Typical American Families Essay College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Two Typical Families

Socioeconomic Background

Relationships between Spouses

Relationships between Siblings

Two Similar Families

Works Cited

Two Typical Families Sitcoms usually portray typical families that may be a bit funnier than real ones. Two sitcoms, The Cosby Show and Roseanne, are no exceptions. The two families, the Conners and the Huxtables, have much in common. They share the same socioeconomic statuses; they also face the same issues concerning relationships with each other.

Of course, there are certain differences between the two families. However, it is possible to state that these differences simply serve a background which reveals how similar the families are. It is possible to focus on three points to prove this assumption. These points are: socioeconomic status, relationships between siblings and relationships between spouses.

Socioeconomic Background In the first place, it is necessary to point out that the two families pertain to middle class. This makes them really similar as they face similar difficulties. The two families are not much concerned with making money. They are rather concerned with developing proper relationships with each other and other people.

Thus, they also know how to have fun. For instance, the Huxtables arrange great Halloween party (cosbyshow3). The Conners, or rather Roseanne and her husband Dan, have a nice special evening (RoseanneConnerVideo). Apparently, they do not need to focus on ways to earn money.

Relationships between Spouses The two sitcoms also depict relationships between the spouses. The two couples can be regarded as model spouses. They love each other. They are caring and supportive. There is one more thing similar in both families. Thus, each woman treats her husband as another child. They accept that their men are a little bit childish. For instance, this quality is manifested in such cases as giving advice to children in different situations. However, it is obvious that the women know that they can rely on their husbands who are the heads of their families.

Relationships between Siblings Finally, relationships between siblings are some of the major focuses of the two sitcoms. Admittedly, relationships between siblings play a very important role in everyone’s life (or rather in life of those having a sibling). Seemingly, these relationships are different in the two families. For instance, Vanessa and Janise Huxtable are really friendly and help each other all the time (The Cosby Show). They support each other.

On the contrary, Darlene Conner often makes fun of her sister (maskath-1). It may seem that the siblings hate each other. However, Darlene’s tricks also prove that she does love her sister and will help her whenever she needs that help. More so, such tricks show that Darlene loves her sister immensely as she can afford making fun of her as if she was the only one to have such a right justified by her love and care. Admittedly, Darlene would never let anyone hurt her sister.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Two Similar Families Therefore, it is possible to assume that the two families are similar even though there are some minor differences. Apparently, these families are similar in different levels, i.e. they pertain to the same socioeconomic background, they are similar in terms of relationships between members of the families.

The two families are very friendly. Each member of the two families is caring and supportive. Admittedly, sitcoms usually depict typical families. Thus, it is possible to conclude that the majority of American families are like that. Hopefully, Americans still rely on basic values which are highlighted in the sitcoms.

Works Cited cosbyshow3. “The Cosby Show – Halloween.” Video. YouTube, 18 June 2008. Web. maskath-1. “Biography for Darlene Conner.” IMDb, 2010. Web.

RoseanneConnerVideo. “Rosseanne Inherit: The Wind.” Video. YouTube, 9 July 2008. Web. “The Cosby Show.” IMDb, n.d. Web.


International Relation Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Works Cited

Introduction It is important for individuals to think theoretically in order to understand the factors that lead to the occurrence of events and their outcomes (Nosotro 4). It is also important for people to be aware of the current affairs of the world and the impacts they have on their lives, their societies, their states and the world at large. At the present moment, the world is facing a number of issues.

For instance, the United States of America is pulling out its troops from Iraq, the European Union is meeting to come up with a strategy that will solve the economic crisis in its member states, presidential candidates are trying to win the support of the US citizens, Palestine war prisoners were released by the Israeli government to save one Israeli soldier and Libya is trying to recover from a change in regime. These are just but a few of the current issues that the globe is facing. All these issues are as a result of politics.

It is politics that drives the manner in which a nation is run and the relationship that it will have with its citizens, neighbours and other states of the world. However, different individuals have different political ideologies. Thus different nations of the world are run by leaders who have different missions and visions and definitely, they have different methods of achieving these goals and objectives (Hoffman 31).

In addition, the larger majority of the community also have different political ideologies. It is due to this fact that scholars have developed various theories that explain these ideologies and the impacts they have on world politics. This essay shall therefore focus on the theories of realist, liberals and feminists. Through critical analysis, it shall expound on their differences and the impacts they have on world politics and international relations.

Realism Realism is a political theory that bases its arguments on the notion that world politics is based on the self-interests of nations (Adler 19). Due to this fact, nations try to gain superiority or dominance over other states. Realists therefore believe that nations are in a race of proving which one amongst them all is more powerful over the others.

To achieve this, nations need to have a strong military to protect its boundaries and interests, a strong economy and a society that is loyal to the state (Burchill 41). According to Burchill (2000), in the process of struggling for power, the success of a nation will definitely result to failure of another. This is referred to as the Zero Sum-Game.

The elements of realism with regards to international relations can be traced back into ancient history. Sun Tzu (544-496 B.C), the Chinese General and the author of The Art of War and Thucydides (460-399 B.C), the great Greek Historians are believed to be the earliest realist in history (Cohen 412). Through their words and actions, they managed to impart this ideology into the minds of masses. However, in modern times, realism was exhibited through the words and actions of strong political figures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) is among the earliest rulers to apply the concept of realism in his regime. Through his realist beliefs and actions, he managed to unify Germany under the control of Prussia. However, the concept of realism was widely applied after the First World War. Many scholars state that it is through realism that the Second World War emerged (Sodaro 226).

The development of the League of Nations to protect the interest of the allies, the partnership of France, Britain and USA to form the allies and the struggle for Germany to control Eastern Europe clearly shows the application of the realism theory into practice. All of these nations were fighting for dominance and to protect their interests. As Cohen (2002) asserted, international politics, like any other form of politics, is a struggle for power (21).

Realism has two schools of thought; classical realism and neorealism (Kapuscinski 118). Classical realism is pessimistic about human nature. According to the believers of this school of thought, it is hard for a specific nation to trust other countries and their citizens. (Locke 31)

This is due to the notion that man always has a dark side and since politics is a ruthless and dangerous game, man will always strive to gain dominance over other. In the process, rivalry and enmity develop. Neorealists on the other hand still believe that the cause of conflict in international politics portrays the human urge for power.

However, according to them, the source of conflict in international relations is its anarchic system (Delaney 27). According to the theory of neorealism, the world is made up of many states that have self-rule. However, there is no law that governs independent states. This therefore results to a system of disorder since there is no common law or rule that different states can follow.

Therefore, to protect their own interest, these nations utilize the resources they have to the fullest. However, since there is no law that will govern the manner in which each state will utilize its resources, these states normally use any means possible to achieve their goals and objectives. This, will in most cases result into conflict of interests among different states (Voltaire 98).

Through realism, there is always struggle between nations while they strive to achieve their national interest. According to the words of one realist, states normally follow the rules of Charles Darwin in the process of achieving their goals and objectives (Drakulic 67).

We will write a custom Term Paper on International Relation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With this respect, the nations that have the powers and capabilities to achieve their goals and objectives normally survive while those nations that are weak normally perish. It is just like the theory of struggle for the fittest. Thus, in the eyes of a realist, a nation is successful if its national interests strengthen and improve its military, political stability and national economy (Jean-Luis 15).

With regards to the dark view of politics, realists have little faith that the anarchy in world politics will come to an end. Morgenthau stated that the only way that the international system can be rectified is through the emergence of a unified global power that has the interest of all states and regulates their actions (Weinberg 261).

However, he went on further to state that having a global government is impossible thus each and every state will always be after its own interest. Realists thus believe that it is essential for states to have equal power. This can only be achieved if these states have a strong military and economic background.

Partnerships and alliances should thus be formed for those states that find it difficult to achieve stability on their own. This will ensure that there is equal distribution of power in all states and reduce the chances of domination by a specific state or region (Creatorix.com 3).this is because realist believe that peace can only be attained through power and might.

That is why realist presidents such as Ronal Reagan and George W. Bush advocated for a strong army that would not only protect the national interest of USA but also the security of the globe. It is only through might that world peace can be attained.

Liberalism Liberalism is an approach that contends that individuals and the nations that they represent can come into a consensus on their matters of interest (Southhall 36). Liberalism also believes that it is possible for different states to have a common interest and work together to achieve their individual and collective goals and objectives.

However, for these states to achieve this, they have to form alliances and international bodies and follow international law. Unlike the realist, liberals do not believe the notion that for a nation to achieve its interests, another nation should suffer the consequences.

Instead, they believe in non-zero sum game (Smith 191). According to the liberal theory, it is possible for states to have a win-win situation. Liberals also have the beliefs that man has bonds that not only ties them to the boundaries of the states, religion or culture but also binds them on the grounds of human nature. Therefore, men from different states, religions or cultures can have a mutual agreement on various issues.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Relation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Just like realism, liberalism is a political ideology that has been with us for years. However, much of the modern liberal theories seem to have developed from realism theories. However, there are major differences in the ideologies and beliefs of these two theories. According to the liberal theory, justice is a basic human right that has to be respected by all.

This concept can be traced to the era of Mesopotamia (2500 B.C.) where individuals developed the sense of universalism in a bid to find peace and justice. During the 14th century, Pierre Dubois advocated for all Christian around the world to unite and form a global league of peace. Just like realism, liberalism also played an important role after the end of the First World War.

Through the actions of President Woodrow, the League of Nations was formed to check the actions of every state in the world in a bid to stop the occurrence of another world war. It is however, during the period of the cold war that the ideology of liberalism was put into practice. During this era, man had developed nuclear power that could end the entire human civilization (Hoffman 67).

Through their idealistic beliefs, the United States of America and the Soviet Union had embarked on an arms race. This led to the development of lethal weapons of mass destruction. During this era, scholars and humanitarians preached liberalism. These individuals stressed the importance of values such as peace and justice in international politics. As a result, many nations embraced the concept of democracy (Hoffman 91).

This led to the decline of socialism and dictatorship. Many nations strived to work together to achieve their goals, objectives and world peace. This led to the development of the United Nations, European Union, African Union and currently the International Criminal Court. Realism could not explain the growth of such international unions and the development of the international law (Dunne 15).

Similarly, liberalism has two schools of thought; classical liberalism and neoliberalism (Dunne 31). Classical liberalism is believed to have developed from realism. Just like classical realism, classical liberalism lays its basis on human nature.

However, unlike in classical realism where the theory was pessimistic about human nature, classical realism is optimistic. It follows the arguments presented by individuals such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau. According to his argument, Rousseau stated that it is easier for societies to live in peace and harmony and achieve much through collaboration rather than individual competition.

In the current world, this has been exhibited by states forming partnerships that aim at achieving global peace, growth and development. Neoliberalism on the other hand developed during the 1970s and 1980s (Hoffman 112). This ideology has the same belief as neo realism that increased competition among states might lead to the development of conflicts and in some intense cases, war.

However, neoliberalists differ from neorealists about the anarchical state of world. Neoliberalists state that nations have high degree of interdependence from activities such as trade and commerce, social, cultural and other ties (Delaney 28). These ties increase their interdependence and embrace the formation and development of international bodies and laws that govern and regulate international activities. In the long run, liberals argue that the world is not as anarchical as realists claim.

From the arguments that have been presented so far, it is evident that liberals do not believe that manifesting, acquiring and preserving power has always been the main goal of international relation. Liberals believe that foreign policy among states can be achieved through cooperation and altruism (Jean-Luis 18). However, it should be noted that liberals are not against war or military power. Liberals believe that it is essential for a state to protect its boundaries, subjects and interests. In the process, a nation can use military force.

Other instances where liberals advocate for the use of power and coercion include instances where world peace is at stake through genocides, holocausts and terrorist attacks. These wars are should thus waged by the United Nations and other international bodies. For instance, President Woodrow joined the allies in the Second World War as a means of ending the war and bringing peace to the world (Wibben 27).

The dream of liberals is for humanity to develop a peaceful, effective and efficient international system. Although the realist put much emphasis on state power and sovereignty, liberals believe that for the world to be peaceful and experience economic, social and political growth, states must rely on the United Nations and International Governmental Organizations as forum to embrace international cooperation.

However, classical liberals believe that states can still maintain their sovereignty and participate in international cooperation. On the other hand, neoliberals believe that it is essential for states to give up some of their independence to international bodies for maximum cooperation to be experienced.

Neoliberals are thus encouraged by the current trends that the world is currently experiencing. The European Union for instance has taken over the economic power and control of its member states. The body is thus in a position to implement policies and measures that its member states have to adhere to. This has brought about a lot of growth and development in the region despite the harsh economic conditions that the world is currently experiencing.

Feminism Feminism constitutes a number of movements that aim at defending equal opportunities for the women in the various fields of politics, social rights and other aspects in the society (Wibben 25). Approaches of feminism to international relations became rampant in the late twentieth century and these approaches demanded that the experiences that women had were to be ignored from studies to do with international relations theory.

Feminists who study international relations argued that gender issues apply in international relations. This was based on influence of the spouses of diplomats in the promotion of sex trafficking. Feminist international relations approaches in the past used to be part of the major debate that ensued between the post-positivists and their counterparts, the positivists (Burchill 51).

Four major varieties of feminism exist. They include marxist, liberal, radical and socialist (Burchill 54). Other categories may include black feminism and functionalist feminism. Liberal feminism occurs when prejudgment revolves around ignorance of individuals. Education is said to be the key to the fight against discrimination brought about by ignorance.

Marxist feminism is a form of a class relationship that is the major cause of women’s oppression and discrimination. This occurs when men transfer the exploitative relationships at work to their wives at home hence become a burden to them.

Tickner (2005) identified and used a number of contemporary feminist situations to the issue of international relations in her book, Gender in international relations: Feminist Perspective on Achieving Global security (15). This perception suggested viable criticism to the Marxist, liberal and realist theories. She also points out the gender differences that came about during the construction of state identities and the roles that the citizens played in the state.

Feminists have always criticized the manner in which men perceive international relations. For instance, men normally interpret peace as the absence of war. This is what feminist refer to as negative peace. For them, positive peace should include equality, social justice and economic balance (The Economist 4).

Thus, women have embarked on the process of bringing peace and equality into the world through politics and humanitarian movements. This does not mean that feminists desire a nation that comprises of women, but it means that women desire their states to have feminism consciousness.

Conclusion International relations is a key aspect that determines world peace, growth and development. To achieve these goals, it is essential for individuals to think theoretically. This will not only enable then to understand current affairs but it will enable them to understand political trends, actions and outcomes.

To achieve this, we need to understand the main political theories that are present in the world. This includes realism, liberalism and feminism. Through realism, states normally strive to power and dominance over other states. Liberalism on the other hand relies more on international cooperation among states while feminism advocate for equal representation of women and other oppressed individuals in the society.

Despite the differences that are present in these theories, it is evident that they all have one objective; to achieve economic, social and political stability of the globe. Thus, with the help of these theories, individuals are capable of determining the most efficient means to solve the global crisis that we are currently experiencing.

Works Cited Adler, Selig. “The Isolationist Impulse: It`s Twentieth Century Reaction.” Insight 4.1 (2002): 15-22. Print

Burchill, Sam. Theories of International Relations. New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd, 2000. Print

Cohen, Jean. Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT press, 2002. Print.

Creatorix.com. “Political Ideology in the Contemporary World.” Creatorix.com. Creatorix, 8 March 2011. Web.

Delaney, Tim. “The March of Unreason: Science, Democracy, and the New Fundamentalism.” European Journal of Politics 52.3 (2005): 22-31. Print

Drakulic, Slavenka. A Letter from the United States: The Critical Theory Approach. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992. Print.

Dunne, Thomas. International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity. London: Sage, 2010. Print

Hoffman, David. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy. Washington: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2010. Print

Jean-Luis, Renee. “Political, Social and Economic Stability.” The African Journal 12.3 (1991): 10-22. Print

Kapuscinski, Ryszard. Imperium. California: University of California Press, 2007. Print.

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Maryland :Davidson, 1982. Print

Nosotro, Rit. “Locke and Voltaire-A Tale of Two Exiles.” Hyperhistory.net. Hyperhistory Online, 8 March 2011. Web.

Smith,Simon. International Theory: Positivism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print

Sodaro, Michael. Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2007. Print.

Southhall, Ashley. “The Early Word: Double Dip”. New York Times. New York Times, 7 October 2011. Web.

The Economist. “Politics this Week”. The Economist. The Economist Online, 8th October 2011. Web.

Tickner, Allan. Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspective on Achieving Global security. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2005. Print

Voltaire, Francois. Candide or the Optimism. Riverside :Penguin Books, 1950. Print.

Weinberg, Albert. “Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American

History.” Journal of Humanity 3.5 (2011): 254-270. Print

Wibben, Angela. “Feminist International Relations: Old Debates and New Directions.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 5.2 (2010): 21-30. Print


Loud and Clear Mobile Communications Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Background information of the industry

The Australian telecommunication industry is expanding very rapidly given that 99% of the population owns a mobile handset. Over 25 million Australians have subscribed to one of the major mobile phone operators.

With the advancement in technology, the industry has seen major changes and new entrants in the industry. However, the major key players of the mobile Australian telecommunication industry include Telstra, Optus, Vodaphone, and Virgin Mobile. The service providers have a market share in the same order as they appear.

With the introduction of new hardware like the Smartphones, iPhones and other applications, mobile broadband has become popular. The mobile services have so far increased far compared to SMS and voice usage. The Australian Communications and Media Authority is the major regulator in the industry (Access Economics Pty Limited 2010, p.10). The organization ensures that the market operators comply with the set regulations and requirements.

Some of the ACMA responsibilities include licensing, ensuring that the operators complies with regulations, monitoring performance, and giving reports on matters related to the communication industry (Access Economics Pty Limited 2010, p10). Based on the Access Economics Pty Limited (2010, pii) “mobile telecommunication industry contributed $17.4 billion to the Australian economy” in the financial year 2008-2009.

History of the service provider The leading service providers in the Australian mobile communication industry are Telstra, Optus, Vodaphone, and Virgin Mobile.


Telstra dominates the Australian telecommunication industry with 99% of the mobile subscribers. The company which was owned by the government before its privatization offers the best network coverage despite its high charge rates. The company also owns and manages the largest share of copper network in Australia (Telstra n.d).

Its services are in broadband, mobile, and landline. The company was founded in 1901 under the name Postmaster-General’s Department (Telstra n.d). It was then operated by the Australian Federation and it managed the postal, telegraph, and domestic telephone services. It was the only company in the telecommunication industry thus enjoying natural monopoly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the telecom, the company established the first mobile based network in Australia in 1981 as the Public Automatic Mobile Telephone System (Telstra n.d). It was later renamed the Australian Telecommunication Corporation. The company underwent several changes such as branding and mergers until it changed its name to Telstra in 1997(Telstra n.d).

Because of the emerging key players in the Australian telecommunication industry the company was privatized in 1997. Currently, the company provides mobile services to an estimated 12.2 million Australians, which is almost 50% of the whole Australian market share. However, because of increased competition from other service providers, the company market share has reduced in recent years compared to the early 2000’s.


Initially, the company which was founded in 1981 was referred to as Aussat Pty Ltd. It is a subsidiary of the Singapore telecommunication. It is located at Melbourne, Australia with its operations in Adelaide. The company is ranked as the second service provider with interests in broadband, mobile and landline services (Optus n.d).

Although the company owns most of its network infrastructure, it uses the network of other providers especially that of Telstra wholesale. The company has been undergoing numerous branding with the aim of changing its corporate strategy and culture. As of 2008, the company had over 10, 000 employees with a revenue of 8.321 ASD dollars. The network coverage of the Optus covers 97% of the Australian population. The company offers low rates compared to Telstra which makes it affordable and cheaper.


Vodafone, which is a subsidiary of the Vodafone Plc UK, was founded in 1992 and licensed in the same year (Vodafail.com 2011, p3). With regard to the Australian population, the company has coverage of 94 % (Vodafail.com 2011, p3).

It GSM mobile services are provided between 900MHZ and 1800HMZ. In the metropolitan area, the company covers an average of 10% of the regional centers. The company was operating singularly until 2009 when it merged with the Australian based operator Hutchison 3G to form the Vodafone Hutchison Australia Pty Ltd (Bingeman


How the works selected relate to life as we know it? Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The stories the Storm and the story of an hour are two allegorical fictional writings that reflect on major issue that affects relationships in the current society.

Written by Kate Chopin, she humorously and romantically highlights the impact of infidelity in a lighter tone. The author focus on the on the way couples struggle to keep their emotions secret because of marriages. Authentically, the two stories intertwine with various relationship factors in the modern society.

Contemporarily, most families are unstable mainly because of unfaithfulness. The media is one of the channels, which has recently concentrated on the issue of divorce in the contemporary society. In comparison with Kate Chopin stories, the aspect of divorce /separation is not evident therefore, what is the secret in Chopin’s story that most couples in the current society shun?

Nearly all constitutions dissolve marriages when infidelity is evident. Personally, I have attended a divorce case in a local court, which involved a tycoon. During the proceedings, one of the elements that lacked in the estranged couples was respect.

Respect of each other is the major step, which can save a marriage. In her stories, Kate Chopin indirectly tackles the issue of respect between a husband and a wife. For instance, although Calixta rekindles her love affair, she not only prepares supper for her family but also welcome her husband with open arms and happiness. When her husband returns after the storm, she says “Oh, Bobinôt! You back! My! But I was uneasy” (Chopin, section III par. 5).

Contemporarily, most women who are having affairs embark on hating their husbands an action that leads to conflicts. Some even hurl insults to their partners. Despite of having an affair, Calixta carry’s out her role as a wife and a mother. She not only prepares food for the family but also expresses her love to both her husband and son.

Similarly, Alcee decides to write to his wife a love letter assuring of her freedom to stay away from home. Clarisse does not find fault in her husband’s letter. However, any woman in the contemporary society whose husband gives away such freedom will accuse him of having an affair.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, according to Kate Chopin freedom is one of the issues that may keep a marriage relationship to grow stronger. During the divorce case, one of the issues that became evident was that most spouses did not trust each other. Furthermore, spouses spy on each other, an issue that greatly contributes to divorce. Although Alcee and Clarisse are miles apart, none of them cites a problem in their brief separation. Therefore, respect and trust are major elements that keep marriages alive.

On the other hand, during the court proceedings the woman did not only hold a contemptuous attitude towards the husband but also revealed some secret family affairs to the public. In the story of an hour, although Louise Mallard hates the oppression nature of her husband she openly mourns his death as though it was a blow on her life.

Intuitively, Louise is happy because silently “She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long” (Chopin 10). Mallard hates her husband but she keeps on a bravery face to ensure that the marriage stands.

Louise behavior shows that she does not only respect the marriage institution but also respect her husband. Analysis of the divorce case reveals that secrecy, respect and a guarantee of freedom are some of the factors that contributed to breakdown of the marriage. Although Alcee has an affair and lives apart from the wife he, writes, “A loving letter full of tender solicitude” (Chopin section IV par.1).

In addition, appreciation is also a vital factor that lacks in most marriages. As the divorce attorney examined both couples, none of them could appreciate each other yet they had lived together for ten years. Authentically, can two people stay together for a decade without either of them performing an appreciable task? More over, the couple had two children who were at the centre of their controversial marriage.

In the storm, Bobinot appreciates his wife by buying her shrimps, which are her favorite. In retaliation, the wife prepares a feast for the husband and son. Likewise, Clarisse is happy to receive her husband’s letter and heeds to his request of staying away for sometime. Eventually, the court dissolved the marriage due to lack of trust and infidelity. However, if married couples emulate the characters in Kate Chopin’s fictional writings then dissolve cases will decrease.

In conclusion, in her stories Kate secretly highlights the elements that lead to divorce cases. However, despite of the challenges, she highlights that appreciation; trust and freedom are some of the factors, which can establish a good marriage. Through personal experience during a divorce case proceeding, the couple ended the marriage based on infidelity and mistrust. However, people who cannot prevent affairs should learn to respect and appreciate their spouse to avoid conflicts, as it is the case in the storm.

We will write a custom Essay on How the works selected relate to life as we know it? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Chopin, Kate. “The Storm.” The Literature of the American South. Ed. William L.

Andrews. New York: Norton, 1996. Print

Chopin, Kate. The story of an hour. USA: Vogue publishers, 1894. Print


Macroeconomics: Interest Rates Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis and discussion on Interest rates

When the interest rates increase Y decrease

Liquidity trap



Introduction There are two major theories that are used to explain the demand and supply of money in an economy. The classical theory developed by Irving Fisher used a simple equation to explain the demand and supply of money. Fisher’s theory was a modification of a theory advanced in 17th century (Mudida, 2003). The 17th century theory identified a connection between prices and supply of money. Fisher on the other hand identified four variables that affected demand and supply of money in his equation of exchange:


In the above equation, M represents the quantity of money present in an economy, V represents the velocity/speed of circulation, P represents the general price levels and Y represents the total number of transactions or the aggregate income. This theory was based on assumptions that the velocity was constant in the short run period and a full employment in the short run. He also assumed that each variable was independent of the other. However, this theory had its shortcomings and further research was required.

In the year 1936, Keynes advanced a general theory that explained the demand and supply of money, employment and interest rates in an economy. Keynes identified three motives for demanding money:

Speculative motive: money acted as store of wealth either in terms of bonds or in terms of money. People therefore held money or bonds with the aim of making future profits.

Precautionary motive: people demanded money for unforeseen events in the future. For example health emergencies, job loss and any other sort of emergencies

Transaction motive: individuals hold money for the day-to-day activities. Money in this case used as a medium of exchange.

The difference between the Keynesian theory and Fisher’s was that the Keynesian theory explained the concept of interest in the economy.

Analysis and discussion on Interest rates Keynesian theory of interest has been used to explain the effects of changes in the Federal Reserve rate on the general interest rates and prices in the economy (Fukasawa, 2003). Keynes elaborated his arguments using government securities as an example of how interest rates changed in the economy.

He used the open market operations strategy to explain interest rates. This strategy has been used to regulate the excess reserves held by commercial institutions. These commercial institutions were observed to change their lending habits depending on the excess reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The amount of loans being lent out would generally increase when the excess increases and reduce when the reserves are low. These institutions have the aim of maximizing their profits and would therefore lend any excess to increase their profits (Fukasawa, 2003).

Keynes came up with as simple equation to determine how market interest rates were affected by the open market operations. He stated that the market rate of interest was directly proportional to the federal discount rate and inversely proportional to the market prices of securities.

It follows that when the market prices of the securities are high the interest rates are low. It can there be said that when the interest rates are lower the speculative demand for money increases. With the high demand for money in the economy, the supply of money increases.

The following graphs show the relation between the interest rates and the liquidity preference for money (supply of money) also known as liquidity preference for money (LM) curve and relation between interest rates and demand for money also known as the Investment Saving (IS) curve.

The LM curve

The IS curve

When the interest rates increase Y decrease In case of inflation or recession the Federal Reserve has various methods to combat it. Most of the times the federal reserves observe trends associated with the inflation or recession before they take action. Sometimes the inflation may be short term and can naturally correct itself by an increase in the number of transactions in the economy.

We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomics: Interest Rates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In such a case the federal reserves lets the market forces of demand and supply of money to control the inflation. If the inflation is severe and cannot be contained by the market forces of demand and supply, the federal reserves may use the monetary policy of open market operation. In this method, the Fed sells securities to the commercial institutions.

By selling the securities, the Fed is reducing the amount of excess money in supply (Fukasawa, 2003). With little amount in supply the commercial banks tend to reduce lending. If the demand of loans remains high and there is no excess to lend then the commercial institutions will raise their interest rates, eventually.

In case of depression or recessions the Federal Reserve purchases back the securities from the commercial institutions. This has the opposite effect to that of selling the securities. With lower interest rates, business investment will be stimulated since business ventures will be more profitable.

Decline in the interest rates may also induce the propensity of consumers to purchase durable goods such as houses, motor vehicles and furniture (Fukasawa, 2003). This is because credit is available at a cheaper rate and most consumers can afford it.

It is usually not a guarantee that use of open market operation will work. Other factors have to be considered before employing this strategy to reduce inflation or to combat recession. Economists have different opinions on how the method works.

There are arguments that have been advanced by economists to dispel use of this method. Economists argue that the Federal Reserve cannot control the amount of deposits made in financial institution. Therefore, after selling the securities to reduce the reserves customer deposits may still lead to excesses.

Another method employed by the Federal Reserve In case of inflation is raising the discount rate of the Federal Reserve. Federal discount rate is the amount of interest that the Federal Reserve charges on loans advanced to financial institutions. An increase in the Federal Reserve rate of interest has a ripple effect in other rates of interest in the economy. When the federal interest rates rise, the market interest rates will also increase as per the Keynesian equation on interest.

The effect of high interest rate is usually a reduction in investment habits and a reduction in consumer spending. Since the cost of obtaining credit is high, most businessmen will shun the prospect of borrowing to increase the capital on investment (Fukasawa, 2003). On the other hand, consumers will be reluctant to spend on durable goods since the cost of services such as mortgages and loans has increased.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomics: Interest Rates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the case of a depression or recession, the vice-versa is true. The Federal Reserve reduces the cost of lending in order to increase the probability of investments and consumer spending. Like the open market operation, this strategy has its weaknesses and needs careful consideration before implementation.

Economists believe that this monetary policy like any other is affected by the time lapse in that it takes some time before it comes to force. Matters on time and economic demands should therefore be considered before using this method.

Liquidity trap According to Keynes, the total demand of money is given by the summation of the active motive for demanding money (Mudida, 2003). Therefore, the total demand equals to the sum of speculative demand and transaction demand. Liquidity trap is reached when the rate of interests reach a point where government securities offered by the Federal Reserve and the liquid currency can be substituted perfectly (Brevinge, 2009).

Using the IS-LM curves liquidity trap can be understood to be the region where the LM curve flattens (Brevinge, 2009). At this point the interest rate is near zero and any addition of money to the economy will neither lower the interest rate further nor increase the affect the output (Brevinge, 2009). The graph below shows the liquidity trap.

The liquidity trap in an IS-LM framework

Figure 1

The liquidity trap in an I-S equilibrium

Figure 2

From the figure 1, it can be seen that if the LM curve is moved to right the supply of money increases but the effect of the movement is that output does not change and equally the interest rates do not fall (Brevinge, 2009). In figure 2 the I-S curve the investment – saving equilibrium is reached at when the nominal rates of interest are below zero. But since the nominal interest rates cannot go beyond zero the resulting outcome of this situation is excessive saving and less investment (Brevinge, 2009).. The Income-Saving equilibrium therefore indicates that the main reason behind a liquidity trap is the lack of investment opportunity.

Currently the United States can be said to be in a liquidity trap where there is fewer chances of investment and there is a high supply of money in the economy. The inflation rate is higher and the propensity to save has increased among the America people.

The demand for government bonds are high and people are avoiding risks of investing in. according to Brevinge (2009), by means of more inflation the United States economy can be pulled out the liquidity trap by the means of more inflation.

Bevinge (2009) also was of the notion that the United States economy has been having negative interest rates for one third of the years between 1945 and 1996. Therefore, he concludes that an economy does not need extreme situation to require negative interest.

Conclusion The Keynesian monetary theory has been used to explain a number of economic theories. The concept of interest rates and money supply are explained in the general theory advanced by Keynes. Keynes elaborated his arguments on interest rates using the open market operations policy used by the Federal Reserve. Inflation and depressions can be controlled by various methods. Among the methods is letting market forces of demand and supply correct the situation naturally.

Monetary policies are also used to correct these situations. The Federal Reserve can either increase the interest rates or reduce them depending on the situation. Open market operations can also be used to reduce the inflation rates or depression in an economy. However, the use of these methods is subject to various considerations. Economists argue that the each of these methods is applicable under certain conditions to correct inflation or recession.

References Brevinge, J. (2009). Escaping a Liquidity Trap through Monetary Policy: An Overview of Policy Proposals. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School.

Fukasawa, Y. (2003). How Does the Federal Reserve’s Lowering Interest Rates Affect the Economy? Texas Labor Market Review Newsletter. Texas: Texas Workforce Commission.

Mudida, R. (2003). Modern Economics. Chicago: Focus


Bless Me, Ultima Essay a level english language essay help

The role of cultural identity and the moral independence are significant in human life. Those who managed to agree personal moral independence with the cultural identity are lucky people as they should not live in constant struggle between personal considerations and social demands. Even though the novel Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya does not show the direct conflict between inner considerations and social beliefs, Antonio appears in a very complicated situation.

Searching for his place in the world, trying to understand his personal significance and role he meets Ultima, a person who becomes his teacher. The death of Ultima influences Antonio greatly as being guided by this person he appears in the situation when he has to understand that his future life depends only on him and it is his personal responsibility to search for his future path in this world.

Antonio is a six-year-old boy who appears the witness of several deaths. Each of the deaths is significant in Antonios’ life even though Ultima’s death plays the greatest part in Antonio’s understanding of the future life. Having witnessed several deaths Antonio tries to understand and questions himself,

God! Why did Lupito die? Why do you allow the evil of the Trementinas? Why did you allow Narciso to be murdered when he was doing good? . A thousand questions pushed through my mind, but the Voice within me did not answer. The mass was ending, the fleeting mystery was already vanishing (Anaya 22).

The boy tries to understand why God allows such cases, why good people have to die. These are the first notes, the first signs of Antonio’s understanding of the lack of ideality in Catholicism.

Therefore, having become the witness of several deaths Antonio becomes doubt the religion of Christianity and the God’s abilities “Did God listen? Would he hear?” (Anaya 21). Therefore, considering the role of deaths in Antonio’s life, it may be concluded that these events impacted Antonio’s vision of social culture and negative attitude to Catholicism as religion.

To understand the role of Ultima in the formation of Antonio’s perception of the world, it is better to consider the final Ultima’s words, “I bless you in the name of all that is good and strong and beautiful, Antonio. Always have the strength to live. Love life, and if despair enters your heart, look for me in the evenings when the wind is gentle and the owls sing in the hills. I shall be with you…” (Anaya 247).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These words are considered to be most important in the novel as they this shows that the Ultima played significant role in Antonio’s life. Ultima was Antonio’s teachers, he helped him make choices which Antonio cold not make himself, as he believed.

After Lupito’s death Antonio became to question the nature of God and such notions as sin, innocence, and forgiveness appeared as the most questionable and doubtful. The place of Ultima in Antonio’s life may be characterized as the teaching. Ultima helped Antonio make decisions and choices individually, without referencing to the point of view of others.

It was really important for Antonio to have such a friend as having appeared in the situation when he was unsure in the personal identity he managed to find someone who helped. However, it is possible to question whether Ultima helped to Antonio to make choices as it seems that she entrusted her beliefs into a small boy who appeared on the way of personality formation.

What was significant in Uitima’s death for Antonio? Why is this situation considered as the most crucial in the novel? It is possible to state that after the death of the teacher Antonio understands that he has to choose his way himself. Having a teacher, Antonio did not understand how influential she was and how she influenced his mind. Only being left alone, Antonio had an opportunity to realize the place of religion in his life,

In two days we would celebrate the mass of the dead, and after mass we would take her body to the cemetery in Las Pasturas for burial. But all that would only be the ceremony that was prescribed by custom. Ultima was really buried here. Tonight (Anaya 248).

Therefore, right at this place, at the moment of Ultima’s death Antonio understands that he is to make decisions himself, that his is his life and there are no people who will guide them through the whole their lives. The burial of the owl represents the burial of Ultima but not in accordance with the Catholic rules, but corresponding to mystical burial which is closer for a boy.

Reading the scene when Ultima dies, her words are remembered, “The tragic consequences of life can be overcome by the magical strength that resides in the human heart” (Anaya 237). This phrase reflects the main idea of the whole story, that only the power of the human heart is significant.

We will write a custom Essay on Bless Me, Ultima specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Anaya, Rudolfo. Bless Me, Ultima. Wheeler Pub Inc, 2008. Print.


Does God Exist? Essay essay help free: essay help free

The problem whether God exists or not remains unsolved and many philosophers of ancient times and modern period offer their arguments which either support or contradict an issue. It is possible to support any of the ideas as well as it is possible to contradict any argument.

I believe in God and I absolutely agree with the explanation offered by Aquinas based on the possible and necessary issues. Therefore, God exists because he is the beginning of everything and there are no other things which may be possibly or necessarily exist as the reason for God existence.

Considering the Aquinas’s theory, it is possible to state that God exists due to his necessity without any particular reason. The main idea of his theory is that God exists as there are things which may exist and may not exist, and there are things which are necessary and cannot be ignored and there are things which are unnecessary and therefore they may possible be and may possible not be present.

However, those things which are necessary may be based on the internal necessity or on the necessity for other issues. There are things which are necessary without any possible reasons and this provides the arguments for the necessity of other things. This thing is called God (Aquinas 337).

God exists as it is the beginning of everything, as God is necessary just for the personal existence and this is the beginning of other issues which may be possibly exist or not as well as they may be necessarily exist for other things and not necessary exist. This directs at their possible and non possible existence as well as necessary and unnecessary nature.

Many objections may arose which are aimed at contradicting the idea of God existence. How can God necessarily exist if the presence of God is not necessary for other issues? Aquinas states that God exists because of the entire necessity without being based on any reasons.

Thus, appears an adequate reason for the necessity of such existence. Thus, it appears that he God existence proved by Aquinas questions God’s existence. Why should things exist if they are not necessarily need in the world? The necessity of the thing on its own account makes no sense.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, reading Aquinas’s work, it is possible to consider the arguments which state that the things with the necessity only for their personal needs are not necessary in the world, however, such creations is necessary and according to the arguments based on the possibility and non possibility the creations which are reasons only by the own account must exist. God is exactly such creature whose existence is based on the own account.

Thus, there are things which may possibly be and may possibly not be. There are things which are necessary for other issues and which are not necessary for others and here comes the question of their necessity in general. However, the presence of the thing which is necessary just for own account cannot be questioned. The absence of such thing in the material works pushes on the idea that this thing is God.

Therefore, it may be concluded that the existence of God is based on the reason that it is impossible for God not to exist. The reasoning offered by Aquinas and based on the possible and necessary issues which may and may not be. God is exactly the creation which is based on the idea of necessity of the own account as such things must be but their presence in the material world remain doubtful.

Works Cited Aquinas, St. Thomas. “ Does God Exist?” Medieval philosophy; from St. Augustine to Nicholas of Cusa. Eds. John F. Wippel and Allan B. Wolter. New York: Free Press, 1969. Print.


Test Instrument Characteristics Essay best essay help

Conventional assessment Standardized tests and essay exams are two examples of conventional types of assessments. Standardized tests are commonly used in academic institutions as a means of summative evaluation after the end of an academic period.

Essay tests involve a short piece of writing about a particular subject by a student as part of a course of study. Essays require that the students express themselves in writing from their understanding of a topic. However, there has to be key points that the examiner would look out for when reviewing essays.

Advantages of Conventional assessment Standardized tests

Standardized tests have been proven statistically to provide objective, measurable and concrete verification that learning has either occurred or not. The tests are both reliable and viable because of the statistical vetting and as a result it is possible for teachers to measure student’s learning outcomes and progress using the test.

Standardized tests are used to provide meaningful feedback of student’s progress. Since the measure of learning is objective, the feedback can be used recommend appropriate learning programs for the students (McKenna


Creating a scoring rubric Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Analytical Scoring Rubric Unsatisfactory;

Minimal competence;



Scoring rubric for social science essay assignment

Aspects Criteria (Descriptions of Scoring Levels) Score Editorial Aspect 1: Clarity, organization, word usage, and understandability Student has shown no evidence of clarity, organization, word usage and ease of understanding. Articulation of response is poor Response articulation is not detailed. There is limited evidence of clarity, organization, usage of words, and understandability Response articulation is plausible. The candidate has shown competency in clarity, organization, word usage, and understandability of paper Response articulation is competent. The candidate has shown high competency in clarity, organization, word usage, and understandability of paper Editorial Aspect 2: Grammar punctuation and spelling The student’s work has numerous grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes that interfere with the flow and meaning of essay. The student’s work contains major grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes that disrupt the flow and clarity of response The student’s contains no grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes but has a few detectable minor mistakes The student’s work has no grammar, punctuation and spelling mistakes that are readily detectable therefore the response is meaningful and clear Editorial Aspect 3: Paper quality Student’s paper is completely substandard with no quality Incompetence in writing and research skills The student provides sufficient logical explanation of the five required point of view. The student displays paper of high quality with no errors. Student show impressive understanding of the topic Editorial Aspect 4: Introduction and conclusion The student fails to provide a logical conclusion that summarizes the five required points of view The student provides an insufficient summary of the main points. The conclusion is generally weak and does not explain much The student provides sufficient summary of the main points. The conclusion is generally strong but too short with few details The student provides sufficient and well articulated summary of the main points. The conclusion is strong and does not leave out any detail of the discussion Content Aspect 1: Five different point of view: slavery, nationalism sectionalism, territorial crisis, and state rights The student fails to provide a description and comparison of any point of view as to why the US civil war occurred. There is no clear evidence of the relevance in the student’s discussions The student clearly provides only two of the five required point views as to why the US Civil War occurred. There is limited evidence of relevance of discussion The student only provides at least four of the five required point of view as to why the US Civil War occurred, and compares and contrast them properly to create a relevant discussion The student provides all of the five required point of view as to why the US Civil War occurred, and compares and contrast them properly to create a relevant discussion. Content Aspect 2: comparing critical aspects The student fails to provide a description and comparison of any point of view as to why the US civil war occurred. There is no clear evidence of the relevance in the student’s discussions The student clearly provides only two of the five required point views as to why the US Civil War occurred. There is limited evidence of relevance of discussion The student only provides at least four of the five required point of view as to why the US Civil War occurred, and compares and contrast them properly to create a relevant discussion The student provides all of the five required point of view as to why the US Civil War occurred, and compares and contrast them properly to create a relevant discussion. Content Aspect 3: Depth of research The student fails to provide a logical explanation of the five required point of view. The student only mentions a few of the points with no logic detail information about the issues The student provides a logical explanation of the five required point of view but with minimal competency. The student only mentions a few of the points with no logical detail information about the issues The student provides sufficient logical explanation of the five required point of view. The student mentions at least all of the points with no logic detail information about the issues The student provides sufficient logical explanation of the five required point of view. The student mentions at least all of the points with logic detail information about the issues Content Aspect 4: in-text citation and references The student fails to use 3 primary and 2 secondary sources or fails to include any in-text citation or references for the primary and secondary sources used The student only provides at least two in-text citation for the required number of sources The student uses five sources ( three primary and two secondary sources) and gives appropriate references and in-text citation but with formatting errors based on APA standards The student uses five sources ( three primary and two secondary sources) and gives appropriate references and in-text citation but with no formatting errors based on APA standards Level of performance Unsatisfactory

The lowest level of performance is unsatisfactory. This level gets a score of 1. Generally, a candidate who gets this score did not understand the assignment in any way (Tierney and Marielle, 2004). There is an obvious lack of understanding of what is required. Both editorial and content aspects are poorly displayed (Tierney and Marielle, 2004). Clearly, the student did not take time to do the assignment well.

Minimal competence

This is the second lowest level of performance. Student’s work in this level has a few major mistakes and other minor mistakes (Tierney and Marielle, 2004). The student shows inadequate understanding of the assignment. The logic of argument also lacks clarity making it hard for the reader to understand (Tierney and Marielle, 2004). Basically the student failed to take time to do the assignment and therefore was forced to do it in a rush (Tierney and Marielle, 2004).


This level of performance is good and satisfactory. The student will show an understanding of all aspects needed to be measured. There are no major mistakes but there can be a few detectable minor mistakes (Mertler, 2001).


This is the highest level of performance. The student shows high competence of understand and responding to the assignment (Moskal, 2000). The work is free of major and minor errors. This level shows that student spent quality time to research and do the assignment (Moskal, 2000).

References Mertler, C. 2001, ‘Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom‘, Practical assessment, research and evaluation, vol. 7, no. 2. Web.

Moskal, B. 2000, ‘Scoring Rubrics: What, when and how?‘, Practical assessment research and evaluation, vol. 7, no. 3. Web.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tierney, R.


Human Intelligence and Technologically Oriented Intelligence in the USA Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Abstract Intelligence in the United States of America has undergone a series of drastic changes that has seen it advance both technically and technologically. It is only a few decades after the full implementation of intelligence in the United States yet the notable improvements made are conspicuously salient. The various threats to national security and rapid growth in terrorism are some of the factors that have necessitated such an increase in the level and expanse of intelligence.

Introduction In the recent past, there has been a notable drift from the predominant use of human intelligence to the technologically oriented intelligence. This can be attributed to the recent technological developments that have taken the planet by storm. It is naturally evident that the intelligence sector has been caught up in the wake of this storm. However, whether this move from human intelligence to modern technologically dependent intelligence has been a desirable and worthy one is still a debatable point.

This paper will present facts about both human intelligence and technologically oriented intelligence and attempt to explain why the move from human intelligence to the later was desirable. The paper will also discuss the various aspects of the art of collecting intelligence since the cold war to the present war on international terrorism.

Furthermore, the paper will look at how and why the United States of America has drifted from human intelligence and started relying heavily on modern technological intelligence. Lastly, the paper will explain the different types of intelligence gathering in relation to human intelligence and discuss the role of intelligence in welfare.

Human Intelligence In The United States Of America Human intelligence was not considered as a serious weapon of national defense in the United States of America until the first half of the twentieth century. Although localized groups had been put in place by various leaders to assist in gathering information about matters of national interest, it is the Second World War that highlighted the need and significance of human intelligence in the United States.

The leadership of the nation at that time came to the shocking realization that the United States was by no means secure from external attacks and other security threats.

Franklin Roosevelt, the then president of the United States of America, can be regarded as the pioneer of human intelligence in the nation. The development of human intelligence in the United States began when he selected William Donovan to survey and determine the feasibility of meeting the intelligence needs of the nation through an independent intelligence body.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After some time, President Roosevelt was quick to implement Donovan’s suggestions about the implementation of a body that exclusively dealt with intelligence. The body was to gather information and present it to the president. This act is the one that signified the commencement of human intelligence in the United States of America.

Ever since the step taken by President Franklin Roosevelt was adopted, human intelligence was extensively used in the United States of America as well as in dozens of countries overseas (Theoharis, 1978).

One notable use of this intelligence was during the Second World War when it was used to encourage an allied bombing against Germany after carefully surveying and analyzing the vulnerability of the Nazi industry. The intelligence was successfully used in many other projects where it was able to achieve its objectives as well as suffer great losses which will be discussed in this paper.

Human intelligence is therefore a mature practice in the United States in the sense that it has been in use for many decades now. The fact that human intelligence is still used in the United States even with the advent of technological intelligence portends the significance of the former cannot be disparaged. Even though human intelligence has suffered a number of shortcomings that have led to a miss or two in the fight against international terrorism, it is also responsible for countless other victories in the same fight.

Technological Intelligence In The United States Of America With the introduction and rapid growth of modernization and computerization, it was not a question of if but that of when technological intelligence will surmount human intelligence in the United States of America. Technological intelligence has been in place in the United States ever since the faults in human intelligence were discovered and laid bare.

Currently, technological intelligence can be described as the face of intelligence in the United States. More resources are being spent on this type of intelligence compared to human intelligence. The viability of technological intelligence in the United States cannot be doubted.

According to Donner (1980), this is because the nation has been successful of maintaining a war-free atmosphere within its internal borders. The nation has also gone as far as intervening in the conflicts of other countries in a bid to restore peace and stability. An example of this is the US-Iraq war. The United States has also been on the forefront of tracking down international terrorists such as Obama Bin Laden who was successfully killed last year.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Intelligence and Technologically Oriented Intelligence in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two bodies which have been the face of technological intelligence in the United States of America are the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The use of technological intelligence has seen the two bodies carry out major security operations both internally and externally.

The bodies have put in place sophisticated equipment which are effective in carrying out the intelligence process. Technological intelligence is responsible for the two bodies’ worldwide acknowledged as renowned intelligence bodies (Blackstock, 1988).

Shortcomings Of Human Intelligence In The United States The move from human intelligence to technological intelligence by the United States was a favorable one that has stabilized the security of the nation at large (Boyer, 2012). Other than the infamous bombing of the World Trade Center, no other major security issue has been witnessed in the United States.

A comparison between the security threats posed to the nation when it solely relied on human intelligence to when it is engrossed in technological intelligence will reveal that the later has fewer such cases. The following are other reasons that point to the fact that the move from human intelligence to technological intelligence was a viable one:


A good percentage of the information gathered through human intelligence was mere postulation. In most cases, there was no tangible evidence that could lend credence to whatever was being claimed by those who provided the evidence. It therefore became hard to determine whether the nation was to be warned or not.

It is this dilemma that often led to premature judgments that could be wrong. Human intelligence can therefore be regarded as a primordial method that has the potential to misinform the authorities about the situation on the ground.


Human intelligence is not a suitable method of gathering information in foreign hostile countries because the personnel face the risk of being discovered and being subjected to purgatory. Apart from the personal security of the personnel, the nation also faces a security threat.

This is because those captured while carrying out intelligence activities can be coerced to reveal confidential information about the security details of the United States. Unlike human intelligence, modern intelligence is not subject to this threat because it uses few or no human involvement.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Intelligence and Technologically Oriented Intelligence in the USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Politicization

Another shortcoming of human intelligence is that it is subject to policies and acts put in place by authorities (Theoharis, 1999). Those taking part in the intelligence of restrictions that they are not supposed to go beyond. These policies hamper effective intelligence work from being carried out.

This hindrance can prevent important intelligence information from being found out. Bureaucracy is also another challenge when it comes to human intelligence (Davis, 1992). The information collected must follow an established chain of ranks. There is a high possibility of loss of information or distortion of the same in the process. Unlike human intelligence, technological intelligence is suitable because the information passes through fewer people. It is therefore secure from loss or distortion.

Information Gaps

According to Kate (2004), human intelligence often furnishes analysts with insufficient information that can’t be effectively put together to arrive at a perfect conclusion. Most of the information found out through human intelligence may be sketchy or with lots of missing explanations.

Analysts are therefore left with the formidable task of arriving at a suitable conclusion without all the information. This is a risky process especially in cases where delicate issues of national interest are involved. Unlike human intelligence, modern intelligence provides information that has been fully collected and analyzed for easy interpretation by the analysts. The use of modern intelligence is therefore unlikely to lead to cases of lack of enough information.


Human intelligence can have a limitation if the people gathering the intelligence are opinionated. This is because this will hinder them from asking other vital questions. This is especially the case where the subjects being investigated have a history of a constant character trait that is known to everybody. Human intelligence is therefore subject to bias. Unlike human intelligence, technological intelligence is not subject to bias because there is lesser human involvement.

Expertise Building

There is a big problem in human intelligence when it comes to finding the right people to carry out the intelligence. The intelligence requires smart people who are in a position to put mundane and small details together in order to unravel a hidden meaning or strategy. Such people may not be easy to come across. The intelligence may therefore be forced to take people who are unable to deliver desirable intelligence, which may undermine the security welfare of the country.

Apart from the hiring of people who cannot perform to the required standards, human intelligence also faces difficult task of training these people. The training may take several months or even years. Human intelligence training is among one of the hardest because some aspects of intelligence are not easily expressed in words. That is why the sector is best served by people of high intellectual capacity because they are able to discern things with the slightest effort.

Unlike human intelligence, technological intelligence does not necessarily need people of extraordinary intellectual capability. An averagely smart person can perform the duties found in technological intelligence because most activities are automated by machines. The nation therefore spends lesser revenue on hiring and training personnel. This is probably one of the reasons why the United States has drastically laid more emphasis on technologically oriented intelligence as opposed to human intelligence.

The Role Of Intelligence In Warfare And Terrorism Intelligence has gone a long way in supporting the fight against terrorism and during warfare. In fact, it can be argued that intelligence has played a bigger role in this fight compared to military combat. It should however be noted that the two depend on each other for success. Military combat will achieve little if any without intelligence.

In the same manner, intelligence will not contribute to world peace and termination of terrorism without military combat. This symbiotic relationship between the two mean indicates that the country that effectively merges them will have success in the combat against terrorism and national security threats. On the contrary, a nation that predominantly relies on one of them or inadequately uses them will not achieve national security and get rid of terrorism.

Intelligence has played a big role in warfare and in the combat against terrorism internationally. The United States of America made good use of intelligence during the cold war. The USA used organized intelligence that was collected by a professional team of high intellectual capability. The nation had a strategy that had the intelligence as the major basis and determiner of its moves in the course of the war.

During the cold war, the United States of America was keen to make maximum use of its intelligence, which had now grown to maturity. The intelligence bodies comprised of other smaller functional units that made it easy for them to access the information easily. With the Central Intelligence Agency in full function, chances that the United States would emerge victorious were high.

The use of intelligence in warfare has a long history which dates back to the Second World War. Intelligence was used and is still being used to find out the weaknesses of opponents between warring parties. One party then relies on the intelligence to capitalize on the weakness discovered. This has been a common feature in almost each and every single war fought in the second half of the twentieth century and the twenty first century.

Intelligence is being used today to monitor the military actions of countries that are feared to disturb international peace. For instance, intelligence has been used to reveal those countries that are in the process of manufacturing atomic bombs.

This intelligence is useful because such issues have been brought to the attention of the United Nations and an amicable solution is set to be reached before it is too late. Intelligence has therefore been instrumental in watching the moves of countries in order to avoid a repeat of the First and Second World Wars and the Cold War.

Intelligence has also gone a long way in helping to reduce the level of terrorism (Ramana, 2012). For instance, intelligence has revealed information about strong terrorist strongholds which has enabled the relevant authorities to capture them. The information about these strongholds in acquired in the following two ways.

First, intelligence officers may infiltrate terrorism cells and seek to gather information from arrested suspects. In some case, however, the suspects may be reluctant to share any information with the officers. This may make the officers to decide to use force or infliction of physical pain in order to make the suspects cooperate. There are reportedly a few rare cases where the suspects refuse to utter anything irrespective of the pain inflicted on him or her.

Secondly, the intelligence officers can go as far as buying some members of terrorist groups in order to get the information they want. Such deals are normally conducted with a lot discretion so as to avoid the prior knowledge of the rest of the terrorist group members about the deal. Members of terrorist groups who manage to discover the undercover operation being carried out on them end up killing those who are in the process of betraying them.

Intelligence has also helped to discover the roles of prominent people in the activities of terrorist groups around the world. The intelligence is normally gained from members of the same terrorist groups or by intelligence officers who masquerade as members of the terrorist groups but are quick to withdraw as soon as they obtain the information they need.

The information collected is then relayed to the concerned authorities who take the necessary legal measures. It is through such intelligence that a number of political leaders have been successfully prosecuted at the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Human Intelligence And The 9/11 Bombing The 9/11 bombing was as a result of a laxity in the intensity of human intelligence. It happened due to a small degree of negligence on the part of the intelligence officers. It is an act of irresponsibility that although some officers were aware of the presence of wanted suspects the United States, they did not report the same to the relevant authorities so that appropriate security measures can be taken. Instead, they treated it as a triviality that will have no significant effect on the nation’s security.

This act of negligence on the part of intelligence officers points to the fact that human intelligence be subject to errors committed by intelligence officers. It is therefore not a reliable method of collecting intelligence because the success of the entire process depends on the discretion of those involved in it.

This can be regarded as yet another reason why the United States’ drift from human intelligence to technologically oriented intelligence was desirable. The latter is less prone to errors because machines conduct most of the analysis. The only possible errors can arise if the machines being used have grown obsolete or have a breakdown.

Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident from this research paper that human intelligence was born in the United States of America with the onset of the Second World War. It can also be seen that then President Franklin Roosevelt played a big role in pioneering human intelligence in the United States.

Furthermore, it can also be established that from the discussion that the shortcomings of human intelligence and the advent of modern technology have seen the emergence of a more technologically oriented form of intelligence. Finally, it can be concluded that the 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center was as a result of failed human intelligence.

Reference List Blackstock, N. (1988). The FBI’s secret war on political freedom. New York: Pathfinder.

Boyer, P. (2011). Intelligence gathering and espionage. Retrieved from: https://www.encyclopedia.com/

Davis, J. (1992). Spying on America: The FBI’s domestic counter-intelligence program. New York: Praeger.

Donner, F. (1980). The age of surveillance. The aims and methods of America’s political intelligence system. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Kate, M. (2004). Domestic intelligence and public liberties. ProQuest, 24(2), 7.

Ramana, S. (2010). The role of human intelligence in counter-terrorism. Web.

Theoharis, A. (1999). The FBI: A comprehensive reference guide. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

Theoharis, A. (1978). Spying on Americans: Political surveillance from Hoover to the Huston Plan. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.


Corporate Social Responsibility of University of Dubai Essay a level english language essay help

The Executive Summary This paper covers issues on the organization’s roles in delivering its services in social responsibilities to its immediate environment. This shows how the organization has set out strategic plans in ensuring all social responsibilities are carried out in the right order. Furthermore, this paper shows also the organization’s background and how the organization has developed over years to its present level. This paper will also show how the organization has implemented its corporate social responsibility strategies or plans.

This will also include the shortcomings that have been experienced in implementing corporate social responsibility. The paper will also provide recommendations that will ultimately lead to improvements in future. Finally, the paper has a conclusion that gives the findings of the whole work covered.

Company Background The University of Dubai was established in the year 1997 seven by the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The main aim of establishing the institution was to fill up gaps in human resources in the whole country’s workforce. This was in line with the country’s human resource development programs that targeted both private and public sectors.

The university has two main campuses that are known even though there are some new developments in terms of campuses. Concerning academic issues, the University of Dubai has a few main schools or colleges that offer various courses. The schools include the College of Information Technology that is abbreviated CIT and offers extensive programs in Information systems and Computing.

Secondly the college of Masters of Business Administration, abbreviated MBA, aims at enhancing critical thinking while increasing both written and oral communication for business leaders who need successful careers in organizations around the country and all over the world.

This program also helps in building appreciation for diverse cultural outlook. Finally, the College of Business Administration that offers various major business degree programs, including business economics, supply chains and logistics management, accounting, finance, entrepreneurship management, and human resources management. The institution has scholarship programs that target each governmental authority or department.

The mode of qualification depends on whether the beneficiary is a Dubai national. The scholarships cover all tuition fees for the beneficiaries. On the other hand, the university receives its support and authority from the chamber of commerce of the Dubai government. The authority is including the board of directors is appointed by the Ruler’s Court of Dubai, while the board of trustees is channeled from the chamber of commerce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Implementation of the Corporate Social Responsibility of the University of Dubai Corporate social responsibility programs are very essential to any organization that wants to have an outstanding image in the environment it is situated, the responsibilities are far more of the organization’s responsibility than it is the community’s or society’s needs and requirements that leads to creations a safe and friendly environment.

In ensuring the implementation of corporate social responsibilities, the University of Dubai partners and does dialogue with the communities around it through activities such as voluntary programs to the good of the society.

This program is meant to help the community in protecting and putting value to the environment around them. The university partners also with the Center for Responsible Management. This helps in having active participation in environmental projects that are aimed at improving the environment around Dubai and the country at large.

Furthermore, basing on the university’s principles, it implements corporate social responsibility program through the incorporation of the values of global social responsibility into its academic activities. This is meant to be in line with the international initiatives like the United Nations Global Compact. In this way, the implementation program does not only benefit the immediate environment, but it goes as far as to students’ home towns.

This move ensures that the society as a whole has people who are well versed with corporate social responsibility implementation programs. In addition to that, the incorporation of this value into the curriculum makes the practical part of implementing the program easier as students set out corporate social responsibility programs at various times in the future.

In implementing the corporate social responsibility program, the university has set out ways of creating educational frameworks, processes, materials and environments that ultimately enable effective learning experiences for responsible leadership. This means that the university aims at making every individual in the university responsible and aware of his/her environment and its requirement.

This move improves and makes Corporate Social Responsibility implementation process easier. Therefore, the program is implemented by people who are so much equipped with the required information that is much needed for a successful implementation program.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Social Responsibility of University of Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the university does the implementation program by engaging in research that aims at advancing understanding of the dynamics, roles, and impact that corporations have in creating a sustainable social and environmental value. This makes many stakeholders who may in one way or another, be involved in social and environmental issues.

This move makes corporate social responsibility implementation everyone’s role. Therefore, many people are directly or indirectly involved in the daily protection of the environment. Furthermore, the research helps the stakeholders to gather important information on how to successfully launch CSR implementation programs. Through the same research works, the university has made CSR implementation easy and interesting.

The university extends its implantation strategies through the facilitation of dialogue and debates among various stakeholders, including educators, government, civil society organization, consumers and the media. This debate touches on critical issues related to global social responsibility and sustainability programs, among many others.

Civil society organizations and the media help a lot more in spreading the awareness programs and thus make the implementation of the corporate social responsibility program easy and acceptable to the society at large. Some of these associated parties, like the government helps in facilitating the implementation process and also creates rules and laws governing the whole idea.

Civil society organizations extend their services in bringing critical ideas in debate sessions. The ideas may include the how to deal with the challenges involved in some implantation stages and the alternatives that may ensure the goals and targets of implementation strategies are met. In all this dialogue and debate, the university has made the implementation everyone’s responsibility including the central government.

From research, we get to know how the university helps to carry out corporate social responsibility programs well; there is a good curriculum change that aims at helping faculty members in covering case studies that deal extensively with corporate social responsibility, environment and ethics.

This effort ensures that corporate social responsibility implementation process is continuous and grows better every time as experience builds up. The university also ensures that all the materials required as extra resources are availed for the purpose of carrying out the implementation program.

In addition to the efforts carried by the University of Dubai in implementing the corporate social responsibility, research shows that expatriate knowledge is sought through the invitation of guest speakers who are experts in handling corporate social responsibilities. This effort equips students with the required knowledge that propels them to implement the Corporate Social Responsibility in efficient ways without much assistance (University of Dubai 5).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility of University of Dubai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From research studies, we get to know that the university has many environmental programs that it actively engages its students as one way of ensuring the implementation process goes on well without any hindrances as awareness gets underway through similar programs. Some of these programs include visits to wildlife parks, clean up the world, and the program your tree in Dubai. The programs aim at increasing the forest cover or replace trees that have already been cut.

This is achieved through the awareness program that enhances the need for protection through planting of more trees and recycling of some materials to reduce cutting down of trees. They also target making people aware of the importance of wildlife and how to conserve or protect the environment that holds them. The clean up the world program helps to sensitize everyone to take responsibility of ensuring the whole environment around them is very clean.

The visits that are made by members of various clubs, mostly the environmental club to the wildlife, help them to know about the endangered species. This enables members to know and create ways of overcoming the challenges involved in protecting endangered species and the whole issue of corporate social responsibility (University of Dubai 8).

Analysis and Recommendation of the University of Dubai for Improvement Concerning the university’s values and the principles, the university should emphasize more on the values of global social responsibility so as to make the stakeholders aware of the global moves and roles in developing corporate social responsibilities. This effort will help the concerned parties to improve in both sensitizing and implementing the programs that foster growth internationally.

In this way, the university will always aim at meeting the required standards for implementing the corporate social responsibility well and successfully despite the challenges. In addition, good methods that will enable the creation of good and reliable leadership within the educational framework will ultimately help the individuals become more aware of the social and corporate responsibilities and implement them to the later without fear.

Furthermore, when more research is carried out more information is availed to involved parties that make it easy for them to carry out the implementation process well. Through the same research, studies reveal that most skills are taught on how to engage different stakeholders in the programs.

Better ways will be devised on how to deal with serious problems or challenges before and after the implementation process. Furthermore, when people access information more frequently and easily through the research, they become more reliable and responsible for how to execute the implementation process easily. Therefore, the whole research process leads to more improvements if it is used in the right way and with the right aims.

On the other hand, the university should aim at making partnerships with international corporations so that they get exposed to the challenges that this corporation face in handling the implantation process on corporate social responsibilities. This effort will increase also the technical know-how of the university in delivering information concerning the corporate social responsibility programs abroad. In addition, a partnership with international corporations avails various effects approaches on board as the various institutions do exist in different environments set up. Thus the university will at the end have a universal way of approaching the corporate social responsibility implementation programs in the future.

When more debates or dialogues are held frequently, students and the university as a whole, gets channeled and links up their views and experiences to and from other stakeholders in the field through the media. Also to ensure that the communities are more involved dialogues and debates between the social organizations because many of these groups are found within the larger society.

Thus many individuals in the society will get almost fast hand information and in the end the university will have improved on how to engage the society in environmental processes and responsibilities.

In addition, for teaching, research and learning to improve, long term strategies have to be put in place. These long term strategies should be aimed at making the teaching process more targets oriented and this move will ensure good service delivery that is in line with the universities values and principles.

More resources should be channeled in research work that are aimed at improving the environmental status of the immediate surroundings of the university to reach that global standardization level in terms of implementing the corporate social responsibility programs well. On the other hand, learning should be made more practical and interesting by having more field trips to the sites that need the university’s intervention, this move helps the concerned parties to visualize more on the real factors that have to be considered.

Another thing that should be more emphasized is the invitation of guest speakers more frequently; this will help in the exchange of ideas as the invited guest speakers will be mostly people who are experts in the field of concern. All these efforts are meant improve the university’s way of implementing and handling challenges of implanting the corporate social responsibility.

The other thing is that, the university should channel more funds in support of the environmental activities that the students are engaged in. This support should be through the clubs like the wildlife and the environmental clubs. Through these clubs, the university should put more emphasis on the value of conserving the environment and protecting the endangered species through awareness programs.

The awareness programs should be put in place through the partnership with organizations and civil society groups that easily associates themselves with members of the community more frequently. This move makes relaying of information between concerned parties. This at the end improves ultimately the way of communicating both ideas and processes required for every engagement in the society.

For effective learning that meets international standards, the university has to put in place internationally acclaimed frameworks that aims at improving the environment, while raising the educational standards. This will foster the realization of more effective ways of implementing strategies concerning learning and most importantly the corporate social responsibility.

The same efforts may be realized through implementation of innovative programs and processes that help in improving learning and which also focus more of meeting the standards of putting in place the requirements of global corporate social responsibility strategies. This efforts and strategies help the university in finding global partners who may be more conversant on how to deal with challenges that are associated with implementing the corporate social responsibility.

In doing so the university gains a global image that will help it stand out as a good place where many people will want to get involved with. This idea, therefore, makes it easier for the university to penetrate easily with its environmental programs to the hearts of its followers both locally and world over.

Through instructional research, the university should target at finding more ways that are interesting and easy to follow in realization and instilling of sustainability values that will h4elp individuals realize more on the needs and importance of corporate citizenship around.

This effort will help build more rounded individuals who are more responsible and focused in ensuring that corporate issues are dealt with in the rightful way. In this way, the university will have made the environmental issues or matters everyone’s burden and responsibility. Thus the university will have created both an interesting learning environment as well as facilitating the acts of concern among associated parties or partners.

Through more partnerships with the immediate communities around it, the university will have easy time engaging the individuals in most of its programs like the engage program and many others. This make the community feel part of every undertakings tat the university gets its hands on.

These efforts help in creating awareness programs in the community more easily and frequently. When more information is channeled in the right way to the individuals in the community, the whole community move in the same direction the university tends to go.

This improves the relationship between the institution and the community, which sits in the immediate environmental setup. This partnership also makes functions like tree planting more successful and enjoyable as every member of the community will feel part of the whole system or process. The tree-planting program should be made a regular issue to incorporate many individuals in the exercise.

Further still, for the university to ensure that the capabilities of the students are developed and shaped to generate sustainable values that will foster the realization of a sustainable global economy, more emphasis should be put on the global partnership with major corporations that seem suitable in handling the same matters well.

This way, students will begin seeing things in reality and thus helps their understanding. This global cooperation avails so much information to the students through exchange programs that may be associated with the main program.

The association with global partners helps the students more in meeting international thinking and problem-solving. In this way, efforts are made by the concerned parties in the learning area to help understand more on the needs and requirements of one working globally, thus the general standards are raised to new levels that suit global corporations’ demands.

Incorporation of the global values of social responsibility in the curriculum should be done in a way that signifies the importance of the global social responsibilities to the society as a whole so that the students may focus on beginning their responsibilities socially right from where they live towards the whole environment with an aim of reaching the global environment.

These important steps make the institution work on global levels and in doing so it raises every standard of doing things around the university and which makes thrive to be a global institution in the near future. Being a global institution, the university will be able to meet and deal with global environmental issues more conveniently. This capability makes the University of Dubai a world-class institution that meets and values global social responsibilities.

On the other hand, the awareness programs have to be more focused and should be carried out every time when more needs arises than being held only on during the first weeks of every semester, this will make sure that the program runs through out and doing so helps to create more time require to channel information on the six principles that in the end this puts more emphasis on the same principles as enough time will be there to assure this. Small posters should be created so as to be distributed to the students at different levels.

This brings the information and principles closer to the targeted individual students, this move also makes it possible for the students to file some copies of their own and reviewing them from time to time. When the students understand the principles to this level, there is smooth running of daily activities.

On the other hand, other than just case studies that faculty members cover in other courses; the university should make it more practical so that information may be both form textbooks and field works that are taken during or within the course time stipulation. These efforts and provisions make sure that students get equipped with enough knowledge about; the general ethics in the various course categories, more knowledge concerning corporate social responsibilities are availed throughout the course and it is done so in more details.

Also of much concern is the information about the environment should be availed through the same way and this guarantees much more improved outcomes in terms of environmental conservation and the general corporate responsibility relating to the environment.

Finally, for the university to acquire more ways in which it can devise innovative methods of delivering lectures, the university should highly focus on organizing workshops where many issues concerning how to better the teaching methods and also embracing the technological advancements to foster the growth or imp[rove the educational material delivery in the university curriculum. This way the university will gain improvements to meet its targets of being a world-class university.

Conclusion In conclusion, the university should aim at creating more dialogues and debates with related or concerned parties for this opens up more links and also serves as a means by which more information is channeled and availed to the concerned parties. The implementation process should be adopted when more information has been gathered about the whole process and the challenges associated with it.

In addition, the implementation process becomes more successful when all stakeholders, including the Partners are put to task. Some of the faculties that do not have the right ways of covering the classes or information about the corporate social responsibility and the general environmental issues, should be more considered when changes arises for improving lecture delivery.

Works Cited University of Dubai. Sharing Information on Progress (SIP). Dubai: University of Dubai. 2010.


Macroeconomics Notions Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Supply and Demand Supply and demand are the economic model of determining prices in a competitive market, wherein supply refers to the quantity of commodities available in the market and demand refers to the quantity demanded by consumers. The law of demand states that the higher the costof the good or service, the less people will demand it, while the law of supply states that the higher the price of a commodity, the higher the quantity required (Supply and demand, 2012).

Macroeconomic Equilibrium Macroeconomic equilibrium is a condition of a nation’s economy wherein aggregate demand is met by aggregate supply (Macroeconomic equilibrium, 2012). The total demand of a final good or service in the economy is called its aggregate demand, while the total supply of a final goods and services the economy plans to sell is called the aggregate supply. Significant changes on demand or supply will affect prices, employment, and resources of a nation.

How Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Determine Equilibrium Price and Output In The Short- and Long-Run Macroeconomic equilibrium is computed by relating national price level with national output. The market is in equilibrium when price and output are equal.

Changes in the price or output of a commodity prompts shifts in its aggregate demand and/or aggregate supply. In general, expansionary policies shift aggregate demand to the right while contracting policies shift it to the left. Looking at the diagram below, when aggregate demand shifts to the right, equilibrium will occur at a higher price level and a higher output in the short-run and at a higher level in the long-run. When aggregate demand shifts to the left, the opposite, will occur.

Figure 1. Macroeconomic Equilibrium

Shifts in the aggregate supply are usually prompted by shifts in aggregate demand. When aggregate supply shifts to the right, aggregate demand dictates that equilibrium will occur at a lower price level and a higher output in the short-run.

When short-run aggregate supply shifts to the right, aggregate demand dictates that equilibrium will occur at a higher price level and a lower output in the short-run. In the long-run, when aggregate supply shifts to the right, a lower price level and higher output is required for equilibrium. When it shifts to the left, a higher price level and lower output is required.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gross Domestic Product, Unemployment, Inflation Three ways to measure a country’s economy is through its GDP, unemployment rate, and inflation rate. GDP or Gross Domestic Product is the measure of total value of commodities by a country for a specific period (Gross Domestic Product, 2012).

Unemployment is the state of a person who is looking for employment but is unable to find or does not have one (Unemployment, 2012). Inflation is the rate of increase of the general level of prices of commodities in a country. As inflation occurs and prices go up, purchasing power of people fall (Inflation, 2012).

Business Cycles and Economic Growth Business cycles are series of patterns affected by employment, industrial productivity, and interest rates that show the expansion and contraction of economic activities. There are five stages on a business cycle, namely, growth, peak, recession, trough, and recovery (Business Cycle, 2012).

Economic growth is the measure of an economy’s increase of commodity and capacity to accommodate its population within a period of time (Economic Growth, 2012).Productivity, inflation, population growth and introduction of new commodities in the economy are factors of economic growth.

Multiplier Concept Multipliersare factors that quantify the changes of capital investment to total income of an economy. They are used to measure the effects of government spending on income. Multipliers are calculated by dividing the marginal propensity to save to one (Multipliers, 2012).

John M. Keynes was made the second father of economics after Adam Smith because of his contribution on multipliers. The limitations of the multiplier concept include its restriction to economies (It is only for closed economies.), its lack of social factors, and its low adaptability to change.

Fiscal Policy Fiscal policy is a government policy that deals with the spending activities of the government that influences macroeconomic conditions. These policies are concerned and implemented in taxation, interest rates, transfer payments, and borrowing (Fiscal policy, 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomics Notions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Two tools of fiscal policy are the Automatic Stabilizers, attributes of fiscal policy that smooth instability in consumption over the business cycle, and the Discretionary Fiscal Policy, the conscious manipulation of implementation of taxation, purchases, transfers, and borrowings. An example of this is the Federal Income Tax (Kelly, n.d.).

Macroeconomics in Contemporary Economic Issues As previously mentioned, business cycles have five stages, namely, its growth, peak, recession, trough, and recovery. In recent years, however, the flow of the stages in the cycle is unsteady, not following the regular cycle. This is because of the impact of improbable events not forecasted (or were not heard of) by economist.

One significant event in recent time is the sharp decline in housing prices, resulting in a recession in the economy. This event in economy happened in 2007. Before the year, housing prices grew rapidly and collapsed by nearly 20 percent over the next two years, due to low interest rates in the 2000s, and lowering lending standards.

Another macroeconomic event in recent times is the rise of prices of oil and other basic commodities, such as natural gas, steel, corn, wheat, rice, and coal. Oil consumption in the United States lessened in the first half of 2008 (Jones, 2008). This was offset, however, by the oil consumption of China, India, and the Middle East, which resulted in an outward shift in demand. This occurrence created a chain of price increases on basic commodities.

Reference List Business cycle.(2012). Investor words. Web.

Economic growth.(2012). Investopedia. Web.

Fiscal policy. (2012). Investopedia. Web.

Gross domestic product.(2012). Merriam-webster online. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomics Notions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inflation .(2012). Investopedia. Web.

Jones, C. I. (2008). Current macroeconomic events. W. w. Norton. Web.

Kelly, T. Chapter 12 fiscal policy. Baylor business. Web.

Macroeconomic equilibrium. (2012). Business dictionary. Web.

Multipliers. (2012). Investopedia. Web.

Supply and demand. (2012). Encyclopædia britannica. Web.

Unemployment. (2012). Investopedia. Web.


Thanksgiving’s Day History Descriptive Essay cheap essay help

Primarily celebrated in the United States and Canada, thanksgiving has over the years transformed itself from the original idea of showing gratefulness to God for his favors to a fully fledged national holiday observed on the last Thursday of every November and the second Monday of every October in the United States and Canada respectively. During this festivity, a lot of brain and body input is swung into action as a result of the various activities carried out by various groups of people to commemorate this event.

From the ancient days to date, certain activities have remained as they were while others have been continuously been revolutionized, all in the name of observing this highly observed occasion. Virtually all the human senses are put to the test while observing thanksgiving taking into account the fact that it is a highly anticipated occasion or holyday rather. According it the kind of importance it deserves is hence quit imperative.

In the modern day thanksgiving festivity, the most utilized human sense is that of taste. This is because the entire citizenry in these countries which observe thanksgiving always strive to see to it that they direct a considerable amount of time, energy and resources to the kitchen so as to enable them put a decent meal on the table.

Despite not being a replica of the original meals ate while observing thanksgiving during its early years of inception, a constant trend of feasting on a specific caliber of food which more often than not include the turkey has been noted to characterize almost all the dinner tables over the last couple of years.

This state of affairs hence renders the sense of taste the most utilized one with respect to the fact that almost all the households prepare their meals with missionary zeal. Striving to satisfy everybody’s sense of taste during this festivity also has a multiplier effect on yet another vital human sense; that of smell. This is occasioned by the endearing aroma that always emanate from every household’s kitchen. It is hence safe to say that the human sense of taste cannot be completely satisfied without appeasing that of smell.

This momentous occasion is also characterized with outdoor events that involve utilizing the human sense of sight quite expeditiously. Sight often comes in quite handy during this event since several open field activities take place on this date too.

In the United States for instance, a massive parade constituted of giant floats, matching bands and even convoys of celebrated icons in the entertainment industry often match along the 5th avenue in New York. This event always attracts thousands of sight seers who come to enjoy themselves either by observing or taking part in the activity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Song, dance and even prayer also decorate this callous celebration. Very appeasing tunes often heard both live or on television also seek to satisfy the human sense of hearing. In as much as the satisfaction of the senses of smell, taste and sight are of great importance, it is equally important to acknowledge the fact that these celebrations would be out rightly dull and unbearable if the sense of hearing was to be neglected.

It hence makes much sense to conclude this essay by attesting to the fact that for a fulfilling commemoration of the thanksgiving event, the satisfaction of almost all the human senses is deemed necessary. It is also important to take part in this celebration since it helps to renew one’s commitment to the family and the general nourishment of the society. These activities also help to encourage or promote unity by encouraging a sense of belonging among people hence emphasizing the importance of harmonious living.


Ethics Issue – Organ Transplants Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Justifying the Decision Making Process

New Hospital Policy


Introduction In a perfect world all needs could be met with unlimited supplies of products and services, yet we do not live in a perfect world. What is present is a state of inequality where many are denied access to necessary services and though we endeavor to provide as many as we can with affordable services our resources are being stretched to the limit as is. In matters of life or death these limitations are all the more evident especially in cases where organ transplants are necessary.

The fact is that there are just not enough organs to go around based on the number of cases that need them. Hard choices need to be made yet these choices need to factor in not only to whom the organs can go to but rather who would benefit the most from them. on the one hand we have the choice of framing our decision based on an adherence to a particular set of rules in that individuals who are “ahead” so to speak on the organ donation list should be the first to receive organs.

Justifying the Decision Making Process Such a method of decision making would be the most fair in terms of distributing the limited supply of organs yet it must be questioned whether such a method is truly the most effective approach.

Many within the current list for organ transplants have advanced ages and may not live long while others are on the list due to conditions that they had deliberately inflicted on themselves (i.e. excessive smoking and drinking leading to cancer of the lungs and liver failure. In such cases it must be questioned whether it is moral to pick such individuals over those who are in need of organs through no fault of their own.

There are also cases where the possibility of survival is so low that conducting an organ transplant could actually be considered a waste since it is likely that such individuals will die anyway. Individuals who have many years yet to live and those who have no evidence of prior substance abuse would be able to live fuller lives and be less likely to squander the gift of life as compared to others who will most likely squander such a precious and limited gift.

It must also be questioned which choice would result in the greatest degree of happiness. For individuals that have shown evidence of living longer and substance free lives the potential for generating greater degrees of happiness is that much more likelier as compared to individuals that are old or are more prone to self destructive behavior.

New Hospital Policy Taking this into consideration it will now be the policy of the hospital to eschew the normal organ transplant list in favor of prioritizing patients with higher life expectancies, few self-destructive behaviors and above all are young enough to fully enjoy the benefits of the organ.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While it can be considered unfair in the case of those who are “ahead of the list” it must be noted that not all individuals can be deemed as being “worthy” for organ transplants. The hospital must make decisions in light of limited supply and as such it is necessary to implement selective and purposeful decisions that take into account utilitarianism and deontological ethics in order to do what is right for our patients.

Conclusion What must be understood is that these decisions are made in light of limited supply and as such must factor in the potential each individual possesses. Without such decision processes in place the organ donation process will continue to be mired in ill- fated consequences in which the ethics of specific organ allocations will be questioned.


Business Value of Wireless Technology in Chemicals and Automotive Industry Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Wireless technology has been widely used in industrial processes because of its benefits that contribute to total quality management. Chemical and manufacturing industries have particularly used wireless technology because it adds value to the industries. Like other information technologies, wireless technology has many business related benefits, which include contributions to “customer service, finance, sales and marketing, information and technology operations, and operations management” among others (Baltzan and Philips 7).

These benefits help in achieving cost effectiveness, higher customer satisfaction, business growth, and improved competitiveness (Baltzan and Philips 7). Chemical and manufacturing companies use wireless technology to enhance their efficiency in time utility. This is because the technology helps in saving time, facilitating faster response, and improving productivity (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Other manufacturing applications that benefit from the technology

Other manufacturing applications that benefit from wireless technology are branding and packaging applications (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Why they benefit

The two applications benefit from wireless technology because they form part of the manufacturing industry (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Business benefits of wireless technology in finance and investments

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business benefits of information technology are also realized in the finance and investments sector. Finance and investments involve activities for enhancing an enterprise’s worth through financial avenues and information technology helps in monitoring trends and changes in market factors. The use of wireless technology to gather information about a target market is therefore important in identification of new products and market segments (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Other recommended application

Other suitable applications for finance and investments include internet applications through mobile phones and computers (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Reason for recommending the applications

This is because the technologies are significantly effective in enhancing communication and tracking online information (Baltzan and Philips 7).

Business benefits and challenges of using wireless technology in retailing

Retailing has also been a major beneficiary of the wireless technology. Economic benefits, derived from time and operational efficiencies, have been realized in the sector as the technology is used to facilitate communication in retail enterprises. Using the technology in stocktaking has also enhanced their advantage through time efficiency and accuracy in records keeping.

We will write a custom Case Study on Business Value of Wireless Technology in Chemicals and Automotive Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic implications of wireless technology have however been its major disadvantage with its high installation cost making it too expensive for some retailers. This has limited its use. Complications in supply chains have also imposed a disadvantage on application of wireless technology due to the incompatibility (Baltzan and Philips 81, 82).

Other applications that might be beneficial to consumers

Like parties to financial and investment sector, retailers and consumers can alternatively use internet services through mobile phones and computers to facilitate communication (Baltzan and Philips 81, 82).


Mobile phones and modern computers have even better communication facilities than the wireless technology (Baltzan and Philips 81, 82).

Suitable substitute for HP pocket PC

Suitable equipment that Celanese would have used, as a substitute to HP pocket PC, is GPS. The system that was developed four decades ago is faster. It is suitable because it identifies object locations. It is also more efficient because its communication system is initiated from a centralized point (Baltzan and Philips 174, 175).

Features of HP pocket PC

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Value of Wireless Technology in Chemicals and Automotive Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Features of pocket PC include processor, storage capacity, and games. The processor and storage features allows for creation and transmission of information from one point to another (Baltzan and Philips 174, 175).

New possible devices

New devices that can be used for better services today include GIS, mobile phones, and LBS technologies. LBS also track location of objects while mobile phones provide instant communication. The new technologies are therefore more efficient than the HP pocket PC (Baltzan and Philips 174, 175).

Cost of RFID tags

There exist varieties of radio frequency identification tags at different costs. The costs and choice of a particular tag depends on its features.

Implication of RFID cost on its use by retailers

Availability of a wide range of prices for RFID tags means that more retailers are able to afford the tags. There is, therefore, a wide application of the technology among retailers (Baltzan and Philips 187).

Works Cited Baltzan, Paige, and Philips, Amy. Information Systems. California, CA: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011. Print


The Greco-Roman influence Essay essay help online

When used as an adjective, the word Greco-Roman refers to regions culturally or even historically influenced by language, cultural practices, government and religious practices of the ancient Greeks and then the Romans. Grant (1995) further defines this region as the Mediterranean world (p.67).

The region was subject to cultural integration, as those from the other cultural settings had to live together under one government. The paper discusses the nature of the cultural influence between the Romans and the Greek revealing the commonalities and discrepancies existing between the two. It also highlights how they influenced the western culture.

The Greeks and Romans had accepted the use of the Greek language as the language of the intellectual culture. Latin was also the tongue for public management. In either the times of the Greek rule or the Roman rule, there was a universal acceptance of the languages by the people (Sanders, et al., 2006, p.29).

However, it is worth noting that these languages were mostly evident in the cosmopolitans while the people in the rural areas spoke their own mother tongues, which they regarded as vernacular. Men spoke and wrote in either Greek or Latin regardless of their ethnicities.

The Greeks influenced the majority of the cultural practices in the region ranging from the education system to the religious belief in many gods, cults and the building of temples. In this respect, the Romans gained from the Greek influence in sectors such as Banking, political administration, literature, philosophy and art (Bentley et al, 2008, p.24). Upon adopting these cultural values and beliefs, the wall that existed between the Romans and the Greek dissolved according to the extent of the influence.

The two cultures also portrayed similarities in the cultural activities such as sports and festivals that they conducted (Bentley et al, 2008, p.36). Fighting in the coliseums was a substantial sport that the two cultures appreciated. People from both cultures fought either voluntarily or involuntarily in search of glory and honor. The practice of slavery was justifiable according to the values of the two cultures (Thornton, 2002, p.45).

However, there were noticeable differences between the Greek and the Romans in terms of their philosophies. The Greeks were more considerate of morals, as opposed to the Romans who were promiscuous (Sanders et al., 2006, p.47). In most cases, self-satisfaction and the greed for power and glory acted as the driving force of the Romans, as opposed to the Greeks who observed moral standings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both the Greeks and the Romans influenced the western culture tremendously when it came to social stratification and the observation of the status quo. According to Grant (1995), people considered the Greek language a significant factor in assessing a person’s social standing in the society (p.36).

The western culture borrowed this in that for a person to qualify as educated, he/she had to master Greek and learn Greek philosophy. Another influence, which is majorly from the Romans, was the form of government adopted in the Western culture (Grant, 1995, p.56). Certain families considered having the breeding for leadership passed it from generation to generation. Monarchs and noble families had the duty of governing state entities.

The two cultures influenced each other for the purposes of co-existence. This is despite the fact that the Romans had conquered the Greeks. The Greeks considered the Roman cultural values as a step in civilization, which explains why there were few cases of resistance.

Some Romans, however, were suspicious of the Greek influence to the Roman culture. Among them was Cato the Elder who prophesied the demise of the Roman Empire through blindly adopting the Greek culture. Cato even did not trust the Greek actors in Rome whom he though had a mission of poisoning the brains of the Romans (Grant, 1995, p.64).

Reference List Bentley, J., Ziegler, H.,


The kind of death Sara Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

When doctors carried out medical test on Sara Thomas Monopoli, they found out that she was suffering from lung cancer. According to the medical experts, lung cancer is a life threatening disease that causes death. Sara Monopoli’s problems had started with a cough and a pain in her back and by the time, the doctors discovered that it was lung cancer; the disease had already spread to the lining of her chest. Sara and her family did not believe the findings of the diagnosis because she had done nothing that would have brought this to her.

The disease had first started in her left lung and it had spread very first to most parts of the body by the time it was discovered. As explained by Dr. Paul Marcoux, there is no cure for lung cancer when it has spread to this level.

However, Sara underwent several blood tests and body scans in trying to seek for the right treatment that will cure the disease and hence prolong her life but all this was in vain. Her body continued to fail; she suffered from a lot of pain since there was no right treatment for her. She endured severe pressure as the disease spread to her brain and she finally died.

According to religion, the kind of death Sara died was a physical death. This kind of death occurs when a person’s spirit departs from his/her body and his/her body then ceases to function. Religion teaches that we are tripartite in nature that is spirit, soul, and body. Our body is our physical person, the flesh and bones and blood, this is what died in Sara but her soul and spirit remained.

Dr. Gawande’s right things

First, his stories about patients, research findings and healthy policy are so touching in the sense that they encourage believers to figure out the purpose of their life in fulfilling God’s mission while on earth. He took his time to describe to us the cultural, costs of care at the end of life, the quality of life and psychological barriers that make it difficult for patients, family members, and doctors to prepare for good end of life decision making.

He encouraged people to find time, attention, and ability to have meaningful conversations about what really matters to them during the critical stages of their lives. Dr. Gawande was always present for the sick and their family members who were very much concerned about the health conditions of their loved ones. He handled difficult conversations with patients, their families and friends effectively. This indeed is very much encouraging for all religious believers since it is good to care for people regardless of their conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dr. Gawande also helped people negotiate the overwhelming anxiety about life threatening diseases and how to deal with them while remaining optimistic. He also cared for and participated in hospice care programs that helped prolong life of patients. He did his best to ensure that all patients got access to the programs conveniently.

As a general surgeon, he operated a woman who had metastatic colon cancer. When the woman returned to him later, he clearly explained to her how much bowel was removed from her. This shows that the Dr. Gawande had a good attitude and he knew how to deal with patients of all kinds. He therefore dedicated his life and career in serving humanity. This should be the call for all of us as religious believers since by serving fellow human beings we indirectly serve our Almighty God.

The wrong things Dr. Gawande

Although Dr. Gawande did several things that were right, as a human being prone to the sinful nature of this world, some things he did were wrong. For example, he was timid with Sara Monopoli. He told Sara directly without consideration that it had not been possible to remove all the disease from her. This direct information shocked Sara who later asked whether she was going to die but Dr. Gawande lied to her that the doctors were going to use Chemotherapy to cure her.

He also believed that death was a very dangerous enemy with superior forces in the sense that there was no way to defeat it. This shows that although Dr. Gawande was committed to his work, he had little faith when it when comes to life threatening illness like cancer that has no cure. Thus, this implies that if he had power, there would have been no need to treat and care for patients suffering from these diseases because after all, they have to die at the end.

What I would have done differently if I were Sara

If I were Sara with such kind of advanced illness, after physicians had made a diagnosis, I would have created a positive mindset before encountering various methods used for treating lung cancer. I would not have undergone several blood tests and body scans in trying to seek for the right treatment that will cure the disease and hence prolong my earthly life since as indicated by the doctors, the disease has no cure. I would therefore have accepted that what was coming was a physical death and confront it by repenting my sins to God.

We will write a custom Case Study on The kind of death Sara specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since lung cancer, can have emotional and physical effects that may be mishandled if both the patients and their family members are not prepared to accept the consequences of treatment, I would have explained about it to family members and friends.

This would have strengthened them and give them more hope not to worry too much about my situation since religion teaches us that at some point in time, we will meet again after the physical death. This will have equally reduced the expense incurred in treating my illness and prepare family members psychologically about my death as well as strengthen their faith in God.

Final reflections Physical death is something that usually scares those who are non-believers. This is because the fallen nature of man does not understand death. Some people fight very much to stay alive using all means of scientific knowledge available. However, scientific medicine cannot play saviour to the dying. It is God only who can keep human beings alive indefinitely or satisfy the soul when the body fails. Therefore, we all need to pray very hard so that God can reveal to us the correct meaning of physical death.


A Miracle as an Extraordinary Happening Occurring in the Physical World Descriptive Essay college essay help: college essay help

A miracle is an event that violates natural laws and happens in the physical world. A miracle, therefore, is an extraordinary happening occurring in the physical world that surpasses the natural capabilities and powers known to human beings. Therefore, a miracle is an event that surpasses human understanding, lacks empirical evidence on its cause, which makes its classification by human beings as a miracle.

Miracles are viewed as happenings that violate empirical evidence, which relies on scientific evidence and natural laws to justify their happenings. In other words, miracles do not have underlying causes that obey natural laws, but happen spontaneously when unnatural forces are brought to play.

However, when natural forces that obey the rules of nature cause an event to happen, human beings ascribe that event to an unnatural cause, therefore, calling it a natural event. Natural events occur and do not break the laws of nature. They occur according to the laws of nature and there is always empirical evidence that points to their causes.

Although there is no evidence that points to the cause of a miracle, human beings make observations on events that have occurred and when trying to investigate the genuine cause of the event based on natural laws and empirical evidence, find no connection, hence regard the event as a miracle. However, different events happen that are regarded as miracles, but find a connection between empirical evidence and natural law.

These examples include exceptional occurrences or events or unexpected outcomes from a certain action such as succeeding in a difficult task. However, the current study concentrates on miracles, which are extraordinary events whose happenings are not justified by natural laws and empirical evidence. Empirical evidence implied here is evidence with attributes to natural laws happening with strong connections with their causes.

A miracles, as discussed above has to possess unique characteristics or attributes to qualify to be known as a miracle. One of the attributes is that a miracle has to surpass the natural capabilities and powers known to human beings. The natural capabilities and powers of a human being exist within reason and empirical evidence or scientifically known boundaries.

Anything that lies beyond the natural understanding and capabilities of the human mind and scientifically proven evidence are regarded as miracles. Therefore, a miracle violates cause and effect if the cause cannot be explained from the perspective of the natural capacity of the human mind and natural laws. Natural laws, in this case, are a set of procedures determined by nature and are universal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They apply to every human mind, appeal to reason, and are founded on empirical evidence. If there is a violation of empirical evidence, then, the laws are violated and any happenings beyond the prescribed evidences provided by the natural laws, which are based on empirical evidence, are regarded as miracles.

A miracles, according to the discussions above, violate occur in the physical world and violate natural laws. Natural laws, as has been mentioned above govern the happenings in the physical world, and violating these laws in the physical world is regarded directly as a miracle. Therefore, a miracle is an extraordinary happening occurring in the physical world that surpasses the natural capabilities and powers known to human beings. Miracles are a direct caused by supernatural happening due to a supernatural cause.


Labor Law in the USA Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Labor laws have for a long time been used to provide guidelines on how workplaces ought to be governed. The laws have been enacted for several major reasons which they have managed to achieve so far. These include employee protection, environmental protection and the legal protection.

By employee protection, the labor laws seek to promote the welfare of employees through dictating the maximum working hours that an employee is required to work. They also set minimum wages that any employees must be paid and also promote the rights of employees in the workplace

Environmental protection seeks to promote environmental friendly operations in the workplace while legal protection seek to ensure that the businesses carried out by organizations do not contravene the legal provisions of the constitution. The employment law therefore mediates the relationship that exists between the employees and the employers. This is achieved through the trade unions and other employees’ welfare agencies as well as employers’ welfare agencies (Blockwell, 2003).

There are four main areas of employment which are governed by the employment laws. These areas cover wages and hours of work, Safety and health standards, Family and medical leave, and whistleblower protection. The U.S department of labor is the federal agency that regulates this area. It enforces the compliance to minimum wages by employers as well as dictating the terms and conditions of overtime compensation.

The Minimum wages by the United States of America government has been set at $7.25. It is required by law that all employers comply with this rule failure to which legal actions are taken on the organization. The law also stipulates the minimum wage payable during over-time and this is set to at least 150% of the normal pay during the normal working hours.

This means that an employee who extends works past the normal working hours is entitled to earn an extra fifty percent of the normal pay calculated per hour. More on the wages and hours of work can be found on the United States Department of Labor publications which can be retrieved from their website.

The Agency also regulates the safety and health standards that ought to be adhered to by both the employers and the employees. These are the requirements that are set out by law to ensure that the working conditions and the work environment are conducive for human habiting. Such conditions provide for such things as wearing of protective clothing whenever the nature of the work present a potential danger to the employees such as intoxication or physical threat of suffering injury.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States federal law requires employers to grant employees qualified unpaid leave on several accounts. These accounts include family and medical reasons. The agency that oversees this law is the United States department of labor.

This law allows up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave if an individual can legally prove that he/ she has a new child whether born or adopted, he has a serious family member who is seriously ill and needs care, or such any other matter that may be consistent with this provision. A more detailed report on the provision of the Family and Medical Leave Act is available in the website of the United States department of labor.

The employment law that relates to whistleblower protection is administered by the Merit Systems Protection Board and the Office of the special Counsel. This is a federal agency that seeks to adjudicate and investigate whistle blowers complaints. These agencies also seek to provide protection to the whistleblowers who are often regarded as social misfits in the modern day work environment.

Whistleblowers come in where they notice such errs as gross mismanagement of funds, non compliance with the regulations, abuse of authority etc (Fletcher, Sorrell,


Benefits of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Audit (EA) to an organization Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Literature


Discussion and Findings


Works Cited

There is an ongoing discussion on various issues of environmental assessment, originating from presence of evidences concerning ecological deprivation as a result of economic expansion (Mohamed 138). Currently, because of economic crisis, client understanding, supply chain relationships and environmental practices pressure the organizations to implement environmental programs.

The community, especially from established states is greatly concerned regarding the impacts on health as a result of pollution. But similar concerns are a bit slow in establishing states. To avoid farther abuse on environmental protection, regulating institutions have endorsed various regulations concerning environmental protection, particularly in the UK and Europe, but the enforcement of such laws is subject to debate (Mohamed 139).

External pressure from legislations and society concerns, as well as business avenues based on environmental concerns, have forced organizations to incorporate environmental initiatives as part of their business organizing process by indicating company involvement in a broad variety of environmental operations, particularly in the manufacturing sector (Banarjee 38).

Both EIA and EA have become important tools in the monitoring and evaluation of environment-based and significant growth programs. The data derived from environment impact assessment and environment auditing activities offers significant details to numerous diverse interested groups.

Although assumed principally as tools in business, innovative use of EIA and EA approaches can enhance precision and communication in various aspects of community where there are needs for higher appreciation of relationships between environment and ecosystem (Pernilla 21).

This essay presents the benefits of using the two tools in an organization. To effectively illustrate these benefits, the essay aims at the application of EIA and EA to assess the basic metrics regarding the environmental initiative as successful tools to assess and improve business operation.

Literature Dunk (720) examines how product and integration of environmental initiatives positively impact quality improvement. He proposed that adopting of environment concerns into production decision practices by applying EIA and EA would be an important step towards the promotion of quality products and overall company production. Although, the writer mathematically showed that the adoption of EIA and EA positively impacts quality improvement, he failed to measure extra aspects that can compromise quality standards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pernilla (22) discusses on the application of website as a data system for distribution of environment-based data to the society. Pernilla also explains the information about environment impact assessment for programs in Athens, as well as the geographical data platform and its application.

This particular program entails the usage likelihoods indicated above while incorporating ecological assessment and auditing through the web. The outcomes presented by Pernilla illustrate an important growth in the capacity of regulative institutions to expand their environment planning capability and to disseminate information to the society about possible environmental dangers.

Dittenhofer (42) explains the qualitative data about environmental concerns needed by managerial and the audit group in order to safeguard the company. Dittenhofer discusses on EIA and EA process. The author asserted that external auditing firms could carry out environmental assessment and auditing.

Also, the author discussed the right of polluting the ecosystem to a restricted level as described in the Clean Environment Legislation of 1990. He also outlined 13 ways for carrying out a successful environmental audit. The author failed to vividly indicate the use of EIA and EA operations to evaluate and determine possible environmental crisis and its associated costs.

Methodology Environmental assessment and auditing framework in production sector was applied so as identify the benefits of EIA and EA. In this framework, the environmental assessment and auditing are applied in order to identify benefits of conducting Environmental Impact Assessment and auditing on the main ecological elements of pollution (figure below).

The framework is in addition applied to assess the environmental impacts created in all necessary procedures (Dittenhofer 48). This information platform will improve business operations through suitable deployment of funds towards environmental programs.

Discussion and Findings Environmental planning platforms (EPP), is a basic portion of a general planning model that comprise organizational structure, coordination, goals, operations, roles, processes and protocols for establishing, adopting, attaining, assessing, and sustaining environmental practices as described in ISO14001:1997 legislation; section 3.5.

We will write a custom Essay on Benefits of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Audit (EA) to an organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As environmental assessment and auditing for organization have increased with time, significance has increased to develop a healthier appreciating of environmental assessment and audit and tap from the benefits accruing due to EIA and EA application.

The principal incentive is increasing support that environmental-associated elements can improve the profit margin and monetary level of an organization. Environmental Impact assessment is applied to evaluate all environmental implications related to operations and/or manufacturing processes before implementation, while Environmental Auditing identifies environmental implications of an ongoing/existing project (Mohamed 140).

Environmental assessment and environmental audit, in addition, can be applied in tracking environmental wellbeing of a business in more transparent way. The main regions that require assessment and auditing are: air emission, contaminated water, soil pollution and high noise rate as described by the above model.

Conventionally, EIA and EA were applied as tools for evaluating and disclosing environmental impact reducing influences towards environmental protection expenditures. However, indeed today the EIA and EA in organization have developed; interest has developed to establish a more improved appreciation to environmental-associated benefits and monetary implications as a factor to traditional assessment and auditing.

It is significant for these tools to intrinsically determine and project the gains derived from organization operations and gains from the environmental assessment suitable for a company’s strategic plan and as per the UK’s legislation on environment. The businesses require identifying the ecological impact capability and/or environmental impacts in all processes, measure and assess the environmental impacts.

The firm also needs to measure and evaluate environment protection expenditures incurred by entire production lines and activities regardless the cost advances socio-economic impacts, organization profit margin, and regardless the environment effect of organization operations suit the company’s growth that results to a system for environmental assessment and auditing (Banarjee 43).

Conclusion The relation between the environment and business is experiencing growing awareness. Today, discussion about climate shift and ecosystem is gaining popularity in management, as well as debate on air, water and soil contamination.

Even though the continuity of financial growth is an equitable role of company, regulatory institutions and stakeholders, but the companies can assume important responsibility in minimizing environmental deprivation. This is because a company has monetary capabilities, technological know-how and organizational ability and long-lived goal of finding environmental solutions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Benefits of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Audit (EA) to an organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Firms contribute to maintainable environment through innovation and improvement of their manufacturing process so as to utilize inputs more sufficiently, reduce wastage from manufacturing processes, improve effluent discharge techniques and create a good work environment. Through effective EIA and EA, a company can witness a growth in general environmental appraisal, stakeholders’ fulfillment and organization performance.

Works Cited Banarjee, Subhabrata. “Corporate environmental strategies and actions.” Management Decision. Print, 39 (2001): 36-44.

Dittenhofer, Mort. “Environmental Accounting and Auditing. “Managerial Auditing Journal. Print, 10(1995): 40-51.

Dunk, Allan. “Product Quality, Environmental Accounting and Quality Performance.” Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal. Print, 15(2002): 719-732.

Mohamed, Ismail. “Environmental Accounting as a Tool for Environmental Management System.” Journal of environmental Management. Print, 11(2007): 137-145.

Pernilla, Gluch. “Costs of Environmental Errors (CEE).” Greener Management International. Print, 31(2000): 20-23.


The Force Field Analysis for Leadership Team Effectiveness Essay custom essay help

Developed by American social psychologist Kurt Lewin, the force field analysis is an important technique used for brainstorming the factors/issues that are either driving movement towards a desired objective (helping forces) or blocking movement towards the desired objective (hindering forces), in an attempt to objectively weigh the pros and cons of the desired objective.

Organizations and teams undertake the analysis in a focused attempt aimed at either strengthening the forces that support a particular decision or reducing the impact of the forces that oppose the decision (Turner, 2010). A force field analysis aimed at addressing critical issues toward the attainment of leadership effectiveness is outlined below.

Helping Forces Hindering Forces Ability to establish an enabling team structure to guide the process Barriers relating to cultural diversity of the team, that is, the team is made up of members from diverse cultural/racial groups Ability to Establish a compelling direction to be followed by team members, assisted by expert team coaching capabilities Change resistance coming from some members within the team Having a supportive organizational context and culture within the team Leadership Team


Sustained lack of mechanisms for emotional convergence among some team members, leading to the progression of differing viewpoints Ability to work closely together within and across the organizational context of the team to get tasks accomplished quickly Perceived lack of goal sharing among some members of the team Capacity to avail the necessary knowledge and expertise towards successful task completion persistent leadership wrangles progressed by dissatisfied members of the team Capacity to facilitate effective interaction among team members in a way and manner that will guarantee good problem solving, decision-making and effective coordination of team efforts lack of productivity and innovation by some team members capacity to understand the bigger picture of what is needed, and of sharing in common goals and objectives Lack of cohesion as some team members are not satisfied with their positions in the team Availability of the resources and training needed for team members to develop the skills and expertise needed for successful completion of tasks Lack of adequate attention from management with regard to team’s needs and achievements Capacity to keep strict timelines on the team’s projects capacity to elicit feedback from constructive communication Source: Kayworth