Battle of Ferrybridge, on 28 March 1461, Lord Fauconberg was killed (Horrox, 1989). The two armies met again in the battle of Towton the following day. Lancastrians lost and most of their noble men were killed (Markham, 1983).

Edward was crowned the king on 28 June1461 and Warwick was reinstated as the Captain of England (Hawes, 2009). Edward and Warwick fell out over issues relating to foreign policies. Edward lost in the battle of Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469 and was imprisoned at Warwick castle. Later, Edward fled to the protection of his friend Duke of Burgundy. He later won in the Battle of ‘Lose-Coat’ Field on 12 March 1470 after gathering support from Charolais, Duke of Burgundy (Markham, 1983).

Warwick and Clarence sought refuge in France where they met Henry’s wife, Margaret. King Louis provided them with funds, forces and sixty ships for battle (Hawes, 2009). In exchange, Henry VI was reinstated as king. Henry VI regained the throne in 1470 and was crowned king on 13 October 1470 (Hawes, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise of England as a European Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under Warwick’s rule, an alliance between England and France proposed an invasion of Burgundy. Charolais, Duke of Burgundy facilitated Edward with provision like ships, manpower, and funds to invade England. The sail was on 11 March 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward used his wit to gain public confidence and raised his forces even more.

Edward went to London where his supporters accepted him back. He defeated Henry in the Battle of Tewkesbury and was crowned king as Edward IV (Hawes, 2009). He set out for Warwick. In the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, the Lancastrians were defeated and Warwick was killed (Hawes, 2009).

Through Edward’s order, Henry was killed in May 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward IV remained in power until 1483 when he died suddenly from chill and soon the country went back to mayhem again (Hawes, 2009). Queen Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI sought refuge to Wales with her son. Jaspar Tudor who was Henry’s half brother accepted them (Hawes, 2009).

After the death of Edward IV, his two sons Edward and Richard were too young to rule (Hawes, 2009). Thus, their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester took over the leadership of England. The two princes mysteriously disappeared in 1483 from the Tower of London where they had been taken (Horrox, 1989).

It is alleged that their uncle killed them. Richard was subsequently crowned Richard III on 6 July 1483 (Horrox, 1989). Richard III’s position in the throne faced numerous hitches especially from Henry Tudor. This was the grandson of Owen Tudor the second husband to Henry V’s wife Katherine of Valois (Williams, 1996).

Henry Tudor prepared an invasion with the support of Charles III the King of France. On 7 August 1485, a 3000 force landed in Wales and kept adding more on their walk (Hawes, 2009). A Lancastrian army that was raised by Henry Tudor in the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 defeated the Yorkists (Hawes, 2009). Despite the fact that Henry had a less force of about 6000 men, he defeated Richard who had 10000 men and was a more experienced commander in the field (Gravett, 1999).

Richard III was killed in the battle and Henry found his crown on the battlefield (Gravett, 1999). Henry placed the crown on his head and he was crowned king on 30 October 1485 (Gravett, 1999). The following year, he married Elizabeth of York (the daughter of Edward IV) uniting the two houses of Lancaster and York (Gravett, 1999). This union put to an end to the War of Roses.

In summary, the War of Roses started with irreversible disagreements between the ruling Houses of Lancaster (Lancastrian) and York (Yorkists). It was referred to as the War of Roses because a red rose represented the Lancastrians while a white rose represented the Yorkists (Gravett, 1999).

Yorkists (Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III) reigned. However, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth field and crowned himself Henry VII (Gravett, 1999). This marked the beginning of new royal dynasty. His marriage to a York’s daughter brought to an end the Wars of the Roses (Chrimes, 1972). He later gained the trust of his subjects when he overcame a claimant at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487.

The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty During this era, King Henry VII overcame adversaries to his new dynasty and promoted noble writs and commissions. The era was characterized by political and social strengthening. In this era, there was increase in births and businesses thrived (Gravett, 1999). Tudor cared for the people and their welfare was his main interest. He endeavored to stop wars and foreign conflicts (Chrimes, 1972). This marked the beginning of social change.

The royal couple had eight children though only four survived. They were two boys (Arthur and Henry) and two girls (Margaret and Mary) (Kilkenny, 2007). Margaret wedded King James IV of Scotland fostering a peaceful coalition (Gravett, 1999).

During the reign of Henry VII, John Cabot made a major discovery. He discovered the New World in 1494 (Busch, 1895). However, John Cabot discovered that he was likely to lose his right to the great discovery since Spanish examination tried to supersede him with Christopher Columbus. Thus, he sought to obtain Royal Charter for his discovery, which was granted by the king in 1496 (Kilkenny, 2007).

In order to promote the union between Spain and England, the oldest son of King Henry and Catherine of Aragon were affianced (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine and Prince Arthur were married in November 1501 (Kilkenny, 2007). Prince Arthur died five months later of a mysterious disease while his mother Elizabeth died 10 months later in childbirth at 37 years of age (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine should have returned to Spain but she did not. She was ordered to stay to be engaged to Henry, a younger brother of Arthur (John, 2007).

The marriage of Catherine to the king of England would promote obedience to the Papal Bull of Borgia that had been proclaimed in England in 1494 (John, 2007). She would also see to it that England would not conflict with Spain over the ownership of the New World (Mattingly, 1941).

King Henry and his son Henry were opposed to a re-marriage of Henry to Catherine. This is because the death of Arthur was seen as a bad omen (Mattingly, 1941). In addition, Isabella of Castile died in 1504 worsening the matters (Mattingly, 1941). Catherine started planning to go back to Spain.

However, the arrival of a Franciscan called Fry Diego Fernandez altered everything. He is believed to have poisoned the king in order to maintain the alliance of Spain and England through the marriage of Catherine to Henry (Mattingly, 1941). The king died at an early age of 52 in 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007). Soon after his death, Henry became king and revoked all the policies of his father. Indeed, he executed his father’s advisers at the Tower. He was crowned king on 24 June 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007).

During the reign of Henry VIII, Martin Luther posted 95 Theses meant to start blessed Reformation to the church door in 1517 (Kilkenny, 2007). Henry immediately opposed the Reformation. Unlike his father, Henry VIII cared little about the people who liked partying. He admired beautiful girls (Kilkenny, 2007).

Consequently, he had met Anne Boleyn and because Catherine could not produce a male heir, he wanted to divorce her and marry Anne. The divorce would break the alliance between England and Spain and had therefore to be stopped. The Pope postponed until the king became impatient with Rome and declared himself Supreme Head of the church (Kilkenny, 2007). Later, he proclaimed himself pope of England. Subsequently, Henry married Anne on 25 January 1533 (Starkey, 2003).

The break between England and Rome made reformation in England a reality. Queen Anne reigned for 1000 days between 1533 and 1536 (Starkey, 2003). She made strong enemies among the Roman Catholics since she favored reformation (Kilkenny, 2007). She had many miscarriages but nonetheless, she had one surviving daughter later to become Queen Elizabeth I. she ended up becoming England’s greatest queen.

Bloody Mary reigned only for 5 years (1553-1558) and these were the bloodiest years in the history of England (Kilkenny, 2007). Due to refusal to convert to catholic, over 500 people were burned and they included Archbishop Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, Bishop Rochester among others (Warnicke, 1989). Bloody Mary married Philip II of Spain but died childless after failing to produce an heir (John, 2007).

Gloriana the virgin Queen Elizabeth became queen on 17 November 1558 and reigned for 45 years (Kilkenny, 2007). During this period, both Spain and England were engaged in great efforts for world domination. It is during her reign that pope Pius excommunicated her in 1570. During this period also, Sir France Drake discovered California and the Spanish Amanda was defeated (Kilkenny, 2007). Queen Elizabeth paid for the creation of the Gaelic tongue, in Ireland (Olden, 1892).

In conclusion, the Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603 and James IV of Scotland became James I of England (Kilkenny, 2007). He witnessed completion of the translation of the bible in 1611and was referred to as the Authorized or the King James Version (Kilkenny, 2007).

The Pilgrim father formed the first colony in the new world in 1620 that later grew to be the United States of Cabotia (Kilkenny, 2007). The Stuart Dynasty ended in 1688 and thereafter in 1694, the Bank of England was fully fledged and this gave English government authority over bankers and moneychangers (Kilkenny, 2007).

Reference List Chrimes, S. B. (1972). Henry VII. California: University of California Press.

Gravett, C. (1999). Bosworth 1485: last Charge of the Plantagenets. Oxford: Osprey.

Hawes, P. (2009). Wars of the Roses: Lancaster Vs York. Rule book. New York: Z-Man Games, Inc.

Horrox, R. (1989). Richard III. A study of Service. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press.

John, C. (2007). The Tudor Monarchy. Web.

Kilkenny, N. (2007). Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII. Retrieved from http://www.reformation.org/king-henry.pdf

Markham, R. (1983). Henry V: Four Battles from the Hundred Years War. Cambria, CA: 3W. Game.

Mattingly, G. (1941). Catherine of Aragon. New York: Vintage books.

Olden, T. (1892). History of the Church of Ireland. London: Welles, Gardener, Darton and Co.

Starkey, D. (2003). Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Williams, D.T. (1996). The Battle of Bosworth field: 22nd August 1485. Leicester, UK: Bosworth Publications-Leicestershire County Council.


California State Assembly district Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Introduction Elections in the California State Assembly district are guided by the California law. According to this law, any candidate aspiring for any office in the California State Assembly district must gather a certain amount of signatures from the registered voters in the district in the case of a recall.

In most cases, the number of signatures required from the aspirant by the California law must equal 12 percent of the total number of votes cast during the previous election for the seat. It is worth noting that the signatures must be certified by the election panel before a person is declared a candidate for a particular seat (Baldassare, 2002).

After certification of the signatures, the candidates are free to launch their campaign for the specific office. The schedule for the election under the Californian law is supposed to be determined by the governor. However, there exist regular schedules for elections in the California State Assembly.

If a recall to the assembly falls in less than 180 days prior to the regular election schedules, the California law requires such a recall to be part of the regular election schedule. In case of a recall against a governor occurs, the responsibility of determining the special election is given to the lieutenant governor (Mona, 2011).

Research indicates that the California state assembly has had the highest number of recalls compared to other states in America. According to Field (201, p.20), a recall gives citizens an opportunity to replace a public official before the end of their term in office. This happens in the event that the citizens loose confidence in the leadership of a given leader. Traditionally, recalls have been common to leaders holding junior offices. The most recalled seats in the California State Assembly district according to Baldassare (2002) are include that of the city council and members to the boards of schools.

The passing of the Open Primary System on the 14th of June 2010 and the New Legislation Boundaries on 20th of November 2010 changed California’s Congressional and State Legislative delegations. These changes, which are to be effected during the 2012 general election, will make California the state the largest number of delegates and legislators in America.

For instance, these legislations will increase California’s congressional delegates to 53 and the state legislators to 120. The interpretation of these according to Mona (2011) is that new faces will see their way into the California’s congressional and legislative assembly. In addition, this is expected to bring significant changes to the public policy priorities in the state of California (Field 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proposition 14 in the California state election legislations require only the top two vote-getters to proceed to the general election, irrespective of their political parties. The aim of this legislation according to Baldassare (2002) is to eliminate the traditional party nominations forces.

It also allows the congress and state legislature to contact comprehensive campaigns that would attract support from the whole district. Aspirants in thee California state assembly district should therefore be more ambitious in their campaigns by committing both their resources and time to the campaigns.

The results of this type of campaigns in California are that only the candidate who has a district appeal has the highest chance of being elected. It makes elections in the California state assembly district individual based by divorcing it from party politics. With these changes in place, the 2012 general election is expected to be characterized by more fiercely campaigns than ever before in the history of California state assembly district politics.

The state of California deserves a change in terms of the representatives. This is based on the fact that the above mentioned changes aim at bringing new faces in the state’s leadership. In this case, the newly elected members and the incumbents, in case of any former representatives will be elected, may be presenting totally different constituents.

The newly elected officeholders are expected to bring significant changes in the running of the political politics of California State. In addition to the above mentioned changes, the California for a fresh Start (CFS) initiative is expected to bring into the election laws further changes concerning elections in the state. For instance, this initiative aims at reducing the term of holding a public office from 14 years to 12 years (Baldassare 2002)

Conclusion Despite the argument by political analysts that the service of officeholders improves with their increasing time in office, I am of the opinion that the current State Assemblyman in California should be voted out. For me, new leaders should be elected into office because they bring with them new opinions and ideas.

Research has indicated that the more a leader remains in office, the more he or she becomes reluctant in his or her work. The much the current State Assemblyman in California would have done has already done and according to me, voting him back will deny the state new changes in terms of development and leadership strategies.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on California State Assembly district specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baldassare, M. (2002). A Californian state of mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World. New York: Oxford University press.

Field, G. P. (2011). Struggle for Democracy with California Government and Politics today. London: Pearson Education.

Mona, F. (2011). California Government and Politics Today: London: Longman Publishers.


A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction: Summary The main theme in a Doll’s House play is feminist of the time. Nora and Helmer is a model husband and wife, living in peace and harmony in their family until Mrs. Linde, an older friend to Nora made a visit in their home in search of a job. Nora manages to secure a job for Mrs. Linde, but unfortunately pushes Mr. Krogstad an accused forger out of his job. Generally, in this play Henrik Ibsen pointedly captures the inferior role of women in Victorian society through his doll motif.

The play ‘A Doll’s House’ is one of the controversial plays, where Nora’s decision actions to dump her kids is contradictory to her thoughts as she thinks that her kids need her more than she needs her own freedom. The author of the play believed that women were made to be mothers and wives.

Moreover, he brings some idea of having an eye for the injustice on the female characters. Although, feminists would later hold him, Ibsen was not an activist of women’s rights; he only handled the problem of women’s right as an aspect of realism within the play.

The key theme of this play is Nora’s insurgence against society and everything that was really expected of her (Ibsen 140). During her era, women were not expected to be self-reliant but were to remain supportive to their husbands, take care of the kids, cook, clean, and make everything perfect around the house.

When Nora took a loan to pay for her husband’s medical bill, this raised a lot of questions and problems in the minds of many individuals from the community, as it was taken as act against the community norms for women to take up a loan without their husbands’ knowledge.

She proved that she was not submissive and helpless as her husband Torvalds thought she was. Thus the author referred her as “poor helpless little creature.” A good example of Torvald thought control and Nora’s submissiveness was when she got him to remind her tarantella, she knew the dance style but she acted as if she needed him to re-teach her everything.

When he said to her “watching you swing and dance the tarantella makes my blood rush” (Ibsen 125), this clearly shows that he is more interested in her physically than emotionally. Then when asked him to stop he said to her, “am I not your husband?” once more this is another example of Torvald’s control over Nora, and how he thinks that Nora is there to fulfill his every desire on command.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage

Marriage is another aspect that the play addresses; the main message seems to be that, a true working marriage is a joining of equals. In the beginning, Helmers looks happy but as the play progress, the imbalance between them becomes apparent. At the end, their marriage breaks because of lack of misunderstanding among them. They fail to realize themselves and to act as equals. (Johnston 671)

Women and Feminist

Throughout the play, Nora breaks away from the control of her arrogant husband, Torvald. The playwright, Ibsen denies that he wrote a feminist play. Still, throughout the play there is steady talk of women, their traditional roles, and price for them of defying with the traditions. (Johnston 570)

Men and masculinity

Men in this play are trapped by general traditional gender responsibilities. They are seen as the chief providers of the family and they should be in charge of supporting the entire household. Men must be the perfect kings of their respective palace. We see these traditional ideas put across at the end of the play.

Respect and Reputation

The men in this play are occupied with their reputation. Some men have the integrity in their society and do anything to protect it. Even if the play setup is in a living room, the public eye is portrayed through the curtains.


In within the play, ‘A Doll’s House’, the characters spend a lot of time discussing their wealth. Some characters are financially stable and promise for a free flowing money in the future while others struggle to make the end meet. (Ibsen 132)


Love has been given a priority in the play where good time has been used on the topic but in the end, Helmers realize that there was their no true love between them. Romantic love is seen for two of the other characters, but for the main character, true love is pathetic (Ibsen 200).

Dramatic irony

There are some examples in the play where this aspect is used, in Act 1 where Torvald condemns Krogstad for forgery and not coming forward. He also mentions that this action corrupts children’s mind. As a reader, you should know that this is very important to Nora because we know that she had committed forgery in the play and kept it a secret from Torvald. (Johnston 603)

We will write a custom Essay on A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s ironic when Torvald says that he pretends Nora is in some kind of trouble, and he waits the time he can rescue her. When the truth is known and Torvald has been given a chance to save Nora, he is all concerned with his reputation (Ibsen 128).

He abused her by calling her names such as featherbrain; he is not interested with rescuing Nora is interested on how he escapes out of this mess without affecting his reputation negatively. Then, when krogstad brings back the IOU document, Torvald shouts that he is rescued and he has forgiven Nora. Ironically, he did not even consider that she had borrowed the money earlier to save him.

Christmas and New Year

The play is set during the holiday period. Its Christmas period for the Helmers and New Year celebration is approaching. Both Christmas and New Year are associated with rebirth and renewal (Johnston 589).

Several characters in the play go through a rebirth process both Nora and Torvald go through a spiritual awakening, which can be taken as a rebirth. When things fail to happen, she realizes that it will not be possible for her to be a fully realized person until she divorces her husband. Finally, at the end of the play Helmer and Nora have been reborn.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Methuen Drama, 2000. Print.

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. Print.

Johnston, Brian. Ibsen has Selected Plays: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.


Garbage Pollution Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Land Pollution

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Solutions and Recommendations


Introduction Human activities are largely attributed to the loss of the planet’s biodiversity. The impact of man on the environment is so enormous since he has facilitated the rate of species extinction a thousand to ten thousand times the normal rate (Derraik, 2002). The extinction of marine life for instance, has been accelerated by waste debris and the global climatic variations.

The twenty first century has been marked by a dramatic technological advancement that has uplifted the standard of living. However, this has also come with a great cost since the materials produced are difficult to dispose without affecting the environment. Plastic bags, household garbage and electronic waste are such products, which have posed a great risk to the environment since the means of disposing them is difficult (Derraik, 2002).

Thesis: Garbage remains are a burning problem that we have to face today. It is close to everyone who lives in the world because we product trash every day. In most of the world, we do one of two things with our ordinary garbage: burn it or bury it. Neither one is good for us or for the environment. Burning garbage in incinerators releases dangerous gases and dust which contribute to global warming and pollute lakes, forests. How to reduce the garbage remains become a big issue for everyone.

Land Pollution Typical house hold waste contains papers, cardboards, chlorine-bleached plastics, foils, food scraps and batteries (EPA, 2011). Averagely, in the U.S, a single person can produce 3.72 pounds garbage daily, where 40% of 50 million people living in the non-metropolitan region of the nation are estimated to burn their waste (backyard burning), while 63% of the total daily garbage is incinerated in burn barrels. As a result, more than 1.8 billion pounds of garbage from household is incinerated in burn barrels annually (MDEQ, 2005).

According to Hill (2010 p.345), more than ‘500 billion one-time-use plastic bags’ are used annually in the world and end up being littered ubiquitously to comprise waste/misuse. At the same time, plastics are non-biodegradable and burying them only destroys the ecosystem, posing a hazard to marine ecosystems. Plastics are polymeric, highly non-biodegradable and persist for a long time in the natural environments (Hill, 2010).

Electronic wastes/e-waste comprises of discarded electronic appliances such as computers, phones, TV, and fringes. These are hazardous when improperly disposed in landfills or when incinerated. For instance, the Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) present in televisions contains phosphors and lead that contaminates the land and water if improperly disposed, or when there is transfer of the ash from the incinerators. Such landfills contaminate the surrounding soil which in turn contaminates the underground water (MDEQ, 2005).

Air Pollution Plastics are derivatives of fossils fuels with varied chemical properties hence, complicating the recycling process. Therefore, burning garbage particularly the ones containing plastics, pollute the atmosphere through emission of toxic gases. Many have volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) such as chlorine/bromine that are released on burning and destroy the ozone layer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carbon dioxide and monoxide released from burning organic matter also accumulates in the atmosphere. Ultimately, they deplete the ozone layer resulting to global warming, which is the chief facilitator of climate change (MDEQ, 2005).

PVC in particular, releases dioxin upon burning. Dioxin is an organic chemical, which has detrimental health effects when inhaled since they are carcinogenic and bio-accumulative. Incineration emits flue gas that contains hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, benzene, styrene, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans as well as heavy metals like lead, arsenic and mercury, which significantly pollute the environment (MDEQ, 2005).

Burn barrels release smoke containing hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde, which irritates the respiratory system and eyes. Formaldehyde is present in pressed wood and paints. On the other hand, bleached papers and plastics contain chlorine, which releases dioxins when combusted with other garbage at minimal temperatures.

Dioxins cause cancer, immune system dysfunction and birth defects (EPA, 2011). On the same note, statistics from 2002 to 2004 indicates that backyard and barrel burning comprised 57% of the source of furans and dioxins (U.S. Department of Health, 2011; EPA, 2011).

More so, combusting garbage with synthetic materials emits heavy metals that are carcinogenic and implicated with some birth defects. Combusting polystyrene polymers present in foam cups and plastic packaging produce styrene gas that can pass through skin as well as lungs and mucous membranes to cause damage to the central nervous system (U.S. Department of Health, 2011).

Water Pollution Some plastics and electronic wastes go ahead to breakdown into simpler toxic products that pollute the underground as well as the running water when buried or left to litter in dumpsites. After incineration of electronic wastes and plastics, the ashes finally find their way in rivers and lakes thus posing a hazard to marine life.

Mercury, dioxins, Furans and PCBs bioaccumulate in the ecosystem and therefore, they are transferred through the food chain. When plastics pile together due to poor disposal, they clog drainages and sewers leading to floods, where mosquitoes and other pathogens breed causing poor sanitation with serious health implications (Derraik, 2002).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Garbage Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ash from incinerators may contain hazardous products, which when buried or placed in the landfills, contaminate the soil. Mostly, they contain heavy metals most of which are carcinogenic e.g. cadmium, lead mercury from batteries as well as chromium and arsenic from treated wood. These accumulate in plants or contaminate ground and running water.

Garbage debris moves to the oceans, killing the marine life such as zooplankton and marine turtles. Garbage discarded in beaches and from ships into the waterways or through fishing nets could ultimately be eaten by marine life, obscuring their digestive systems. Some are strangled, entangled or trapped by the debris causing the organisms to drown/starve, become exposed to predators or unable to hunt their prey.

These are some of deleterious impacts of marine debris facilitated by garbage littering, which jeopardize the existence of these organisms (Derraik, 2002). The ingested plastics also contain polychlorinated biphenyls that are hazardous to invader species. Moreover, the marine ecosystems also face the danger of hypoxia/anoxia, due to garbage debris that imbalance its usual functioning (Derraik, 2002).

Solutions and Recommendations The economic implications of garbage cannot be ignored since enormous amount of money is spent in clearing and treating the litter, addressing public health concerns and recycling. International legislations and cooperation should be oriented towards conserving the environment through proper disposal of garbage, recycling of plastic and use of alternative packaging that are biodegradable or long lasting bags that can be reused severally.

Moreover, public awareness should be enhanced through education of the wider community through the school curriculum. International relations facilitated by the concept of ‘Thinking globally and acting locally’ significantly address the environmental threat posed by garbage disposal (Derraik, 2002).

Garbage pollution can be managed through recycling measures or banning of plastic bags used in packaging. Alternative ecofriendly means of packaging should be drafted while high taxes should be imposed on the manufacturer and consumers of these plastics. Electronic waste can also be recycled and refurbished. ‘Reduce’, ‘Reuse’ and ‘Recycle’ are the 3Rs that go a long way in handling the issue of garbage.

Pre-cycle entails selecting items that are less packaged or those that can be reused. Reuse of old papers, plastic bags and cans, offering old clothes for charity as well as using a coffee mug rather than disposable cups is crucial. Reduce, refers to minimizing the household garbage through purchasing economy packs and avoiding wastage of papers. Recycling of plastics and papers, cardboards and even e-waste should be upheld (U. S. Department of Health, 2011).

Biodegradable garbage should be left to decompose in a composite pit while the rest should be placed in licensed landfills. To sum it all, backyard burning should be regulated in all countries particularly in the rural regions since it does not only pollute the air but also comprises a significant emission of toxic residue that poses a high risk to the public health and more so, decrease the quality of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Garbage Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burn barrels that facilitate incomplete combustion to emit very toxic compounds should be regulated. Therefore, licensed incinerators with filters and temperatures exceeding 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit to facilitate complete combustion, should be embraced to minimize hazardous emissions.

References Derraik, J. G. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852.

Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding Environmental Pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). (2005). Backyard Burn Barrels Vs. Municipal Waste Combustors. Retrieved from https://www.michigan.gov/

U. S. Department of Health. (2011). Does Burning Trash Make it Disappear: Stop Backyard Burning. Retrieved from https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/outdoors/air/trash.htm

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Outdoor Air – Industry, Business, and Home: Backyard Trash Burning – Additional Information. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/


Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos Essay college essay help: college essay help

Aristotelian appeals: Ethos, Pathos and Logos Musicians use persuasions from ethos in order to confirm the truth of something or their characters. In contemporary society, people have moved out their families, and some parents have joined retirement homes.

Consequently, the idea of ethos has shifted from family to individuals’ material possessions, academic achievements among others. However, Aristotle shows that ethos does not emanate from personal appeal, but rather from the use of language. For instance, Thievery Corporation establishes ethos through their song, The Richest Man in Babylon by use of artistic language.

Thievery Corporation show a character of an upright fellow who stands to condemn the indifference of the richest man in Babylon. The song by the Clash, Know your rights, tries to confirm to people about their rights. The musician assertively says that the song is a public announcement. John Lennon condemns the suffering people go through right from birth to adult working life. Every new stage evolves into a new form of suffering.

There is a problem in expression of modern ethos. The outward appearance has virtually consumed the intellect and moral of individuals. The Richest Man in Babylon demonstrates the modern notion of ethos whereby people put much emphasis on their personal wealth and self than character. The material possessions consume the moral and character of an individual.

Aristotle’s tells people elements, which speakers use to inspire confidence in a character. A person of ethos must observe good sense, moral character, and goodwill. People who utter misleading information and advices do not have elements of a good character. The Clash gives people good advice about their rights because he has the three elements of a character. By telling people to know their rights, he is exhibiting goodwill to every person who has experienced discrimination in any form. Further, use of “I” establishes The Clash credibility.

Pathos captures the emotions of the listeners. Musicians establish reception for their ideas into listeners’ minds through the use of artistic language. John Lennon creates a sense of pity for the Working Class Hero. At the same time, he also condemns wrongs the Working Class Hero undergoes.

Aristotle shows how to establish various emotional appeals among the audience. The musician can fluctuate from anger, pain, pleasure to sense of calm. This is what John Lennon does through asserting that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all” and “Till you’re so fucking crazy you can’t follow their rules”. The Richest Man in Babylon appeals to listeners’ emotions through sense of virtue and vice, rich and poor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The song goes as “The wicked stench of exploitation” and “Beneath the praise and admiration” to highlight sense of vice behind wealth. He further appeals to listeners’ deepest emotions by the line “Your beggars sleep outside your doorway” and “Your servants have burned all their songs. Nobody here remembers freedom”. John Lennon balances between emotions as follows “But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”.

However, Aristotle warns musicians against playing with listeners’ emotions. This can ultimately corrupt the judgment of their listeners (Fabiola 20). Fabiola E. Saul is a Spanish writer who has authored books on pedagogical theory of education. This book provides a critical reflection of Aristotelian appeals of pathos, ethos and logos in studying human emotions, truth and credibility. This book is also available in Spanish language.

Musicians appeal to listeners through sense of logos. There is inductive logic, which involves a couple of examples and then generalization. Conversely, deductive logic is whereby the musicians give audience couple of general illustrations and then draw a specific conclusion. This is how musicians establish the new truth. The Clash urges people to know their rights by drawing a couple of example such as “You have the right not to be killed. You have the right to food money” and “You have the right to freeee speech”.

He then concludes that “Know your rights. These are your rights, all 3 of ’em”. Likewise, John Lennon gives a couple of frustrations the Working Class Hero undergoes, and he concludes that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all”. Thievery Corporations uses logos appeal to the Richest Man in Babylon through several examples then advices him as follows “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

Musical composition: Lyrics, Tone, Rhythm, and Melody Musicians base songs on four most vital elements. These elements are crucial in establishing the essence of a musical composition. These four elements appeal to listeners in various ways and collectively make up a song.

In melody, musicians use successive lines of one tone to create unity in length and intensity. Melody contains a unit of meaning. For instance, John Lennon’s unit of meaning exists in “When they’ve tortured and scared you for twenty odd years”.

Melody also exists in the final part of the song e.g. “If you want to be a hero well just follow me”. We can also find melody at the climax of the song. For instance, in Thievery Corporation we have melody at “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

We will write a custom Essay on Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rhythm is the flow in music. Rhythm entails timely flow in a song. For instance, in The Richest Man in Babylon we have rhythm at “There is no guidance in your kingdom” and “There is no wisdom to your freedom”. The Clash utilizes rhythm at “Investigation, humiliation, And if you cross your fingers rehabilitation”.

John Lennon uses it at “There’s room at the top they are telling you still. But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”. Lyrics go with the tone of the music. We know that not every song is slow nor is every song fast. The tones and lyrics of these songs are fast and cheerful to the listeners.

Works Cited Fabiola, Gavito. Pathos, Ethos and Logos: An Aristotelian Theory On Education. New York: John Wiley


California State Senate Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The California state senate is the higher house of the California State Legislature and it consists of 40 state senators who are restricted to serving two four- year terms. The state Legislature meeting takes place at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor, who was the President of the Senate is currently authorized to influence on the tied vote. The Presidents, Secretary of the Senate, and Senate Sergeant-at Arms manage the Senate and are elected at the start of each legislative session.

My State senator in is District 8 Leland Yee. He is an official representative of the western part of San Francisco and the biggest part of San Mateo County. Before he has become a state senator, he was a California State Assemblyman and Supervisor of San Francisco’s Sunset district. He has also been a member and President of San Francisco School Board. Yee was elected to be the first Temporal Speaker for African Americans and this is why he is considered to be the second most active Democrat in the California State Assembly.

Leland Yee has done a lot for the people of California and as a result, has been named Legislator of the Year by numerous organizations. Yee should be elected back to the senate. Some of his most recognizable contributions to the State include tireless fights for children, women and the elderly, improvement of education and health services, advocacy for an open government, consumer protection, and environmental protection (Cantrell, 2011). He has repeatedly voted against budget cuts to education, social services, and health care.

On matters relating to public safety, Yee has committed himself to not only protecting California’s most vulnerable, such as victims of human trafficking and domestic violence from oppression and discrimination, but also in enhancing public safety locally in the entire San Francisco. He passed a bill, SB 1356 that has been chaptered into the law which protects domestic violence survivors from the threat of confinement, when they refuse to testify against their abuser in court.

This fight has led him into receiving the Modern Day Abolition Award by the San Francisco Collaborative Against Human Trafficking, the Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Neighborhoods by the Coalition for San Francisco Neighborhoods and has been recognized as the Legislator of the Year by the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence. He is currently working on other bills that will be of help to the State, if he is re-elected, he will continue fighting for public safety and protection of the citizens.

Leland Yee has fought to reform public schools and public institutions of higher learning (Aoki


Nanotechnology Risk in NanoBatteries Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Table of Contents Hazard and Exposure Identification

Consumer Risks

Environmental Hazards

Occupational Risks

Risk Management

Works Cited

Nanotechnology involves the manufacture and the use of biological, chemical and physical systems at scales ranging from individual molecules or atoms which are about a hundred nanometers (Bowman


Ethical Problems for New Graduates Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

New graduates face different ethical dilemmas every time they join a new organization. Markkula Center of Applied Ethics offers dynamic insights regarding how new graduates should tackle different ethical dilemmas. Most of the advice given in the short videos recommends a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas.

For instance, the videos recommend that new graduates should always understand the background of the ethical dilemma in the organization and review if appropriate actions are normally taken in such situations or not. This is a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas. For instance, regarding the accounting dilemma, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics recommends that new graduates should investigate if errors of omission are normally committed in the organization.

Moreover, the interviewee (Hanson) explains that, employees should investigate if action is ordinarily taken in such situations. If it is established that there is a serious ethical problem, Hanson recommends that the problem should be escalated to superior authorities.

Based on a friend’s experience, it is normally difficult to escalate an ethical dilemma to a superior authority if an employee is still new to an organization. Often, new graduates have just secured new positions in organizations and ordinarily, their first preoccupation would not be to ask many questions regarding the ethical or unethical conduct of the organization but to get everyone to like them.

In extreme situations, most new employees would focus on securing their jobs and refrain from drawing too much attention to themselves by blowing the whistle on a colleague. Such scenarios are common for new graduates and Hanson’s advice of escalating ethical dilemmas to higher authorities fail to represent the real situation facing most new graduates in the organization.

The above approach of handling the accounting dilemma is also stressed in the ethical dilemma of gender discrimination. Hanson’s advice to women who think they are being discriminated against is defined by a background analysis of the ethical dilemma. He proposes that this background study is crucial to establish if there is substantial ground to assume an employee is being discriminated against (or not).

He points out that there are unique situations where an organization may treat an employee differently (such as when an employee is being prepared for an international assignment) and it is therefore important to refrain from unleashing the “gender” or “race” card (if a background study of the problem is not done). Hanson’s assessment is an intelligent but cautionary approach to handling gender-based ethical dilemmas because a colleague’s real-life experience shows that this approach is always the best.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there was a case where a female employee confronted her supervisor for giving her fewer duties at work because she believed she was given fewer tasks because she was a woman. It turned out that it was the company’s procedure to give fewer duties to new staff until they got acquainted with the organization’s tasks. The female employee had to withdraw her complaint because she did not give herself enough time to learn how the organization operates.

Based on the above example, Hanson’s advice to new graduates is well informed Comprehensively, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics provides the right framework for handling ethical dilemmas but Hanson’s advice regarding first time ethical dilemmas is a little shallow. More sensitivity should therefore be given towards the “real” organizational environment facing new graduates (or employees who have just secured employment).

For instance, more focus should be made on how new graduates can solve ethical dilemmas without running the risk of losing their jobs or getting their employers in trouble. Such is the recommendation that applies to the accounting dilemma.


The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction: The Deadly Breath of the War Among all controversial issues that the humankind conceal sin the folds of time, the history of was must be the most biased one. Caused by certain political issues and demanding enormous blood-shedding to satisfy its thirst for cruelty, war is the most despicable and disgusting invention of the humankind.

Nevertheless, a part and parcel of evolution, wars do occur even in the most advanced countries on a variety of premises, not to mention the clash of cultures and the resulting conflict that occurs as two countries of different stages of development are at war.

Because of the complexity of the political, economical and personal issues that mixed in the course of the notorious Vietnam War, the latter can be posed not only as a conflict between the two states, but as a conflict between the two cultures, political forces and the visions of the reality, both political and civil one, which requires thorough considerations.

Providing sufficient food for thoughts, the events of the Vietnam War are quite hard to analyze from the bird’s-eye view of the present days, yet offer an enticing material for exploration that allows to learn more about the political affairs of the USA, the motivations of the 1967-68 Congress and the President and make certain conclusions about the policy of the United States.

Analyzing the viewpoints of an ordinary soldier and a civil citizen who witnessed the Vietnam War, one can demonstrate the differences in the visions of the two and offer reasonable explanations for the phenomenon.

The Matter of Honor and Courage: In the Eye of a Soldier There can be no possible doubt that, to realize what the war is, one has to see the horrors and the destruction of the armed conflict with his/her own eyes, which the author of the book, Frederick Downs[1], demonstrates quite well. With the help of the most realistic descriptions and the vivid pictures of woes that soldiers had to take in the course of the battles, the author makes the people sink into the mind of the man with the gun.

It is quite important that the author portrays both the elements of the relatively calm and peaceful environment – if anything in the front line can be calm and peaceful – and invites the reader into the mind of his own – the place where ideas and morals are set loose, and the only wish that is left is taking the revenge on those who destroyed his life – not the vengeance inspired by raging fury, but the revenge of a cool-blooded mind, the man who knows what he is doing and why.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Showing the readers that war literally kills the remnants of humanity left within, Frederick portrays himself as a man motivated by the wish to kill: “The American strategy was to draw them into a fight so we could use our superior firepower to destroy them. To win a battle, we had to kill them. For them to win, all they had to do was survive.[2]”

On the battlefield Whenever Downs refers to the descriptions of the battles, he emphasizes that the fights that take place here are far from what the civils imagine as they hear the word “battle.” Making it clear that there is no room for compassion when the war is going on, Downs draws the line between a soldier and the people left in the rear. Whenever the author mentions civils, there is a slight tint of scorn in his words:

‘Not everyone doing the fighting is in the newspapers. You’ll never ever see a reporter up there. It’s too rough for them.’ He looked at my youth. ‘You’ll get a belly full of fighting up there, son, if that’s what you want.[3]’

Thus, the author clearly showed that the Vietnamese war, like any other one in the history of the universe did, split the nation into two parts, the still living one and the ones who have their life on credit. In the vision of a soldier who is partaking in the Vietnamese War, there is no yesterday or tomorrow, there is only the current moment, the blissful “now,” which means that the death is not here yet: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone.

I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[4]” When the war has broken out, there can be no compassion, otherwise, the soldier will go mad.

The political controversy Of all the issues concerning the Vietnamese War and the decisions undertaken by the government, the issue concerning the way the war went and the way the government wanted to portray it to an average citizen were strikingly different, which Downs does not hesitate to expose. At this point, the interception of the soldier’s life and the life of a civil citizen can be traced to point at the obvious diversities in the perception of the two and point at the main difference between a soldier and a civil.

It was obvious that the Congress was trying to lift the spirits of the country and not let people become depressed about the tragic event once again, which resulted the striking contrast of the attitudes towards the war in the front and in the rear. While the latter were perfectly sure that the situation is fully under control and that the victory is just around the corner, the soldiers were supposed not merely to observe the opposite, but to fight it with their efforts doubled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps, it is even not the cruelty of the tragedies that occurred in the course of the war, but the cool, emotionless reports of Downs that sends shivers down the reader’s spine: “Two women survived long enough to cross the bridge and enter one of the hootches. Three of my men crossed over the bridge and threw grenades in the hootches.[5]” It is worth mentioning, though, that the lead character is not portrayed as a machine for murdering enemies either.

Though the battles and the numerous deaths that he has seen made him coarse and emotionless, there is still the remaining of his old self, and he still feels pity when mentioning that the war is spreading like cancer all over the place: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone. I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[6]”

Serving on the home front: An average citizen’s position In contrast to the soldiers in the front, the people in the rear were under the delusion that the Vietnamese with their attempts at defeating the American troops are doomed to a failure. Considering the letters to the New York Times Editor, one can see the way the enemies were portrayed: “the intense and futile commitment in Vietnam is deepening the sense of resentment…[7]”

However, it must be taken into account that the New York Times editors were aiming rather at keeping people optimistic, forgetting what kind of road good intentions pave, depicting the Vietnamese patriotism as “not quite bright” instead of “rather dangerous.[8]”

Playing a game of chess However, it is essential to add that the vision of war that an average citizen had in the USA in 1967-68 was half-optimistic, half-frightened. Some journalists conveyed in their articles the ideas that there were instances of corruption and treachery in the USA Army[9], which dropped the rates of optimism among the citizen.

Still, compared to the miseries and injustice depicted by Downs, these were the minor issues that called to people’s patriotic feelings and the willingness to protect the country, while the soldiers were already deprived of any hope. Portraying Presidents “rejection of dissent on war,[10]” journalists made attempts to stir the public, yet they did not reveal what happened in the front.

Here is the newsflash Offering the citizens snatches of essential information, journalists contributed to the shaping of people’s idea of war. For most of the citizens, war was the gas used on crowd[11] and the short notes on the success of military actions. On the one hand, such inspiring ideas did contribute to the shaping of patriotic feeling.

On the other hand, people were unable to see that was going on in the front, which made people think of the war as of some faraway monster that will obviously be defeated. With his incredibly gloomy and truthful story, Downs bursts the bubbles of the public, yet he is unfortunately late.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion: Counting the Losses Hence, it can be concluded that Vietnam War was rather versatile issue in the distant 1967-68 for a civilian and a soldier, which can be explained by a number of reasons.

Due to the different settings and environment, the two could not envision the war any different way; serving on the home front and learning about the events on the battlefield from the newspaper articles and short reports that could not deliver the grief and pain, though journalists did attempt to[12], citizens could not conceive the terror and pain of being in the heat of the battle and, thus, considered the war as the event that will help to restore justice in the USA if only the army pulls itself together[13].

Meanwhile, soldiers were facing the terror and agony of pain, coming one step closer to peril every single say and narrowing the article of death with every step that they made.

Therefore, it can be claimed that Downs’s book served as an eye-opener for millions of people. Obviously, the two viewpoints considered above are diametrically opposite to each other, the vision of a civil citizen being mist optimistic, and the world of a soldier collapsing in front of him. However, comprising the two, one will be able to obtain the ultimate truth – the real story of what happened in the course of the Vietnam War, the painful experience that was inevitable yet almost unbearable for the two nations.

Reference List Carr, A. Z. (1967). Our Vietnam policy. New York Times, p. 46.

Downs, F. (2007). The killing zone: My life in Vietnam War. New York, NY: W. W. Norton