Table of Contents Introduction
Tsunami: Definition and Causes
Introduction Tsunamis have gained worldwide notoriety following the two devastating tsunamis that have occurred in the course of the last ten years. These natural catastrophes have demonstrated that tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause massive destruction and death within a few minutes of their occurrence.
The impact of tsunamis is especially considerable since the world has a higher coastal population today than ever before in history. Considering the significance of tsunamis, this paper will set out to define tsunami, explain their causes and offer some real-life examples.
Tsunami: Definition and Causes A tsunami is defined as a series of waves most commonly caused by violent movements of the sea floor (Dudley and Lee 61). The tsunami can travel up to the coastline with the water penetrating into the coastal area leaving great devastation in its wake. The first cause of tsunami is seismic activity on the ocean floor.
The second cause is submarine landslides, which can be triggered by earthquakes. These landslides cause large displacements of water thereby generating tsunamis. Coastal volcanoes are the third source of tsunamis. If a volcano originates from the ocean bed, it can displace water and generate large tsunamis. Most tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean since active features such as deep ocean trenches, explosive volcanic islands, and dynamic mountain ranges surround the ocean basin (Dudley and Lee 62).
Seismic activity on the ocean floor is the most prominent cause of tsunami and Bryant reveals that earthquakes have caused 82.3% of all tsunamis that have occurred in the Pacific Ocean over the past two millennia (127). The displacement of the Earth’s surface during underwater earthquakes produces great potential energy to the overlying water.
Dudley and Lee reveal that most of these earthquake tsunamis occur at the great ocean trenches where the tectonic plates that make up the earth’s surface collide and are forced under each other (62). Submarine earthquakes can generate dangerous tsunamis and that the intensity of this tsunami is generally proportional to the earthquake magnitude (2033).
In spite of their frequency, most of the tsunamis produced by seismic activity go unnoticed since their force dies down before they reach the shore or their amplitude is so small that they go unnoticed. Bryant reports, “damaging tsunamis are often associated with earthquakes with a surface wave magnitude of 7.5 or more” (125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dudley and Lee state that most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes occur in small thrusts and only small tsunamis are produced by these smaller quakes (62). However, large earthquakes periodically occur and these generate large and deadly tsunamis.
Recent Tsunamis The two most recent tsunamis have been caused by large magnitude subduction zone earthquakes. The devastating Sumatra Tsunami of 2004 was caused by a mega-thrust earthquake at the floor of the Indian Ocean. Igarashi documents that the aftershock zone of this earthquake was longer than 1,300km and it generated a tsunami that killed nearly 230,000 people (2049). The coastal regions closest to the source suffered the most severe damage as big and powerful waves of water hit the coastline.
The powerful North Pacific Coast tsunami of 2011 was also caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and the tsunami arrived within minutes after the earthquake shaking had stopped. Igarashi reports that ground shaking was felt at 3:46 pm and the tsunami generated by the earthquake occurred within 15 minutes (2049).
This tsunami hit the east coast of Japan at a speed of 800Km/hr and destroyed property along the coast. The tsunami waves continued to wash over the coastline for hours with wavelengths reaching 30 meters. The damages by the tsunami were increased exponentially by the breach on the Fukushima nuclear power plant.
Warning systems Igarashi states that while governments were indifferent to tsunamis before 2004, the devastating effect of the Sumatra tsunami changed this (2049). Governments have invested in tsunami warning communication systems due to the realization that a tsunami can be hugely destructive. There are numerous efforts today aimed at establishing tsunami warning systems to protect life and property in coastal regions.
Tabuchi reports that predicting tsunami causing earthquakes is still an imperfect science and the estimated predictions are normally wrong. Seismic and sea level data offer the best means for predicting the likelihood of a tsunami occurring and alerts and warnings can be issued if necessary. Earthquake information provides the initial tsunami threat evaluation since this data provides the fastest early indicator of the tsunami’s potential.
Conclusion This paper set out to briefly research on tsunamis with focus on the causes of these features and some examples that have happened in recent history. To this end, the paper has defined tsunamis and noted that seismic activity is the main cause of tsunamis.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Tsunami: Definition and Causes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It has documented how enormous earthquakes originating from the ocean floor have generated the most devastating earthquakes in the world’s history. The research concluded by highlighting the efforts that governments have made to come up with effective warning systems that can help alert people of impeding tsunamis.
Works Cited Bryant, Edward. Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard. NY: Springer, 2008. Print.
Campbell, Phillips. The 10 most destructive tsunamis in history. 16 Mar. 2011. Web. https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/science-environment/2011/03/the-10-most-destructive-tsunamis-in-history/
Dudley, Walter and M. Lee. Tsunami! Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1998. Print.
Igarashi, Yan. “Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning.” Pure Appl. Geophys. 168.1 (2011): 2043–2063. Print.
Tabuchi, Hiroko. “Tsunami Projections Offer Bleak Fate for Many Japanese Towns.” The New York Times. 09 April. 2012. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/10/world/asia/tsunami-projections-offer-bleak-fate-for-many-japanese-towns.html?pagewanted=all
The Global Feedbacks of Greenhouse Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Views on the greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect and increase in trace-gases concentration
Greenhouse effect feedbacks
Introduction The greenhouse effect entails conditions that allow short wavelengths from sunlight to be absorbed through transparent media. However, these media cannot permit the passage of long wavelengths that are re-radiated from animated substances. Therefore, high temperatures that occur due to overheating are usually experienced.
This arises because the long wavelengths are tapped and thus causing variations in the atmosphere. It is a major issue in the world today since climatic changes cause precipitation and global warming. The accumulations of anthropogenic supporters and induced greenhouse gases encourage temperature variations. However, the greenhouse gases are transparent to the inflowing solar radiations.
These gases include CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), O3 (troposphere ozone), N2O (nitrous oxide), CH4 (methane), CO2 (carbon dioxide), and water vapor. The gases attract and change the inward radiations to long wavelength. Hence, they cause thermal energy.
Besides, some activities carried out by man tend to increase the amount of gases retained in the atmosphere. This causes the greenhouse effect (Emanuel 2320). This study investigates the greenhouse effect. It also looks at the increase in trace-gases concentration, and the global feedbacks of greenhouse.
Views on the greenhouse effect A greenhouse is a phrase that scientists originally used in the fiscal 1980s. It was used to explain the purpose of trace-gases that naturally occurred. This hardly imposed pessimistic implications on the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric scientists saw that the greenhouse effect was attached to most climatic change anxieties.
Recently, negative expressions have taken center stage as to what constitutes the greenhouse effect (Lindzen 8339). These concerns are connected to the probable impact of the greenhouse effects. Therefore, research shows that life would not have been possible without the greenhouse effects. In fact, the temperature of the earth is dependent on the atmospheric actions of the greenhouse effects.
Several factors affect greenhouses. This is because of its effects in cooling and heating the atmosphere. An essential facet of the atmospheric orangery is the nature of plane that is initially hit by rays. The surfaces such as cities, deserts, ice caps, ocean surfaces, grasslands, and forests, tend to absorb, reflect, and emit radiations in different ways.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A white glacier tends to reflect back sunlight that is falling on its surface. This leads to low atmospheric conditions that accrue from some amount of heat. In contrast, dark desert soils have the capacity to absorb sunlight (Arrhenius 239). This contributes to the maximum heating of surfaces and lowers the atmospheric temperature.
Moreover, the cloud coverage affects the greenhouse warming. It decreases the quantity of solar radiation that is getting into the ground. It also minimizes the degree of energy and waves that are discharged into the atmosphere. Thus, scientists have characterized a fraction of astrophysical vigor that is reproduced by such reflective planes (Reiter 54). This has helped scholars and other people to comprehend the global, regional, and local percentages. The greenhouse effect has therefore helped in the prediction of climatic changes around the world.
The greenhouse effect and increase in trace-gases concentration Temperatures of surfaces and those of the atmosphere respond quickly to variations in the absorption of greenhouse gases. Increase in the concentration of clouds or greenhouse gases above the normal levels results into variations in altitude (Lindzen 8340). For instance, improved methane concentrations will move the altitude upwards. As a result, the temperature of the upper troposphere will change by half due to increase in surface temperature. This is apparent in a humid surface and its deviation from the altitude.
Changes in the concentration will help in calculating the surface and atmospheric temperature changes. For example, double concentration of carbon dioxide increases the world average surface temperature by one degree centigrade. Furthermore, climate systems and mechanisms affect atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration.
Plants depend on carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Hence, they reduce the concentration of gases in the atmosphere (Emanuel 2325). The conservatory absorption in the environment is amplified by individuals’ actions. This is seen in industrial actions that lead to the clearance of forests and smoldering of fossil fuels. Introducing further greenhouse gas in the atmosphere strengthens the greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse effect feedbacks Several feedback mechanisms depict the rate at which the globe is warming. Atmospheric warming accrues due the increment in the level of greenhouse gases. The water vapor that is found in the atmosphere also increases. This in turn increases the greenhouse effect. Therefore, excessive global warming is experienced.
From such an experience, the vapor found within the reinforcing self-cycle also causes further increment in the greenhouse effect. Due to additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect can be doubled. Furthermore, clouds constitute an important feedback mechanism. The absorption of infrared radiation by clouds has an impact on the greenhouse that eventually causes global warming (Arrhenius 239).
We will write a custom Essay on The Global Feedbacks of Greenhouse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clouds furthermore echo the received planetary rays to generate the chilly upshots on the crusts’ plane. Therefore, the extent at which clouds cool or warm the earth depends on the changes in clouds, life span, shape, particle size, altitude, water content, position and nature (Schneider 1). Some changes restrain the global warming while others intensify it. Researches on the feedback mechanisms as regards to global warming are still on track.
Conclusion It can be concluded that greenhouse gases work by absorbing the infrared radiation. Hence, some energy is radiated back towards the earth surface. This surface also receives radiation from the clouds and the atmosphere. Studies show that clouds and water vapor are the most important greenhouse components in the atmosphere.
Nevertheless, water vapor quickly cycles through space, and its concentration is observed as feedback. The ozone, nitrous oxides, methane, carbon dioxide, and clouds are also important elements in the greenhouse. They increase the global warming and its absorption of various gases provided there are excessive concentrations.
Works Cited Arrhenius, Svante. “On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground.” Philosophical Magazine 20 Oct.1896: 237-276. Print.
Emanuel, Keynes. “A Scheme for Representing Cumulus Convention in Large-Scale Models.” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 48.2 (1991): 2313-2335. Print.
Lindzen, Rodgers. “Can Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Affect Global Climate?” Journal of the National Academy of Science 94.4 (1997): 8335-8342. Print.
Reiter, David. The Greenhouse Effect, Brisbane, Australia: Interactive Publications, 2004. Print.
Schneider, Stephen. Greenhouse Effect. 4 Sept. 2010. Web. .
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Comparative Analysis of Macroeconomic Indicators of USA and Brazil Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The global population continues to increase. By the end of 2011, it had surpassed seven billion people. Astonishingly, over 20% of the population lives in poverty. Majority of the poor are living in abject poverty implying that they survive with less than a dollar per day. In developed countries, most citizens are affluent and earn decent wages and salaries. According to Sullivan and Sheffrin, the disparities between the rich and poor countries also continue to increase with the wage gap being the strongest indicator of this assertion (9).
The level of economic growth and development between the developed countries and developing countries is staggering. This a comparative study of United States (a developed country) and Brazil (considered a developing country by economic indicators). The paper will concentrate on the differences in various macroeconomic indicators including GDP, GNP, rate of inflation, unemployment, per capita income and growth of the countries.
Comparative Analysis of Macroeconomic Indicators of USA and Brazil United States stand outs as the largest national economy in the entire world (Todaro and Smith 76). By the end of last fiscal year, the country had a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of well above $15 trillion and it contributes hugely to the global output. On the other hand, Brazil is considered a developing country although it ranks sixth as per the standards of World Bank owing to its national output.
This is in lieu of the fact that the country has a high productivity with its GDP standing at $2.5 trillion. Although both countries have high output, it was only lately that Brazil joined the G-20 (Sullivan and Sheffrin 20). The rationale is that GDP is not the sole macroeconomic indicator of a country’s economic development and growth. Nonetheless, the two countries contribute hugely to the aggregate global output due to their expansive industries and adoption of technology and innovation.
Todaro and Smith assert that major contributors of productivity in the US include services, industry, and agricultural sectors constituting 79%, 19% and 1.2% of the GDP respectively (87). For Brazil, services sector contributes huge percentage of the productivity standing at almost 70%. Agriculture and industry sectors contribute 5.5% and 28% respectively (Baer 56).
The rate of inflation is a macroeconomic indicator that focuses on the monetary forces that cause fluctuations in the currency affecting trade with other countries. In US, the rate of inflation has remained relatively low averaging at 1.7% by the last fiscal year while in Brazil the rate stood at 5.4% within the same period. Inflation rate is a very sensitive macroeconomic indicator that affects a country’s ability to import goods.
With high inflationary rate, a country may have a discrepancy in the balance of trade and payment (BOT and BOP) where importation is very expensive in comparison to exportation. As elucidated by Sullivan and Sheffrin, this may impair the ability of a country to stimulate growth of the local industries especially those dependent on the importation of raw materials from other countries (27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, high rate of inflation leads to fluctuation in the international stocks since investors prefer stable currencies (Todaro and Smith 74). This may have many impacts to a country’s economy including decelerated economic growth and high unemployment rate. As such, Brazil’s economy is more susceptible to such consequences than US economy given the differentials in their rates of inflation (Baer 45).
Further, rate of unemployment remains as a major indicator of an economy’s productivity. Given the recent global economic crises that engulfed the world in 2008, unemployment rate rose dramatically in the United States. In particular, the unemployment rate stood at 9.3% in 2009 – a figure that has slightly dropped to reach 8.3% by March 2012.
Although the rate of unemployment in the country seems to be relatively high given its global economic status, layoffs and outsourcing were major drivers of the unemployment. According to economists, it is rational for a company to shift its production to a country where labor is cheap and a country that possesses a comparative advantage in production (Sullivan and Sheffrin 33).
To this end, many companies in the US have resulted to outsourcing as a way to cushion themselves from the unstable global economic trends. For Brazil, the rate of unemployment stood at 5.4% implying that the country has managed to control the levels of unemployment. This however does not imply that the standards of living of Brazilians are higher than in the US.
The rationale is that unemployment refers to a proportion of the population that has skills and is willing to provide the skills to the labor market. Acquisition of skills may imply high rates of literacy. As such, Todaro and Smith articulate that it is not necessarily true that high unemployment rate indicates deplorable conditions for Americans since they may have more skills than the Brazilians but not willing to work (89).
Another macroeconomic indicator is the rate of economic growth for a specific country. Growth rate may mean an increase in productivity, improvement of infrastructure, improved access to healthcare and generally, all positive attributes that augment the standards of living for a population.
In the US, the economy has continued to grow at a very sluggish rate. The most possible explanation of such a scenario from an economics perspective is that the country has fully industrialized. According to US Bureau of Labor and Statistics, the country economic growth rate grew marginally by 2% at the end of third quarter of 2012. On the other hand, Brazilian economy suffered from slowed growth in the global economy.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparative Analysis of Macroeconomic Indicators of USA and Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By the second quarter of 2011, the economy grew by only 2.7% (Baer 76). To this end, there is a dissenting view that the sluggish economy in the US may hamper its efforts to reduce the high unemployment rate. For Brazil, the economy is projected to accelerate in growth owing to the unexploited sectors (Baer 76). Indeed, economists agree that a developing country has a potential for growth especially when basic infrastructures and amenities improve.
Sullivan and Sheffrin say that Per Capita Income (PCI) measures the average income for every person in a country (34). It is also a major indicator of the standards of living for a country. While many economists cite the large number of people living below two dollars per day, it is undeniable that over 15% of Americans lived below global poverty line by 2010.
For Brazil, only 8.4% of the citizens lived below poverty line. In reality, Brazil has a higher population than its counterparts and the poverty line only concentrates on people earning below $2. It is therefore important to focus on the larger picture where the American economy employs higher number of people and concentrates majority of its efforts to the service sector.
The financial institutions in the two countries are different with the US having the largest stock market in the world. Wall Street financial firms have been major shapers of the global financial trends (Todaro and Smith 90). Undoubtedly, the financial and economic crises of the last decade resulted from the ripple effect of the country’s stock market. To this end, it is important to highlight that both the US and Brazil have continued to be major economies whose disparities are reducing with time.
Conclusion In sum, global economy has continued to grow despite the apparent gap in wage differentials and living standards between developed and developing countries. However, Brazil (a G-20 country) compares largely with the US.
At the outset, USA has the largest GDP in the world while Brazil is sixth in terms of economic output according to the World Bank (Baer 56). Besides, the two countries have managed to control their rates of inflation that stand below the global average. However, Baer states that the rate of unemployment in the US remains a major point of reference in terms of its inability to contain it since the global economic crises (87).
Analysts say that the high rate of the unemployment in the country is prone to fluctuations owing to the sluggishness of the economy (Sullivan and Sheffrin 57). Further, it is notable that the income per capita for the two countries is comparable. Nonetheless, there are disparities in the growth rates of the two countries in favor of Brazil. This is because the country still has the potential to reach full industrialization and maturation.
Works Cited Baer, Werner. The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2012. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparative Analysis of Macroeconomic Indicators of USA and Brazil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sullivan, Arthur and Sheffrin, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
Todaro, Michael and Smith, Stephen. Economic Development. New Jersey: Pearson
The Imbalance in Ecosystem in the Modern World Essay best essay help
Population growth among the humans is leading to over exploitation of the eco system in trying to provide food, shelter and clothing. Santa in her publication World Is Undergoing Mass Extinction shows how over exploitation of the environment is causing imbalance in the eco system.
The imbalance in ecosystem is eventually leading to extinction of some species from the earth surface. In equatorial Africa, over exploitation of the equatorial forest to provide trees for timber and medicinal herbs is leading to desertification. The Equatorial forest together with the Amazon forest used to boast of the widest varieties of birds and animals which most of them no longer exist. The extinction and endangerment of animals in these forests are caused by human being activities.
Sheldon, in the article Endangered Species/Species Extinction – Causes, Statistics, and Trends, suggests that human beings should develop a way to exploit the environment without affecting other species living within the same surrounding. Natural extinction can be slowed down even if it is caused by forces of nature. The natural extinction within the Amazon forest is being brought about by climate change.
The climate change is brought by human activities which include industrialization and farming. Using of environmentally friendly sources of power to run the industries might reduce the global warming by 25%. The Greater Horseshoe Bat a bird found in Britain is endangered because of human activities of lumbering and use of pesticides within its eco system. The bird left without a natural habitat and food making is hard to survive in the new polluted environment.
Laws developed to protect the endangered animals are not enough to protect the rare species. Governments need to involve the local communities in trying to protect the animals which would be an effective process. Kurpis, in her article Ways You Can Help Endangered Species, suggests that communities should be involved in forming game reserves or parks where the endangered animals will be reared.
The need to protect endangered animals is a necessity because of the technological advancement among the humans. Human beings have come up with weapons that can kill some of these animals in thousands within a short period. Poachers use these weapons to hunt the endangered animals eventually contributing to eradication of certain species of animals like the white rhino. The anti poaching laws and willingness of people have proved pivotal in increasing the white rhino’s population within the Earth’s surface.
Research by Bishop, in his publication Biodiversity loss from species extinctions may rival pollution and climate change impacts, has shown areas with massive extinction are facing decrease in biodiversity. The extinction is leading to such things as global warming, low production, and air pollution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These changes are some of the contributors to global warming a major problem in the current century. Environments that harbor a wide variety of species have a large production of food. The massive production is brought about by ability of nature to control all factors of production using natural means.
Human beings will be the greatest losers because of the extinction of certain species. Extinction of herbivores within some eco system is leading to conflict between human beings and carnivores like lions. Such conflict would not take place if humans did not over hunt the herbivores for meat leaving carnivores with nothing to feed.
Myers, in the article 10 Recently Extinct Animals – Top 10 Lists | List verse, shows that human beings are the main contributors to the extinction of species in the current century. These leaves human beings with a moral obligation of ensuring the endangered species do not get extinct by protecting their habitat. Protection of their habitats will ensure they get safe bleeding places, and enough food to survive.
Works Cited Bishop, Adrian. ‘Biodiversity loss from species extinctions may rival pollution and climate change impacts.’ Earth Times. 2012. Web. Nov. 5, 2012.
Kurpis, Lauren. ‘Ways You Can Help Endangered Species.’ Endangered Species. 2007. Web. Nov. 5, 2012.
Myers, Stephanie. ’10 Recently Extinct Animals – Top 10 Lists | List verse.’ Top 10 Lists – List verse. 2009. Web. Nov. 5, 2012.
Santa, Barbara. ‘World Is Undergoing Mass Extinction.’ Science News. 2008. Web. Nov. 5, 2012.
We will write a custom Essay on The Imbalance in Ecosystem in the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sheldon, Joseph. ‘Endangered Species/Species Extinction – Causes, Statistics, and Trends.’ Clean Funny Cartoons / Environmental Issues on Grinning Planet. n.d. Web. Nov. 5, 2012.
Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of Relationships
Introduction Conventionally, movies underscore common issues that touch on the society and thus they share common themes because they present issues that affect people in society. For instance, romance movies integrate several other themes into the romantic scenes, which allow them to focus on other pertinent societal issues such as wealth, violence, and politics among others.
In essence, movies do not only have a major theme, which makes them unique, but they also have minor themes that are essential in reflecting the state of society under which the actors operate. Minor themes are important because they provide background information about the movie and its characters. The popular themes in movies are social class, gender roles, hedonism, politics, romance, and warfare among others.
In the aspect of romance, movies examine themes such obsessive love, passionate love, and destructive love amongst other themes that fascinate viewers. In spite of generational changes, movies focus on same themes, which make them similar to past movies of about a half a century ago. Thus, this essay compares the two movies, viz. Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002). The movies share similar themes like romance, revolution, and slavery in their setting and plot.
Romance Romance is a common theme in both movies. The movie Gone with the Wind (1939) depicts romantic experiences of Scarlett O’Hara, the protagonist. Scarlett is a daughter of a plantation owner in the Clayton County, Georgia, and since she has a poor background, she uses all means at her disposal to loosen the chains of poverty that have entangled her lie for a decidedly long time.
In the process of searching for a lover, she realizes that Ashley Wilkes is wooing her cousin, Melanie Hamilton, and wants to marry soon. This realization prompts Scarlett to devise ways of winning Wilkes to her side. Hence, Scarlett makes advances and convinces Wilkes that she loves him very much.
Moreover, Scarlett begins to date Rhett Butler, but he realizes that she is also dating Wilkes. When Scarlett sees that both Wilkes and Butler do not like her anymore, she acts desperately by deciding to date Charles Hamilton, brother to Melanie Hamilton. Unfortunately, Charles Hamilton dies after impregnating her and she becomes a widow at an early age of 16 years. Hence, it is evident that the movie Gone with the Wind (1939) is a romantic movie.
Likewise, Dr. Zhivago (2002) is a romantic movie that portrays life and love experiences of Yury Zhivago. He is a young man living with his aunt and uncle because his father committed suicide following corrupt business deals. As Zhivago grows up, he undergoes a series of relationships in search of a true lover. Eventually, he finds Lara Guishar, whom he loves passionately courtesy of overwhelming infatuations. Incidentally, Lara Guishar’s mother is the lover of Komarosky, the man who made his father die.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Zhivago realizes this, he opts to marry his cousin, Tonya. Although Zhivago marries Tonya, he later changes his mind after meeting Lara; unfortunately, when Lara’s husband returns from combat and becomes a powerful leader in the Soviet regime, he reunites with Lara, his former wife. Therefore, it suffices to say that both movies deal with romantic experiences of the protagonists.
Nature of Relationships Both movies show the same nature of relationships surrounding the protagonists. In Gone with the Wind (1939), Wilkes is dating his cousin, Melanie Hamilton. When Scarlett realizes this, she attempts to prevent them from wedding by dating Charles Hamilton, brother to Melanie Hamilton.
Eventually, Wilkes is unable to marry his cousin because Scarlett manages to break their relationship. Hence, the movie Gone with the Wind (1939) illustrates how relatives can influence the development of relationships in the society. Comparatively, the movie of Doctor Zhivago also illustrates how relatives influence relationships.
Like Wilkes in Gone with the Wind (1939), Zhivago falls in love with his cousin, Tonya, and is ready to marry her. When he realizes that Tonya’s mother is the lover of the man behind his father’s unfortunate death, Zhivago retreats from the relationship. However, Zhivago later reunites with Tonya after bumping into each other in a hospital. Thus, both movies show intrigues of relationships as Wilkes and Zhivago try to marry their cousins.
Moreover, the two movies are similar in the way characters make and break their relationships. What is common in the movies is that Wilkes and Zhivago, the two protagonists in both movies start dating their cousins. In the case of Wilkes, he starts dating his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, but Scarlett manages to break their relationships by dating Charles Hamilton and conceiving his child.
After Charles Hamilton dies, he leaves Scarlett to struggle alone to feed the family. As Scarlett is busy going rounds in a hospital and helping wounded Confederate Army combatants, she meets Butler, the man he had dated earlier before marrying Charles Hamilton.
The two start dating again and they fall in love immediately. Similarly, in the movie of Doctor Zhivago (2002), Zhivago finds himself in the world of love when he meets Tonya, his cousin. During World War I, Zhivago meets Lara, a young woman whose husband has gone to war, but has never come back. As Lara decides to look for his husband by working as a combat nurse in the Russian army, Zhivago starts making advances to her. The two fall in love and begin dating for a while after which Lara’s husband returns from war.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Revolutions Revolution is also common in both movies. In Gone with the Wind (1939), the scene occurs amidst the America Civil War. In the movie, the Civil War occurs in Tara plantation where people fight for the confederacy. The characters in the movie are caught in the upheavals that rock the plantation and thus start fleeing for safety in the neighboring states. As Scarlett is nursing wounds of the wounded confederate soldiers, the Yankees’ attacks force her to flee home and take care of her mother.
Comparatively, the movie Doctor Zhivago (2002) happens during the Soviet revolution and the Russian civil war. During the revolution, Zhivago does not only battle with his two lovers, Lara and Tonya, but he also struggles to protect them from the armies leading the revolution in Russia. Although he manages to move his family into the Ural Mountains to protect them, the army captures and compels him to be their doctor. Hence, revolutions are common scenes in the two movies.
Slavery The theme of slavery is present in both movies; for instance, in the Tara plantations, Yankees are enslaving Americans, but the latter become rebellious. The revolution provides means through which Americans manage to free themselves from the bondage of slavery. The struggles of the plantation workers lead to the revolution that changes their posterity in the United States.
Similarly, the revolution in the Doctor Zhivago (2002) movie indicates some forms of slavery as Soviet soldiers capture individuals and compel them to join the war. For instance, while Zhivago is trying to escape with his family, the soldiers capture and force him to be their medic during war. Thus, slavery is a common theme in the two movies.
Conclusion Despite the fact that the two movies, Gone with the Wind (1939) and Doctor Zhivago (2002) are over 60 years apart with regard to the time of their production, they seem to focus on similar themes under same scenes. The two movies explore romantic themes coupled with relationship intrigues and revolutions.
Scarlett and Zhivago are the two main characters in their respective movies and they advance the theme of romance and relationship intrigues. Although Gone with the Wind (1939) happens in United States and Doctor Zhivago occurs in Russian, these scenes are very similar such that viewers can confuse them. Therefore, the two movies have major similarities that range from the plot and characters to scenes.
Bibliography Alessandra, Stanley. “Television Review: ‘Zhivago’ without Hollywood.” New York Times, Nov. 1, 2003.
Mitchell, Margaret. Gone with the wind. London: Simon and Schuster Publisher, 2007.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paludi, Michele. The psychology of love. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2012.
Pasternak, Boris, Richard Pevear, and Larissa Volokhonsky. Doctor Zhivago. London: Randon House Incorporated, 2011.
Footnotes Michele Paludi, The psychology of love (New York: ABC-CLIO, 2012), 9
Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the wind (London: Simon and Schuster Publisher, 2007), 22.
Boris Pasternak, Boris, Richard Pevear, and Larissa Volokhonsky, Doctor Zhivago (London: Randon House Incorporated, 2011), 31.
Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 45.
Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 111.
Stanley Alessandra, “Television Review: ‘Zhivago’ without Hollywood,” New York Times, Nov. 1, 2003.
Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 123.
American Immigration History Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The history of immigration is important in understanding how the different ethnic groups in America relate. However, immigration has been a controversial topic throughout history. This controversy has resulted from the failure to control the number and type of immigration.
Additionally, it is worth noting that America was a colony of Britain. Therefore, America received a significant number of immigrants during the colonial period. However, during this era, the immigration policy did not exist. Nonetheless, the largest wave of immigrants arrived in America in the 20th century. This essay provides an insight into the History of immigration in America.
The colonial period, in America, lasted from 1607 to 1776. During this period, majority of immigrants were Britons. In fact, by 1790, sixty percent of the population in Jamestown (Virginia) and Plymouth (Massachusetts) was from Britain. Most of these immigrants came to America for economic reasons. However, some arrived in search of religious freedom. The Germans, who began arriving in America around early to mid 1700s, were the second major group to arrive.
However, they lived in rural areas and resisted assimilation by other cultures. Additionally, from the start of the colonial period until the abolition of slave trade, America received many immigrants from Africa. These were slaves meant to work in plantations. Therefore, they were involuntary immigrants. About eleven to twelve million African slaves were shipped to the Americas between the 16th and 20th Centuries.
The first large-scale wave of immigrants occurred between 1820 and 1880. In this time, over ten million immigrants arrived in America. The most notable immigrants were the Irish. Three million people migrated from Ireland to the US supposedly to escape the potato famine. Furthermore, the second wave of immigrants took place between 1880 to1930. In this episode alone, America received 27.5 million immigrants.
This group was from Southern and Eastern Europe. Moreover, they were Catholics and did not speak English. The Jewish also migrated to America during this time. However, they were more skilled than the earlier group. For that reason, it was easier for them to settle than the group from Eastern and Southern Europe. Additionally, the first wave of Asian immigrant was between 1840 and 1924.
These were mainly Chinese and Japanese immigrants. The Japanese settled in the rural farms where they worked as agricultural contract workers. On the other hand, the Chinese worked on Hawaiian plantations, mines and railroads. The largest wave of immigrants came after 1965. A significant number of Mexicans entered America during this wave.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Uncontrolled immigration caused a major crisis in the US. Consequently, there was a need to develop restrictive immigration policies. For that reason, a literacy test was developed in 1917. This was followed by the immigration act of 1924 and later the Hart Cellar Act of 1965.
In the immigration act of 1924, the total immigration was restricted to 165,000 people per year while only 2% of all immigrants were to come from the same country. On the other hand, the Hart Cellar Act of 1965 restricted immigration to family unification and employment visas. In addition, the act placed ceilings on immigrants from certain hemispheres.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that America’s immigration history is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the various ethnic groups within it. Additionally, the controversy in the immigration has stood for a long period of time. Therefore, failure to control the number and type of immigration in America is not a new thing.
History of Immigration and Its Timeline in the United States Essay college admission essay help
Cultural diversity in the United States is a direct result of immigration. In fact, almost all ethnic groups in the country are products of immigration.
For instance, the white majority in the United States are descendants of migrants from Europe. Likewise, most minority ethnic groups are descendants of migrants from other parts of the world namely Africa, South America, Asia, and North America (especially Mexico), among others. In essence, understanding the relations between ethnic groups in the United States requires a thorough look at the history of immigration. Consequently, this paper explores history of immigration and its timeline.
The United States is majorly composed of immigrants. This happened in various timelines of its controversial history. In fact, United States’ immigration is considered special to the rest of the world. Firstly, no other country has ever experienced such great numbers of immigrants who came from every part of the world. Secondly, it provided jobs and alternatives for most immigrants. However, it is important to state that U.S. immigration has been quite controversial.
Moreover, its immigration policy has raised eyebrows on its agenda. The policy has repeatedly failed to mitigate the type of immigrants and to control the number of immigrants entering the U.S. The first immigrants were mainly composed of British settlers (60%) who came between 1607 and 1776. During this period, there was no immigration policy. Most of these settlers came for economic and religious reasons.
This period saw the coming of Germans who settled in Pennsylvania. They had their own culture and language. They were also quite controversial as they were seen as disloyal to mainstream Americans. The next batch that came into America during this period was African slaves.
It is estimated that only roughly 500,000 slaves immigrated to the United Stated despite slave trade of between 11 and 12 million slaves of African descent to the greater Americas. Moreover, about 10% of Africans who lived in the North were free although they faced extreme discrimination.
However, those in the South faced terrible conditions in slavery. A common characteristic of this state was continued revolts in the South. Incidentally, the first large-scale immigration was observed between 1820 and 1880. This encompassed over 10 million people. There was no immigration policy until in 1875 when the first control act was established. The first wave of immigration saw large immigration from Europe (especially the Irish and the Germans). They came mainly for economic reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second large-scale (over 27.5 million) immigration happened between 1880 and 1930. Most migrants were from Southern and Eastern Europe (especially Italians, Poles, and Russians). They were poor and unskilled. They lived in concentrated areas. They also had their own customs, religion, and language.
About 1 million Jews also migrated during this period. In contrast to their Eastern and Southern Europe counterparts, the Jews were skilled. However, they both faced discrimination in their newfound homes. This led to the establishment of an improved immigration act that tested potential immigrants on literacy (1917), restricted the total immigration (165000 annually from1924), and introduced quota of 2% of immigrants on countries of origin.
This greatly affected Asian and Eastern/Southern Europeans. Moreover, the former were further restricted through the China exclusion act (1882). Immigrants from Japan were quite dismal although they are the most decorated in history of United States. The next large-scale immigration was later seen after 1965 (prior to this, there was the great depression and World War II which affected immigration).
Mexican migration was predominant in this period although some theorists suggest earlier settlement as evidenced by Mexican war of 1846, among others. Immigration policy has undergone various changes since 1965. These include the Hart Cellar act (1965), among others.
Leasing Computers at Persistent Learning Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Accounting for “fair-market-value” and “one-dollar-purchase”
Classification of leases
Appropriate lease alternative for Persistent Learning
Principal arguments for and against capital leases
The current case study entails leasing computers at Persistent Learning, an educational software company. Leasing Computers is in the midst of making a financial decision on the most appropriate way of acquiring assets (computers and related hardware) for purposes of expansion. Owing to its financial position, the company has two options of financing its expansion objective. The options are to undertake a “fair-market-value” lease and the “one-dollar-purchase”.
Under the fair-market-value” lease the company would be under rental agreement while under the “one-dollar-purchase” the company would provide financing for the computers purchase. This case study analysis is an attempt to answer different questions relating to the “fair -market-value” less and “one-dollar-purchase” less options. In addition, it provides the most effective and appropriate choice between the two leasing options.
Based on the case study, Persistent Learning competitors own their computers which give them a competitive advantage over rivals. Competitors own their computers because they have a higher cash-flow compared to Persistent Learning. In addition the companies have an outstanding capital base that enables them to purchase computers. Companies with their own competitors treat the computers as fixed assets which is a long term investment in an organization.
Also, the companies with computers are flexible as they do not have to negotiate with third party capital equipment providers. This saves time and a lot of paperwork often incurred during a leasing process. By owning capital equipment such as computers, such an ownership enables the companies to enjoy economic life of the capital. Furthermore, the companies can easily sell old computers or upgrade them at a much cheap prices.
Accounting for “fair-market-value” and “one-dollar-purchase” Within a period of three years, fair market value lease would be accounted for as an operating expense or lease payments as opposed to an asset to Persistent learning. On the other hand, one dollar purchase would be accounted for as an asset since the company would get to own the computers after a period of three years.
Under the fair market value the equipments are accounted for as operating expenses because the company would be paying for the equipments for which they lack ownership obligations. The fair market value as a leasing expense is accounted for on the company’s income statement.
One dollar purchase would be accounted for as both a liability and an asset and recorded on the balance sheet. It is accounted for as an asset as it reflects the equipments’ value to the organizations. On the other hand, it is accounted for as a liability because Persistent Learning has an obligation to pay the lease expenses to the lesser.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As an asset, the equipment acquired through the one dollar purchase would depreciate during the three year period. As a result, it would be accounted for as a depreciation expense in both cash flow and income statements. Since Persistent Learning does not own the equipment, there is no depreciation expenses realized under the fair market value. In addition, no liability is accorded to the leasing company thus it cannot be accounted as a liability.
Classification of leases Fair market value lease would be classified as an operating lease while the one dollar purchase would be classified as capital lease since under the fair market lease, capital equipment is only leased for the operating period. On the other hand, the one dollar purchase ensures ownership of the property or capital equipment after the agreed lease period. Therefore, under the former a firm does not own the equipment while at the later the equipment is treated as owned.
It is important to note that both capital and operating leases either have no effects or different effects on income statement, cash flow statement, or the balance sheet. Although an operating lease may not have an effect on the balance sheet, it tends to affect the income statement.
On the other hand, capital lease has an effect on the balance sheet and income statement. For instance, depreciation of funds under the capital lease lowers their value on the balance sheet, while at the same time recording a depreciation of expenses, which is seen in the income statement.
Operating lease is reflected on the income statement as expenses incurred during the accounting period. Therefore, operating expenses act as lease payment which is an expense that reduces net income. Total cash flow statements are not affected by capital and operating leases since the actual cash flow remains constant even if a lease is accounted for as an operating lease of a capital lease.
With regard to income statement, cash flow under the income statement tends to be comparatively higher in comparison with cash flow under an operating lease. The reason behind this is that under capital lease, a lease is treated as an asset which depreciates as cash flow inclines during the lease period.
Appropriate lease alternative for Persistent Learning The best leasing alternative for Persistent Learning based on the case study is the “Fair-market-value” lease. In this alternative, the company would engage in a rental agreement. It is the cheapest option under the circumstances and the most appropriate type of lease as it is flexible and Persistent Learning can still purchase the equipment after a period of three years at the prevailing market fair value.
We will write a custom Essay on Leasing Computers at Persistent Learning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company is certain that the capital equipment would be needed for a period of three years. Because of market uncertainty and obsolescence of equipments, Persistent Learning would choose the “Fair-market-value” lease. In addition, the company would not require the computers after three years. So there is no need to own computers at the end of three years and sell them at lower prices. Having to dispose or sell the computers is a time consuming process which is also costly.
Based on the case study, the company plans to use the computers in three years and the economic life of the computers is 5 years. Therefore, the lease period is defined to be less than 75% of the capital equipment’s expected economic life which makes Persistent Learning qualify for fair market value lease.
On the other hand, the present value for the lease payments is less than 90 percent of the equipment. Persistent Learning would have to pay for the equipment usage for three years and supposing that it still needs the equipment for another year, the company has the choice to renew the lease.
Alternatively, Persistent Learning can choose to purchase the computers at the fair market value. In this kind of purchase, Persistent Learning would buy the computers after calculating the equipments depreciation in a period of three years. Lastly, the monthly lease rates are lower in fair market value lease compared to the one dollar purchase. Therefore, I would prefer the fair market value lease to the one dollar purchase.
Principal arguments for and against capital leases Initially, capital and operating leases were recorded differently but the reevaluation by the FASB would now ensure that all leases are treated as capital leases. In other words, all leases would be recorded as liabilities and assets. Capital leases have the capacity to recognize expenses (liabilities and depreciation expenses) compared to operating leases. As a result, leases would be recognized as liability and as an asset when accounted for in a balance sheet.
Consequently, firms (lessee) would be in a position to claim for depreciation of the leased capital equipment annually. In addition, the lessee would be allowed to deduct the interest expense in each financial year. Operational leases are not shown on a firm’s balance sheet like it is the case for capital leases. Therefore, treating all leases as capital leases would ensure that leases are recorded on the balance sheet thus showing the financial position of a firm to creditors.
One of the major arguments against this move is that debt level reported would increase. This is because classification of operating leases as capital leases would require the levels of reported debts to be exposed to financiers which have effect on individual credibility. In addition, this would have an impact on debt covenant compliance. Another argument against the change is an anticipated increase in lease expenses.
Under operating leases, the lease expenses remained constant for the agreed period. However, treating leases as capital leases would increase lease costs. By reclassifying the leases, the level of debt indicated in the balance sheet would be increased by firms operating large operating leases. This may have negative effect on the financial position of an organization. Lastly, the commitments by lessee to not assume ownership of capital equipment after the lapse of lease period should not be treated as a debt but rather as a rational choice.
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Improving the Safety in the PHI Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Breach and its exceptions
An overview of the breach notification rule
Steps, a covered entity must take following a breach
How to protect PHI from breach
Introduction This assignment aims to improve one’s understanding of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the breach notification rule.
All these acts share a significant association by influencing the safety and confidentiality of Protected Health Information (PHI) (Murphy and Waterfill 19). This project explicates the meaning of the breach and its exclusions. This project also develops a general idea of breach notification rule. It also discusses steps taken by a covered entity when reporting a breach of PHI affecting more than 500 individuals and less than 500 individuals. Finally, the project discusses how to cushion PHI from breach.
Breach and its exceptions Breach refers to illegal possession, contact, application or revelation of confined health data. This is violation on the safety or confidentiality of such data, apart from when a prohibited individual gets a revelation of such information and retains it (Klosek 17). This definition excludes several elements relevant to safety and confidentiality of confined health information.
The first exclusion relates to course of action if a staff member or a person operating under the authority of a covered entity gains access to confined health data by accident (Klosek 23). This could happen in genuine faith, over the duration of employment or authority from the covered individual. The second exception relates to unintended disclosure of confined health information from a certified individual at a facility operated by a protected individual (Klosek 28).
The definition of breach does not offer the required response to this situation. The third exception relates to revealing of information received from a disclosure that happens in a facility owned by a protected entity to another individual (Klosek 32). The definition does not identify the appropriate response to this violation.
An overview of the breach notification rule The United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) developed a set of laws on the privacy of health data (Murphy and Waterfill 23). The laws require healthcare providers, health movements, and other entities to inform individuals when a breach on their health data emerges. These laws practice requirements contained in HITECH Act (Murphy and Waterfill 31). The secretary of DHHS receives a notification of violation on confined healthcare data touching on more than 500 persons.
The secretary of DHHS should receive reports of violations affecting less than 500 persons annually (Murphy and Waterfill 34). The law also expects trade acquaintances of protected individuals to report the covered person of any violations linked with them. The laws developed after considerations on public comments regarding an April 2009 request for data and consultations with Federal Trade Commission (Murphy and Waterfill 38).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steps, a covered entity must take following a breach When a violation on unsecured PHI occurs, a covered entity must notify all the affected individuals (Green and Bowie 20). If a trade associate uncovers violation, he/she must alert the covered entity of the violation and make out individuals who could have violated the data. Provisions in the act require timely delivery of notifications without hindrance within a period of sixty calendar days (Green and Bowie 24).
A delay on notifications is applicable if their delivery would affect an inquiry or pose a risk to national security. Notification of violation on unsecured confined health data applies through various methods. A notice applies to covered individuals or their next of kin if the individuals are deceased. Notification through phone calls applies in urgent cases where a threatening misuse of data is anticipated (Green and Bowie 29).
If the violation established affects more than 500 persons, notification applies through well-known media outlets within the area where it occurred. Notifications to the secretary of DHHS on violations affecting more than 500 persons apply when a violation uncovers while those affecting less than 500 persons apply on an annual basis (Green and Bowie 34). Another method of notifying individuals on violations applies through a posting by the secretary on the website of DHHS for individuals more than 500.
The requirements needed by a covered entity when reporting breach affecting more than 500 persons and less than 500 persons are similar. A covered entity should meet the following requirements when reporting a breach on PHI:
The protected entity should identify the best method of reporting the violation. This is dependent on the nature and urgency of the violation uncovered.
In the report, the covered entity should specify the category of individuals affected.
The report should indicate whether it is an initial violation or an appendix to a previous notification.
A report should provide information indicating the name of the covered entity, contact details, and location. The covered entity should be a health plan, healthcare provider or healthcare-clearing house.
Business associate information applies if the violation relates to a business associate. The information gives the name of associate, contact details and location of the associate.
The report should provide detailed information regarding the breach. The information should indicate the period of violation, the period it uncovers, estimated number of persons affected by the violation, location of violated data, PHI involved in the violation, any protective measures prior to the contravention, and a concise depiction of the infringement (Green and Bowie 47).
How to protect PHI from breach A number of strategies apply in improving the safety and confidentiality of PHI. One of the strategies is conducting safety evaluations to establish possible threats and factors predisposing PHI to vulnerability (Halpert 23). The aim of such evaluations is to ascertain the time, individuals and methods involved in violating PHI.
Another strategy for protecting PHI is implementing all the principal procedures, technologies and legal provisions on PHI protection (Halpert 34). Legal provisions on PHI protection lack proper implementation thus encouraging violators. However, routine inspection on healthcare facilities will enhance implementation.
Conducting impactful training for an employee enhances their knowledge on the best protection measures as well as the expected response incase a violation uncovers (Halpert 40). Training should encompass all employees and individuals attached to a covered entity as they all have access to information. Another strategy is developing a PHI violation plan (Halpert 47). This strategy anchors on the belief that a violation can occur anytime and in an unexpected manner that will require a quick and well thought-out response.
We will write a custom Essay on Improving the Safety in the PHI specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plan should provide clear duties and tasks for all employees in an occurrence of a breach. Protecting health information is extremely valuable especially in the ethical conduct of medical practitioners. A patient should give consent to a doctor or any other person in possession of their health information for their information before disclosure to third parties.
Works Cited Green, M., and Bowie, M. Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Halpert, Ben. Auditing Cloud Computing: A Security and Privacy Guide. New York: John Wiley
Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The current society is very concerned about the natural environment. Nature is under threat from various factors that affect it in one way or the other. The world is increasingly being globalized. Scientists are coming up with new strategies of approaching various issues within the society. Every aspect of life has been made easier. Communication has been enhanced through the invention of the telephones, the mass media, and the social media.
Transport is also enhanced. All these inventions come at a cost. The cost of the inventions is the environment degradation. Most of the technological inventions have great negative impact on the environment. The manufacturing firms emit great amount of poisonous gases at their plants that poses great danger to the environment (Boschman 78). The wastes from the machines and other gadgets made for use by human being poses even greater challenge to the nature.
This is has necessitated a lot of research from scholars who are concerned with the rate at which the environment is degraded. In literature, scholars have made an effort to fight for the environment. The scholars have used their literary weapons to defend the environment from pollution emanating from various manufacturing plants and various other sources.
They have made effort to put to focus, the magnitude of environmental degradation from various human activities. This is the focus of this book. Authors have come to realize the fact that the society is under constant threat of environmental disaster due to activities of humankind. The authors have realized that there is need to get a solution to the deteriorating environmental conditions. They note that the solution that is much sought for is in the hands of the society members.
Discussion The Norton Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A is a collection of books that address various themes. The books come with various themes all expressing different concerns. An analysis of the themes presented in this book starts from the cover page.
The cover page of this book shows a beautiful neighborhood with beautiful vegetation. It shows a beautiful co-existence between man and nature. The woman is enjoying the shade of the tree while reading a book. The theme presented in this page is the beauty of nature presented to humankind when well protected.
The relationship between man and nature is symbiotic. It is a give and take relationship (Bendixen 121). When environment is given proper care by human being, it will offer a very attractive environment to the people. The girl under the tree is a demonstration of this. She is very much at peace with the environment around her. The house is just a few meters away, but she prefers to do her reading under a tree.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author is clearly giving the tree a preference over the house. Under a normal circumstance, it would be expected that such a person would prefer reading within the house. This is because of the comfort that the furniture and the shade of the roof offer. However, the woman has considered it wise to use the tree. This demonstrates that the tree offers more comfort than the house.
The first story talks about the beginning of the world, and the flood that followed. The story tries to connect different theories that exist about the creation of humankind. The story brings various themes about the society.
One of the strongest themes that come out strongly in this first story is that nature is under the control of human being. According to this story, when the world was created, it was handed over to man to take care of it. He was given the authority to take care of the environment and all that existed in it. However, this was under the instruction that man had to use it with wisdom.
The flood that followed symbolized the punishment that would befall humankind if it fails to protect the environment as was expected. The flood consumed all but one family. The family had cared for the instruction given by the supreme God. The same consequence that people faced then when they failed to follow the commandments given is the same the current populace will face by failing to protect nature. The girl under the tree is enjoying the benefits of a protected environment.
The story of the flood is a clear demonstration of the wrath of nature. Nature can make a very good servant. When one goes to the river for water, or cuts a tree to make a piece of furniture, the process is very enjoyable (Ferraro 32). One would feel in full control. However, when water takes over power from man, in form of a flood as demonstrated in this story, then lives will be lost. People will suffer, and the magnitude can be so severe it may end the entire humanity.
The second story talks about Christopher Columbus, the great sailor that toured various continents in the world. The stories are given in the form of letters. In his letter to Luis deSantagel, this sailor talks about his first voyage. This letter is a description of the adventures at the sea.
The letter brings out how nature is while on the high seas. Nature is not just on land alone. It extends. It captures various others on the high seas, each with its role. While fish is a surety of good sustaining meal while at the high seas, sharks and snakes pose serious threat to the lives of people in the high seas.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The precaution that one needs to take while on land because of the dangers of nature is the same precaution one should take while on the high seas because of the same reason. In the letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, the author tries to explain the beauty of nature when left to take care of itself.
The beautiful plantations are spectacular, despite the fact that no one is taking care of them. It poses a challenge to the humanity. Nature is able to take care of itself. In the first story of this book, it was demonstrated that humankind was assigned the duty of taking care of the environment. It is paradoxical therefore, that nature can protect itself better than the protection offered by humankind (Brown 21). To be specific, nature is under threat from the very being that should be protecting it.
The story about the Coast of Pearl and the Island of Trinidad is another demonstration of the beauty of nature. The coastal regions form the best tourists’ attraction in every corner of the world. The coastal region in this story is no difference. When people visit the coastal regions for leisure, their driving force is always to get the best satisfaction that nature has to offer. This story clearly demonstrates that nature is beauty.
In the coastal regions, various forces make the environment spectacular. The breeze from the sea, especially during the afternoon hours is very soothing. The waves at the sea brought about by the movement of wind are spectacular (Baym 21). A visit at this coastal region generates maximum satisfaction. The Island of Trinidad is natural scenery that comes with a lot of satisfaction to the visitors. However, this nature can be very devastating.
This story demonstrates that nature is like a double-edged sword. It has the capacity to offer maximum pleasure to humanity. When individuals visit the beach during their leisure time, they are assured of a beautiful time at the high seas. However, when the storm finds one in the high seas, then life of such an individual can perish within a very short while. Such is nature, always having two sides, and ready to give either, depending on whether it is the master or the servant.
The story by Thomas Harriot and John Smith talks about Virginia as the new found land. This book’s main theme is the nature of people, and the relationship between human being and the environment. In this case, environment means all other living and non-living things on earth besides human being.
Human being, as a natural creation relates with the environment in two main ways. This first way is how the environment affects human being. Various environmental conditions will always affect human being in different ways. For instance, nature brings with it four seasons, especially in Europe and the US. During winter, the behavior of the natural environment will dictate the way human being will behave.
The environment will dictate the type of clothing, and even the food eaten during such conditions. The second way in which man and environment relate is when man affects the environment. Man does various activities that have direct impact on environment. They may be characterized as pro-environmental or anti-environmental activities (Boschman 78). Based on the characteristic of the action, the impact on the environment can be very attractive, or very devastating.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above selected stories try to explain the origin of man and the relationship between man and nature. This book is very broad, and talks about other categories of stories, such as the trickster tales. All these stories revolve around nature and its relationship with human being.
Conclusion The works of scientific researchers on the environment have come to overshadow the effort made by fiction writers about nature. Social scientists and natural scientist have conducted extensive research on various elements of nature and the relationship it has with humanity. Although this move is good, the effort of the fairy tale writers in defending nature should not be forgotten. The book ‘The North Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A’ is a clear demonstration f this.
This book clearly demonstrates what nature is, to human being. It is a deliberate attempt to bring nature alive to the readers. The cover page of this book is the best demonstration of what the entire book is all about, in simple graphics. The young girl under the tree is reading under a very peaceful environment brought about by the beauty of nature. Because the neighborhood has cared for the environment, the environment is giving it its best.
Works Cited Baym, Nina. Norton Anthology of American Literature: Beginnings to 1820. Oxford: Bound, 2007. Print.
Bendixen, Alfred. A Companion to the American Short Story. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. Print.
Boschman, Robert. In the Way of Nature: Ecology and Westward Expansion in the Poetry of Anne Bradstreet, Elizabeth Bishop and Amy Clampitt. New York: McFarland, 2009. Print.
Bross, Kristina. Early Native Literacies in New England: A Documentary and Critical Anthology. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. Print.
Brown, Peter. A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture: C.1350 – C.1500. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print.
Ferraro, Thomas. Ethnic Passages: Literary Immigrants in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.
Women’s Suffrage in America Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help
Suffrage is the right to vote, and women’s suffrage is the right of women to take part in the process of voting. Women in different parts of the globe suffer from denial of this right from time to time. This has often led to rise of activist movements such as feminism, in an effort to secure equal rights for women in voting (Foner 5-15).
This situation has also made several authors and researchers write books and articles regarding women’s right to vote. This paper illustrates the thoughts and comments of Professor Kuhlman and Professor Woodworth-Ney, regarding the issue of women’s suffrage in America.
Professors Kuhlman and Woodworth-Ney, both of Idaho State University, have no sharp, contrasting views about women’s suffrage. They have more similarities than differences. They see a trend whereby women in each state of the United States have been fighting for their rights since time immemorial, including the time of the two world wars. This led to the formation of the Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment in 1920. Consequently, there was the enactment of several legislations regarding women’s right to vote, thereafter.
Woodworth-Ney looks at women’s suffrage from a consideration of women’s history (Woodworth-Ney 55-85). On the contrary, Kuhlman is inclined towards war, and how it led to women’s denial of their rights, especially the right to vote for democratic leaders. Woodworth-Ney talks about women’s rights as mothers and landowners, whereas Kuhlman is more concerned with their rights as widows and war victims (Kuhlman 66-125).
Kuhlman is more stringent than Woodworth-Ney. She is of the notion that women should have been granted the right to vote at the same time with men. They agree that women were denied the right to vote for a long time, until women’s rights movements brought women’s suffering into the limelight of the society. However, it was not an easy task to grant women this right.
Besides women’s suffrage, the professors and Foner bring out the reproductive role of women and the existing role of patriarchal societies, as well as culture. Women got the right to vote, but they are not fully emancipated from cultural practices that keep them in the private (domestic) sector of societies (Woodworth-Ney 122).
They continue to do most of the household chores while men are at work. Moreover, they rarely hold leadership positions due to cultural practices which suggest that virtuous women are just wives and mothers, who should stay at home (Kuhlman 201). Therefore, women’s suffrage did not address the subordinate role of women in society. The patriarchal society still influences political, social and economic sectors, not only in the United States, but also in the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Allowing women to vote was revolutionary. Foner says that the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States constitution was not a solution to women’s problems, as observed by the Radical Republicans (Foner 23). This statement already shows that there was a tag of war between the government and women’s rights activists, regarding women’s right to vote. The transformation was a radical change prompted by activists and women’s rights movements. It came out of pressure by the movements on the government.
In conclusion, the global struggle for women’s suffrage has been an ongoing process, with women’s rights activists and movements emerging from time to time. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights stipulates that people have certain inalienable rights such as the right to life and engage in the democratic process of their countries. Therefore, women ought to be granted an equal right to vote for leaders of their choice.
Works Cited Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History (Custom Seagull 3rd Ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. 2004. Print.
Kuhlman, Erika. Of Little Comfort: War Widows, Fallen Soldiers, and the Remaking of the Nation after the Great War. New York: NYU Press, 2012. Print.
Woodworth-Ney, Laura. Women in the American West (Cultures in the American West). Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
‘In defense of flogging’- by Peter Moskos Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Prisons are basic centers of justice where criminal and lawbreakers serve their sentences as a form of penance. The prison department is essential in restoring order and sanity in any nation. However, people normally associate jails with cruelty, as imprisonment means corporal punishment or serving decades or life sentence in a prison (Moskos 2). For several years, the prison departments have been in the public limelight with human rights activists protesting on the forms of punishment that prisoners undergo.
Nonetheless, law and order are necessary to any nation. Human rights argument is central to the beginning of reforms in the prison departments across the globe. Despite this, nothing is likely to change drastically with the prevailing conditions of crimes and injustices. In fact, even to date, it is unknown as to which form of punishment that best suits prisoners. For this reason, this essay seeks to analyze the book, “In defense of flogging” by Peter Moskos.
Book Overview The book, “In defense of flogging” by Peter Moskos, is a social book that describes the exact condition of justice under prisons. It describes the hidden costs incurred by the governments in a bid to restore justice and sanity through the prison department (Moskos, 5).
The book brings out the harsh reality that sometimes people do not really deserve to be in prisons following minor offences not to mention some end up in prisons whilst not guilty, but the detention center ends up having offenders and non-offenders under the same complex. Based on this existing truth, Moskos prefers corporal punishment to imprisonment as a form of castigation to convicts to restore the desired law and order among nations (20).
Book Message The book avails particularly important information about two main aspects in prison, viz. imprisonment and corporal punishment. These aspects of the prison are the most commonly used strategies to restore law and order in several nations. However, Moskos prefers the “flogging” strategy to serving sentences or jail terms. He postulates, “I want to reduce cruelty, and flogging may be the answer” (Moskos 2).
The term flogging in the book simply describes the system of canning, stroking, or fondling as a form of prison punishment imposed to prisoners. According to Moskos, it sounds cruel for someone to serve a decade, as jail term or even life sentence, for some petty issues like quarrels with friends or lovers, fighting with strangers, drunk driving, or even social media offences (3). Imprisonment might not be someone’s wish, but someone might commit a crime unknowingly.
The book does not really emphasize on the use of corporal punishment, but to a certain extent Moskos, prefers canning and stroking to jail terms. No one knows the advent of misfortunes. People are not convicted because they are normally guilty, but several cases have indicated imprisonment due to poor judgments or impunity as the cause of the innocent’s sufferings. Moskos asserts that one might be completely innocent and due to misjudgments, s/he might end up in prison.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This judgment makes one an official criminal mistakenly. Spending time in jail is very painful and traumatizing as one undergoes torture, severe ailments, loses financial assets coupled with ambitious plans and even straining important relationships (Moskos 4). According to the author, imprisonment or rather incarceration is just like taking away someone’s life and one cannot compare it to experience that one can undergo in the flogging process.
Based on personal experience, the writer witnessed the tough experiences that detainees undergo. Moskos defends himself by postulating that he never used to be so, but the events that unfolded in the year 1970 changed his personality.
He witnessed a serious imprisonment event that happened due to changed laws that increased sentence lengths for prisoners. Moskos asserts that during that time, the state had declared war against drug trafficking and drug-associated cases, when most individuals estimated to about 338000 were convicted without proper proofs or evidence. According to Moskos, it is troubling that an alarming number of over 2.3 million Americans are serving their jail terms.
This population accounts to almost 1 per cent of the entire adult population. This population might be among individuals who are capable of changing the economic status of the US. According to Moskos, this population of inmates is quite difficult to maintain or accommodate, thus the process becomes expensive (15).
Main argument The main subject of the book is to emphasize that despite the imprisonment aspect, crime is still eminent. American prisons are ever full of inmates throughout the year, but the levels of crime are ever increasing.
According to Moskos, “the prison, the reformatory, and the jail have achieved only a shocking level of failure” (15). This observation implies that despite several laws and prison reforms, the level of crime remains largely evident to date. Moskos further links this argument by giving an example of cases related to drug trafficking and drug abuse.
In several of these cases, peddlers are arrested but drug business resumes as normal with no heavy impact felt. According to Moskos, arresting drug dealers seems useless if one considers these factors. In fact, the book portrays how the state keeps on spending huge amounts of money to take care of inmates, who could be feeding themselves. The fact that drugs are profitable compels businesspersons to engage in this serious tycoon industry.
We will write a custom Essay on ‘In defense of flogging’- by Peter Moskos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Compared to other forms of punishments, this book prefers flogging of lawbreakers or simply corporal punishment to offenders. Moskos compares flogging with death penalties that have become a common argument in the retributive justice, which is strongly encompassed in the American culture.
Apart from being a cost-effective form of punishment, flogging saves non-offenders from serving undeserved jail sentences. According to Moskos, despite serious attention and support to the death penalty to criminal and other offenders, there is probably no possibility that crime will vanish one day.
Several people have undergone imprisonment and other forms of punishment as normal occurrences and most probably, they will become resistant to prison conditions or even adapt to the dungeon environment. Moskos asserts that it is common sense that prisons have become places of personal interest or leisure places as they no longer serve the purpose designed for, which is enhancing justice.
Since time immemorial, prisons have lacked efficacy in dealing with crime and restoring justice. Historically, according to Moskos, prisons have caused a lot of suffering and losses.
In the process of confinement, detainees spent extraordinary time in dungeons leading to several misfortunes including serious cases of fatalities. However, to a certain extent, prisons favor criminals by offering them moments of pleasure by allowing them to mingle freely in love affairs at the expense of those whom they assaulted, coned, mugged, robbed, or even killed (Moskos 25).
Given the uncontrollable human nature, which is driven by social, economical, and psychological aspects of life, it becomes even more difficult to control crime or stop criminals. In most cases, modern prisoners are subjected to harsh punishments and poor dieting while serving their jail sentences, thus putting their lives to great danger. Therefore, according to Moskos, if imprisonment were a form of an important reform, why should prisoners suffer from starvation?
Conclusion Central to the argument on imprisonment and corporal punishment, the book “In defense of flogging” puts the readers in an endless dilemma on what seems to be most imperative between the two forms of prison punishments. However, Moskos presumes that corporal punishment, described herein as flogging, should be the preferable form of punishment to counter crime.
Flogging has the possibility of significantly reducing the costs incurred to control prisons, by avoiding excessive expenditure in the reformatory process, which involves providing inmates with their necessities. Despite the fact that corporal punishment sounds brutal with convicts undergoing painful lashes by canning or stroking, jail sentences are much more brutal as they deprive individuals of wealth, freedom, and love among others critical life aspects.
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘In defense of flogging’- by Peter Moskos by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Moskos, before a prisoner becomes free after a jail sentence, the inmate’s family is likely to suffer, individual dreams, visions, or even ambitions are brutality affected, love and faithfulness from the family members and the entire society is strained, thus leaving the convict lonely and jobless out of jail. Under this sundry argument, it is difficult for someone to understand the penance that criminals and law offenders deserve as improper judgments as well can lead to underserved detention.
Works Cited Moskos, Peter. In Defense of Flogging. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Print.
Berlin Wall’s Importance for Germany Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Berlin Wall Construction
Berlin Wall Construction
Effects of Berlin Wall
Flattening of the Wall
Introduction The post Second World War was characterized by many political challenges in Europe. In Germany, the government struggled to consolidate its political power through various mechanisms.
In August 1961, “a fence was erected by the German Democratic Republic that is popularly referred to as East Germany” (Rose
New Media as the Most Common Platforms on Which Firms Enhance Marketing Practices Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents New media and the modern economy
The contribution of new media to business development
Using new media to enhance customer engagement
New media and the modern economy No one can dispute the fact that new media has gained wide usage. While a number of people argue that new media presents problems for the operation of companies, I beg to differ with them basing on experience as a user of new media and backup from academic literature. New media has brought about a substantial number of benefits to firms across different industries.
Weitz and Wensley (281) observed that the 21st century has witnessed a revolution in communication and media. The number of media platforms has been rising at an accelerated pace. As it is today, there are numerous media platforms that are used in the world. New media platforms have overshadowed the ancient forms of media. They include blogs and other social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Skype.
Advancement in information and communication technology has backed up the development of new media. Massive debates in the prevailing corporate world are centered on new media and how they are utilized to enhance business performance. Companies have concentrated on developing new media platforms because they enhance business. A substantial number of companies have been reported to have developed strong media platforms (Stokes 174).
The contribution of new media to business development I have made numerous observations about the role of new media in business enhancement. New media develop out of the demand for the flow of information an interaction between people in distant locations. They are a wide range of new media platforms which keep advancing day by day. New media platforms that exist in the current globalized economy include Facebook, Twitter, Skype, Yahoo and YouTube.
Research about new media produces findings which show that new media platforms attract a substantial number of customers as soon as they are developed. New media platforms have users which range from millions into billions. Billions of people use diverse platforms of new media for conducting social and business transactions. This means that firms can easily get people to buy their products on the new media (Weitz and Wensley 283).
Using new media to enhance customer engagement Speaking of competition in the current global economy, I would like to point at how new media helps in enhancing competitiveness of firms. According to Hastings (177), the current global economy is competitive. There exist a high number of companies which compete for customers. The new media have turned into desirable tools for increasing the level of engagement between firms and their customers.
With new media, it is easy for companies to manage customers. New media work based on advanced information and communication technologies. Information and communication technology is the most desired platform on which firms maximize on the opportunities that exist in the environment. Advancement in information and communication technology is often accompanied by the growth in new media (Lievrouw and Livingstone 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I can strongly say that new media are the most common platforms on which firms enhance marketing practices. I argue this from the experience I have as an active user of new media. Companies keep creating online marketing platforms. Most global firms thriving the market today, highly utilize new media.
They use these platforms in linking link with customers who use new media. With new media, firms get it easy to link to a wide range of customers (Hastings 178). They get to understand different demands and needs of customers thus tailoring products and services to meet their demands. Through the use of online marketing platforms, a substantial number of firms have managed to expand their sales.
Firms also manage to export their products into new markets that are placed in areas that are distant from where they produce. Firms are advertising their products using the new media. Better utilization of the new media for advertising help firms to create strong brands. They also get views on the trend in the market through the new media hence make strategic moves that help them remain competitive (Stafford and Faber 2).
Works Cited Hastings, Gerard. The Sage Handbook of Social Marketing, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc, 2011. Print.
Lievrouw, Leah A, and Sonia M. Livingstone. Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Social Consequences of Icts, London: SAGE, 2006. Print.
Stafford, Marla R, and Ronald J. Faber. Advertising, Promotion, and New Media, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2005. Print.
Stokes, Jane C. The Media in Britain: Current Debates and Developments, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on New Media as the Most Common Platforms on Which Firms Enhance Marketing Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weitz, Barton, and Robin Wensley. Handbook of Marketing, London: SAGE, 2006. Print.
Jordan Financial Centre Essay essay help free
Introduction Currently, the world has numerous and well established Global Financial Centres (GFC). Most of these Financial Centres do not only yearn to be dominant, but also to be recognized as key regional and international GFC. Literature on international finance shows that in the last few decades, there has been the emergence of several Financial Centres in different areas across the globe.
These GFCs have shown different levels of financial and operational success. Amongst the top ranked global financial centres are Toronto, Geneva, Chicago, Tokyo, Seoul, Zurich, Singapore, Hong Kong, New York City, and London. The list is in ascending order. A worldwide city or home to stock exchange, businesses, and banking defines a financial centre. Therefore, international financial centre is not a specific word for describing important participation in the financial trade market (Central Bank of Jordan, 2012).
The modern telecommunication provision and great worldwide financial organization has generated uninterrupted and permanent global financial market. The outlay of transportation and complexity in communication has been decreasing constantly over the recent years.
This has fostered the development of a solitary money market in the globe. The Jordanian government gave its support to the proposal of changing the biggest and best-known city of Jordan to a GFC. This was in addition to the existing IFC. A working organization make-up was fashioned with the aim of changing Jordan to a regional finance centre. Later it emerged as one of the most significant among the well-established IFC (Ferguson, 2008). The innovations were intended to warrant the future status and potentiality of Jordan as an IFC.
There is no agreement reached on the common meaning of a Financial Centre. The place where clients and providers of financial services convene to carry out big business can best define it. In fact, this description summarises both the international and domestic financial centres definitions.
It can also be an accumulation of the foreign finance, overhaul ventures, and commercial operation centres. The objective of a FC is the provision of high-level monetary and specialized services more willingly than retail banking services. These services serve the universal, local, and nationwide nonfinancial and financial organization headquarters. Conversely, a place where financial institutions and banks are highly concentrated is a financial centre (Central Bank of Jordan, 2012).
The objectives and reasons for establishing the Jordan Financial Centre (JNFC) The JNFC was established to boost the economic atmosphere for investment in Jordan Empire. This was a dignified dream of King Abdullah (II). The king yearned for a strengthened development of financial centres in the region. The King established JNFC out of the JSC (Jordan Securities Commission) honour.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This Centre is a representation of the nation’s economic force and signifies the major market enlargement in Jordan. With conformity to the international customs and principles, this centre has united economic, societal, and cultural facets in the capital market. It has maintained sound settings for investments through its general purpose.
Furthermore, JNFC has implemented information guidelines and promoted growth concerning marketplace safety through overseas speculation. This multifaceted financial project has a number of bank subdivisions, agencies and representatives, Investor Halls, Security Deposit Centres, Amman Stocks Exchange, and Finance Study Centres (Jordan Securities Commission, 2012).
Jordan has established innovative financial hubs for recognition to improve capital markets venture operations both locally and abroad. The centre has computerized packed trading structure in bank office, house brokerage, and exchange. This latest centre is adjacent to current Amman Stocks Exchange. It has augmented investment environment in the state’s capital market as a local centre. Moreover, in agreement to the paramount global practices, it has established protected and eye-catching environment.
Hence, JNFC is recognized and has more than one hundred programmed corporations. This brings its capital in the market to nearly $32.40 billion. The state does not put restriction on foreign ownership. Thus, non-residents in Jordan possess above 46.0% of the listed corporations. The financial sector in Jordan is well organized (Association of Banks in Jordan, 2010).
The JNFC provides easy and efficient business operations in international finance for profitability. It has a recognized workforce talent and experienced administration to cover up co-dependent services like official and accounting, finance, and businesses.
This makes available multi-disciplined teams to facilitate great overseas connections in the shortest period possible. Further, this centre has a profound liquidity and superiority in the capital market. Hence, it competes and regulates taxes globally with flow in offshore production and foreign investment (Sheikh-Miller, 2007).
Jordan’s worth to financial services significantly multiplies through labour force that promptly responds through groundbreaking techniques. Moreover, it has the best information technology and telecommunication worldwide with multilingual and intellectual workforce. This makes the location for the financial services to be well organized (Association of Banks in Jordan, 2010). JNFC provides customers with fascinating and hospitable surroundings for business transaction.
We will write a custom Essay on Jordan Financial Centre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More JNFC deals in diverse and major currencies in the world, and not just the legal state tendering. Therefore, financial transactions links is indirect to the domestic banking system. JNFC is thus an offshore financial centre since it not only deals in domestic money, but also in offshore currencies to allow foreign investment.
JNFC renders foreign transactions on tax-free basis and enjoys exchange controls imposed on domestic financial transactions. The recognition of this irregularity by the government is the major reason why there is extraordinary growth in Eurodollars market and Eurocurrency in foreign investment. Jordan has executed the provision of financial services to both natives and non-residents.
The Jordanian government inspects the possibility of interference from inhabitants and the intercontinental centre (Sheikh-Miller, 2007). Nevertheless, this has propelled JNFC to balance its conflicting objectives. This has made JNFC to be recognized as a regulator of residents’ probable exploitation and an advocate of IFC.
The pros to Jordan Financial Centre emerging as regional or GFC Jordan is perceived as one of the biggest Arabic countries and is a gateway market in the region. In fact, most financial activities and manufacturing services occur around and some in Jordan city. To add on that, the City of Jordan has emerged to be amongst the globally enormous metropolis and it is currently described as the business and economic capital.
A majority of Jordan population stays in the city where the Financial Centre was constructed. They generate nearly 27% of the total economic output, about half of the total country’s exports, and 40% of the tax revenues (Presley, 2012). Within these types of potentials around its Financial Centre, the government of Jordan is able to turn the Jordan Financial Centre into a global or regional financial one.
The aim of being a global or regional financial centre is spearheaded by various prospective advantages the FC has around it. For instance, Jordan has vast human capital as well as other resources such as the dynamic and youthful educated labour force. These groups are able to execute most monetary transmission activities. Secondly, Jordan has a stable and favourable macroeconomic environment that can facilitate the activities and business or financial activities of the JFC.
Third, the country is politically determined and is seen as a regional power, hence, it stands a better chance of enhancing most financial business operations that are undertaken by the Financial Centre. Fourth, the quality of financial services offered, rapid Jordan economic growth, and its geographical location gives JFC an upper to become a global or regional Financial Centre (Bank Audi sal, 2008).
Therefore, the advantages that Jordan Financial Centre has, which can help it become a global or regional financial centre can be summarized in terms of strengths and opportunities. The strengths and opportunities include:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jordan Financial Centre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the emerging cities outlook and global cities index, the 2012 report indicated that Jordan would be amongst the most important city vectors in the coming years. Jordan is acknowledged as a pivot amid west and east. It has enough expertise and rich in regal culture that can govern financial interactions (Bank Audi sal, 2008).
The country has up to date airports, which connect Jordan to major cities, business, and financial centres around the world.
Jordan has a complimentary time zone. The country’s geographical position puts its close to various upcoming markets in the Black Sea Region, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, North Africa, Gulf, and the Middle East. These are amongst the advantages that Jordan has that will steer its financial centre into a global one (Sheikh-Miller, 2007).
Jordan’s commitment to the European Union accession namely; changes in the structures of economic governance, changes in the framework of macroeconomic policy, and single marketplace integration is an added advantage to Jordan Financial Centre operations (Presley, 2012).
Jordan is amongst the largest global economies, and the government has the strong will of establishing Jordan Financial Centre.
There is profitable and sturdy banking Sector in Jordan. Therefore, the strong and adequate capital of Jordan banks is beyond the authorized 8% limit.
Jordan has better commercial banking when compared to other rivalry International Financial Centres in the area.
There are skilled and high quality workforces in the banking field. These labour forces can easily be accessed at relatively lower costs. This is because approximately 21% of Jordan’s increasingly educated and youthful workforce resides in the city where the Financial Centre is constructed (Central Bank of Jordan, 2012). Thus, numerical labour shortages are unheard of in the market for labour.
When compared to other G20 nations, Jordan has cheaper rates. This implies that, professionals who offer financial services are able to benefit from identical or even high living standards from other International Financial Centres that charge low costs.
Jordan does not restrict foreigners from acquiring real estates
The cons to Jordan Financial Centre emerging as regional or GFC Jordan occasionally experiences current account deficits and low savings rates. This makes the country to be financed or funded through interim capital inflows
Jordan has very few lawyers in the financial service industry to offer legal advice on financial matters.
There is a great traffic congestion problem in Jordan. For instance, Jordan transportation is typically through private automobiles, taxis, minibuses, or buses.
The taxation system is quite complicated. Various documents must go along with tax statements either annually, quarterly, or monthly.
Jordan has comparatively weak derivatives, private sector bonds market, and stock market capitalization. This gives the country a weaker national brand image.
While Jordan has a pool of skilled workforces, the labour force lacks proficiency in speaking English.
The success and future outlook of Jordan Financial Centre The JNFC has achieved its objectives under several aspects. It has succeeded in erecting new finance centre, lured investors through stocks exchange, opened up novel banks, and actively competed with other GFC. This has helped the centre to plan for its future growth.
New finance centre in Jordan
The erection of the JNFC cost approximately seventy million US dollars. It offers offices for bank, brokerage, and is the current quarters for Amman Stocks Exchange. It has fully enlarged to a fledged local finance centre that makes safe distant investment in the empire. The current site of the JNFC is in Arjan region near Amman Stocks Exchange.
The area measures about seven hundred and forty thousand square feet and holds the regions training facility (Jordan Securities Commission, 2012). The Commission of Jordan Securities laid down this facility, and its cost depicts what Jordan will reap in the end. This centre follows the global FC practices and develops the modern computerized systems for trade and communications.
Appeal to investors by Amman Stocks Exchange
The financial centre operates as a crowd-puller to advance investment from foreign investors. This is rational because Amman Stocks Exchange interests are over and done.
The stock market in the empire is not restricting foreign investments. Inhabitants from Arabic region can own and invest in Jordan. Nevertheless, JNFC has attracted a number of investors’ since the economic stability and resource protection is high in Jordan. Thus, investors from areas like Iraq and Lebanon whose states are politically disarrayed and affected invest in JNFC (Ferguson, 2008).
There was a drastic drop in the proceeds of Amman Stock Exchange along with other bourses in the Middle East. Despite this, not less than forty-five percent of listed shares are in the alien investors’ ownership. In recent years, the Stock Exchange fell off by thirty three percent resulting into 21% plunge in market capitalization. Today its capitalization has tripled and ranges at $31.10 billion. This gain is coming from the large number of well-informed investors who come from the Gulf (Central Bank of Jordan, 2012).
Jordan’s new fangled banks
Jordan has encouraged overseas investment in the sector of finance. This move has attracted new Arab firms that are listed on the nation’s capital market. Hence, the establishment of JNFC has boosted the Kuwait Finance House in Bahrain to open up a bank in Jordan at a cost of $50.00 million.
The Jordan-Kuwait Finance House is an auxiliary entirely possessed by Bahrain. It has networks covering in Malaysia, Turkey, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Moreover, the bank centre of attention is on activities like acquirement, investment advice giving, and investment banking (Association of Banks in Jordan, 2010).
Besides, extra express distant investment into the empire gets critical support from the bank. The Jordan-Kuwait Finance House came into partnership with Jordan Industrial Development Bank at the same time with Dubai Islamic Bank, Dubai International Capital, and the Jordan Dubai Capital.
This resulted into increased capital of more than $100.00. Thus, they got their hands into the main stake at the Jordan Industrial Development Bank and in JNFC (Jordan Securities Commission, 2012). The Foreign Service suppliers and banks are seeing logical prospective in the financial sectors in Jordan. Therefore, other foreign companies are focusing to ascertain and open up in the kingdom. This will boost the operations of the JNFC.
Market competition in Jordan
This financial centre is not the only organization in the Middle East. In fact, Jordan foreign investment has fostered establishments of many ambitious finance centres in the Gulf region. This has generated supplementary diversification in trade and industry. Actually, Bahrain Financial Harbour, Qatar Financial Centre, and Dubai International Finance Centre offers competition. They proffer low duty, tax-free services, and bid one hundred percent in alien rights. They all target special divisions in the market (Sheikh-Miller, 2007).
With Qatar’s richness in natural resources, Bahrain and Dubai dominate service-based economy. Thus, they all correspondently compete to be most excellent financial centres in the Peninsula of Arabia. Contrary, it is advantageous for Jordan to be the most logical finance centre in the Levant region.
This is because of its geographic location that detaches it from the Gulf. Without doubt, it is probable that investors would be ploughing more investment funds into Jordan. These are the financial overhaul providers, and investors from the Gulf region tend to diversify their investment collections (Sheikh-Miller, 2007).
Conclusion In the Arabic region, there are various International Global Financial Centres including the Bahrain Financial Harbour, and the Qatar Financial Centre, and the Dubai IFC. However, despite being well established, Jordan Financial Centre imposes serious market competition to these GFC.
The country has stable and rapid economic growth, offers quality financial services, is geographically well positioned, enjoys political determination, as well as regional power (Jordan Securities Commission, 2012). Besides, Jordan’s macroeconomic environment is favourable and the country has vast dynamic, low priced, and young workforce that can offer expertise financial services.
Despite these strengths, the long-term operation of Jordan Financial Centre still faces various setbacks. These include complicated tax system, inadequate infrastructure, weak legal framework, and unstable financial environment. All these factors can hinder the success of Jordan in becoming a universal financial centre.
References Association of Banks in Jordan (2010). Development of the Jordanian banking sector (2000 – 2010). Web.
Bank Audi sal (2008). Jordan economic report: challenging twin deficits in a wait and see mode economy. Web.
Central Bank of Jordan (2012). Jordan is banking sector: monthly chart book. Web.
Ferguson, R. (2008). International financial stability: Geneva reports on the world economy 9. London, UK: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Jordan Securities Commission (2012). National financial centre. Web.
Presley, J. (2012). Directory of Islamic financial institutions (RLE: banking
Military Commercial Driver’s License Act of 2012 Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Sponsors and Cosponsors of the bill
Strengths of the legislation
Weaknesses of the legislation
District concerns of the legislation
Fundraising opportunities for the legislation
This legislation was introduced on September 21, 2012 and passed by the Senate on the second day after its introduction. The House of Representatives passed the legislation on the 28th of November, 2012. The legislation passed both stages without any amendment and objection. The bill became a Public Law, No: 112-196 on October 19, 2012 after being signed by the US President. The bill revised part of the commercial driver’s license (CDL) section with which the states were opposed to individuals acquiring CDLs in other states.
This legislation was aimed at allowing states to issue CDLs to military servicemen and women operating or willing to operate heavy, commercial vehicles regardless of their states of residence. However, the recommendation for qualification required a person to be an active duty member of the armed force like the National Guard, U.S. Coast Guard, and Armed Forces Reserves amongst others (Truckinginfo.com, para. 3).
Sponsors and Cosponsors of the bill The bill was sponsored by Senator Snowe Olympia J., and co-sponsored by ten Senators. The ten Senators included:
Sen. Begich, Mark
Sen. Brown, Scott P.
Sen. Brown, Sherrod
Sen. Inhofe, James M.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sen. Isakson, Johnny
Sen. Klobuchar, Amy
Sen. Moran, Jerry
Sen. Murray, Patty
Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV
Sen. Rubio, Marco
In addition, the legislation passed through the Senate and House of Representatives without any objection and amendment. Moreover, even the President accented to the bill without second thoughts. Apart from the Senate and House of Representatives, other associations provided support for this legislation. These include the America’s Trucking Association, Military Officers, Legion, and Independent Drivers.
We will write a custom Proposal on Military Commercial Driver’s License Act of 2012 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strengths of the legislation The CDL law would eliminate some of the obstacles hindering veteran drivers from acquiring commercial driving licenses. Under the previous law, commercial driving licenses were only available to individuals who were legal residents of the state. The military personnel were the major victims of this law. In this case, the majority of them received their driving training away from their home states such as in their stations of duty.
This law posed a challenge for the people to obtain the commercial driving license before leaving the military. Adoption of the new CDL law provided a platform upon which states could issue the CDLs to veterans posted in other states. According to Sen. Snowe who sponsored the bill, it was unbearable to see many veterans especially those who were returning from Afghanistan and Iraq unable to secure CDLs and enter into the civilian profession of which they had world class experience.
The legislation would reduce the unemployment rate for the veteran drivers. The legislation was also meant to address the shortage of drivers in the trucking industry (Dick, p. 109). The veteran drivers needed employment, and the trucking industry required drivers too.
An estimate from the Bureau of Labor Statistics projected a 13 percent growth rate in employment for heavy truck drivers for a period of ten years: from 2008 to 2018. However, with the passing of the CDLs law, the growth rate is expected to rise tremendously. As of October 2012, the shortage of truck drivers ranged between 20,000 and 30,000 nationally. This has been reflected in the American Trucking Association quarterly report.
Weaknesses of the legislation The CDL and Department of Transportation have set strict driving requirements and qualification standards, which limit most applicants. The trucking industry has been struggling with these issues, and the introduction of CDLs will only complicate the processes. In this respect, the law only favors one side, which is the military service. This is attributed to the fact that veterans leave their jobs with a lot of experience in driving and maintenance of heavy vehicles.
Additionally, the medical requirements for CDLs, as set by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, are also strict, thus blocking the majority of drivers. For example, a person is not supposed to be color blind, should not have any impairment, and the hearing or vision capacity is required to be good enough. This is a disadvantage to the military veterans who would have obtained some impairments during their service regardless of their experience.
Another blow to the CDL law is the high costs of acquiring the CDLs. The majority of the veterans plus some of the companies lack the required amount of capital to acquire the CDL and train drivers respectively. The cost of a CDL is estimated to be about $46, 000 for new truck drivers.
This will create considerable shortages of heavy vehicle drivers because even the experienced drivers without CDLs have to quit their jobs or otherwise acquire the CDL. In regard to the companies, only a few of them are training and acquiring CDLs for their employees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Commercial Driver’s License Act of 2012 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More District concerns of the legislation This legislation was of primary concern to many congressional district states. The majority of the constituents of congressional districts such as Maryland, Tennessee, and Minnesota supported the legislation.
Fundraising opportunities for the legislation This legislation is highly supported, and it has various sources of funding for its implementation. First, the department responsible for Veterans Affairs (VA) would be willing to fund this legislation. This is attributed to the fact that the department is committed to improving the lives of veterans through the Veterans supportive service programs. On the other hand, the legislation stronghold would focus on funding veterans to acquire CDLs and relevant training.
Committee assignments The committee or subcommittee involved in this legislation was the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. The activities of this committee in the legislation were referral and discharging of the legislation. The committee played a crucial role in ensuring the legislation progressed beyond the committee stage.
Recommendations Based on the above information regarding the legislation, several recommendations can be reached. Implementation of CDL would require to be facilitated similarly and appropriately in all the states. This is in respect to various aspects such as qualification/requirements, cost, training, coverage and employment.
In relation to qualification/requirements, standards set for this legislation should be revised to incorporate the equality aspect in all states. Some of the states have different qualifying standards for CDLs. This would diminish the goal of this legislation if ignored.
Furthermore, the costs of acquiring the CDLs especially for new drivers should be revised. As mentioned above, high costs of CDLs eliminate potential veteran drivers. Training of drivers operating or aspiring to operate commercial vehicles should be enhanced in order to overcome drivers’ shortage on the basis of experience.
The CDL legislation requires to be expanded to include other civilians apart from the military servicemen and women. Although its major target was the veteran personnel, this legislation should incorporate other interested individuals.
Works Cited Dick, Robert M. The Trucking Industry and the Implementation of the Commercial Driver’s License. United States: ProQuest, 2008. Print.
Truckinginfo.com 9/27/2012 Bill Would Make it Easier for Service Members to Get CDL. 2012. Web. https://www.truckinginfo.com/
Prostitution and the Role of Women in It Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Prostitution is not Oppressive of Women
Use of Pornographic Materials by Women
Prostitution as a Victimless Crime
Prostitution is not Oppressive of Women Prostitution is one of the oldest professions in the world. It can be traced back several centuries, before the Israelites went to Egypt. It remains one of the most controversial professions in the current society. Prostitution can be considered as being oppressive of women, or not, given the perspective taken.
When a woman who is over 21 years decides to earn her living through prostitution after graduating from campus, it would be wrong to consider the act as oppressive. However, when a minor who lacks something to eat is forced into the profession, then this would be considered as oppression. Some states have legalized prostitution while others have not (Spector 54). However, it is a clear fact that prostitution is rampant all over the world.
When a woman makes a decision that the best way to earn her living is through prostitution, then it should not be considered as oppression, and neither should it be considered as a criminal offence. When a mature man decides to pay a mature woman in order to be intimate with her, this should not be considered a crime, as long as the act does not hurt other individuals. The two have freedom on how to manage their lives.
Use of Pornographic Materials by Women The use of pornography among women has been on the rise. This is because of a number of facts. The first reason why women use pornography is the need to satisfy men sexually. The percentage of men who use pornography is higher than that of women. When men watch pornography, they would expect their women to do what the actor do in order to enhance satisfaction.
When they fail to get this from their wives, they would look for it from other women, especially the prostitutes (Weitzer 42). For this reason, the prostitutes will use pornography in order to satisfy customers who come their way. On the other hand, wives will use it to prevent their husbands from getting involved in extra-marital affairs.
Prostitution as a Victimless Crime In its broadest term, a crime is any action of an individual that causes harm, physically or psychologically, to another individual (Ringdal 76). Taken in this context, prostitution can be considered as a victimless crime or otherwise. When a mature man makes a conscious decision to visit a joint, and engages a prostitute in a deal related to her profession, none of the two will be considered a victim.
The man is not offending the prostitute in any way. In fact, his presence is a joy to the prostitute. Similarly, the prostitute is not offending the man. In any case, the man took his time to look for the prostitute, a sign that she was of importance to him. When the two engage in the act, there will be no victim. Both will be engaging in an act that they approve of, and most likely enjoy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taken from another perspective, prostitution may have a victim. When a married man leaves her wife and engages in an affair with a prostitute, the wife will be the victim. The wife will be the victim because, that is her right, and it should not be shared with anyone, much less a prostitute. When the man is sexually infected in the process, he will transfer the infection to the wife, confirming that she is victimized by the act.
Works Cited Ringdal, Nils. Love for Sale: A World History of Prostitution. New York: Grove Press, 2005. Print.
Spector, Jessica. Prostitution and Pornography: Philosophical Debate about the Sex Industry. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.
Weitzer, Ronald. Legalizing Prostitution: From Illicit Vice to Lawful Business. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Print.
Integrative Studies across Cultures (ISAC) Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why the Question/Topic
Sources to Use to Answer the Question
Introduction Since time immemorial, there have been arguments about the rights of women and men. Various literatures have been compiled with activists come out vehemently to protect their rights. I am passionate about the rights of women and men in the modern world. Hence, the topic of interest is on “declaration of the rights of women and the female citizens 1791” written by Olmpe Gouges. The society has divided the roles and rights of woman and men where women are viewed as subjects of men. This issue has not been received well by women.
Therefore, women activists have come up to express their dissatisfaction on the way they are treated by their male counterparts. This wrangles and arguments about the place of the women in society leave many unresolved issues thus raising questions like, ‘how can one imagine the future of women?’
Why the Question/Topic This topic is important in the current times. Society has continued to engage in a thug of war about the rightful place of women in the society. The fight for equal treatment of women started as early as the 17th century. However, 21st century seems that no substantial gains have been attained. The society is still fragmented as male chauvinism seems to have intensified. Women have not yet achieved their goals despite their being instrumental in the reform agenda of their countries.
Despite the fact that women displayed significant roles in the revolutionary cause, male revolutionaries reacted disdainfully to female participation in politics. They believed that women’s place was at home having no authority to participate in politics and the activities of their country. Therefore, as a crucial topic of study, many organizations and movements have cropped up to agitate the rights of women. Human rights movements are at the forefront in calling for respect of the rights of women.
Women require sensitization and education about their rights in the society (Schirmer, 1995, p. 145). Furthermore, Schirmer contends that expanding the scope of human rights has remained an elusive goal (Schirmer, 1995, p. 145). Women’s movements require understanding of how to contextualize the differing needs of women who need to rise up and overcome their gender marginality, violence, and invisibility (Schirmer, 1995, p. 147).
Sources to Use to Answer the Question There is enough evidence that indicates that women have been in the forefront of stimulating their economies even if their input is not officially acknowledged. Therefore, in a bid to answer the question raised, Schirmer’s work ‘Ours by Right/Women and Human Rights’, Ezeilo’s ‘Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: Some Perspectives from Nigeria and Beyond’, and Fareda’s ‘Women, Law and Human Rights in Southern Africa’ will be of great assistance.
As the sources reveal, women in the current society have acquired professional qualifications thus managing to overcome historical injustices. Various women vehemently fought for their rights such as Mayo who her life demanding for justice when her son disappeared following his quest to ensure that democracy was enhanced in Argentina (Leslye, 2005, p. 256).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many other women around the world have tirelessly fought for their representation. Others have managed to cling to high influential positions in the government. The rights of women have enshrined in the constitution of most countries, which is a clear indication that women are moving in the right direction.
Annotated Bibliography Schirmer, J. (1995). Ours by Right/Women and Human Rights (Book). NWSA Journal, 7(2), 145-150.
Jennifer argues that there is need for intensive training and education of women on their rights. The society has the perception and tendency of forgetting the rights of women. Women therefore should rise up to establish standards to ensure that they fight without reproach for their rights, gender equality and equal treatment, and employment opportunities.
Ezeilo, J. (2006). Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: Some Perspectives from Nigeria and Beyond. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture
The Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions Essay online essay help: online essay help
Today, many people are inclined to pay attention to the differences in religious traditions when the accentuation of the similarities in the spiritual beliefs is more significant for understanding the roots and principles of this or that religion. The Judeo-Christian tradition and Islam are based on the same spiritual ground that is why it is possible to determine the features which can be discussed as characteristic ones for these religious traditions.
It is important to note that Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions are Abrahamic in their nature because their roots lead to Abraham. Thus, Christians and Muslims believe in one God, in God’s prophets, in the concepts of revelation and resurrection of dead people (Bowker, 2006). To understand the association between the world religions, it is necessary to focus on similarities in interpreting the creation story, in approaching eschatology and afterlife, in discussing the norms of the moral code and duties.
The Judeo-Christian tradition and Islam are usually discussed as monotheistic religions where the stories of the Universe creation by God play the important role. The similarities can be observed not only in the general approach to cosmogony but also in depicting the details of the process. Thus, God is described as creating the World during six days in both traditions. The man was made from the dust or dirt, and he became alive after God’s breathing a life into him. Moreover, Adam and Eve are depicted as the first people in the Koran as well as in the Bible (Molloy, 2009).
While having similar features in the story of creation, the Judeo-Christian tradition and Islam also share the similar elements in the approach to eschatology and the idea of afterlife. According to these traditions, the final days of the World are associated with the second coming, with the Judgment Day, and with the division of people into two categories of those ones who will go to the paradise and to the hell.
According to the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions, Christians and Muslims will go to the heavens and their position will be judged in relation to their morality and actions (Matthews, 2012). Thus, the concept of the afterlife depends on being a believer because during the last days of the world, the evil will be defeated, and the believers will go to the heavens when the other people will be punished.
The idea of the afterlife is closely associated with moral codes and moral behaviors which should be followed in order to please the Supreme Being. The basic elements of the moral codes for both the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions are the prohibition of idolatry, murder, suicide, adultery, and lying.
Much attention is paid to the significance of the family relationships. Thus, any inhumane acts are forbidden and punished (Molloy, 2009). The accents are made on following the moral principles strictly and living the virtuous life (Matthews, 2012). In spite of the fact definite rules can be different for the Judeo-Christian tradition and Islam, the basics are the same.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The discussed core elements of two major religious traditions have a lot of similarities because they are based on the same spiritual roots. The similarities in interpreting the basics of the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions are important because this fact stresses the single vision of the role of morality and faith in the people’s life without references to following the Judeo-Christian tradition or Islam.
References Bowker, J. (2006). World religions: The great faiths explored and explained. USA: DK ADULT.
Matthews, W. (2012). World religions. USA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Molloy, M. (2009). Experiencing the world’s religions. USA: McGraw-Hill.
Christian Marriage Rituals Essay online essay help
Christian marriage has its roots from the Greco-Roman era. This marriage was based on heterosexuality and monogamy although divorce was allowed. Marriage is a religious rite of passage through which people within a religious community celebrate the significance of life. It acts as a medium of bringing individuals and groups together based on beliefs.
Marriage usually involves different symbols and values such as bridal procession, giving away of the bride, exchanging rings, and making vows among many other aspects. Most Christian denominations consider marriage as a sacrament. In this case, marriage is a special way through which God intervenes in the lives of people (Bingham, 2010).
First and foremost, marriage is a transitional ritual. It transforms an individual(s) from one status to the other. Marriage influences status change and proclaim it to the society. Therefore, marriage is a key societal component among the rites of passage. The beliefs of the society/group are affirmed, and unity is encouraged.
In addition, there is teaching of good morals. Furthermore, marriage acts as identification means for believers in the society or group. For instance, married couples from a Catholic Church have a high likelihood of their children being baptized in the same church. This strengthens the beliefs and core values of that religious society (Bingham, 2010).
The marriage ritual has changed rapidly over the centuries. From the ancient times, parents of both the bride and groom were the primary parties to the marriage covenant. According to the biblical times, marriage was a legal covenant between the parents of the bride and groom. Likewise, early Christian traditions held a similar notion.
On the contrary, today, marriage is an independent legal agreement made between the couples themselves (Thomas, 2007). Furthermore, early marriage rituals embraced certain practices such as rice throwing, cake eating, wearing of white bridal dress amongst many others. However, some of the practices still persist to date, but in a different dimension. Traditionally, the white color symbolized innocence and youthfulness. Today, most of the marriage rituals embrace dressing of white gowns for brides.
The traditional cakes were mainly made from wheat and grain alone, which symbolized fertility. On the other hand, the present wedding cakes are made of many ingredients and supplements. The most significant aspect of modern marriage rituals is the engagement rings. Engagement rings evolved from the traditional custom of ring exchange, which was meant to seal a crucial, legal agreement. Engagement rings are usually circular with no end symbolizing eternal love.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sudden and rapid change in marriage rituals has been attributed to different factors. One of the most significant factors include the influence of the western culture.
Currently, the western style of marriage has become very popular and dominant. Before the marriage ritual is carried out, rehearsals are carried out to ensure different people master their respective roles during the ritual. As earlier mentioned, the western style of marriage embraces legal agreement of marriage among the couples involved rather than their parents/guardians.
This has triggered major changes in the identity of the couples marrying, parents, family relatives and the larger community. This is influenced by the partial separation triggered by marriage ritual. The couples gain freedom directed towards their life obligations and future status coupled with new patterns in behavior, duties, and responsibilities (Thomas, 2007).
From the above observations regarding the evolution of Christian marriage rituals, I have learnt a lot about the customs and values of our culture. Before, I did not understand most of the practices undertaken during marriage rituals. In addition, contradictions arose when I tried to compare modernized Christian marriage with the traditional one.
References Bingham, J. F. (2010). Christian marriage: The ceremony, history and significance; ritual, practical and archæological notes; and the text of the English, Roman, Greek, and Jewish ceremonies. New York: E.P. Dutton
Ancient Art of Rome and Greece Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Augustus of Primaporta (c.20 BCE) and The Doryphoros (Polykleitos, 450 BCE) The two works of art represented in this article are visual arts taking the form of sculpture. They are both representational, representing a person or a technique (Ridgway, 1984). Augustus represents an individual, whereas the Doryphoros represents a technique.
The two works are three dimension artworks, made of bronze originally, but the current works are copies made of marble. The artists cut different sizes of marble and molded them, thereby putting the pieces together. They used contour lines to show the face and curved lines to show the body posture.
Diagonal lines describe the structure of the hands. Horizontal and vertical lines show the area that holds the artwork. There are organic shapes showing the bodies of the images represented. There is a balance in the work since the images fill the entire space forming a symmetrical balance (Ridgway, 1984).
The Augustus has a visual texture of smoothness on the body parts, but a rough texture on the clothes adorned on the image. On the other hand, a smooth texture can be seen on the Doryphoros. The artists used one key shade and tint. The different shades of brown create a high level of unity in the artwork. The Doryphoros shows a value of darkness, whereas the Augustus has a value of light.
There is plenty of symbolism in the work. The sculpture (Augustus) represents the first emperor of Rome, Augustus (Ridgway, 1984). The name Augustus means “supreme Ruler.” The artist shows clearly that Augustus was a significant ruler in ancient Rome, with remarkable support from the Roman Senate.
The reasoning behind this is that he accepted their traditions. There is a young boy sitting on a dolphin near the main image’s right leg. This symbolizes Augustus’ descent from a goddess called Venus. It also emphasizes the importance of polytheism (worship of many gods) in Ancient Rome. The fact that he has no shoes shows his divine nature, and the respect accorded to gods and goddesses in the Roman Empire.
The model also shows a connection between Augustus and the politics of Athens (Ridgway, 1984). There are several figures on the garment and some of these include; a navel and suckling babies (a symbol of peace and prosperity). In essence, the sculpture portrays a contemporary society whereby some leaders view themselves as God’s choice, and thus abuse people’s rights while arguing that authority comes from God.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Doryphoros is a symbol of the artist’s passion for Greek mathematics, philosophy, music and politics. The artwork shows symmetrical balance in things. The artist’s main concern is mathematics. He insists that small body parts can be used to determine the length and width of large parts, through multiplication of their measurements. The artist used the chiastic principle, which has its roots in the Greek term chi. The term describes something formed by integration of straight and curved lines when making an object.
The figure shows the tension and relaxation that the artist felt, are the ways used to create balance of the human body. Polykleitos always used mathematical equations when making up body parts of sculptures, and he spelt out his art theories in “The Canon.” He represents the Greek philosophy which advocated for the inner goodness of people. The artist has profoundly influenced modern mathematicians through the Pythagoras theorem in numerical calculations.
Reference Ridgway, B. (1984). Roman Copies of Greek Sculpture. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
Quaker Oats Company Competitive Advantages Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Quaker Oats Company
Introduction Quaker Oats Company is the leading supplier of food and breakfast cereal products in the US. The company has a long history, dating back to as far as 1901. In the current competitive markets, market segmentation is one of the strategies which can ensure that the company positions itself well so that it improves its level of profitability. This paper analyzes how market segmentation can give competitive advantage to Quaker Oats Company.
Quaker Oats Company Business organizations aim to make a profit and increase their share of the market by making quality goods and services and by ensuring product availability to customers. Quaker Oats Company is not an exception; making a profit, and increasing the share of the market remains the company primary objective.
To make a profit, Quaker Oats Company aims to satisfy market demand by employing skilled people to make quality goods. Reference for Business (2012), states “we plan to do this by making Quaker Oats a winning company, a place where talented people have opportunities” (para. 1). It is not enough to make quality products, consumers must access products where they live and work.
In addition, Quaker Oat Company must make products for which consumers desire to buy (Reference for Business, 2012, para. 1). Looking at the future, Quaker Oats Company, must define its current market, cultivate future consumers, make quality products, and carry out an aggressive campaign to market its products.
Market segmentation The first step at increasing market share involves determining the market segment to target and focus resources to that market. Business Dictionary (2012) defines market segmentation as “the process of defining and subdividing a large, homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics” (para. 1).
The market appears homogenous, but when studied differences emerge based on age, consumer preference, location and income. For Quaker to succeed, it must segment the market and focus at satisfying the need of the market it chooses. Segmenting a market has the advantage of enabling an organization to satisfy consumers’ needs, and a result, develop a competitive advantage.
Based on the nature of products manufactured and sold by Quakers Oat Company, its management must segment the market in three ways based on income, family type, and lifestyle. Income determines a person spending power; it enables marketers to determine the people to target.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, income segmentation affords Quaker Company to price and package its products in sizes attractive to a target market. When segmenting the market for housing, clothing, automobiles, and food marketers must use income segmentation as a tool to determine potential consumers (Lamb, Hair,
Assesing marketing opportunities Essay a level english language essay help
The marketing strategies used by an organization play a pivotal role towards determining the success or failure of the organization. In order for an organization to market its products and services successfully, it must research and understand the needs of the consumers, and use this information to develop products and services that satisfactorily address those needs.
One way of achieving this aim is by developing models that evaluate the consumer buying behavior within a given market. This paper shall describe the steps followed by consumers in the process of buying oatmeal manufactured by Quaker Oats Company. The cultural factors that influence consumers to buy this product shall also be discussed.
There are five steps that consumers take in order to make a conclusive purchasing decision. The rate at which consumers pass through these stages depends on the price, place, promotion and product being sold. Below is a graphical representation of the consumer buying behavior:
Figure 1: Consumer Buying Behavior Model
In regard to the selected product (Oatmeal), the consumers recognizes the need or problem. This can be triggered by an internal stimuli (hunger), which drives the consumer towards buying this product. After identifying the need or desire, the consumer may or may not look for information about the product.
If the consumer has used the product before, he/she may buy the product again. However, if the consumer has not yet used the product, he/she may obtain the information about this product from personal or commercial sources. For the oatmeal, commercial sources such as advertisements, packaging and dealers could be useful for potential consumers.
The information gathered gives consumers a set of brand choices. In order to select the preferred brand, consumer compare and contrast the brand from a logical or evaluative processes. Some may use calculations (price and content preferences) or choose the product brand on impulse or intuition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After evaluating the alternatives, the consumer ranks the brands and decides which one to buy. The purchase decision is based on the price, income and expected benefits of the product. As such, the consumers may buy the oatmeal as a result of its competitive price, its health benefits and its impact on the consumer’s pocket.
The post purchase behavior of consumers refers to the attitude and perceptions the consumers have in regard to the product’s ability to satisfy the identified need. During this step, consumers weigh their expectations against the performance of the product. If the gap between these two factors is large, the consumers will be disappointed, but if the gap is small, the consumers will be satisfied and delighted with the product.
Cultural influences on consumers Buying Behavior According to Sheth (2011), cultural factors have a significant impact on a consumer’s buying behaviors. Cultural factors largely influence the wants and behaviors of an individual in regard to value systems, perceptions, material comfort and practicality among others (Sheth, 2011). In order to sell the oatmeal profitably, due consideration should be given to the culture, subculture and social classes within a given market.
Marketers should do research in order to ascertain the income levels of the selected market segment, the value system of the consumers and the impact family and friends have on an individual’s purchasing process. Understanding how the aforementioned cultural factors impact buying behaviors will enable marketers to come up with a price and product that meets the consumer’s cultural expectations.
In addition, such an understanding will enable marketers to promote the product in a manner that guarantees success. Failure to consider these factors may lead to dissatisfaction among the consumers, and losses to the manufacturers.
Reference Sheth, J. (2011). Models of Buyers Behavior: Conceptual, Quantitative and Empirical. Illinois: Marketing Classics Press.
Concept of the Ancient Artwork: Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Artwork is any form of art that communicates a message to the audience or one developed with a purpose. This includes paintings, sculpture, photography and collages. There is a lot of development in artwork, in the contemporary world, and most of the developments are just transformations of ancient artwork.
Most of the pieces of art can be found in museums and art galleries. This paper outlines information about The Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity, found in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This brings out a comprehensive understanding of the two pieces of art.
Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity The artworks represented in this article take similar forms. They are sculptures. The Metropolitan Museum houses the two pieces of artwork (Metropolitan Museum of Art). The Seated Goddess with a Child is a three-dimension piece of art made through the lost-wax technique around the 13th and 15th centuries. It has epic and pastoral styles. The winged deity is a three-dimension of work made with the Hittites style (Beckman, 1989).
The Seated Goddess with a Child is a perfect result of cutting and twisting gold. The Winged Deity is a result of casting bronze and gold. The Seated Goddess with a child has a golden colour which is bright enough to characterize a goddess associated with illumination. It also depicts a peaceful mood and creates a high level of unity.
On the other hand, the Winged Deity has grey and yellow colours, which bring out a sombre mood. The artists used contour lines to show the faces, horizontal and vertical lines to show the other body parts, and an outline to enclose the images. The image looks smooth and balanced. There is a balance in the work since images cover the entire space. The goddess image has a value of light due to the vibrant colour employed in the artwork.
The Winged Deity has curved lines shaping the wings and the arms. There is a visual appearance of roughness and a value of darkness, as well as symmetrical balance. Both artists have an aspect of the Hittite Empire period, a period whose information is not widely known.
The Seated Goddess with a Child depicts a woman adorned with a headdress which is extremely bright. This brightness represents the glamour and illumination that comes from the sun. Therefore, this is Arinna, the sun goddess. The chair on which the statue sits has lion caws.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This shows bravery. The child shows simplicity and humility. The long gown has an association with modesty of women. The two loopholes suggest that the figure is a pendant. The loop earrings and a necklace, indicate beauty of Hittite women (Beckman, 1989). The work has a substantial influence in contemporary societies. It challenges modern artists to make sculptures which are symbols of creativity and imagination.
The Winged Deity represents a god of the Hittites. He is most likely the Prinki, a god of Ishtar, made around the 13th century (Metropolitan Museum of Art). The deity has a circular cap around his head, a gold leaf as well as a kilt. He has a rod on his right arm representing the protection that gods offered to the Hittites. He has two wings in the shape of a sickle, and the left wing is incomplete. The wings show the possibility of flying and signify that god could go to any place unusually fast to offer aid. The sculpture helps to reconstruct the history of Hittite culture (Beckman, 1989). The artist has the ability to use a traditional style (Hittite style) with creativity. The work has also influenced modern sculptors. They are trying to make replicas of the sculpture, and sculptures which have similar features to those on the Winged Deity.
In essence, ancient artworks have significant influence to the modern artworks. This is evident in the modern artworks displayed in the art galleries of modern museums. Therefore, the impact of ancient art on contemporary artworks cannot be underrated.
References Beckman, G. (1989). The Religion of the Hittites. The Biblical Archaeologist 52 (2/3):98-108.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. (n.d). The Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/30006127
Nelson Mandela’s Use of Power Essay college essay help
The dark struggle in South Africa saw many black people suffer at the hands of the immigrants—white settlers. In order to combat the situation and forge the path to freedom, majority of native South Africans came together to form an organization known as the African National Congress (ANC). ANC became the vehicle of promoting the interests of black South Africans who felt that the white populations had leaped more than what they sowed.
Additionally, the architects of ANC thought that this was the weapon to combat apartheid and bring civility in the new administration of South Africa. In 1944, Nelson Mandela joined ANC and started participating in its activities. He endured many torrid moments including being imprisoned for almost 27 years. However, in 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. This article discusses Nelson Mandela’s use of power.
During all his struggles, Nelson Mandela understood very well the needs and desires of the people. He believed in the ideology that all men are equal and should not be discriminated against any form. This was the main reason why he always refused to abandon his political beliefs for political freedom.
Not even prison would stop Nelson Mandela from achieving his ambitions. Today, Nelson Mandela is known across the globe for his struggle, and what he did during the apartheid era in South Africa. The man who spent his entire life fighting for the rights of his people became the symbol of struggle not only to black South Africans, but also the entire world. The use of his power is also another thing that has caught the attention of the world (Guiloineau, 2002, pp. 10-26).
Nelson Mandela was the unifying factor in the post-apartheid era pitting black South Africans and the white populations. Although many white populations feared that Nelson Mandela would retaliate against them, he chose otherwise.
He promised to uphold the constitution—something he did. Nelson Mandela did not use his power to benefit himself; instead, he devoted his presidency in serving the republic of South Africa and its citizens. Apartheid became a thing of the past even, as the black South Africans became free in their own country. It is true that Nelson Mandela suffered so much in the hands of the white minority rule, but after becoming president, transformative power, reconciliation, and tolerance became the pillars of his administration.
He was a man who understood what power means, and he always devoted his time to ensure peaceful coexistence among all South Africans. He taught the world the meaning of humanity, by besieging people to live and see each other as equals. In fact, Nelson Mandela used his power to show the world how justice and tolerance overpowers even the greatest of cruelties.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He used his power to combat racism and other racial related vices that had taken roots in South Africa. Mandela knew very well that by eliminating such vices, people will live harmoniously thereafter. Indeed, this was a show of humility, resilience and tolerance. Mandela led sustained movements in order to promote and protect the rights of all South Africans. Consequently, many South Africans felt secure in an equal society. He took various strides to eliminate discrimination and set the path of justice and equality.
Through his presidency, discrimination of the base of ethnicity, race and even sexual orientation, all became a thing of the past. He used his power to promote education for all, cultural exchanges, ambient public service, and many more fundamental freedoms. Just like Nelson Mandela, many of the current world leaders can lead sustained efforts to promote cohesion; tolerance, equality, and justice for all just like what Mandela did (Mandela, 1996, pp. 23-47).
References Guiloineau, J., Rowe, J. (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. Berkeley, California. North Atlantic Books.
Mandela, N. (1996). The Illustrated Long Walk to Freedom. Paul Duncan (abridgement and picture editing). Boston: Little Brown and Company.
The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Geographical Impacts of Coca Eradication
Political Impacts of Coca Eradication
Regional and Agricultural Changes due to Coca Eradication
Introduction Bolivia and Colombia are located in South America. One of the major economic activities in these two countries is the cultivation of coca. The coca plant has thin leaves which are oval and opaque. Hence, it resembles a blackthorn bush. Coca is a major cash crop in both Colombia and Bolivia. These countries have been the major suppliers of coca since 1980.
The coca plant is used as a raw material in the manufacture of cocaine and soft drinks like coca-cola. Coca is also used as a medicine and for religious, as well as, cultural purposes. The United States of America is a major market for cocaine which is manufactured in Bolivia and Colombia.
The cultivation of coca has adversely affected the Bolivian and Colombian populations. Consequently, the Colombian and Bolivian governments have collaborated with the United States of America in an attempt to impede the cultivation of coca. This paper examines the geographical and political impacts of coca eradication in Colombia and Bolivia. It also analyzes the regional and agricultural changes that are associated with coca eradication.
Geographical Impacts of Coca Eradication In 2000, the Colombian government signed Plan Colombia in collaboration with the United States of America. This was an initiative to eradicate the cultivation of coca. The signing of Plan Colombia led to adoption of aerial spraying of the coca plantations using glyphosate herbicide which kills the coca plants. Aerial spraying of coca plantations is conducted using airplanes or helicopters. When glyphosate is sprayed on a target plant, it is absorbed into the plant’s leaves.
Once the glyphosate herbicide has been absorbed into a plant’s leaves, it hinders the production of protein in the plant. Consequently, the plant’s growth is inhibited. Initially, glyphosate was considered to be less harmful to the environment because it is water soluble. However, according to a recent research which was carried out by the United States Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, aerial spraying of glyphosate has the potential of causing instant negative and long term environmental effects.
First, indiscriminate spraying of coca plantations has led to the destruction of some food crops like yucca and the loss of soil fertility (Jackiewicz and Bosco 123-124). Once a field is sprayed, its chances of yielding crops are reduced. Aerial spraying of glyphosate has also led to the damage of plants which are used for medicinal purposes by the local population. Second, spraying of glyphosate herbicide on coca plantations has caused contamination in water bodies like rivers.
This has led to the death of aquatic animals. Concisely, once the chemical is released into a water body, it inhibits the growth of water plants and causes the death of different species of aquatic animals. Consumption of water from the contaminated rivers has led to the death of both wild and domestic animals. Third, aerial spraying of coca plantations has caused air pollution. Consequently, a number of people have been reported to have respiratory problems, dizziness, skin infections and burning eyes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aerial spraying of coca plantation has also contributed to further deforestation. Most of the peasant coca farmers have moved deeper into the Amazon rainforest in order to acquire new land for coca cultivation (Jackiewicz and Bosco 116-118). In this process of migration, most parts of the Amazon rainforest have been cleared and burnt.
Political Impacts of Coca Eradication Most Bolivians and Colombians have been against coca eradication. They consider coca growing as part of their culture and a means to economic survival. Due to this reason, the process of coca eradication has been greatly opposed by the indigenous populations of Bolivia and Colombia.
Protests against coca eradication have posed a major threat to Bolivia’s political stability. For example, Evo Morales who was the coca union leader almost took over the government in 2002 because he promised the Bolivian population that he would allow coca cultivation in his regime.
In Colombia, a number of cartels have been formed due to the high income from coca. Medellin was one of the major cartels which strongly opposed the coca eradication process. The cartel was headed by Pablo Escobar who was highly recognized by the indigenous population.
Pablo Escobar sought political power within Colombia, but he never succeeded. His defeat resulted into a war between the Colombian government and the Medellin cartel. This led to a state of political instability in Colombia which was characterized by “extreme violence in the form of assassinations and indiscriminate bomb attacks” (Fukumi 137-138). The war between the Colombian government and the coca cartels created a serious political and economic crisis in the country.
Regional and Agricultural Changes due to Coca Eradication New set of crops have been introduced in Bolivia and Colombia because of coca eradication. The initiative is meant to enable the farmers whose coca plantations are destroyed through aerial spraying to be in a position to earn a living by growing licit crops. Some of the new crops which have been introduced include pineapples and passion fruits.
However, many farmers lack the skills to cultivate the new set of crops. Additionally, these crops take quite a long time before they are harvested as compared to coca. For instance, pineapples and passion fruits take not less than two and eight years respectively to bare fruits.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, most farmers have been negatively affected by the substitution of crops. Majority of the farmers lack the means of survival. This has led to an increase in malnutrition in the country. “The rapid pace of the Bolivian government’s eradication campaign has created gaps between eradication and alternative development assistance that can leave peasant farmers without livelihoods” (Shutz and Draper 237-239).
The Bolivian peasant farmers have made attempts to request USAID to allow them to cultivate a variety of crops in addition to some coca. However, these attempts have not achieved their objectives. One of USAID’s requirements is that the farmers must completely destroy their coca plantations in order to receive any form of assistance from it.
Despite the fact that farmers have embraced the licit crops, they are still facing transportation challenges. Most of the markets are distant. Therefore, farmers have to incur a lot of expenses in transporting their produce to the markets where legal agricultural products are sold. As a result of this challenge, returns from legal agricultural products have become unpredictable.
The price of coffee which is one of Colombia’s major agricultural products has remained unpredictable. This volatility can be attributed to low consumption and oversupply of coffee in the international market which has led to low coffee prices. Therefore, Colombia’s revenue from coffee has reduced by 50% as from 1992. Consequently, most of Colombian farmers have migrated from coffee plantations to regions which are more stable economically.
However, coca eradication has led to some developments in Colombia and Bolivia. For instance, infrastructure has been improved in the region as an attempt to enable farmers to have access to markets. Most of the projects have been funded by USAID and the World Bank.
Through the funding by USAID, “a 40 mile paved road connecting parts of Chapare to a regional market in Santa Cruz, as well as, expanding Santa Cruz airport, significantly improved access to markets” (Preston 157). Therefore, development of infrastructure has improved communication and coordination in the region.
Leaders’ Stance There have been attempts by leaders from Bolivia and Colombia to help in the process of coca eradication. For instance, in 1998 president Hugo Banzer introduced Plan Dignidad (Plan Dignity). In this plan, he aimed at totally eliminating coca. This plan succeeded to some extent in Chapare which has major coca plantations in Bolivia.
Presently, leaders from Colombia and Bolivia continue to fight the cultivation of coca in collaboration with international bodies and nations such as the United States of America. The leaders are trying to develop alternative ways of eradicating coca.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, the process of coca eradication has posed adverse impacts on Bolivia and Colombia. These impacts have been witnessed in almost all sectors of the two economies. Therefore, the Bolivian and Colombian governments should adopt alternative ways or methods of eradicating coca plantations in order to avert the increase in political, as well as, economic instability.
Works Cited Fukumi, Sayaka. Cocaine Trafficking in Latin America. New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2008. Print.
Jackiewicz, Edward and Fernando Bosco. Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012. Print.
Preston, David. Latin American Development: Geographical Perspectives. New York: Longman, 2000. Print.
Shutz, Jim and Melissa Draper. Dignity and Defiance: Stories from Bolivia’s Challenge to Globolization. Carlifornia: University of California, 2008. Print.
Georgiana as a Perfect Woman in the Contemporary Society Essay online essay help: online essay help
Three Works Depicting a Contemporary Woman Contemporary western society is seen as a terrain where women have acquired quite many liberties and opportunities. Women occupy highest posts in countries and this can be regarded as a complete victory of feminists. Nonetheless, works by Woolf and Brownmiller, which were written in the twentieth century, verify that all those ‘victories’ are nothing more than a pleasing diversity for men who are still in power.
The two essays reveal the essence of gender roles in the contemporary society. The two works depict women as dependant on men. The authors also explain this dependency stating that women were bred to fit the world of men during centuries. It is possible to think of a variety of examples that confirm ideas provided by Woolf and Brownmiller.
However, it is also possible to think of a conspicuous example of gender roles which is represented by Georgiana, the main character of Hawthorne’s short story “The Birthmark”. Georgiana is a specific example of the women in the twenty-first century who are eager to please the men without even knowing it, the women who see themselves as empathetic, supportive and selfless creatures destined to be disintegrated in the universe of the men.
Woolf’s and Brownmiller’s Suggestions on Women’s Status in the Society Sympathy
According to Brownmiller and Woolf, women are expected to be sympathetic, submissive and pleasing. Moreover, being sympathetic is regarded as one of the major virtues of the woman. The two authors note that women are meant to admit men’s superiority and take it for granted. Thus, masculinity is a purely male virtue, while sympathy is a purely female virtue. Men are seen as strong and decisive creatures who are responsible for decision making, and women are seen as those who create comfortable atmosphere for the decision makers.
Importantly, the contemporary society heavily relies on religious conventions which, in their turn, support the societal order where females are inferior to males. The Bible brings discredit on women depicting the very first woman as a former part of the first man. Moreover, the woman made a very wrong decision (concerning the apple) and was deprived of the ability to make any other ‘erroneous’ decisions in the future.
Brownmiller claims that women have quite a restricted responsibility, i.e. to run the household and create comfortable atmosphere for the man. According to the writers, women cannot even have an opinion of their own. A woman’s viewpoint can be accepted in the contemporary society if it goes along with the male’s opinion. Female have no right to contradict. In this case, women will simply be ignored. However, if they express ideas that support existing (male) concepts, these opinions can even be praised.
Finally, the two works also reveal one more aspect defining the role of a woman. The writers suggest that beauty is one of the major tools women can use to please men. Brownmiller states that females were ‘allowed’ to wear make-up and revealing outfits to please males, not to enjoy their basic rights to choose outfits they want. Again, women’s beauty is considered to be another virtue assigned to females. Strengths and decisiveness of men and beauty and sympathy of women are the principles reigning in the contemporary society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Georgiana as an Example of the Major Characteristics of the Woman Sympathy
Georgiana is depicted as a perfect woman as she is sympathetic and supportive. She admires her husband and keeps saying about her admiration. However conspicuous her words of admiration are, her husband’s remarks prove the suggestions of Woolf and Brownmiller. The two writers stress that submissiveness is one of the major virtues assigned to women. Thus, when Georgiana says she worships her husband, he replies:
Ah! wait for this one success . then worship me if you will. I shall deem myself hardly unworthy of it . I have sought you for the luxury of your voice. (Hawthorne 7)
The man humbly says he is unworthy of the woman’s admiration. Nonetheless, it is obvious that he does not really think so. He believes he is to be worshiped and he is pleased to be flattered. He never stops his experiments even though they are failures. He does not say his attempts are unsuccessful and he does not want to see how painful it is for his wife. He seeks for comfort. He wants to listen to his wife’s singing even though she is hardly able to perform as she is exhausted by the experiments.
Georgiana has to endure painful experiments and she stresses that her husband is the great decision maker as she notes, “fear not that I shall shrink, for my share in it is far less than your own” (Hawthorne 7). On one hand, Georgiana accepts her husband’s superiority and keeps saying about it.
On the other hand, she is very supportive and is ready to help him no matter what. She understands the danger of those trials. However, she is too concerned with pleasing her husband and supporting him in his efforts to achieve his aims. She notes, “I shall quaff whatever draught you bring me . a dose of poison, if offered by your hand” (Hawthorne 7). She is submissive and supportive as she loves her husband and, being a perfect woman, she is eager to please him.
Georgiana is eager to accept her husband’s viewpoint. Her attitude towards the birthmark illustrates her readiness to skip from decision making. Thus, she has never thought of her birthmark as an imperfection as “it has been so often called a charm” and lots of “desperate” swains “would have risked life for the privilege of pressing lips to the mysterious hand” (Hawthorne 1).
Nonetheless, her husband realizes that the ‘hideous’ imperfection of his wife’s face cannot be tolerable. He starts gazing at her face and she understands her birthmark disgusts him.
We will write a custom Essay on Georgiana as a Perfect Woman in the Contemporary Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She is eager to please her husband and she simply grants him the right to make the decision. She declares, “I joyfully stake all upon your word” (Hawthorne 8). What is more, she starts believing she hates the birthmark. This illustrates Woolf’s and Brownmiller’s suggestions that women are bred in accordance with existing rules.
Some women understand they have to express ideas supporting men’s beliefs. However, some, like Georgiana, adopt male’s concept without even knowing it, “Not even Aylmer now hated it so much as she” (Hawthorne 6). Thus, the young and beautiful woman starts begging her husband to do what he (not she) wants to do. The woman has no will of her own anymore.
Brownmiller notes that women are expected to be charming and beautiful to delight men’s eyes. Georgiana’s husband is the embodiment of the concept. It is he who decides what is beautiful and what is imperfect. It is he who sees the birthmark as a hideous sign of the evil. Woolf and Brownmiller note that religious concepts put a kind of vicious mark on all women who are regarded as sinful and somewhat unworthy creatures. Many women are bred in terms of these conventions and, as a result, they start believing it in the course of time.
Georgiana exclaims, “There is but one danger – that this horrible stigma shall be left upon my cheek” (Hawthorne 7). Therefore, women are conditioned to feel inferior to men as even their bodies do not truly belong to them. Women are ready to change their appearance only to please males.
Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the three works discussed can be regarded as a certain reflection of gender roles existing in the contemporary world. Woolf and Brownmiller define major characteristic features of the woman in the modern society, while Hawthorne provides a story that illustrates the concepts revealed. The three sources depict the woman as a supportive, submissive, indecisive, but beautiful and charming creature that is assigned to please the man.
Moreover, according to the three texts women are conditioned to believe they are really inferior to man as they are brought up in terms of a variety of conventions that support the society as it is. Of course, some women understand that those are conventions that make them play roles assigned. For instance, they know that to be heard they need to say things that go along with men’s ideas.
However, some women do not even think about such things. Thus, the works discussed may be the necessary stimuli for women to start a new order and to make men as well as women see that such concept as equality is much more important than doubtful superiority.
Ethnicity and race in the USA Essay essay help online
America has in the past had immigrations that brought about the various ethnic groups that exist in the vast country. The existence of different ethnic groups here has since impacted on its racial relations. Race may be defined as a biological variance between two groups of people.
The phenotypic racial difference is characterized by physical appearances while the genotypic racial difference is determined by variance in genetic makeup. There are quite a number of racial groups in the USA. They include the whites, blacks, Asians and Indians. Additionally, there are other groups of Americans who are not recognized in any of these racial categories. These are Hispanics, Asian Indians, Arab Americans and Bi-racial persons.
While races can be differentiated on a phenotypic (physical appearance) basis, they cannot be differentiated on a genotypic basis (genetic makeup). This is because people from different races can be identified by their complexion and other physical and cultural perceptions but their genetic makeup remains more or less the same.
This is because of the fact that they belong to the same species. Researches indicate that humans have a tiny genetic variation of about 0.5%; inconsiderate of their physical differences. This difference is too small to give rice to a considerable variation on ability or innate intelligence.
This implies that the difference in genetic composition of humans may only be used to establish human physical appearance as opposed to determining ability. However, this has given rise to a number of debates as to why some racial groups are comparably better at carrying out some activities than others.
Every racial group is characterized by its unique and distinct cultural beliefs and practices. The distinction in cultural beliefs and practices has brought about the perception of some social groups as superior and others inferior. This is a justification of social disparities and exploitation of groups perceived as inferior by their superior counterparts. It is important to note that this is also the cause of racisms that is a menace in America. Racism is a belief of instinctive inferiority of a cluster of races as a result of their biological disparities.
Ethnicity, on the other hand, incorporates race as its component. People of the same ethnic group share universal cultural and racial ancestry. Therefore, the membership of a person in an ethnic group is innate and based on birth and hence cannot be altered. However, there have been arguments that ethnicity can be altered as dictated by social circumstances of an individual or situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is still subject to a lot of debates since ethnicity has always been perceived as the ancestral origin to which someone or a group of people can be traced or identified with. Owing to the fact that some ethnic clusters are smaller in terms of numbers as compared to others, there is bound to be ethnic prejudice. The smaller ethnic groups are discriminated against by the bigger groups because of their inability to be heard.
Ethnic prejudice is the negative perception or beliefs people may have on others. Ethnic discrimination, on the other hand, is the actual manifestation of ethnic prejudice in terms of actions. This is, in most occasions, exhibited through unequal treatment. Ethnic minority may come as a result of indigenous inhabitants of a given geographical location being dominated over by immigrants who may be larger in number.
Additionally, it may come about when a small group of immigrants are dominated over by indigenous inhabitants. In the USA, for instance, the helm of ethical superiority is dominated by the whites and their black counterparts come at the bottom of the hierarchy ladder. Other ethnic clusters are positioned in between.
The Influence of Computer on the Living Standards of People All Over the World Essay essay help free: essay help free
A computer is an electronic device applied in general and arithmetic functions. A computer comprises a processing unit and a memory store. The processing unit performs arithmetic and logic operations based on the information stored.
All the processes in a computer rely on both the hardware and software. Hardware comprise of tangible elements like a mouse, keyboard, monitor and the central processing unit. Software comprise of various programs and languages used by a computer. People use computers in most activities and it would be unimaginable how life would be if there were no computers.
In the past, people considered computers to be a reserve for scientist, engineers, the army and the government. However, that has changed already as computers are now in several workstations, schools and homes. The efficiency, accuracy and ability to accomplish numerous tasks have endeared computers to people and slowly becoming a need rather than a want. Ability to access internet through computers has enhanced research and innovation.
Computers touch on every aspect of modern living. The influence of computer on the living standards of people all over the world is unmatched. Banks use computers for purposes of storing information and arithmetic functions. They also use computers for speed, expediency and safety measures.
Communication has been escalating since the innovation and introduction of computers. Through emails and virtual worlds in the internet, people are now communicating effectively and in a speedy manner. Computers can qualify as business tools.
Computers are integral in the corporate world for they ensure easy transaction of business activities, record keeping and arithmetic functions like preparing a balance sheet. Today computers have enhanced business through online trading, settling of outstanding bills and the stock market.
Use of computers in medical science exhibits their abilities and effectiveness. Diagnosis of diseases improves with the use of computers. Computers have enhanced development of the best cure for various diseases through research. Computer technology applies in various medical practices such as surgery and scanning of body organs. The role of computers in education lacks an equal among other assistive technologies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Learning today revolves around computers as teachers use them for instruction and preparing teaching materials. Students use computers to carry out research and writing their assignments. Introduction of e learning in various learning centers around the world requires continued use of computers by the instructors and students. Knowledge of computers is mandatory for young people aiming to meet both their education and career goals.
Media is a field that has demonstrated the quality and value of computers. Computer software and technologies apply in media to generate both audio and visual compositions. The technology applied in producing animation and three-dimensional visuals relies heavily on computers.
Some of the effects executed in films and movies develop from computer technology. All these activities and actions demonstrate the value of computers in the entertainment industry all over the world. Other fields that have exhibited the importance of computers through their use include the transport industry, metrological departments and the sports industry. Computers apply in plane and train reservations in countries with developed economies.
Weather predictions apply distinctive types of computers that analyze data and make appropriate predictions. Computers have enhanced the study of body development through sports by using specially created programs. These programs monitor the behavior of various body organs and muscles during an active session with the body. Sport technologies have influenced the development and steady growth of sport science and sport nutrition.
In almost every aspect of life, we operate an electronic device generated and developed using computer technology. I believe that computers are playing a crucial role in human wellbeing. We are at a stage in human development that we cannot afford to imagine life without computers.
Its is hard to imagine having to do things like washing clothes, arithmetic work as well as storing information into files and books manually. That would is stressful and may result in slow human development. Computers have added efficiency, speed, effectiveness and creativity into human activities. I believe that it is essential to get training on computers because they dominate nearly every element of modern life.
For example, a student who conducts manual research and writing of term papers is at a disadvantage in various aspects compared to a student who uses a computer to perform all this tasks. The aspects that come into focus in this scenario are time, quality, amount of workload and effectiveness of the overall process. A student who uses a computer spends little time on assignments, gets quality work with few mistakes and does little work compared to a student who applies manual means.
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of Computer on the Living Standards of People All Over the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is right to conclude that human beings are dependent on computers today. People will do exceedingly little if someone takes computers away from them. Despite computers coming with challenges such as high cost of purchasing and power consumption, people have done their best to utilize technology to improve their wellbeing.
I believe that the invention and development of computers was a stage in the evolution of humankind into a complete creature. It is easy to imagine a virtually crippled humankind if all the computers and technologies developed using computers stop functioning today.
Nature verses Nurture Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature: genetic influence on personal development
Behavior genetic studies and nature
Nurture: Environment and personal development
Behavior Genetics Studies and Nurture
Complications between nature and nurture
Introduction Human growth and development is an important aspect in human life. Conventionally, it describes the physical, emotional, or psychological and cognitive transformation in human life. In addition, it is a complicated process controlled by both environmental and genetic aspects (Bronfenbrenner 3).
Throughout human history, research has continually debated on several aspects of human life and development aiming at identifying the influence of genetics and the impact of environment on personal human development bringing nature and nurture terms into regular controversies.
According to McGue and Bouchard, adoption and twin studies have significantly indicated that behavioral traits are transmissible (1). On the other hand, Bouchard argues that environmental factors have also been influential in the development of humans, though such factors are most effective in individual intelligence quotient (148). However, both are essential.
These endless debates on human development have important inferences on theories and researches that are encompassed in psychological studies with human behavioral traits becoming the focus. Therefore, this essay seeks to examine whether human development and behavior are due to nature or nurture.
Nature: genetic influence on personal development Nature has dominated several prospective studies on its influence on human growth and development. In this context, the word nature simply stands for the ways in which biological phenomena influence personal development and behavior (Gottesman and Hanson 10.6). Hereditary aspects of human beings are associated with behavioral characteristics in human beings.
Heredity simply describes how individuals acquire characteristics through a biological process involving genes. Different projects, including the Human Genome Project, demonstrate that DNA components found in human beings are identical to all humans with an estimated percentage of 9.9 percent resemblance. Gottesman and Hanson assert, “Factors that influence DNA methylation are huge and include such things as developmental processes, diet, and viral infections” (10.5).
Due to this DNA sharing aspect, biological studies, including famous theories conducted on evolutionary propositions have some evidence that almost all animals share similar characteristics with their respective ancestors. With studies and theories carried out to examine the impact of nature on the personal development and personality traits, heredity is an important factor in the development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Behavior genetic studies and nature In several occasions, human biology and psychologists have concentrated on what aspects allow human beings to have similar characteristics. Based on the focus of this study, gene, which is a biological component of growth, influences behavioral characteristics in human beings. In specific attention to genetics perspective, genes are natural elements that shape hereditary.
Genes pass on from one generation to another, with the likelihood of offsprings adopting traits embedded in their blood relation (Bouchard 149). Scientifically, genetic influences on personal traits and development resulted from studies of two twins, commonly known as behavior genetic studies. Behavior genetic studies were initiated by Jim Springer and involved separation of two twins, namely Jim and Lewis after five weeks of their age for a considerable number of years.
Thereafter, Springer reunited the boys after thirty years of their separation. However, during the course of their observation, the twins had similar behavioral mannerisms ranging from their hobbies, emotions, thinking and even dislikes. This study concluded that nature is automatic and biological phenomena influence behavioral traits.
Several years ago, behavioral genetic studies conducted by Tyron in the year 1940 also formed the basis of discussion of the influence of biological phenomenon on behavior. Tyron took an approach of selective breeding animals. The researcher identified two rats with certain similarities coupled with their performance on maize (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 34). Tyron mated the rats according to their brightness in color with the bright mating the bright and the dull, vice versa.
After repetitively carrying out this procedure for at least twenty-one generations, Tyron had two rats so different from each other. Tyron later tested their performance on maize and realized that their performance was similar to their initial offsprings. The science of Tyron can be significant in explaining how human beings adopt some behavioral characteristics from their parents (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 34).
Based on several observations made on the academic performance of pupils compared to that of their parents, it is clear that genetics influence the growth and behaviors of individuals. Under these practical behavior genetics studies, biological phenomena affect the development and consequent behavior of beings, which are human beings.
Studying family traits and behaviors is also a common way of identifying how genetics affects the behavioral traits of individuals or population. In family studies, researchers attempt to estimate generic impacts between individuals by comparing close relatives to examine how they resemble each other on particular distinctiveness. According to Gottesman and Hanson (10.7), through studying families, researchers have concluded that there are certain traits that are eminent in families.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Nature verses Nurture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Estimates reveal that about 25 percent of the grandchildren examined in studies have traits resembling those of their grandparents. In their research, Lenroot et al. assert that, to examine the relationship between genetics and behavioral traits, “quantification is possible by examining covariance patterns between family members of different levels of genetic relatedness” (164).
Through family studies, genetic influence on personality traits is eminent in talents and abilities possessed by individuals. In several cases, there are possibilities of offspring sharing similar human skills, including artistic or musical talents and sportsmanship.
Genetic influence in is also commonly examined in hereditary factors that are passed through DNA sequences. Scientist has studied several hereditary diseases and concluded that genetics consequently influence personal behavior traits. Psychologists have also studied this relation and identified that generic influence on behavior traits account to about 40-50 percent through heritability.
Bouchard asserts, “Schizophrenia is the most extensively studied psychiatric illness, and the findings consistently suggest a very high degree of genetic influence (heritability of about 80), mostly additive genetic influence, with no shared environmental influence” (149). Apart from schizophrenia, hereditary factors of genetic are also eminent in diseases such as phobias, panic disorders, depression, heart diseases, and even cancer.
Thompson, Cannon, and Toga assert, “Heritable diseases and behavioral traits arise from DNA variations passed on from parents to their offspring” (524). Therefore, by studying hereditary diseases, evidence-based research depicts that genetics influences human behavior bypassing behavior traits from one generation to another in close blood relationships.
In a bid to delve further into the nature issue, the twin studies comprehensively used to examine how heredity and environment affects human development play essential roles. According to Gottesman and Hanson (10.13), genetically tested experiments and data analysis of twins brought up together in a similar environment give an important view on the impact of nurturing on personal development and behavioral characteristics.
Twins’ studies, which are commonly referred as Minnesota personality studies, examined over 217 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, meaning that the twins resulted from an ovum fertilized from one sperm cell and about 114 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, meaning that they were born of separate sperms fertilizing separate eggs, grew together.
On the other hand, 44 MZ and another 27 DZ pairs grew separately (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga). Researchers on this study observed that heritability in these twins provides an average of almost 48 percent. After undergoing several discussions and argument, this study concluded that genetic factors contribute significantly to people within a given group
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nature verses Nurture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nurture: Environment and personal development Nurturing or fostering affects personal development and behavioral traits. How a person grows through different experiences consequently determines the outcome of personal behavior. According to Bouchard (148), behavioral interconnections are eminent within societies or communities with environmental connections among individuals, families, or even groups, particularly in political influence and economic power.
Nurturing as used in several kinds of literature denotes a process by which individuals grow. Behavioral traits found in parents are most likely to be eminent in children through adoption. Cultural aspect is among the many ways through which researchers conclude that nature affects an individual’s behavior.
Culture has significant power to determine a person’s behavior depending on the parental influence and extent of their adoption to culture. Taking an example of a community that strictly observes religion or certain rituals, offsprings in this society are likely to adopt the culture and the sequence continues. Bouchard asserts, “Membership in a specific religious denomination is largely due to environmental factors” (151).
Environment has been so influential in personal traits and development. However, in most cases, environment influences an individual’s life in the early ages up to almost 20 years. Factors including cultural backgrounds, social affiliations, and physical environment become important aspects that help in examining the impact of environment on personal behaviors.
In the study undertaken by Lenroot et al., “environmental factors may be causes of downstream behavioral and cognitive function and may become more prominent relative to genetic factors as socioeconomic conditions worsen” (170). As human beings develop, they expose themselves to different environmental factors that tend to impact on their behavioral traits.
According to Emde and Hewitt, this scenario is quite eminent in children who adopt behaviors found in their parents (23). It is common to find children taking alcohol due to the influence of their family members/parents or close relatives having the tendency of alcohol taking and very common to find children becoming religious following their parental roots.
Behavior Genetics Studies and Nurture In the context of nurture, the twin’s studies contain a vital but hidden massage that researchers normally ignore. According to McGue and Bouchard, data acquired from this study provides significant evidence in the impact of environment on personal development and behavior traits (10).
The pro-nurture conclusion hinges on two main observations. Despite carrying out several studies with regard to hereditary impact on personal development and personal traits, researchers have not considered the fact that genetic differences contribute to about 50 percent or even less. This aspect automatically implies that environmental factors are entirely responsible for the remaining percentage. On the same note, it is possible to find family members having different traits, despite coming from the same blood.
Researchers commonly observe this aspect in some children who grow together and possess extremely different characteristics. Based on the evidence drawn from this argument, it is common that regardless of their relationship, there are no possibilities that two siblings live together throughout their lifetime.
Therefore, in the process of separating and living in different environments, people’s surroundings are most likely to be responsible for their differences in their behaviors.
However, culture is a powerful aspect in determining growth and development; thus if brought up under the same environment sharing the same culture, they are most likely to have similar traits (Lenroot et al. 165). Probably, siblings living together in a shared environment including having the same parents, attending the same schools, living in the same home, taking the same meals, and even attending similar functions possess different traits.
On the other hand, siblings might live in a non-shared environment including being raised differently by their parents, occupying different environments, or even having different sportsmanship and finally differ in their behavior traits (Bouchard 149). This scenario definitely explains how the impact of the environment to human behavior is unique with people adopting different traits based on their environmental experiences.
Complications between nature and nurture As researchers struggle to identify the transparency between nature and nurture, the complication between the two aspects still exists. Several prospective studies carried out on the subject are making the complication worse. Contrary to other studies carried out, Urie Bronfenbrenner and his colleague Stephen, in the year 1994, proposed a bio-ecological model to stretch the argument on the aspects of nature and nurture.
According to Bronfenbrenner, at birth, mothers bestow newborns with genetic predispositions (6). The predispositions only have the ability of influencing the behaviors of the children later in their old age with life experiences playing an important role on the behaviors at that age.
These predispositions have a component of intelligence. Taking into account the realities of life, some children are raised in poor families and thus, they undergo stress and frustrations, which might limit them from realizing their potential. On the other, hand some children are raised in stress-free homes with many opportunities to explore their abilities. Finally, one only wonders how these predispositions can prove genetic influence on human behavior.
Conclusion The nature vs. nurture debate has been unique in its arguments between natural development and environmental influence on human development and personality traits. However, both nature and nurture have a portion to share in human development, especially in determining personal traits of individuals, though studies reveal that their influences are non-independent (McGue and Bouchard 6).
Based on nature, scientists and psychologists have continually examined the influence of genetic factors on the development. Scientifically, genetic influences on personal traits and development resulted from studies of two twins.
The studies provided a significant proof about the hereditary factor with the possibility that offsprings adopt behavioral traits from their parents naturally (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 523). On the other hand, scientists, philosophers, and psychologists still argue that environment or nurturing aspect has a greater influence in development of human behavior characteristics.
The argument on nurturing aspect is that, if all genetics prove that it is responsible for human behavior, then why does it only cover 48 percent on genetic influences. Family studies propose that there exist possibilities that children can never live together in their entire life, and thus changes observed in them is due to environmental influences. However, as prospective research continues to dominate, probably controversies between the two aspects might never end.
Works Cited Bouchard, Thomas. “Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits.” American Psychological Society 13.4 (2004): 148-151. Print.
Bronfenbrenner, Urie. Making Human Beings Human: Bio-ecological Perspectives on Human Development. New York: Sage Publishers, 2004. Print.
Emde, Robert, and John Hewitt. Infancy to Early Childhood: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Gottesman, Irving, and Daniel Hanson. “Human Development: Biological and Genetic Processes.” Annu. Rev. Psychol 56 .1 (2005): 10.1–10.24. Print.
Lenroot, Rhoshel, James Schmitt, Sara Ordaz, Gregory Wallace, Michael Neale,
Jason Lerch, Kenneth Kendler, Alan Evans, and Jay Giedd. “Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Human Cerebral Cortex Associated with Development during Childhood and Adolescence.” Human Brain Mapping 30.1 (2009): 163–174. Print.
McGue, Matt, and Thomas Bouchard. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavioral Differences.” Annu. Rev. Neurosci 21.1 (1998): 1–24. Print.
Thompson Paul, Tyrone Cannon, and Arthur Toga. “Mapping genetic influences on human brain structure.” Annals of Medicine 34.8 (2002): 523- 536. Print.
Habit 3 Put First Things First Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The 2 X 2 Matrix
Introduction Highly effective people are known to focus on discovering opportunities around them. They then utilize these opportunities to their advantage keenly taking into consideration their principles and values. They do this in order to achieve personal or organizational goals (Hergenhahn, 2005).
The decisions they make are centered and focused on already defined mission statements. For one to benefit fully from concepts of Habit 2 Put First Things First, one needs to have thoroughly understood and internalized Habit 1 and Habit 2. Habit 1 focuses on the individual’s character development (pro-activity).
It is through the character that one develops in this stage that he or she is able to refrain from activities that do not contribute towards the achievement of the defined goals. Habit 2 begins with “an end” in mind. Stephen Covey (2004) emphasizes on creating a clear vision of one’s objective. This has to start with analyzing one’s current situation in order to know one’s position. It is by so doing that one is able to come up with a personal or organizational constitution.
The latter draws clear guidelines and regulations towards achieving the short term and long term goals. The said goals converge to form the mission statement. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the ideas and concepts of Habit 3 Put First Things First. The study reveals how this habit may be applied in the real world through use of practical examples. A look at the 2 X 2 matrix, delegation and recommendations will help to exemplify better the concepts of Habit 3 Put First Things First.
The 2 X 2 Matrix Highly effective people recognize the activities that are important to them and those that are not important (Gazzaniga, 2010). With the use of 2 X 2 Matrix, Stephen Covey (2004) classifies the day to day activities into four categories;
-Pressing matters 1
-Deadline driven activities
– Prevention Not Urgent
– Implementing systems
-Planning and preparations
-Improving professional knowledge
– Telephone Calls.
– Interruptions; a colleague walking in to the office
– Unplanned meeting
– Trivial 4
– Busy Work
1. Important and urgent are classified as Quadrant 1. 2. Important and not urgent are classified as Quadrant 2. 3. Urgent and not important are classified as Quadrant 3. 4. Not important and not urgent are classified as Quadrant 4. For effective management, Quadrant 1 activities should be given preference.
All tasks should be evaluated to determine the important activities and their urgencies. It is good to deal with all important and urgent matters first. Deadline driven projects should be given priority too. Crisis matters and pressing problems should be considered first as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To manage your life effectively based on the principles and values outlined in your mission statement, you have to focus on activities of Quadrant 2 especially the important activities which are not urgent. This works a long way towards improving your production capacity. For example, instead of embarking on planning each day at a time, it could be ideal for you to focus on weekly activities that are inline with the accomplishment of your personal goals and roles.
For instance, a person who intends to reduce 10 kilograms of his or her body weight in one month can come up with a whole week schedule that outlines the activities he or she will undertake each day in order to reduce the desired weight. In the weekly plan, he or she can specify the diet to take each day taking into consideration the amount of calories his or her body requires and adjust his or her meals to suit the required calories.
He or she can also plan for the exercises to undertake each day of the week. He or she may allocate two days for jogging and three days for indoor gym activities. Another important aspect of Quadrant 2 involves preparation. A student who wishes to excel in his or her exams must do certain things that may enhance the chances of academic excellence for the particular student.
This would involve studying all the course materials exhaustively and ensuring that he or she has covered the entire syllabus. He or she should embark on thorough revision of the entire course work. He or she can engage other students in discussions on the different topics in the course outline. A review of past exams would help him or her in understanding how the questions in the exams are set.
The same case would apply to an engineer who wishes to be highly effective in his career. The engineer may consider enrolling for an advanced course in his profession. This would help him or her sharpen his professional skills and knowledge. He or she would also actively participate in seminars and workshops with an aim of boosting his or her professional attributes. Sometimes people engage themselves in activities that take a lot of their time.
Those activities may not be necessarily important to the fulfillment of their goals. These are activities of Quadrant 3 which comprise urgent activities but which may not be very important or necessary. These activities are portrayed as urgent because they involve other people who may be important to people’s lives like friends and relatives. Activities of Quadrant 3 may have nothing to do with the realization of people’s personal goals. Sometimes these activities may be depicted as important.
They may persuade many people to put more time and energy on them. They may not be as important as perceived. For example, in an office setup, a colleague may come to your office to make an acquaintance. A small discussion may ensue and without both of you noticing, a substantial amount of time may eventually be wasted which would have otherwise been spent working towards the accomplishment of your organizational goals. Telephone calls may be other forms of distractions.
We will write a custom Essay on Habit 3 Put First Things First specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Your callers make take a lot of your time by engaging you in conversations that may not have a productive impact on your work. It is important to know the purpose of the telephone call and assess whether it is worth giving your time to at that particular moment. It is from that point that you would be able to decide whether to take that call, postpone or ignore it. Though the internet is the greatest information tool, it has been misused in most organizations hindering the latter from achieving their goals.
In certain cases, you may find employees busy on the computers creating the impression that they are doing something substantial towards execution of the company’s mission. On the other hand, those employees may be busy chatting with their friends through the various social sites, responding to emails from their friends or surfing in the internet for materials of their personal interests.
All these things are not essential in a person’s life that is why Covey (2004) classifies them as not important. They have very little significance to the attainment of the mission of any given company. Some small issues may arise in an organization prompting concerned managers to call for the so called “urgent meetings”. In such circumstances, the meeting agendas may not be carefully drawn and the parties participating in the said meetings may not be taken into consideration.
Such meetings may not be adequately prepared for by all parties eventually leading to wastage of time by the concerned parties. These meetings may not add any value towards the fulfillment of the company’s mission. Quadrant 4 illustrates activities that are not important as well as not urgent. Certain people may give excuses of being busy with the intention of avoiding certain duties or activities given to them by their respective organizations.
One may be surprised to find out that these people may not be as busy as they may portray to be. A closer examination on the lives of the said people may reveal that they may be engaged in activities that are not so important like watching movies, reading newspapers and novels. Ideally, it is important to reduce the time taken on these activities and concentrate more on the activities that would lead one to being highly effective in realizing either one’s personal or organizational goals and objectives.
Delegation A highly effective person ought to understand that it is not possible to accomplish all the activities that will help him or her achieve the intended goals. It is therefore important that one identifies the specific activities to work on in achieving one’s goals.
One needs to realize the strengths and weaknesses of the people that one plans to work with. By so doing, one would be capable of understanding the abilities of different people. When delegating, it is important to avoid telling the persons concerned what to do. It is imperative let them know the vision and goals to attain. Let them understand the desired values. Let them realize and appreciate your principles.
A person whose goal is to cut 10 kilograms of body weight in one month can delegate his or her diet planning to a professional nutritionist. If the person is a vegetarian, he can inform the nutritionist beforehand. By so doing, he would be letting the nutritionist know his values and principles. This way, he or she would have simply delegated some part his or her goal to a professional who can better handle the given assignment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Habit 3 Put First Things First by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recommendation Proper time management is the key towards being highly effective for any one. With good time management, one may be able to effectively employ and implement Habit 3 Put First Things First.
Conclusion Proper scheduling of one’s activities is the foundation towards implementing Habit 3 put first things first (Palmer
Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Capitalism and socialism
Capitalism and socialism view of freedom
Impact of capitalism and socialism on global political climate
Introduction Inthe contemporary times, two dominant ways of life reign humanity. These two ways of life have gradually degenerated into two ideologies, viz. the Western capitalism and the Eastern socialism. Most of the Western countries embrace capitalism, which reflects liberalism, competition, and unrestrained freedom (Pejovich 71).
The states promote a competitive economic environment where individuals strive to enrich themselves. On the other hand, most of the Eastern countries embrace socialism, which challenges people’s freedom. The countries advocate for an environment where the government has full control over economic resources. In both cases, humankind is ignored as a personality, and the society is disregarded.
These two systems of political and social ideologies manifest themselves in the community. Capitalism dominates the western countries with its headquarters being the United States, while socialism dominates most of the former Soviet States and the majority of states in the Far East (Pejovich 72-75). This paper aims at comparing and contrasting the two political ideologies.
History of Capitalism and socialism In 1700s, it was cheap and easy to produce many goods at one place due to the notion of the economies of scale. Moreover, significant changes in agriculture like enclosure of lands that were once owned communally and crop rotation made it possible for landowners to accumulate stupendous wealth.
Property owners later invested in novel industries. This initial accumulation of wealth at the expense of the society marked the onset of capitalism. It displaced numerous people from their lands thus creating poverty (Pejovich 77-84). In Europe, the European capitalists perpetuated capitalism through their search for silver and gold, which they used as a form of wealth storage.
Some of the elites resisted the move to capitalism, but state laws, which promoted capitalism and harshly punished those opposed to it, suppressed any resistance. Stealing a handkerchief belonging to a “gentleman” amounted to execution upon conviction. This epoch marked the beginning of capitalist imperialism.
On the other hand, industrial revolution led to the emergence of socialism. As capitalists continued accumulating wealth through industrialization, some elites realized that the capitalists violated a number of workers’ rights. Consequently, they came up with ways through which they could help workers to overcome oppression from capitalists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals fighting for socialism called for the state to own and control the economy rather than allowing few individuals to have control of the crucial economic resources (Pejovich 86-93). Proponents of socialism blamed capitalism for the prevailing poverty, and thus advocated for policies like egalitarian allocation of wealth and conversion of populations into numerous communities to do away with private property.
Capitalism and socialism view of freedom The triadic model views freedom as comprising of three variables, viz. a constraint variable, agent variable, and outcome variable. Max Weber posits that capitalism entails accrual of wealth by a few individuals (Galbraith 67). Consequently, capitalists view freedom in the sense of being in a position to accumulate wealth without external interference.
Capitalists or individuals supporting capitalistic ideologies act as agents, while the society or individuals opposed to capitalism stand out as constraints. Capitalism views the accumulated wealth as the outcome variable. The three elements play a significant role in ensuring the success of capitalism. Whenever capitalists accumulate wealth, they consider themselves free.
Proponents of capitalism derive the meaning of life from its ideologies. For them, life would be meaningless without wealth and property. Besides, they use it as a criterion for evaluating what is good and bad (Galbraith 73). Capitalists find communal property ownership as one of the ways that promote indolence in society. Hence, they term it awful.
They view capitalism as the ultimate way of encouraging creativity and innovativeness in the society as people compete to accumulate wealth. The fact that capitalism promotes competitiveness makes its proponents view it as the ultimate way of promoting freedom in a liberal society. Capitalism offers an identity to its proponents. Capitalists feel associated to a particular group, which acts as their identity.
People feel happy and free when associated with a particular group. The same applies to capitalists. Freedom comes when an individual can come up with a set of activities to undertake in life. Proponents of capitalism have the ultimate goal of accumulating as much wealth as they can; hence, capitalism helps them in developing a program to follow in order to achieve their dreams.
Conversely, socialism believes in centralized control of the national economy and abolition of private property (Galbraith 79). For socialists, they perceive freedom in the sense of owning property communally, thus being in a position to acquire or use any asset whenever there is a need. Socialism perceives economy as the agent of freedom while the major constraint lies in establishing ways through which the public can own the national economy.
We will write a custom Essay on Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The achievement or outcome variable in socialism is the ability to abolish private ownership of property and accumulate wealth on a communal basis. Hence, socialism views freedom as the ability to do away with individual property ownership and embrace communal property ownership.
Capitalism was associated with oppression of the poor by the rich individuals. Hence, most of the poor people found life to be a worthless venture for they had nothing to enjoy in life (Galbraith 84). In a bid to overcome this feeling, people had to look for a way that would set them free and give them a new meaning to life. Socialism turned out to be the most appropriate way since it promoted communal property ownership, thus implying that all people had equal rights to all properties.
Furthermore, socialism offered the society a platform for assessing the right and wrong social practices. For instance, socialists perceived capitalism as an unethical practice since it promoted unhealthy competition thus leading to disunity in the society. Individuals supporting socialism viewed it as the ultimate source of their identity.
They venerated the culture of communal property ownership and wished to associate with it. An ideology helps in giving its supporters a series of actions to undertake and this element applies in socialism. It helps its proponents in coming up with a set of projects that can promote social ties amongst themselves.
Impact of capitalism and socialism on global political climate Currently, capitalism is gradually becoming one of the resurgent powers. According to Dumenil and Levy (78-83), the world is encountering the emergence of a new class of capitalists.
Currently, economies of most nations are drifting towards a novel and deep-rooted class of inequality. Capitalism has not only affected the global political economy, but also the global political consciousness. Currently, countries are tolerant to inequality than ever before. In addition, the workplace culture has become parallel to neo-feudalism (Harvey 80).
On the other hand, socialism has had a significant effect on global politics. After nations realized that it was hard to achieve environmental conservation goals in a capitalistic regime, they embarked on political ideology dubbed eco-socialism. The ideology seeks to bring together all stakeholders to work as a group towards embracing environmental conservation policies.
According to Ma (341-342), states can achieve environmental conservation goals by changing from capitalists to welfarist states. Currently, most of the Asian countries are establishing self-governing systems of alliances to create ecological democracies beyond what is established by their states. For instance, India has come up with an eco-socialist movement that works under the guidelines of social justice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Currently, different nations embrace one of the two distinct and opposing ways of life. While the majority of Western countries embrace capitalism, some of the Eastern countries continue exercising socialism. Capitalism emerged because of people’s undying desire become affluent.
On the other hand, socialism emerged during the epoch of the industrial revolution as a means to counter the oppression perpetrated by the rich on the disadvantaged. The two political ideologies have different perceptions about freedom. Capitalism views freedom in terms of wealth accumulation. They believe that wealth accumulation allows an individual to assume a particular identity. On the other hand, socialists perceive freedom in terms of having control over national economic wealth.
Socialists believe that people can only be free if they have the liberty to use national economic resources without restrictions. Currently, capitalism is gradually eroding the global political consciousness leading to the emergence of a class of inequality. On the other hand, socialism is leading to the establishment of eco-socialism as a policy for attaining environmental conservation.
Works Cited Dumenil, Gerard, and Dominique Levy. Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution. New York: Harvard University Press, 2004. Print.
Galbraith, James. Created Unequal: The Crisis in American Pay. New York: The Free Press, 1998. Print.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Ma, Zhijuan. “Eco-socialism as politics: rebuilding the basis of our modern civilization.” Environmental Politics 21.2 (2012): 341-342. Print.
Pejovich, Svetozar. “Capitalism and Socialism.” International Studies in Economics and Econometrics 33.2 (1998): 71-93. Print.
Social Networks Are no More Just Fun Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief Facts about SNSs
The Use in Business
The Use in Research and Academia
The Use in Self-Development
People Should Be Aware of New Implications
Introduction When speaking of social network sites (SNSs) people focus on communication, sharing files and making friends. These were primary goals of the first SNSs. These were major goals of such famous SNSs as MySpace, Facebook and Twitter. However, many people have found different facets of the phenomenon called social network sites.
SNSs are now regarded as a terrain for a variety of activities. Thus, people have found a lot of uses for such sites as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, etc. These sites are used in business, research and academia, and self-development. Notably, these uses are proved to be effective. Therefore, people should be aware of a variety of implications of using SNSs as spending time on chatting and sharing images is a mere waste of time in the contemporary world where people have to cope with loads of information.
Defining SNSs In the first place, it is important to define SNSs. There are quite many definitions of the phenomenon. Boyd and Ellison define SNSs as
web-based services that allow individuals to . construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system . view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. (654)
It is necessary to note that the researchers stress the use of the term “social network” as they argue that social networking sites have more to do with establishing communication between “strangers” while the term “social network sites” refers to a web-based community (Boyd
The Computational Brain Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents What can humans do that computers cannot?
What can computers do that humans cannot?
What can humans do that computers cannot? The differences between a human being and a computer can be partly explained by looking at their reaction to an external stimulus. First of all, a computer can process information from external environment only according the predetermined patterns or algorithms. In contrast, a human being can freely choose various ways or strategies of analyzing a stimulus. This is the main reasons why people are capable of independent decisions, but one cannot say the same thing about computers.
Furthermore, one should note that humans’ reaction to a stimulus is affected by their previous experience. In particular, a person can change his/her behavior if it was not successful in the past. This ability is the basis of human learning. Currently, researchers attempt to develop the algorithms for machine learning.
For instance, one can mention such a program like Deep Blue that can adjust its strategies depending upon the moves of a chess player. Nevertheless, computers are very limited in their ability to change their behavior or strategies.
Finally, one should note that humans are able to act irrationally. For instance, people can be influenced by their unique biases, prejudices, or opinions that can hardly be explained or justified through reasoning (Edgar, 2003, p. 452). This is why humans can respond to a stimulus in an unexpected way. In contrast, computers lack this ability. Certainly, irrational behavior of an individual is not always beneficial; however, this is an inherent quality of a human being.
Thus, some of the capabilities possessed by a human being cannot be easily replicated in machines. In particular, one can speak about such aspects as freedom of choice, ability to adapt one’s behavior, and irrationality. At the present moment, computer scientists attempt to address these limitations, but one cannot say to what extent their efforts will be successful.
What can computers do that humans cannot? There are several things that computers can do more effectively than humans. In this case, one can speak about specific tasks that are performed according to certain patterns (Stillings, Weisler,
Urbanization and Environment Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Urbanization is the process in which “an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities” (Wagner 24). Urbanization is considered to be one of the major outcomes of industrialization. The process of industrialization led to the use of inanimate sources of energy and new tools for production in the pre-modern world economy. Consequently, there were surpluses in the agricultural and industrial sectors of the world economy.
The producers had to look for markets to sell their surplus produce. This led to the development of marketplaces and small urban areas which eventually became centers of commerce and industrial production (Wagner 27). In this regard, urbanization can be described as the increase in human population in discrete areas, thereby causing a change in land use in favor of residential, commercial and industrial purposes. According to Warren, nearly half of the world population lived in urban areas in 2008 (105-106).
Moreover, 70% of the world population is expected to live in urban areas by the year 2050 (Warren 105-106). In the last three decades, cities and towns have become the main habitats of mankind due to social and economic changes. Even though urban centers cover less than 5% of the total land area on earth, they have significant ecological footprint (Malik and Grohmann 78).
This implies that any form of uncontrolled urbanization can have severe environmental effects. The rapid exhaustion of the world’s natural resources is mainly attributed to urban development. Thus, sustainable urbanization can only be achieved if the environmental effects of urban developed are reduced. It is against this backdrop that this paper discuses the approaches that can be used to achieve urban development with minimal harmful effects on the environment.
Causes of Urbanization Before embarking on an in-depth discussion of how urbanization can be achieved in an eco-friendly manner, a brief explanation of its causes and effects is in order. By clearly understanding the causes of urbanization, city planners and environmentalist can formulate appropriate policies to alleviate the negative effects of urban development. In this regard, the following factors are the main causes of urbanization.
First, urbanization takes place as individuals, business entities and governmental organizations attempt to reduce the time and the financial resources that are spent in order to access basic services (Malik and Grohmann 53). Most governments often promote the development of urban centers in order to enable their citizens to access basic services such as education and healthcare.
Similarly, business organizations often provide services such as banking, transportation and consultancy in urban areas. Providing these services in urban centers is often cheaper than providing them in rural areas. This is because the consumers of these services are usually located in one area in the urban centers. Thus, reaching them is easier and cheaper.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, urbanization normally takes place as people migrate to cities and towns in search of economic opportunities. In most countries, the rural populations often relocate to cities in order to improve their socio-economic conditions. Most businesses that create well paying jobs are often located in urban centers.
Similarly, research and development centers are usually located in large urban areas where electricity, transport infrastructure, security and water are available. Thus, cities and towns tend to have more job opportunities than rural areas (Malik and Grohmann 54).
In this context, job seekers often migrate from the rural areas to the urban centers in order to find better jobs. In emerging economies, people normally relocate to urban centers in order to start or to improve their businesses. The rationale of this move is that the demand for commodities and consumer goods is always higher in urban centers than in rural areas. Consequently, conducting business in urban centers is more profitable than in rural areas.
Third, urbanization occurs due to rapid population growth in the rural areas. In the last decade, improved healthcare and nutrition has led to high fertility rates, especially, in the least developed countries. As a result, most developing countries lack adequate land in their rural areas to support agriculture or food production. Consequently, agricultural communities have had to move to cities and towns with the aim of finding alternative economic activities (Wagner 64).
In the twenty first century, modern governments have focused on constructing new cities in order to promote efficient use of the available land. Concisely, cities cover a small land area; however, they can accommodate thousands of people. In this regard, relocating rural populations to cities enables governments to access adequate land in their rural areas for food production.
Finally, urban centers are administrative units through which governments serve their citizens (Wagner 72). Most cities in Africa and Asia began as administrative units which acted as the local headquarters of their colonial masters.
After gaining independence, most African and Asian countries focused on providing administrative services such as security and registration of persons in urban centers. This system can still be seen in the contemporary society. Nearly every country in the world has a capital city which is essentially the headquarters of its government.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Urbanization and Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental Effects of Urbanization Cities and towns contribute over 70% of the greenhouse gases that are emitted in various parts of the world (Williams 217-232). Human activities such as manufacturing goods have significantly increased air pollution through the emission of greenhouse gases.
This problem has been exacerbated by the fact that water bodies and vegetation in most cities have lost their capacity to absorb the greenhouse gases. The environmental problems in urban areas have been on the rise due to the increased use of non-renewable sources of fuel for industrial production and transportation.
Affluence and consumerism have led to a high demand for consumer products across the globe, thereby increasing environmental pressures (Williams 217-232). In least developed countries, cities are characterized by uncontrolled development and rapid population growth. Consequently, the demand for housing and consumer goods has tremendously increased in these countries. Construction of new houses often leads to the destruction of the vegetation which is expected to absorb the greenhouse gases.
These gases are responsible for the climate changes that have been witnessed in different parts of the world. For example, natural calamities such as floods and landslides regularly occur in most cities. Apart from air pollution, most urban areas are characterized by high noise levels. The main sources of noise in these areas include aircrafts, industrial production and construction activities. The effects of high noise levels on city residents include sleep disturbance, stress, loss of hearing and increased anxiety.
Energy consumption in urban areas is one of the major causes of heat islands. Heat islands occur due to the fact that the rate at which rural areas radiate heat into the atmosphere is at least twice as high as the rate in cities (Warren 105-106). Thus, cities are warmer than rural areas because they are associated with high energy consumption and low heat radiation. The use of energy for purposes such as cooking, transportation and generation of electricity in urban areas is much higher than in rural areas.
For example, the per capita consumption of coal in Chinese cities is at least three times more than the consumption in rural areas (Li, Liu and McKinnell 354-364). Heat islands usually trap atmospheric pollutants, thereby causing cloudiness and fog. It also causes high precipitation, thunderstorms and hailstorms in cities. Empirical studies show that city residents are increasingly becoming vulnerable to disasters such as floods and landslides due to climate change.
Urban development also causes water pollution. Waste management is normally a serious challenge in large cities, especially, in the least developed countries. In these cities, untreated solid wastes are often disposed in dumpsites. Eventually, these wastes contaminate groundwater sources.
In some cases, industrial wastes are discharged directly into water bodies such as rivers and lakes. These pollutants normally contaminate water, thereby causing the death of aquatic animals such as fish (Williams 217-232). The use of water from the contaminated water bodies often cause diseases such as diarrhea in cities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Urbanization and Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, urban development usually interferes with the course of rivers and streams. Real estate developers prefer to construct houses along the coastline or river banks. These areas are attractive to most real estate developers due to their scenic features.
However, urban developments in these areas usually lead to the destruction of riparian vegetation and alteration of stream channels (Suileman, Aguda and Farinde 213-216). For example, the construction of a dam to supply water in an urban area can alter the hydrology of a river and cause destruction to physical habitats. The environmental effects of urbanization are expected to increase if remedial measures are not taken at the right time.
Urban Development and Environmental Conservation The discussion on the causes and the effects of urbanization reveals two facts. First, urbanization is a very important phenomenon in the contemporary world because it drives economic development. In a nutshell, urban areas are characterized with better living conditions and economic opportunities than rural areas.
Second, urbanization is associated with severe environmental effects which threaten its sustainability. Consequently, city planners and environmentalists must formulate and implement policies that can facilitate sustainable urban development. In this regard, the following measures can be adopted in order to achieve sustainable urban development and to protect the environment.
Land Use Planning Land use planning helps in determining present and future land use patterns in urban areas. The main role of land use planning is to facilitate sustainable consumption of environmental resources, development of infrastructure and maintenance of public health and safety (Suileman, Aguda and Farinde 213-216). In this context, development of infrastructure refers to the construction of facilities such as roads, schools and hospitals, as well as, the process of creating jobs.
Environmental resources include parks, watersheds, wetlands and rivers among others. Maintaining pubic health and safety involves taking measures that can help us to cope with the effects of natural disasters such as floods and tropical storms. Urban planners must give priority to the protection and sustainable exploitation of the available environmental resources. Protection of these resources must be given priority due to the following reasons.
First, the process of developing infrastructure and ensuring public health and safety mainly depends on the quality and accessibility of the available natural resources. Second, long term damage to the natural environment has already occurred due to past land use decisions. Additionally, these effects are likely to increase in the future (Simonis 919-928). Finally, the implementation of undesirable land use decisions will lead to more environmental damages.
The resulting imbalance in the ecosystem and loss of natural resources will pose a serious threat to human civilization. Environmental resources can be protected through the ‘how to’ and the ‘where to’ strategies. The use of these strategies is based on the premise that ecological vision must be incorporated in future development plans in order to achieve sustainable urbanization. The two strategies can be explained as follows.
The ‘Where to’ Strategy This strategy is essentially a selection process that enables urban planners to choose the best land for development (Simonis 919-928). This process ensures that areas of ecological importance are protected from urban development. The areas of ecological importance are essentially the places where the environmental resources that support various ecosystems are found.
The main objective of the ‘where to’ strategy is to enable urban planners, developers and governmental agencies to identify the important environmental resources that require protection from development (Simonis 919-928). The resources can be identified through the acquisition of knowledge about the environmental conditions of the areas in which urban development is expected to take place.
A variety of ecosystems can be found in different urban areas. The land use decisions that are made in such areas determine the ability of various ecosystems to provide the goods and services that are needed by the human population. Thus, the need to acquire adequate information about the environmental resources in a place becomes apparent.
Such information can help urban planners to make the right decisions in regard to land use and development. The environmental information should describe the topography, geology, vegetation and the wildlife of the area (Malik and Grohmann 235). In order to understand this information, a comprehensive environmental inventory must be created.
This inventory is essentially a collection of data that highlights the attributes of the environmental resources that can be found in an area that is being considered for urban development. The information that is contained in this inventory must be taken into account when land use decisions are being made. For instance, real estate development or industrial operations must be prohibited in important areas such as watersheds.
The ‘How to’ Strategy The ‘how to’ strategy is implemented after the ideal land for development has been identified. It helps planners and developers to identify the best approaches to urban development. The first step of this strategy is concerned with the identification of the measures that must be taken in order to protect essential environmental resources.
The second step is concerned with the identification of the “types of developments on the available land that respect ecological diversity, environmental security, economic viability, human creativity and the sense of community” (Simonis 919-928). In this stage, urban planners, developers and designers are expected to use different planning approaches and sustainability standards such as smart growth and new urbanism in order to achieve sustainable urbanization.
Protecting Environmental Resources Environmental resources must be protected from development. The characteristics of the resources determine the measures that can be applied to protect them. Thus, development can be prohibited completely in some areas. However, controlled urban development can be allowed in some regions.
Empirical studies indicate that a slope range of between 0.05 to 3% is suitable for any type of urban development (Malik and Grohmann 315). A slope range of between 20% and 25% is suitable for the construction of houses, whereas a slope range of between 4% and 5% is ideal for road construction (Malik and Grohmann 317). Generally, a piece of land whose slope exceeds 12 degrees should not be used for urban development. This is because such pieces of land have a high risk of soil erosion.
Similarly, development should be prohibited on pieces of land that are made up of organic and clay soils due to the following reasons. First, clay soils are associated with drainage problems. Besides, rapid subsidence usually occurs in clay soils. These problems are attributed to the fact that clay soils usually shrink and swell when the soil moisture changes. Second, organic soils should not be used for development because they support various species of plants.
According to Williams, water resources such as streams and lakes can be protected through buffer requirements (217-232). A buffer refers to a “transitional land between the natural resource and the land that is subject to development” (Williams 217-232).
Generally, streams and wetlands can be adequately protected by a buffer of approximately 200 meters. However, areas that are prone to natural disasters such as floods should not be used for urban development. Similarly, areas that host endangered animal and plant species should not be used for urban development.
Types of Development The demand for environmental resources is often influenced by the lifestyle factors of the human population. In this regard, individuals should adopt lifestyles that are in harmony with the environment. In a nutshell, individuals should be aware of the environmental implications of their choices of residential areas, energy sources and production technologies.
According to Simonis, controlled development on environmentally sensitive areas should be based on an individual’s choice rather than regulation (919-928). This view is supported by Ogbonna, Amagabara and Ekere who assert that empowered and motivated communities are more likely to protect the environment than their regulated counterparts (71-88).
Resource Use in Urban Areas Constructing compact cities whose infrastructure and facilities are well designed can help in reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency in transportation and production. The heat island effect is one of the major outcomes of high energy consumption in urban areas. There are several measures that can be used to control urban warming. Heat radiation in urban areas can be improved by changing the materials that are used to construct the roofs of buildings (Warren 105-106).
In addition, radiation can be improved by changing the spatial arrangement of buildings. Changing the materials is cost effective since it can be used on existing buildings. For instance, changing the materials that were used to construct the roof a building can eliminate the cost of constructing a new building. Generally, existing roof materials should be replaced with those that have high reflectivity.
Water consumption in urban areas can be reduced through measures that encourage exploitation of alternative water sources and reduction of water pollution. For instance, peak urban runoff can be reduced by constructing water detention ponds. Warren asserts that water detention ponds are beneficial since they eliminate the need to re-engineer city drainage systems in order to manage flash floods (105-106).
Moreover, the detention ponds prevent contaminated water from entering into water bodies such as lakes and rivers. A water detention pond with a large surface area can help in reducing the urban heat island effect through evaporation. Furthermore, the water in these ponds can be used for non-domestic purposes such as irrigating flower gardens in the urban areas. This leads to clean water conservation.
Urban Development and Environmental Conservation Policies Sustainable urbanization must be based on effective policies that guide development and facilitate environmental conservation. In this regard, the government must collaborate with stakeholders such as developers, urban planners and city residents to formulate policies that guide urban development and conservation of the environment.
These policies are likely to be accepted by all stakeholders if they are formulated through consultation and consensus building initiatives. Moreover, the pubic must be sensitized on the regulations that govern urbanization in order to enhance compliance with the existing laws. The policies should specify the type and the scope of the development projects that are allowed in specific areas.
According to Warren, the type of development projects that are to be undertaken in an urban area must have the least harm on the existing ecological systems (105-106). In this regard, the choice of development projects should be informed by ethical considerations rather than pure economic rationality. Concisely, residential, commercial and industrial developments in urban areas must be regulated through policies that facilitate environmental conservation or protection.
Urban development policies must be used in conjunction with environmental conservation policies. The main objective of environmental protection policies is to control the behaviors that contribute to pollution and destruction of natural resources. Empirical studies indicate that nearly all governments have laws that promote or encourage environmental conservation.
However, most of these policies or regulations have failed to achieve their objectives. This failure is attributed to factors such as poor enforcement, loopholes in the environmental laws, ineffective judicial systems and corruption. In some cases, the high cost of monitoring the activities of urban development agencies discourages the governments from enforcing conservation laws (Sexena, Srivastava and Samaddar 308-323).
In response to this failure, Warren argues that conservation laws or policies should be based on the market system rather than government intervention (105-106). This means that the market system should give urban developers the incentive to undertake environment-friendly projects. Moreover, protecting the environment should not compromise urban development.
Thus, environmental regulation should be based on the principle that “polluters pay expenses, while cleaners make a profit” (Sexena, Srivastava and Samaddar 308-323). In this context, developers, producers and city residents are considered to be the polluters whose activities result into undesirable environmental outcomes. The cleaners, on the other hand, are the companies that are responsible for cleaning the environment in order to restore it to its pre-pollution condition.
The developers demand cleaning services such as the disposal of the debris which are produced at construction sites or treatment of industrial waste. The pollution purification services are supplied by the cleaners. The price paid by the polluters for the cleaning services is proportional to the amount of emission or waste that is released into the ambient environment.
Consequently, the market forces of demand and supply will help in setting the optimum price and level of pollution. In this case, the polluters will have the incentive to minimize pollution in order to reduce their expenditure on cleaning services. In some cases, the polluters are given the option of either cleaning the environment or paying the tax equivalent.
According to Wagner, pollution can be reduced significantly through these market based interventions (79). This premise is based on the fact that market based interventions give polluters the incentive to invest in technologies that promote efficiency and reduce pollution. Additionally, implementing them requires little intervention by the government. Thus, their implementation is cheap and easy.
Recent studies show that solid waste in urban areas can be reduced by privatizing environment-related industries. Such industries are made up of companies that engage in garbage disposal and treatment of solid wastes. Privatization helps in improving the efficiency and productivity of these companies. In developing countries where local governments and municipal authorities lack the capital to clean the environment, private companies should be allowed to provide the cleaning services (Ogbonna, Amagabara and Ekere 71-88).
Similarly, promoting foreign direct investments in the environment-related industries can facilitate improved waste management in developing countries. For instance, multinational companies that focus on energy production can transform the solid wastes into electricity. In this case, the benefit will be two fold. First, the country will benefit from a clean and reliable supply of energy. Second, the solid wastes will be eliminated in a cost effective manner.
The Role of Technology Sustainable urban development can be achieved through efficient technologies. In particular, the technologies used in construction, transportation and production must focus on efficient use of the available resources (Keirstead 6-19). Similarly, they must focus on reducing reliance on non-renewable energy sources such as oil (Song, Wang and Jie 5-14). In this regard, there should be a shift from the use of oil propelled cars to hybrid and electric cars.
Additionally, efficient trains should be used in order to reduce pollution in major cities. Advanced construction technologies should be used to build high-rise apartments in order to reduce the pressure on the land that is available for development. Furthermore, destruction of vegetation and physical habitats can be reduced by replacing bungalows with high-rise apartments.
Food consumption in urban areas tends to be higher than in rural areas. Consequently, most countries have adopted a mechanized agricultural production system in rural areas in order to meet the demand for food in their urban centers. Even though mechanization has tremendously improved food production, it has also created new challenges in the urban areas.
This is because mechanized agriculture often exacerbates the problem of unemployment in the rural areas. The surplus labor often migrates to the urban areas in order to find alternative economic activities (Malik and Grohmann 211). This form of uncontrolled rural-urban migration is one of the major causes of informal settlements in cities and towns. This problem can be addressed by promoting labor-intensive farming and food production in the rural areas (Simonis 919-928).
This policy is likely to be effective in overpopulated countries such as China and India where availability of cheap labor can facilitate high food production. Improving food production in the countryside through labor-intensive agriculture has two benefits. First, there will be adequate food for both the urban and the rural populations. Second, the quality of life will improve in the countryside. The resulting reduction in rural-urban migration will slow the rate of urbanization and its negative effects on the environment.
Conclusion Urbanization is the process through which an increasing number of a country’s citizens relocate to urban areas such as cities and towns. Urbanization has significantly increased in the last three decades due to rapid industrialization in the contemporary world economy. Generally, individuals relocate to urban areas in order to improve their standards of living. Furthermore, urban areas have become centers of commerce, industrial production and innovation (Malik and Grohmann 114).
Most governments provide their administrative services in urban areas in order to reduce costs. Despite these benefits, urbanization has caused severe environmental problems such as pollution, destruction of vegetation and depletion of natural resources. The negative effects of rapid urbanization can be addressed through policies that help us to identify the ideal places for urban development, and the type of projects that should be undertaken in the identified areas.
Furthermore, governmental agencies must formulate policies that promote urban development without jeopardizing environmental conservation efforts. In a nutshell environmental considerations must be taken into account in the process of development in order to achieve sustainable urbanization. This can be achieved by minimizing the effects of urban development on the environment.
Works Cited Keirstead, Ames. “Applying Service Niche Indicators to London’s Energy System.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 1.4 (2010): 6-19. Print.
Li, Baizhan, Meng Liu and Ken McKinnell. “Impact of Urbanization on Building Energy Consumption and the Role of BEE Design Codes in China.” Property Management 24.3 (2006): 354-364. Print.
Malik, Abdul and Elisabeth Grohmann. Environmental Protection Strategies for Sustainable Development. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Ogbonna, Daniel, George Amagabara and Tom Ekere. “Urban Solid Waste Generation in Port Harcourt Metropolis and its Implications for Waste Management.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 18.1 (2007): 71-88. Print.
Sexena, Susan, Richard Srivastava and Anthony Samaddar. “Towards Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management in Allahadad City.” International Journal of Environment Quality Management 21.3 (2010): 308-323. Print.
Simonis, Udo. “Greening Urban Development: on Climate Change and Climate Policy.” International Journal of Social Economics 38.11 (2011): 919-928. Print.
Song, Malin, Shuhong Wang and Yang Jie. “Will Environmental Logistics be Promoted by Changing Industrial Structure?” International Journal of Supply Chain Management 17.1 (2012): 5-14. Print.
Suileman, Abdul-Azeez, Akinola Aguda and Tajudeen Farinde. “Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth of Medium-Size and Nodal Towns for Sustainable Management.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 24.1 (2012): 213-216. Print.
Wagner, Luca. Urbanization: 21st Century Issues and Challenges. London: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
Warren, Clive. “Heat Islands: Understanding and Mitigating Heat in Urban Areas.” Property Management 30.1(2012): 105-106. Print.
Williams, Peter. “Managing Urbanization and Environmental Protection in Australian Cities: Approaches for Integrating Biodiversity and Urban Growth in Sydney.” International Journal of Law in the Built Environment 4.3 (2012): 217-232. Print.
Christianity in medieval civilization Essay college application essay help
Introduction Society is made up of people who have a common origin and are governed by common rules and share common beliefs. The society’s affairs are often influenced by numerous factors such as politics, religion, culture, and ideas among many others.
Many of these factors have such an influence on the peoples’ minds, that they may change the turn of events and literally create “a new society”. The term ‘western society’ is used to determine the societies of Europe, a concept that originated in Greco-Roman civilization in Europe. Handel asserts that “medieval society in Western Europe developed out of the ruins of the Roman Empire” (31).
Western society has benefited a lot from the above factors and was greatly influenced by religion, precisely Christianity. This paper, therefore, aims at viewing the western society and how it has been influenced by Europe, it also views the extent to which religion serves as a progressive and stabilizing force in the society and the way Christianity gave energy and direction to medieval civilization.
During the medieval period, the church was very influential; that influence was felt across the whole western society and every date-to-day affairs were judged by Christian measurement. According to Bredero “medieval society, in which the church occupied an important position and also obtained great and direct authority in politico-economic affairs…” (Ix). It therefore means that the church influenced every human and societal aspect.
Christianity literally shaped the western society to what it is today. Europe is civilized today because Christianity was their major inspirer. The church responded to the fundamental call for the well being of humanity; it taught a more sophisticated way of doing things than the epoch before it. For example, the monks introduced new methods of farming which improved the people’s production hence changing their lifestyle.
Great thinkers of the medieval period rose from the church and during this period, the church was trying to extend its authorities in many ways. One of the means used by the church was provision of education. Noonan claims that “cathedrals which served as evident of this Golden Age developed into the new first universities” (20).
In their schools, they taught faith, including morality which changed and shaped the peoples’ perceptions, and as a result the morality of the society improved. People began to see the meaning of respecting the rule of law and other basic human rights; the fact that brought order to the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During that time, the church was concerned with the health of the people, for example, Pope Innocent III constructed hospitals and decreed that others be built in Europe (Porter 123). There were so many researches carried and precisely in the medical field. Many diseases that had no cure before could be cured with improved medicine. This, in general, improved peoples’ lifestyle immensely which means they had time to focus on the more essential issues related to the building of the society.
Impelled by hope that the church offered by improving the society’s state of affairs, medieval Europe was more ready to face its threatening adversaries. The western society became more stable and its progress was felt in the world.
In conclusion, discoveries made by the church and its activities during the medieval period may be considered to be the backbone of the civilization we see in Europe. In its turn, Christianity, factually, is the force behind the stability and progress that western society is enjoying today.
Works Cited Bredero, H. Adriaan. Christendom and Christianity in middle Ages: The Relation between Religion, Church, and Society, 1st Ed. 1994. Michigan: Wm.B. Eerdmans Publisher. Print.
Handel, Gerald. Social Welfare in Western Society, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publisher, 2009. Print.
Noonan, T. Theresa. Document – Bases Assessment Activities for Global History Classes, UK: Waich Publishing, 1999. Print.
Porter, Dorothy. Health, Civilization, and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient, USA: Routledge, 1999. Print.
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A Family Supper Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The cultural differences that exist between Eastern and Western families, as illustrated by Ishiguro in A Family Supper, involve the following: family relationships, defined roles and responsibilities as well as values and traditions.
Reading Kazuo Ishiguro’s short story, A Family Supper gives an insight into the Japanese culture. The story describes the author coming back home to Tokyo two years after his mother’s death. Thus, the family dinner takes place on the occasion of his arrival.
This piece of literature provides us with the opportunity to see Japanese family’s dynamics and shows us how the modern aspects of Japanese family relate with its traditional aspects. Comparing the culture illustrated in this story with cultures in the Western families brings out some key differences.
One difference involves the family relationships. The relationship between the author and the parents is strained because of the author’s decision to move to California, as explained in the story where the author states, “My relationship with my parents had become somewhat strained around that period …” (Ishiguro 1).
Moving out to another country disappointed his mother; the father even alludes that it might have been the reason she died saying, “It’s my belief that your mother’s death was no accident. She had many worries. And some disappointments.” (Ishiguro 3).
The relationship between the father and the son is also strained as shown when the author remembers how the father used to beat him for ‘chattering like an old woman.’ (Ishiguro 1). In Western cultures, beating children is considered a cruel punishment to a child, while in the Eastern cultures, the same was, and sometimes still is, the common form of child’s upbringing. The father and son relationship like in other families involves respect.
The author offers his father the last piece of fish at the end of the story, thus showing respect to his father. Relationships in Japanese families are usually seen as emotionally distant. Communication is strained, and this is shown through long pauses between the author and his father. The daughter fears to communicate to the author as it may lead to awkward topics, when the father is around.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Western countries, communication is encouraged between children and their parents to lessen tension between them. In Japan, parents demand respect and obedience as seen when the author’s sister returns picture of their mother to the wall. in such a strengthen atmosphere, a fear may develop. In Western countries, children mostly respect their parents but do not fear them to the extent the Eastern children do.
Defined roles and responsibilities in the family also differ between Western and Eastern families. In the story, the father cooks for the family though he is not happy with his duty; he says he should not be burdened by such matters. He is also not happy when Kikuko suggests that he is a good cook.
He dissociates himself with the statement saying it is not a skill he is proud of and orders Kikuko to help him with the food. Cooking and household chores in the traditional Japanese and most Eastern cultures are attributed to woman’s job, and women know this, as shown in the story. In the Western cultures, women empowerment movements have achieved equal rights with males where females are encouraged to get jobs and share responsibilities with men instead of doing them all by themselves.
Lastly, there are major differences in the family values and traditions between the Eastern and Western cultures. In the story, the author’s father waits till Kikuko arrives home before eating because eating together as a family is a Japanese tradition.
In Western countries, eating together as a family is not as important as everyone has dinner when and where one feels comfortable. Family honour is very important in the Japanese and other Eastern cultures. This is shown when Wantabe commits suicide and takes his family with him because he does not wish to live with the shame of having lost his job, and he also does not want his family to have to live with his shame.
Funnily, the author’s father labels Wantabe as ‘a man of principle and honour’ (Ishiguro 1) and says that he ‘respected him very much’ showing that suicide because of shame is regarded as an honourable death according to Japanese cultural tradition (Ishiguro 1) In the Western countries, suicide is seen as a cowardly act to escape from the problems a person has faced, and such a death will only deepen the family’s problems.
In conclusion, Kazuo Ishiguro’s A Family Supper has clearly presented Japanese family culture which includes similar traditions as those in the East. However, its comparison with the Western cultures shows how contrasting the two cultures are. The Japanese are more modernized nowadays, while trying to adopt some Western cultural values and traditions. Several aspects of the traditional Japanese culture are fading away, and whether it is for better or worse is up to the Japanese to decide.
We will write a custom Essay on A Family Supper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ishiguro, Kazuo. A Family Supper. 1990. RTF file. Web.
Direct Realism Essay essay help: essay help
Realism refers to the attempts to depict reality based on different observers’ perspectives. In this regard, there are multiple means through which reality can be derived guided by the intuition and consciousness of an individual (Gram 4). Some of the theories that explain what realism are include the direct and indirect realism hypotheses. However, there are other philosophical theories that have been developed by multiple observers on the means through which the external world can be derived.
Direct realism refers to the perception that our senses relay to our brains on how the surrounding world is constructed. Essentially, the theory demonstrates the fact that the responses of our senses are exactly what we experience. For instance, the theory emphasizes that what we see is solely what is there. At the same time, it presumes that the world around us is perceived in the same manner as it is observed.
The degree of directness represented by direct realism is high since it depicts the observation based on the interpretations of our minds. Although consciousness cannot be used to distinguish reality from fantasy, the nature of perception derived from our consciousness is paramount.
Similarly, our minds guide us to counter exactly what we may perceive through our normal observation. Therefore, direct realism portrays a sense of how reality can be described with respect to human understanding. Nevertheless, there are instances when the perceptions of how reality is, from our consciousness, fail the actual outcome.
Direct realism seeks to establish the reality of different concepts, ideas, and things based on perceptual knowledge. Through the sensory responses, it is possible to describe the various circumstances that reflect the truth about the world around us. The material objects present within the surrounding describe the reality.
Therefore, statements that are formulated concerning these objects can be considered true since they are actually experienced. At the same time, the existence of material objects is true regardless of whether there is any perception or not about the same subject.
This implies that the perception of material objects through sense-experience is free of bias and not guided by fantasy. Meanwhile, the properties contained by the material objects will always describe their features and purpose for existence without basing on the notion of perception-oriented concepts. Consequently, this implies that material objects exist in our minds based on independent perceptions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The perceptions that influence the validity of the direct realism theory have a great impact on understanding the reality. Some of these perceptions include visual and speech perceptions. Through the information that is relayed from the material object to the mind through sensory nerves, one can identify the unique features of varying objects. As a result, the perception made will be ideal to describe the way situations are based on one’s observation.
Similarly, it is possible to get some important information through the concepts and ideas that are illustrated to us through speech. The case of visual perception can be derived from the color, shape, and the size of an object. The features enable us to describe issues that surround us in spite of lack of perception. For instance, a ripe orange can always be established through our senses through its features. As a result, it is essential to consider direct realist arguments since there is no mediation between features and sense-experience.
The adoption of direct realism to describe the world around us has been subjected to multiple contentions. Since this theory was initially formulated to describe the reality, there was a lack of consideration of the critical values that affect human judgment. Most philosophers have termed it as the average person theory due to lack of critical consideration of philosophical concepts.
In this case, the reliance on senses subjects the theory of weakness of senses. This implies that senses are not consistent, and alternative approaches should be adopted to support the validity of senses. For that reason, direct realism does not fully address the critical issues covered in philosophical reasoning about reality.
An important element that could interfere with the sense-experience is a hallucination and illusion. In such circumstances where illusion prevails, it is not possible to represent the validity of the sense-experience interpretation about reality. For example, it is possible to describe a straight pen that has been placed in water as being bent through the observation made.
In this regard, reality based on senses would not be valid but contradict the real experience that is witnessed within the surrounding environment. Such scenarios downplay the concepts illustrated by the direct realism since it is exposed to distortion at the initial stage of perceptions before the objectivity stage.
The utilization of the direct realism exposes one to vagueness since its concepts are based on the virtues that make up material objects. At the same time, hallucinations can expose an individual to perceive that things within one’s mind are valid. Consequently, one can realize that direct realism fails to depict reality since sense data retrieved from dreams do not depict the actual reality. In such a situation, direct realists could defend oneself by demonstrating the existence of genuine perceptions.
We will write a custom Essay on Direct Realism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the presence of images and information that we experience through dreams could be considered as valid under direct realism. Regardless of the nature of such attributes of reality, direct realism considers such information valid since it is retrieved through sense-experience. Therefore, direct realism gives a false impression of how situations can be categorized without exposing individuals to conflicts.
Direct realists refute the presence of mental images, which can be issued to describe material objects. For that reason, it can be illustrated that mental images can be formed with ease which depicts the situations that are present or not. Consequently, the occurrence of such experience makes the theory fallible by the use of senses.
Although, it is critical to establish the degree to which senses are functional and times when their perceptions are false, the challenges vulnerable to direct realism can be overcome. In this regard, other factors may distort the reality such as imaginations apart from mental images. Such a situation may occur since imaginations are experienced when individuals are sensible and conscious. However, their mental experience is not the real issues that are experienced in the normal world.
Descartes, one of the best philosophers, criticized the validity of the direct realism through the biases of dreams and imaginations (Pols 56). In his arguments, Descartes present the doubt that exists when one is observing object’s existence.
In such a scenario, it is difficult to realize when an individual is dreaming or not, and for that reason, it is impossible to identify whether what we observe is true or not. In addition, he described that direct realism is not valid since what is perceived could be controlled by virtual perception influenced by the evil being.
This implies that whatever is perceived has no relationship with the external world. Furthermore, such experience demonstrates that there is not truth about any issue that can be based on perceptions. Such a situation occurs since our brains operate independently without the influence of the sensory nerves that relay information. As a result, it indicates that sensory nerves kindle the mind to develop illusions concerning reality. Although his concept is absurd, it is extremely difficult to refute its validity.
The process of assessing direct realism seems contradictory to any philosophical reasoning. However, it is critical to realize that the theory is simple and least problematic unlike other theories of realism. In addition, the theory is practical, sensible, and appropriate for most people who value the information presented by the senses.
In this case, senses guide the manner we behave and observe issues in life. Consequently, it implies that the perceptions develop based on its sensibility and background information on the interested subjected will reveal the truth about the issue. These issues contradict the reasoning of philosophers since their minds are based on the notion of demolishing the known truth to construct the ideal truth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Direct Realism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, the theory of direct realism covers sensible issues through which reality can be understood. This is attributed to the common and actual features of the material objects that can be sense-perceived available in the surrounding world (Neil 34). Although, there are instances where the validity of such perceptions is misleading, it is essential to establish the genuineness of any statement. This implies that the theories develop to counter the concept are valid to some degree, but also misleading in case they totally considered.
Works Cited Gram, Moltke S. Direct realism: a study of perception. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1983. Print.
Neil, Brian E. Epistemological direct realism in Descartes’ philosophy. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974. Print.
Pols, Edward. Radical realism: direct knowing in science and philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992. Print.
American High Schools and Colleges Essay online essay help
High schools in America are very similar to American colleges in general. However, there are some particular features that set them apart and make college and high school experiences quite different. Those differences touch upon such areas as financing, schedule, requirements, extracurricular activities and many others.
In this paper we are going to discuss foundational principles of the American high schools and colleges, in particular, we will discuss such areas as financing, living arrangements, class schedule, curriculum, socialization and maturity issues, physical plant, meals and dining facilities and transportation.
First of all, the administrations run the schools and colleges in different ways. High schools in America require personal finance for every student and each student should prioritize it before joining. Colleges in American are for financially stable students or students with scholarships. Colleges offer scholarship through sports and on academic basis.
In high schools, students are under the responsibility of their parents and guardians. Colleges provide students with freedom to live in hostels. Students are responsible for their own livelihood. Schools offer security and aesthetic environment. Students in colleges are given the responsibility to attend classes at their own discretion.
High school class schedule is fixed and with numerous classes. School students attend about 6 classes per day, while college students have some days with no classes and sometimes a maximum of five classes. In high schools, class work and homework are mandatory. Students are required to attend classes and complete their assignments in time.
Failure to complete assignment is sometimes punishable. In colleges, class work is a compulsory part of the school regulations. However, many high school students do not follow this. Home work is issued in form of assignment, and they are used as part of the evaluation to grade the students.
High schools in America have fewer faculty and staff compared to colleges. The teachers in high schools teach different classes at different levels on the same subject. In colleges, different teachers teach different disciplines. There are more faculties in colleges than in high schools as there is a diversity of disciplines in colleges. Colleges provide a wide range of disciplines with different units at each level. Each unit has a different teacher, whereas in high school if offers about 10 subjects with the same teachers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More High school is mostly dominated by teenagers. Teenagers in high schools are at a critical stage of development, and they display a high level of immaturity and irresponsibility. Students in high schools socialize in different groups. In colleges, young adults behave maturely and responsibly.
They socialize depending on likability and hobbies. High schools provide a variety of extracurricular activities such as soccer, football, basketball, field and ice hockey. Students in high schools are more active in participating in sports as it offers an opportunity to get a quality college scholarship. In colleges, the most popular extracurricular activities are football and lacrosse.
High schools’ Physical Plant team is responsible for operations and maintenance of high school buildings and grounds. High schools and colleges in American have a well laid physical plant plan.
The Physical Plant Division provides and maintains the physical environment for education, research and public service in colleges. Transportation in high school is provided by the school at a fee included in the total fee. This includes daily delivery to school and academic trips. In colleges, some students who stay off school own cars, which they use as a form of transportation to school.
Meals and dining facilities in high schools and colleges are almost the same. The administrations provide a balanced diet for the students. Students in high schools can bring lunch from home. Books and materials are available in the library. Library is accessible only to registered students. This applies to both high schools and colleges.
Energy efficient team project Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Inefficient sources of energy like coal, firewood and petroleum have been the principal causes of climate change and subsequently global warming. The probable effects of global warming are preposterous and it is, therefore, imperative that nations take quick and unequivocal measures to revolutionize their energy sources before it is too late.
The sole purpose of this paper is to promote awareness on the effects of the use of inefficient sources of energy and inappropriate consumption of energy on social development, the economy and the surrounding at large. It aims at fostering responsible activities geared towards improving the extent of energy effectiveness, both at the local and global levels.
In this assignment, we have come up with an energy efficient project that is aimed at improving Saudi Aramco including the communities of Saudi Arabia at large. The project is meant to discourage the use of inefficient sources of energy and educate the public on appropriate measures of utilizing the existing energy. The project report is subdivided in the introduction section, methodology, results, discussion and the conclusion part. It also includes the recommendation and reference sections at the end.
Problem description Research conducted in the recent years puts Saudi Arabia at the helm of petroleum production. As a matter of fact, Saudi Arabia was a leading producer and exporter of petroleum and petroleum products. As if that is not enough, the country came second after Russia in the exportation of crude oil.
The country is home to one of the biggest world oil reserve; the Ghawar field. This is an implication that it was one of the largest platforms where inefficient source of energy were used. However, this paper is meant to provide proposals to join forces in the fight against the utilization of exhaustible and hazardous sources of energy.
The local people and manufacturing plants of Saudi Arabia need to be sensitized on the importance of embracing renewable sources of energy like solar and wind. They need to understand the cost-effectiveness, safety and reliability of using these forms of energy. In addition to that, these efficient sources of energy have to be brought to their markets for easy access (Richards, 2009).
Saudi Arabia has a vast desert land that is best placed to accommodate solar arrays. For this reason, our energy efficient project is based on the most efficient ways to harness solar energy and cut on the use of energy that can be depleted. We focus on solar cells for the production of cheap and dependable electricity both for domestic and industrial uses (Sukhatme,
Alcohol Abuse and the Contribution of Economists to Solving This Issue Essay argumentative essay help
How an Economist Would Approach the Problem of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol abuse is a real disaster for any country. A lot of professionals try to deal with this specific problem and economists also can contribute to solving this issue. One of the main measures which may be takes is the price increase induced by taxation (Heien, 1995).
The research has been conducted to find out whether people are going to reduce the amount of the bought alcohol if the prices are increased. Chaloupka, Grossman, and Saffer (2002) state in their research that considerable reduction of the alcohol consumption may be observed with the increase of the taxation on alcohol which is going to lead to the price growth.
Another economic activity which may be applied to the solution of the alcohol abuse problem is the creation of the conditions when alcohol manufactures lose their income. This lost productivity theory may lead to the income reduction of many manufactures, however, this loss cannot be compared to the present situation when the whole country’s economics suffers. First of all, health care expenditures of alcohol abusers are much greater. The insurance cannot usually cover the problems which occur.
Second, the productivity of the alcohol abusers is lower as they are unable to work efficiently due to their health issues and general poor condition of their organism. Third, the general impact on the society also causes many expenses, such as motor vehicle crashes, crimes, etc. Finally, alcohol abusers negatively affect the country image and social norms (Chaloupka, Grossman, and Saffer, 2002).
How Prescription Drugs Affect the Demand and Supply of Other Products One of the main measures which are taken nowadays for the reduction of the alcohol abuse is drugs treatment. There are a lot of different medicines which promise to prevent further alcohol consumption.
Even though this measure is not really effective, many people continue applying to it when they want to stop drinking themselves or to help their friends or relatives to do it. Such combat with alcohol is really profitable for many people. First of all, it is profitable for drugs producers. The use of prescription drugs makes people consume other supportive medicine which help them cope with stress.
Alcohol abusers usually suffer from stress when they want to quit and consume drugs. Many people usually support drugs treatment with herbal remedies, or even substitute them. Traditional medicine still remains popular among people. Therefore, the suppliers of such products appear in winning position. Moreover, many people are sure that consuming drugs they are to improve their nutrition, therefore, the demand on such products as meat, fish, milk and vegetables may increase as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Elasticity of Demand and Elasticity of Supply Importance When Analyzing the Impact of a Shift in Supply and a Shift in Demand Respectively Elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply are very important aspects in economics as well as the notions of supply and demand in general. The coordination between demand and supply shows how good the economics functions.
Analyzing the impact of a shift in supply, the researcher should consider the elasticity of demand as if the demand is elastic the price may be changed depending on the number of existing products at the market. However, when the demand is inelastic a price cannot be dramatically changed due to the limited range of elasticity (Mankiw, 2008).
The examples of a shift in supply in elastic demand environment may be presented in the supply of everyday products. If one specific product appears at the market in a greater amount, the price on other similar products of other producers should be reduced in order to meet the customers’ requirements. A shift in demand should be considered by the elasticity of supply. The elasticity of supply is the reaction of the demand on the changes of price.
In case the changes of price are significant while the change of demand – the supply is elastic. If the changes of price do not effect the changes in demand, it is possible to speak about the inelasticity of supply (Mankiw, 2008). For example, having the only bakery in the region, an owner can change the process depending on personal desire – the demand is not going to change as people do not have alternatives. However, if there are alternatives, human demand may change.
Increasing-Cost Industries and a Positively Sloped Supply Curve Increasing-cost industries are such industries which costs grow with raise of the number of the similar industries in the regions. The situations when the supply curves are going to be positively sloped are characterized by the long-run activities. For example, the long-run supply curve is positively sloped for new houses, the more new houses are built, the higher price for the industry is involved.
The perfect competition is one of the main conditions for a positively sloped supply curve in increasing-cost industries. Apart from the new houses, the oil drilling may be used as one of the examples of the increasing-cost industries with a positively sloped supply curve (Burkett, 2006). These two examples perfectly meet the discussed issues as with the increase of the building new houses and with the increase of the oil drilling the cost of the activities is going to grow as well.
When a Perfectly Competitive Market Is Economically Efficient Perfect competition is possible when a company is unable to affect the prices and no one is able to enter the market and have power there. A perfectly competitive market is economically efficient in several situations. Looking at the modern market environment, it should be stated that monopoly controlled by the government is the time when perfectly competitive market is economically efficient. For example, medicine is controlled by the government.
We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Abuse and the Contribution of Economists to Solving This Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many drugs and other prescriptions are produced by the only manufactures in the regions and the entrance of the participants is impossible. The efficiency of such situation is in the inability of the chemical companies to set their own prices. Operating in the conditions of the perfect competition where no alternatives are possible, the companies still have to limit their prices to the offered frames.
Moreover, considering allocative efficiency which means a “quantity of output produced in a market” (Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets, 2012) and productive efficiency which “requires that firms produce their products at the lowest average total cost possible” (Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets, 2012) as the only possible advantages of the perfect competition, it should be stated that these conditions are achieved only at the long-run periods. Even though the conditions of the perfect competition are not spread and in most cases such conditions are artificially created, such markets may be efficicent.
Reference List Burkett, J. P. (2006), Microeconomics: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chaloupka, F. J., Grossman, M.,