TSA Screening Is Essential Argumentative Essay Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

The major is people’s security

Health threats concerns

Inflated finance

Human Rights

Possible improvements or conventional devices?


Works Cited

Introduction Admittedly, the war can be defined as a continuing activity of humanity since people have been fighting since pre-historic times. Of course, the technology development led to the development of new types of weapon and new strategies for combats. However, in the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century the war obtained absolutely new form. This new form was called terrorism.

Thus, whereas several centuries ago warfare involved mainly military people, nowadays many civilians become victims of terrorism. In this perspective, any state has to look for the most appropriate ways to defend its people, which is the major of any country. Since terrorist attacks take place in public places like airports, ports, train stations, subway it was decided to implement certain security program to make such places safe.

For instance, after “9/11, the U.S. Congress opted for a higher level of security” and created the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) “to produce security via screening of passengers and baggage” (Seidenstat and Splane 7). According to Darrin Kayser, TSA spokesman, the program has been “a success” so far (Hanson 18). The effectiveness of the system in airports led to its implementation in ports, train stations, underground, etc. Nevertheless, as any other program, TSA screening evoked certain opposition.

For instance, some people argue that the screening is quite time-consuming and causes much inconveniency to travelers, it can violate basic human rights and it can also be harmful to human health. However, at closer look these arguments are irrelevant since even though there can be minor inconvenience the advantage of complete travelers’ security cannot be overestimated.

The major is people’s security Admittedly, one of the most tragic events in the history of the United States (Twin Towers attack) became a potent stimulus to reconsider the issue of security in the area of transportation. For instance, port security programs were also launched (Haveman, Shatz and Vilchis 4). Of course, to evaluate the effectiveness of the TSA program it is important to understand the way it works.

Thus, the program uses walk-through portals which detect “trace amounts of explosives” (Hanson 18). Basically, it takes each traveler about thirty seconds to pass the procedure since while the traveler walks through the portal his/her baggage is also screened (Hanson 18). It is also necessary to point out that not only terrorist attacks can be prevented with the help of the system since other dangers can be traced with the help of TSA screening.

For instance, not only explosives but other types of weapons can be detected. The system is also effective since it not only traces but actually prevents many crimes since terrorists and criminals are well aware of the security measures which are established at the majority of such places as airports, train stations, etc. Thus, they cannot simply commit their crimes in such places, and what is more, they cannot travel with their weapon on board.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, only terrorists and criminals face the major inconvenience which prevents them from realizing their inhumane acts. Of course, it is necessary to admit that there are cases when terrorists or criminals use some sophisticated types of weapon which some system can miss. Nevertheless, the number of such cases is insignificant so the TSA screening fulfills its central objective to secure travelers.

Health threats concerns In spite of vivid advantages of the TSA screening some people tend to concentrate on possible threats for people’s health claiming that radiation which travelers are exposed to while being screened is very harmful and can even cause cancer.

Nevertheless, the recent researches proved that “the current millimeter wave machines produce no radiation” (Poole). There is no need to add that the risk of immediate death because of the terrorist attack is much higher than the risk of having health problems due to the exposure to insignificant amount of radiation.

Fortunately, people assess the risks correctly and prefer 30 seconds of screening to constant fear of disguised terrorists with explosives in their bags or underwear. Moreover, the development of technology enables to create detecting devices which produce minimum or no radiation at all. Thus, the argument that TSA screening is harmful for people is absolutely inconsistent.

Inflated finance Apart from health problems many people claim that TSA program has too large budget. They argue that money could be spent more effectively since it is possible to reduce the number of people involved in the program, reduce the amount of technology used and of course, spend less money on staff training (Seidenstat and Splane 267).

However, this argument should be considered carefully. In the first place, it is necessary to admit that any serious plan requires substantial financing. For instance, people do not argue that the development of the area of cancer treatment and prevention has to inflated budget. Thus, travelers’ security against terrorist threat can be compared to cancer prevention.

Apart from this the development of technology enables people to optimize the process. Reportedly, many scholars point out the necessity of improving TSA programs and suggest many possible options (Leone and Liu 69). Thus, the argument that TSA security programs are only waste of many is also inconsistent.

We will write a custom Essay on TSA Screening Is Essential specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Human Rights There are also concerns that TSA screening violates human rights. Many travelers are against screening since sometimes it is necessary to put away personal things (wallets, cell phones, bells or even shoes). Besides, many oppose against the fact that the baggage is being watched.

Nevertheless, those opposing travelers should think of the threat that some passenger would like to have some explosive to the plane. Admittedly, if a terrorist is caught and is proved to have some dangerous objects, no one will object that this terrorist’s baggage or he/she was screened.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that people who have nothing to hide should not be afraid of screening since no one will laugh at a traveler who has some funny slippers in the baggage. At the same time the real threat is easily detected with the help of screening. So, there can be no violation of human rights if a person is checked in terms of security program.

Possible improvements or conventional devices? Of course, some people may feel distressed by those thirty seconds of delay or the necessity to put too glamorous belt aside. That is why various innovations are constantly used in the TSA program. One of the major claims of travelers is that the TSA screening is too intrusive. So, some people claim that it is possible to implement some more “sophisticated” forms of detecting danger, e.g. the programs which are used in Israel (Cooper A24).

In Israel airports passengers do not need to walk through platforms, but they are screened before they even get into the plane. The passengers are checked with the help of various data. Moreover, if the security of airport supposes that a traveler can be dangerous, the traveler will have to be checked more thoroughly. For instance, many travelers do not like visiting Israel airports due to real inconveniency.

One of travelers, Matthew Yglesias stated: “My experience leaving Tel Aviv was by far and away the most unpleasant encounter I’ve ever had with airport security officials in the decade” (Cooper A24). Reportedly, it took him three hours to pass the initial security check. Admittedly, this is much more than thirty seconds of walking through the platform.

Conclusion In summary, it is possible to point out that despite several arguments against TSA screening it is necessary to admit that the program is really effective. Moreover, the arguments against the screening turn to be insufficient since the tiny inconvenience of some procedures is incompatible with the advantages of the appropriate level of travelers’ safety. Thus, the threat of health problem is almost absent since the radiation from screening devices is minimal and insignificant.

The accusation of inflated financing is absolutely irrelevant since every dollar spent on travelers security is worth spending. Finally, the lamest argument concerning human rights violation does not deserve much attention since only terrorists or criminals have something to hide from the TSA screening. On balance, the TSA screening is a very effective program which should be further implemented and developed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on TSA Screening Is Essential by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Cooper, Helen. “Administration to Seek Balance in Airport Screening.” The New York Times 23 November 2010: A24. Hanson, Julie. “Rail Safe.” CSO 3.7 (2004): 18.

Haveman, Jon D., Shatz, Howard J. and Ernesto A Vilchis. “U.S. Port Security Policy after 9/11: Overview and Evaluation,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 2.4 (2005): 4-12.

Kelly, Leone and Rongfang (Rachel) Liu. “The Key Design Parameters of Checked Baggage Security Screening Systems in Airports.” Journal of Air Transport Management 11.2 (2005): 69-78.

Poole, Robert. “Refocusing Aviation Security on Bad People, not Banned Objects.” Reason Foundation. 7 Jan. 2010. Web.

Seidenstat, Paul and Francis X. Splane. Protecting Airline Passengers in the Age of Terrorism. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2009.


Importance of Police Training Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Majority of people have always aspired to become police officers for the reason that the job holders are seen to be the public vigor. After securing this position there is a chance of being absorbed in other sectors of the government with a higher job grade. Police officers who work relatively hard usually receive attractive package starting from $45,000.

This is the reason that makes people from diverse culture and orientation post applications in large numbers making the job to be much competitive. Applicants should be aware of what is expected of them while training, a thing that will make them competent law enforcers. Becoming an officer is not an easy task and several measures should be taken into consideration to have an assurance that the job will be secured.


Taking in mind that there is wide pool of application from individuals who admire the job, it is always important to prepare in advance to avoid disappointments. Other than having all necessary requirements essential to the force, it is also important for the job seeker to present him/herself in a presentable manner that attracts the police force. The bureau of labor statistics earlier released a report on what the hiring agencies usually require from the potential applicants.

The report revealed that apart from high school certificate that is normally required by some agencies, college degree retain the best consideration especially by federal policing agencies. The bureau further observed that those who hold police science education or military experience stand a better chance of securing a job of their choice in the force (Bumbak, 2010).

Job Experience

Understanding the policies and conceptualizing the job description of a police officer becomes a basic requirement. Those who know nothing about the expectations and how the force operates may have a hard time in coping with the training conditions. Police job sometimes tend to be aggravating and very dangerous (Chaurasia, 2003).

Police officers have a duty to protect the welfare of individuals and ensure that the set law is observed. They should treat every person fairly regardless of social or economic status. The major task that police officers perform while in line of duty is to record complaints and launching of investigations.


For the potential candidate to become an officer two major steps are involved i.e. application and training. Some departments of the force require the applicants to hold a valid driving license or a pledge that the same will be acquired before the start of the official duty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The procedures in applying include several sets of tests to ascertain high level of fitness, physically and health wise (Bumbak, 2010). The applicants are engaged in several tasks, such as, running and various body tests before getting the approval from hiring agencies of proceeding to the next level.

Police Academy

Once the potential applicant passes all the tests, he/she is referred to the training academy. The period of training normally take up to six months, which depends on the state or municipality. The trainees are expected to reside in the camp during weekdays while in training.

The activities in these camps encompass classroom education, training on human interaction among others. After the recruits undergoing training successfully, they are expected to leave the academy having passed the physical fitness test. Mostly, the requirements vary with states due to different legal structures in different countries.

The police officers are expected to understand all legal aspects and the training academy normally offer training that focuses on issues relating to law and criminal justice. Subjects in civil rights, legal terminology and penal code are obligatory in the police training.

Special cadets are also equipped with skills in appropriate treatment and questioning of suspects, maintaining the veracity of evidence, and laws connecting to searching and convulsion. After graduation, the officers may opt to carry on other courses such as provision of legal statements, better way of recording witness evidence and how to adhere to evidentiary procedure (Bumbak, 2010).

The municipal police training committee has a duty to equate the police officers with necessary skills so that they perform their duty accordingly.

The committee has divided the training in several sub-systems, basic curriculum municipal police training that give 20 weeks training in classrooms to the new municipal police officers and other new recruits, professional development training for full-time municipal police officers that engage on training of patrol officers, detectives, supervisors and chiefs of police, focused professional developing training, the training last for 3 weeks and it is normally given to veteran officers and lastly, intermittent police officers training, the training take about 120 hours and is normally given to reserve and intermittent and is administered by regional police training organizations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Importance of Police Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these trainings assist the police officers to acquire necessary skills, which help them to deal with law breakers and ensure that legal issues are followed (Johnson, 2007).

Besides successful training, officers’ health is checked to ensure good health before commencement of any task. The additional requirement that potential officer is expected to produce is certificate of mental health recommended by psychological evaluation.

Facts on Becoming a Police Officer

Police officers’ duties vary with experience, grade and also the area of operation. This makes it necessary for them to undergo obligatory training. Various police departments set their own requirements of new recruit education. Some city departments prefer minimum of high school education and other college degree.

Those who are college graduates mostly hold criminal justice degree which fit well in their post. The recruits must too pass a written text to establish their abilities (Johnson, 2007). The age limit for applicants mostly range between 20-21 years but varies with countries.

People intending to join law enforcer’s team must be sure which level they aspire to venture in before training. Police training mostly prepare someone in future career advancing to local or national level.

For a person to secure job at national level, further training is necessary for him/her to get top position in government. If for example a person want to join FBI or homeland security, it is always crucial to be informed of the essential requirements of training in the desired sector. When a person decides to become a police officer, one must choose the line of career he/she want to venture in.

As long as you have completed the school high school or college and above 18 years you can equally apply for the job. The person intending to venture in this field must also have clean records on matters of law; that is, the potential applicant should have a clean criminal record. In police field there are various units as discussed under (Johnson, 2007).

FBI Unit

FBI agent require a person with higher level of education, this means the eligible candidate must hold a bachelor’s degree or master’s degree in criminal justice. In addition the person must have 2-3 working experience for him/her to be considered as eligible for the post. Background information is conducted which include; interviewing, employment history review, and presentation of education certificates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Police Training by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After that the potential applicants receive an FBI top secret clearance before pronounced suitable for the post. There are several sectors in FBI job which the qualified person may work in; they include law, engineering, computer science, accounting or even military (Bumbak, 2010).

Upon succession on application, the person is sent to the FBI headquarters where he is subjected to 17 weeks training at the FBI academy. The training is conducted to equip the candidate with several skills, such as, firearm usage, technology ability, and survival tactics.

Homeland Security

To be eligible for this post, applicant is required to hold a bachelor’s or master’s degree in homeland security. The course involve training in subjects relating to anti-terrorism, disaster and incident management, securing facilities and other units as required by law.

The main duties of the homeland securities may be to patrol borders, coast guarding, and other secret services. All this depends on the officers’ willingness to perform the duty efficiently, failure to this trainee get dismissed while in the academy for breaching rules and obligations provided by subordinate (Chaurasia, 2003).

Salary and Outlook

According to the provision by legal criminal justice school, the median salary for any police officer should be at least $45000 annually this commensurate with the skills. Newly employed officer usually begin with lesser amount and it keeps on advancing as they secure new positions.

However, some countries pay their police officers more salaries than this and in most cases the job is so competitive in those countries. Police officers may join police union, which sets their salaries and other benefits after retirement. In additional to normal salary, the hard working officers may opt to work overtime and likewise receive additional cash (Chaurasia, 2003). Career wise the outlook of this job is excellent, and the field keeps on demanding new skills.


Duties are accorded to police officers depending on various issues. Where the department is relatively small, all officers have an obligation to perform any set of job allocated to them; these include emergency response, patrols, filling paper, and the most important safeguarding community security.

For the larger department the officers specialize on one line of duty. Specialized tasks in these departments include, crime lab operators, data clerks, public relations officers and detectives (Chaurasia, 2003). All these are duties that should be performed by our officers who are entitled to serve the public in general.

Importance of Police Training Crime Profile

Police officers are law enforcement agencies, thus they have a duty to prevent and detect crime. Due to challenges posed by the crime incidents, it subsequently demands police officers to act accordingly to curb the crime.

Crime rates in different countries have been rising consistently, for example, in India 6, 49,757 cases were reported in 1951 by 1981, the number rose to 13, 85,757, which amount to 113 percent increase. This shows how matters of crime are critical within our set up and the need for crime team to shun down these issues (Chaurasia, 2003).

Training also assists the police to solve social crisis especially in countries that have heterogeneous society with a range of different ethnic groups. The officers should be able to solve issues of prostitution, gabling, delinquency, and sometimes dowry issues. Enforcement of these legislations requires the police personnel to efficiently adopt themselves with this new role. The training is important mode through which this transformation can effectively be brought about.

Democratic Context

The policies of government need to be endorsed and this can be attained by ensuring that there is freedom and order on one hand with the task of economic and social justice on the other. Due to high level of democracy, it consequently leads to emergency of issues such as protests, mass actions, rallying, conflict at large scale and the officers have a duty to act responsibly and tactfully in dealing with these problems without violation of human rights (Chaurasia, 2003).

Changing Police Role

Early reports showed that police officers role included making arrest, preventing the commission of offences and public nuisance, taking charge of unclaimed properties among others (Chaurasia, 2003). The training nowadays has changed some of these roles to current one such as to promote and preserve public order, identification of criminological situations, aid to individuals in danger of physical harms, reduction of opportunities for commission of crime and most importantly traffic regulation and any other duty as provided by law.

Conclusion For a person to be considered in these attractive police jobs, the potential applicant must uphold to the rules and obligations as provided by law. Correct information should be gathered from various sources to ensure that relevant data is in hand and that policies of different police units are clearly understood.

This normally begins at lower level of basic police officers and continues with sequences of training until the target is reached. Excessive learning is required if your dream is to be achieved by pursuing not only bachelor’s degree but also master’s degree depending on where you want to go.

Police officers should also not forget that their work is to maintain orders and protection of the general public. They should not abuse the powers mandated to them by the state through excess enforcement of law without prior reasons. Public must also obey the rule of law and exercise total restrain to law breaking.

Reference List Bumbak, A, R. (2010). Dynamic Police Training. New York: CRC Press.

Chaurasia, M. K. (2003). Police Training. Bethesda: Northern Book Centre.

Johnson, B. R. (2007). Crucial Elements of Police Firearms Training. New Orleans: Looseleaf Law Publications.


The feminine mystique- Betty Friedan Essay college essay help near me

Towards the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century, there emerged a group of middle class women whose ideology and perception of things was unorthodox to the societal outlook on issues.

These women championed the emancipation of other women in the society, they craved for an equal society and struggled to attain and secure the woman’s place in the society. They worked to have the rights of the women upheld and respected in regards to the norms that governed their society at the time.

In the struggle, these women ended up being called rebellious, rude, misguided and sometimes even confused. On the contrary, their struggle won them the liberty to partake higher education, the freedom to take part in manufacturing, own property, to have a say in the democratic society that theirs was through voting and to be employed as professionals.

The changes they had advocated for were by far much more progressive compared to what the women in the other centuries had to bear or go through, and could have been a stepping stone towards social equity among the genders (Feinstein, 81). The celebration to this achievement was however short lived as there were disruptions in the social structure that were caused by the Second World War.

This struggle was given a fresh impetus by the various feminists who never relented in their quest to have their freedoms granted. They pointed out the fact that though women had the traditional roles in the home, they were grounded by the stereotypes that had enslaved the society by placing women far much below their potentials.

One of these feminists happened to be Betty Friedan (Bloom,166). She was vocal with her thoughts on midwifery, how in as much as it was considered a job for women, it limited their potentials to mere house work. She urged that in totality, house work could be done in an hour’s time, leaving them idle for the rest of the day. Friedan claimed that this created boredom among these women.

The boredom led to a problem among the American women which, according to her book is the unhappiness that came to be as a result of the boredom. She castigated the women who were comfortable with being house wives claiming that they were afraid of what life could offer beyond housewifery.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She claimed they were sitting on their potentials and that whatever other women could do in the other professions, they could also do. They only had to change their mindsets about themselves and stop looking down upon themselves as servants to their households.

Through her work, she refers to this state of dissatisfaction that leads to the ‘unhappiness’ in the women’s life as ‘the problem that has no name’. She claims that the main causative agent for this dilemma among women is the fact that society has natured some ideology about the ideal feminist, this is what she calls the feminine mystique.

Friedan goes ahead to stress the fact that society has created this perception about housewives that has confined them in their narrow cocoons as house wives and mothers to their children. In the process they negate any plans they may have about further schooling, their career objectives are put on hold. In the long run, the women end up without the knowledge of their full potentials as they are not able to follow up on their personal development. This can spell doom for them and their families.

In the book ‘Feminine Mystique’, Friedan explores the different lifestyles the women had before marriage and compares it to their present lifestyles in the marriage. The collective report she gives out from the sample of women she interviewed was that the women had issues in their marriage.

She goes ahead to explain that the women in their marriages had problems; not real tangible cases that could be solved easily, but issues that tugged them wherever they were. They varied in their expressions of the plight, and this variance is what created the ‘problem without a name’.

Other women tried to explain it as a loss of something, an emptiness they feel inside and the yearning for something but they do not know what it really is. This happens in the backdrop of a successful marriage, a happy family, and a supportive husband. From a distance, these couples look perfect, like they really enjoy their lives together, but more often than not the woman has some unfulfilled desire for something she doesn’t even know. This sets them on a rollercoaster of thoughts and they even don’t paying attention to their children.

This reaction of mixed feelings created emotional instability among other problems, but most of all was the resultant despondency, a state of unhappiness that only she could feel, but hardly explain. She goes further to investigate the possible solutions to this problem from a set of women groups.

We will write a custom Essay on The feminine mystique- Betty Friedan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The result was indeed as varying as the problem itself. College tutors recommended that the housewife attends more discussion and focus groups to help the women in their anticipation to marriage life. Other newspaper articles and psychiatric journals that sought to offer solutions to the problem mainly suggested sex as the remedy to the problem. A clique of individuals put forward the proposition that women should be totally exempted from the four years of university or college education.

They claimed that they knowledge they attained in the college or university was irrelevant to her as a housewife, and that this same knowledge was very much needed by boys to advance their progress in the minuscule world. Other’s dismissed the problem by suggesting the possible solutions to the problem that could not be met, like compulsorily recruiting them to work as nurses’ aides in the hospitals or nursing homes, others attributed love to be the answer.

Some people approached the issue by jeering the woman, telling her how lucky she is and reminding her about her achievements. They also counted to her the benefits of being the house wife; she runs her own affairs herself, there’s nobody around to act as her boss, she has no time to beat, she doesn’t worry about being demoted or promoted or being fired at any time.

They claimed that for this reasons she should be happy. They shrugged her off by telling her to enjoy what she has and not focus her energies to attain the untenable solutions to her problems. Finally, there was a group of people who dismissed this through the assertion that there is no solution to the problem. They claimed that the American woman’s biggest problem is being discontented with herself and her roles in the household.

“Snapshots of a daughter in-law” “Snapshots of a daughter in-law” is a poem written by one Mrs. Adrienne Rich. She was born of Dr. Arnold Rich and Mrs. Helen Jones. They both stayed at Maryland with Adrienne’s two siblings. Professionally, her father happened to be a professor of medicine at John Hopkins University whiles her mother who aside from being a teacher and a domestic mother was a qualified pianist.

Her father, though his profession was typically science oriented, had vast knowledge and passion about arts and he modeled Adrienne’s interest towards artistic things especially poems that had to do John Keats and Lord Tennyson (Marriner, 131). This poem is one among her many poetic works.

The main idea about the whole poem as expressed by Rich is Feminism. She explains the many facets of the woman’s life and tries to bring out the same issues through the perspectives of the different women in the story.

In this poem though, she has dwelt upon the nature of the relationship between a mother in-law and her daughter in-law. Rich brings to focus the filth that surrounds the woman causing her sadness and the possibility of her son exploiting the daughter in-law. The heading to the poem also tries to paint us disorganized pictures of a relationship whose connection is the son, this is the relationship between the mother and the daughter in-law.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The feminine mystique- Betty Friedan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the poem, both the mother and the daughter in law come under scrutiny. She flashes back to the mother’s younger years to remind her of her beauty then. She highlights the features that made her stand out in her beauty; she compares the texture and color of her hair as equivalent to henna, the tenderness and softness of her skin was akin to that of pitch bud. She then contrasts the beauty that she was then to the woman she has become through time.

According to the persona, the mother in-law has gone through a lot, but age is washing it all away. Her mind, according to her is holding so much that its being choked, it is full of experience that is totally useless, and in comparison to what she was then, it is loaded with loads of what life can offer-rumor and fantasy. On the other hand, the persona describes the daughter in law as reckless.

She supports this by describing how she handles her affairs in the kitchen. She handles the plates roughly and bangs them against each other and other surfaces like the sink. She is accommodative. She is able to listen to the antagonistic views and the misleading pieces of advice she is given.

She is being advised to be insatiable and save only herself because she could not save everybody (Julian, 2004). The people advising her want to nurture a state of being egocentric in her. In that before she thinks of doing any good for anybody in the household, she takes care of her own needs first.

The author has also portrayed the daughter in-law as one who harbors her own fantasies where she listens to angels and looks out the beautiful horizon that exists only in her world. It is clear that the daughter in-law is kind hearted, loving, caring and one who selfless. This conclusion is supported by the fact that all her friends are advising her against these norms.

The poetry expresses the consciousness of this problem by highlighting the many incidents in life where a woman gets to be given the wrong advice.

She denounces the act of going against each other and stabbing each other in the back by using one’s weakness of the other to bring her down. Instead she recommends that they swallow their pride to work together to bring the best out of their gifts, and not let the gifts be the thorns in the friendship. She redefines womanhood by the degree to which a lady uses what she has to get where she is (Casey, 49).

She uses an example of a lady singing, she asserts that neither the lyrics in the song nor the music belong to her, but the hair that dances to the wind truly belongs to her. She suggests brevity and unity among the women. The unity would soften the stance on people who look down upon the women, even though it comes with struggle. They will be abused and called names, but as long as they remain steadfast, they will attain their deepest desires.

All the two articles by both Adrienne Rich and Betty Friedan are from their own point of view, an effort to liberate the women from a bondage they create themselves. They confine themselves within this prison curtailing the ability of the mind to think outside the box, they tame it within the confines of the traditions that govern their lives.

They sought to redefine the woman in the society through empowering them, educating them and employing them to the same roles as their male counterparts. The result is that these women end up producing the same quality of job as their male counterparts; this kills boredom and explores their full potential as women.

Works Cited Bloom, Howard. Contemporary American English; Poetry and dramatists. NY: New York Cambridge University press (2001).

Casey, Daniel. Poetry review guide for teachers and students. NY: New York. Oxford University press. (2003).

Feinstein, Steven. Poetic evolution from the 1920’s to date. London: Yale University press. (2006).

Julian, D., Mason, J., Wheatley P. Poetic review and analysis for scholars. London: Maxmillan publishers limited. (2004).

Marriner, Catherine. Literature for senior students. NJ: New Jersey. Insight publications Ltd. (2006).


Photographer – Robert Frank Essay best essay help: best essay help

Robert Frank was a renowned photographer in the United States and he was born in Zurich, Switzerland on 9th of November 1924. He begun his career in photography as an apprentice where he learned his skills by observing the works of legendary photographers.

Robert has in- depth knowledge in photography because he was very aggressive from the beginning of his career. In fact he visited many cities within U.S. and managed to take multiple photos but then he found himself behind the bars because some people thought he was spying on them.

It is certain that he had a passion for his career and that’s why he visited many countries just for the love of photography. He was very intelligent because he took his photos without attracting attention and when he did he was smart enough to cover his intentions. In photography one needs to be cautious because in some instances photographers can be prosecuted for taking photos of sensitive places such as army barracks, and to be sincere Robert was put behind bars because he was thought to be a spy.

A look at some of his images indicate that during those days photos were without color because most of his initial images are in black and white but the element of lighting and shadowing is excellent. This shows that he knew how to position himself to enhance the contrast in his photos.

By then automatic cameras had not been invented hence he relied on the sun to provide lighting. If the same photos were to be taken today they would be much better because technology has made things to be easy, hence editing of photos is less tiring because it is done using computers.

Robert cropped his photos accurately without loosing the intended message of the photo. Perhaps people who don’t know the history of U.S. should take a look at the works of Robert and realize that every city has its own history because one will notice that some of the objects captured in his photos are not present today. The photos imply that Americans are very conscious people because of the fashion displayed in these photos.

Robert seemed to have the right connections which provided a platform to display his photos during exhibitions and he may have exchanged ideas with fellow photographers hence beginners should consult photographers who have made it in this field. Every job has its challenges and so is photography as evidenced by Robert.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A photographer should then be alert while taking photos because he could be met with a lot of hostility and I think that’s why presidents all over the world have their designated photographers because studies have shown that photography can be abused.

Robert employed minimal light in his photos which made them stand out from the rest. May be he was capitalizing on the element of lighting to create a light tone in his images. Most of his images have unique focus which displays his attention to detail.

This element is evidenced by Rodeo (see appendix) which was taken in 1954 in New York city because one can not identify the face of the guy who is leaning on the dustbin but since Robert’s photos were not edited there is a lot of reality in this photo because it gives the exact image that one expects according to the focus of the camera.

If the photo was taken from another position, say the focus was on the left hand side, the man’s face would be recognizable. But then, it seems Robert took this photo without the knowledge of his subject and he must have been on the same level with his subject. Rodeo seems to have been cropped on the left hand side to erase the protruding shadow at the bottom of the left hand side edge. He did not crop the right hand side that much because it seems he wanted to emphasize on the debris on the streets of New York.

Photos that are not colored reveal a lot of other images that cannot be identified in colored photos. The disadvantage of such photos is that the viewer cannot distinguish colors because all colors are either black or white. If a digital or automatic camera had been used the light in this image would unveil the face of this man. The background of this image blends the colors of other objects in the image such as the adjacent buildings because they look like they have a uniform color.

Robert seemed to have taken this photo at a close range because the length of the image implies so. The emphasis of this image is on the young guy and the untidy streets. This photo can change one’s attitude about New York since most people think it is very clean because of its fame. The impression created by this photo illustrate that the background of a photo is very important and that’s why most people look at their surrounding when they are posing for a photo.

This photo has changed my perception on photography. Rodeo does not have desirable elements of a photo because the image suggests that the photo is a reality due to the subject not being induced to pose and sincerely this image indicate that pictures that are taken without informing the subject have much clarity because when most people are posing for a photo they usually smile and look directly at the lens of the camera. To prove my point I recently took a photo without looking at the camera directly.

We will write a custom Essay on Photographer – Robert Frank specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If one wishes to add contrast he/she opt to use an automatic camera because it can sense where there is inadequate lighting and thus turn the flash light on as opposed to manual cameras that cannot detect darkness. When one is about take a photo he should relax and stand still to make sure the image is not distorted.

Appendix Rodeo, New York City, 1955 by Robert Frank.

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2000|). “Robert Frank: Rodeo, New York City (1992.5162.3)”. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1992.5162.3/


The Difference between Agricultural Societies and Hunter-Gathers Societies in the Past Term Paper essay help online free

Discussing the Distinctions between social groups In the course of time, people have been searching for techniques and approaches to adjust to geographical, social, and cultural environment in the past and in the modern contexts. Gradual development of social and culturally different groups and nations, however, is not predetermined by a biological evolution, or by unequal conditions for the civilization development.

In this respect, Brody distinguishes between two social groups – hunters-gatherers and farmers – that were formed irrespectively of each other due to the certain historical and social conditions (14).

Hence, the author states that farmers are more mobile, restless, nomadic, and expansive in comparison with hunter-gathers who prefer to stay on a more secure, home territory (Brody 114).

The difference between agricultural societies and hunter-gathers societies also lies in temporal characteristics and the level of technological penetrations (Gonzalez 3). In particular, farmers are more developed in technological terms because they should work out strategies for increasing productivity and advancing farming practices.

However, Gonzalez emphasizes that original farmers who lived on the territory of the North American were more inclined to use ecology-friendly techniques to sustain traditional modes of farming and agriculture (27).

In discussing the differences between farmers and hunter-gatherers, Evans-Pritchard outlines two distinguishing criteria that identify the Nuer tribes: political system and ecology (47). In particular, hunter-gathers do not have particular organizational structure and subordination; instead, their political order is more close to anarchy. In ecological terms, the hunters and farmer can be classified in accordance with spatial discontinuity.

In contrast, Pollan speaks about farmers and foragers through their attitude to plant and animals (123). In particular, farmers considered corn not only as the food, but as the good that can be sold. Therefore, there were mode focused on advancing their technologies and increasing yield. In their turn, foragers were less developed in these terms because they correlated food with culture and spirituality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While examining the elements of Nuer culture as compared with contemporary communities originating from the immigration, Holtzman emphasizes that the Nuer life is closely connected with the waves of immigrations to the United States and explains that hunter-gatherers are more attached to traditions, kin relations, and culture (42). They had little interest in technologies and other techniques because their values were not based on materialistic objects, but on the spiritual development.

Social and Historical Forces That Are Responsible For These Modes of Life in the Recent Past Considering social factors affecting the formation of the farmers and hunter-gatherers, mostly all humans were hunter-gatherers over the years. However, this mode of life gradually altered due to the rise of agriculture that developed in societies. Paradoxically, despite of their chaotic structures, these groups are often united on the basis of kinship and tribe membership.

Brody also emphasizes that hunter-gatherer tribes have a distinct division of labor on a gender basic (2). In this regard the nomadic groups of the past are closely associated with the migration process in the contemporary societies.

Hence, the waves of immigrations predetermined by political and social processes made people change their modes of lives and choose a hunter-gatherer style of living (Pollan 24). The social and economical instability, therefore, played a decisive role in forming the groups (Gonzalez 103).

The analysis of historic precondition distinctly reveals the evolution of farmers and hunters where the conventional strategies applied to agriculture have been gradually replaced by modern industrial farming (Gonzalez 172).

Social and Historical Forces As Presented in the Current Situation Identifying the group: historical and social influences

The migration processes in the twentieth century caused significant shifts in the lives of the American people and immigrations. Blend of cultures and traditions, therefore, have made both groups change heir lives and outlooks on the current situation. I would like to present the migration process in the United States and how the waves of migration influence political environment and modes of life of different groups, which are the brightest examples of modern conjunctures.

It is possible to assume that migration paths are closely connected with group’s motivations and goals to explore other lands and possibilities. Therefore, those people who migrate to the United State were less concerned with economic and social conditions, but were guided by the possibility to innovate.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Difference between Agricultural Societies and Hunter-Gathers Societies in the Past specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Providing connection between the past and the present.

The migrating groups debunk the myth about historical and social predetermination of the group affiliation either to farming or to foraging communities. Hence, the facts that the migrating groups derive from the agricultural societies does not guarantee that they could change their farming orientation.

Hence, the migration of the African tribes to the United States pushed them to the marginal areas proves that these groups with a deep historic of hunting and gathering can be simply converted in an agricultural society. Such process can also be called as the second Neolithic revolution, the transition from foragers to farmers.

Such a conversion is predetermined by necessity to adjust to the new mode of living. From migrated groups from Africa, agriculture and farming was the only means for survival; it also provided a favorable ground for adjusting to alien culture and tradition and for meeting the needs of a new social and political environment.

Works Cited Brody, Hugh. The Other Side of Eden: Hunters, Farmers, and the Shaping of the World. New York: North Point Press, 2001. Print.

Evans-Pitchard, E. E.. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Instituions of a Nilotic People. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1940. Print.

Gonzalez, Roberto Jesus. Zapotec Science: Farming and Food in the Northern Sierra of Oaxaca. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001. Print.

Holtzman, Jom. Nuer Journeys, Nuer Lives. Needham Heights: Allyn


The multiculturalism into which American Literature has developed Essay best essay help

If someone had to inquire about the multicultural problem that we face today, then probably majority of the answers would still lie on the racial differences just as in the early settings. The answers would focus on issue of American foreigners who were incidentally native through their family link of various American generations.

The multicultural literature once dominated by white text has greatly transformed and many writers floods the same literature that has over the time accused various races in terms of ignorance, violence, crime, immoral, brutal, and uncontrollable feral passions among other forms of un-civilization.

Currently, the syllabus on American literature has to meet the diversity enhancements as mandated in the university requirements. Revisions on career outline indicate that there is a wide difference between what students learn about the contemporary world, and the historical perspectives regarding multicultural settings.

Students are today able to embrace all the current literature about culture because all the materials are new and are remarkably free from the historical prejudices. The world studied today is quite different from what existed in the past. There is lack of the exclusivities in teaching methods and literature learning in current American literature. There is an overwhelming change over the confined nature of past-institutionalized form of study where the teachers in the subject matter directed or were in control over the topics of discussions.

The development is evident in current discussions, for instance it is possible to find authentic discussions regarding African-American studies, Lesbianism studies or even various forms of music evolution studies such as analysis of Jazz music evolution. Students have overcome the societal inequities brought about by the civil right era, which in some cases become more insidious especially during the last quarter of the twentieth century.

Students are currently willing to have open discussions of multicultural issues and therefore the teachers conduct the proceedings non-dogmatically by allowing different point of views. There is development on language and aesthetic as well especially on issues relating to power of translating native languages.

The current study of American literature provides excitement, satisfaction, surprise, criticism and doubt among readers, which maintain the zeal and anxiety over diversification of culture. Majority of recently written literature about multiculturalism voices the victims by giving them opportunity to share experiences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is clear indication of how various cultures in America enriches the society through sharing of cultural differences and arts. The mutual interaction and assimilation expands the multicultural perspectives through learning and appreciation of ethnic heritage.

Current multicultural literature has a close description touching on assimilation of American cultures. Most of the current literature writes have explanation indicating their pride of belonging to a multicultural community while still being able to retain the unique heritage of their origin unlike prejudiced historical writings.

Today’s literature indicates that there is evident push from Americans who advocate to participate in multicultural practices and experiences for instance through appreciation of foreign art, music or food. Literature writers immerse the American literature into the vibrant cultures by depicting the positive differences and benefits they represent.

The past couple of decades have seen culturally related wars over the procedures of teaching American literature. Heated debates over multiculturalism have spread beyond the college books to news materials such as magazines, thus enticing mixed reactions. Some people feel that American literature is failing, while others see the situation is a transformation of teaching methods.

Classical and traditional literature that writers forgot or overlooked is finding a transformation through modernized form of interpretation. There are hopes for the twenty-first century for the reason that more challenges will enrich the abandoned American literature and heritage with more positive or diverse analysis of the traditions.


Conduction of The Holocaust Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction The Holocaust is the term used to denote the execution of more than six million Jews which was perpetrated by the National Socialist Germany Workers [Nazis] Party during the Second World War. Holocaust [Shoah] signifies the era of the reign of Adolf Hitler as the chancellor of Germany from 30 January, 1933 to 8th may, 1945.

This genocide represented two-thirds of European Jewish population, and a third of the world Jewish population. Those Jews who were killed were victims of intentional and systematic efforts of the Nazi to annihilate all Jews in Europe, but not casualties of Second World War which devastate Europe (“Jewish virtual library,” par. 1).

Following the success of the National Social Germany Workers Party in the 1932 elections, Adolf Hitler was appointed Germany chancellor. The Nazis, capitalized on the then unstable Germany government to gain an electoral foundation. The Nazis provoked conflict with the communist, organized numerous demonstrations, and conducted a ferocious propaganda crusade against its political rivals -the Weimar authority, and the Jews who they held accountable for the all the Germany evils (“Jewish virtual library,” par. 3).

Why did it happen? Propaganda against Jews

The common media the Nazis used for the campaign against the Jews was the Weekly Nazis newspaper, “The attacker.” At the bottom line of the front page of the newspaper, a slogan, “the Jews are our misfortune!” was inscribed in bold letters. The attacker often featured Jewish cartoons characterized with hooked-noses and ape statures. In fact about half a million copies of “The Attacker” were supplied per week (par. 4).

Shortly after Hitler attained chancellorship, he organized for new elections in endeavors to acquire full power over Reichstag (parliament) for his party. The Nazis terrorized other parties using government’s resources. After the Reichstag house was burned down, the German’s democracy was placed in jeopardy.

Immediately, the Nazi’s government eliminated various privileges including the sovereignty of press, freedom of expression, the right to assemble and the privilege for privacy. In the March 5 election the party succeeded by securing more than 50 percent parliament seats (par. 6).

The Nazis immediately transformed their authority into dictatorshipvia the Enabling act passed on March 23. This act legitimized Hitler’s dictatorial ideas and allowed him to implement them over generally all areas. Additionally, the Nazis organized their propaganda machine, Der sturmer, and overshadowed their critics. In addition the put up a well organized military and police unit. Any opposition to the Nazis authority culminated to imprisonment in the concentration camps, which initially served as political prisoners (par. 7, 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eventually, Hitler gained full authority over Germany and reinforced his campaign against the Jewish community in Europe. The Nazis accused the Jews of contaminating pure German traditions with their “mongrel” and “foreign” exertion. They depicted an evil and cowardly impression of the Jews, as opposed to the Germans who they expressed as truthful, brave and industrious. The Nazis alleged the Jews for the weakened German’s economy and civilization, because they occupied considerable positions in finance, commerce, the press, art, theatre and literature (par. 9).

Another element which contributed to the holocaust is race perceptions in which there was a misconception that the superior race was the “Aryans” which signifies the Germans (Leni Yahil 36).

Anti-Semitic myths

It is believed that the holocaust was perpetuated by the sentiment European Christians had about the Jews. These sentiments are proven by various anti-semantic myths that were held across Europe (Ashliman, par. 1). These myths portrayed the Jews as very brutal and sacrilegious people, causing them to be hated by the rest of the communities in Europe.

The proceeding paragraphs reviews one of the anti-Semitic myths. Most of these legends were propagated in Germany which explains why Germany was the setting of the holocaust. I am going to review one of the twelve anti-Semitic legends to emphasize why there was such ferocious hate for the Jews.

“The Jews’ stone,” is a story of a peasant who sold his child to some Jews. The Jews then took the child and brutally persecuted her on a large stone till death. From hence forth the stone was denoted the Jews’ stone. The mother of the child who was working at the farm sensed that a terrible thing has befallen her child. She hurried home to inquire about the child from the father who told her, he had sold the child. In the mean time the money turned to leaves.

The mother went to look for the child and she found her hanged on a tree and brought it down and took it to the church. The father was shocked and he lost his mind and shortly died. The stone was placed at the grave side of the child and it is believed that it is still lying there up to the present. Later on a shepherded shopped the tree down, but he broke his leg when trying to carry it home and he later died of the wound (Ashliman, par. 1).

The other anti-Semitic legends include; “the girl who was killed by the Jews,” “Pfefferkorn the Jew at Halle,” “the expulsion of the Jews from Prussia,” “the bloody children of the Jews,” “the imprisoned Jew at Magdeburg,” “the chapel of the holy body at Magdeburg”, “the lost Jew,” “the story of Judas,” “malchus the column,” “buttadeu, and the eternal Jew on the Matterhorn” (Ashliman, par. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Conduction of The Holocaust specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The way the Holocaust was conducted Isolation

The Nazis reinforced their genocidal activity against the Jews with their racist hypothesis in conjunction with Darwinian Theory of evolution. Hitler started terrorizing the Jews and he imposed harsh legislation on them. These racist intents entailed a wide range of activities including exclusion from public proceedings, investment and assets confiscation; exterminating their professions and public learning institutions, and burning books of Jewish author(s). The most notorious of the anti-Jewish policies were the Nuremberg laws. This legislation constituted the legal foundation for the Jews elimination from Germany (“Jewish virtual library;” par. 12).

These reforms triggered a massive Jewish emigration from Germany to the neighboring European nations. Nevertheless, tough immigration policies hindered the Jews from leaving Europe. In fact such frustrations compelled a Jewish boy aged 17 to shoot and kill a third secretary in the Germany Embassy in France.

Nazi hooligans used this assassination as the excuse for initiating a famous night of destruction known as Kristallnacht. They plunder and spoiled many Jewish possessions including their residence, enterprises and place of worship, the synagogue. During these skirmishes, many Jews lost their lives and 30,000 of them were arrested and taken to the concentration camps (par. 13).

Jews confinement in the ghettos

During the onset of the Second World War, Germany invaded Poland and developed ghettos for the Polish Jews. There were about three million Jews in Poland, representing about 10 percent of the entire polish population. The Nazis authority forced the Jews from their homes to live in ghettos isolated from the rest of the ethnic groups.

This concentration in ghettos facilitated the Jews deportation to concentration camps by the Nazis authority. The ghettos were characterized by shortage of food, water, sanitary amenities, and space. Deprivation and starvation contributed to the deaths of many Jews in the ghettos (par. 17).

The “final solution”

In 1941 the Nazi invaded the Soviet Union and culminated into a plan of execution which they termed the “final solution.” In the same year four itinerant the Nazi developed einsatzgruppen A, B, C, and D, whose duty was to move around killing the Jews. The duties of this group were to systematically collect Jews from towns, parade them to pre-dug pits, strip them, align them, and execute them with sub-machineguns. One such popular massacre is the Babi yar’s in which between 30,000 to 35,000 Jews were murdered within a period of two days (par. 18).

The pinnacle of Nazi authority met to develop the a system to use to implement mass killing of the Jews. This discussion, the Wannsee Conference, indicated the preliminary for massive, thorough Jewish execution, and developed the plan for its administration which ensued shortly following the completion of the conference (Yahil, p. 328, qtd in “Jewish virtual library,” par. 19).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Conduction of The Holocaust by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the Nazis killed other nationalities and communities including various soviet prisoners of war, gypsies and polish academics, just the Jews were targeted for methodical and complete annihilation. The Jews were specially exterminated by often chlorine gas poisoning (par. 20)

Noteworthy, all the execution points were situated along the railway lines to allow for easy transportation of the Jewish victims. A huge structure of camps backed-up the execution camps. The support camps played various roles such as serving as workforce camps, transportation camps, concentration camps, while others as death camps (par. 21).

In almost all the colonies of the Nazi, the Jews were obliged to wear badges to distinguish them from the other ethnic groups, so that they could be gathered into ghettos or alternatively concentration camps to be gradually conveyed to the death camps. Thousands of Jews were conveyed to the death camps from all the Nazi colonies. Shortly after their arrival, the victims will be gas poisoned’ and the bodies blazed. An estimated 3.5 million Jews were murdered via death camps (22).

Nevertheless, the able bodied young Jews were spared, to be used in the Nazi’s war effort and to provide forced free labour. They were confined in labour and concentration camps, and forced to labour in Germany’s munitions and other manufacturing plants including I. G. Farben and Krupps, and in every place the labour was necessary. These slave laborers were exerted from dawn till night with inadequate food and cover. Many of these Jews were essentially labored to death by the Nazi in conjunction with their collaborators (22).

Eventually, in the final months of Adolf Hitler’s reign, the Nazi military began to parade the survivors in the concentration camps to the regions they still governed. The Nazi military pressured the emaciated and sickly Jews to trek so many miles to reach other concentrations camps in nation that were still their subjects. Approximately 250,000 Jews died naturally or were shot during the marches (23).

Works Cited Ashliman, D. L.(ed.). Anti-Semitic Legends. Jewish virtual library; The American Israel Cooperation Centre. 2010. Web.

Jewish virtual library. History of the holocaust – an introduction. West Bloomfield: Holocaust memorial center; The American Israel Cooperation Centre. 2010. Web.

Leni, Yahil. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Print.


Theme in Slaughterhouse Five Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The Theme of Destructive War

Elements used in Theme Identification


Works Cited

Introduction The essay is a critical analysis of fundamentals as well as the central ideas that are deemed universal that are adequately articulated and explored within a piece of work. The anti war and science fiction novel, Slaughterhouse also known as The Children’s Crusade: A duty-Dance with Death is the work of Vonnegut Kurt. It tells the story of Pilgrim Billy who is a soldier and what he went through during the Second World War.

It is evident that writers, be they essayist, playwrights, novelists as well as poets use a number of mechanisms and tools to make their audiences clearly grasp what they intend to bring to light. Characters have been used to not only to develop the play but also the central ideas of literary piece of works. On the same note, motifs, symbols, plot of the story, black humor, narrative voice, and tone, have been successfully used in making the fundamental ideas of any literary work known, (Kuchwara 17).

The Theme of Destructive War Among the themes presented in the novel, the Novel’s Overall theme is destructive wars. In whatever context, war has never been a good thing. This is clearly seen by what live Billy went through. He is captured and locked up in a disgusting place that is unfit for human beings.

Additionally, the bombing of German town Dresden of course let a number of people dead and property destroyed. In captivity, Roland dies of as a result of clog, similar, before his death, he convinces Lazzaro that Billy is responsible for their suffering hence bringing an act of hatred between them and Lazzaro vows to kill Billy to avenge Roland death (Kuchwara 72).

Additionally, Billy is depicted in the novel to have walked out of his son with knowing probably asserting that the two are unfamiliar with one another, due to effects of war-the separation. At the end of it all, Billy is a traumatized individual and is unable to come to terms with the negative effects of war. Within this context, human dignity is also brought to light. Those in captivity are subjected to very poor living conditions.

Elements used in Theme Identification The following elements were much helpful when identifying the overall theme of destructive war in the novel; Characterization, Black Humor, Narrative Voice And Tone, Plot and/or Structure.

Looking at the novel’s setting or the plot, one can easily identify the theme of destructive wars. The story revolves around Pilgrim Billy an American soldier who is not well trained and has negative attitude and perception about wars. During the battle of Bulge, he was seized by soldiers of German origin, together with other captives they were locked into an enclosure-Slaughterhouse 5. The guards have a safe location to hide while keeping an eye on the captives; this made them survive the bombing of Dresden (Vonnegut 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Billy’s experiences when kidnapped is made to belief what those were captured with him say, that they have no choice to change what fate holds for them but have a choice to focus on what happens in their day to day lives. Before being captured, Billy shared with Weary Roland who constantly tells him off concerning his lack of eagerness concerning wars.

Upon their capture, Roland was deprived of all he owned even the boots, he later died as a result of clog that caused gangrene. Before his death, he convinced Lazzaro that all they are going through is due to lack of enthusiasm of Billy towards the war.

Another element is characterization. By looking at the traits of Billy, who is a hero of antiwar, before the war starts, Billy is already weakling. After becoming a soldier, he ends up training as a chaplain prepared at the time of war. His character of being unorganized renders him unprepared at the time of war.

There were conflicts during preparation, weapons were not there, and even his dressing was improper. This kind of confusion emphasizes a kind of a soldier who has mid manners. Having such character, Billy has the capability of walking through war without being noticed that he is a soldier?

Vonnegut in his writing brings out the theme of destructive war through the use of literature elements like black humor also known as dark comedy. This kind of humor makes the audience to amuse with things that need not to be laughed against, for instance in this novel, war represents such a thing.

Black humor has been seen in the description of the main character, “filthy flamingo”, (Vonnegut 56). It has also been used when describing the conditions that Tralfamadorians were encountered by the main character in the novel. All this conditions can be described as being satirical. I different sections of this book, black humor have been used to describe war. It shows that such ideas are “enchanted absurd” (Vonnegut 128).

The narrator used elusive tone in his works, though it is hidden to bring out the theme of war. There are many horrific instances of war described in the novel Slaughterhouse 5. Such like events depicts for him as an individual very huge connotations. By the use of this kind of tone, there are many sorrows that audiences are appealed upon.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Theme in Slaughterhouse Five specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such like sorrows comes as an effect of war. The tone of this book is explained as being elusive because, there are many emotions. For instance, the emotions that are brought up when firebombing occurred at Dresden. It is also depicted when Bill in the company of Germany Guards and other POWS in a wreckage crawl.” idea was to hasten the end of the war”. (Vonnegut 227).

The narrator also used the narrative voice to bring out the effects of war. In this book, Vonnegut appears being one of the characters in the novel, as he explains in the beginning on how he was connected to Dresden fire bombing. In his statement to the publisher, Vonnegut narrated that the novel is short as he had nothing to “say about a massacre”, (Vonnegut, 16). He narrates the experiences that Billy underwent while under Germany soldiers hostage, and experiences firebombing at Dresden.

Conclusion In conclusion, it is from the review of the novel that fundamental ideas have been brought out clearly by characterization, use of symbols, motive, and narration as well as the tone. Among the main or central ideas of the novel, Slaughterhouse by Vonnegut Kurt are; destructiveness of war, human dignity, time and memory, illusion of free will and acceptance

Works Cited Kuchwara, Michael. Slaughterhouse-Five’ in Chicago. New York: The Associated Press, 1996.Print.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse. New York: Dell, 1969. Print.


The Glass Menagerie Term Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The Glass Menagerie is a play that was written by Tennessee Williams and debuted in Chicago in 1944. It won a New York Drama Critics Award a year later. The Glass Menagerie propelled Williams to higher circles in the literary industry and established him as one of the most articulate playwrights in America.

Plot The Glass Menagerie has three major characters, Tom Wingfield, his mother, Amanda and his sister, Laura. Tom is an upcoming poet and works in a warehouse. His father abandoned them some years back and, apart from one postcard, has not communicated with the family since. Tom’s mother is from a genteel southern ancestry and frequently narrates the stories of her youth to her children and the number of suitors who wanted her. She is upset that her daughter, who is agonizingly shy, does not draw a similar number of suitors.

Amanda takes her daughter to college hoping that she will have her own family and an occupation. However, she discovers that Laura’s extremely shy behavior has made her to drop out of college and spends her days roaming in the city all by herself. Laura’s only comfort seems to come from her music records and a set of small animal statuettes.

Tom hates his job and is dying to leave the family in order to have fun in the outside world, he frequently stays out late and claims to have been at the movies. In one of the disagreements with his mother, he unintentionally breaks Laura’s animal statuettes.

Amanda tells Tom to find suitors for Laura at the workplace and Tom chooses Jim O’Connor, his friend, and asks him for dinner at their place. We learn that Jim went to the same school as Tom and Laura. Before Jim’s arrival, Laura makes Amanda to wear a new dress while she wears a beautiful gown to remind her of her youth.

Jim arrives and is let in by Laura, but she leaves, leaving the two men alone. Tom informs Jim that he used the electricity bill to join the merchant marine and intends to leave the family, Jim informs about his aspirations to become an executive. The lights go out as the characters are still having dinner and are forced to light candles. Amanda persuades Jim to entertain Laura as she and Tom clean up.

Laura is initially too shy to converse with Jim, but his friendliness soon warms her up to him. She admits that she knew and developed a crush on Jim but was too shy to talk to him. They talk fondly about their schooldays for some time. Laura then decides to show Jim her favorite animal figurine, a unicorn, but he unintentionally knocks it and its horn breaks, making it resemble other horses. Shockingly, she forgives him and laughs off the occurrence. It is obvious she likes him. Eventually, Jim tells her,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Somebody needs to build your confidence up and make you proud instead of shy and turning away and—blushing—Somebody ought to—ought to—kiss you, Laura!” (Williams, scene 7). He kisses her but swiftly withdraws, apologizes, and mentions that he has a fiancée. Laura presents him with the broken animal as a memento.

As soon as Jim leaves, Amanda reprimands Tom for bringing home an engaged man for a suitor. Tom had not known that Jim had a fiancée. As they argue, Tom shouts:

“The more you shout about my selfishness to me the quicker I’ll go, and I won’t go to the movies!” (Williams, scene 7).

Tom becomes the narrator at this moment as he was at the opening of the play and explains how he left his family and ran away, just as his father did. He spent many years journeying overseas, but something still bothered him: he is unable to forget the guilt that Laura placed on him.

Characterization Tom Wingfield

Tom acts as the author’s mouthpiece in some scenes. He provides a separate explanation and evaluation of what is taking place. He also acts in the play. This duality in role makes Tom’s position confusing to the audience, as we do not know whether to trust the role he plays as a character in the play or that of being a narrator. However, The Glass Menagerie is partially an autobiography and Tom is Tennessee William’s mouthpiece, therefore we can learn of William’s experience in his own youth through Tom (Heintzelman


Story of Drunken Girlhood Critical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The book under discussion is Smashed: Story of a Drunken Girlhood by Koren Zailckas which dwells upon the place of a person in the society hiding this idea behind alcoholism. At the same time, these two notions are connected in the book, as being a teenager, Koren Zailckas tries to find her place in the world.

It should be noted that this is one of the most difficult periods in human life. The first drink of alcohol was the beginning. The main topic of the book is adolescence and the mistakes teenagers make trying to find their place in the modern society. The author tries to tell her story to the whole world with the purpose to show that the social problem is rather urgent and something should be done until it is not too late.

The book under discussion tells a real story of the author and a long period of life when she was an alcoholic refusing from this. The preface of the book starts with the words, “this is a kind of night that leaves a mark” (Zailckas, 2006, p. xi). The day when the author had the first drink is remembered.

The topic of drinking is central in the book. At the same time, the social problems are raised. The author writes on the first pages of the book that “the mean age of the first drink for girls is less than thirteen years old” (p. 4). It is possible to state that the alcoholism discussed in the book along with the age considered there makes the book focused on the sociological and psychological problem.

Considering the situation in the book and referencing it to the tendencies and changes in the modern world related to social and psychological problems adolescents have, it may be stated that if the government and society in general do nothing the book will be actual in 5, 10 and even 15 years from now.

The book is written for the adolescents and for their parents. It is really important for the book to be read not only by adolescents, but also by their parents this may help the latest to understand what is happening with their children and to provide help when it is not too late. Moreover, being the social problem, adolescent alcoholism should be treated accordingly, abuse and prohibition of something are not the best variants for help.

Parents should understand this. Psychologists may find this book the most useful as it covers personal experience which is extremely important. There are a lot of books which consider the same problem but most of them are written as the guides or theoretical issues. This book, vice versa, is more like a fiction literature which depicts serious problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It seems that the author does not state any argument. The book is more like a dairy where the author provides the reader with the consequent succession and smooth flow of situations, events, thoughts, etc. As it was mentioned above, the main theoretical problem of the book is the psychological reason for adolescents’ alcoholism and why it is higher between girls than between boys. The book states that girls have more problems when being teenagers as they have to correspond to the surrounding prejudices.

The world of teenagers is rather cruel and girls are more subjected to depressions than boys are. The general problem which stands before the reader is the lack of attention to the social problems adolescents have to face. The book depicts the problem of girl-boy sexual relations on the background of drinking and the problem of personal perception.

Dwelling upon personal life, the author states that she was not an alcoholic. The refusal to accept the problem is the core challenge many adolescents face. Moreover, the book depicts the problem of unstable psych of teenagers that adds to the number of social problems raised in the book. It is important to state that these problems are considered to be typical in the whole world.

It should be noted that the author uses a very effective method for demonstrating the main purpose of the book. So many words have been said about the social problem of teenagers that the phrases that alcohol is harmful and that adolescence is the most difficult period in human life are not heard anymore.

The author uses the best way to make people hear. The description of the theoretical framework is always boring what cannot be said about absorbing description of personal problems. The genuine language of the book adds to the expected effect. According to personal awareness of the problem, it may be said that the information in the book is readable and perfectly illustrates the “illness” of the society.

The book under discussion perfectly fits the problems discussed in the 13th chapter of the textbook Adolescence by Laurence Steinberg. The ideas discussed in the chapter “Psychological development during adolescence” can be easily related to the main topic of the book which is in the focus.

Sometimes people believe that “the problems of adolescence seem to fade away with time” (Steinberg, 2010, p. 403), but this opinion is wrong as the problems which appear while the adolescence are not caused by adolescence. The problem lies much deeper and it becomes psychological. The abuse of alcohol is provoked by depressions and anxiety which are the consequences of too high standards which exist in the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Story of Drunken Girlhood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Behavior and adolescents’ psychological and social problems are the main common ideas considered in the text. It may be said that the professional comments in the final chapter of the book are missing but they could be really important for parents who understand that they have the same problem described in the book and do not know what to do.

Reference List Steinberg, L. (2010). Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc.

Zailckas, K. (2006). Smashed: Story of a Drunken Girlhood. New York: Penguin Group USA.


Young Goodman Brown- Nathaniel Hawthorne Research Paper essay help site:edu

A Brief Biography The works of Nathaniel Hawthorne were a reflection of the history of his Puritan relations and the New England during his days. Some of his well-known works include The Scarlet Letter, Young Goodman Brown, and The House of the Seven Gables.

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1804. Two aspects of his early life especially influenced his writing career: the Hathornes had been persecuted due to their religious affiliations and the Salem witchcraft trials.

Nathaniel’s father passed on in 1808, leaving his wife and three kids-two girls and a boy – reliant on relatives. Nathaniel spent his early life in Salem and Maine. A leg injury limited his movements for a significant duration, during which he developed a passion for reading and thinking.

With assistance from his rich uncles, Hawthorne attended Bowdoin College in Maine (1821 – 24). Hawthorne had no interest of taking up any occupation, instead choosing to read and write short stories, many of which were published in newspapers. Among the novels were Fanshawe (1828), Young Goodman Brown (1835), and a collection, Twice Told Tales (1837).

In 1842, Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody and together they had three children. The family settled at Concorde, Massachusetts. Unable to support his family from writing alone, Hawthorne took up a position at the Salem County House as a surveyor in 1846, but was dismissed two years later because his political connections.

The dismissal turned to be a blessing in disguise as he wrote The Scarlet Letter, his most successful work. The duration from 1850 to 1853 was the most fruitful since he wrote The House of the Seven Gables and The Blithedale Romance.

Franklin Pierce, Hawthorne’s former schoolmate at Bowdoin, became president in 1852 and Hawthorne was selected as the American consul at England from 1853 – 57. He wrote Our Old Home (1863) during the stay at England. In 1857, the Hawthornes moved to Italy and settled mainly in Rome and Florence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They later returned to England and Nathaniel completed his final and lengthiest work, The Marble Faun (1860). The family returned to America and stayed in their permanent home at Concorde. He died on May 19, 1864 while visiting the New Hampshire Hills with Franklin Pierce (Meltzer, pp. 54).

Young Goodman Brown Plot

The story begins at night in Salem when Goodman Brown leaves his wife, Faith, to meet a strange person in the forest. As they meet, Brown and the individual advance further into the forest, at this juncture, it becomes evident that his companion is the devil, and the reason for that journey is to participate in an unknown ceremony, but clearly an evil one.

As they progress with the journey, Brown realizes that others are heading for the ceremony, most of whom are from Salem town and whom he had believed to be Christians and pure in heart. He is surprised and discouraged and once again opts to turn back, however, before he does this, he hears Faith’s voice and recognizes that she is the one who is to be initiated at the ceremony. Knowing that he has lost faith and Faith, he decides to join the ceremony.

At the ceremony, new converts are called to the altar for anointing, just when Faith is about to be anointed in blood, he shouts out her to look to heaven and refuse. He finds himself alone in the forest.

Arriving in Salem the following morning, Brown is unsure whether the occurrence was real or a dream, however, his outlook of those around him, including his wife, drastically changes.

Major Characters Goodman Brown

Goodman Brown exhibits purity and corruptibility as he wavers between believing in the innate kindness of the individuals around him and believing that the devil has conquered the minds of those he loves. When the story begins, Brown is convinced of the righteousness of his father and grandfather until the old man, possibly the devil, tells him otherwise.

Brown has faith in Goody Cloyse, the priest, and Deacon Gookin until the devil tells to him that Cloyse is a witch and Gookin is his assistant. Eventually, he is convinced that Faith, his wife, is upright and honest, until the devil shows him at the ceremony that she too is unclean. The revelations show Brown’s lack of a firm stand as he easily swayed. He shows us the good and evil sides of humankind.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Young Goodman Brown- Nathaniel Hawthorne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through his exposure of the good and evil sides of humankind, Hawthorne mentions what he believes as the concealed corruption of the Puritan society. Goodman Brown believes in the public portrayal of purity made by his father and the church leaders and in the communal formations that are built upon that purity.

Hawthorne uses Brown to show his audience that behind the public display of purity, the Puritans’ acts were adulterated. Satan tells Brown that he was there when his father, grandfather and other church members burned native Indians’ villages, suggesting that the founding of English country has a dim side that religion falls short of explaining.

Faith Brown

Faith Brown is Goodman Brown’s wife and serves a symbolical purpose in the novel. Brown leaves her at night to have a meeting with the devil, when asked why he was late, Brown answers “Faith kept me back a while” (Hawthorne, pp. 10). She stands for positive force in the society. Consequently, when Brown realizes that she too is evil, he cries “My Faith is gone” and runs frantically toward the witches’ assembly (Hawthorne, pp. 23).

Faith represents the solidity of the family and the domestic realm in the Puritan outlook. As her name hints, she seems to be most pure-hearted among the Puritans and functions as a substitute of sorts for religious emotions.

Her husband clings to her as he inquires about the righteousness of those he knew, drawing comfort from the fact that if Faith remains pure, then his own faith is worth defending. However, when he discovers that Faith too is corruptible, he believes that everyone around him is evil. Brown’s estrangement from Faith at the conclusion of the story is the worst result of his change of mind.

The Old Man/ Devil

In this novel, the devil seems to be a normal man, showing that everyone, including Brown, can be evil. The devil appears from the forest decently dressed just as any man in Salem would, but Goodman Brown discovers that the devil can emerge in any situation and fail to appear inapt.

By accentuating the chameleon nature of the devil, Hawthorne illustrates that the devil basically personifies the worst side of man. By mentioning that the devil could be Brown’s father, the writer builds a link between them, leaving the readers to speculate whether the two are related or the devil is Brown’s evil side. Brown’s contact with the devil affects him forever.

Critique of the Novel Nancy Bunge in Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Study of the Short Fiction (1993) critiques the book based on the conduct of Goodman Brown (Bunge, 14). She mentions that everybody is corrupt and can move along honestly and openly with others after admitting this grim truth. Yet Brown rejects this reality and destroys his life by trying to maintain his righteousness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Young Goodman Brown- Nathaniel Hawthorne by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The novel reveals this fact so painfully that, despite the huge amount of critical commentary on the story, many recognize it as the novel’s theme. Bunge is right; the climax of the novel takes place at the ceremony, especially when Brown finds out that Faith was also evil. This changes him forever.

Nina Baym in Thwarted Nature: Hawthorne as Feminist, argues from the outlook of the female characters. She mentions that the protagonists, regularly male, decline any sexual bond with a female figure, normally a spouse or fiancée (136).

In most cases, this action has a grave effect on the scorned woman. Stories written prior to 1842 have a female character demolished only by accident, not purposely. In Young Goodman Brown, Brown’s separation with his wife was not intentional, as he had intended to return to her after the appointment with the devil.

Baym asserts that the act of a man leaving his wife demonstrates the male’s disinterest to the affairs of their female counterparts. She defines women as sexual beings and the men as “sexually frozen” (138). Baym suggests that Hawthorne’s male characters are engrossed with their female counterparts but the only way of making contact with them is through desire.

Joan Easterly asserts that Brown is a changed man after his encounter in the forest. Hawthorne shows how Brown fails the trial of his moral and divine being. For instance, brown does not cry after seeing Faith and those who were close to him at the ceremony.

This indicates that he has no compassion for these people and therefore cannot a Christian himself (340). I disagree with this point, Brown was filled with so much grief after seeing that his father, grandfather and church leaders were all corruptible. Finding out that his wife was also evil was just too painful for him and we see him shouting to her to look to heaven and refuse the initiation.

Works Cited Baym, Nina. Thwarted Nature: Hawthorne as Feminist. 1993. New York, Twayne Publishers.

Bunge, Nancy. Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Study of the Short Fiction. 1993. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Easterly, Joan Elizabeth. Lachrymal Imagery in Hawthorne’s ‘Young Goodman Brown. Studies in Short Fiction. 1991, pp. 339-43.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 2005. Young Goodman Brown. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.

Meltzer, Milton. Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Biography. 2007. Washington: Twenty-First Century Books.


Fight Club – Analysis of Consumerism Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Analytical part



Thesis statement Ever since David Fincher’s 1999 film Fight Club was released to the theaters, it had almost instantly attained the status of a cult movie. And, there are many objective reasons to believe that the actual explanation, as to this film’s popularity with movie-goers, has to do with its clearly defined anti-consumerist spirit.

As it was pointed out by Dussere (2006): “The film (Fight Club) suggests that American culture is entirely suffused by commerce; there is no need to go to the supermarket because the supermarket is everywhere” (24). In our paper, we will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length, while analyzing the essence of anti-consumerist themes and motives, contained in the movie.

Analytical part The close watching of Fight Club reveals an undeniable fact that it was namely due to narrator’s continuous exposal to American consumerist culture, that caused him to succumb to depression.

In the memorable scene where, prior to having met Taylor Durden, Jack/Protagonist (later revealed as the actual Tyler Durden) expounds on the particulars of his lifestyle, viewers are being taken for the walk through Jack’s apartment that features pieces of furniture with price tags explicitly displayed above them, as if his apartment was nothing less of a store.

And, as it appears from the context of Jack’s monologue, the fact that he kept on buying ‘trendy’ things for his condo had very little to do with his genuine desire to own them (due to their sheer impracticality), but rather with the fact that he was made to believe that by owning these things, he was proving his ‘sophistication’ in its own eyes: “Like so many others, I had become a slave to the Ikea nesting instinct… If I saw something clever, like a coffee table in the shape of a yin-yang, I had to have it” (00.04.48).

Nevertheless, the harder Jack strived to embrace consumerist spirit, the stronger were becoming his mental anxieties, sublimated in his inability to enjoy healthy sleep.

As Diken and Basse (2002) had put it: “As a spectator of his own life, he (Jack) paradoxically lives in inertia in the midst of a mobile network society. Jack also suffers from insomnia, a typical pathology of the hyper-mobile network society” (349). Apparently, as time went by, Jack was becoming increasingly aware of the fact that his material possessions were endowing him with only superficial sense of identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sheer futility of consumerism, as essentially inhuman money-driven philosophy, is being explored even further in the scene where, as a recall coordinator, Jack explains to the passenger on the plane the actual mechanics of a car-recall procedure. According to protagonist, the considerations of protecting people’s lives affect recall-related corporate decisions the least.

If the cost of a recall is expected to be higher than the cost of dealing with lawsuits, initiated by unsatisfied customers, the car-manufacturing company will not move a finger: “Take the number of vehicles in the field, A. Multiply it by the probable rate of failure, B. Multiply the result by the average out-of-court settlement, C. AxBxC=X. If X is less than the cost of a recall, we don’t do one” (00.20.25).

Thus, we can only agree with Smith and Lesley (2002), who had rightly pointed out to the fact that the theme of consumerism-driven corporate greed plays a substantial role in defining movie’s semantic subtleties: “The overall framing of the film (Fight Club) seems to revolve around the personal emptiness and appalling greed of corporate America, to which the main characters represent a nihilistic and terroristic response” (129).

Throughout the initial parts of the movie, Jack becomes increasingly discontent with highly mechanistic essence of his professional duties.

Still, it was not until the time when Jack got together for a drink with Durden, after his apartment blew up in rather mysterious manner, that he was beginning to realize the sheer vainness of his existential mode.

There is another memorable scene in the movie, when after having ‘sophisticatedly’ referred to a blanket as duvet, Jacks gets to be lectured by Durden on the sheer irrelevance of utilization of sophisticatedly sounding but essentially consumerist terms, for as long as exploring one’s identity is being concerned: “Why do guys like you and I know what a duvet is? Is this essential to our survival in the hunter-gatherer sense of the word? No. What are we then? Consumers” (00.28.48).

Later in the same conversation, Durden states: “Murder, crime, poverty. These things don’t concern me. What concerns me are celebrity magazines, television with 500 channels” (00.29.06). By coming up with these remarks, Durden implied that people’s consumerist urges deny them a true sense of identity, because despite what advertisers want us to believe, one’s existential identity is not something that is being purchased but something that is being earned.

We will write a custom Essay on Fight Club – Analysis of Consumerism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After all, it matters very little whether a particular individual surrounds itself with ‘brand names’ or not – all that is important is whether he or she can be considered a productive member of society by adopting intellectually honest stance in life. It is specifically one’s ability to see through superficialness, which defines the extent of such person’s ability to live in a dignified manner.

As Durden had put it: “You’re not your job. You’re not how much you have in the bank. You’re not the car you drive. You’re not the contents of your wallet” (01.21.12). Nevertheless, it would be wrong to suggest that film’s foremost motives are being concerned with director’s intention to promote essentially anarchist agenda.

As the context of Fight Club implies – the evils of consumerism should not be thought of as ‘thing in itself’, but rather as something that undermine consumeristically-minded individuals’ ability to act in socially responsible manner, especially if they happened to be men.

Nowadays, American large cities get to be colonized by legal and illegal immigrants from a Third World, who despite lacking intelligence, are nevertheless being endowed with perceptional manliness – that is, they are not afraid of indulging in violence when circumstances call.

On another hand, many native-born American men appear to be simply deprived of psychological qualities that would allow them adopt an active stance in life, when it comes to protecting their own interests – the fact that consumerism became an integral element of their existence, caused them to become unnaturally effeminate.

In the scene when Durden gives an order to the members of a Fight Club to go out on the street, to pick up a fight with a stranger and to lose that fight, viewers are being shown a virtual impossibility of a task: “Now, this is not as easy as it sounds. Most people, normal people, do just about anything to avoid a fight” (01.12.09).

And yet, it is namely the celebration of masculine virtues that has always been the yardstick of Western civilization. Therefore, in Fight Club director subtly implies that consumerism does only prevent men’s endowment with strongly defined individuality, but it also creates objective preconditions for the integrity of Western civilization to be undermined from within.

Conclusion Just as we have suggested in Introduction, Fight Club is best referred to as the movie that exposes the counter-productive essence of consumerist spirit.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fight Club – Analysis of Consumerism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though that, while trying to oppose consumerism, film’s major characters indulge in behavior that can hardly be defined as socially appropriate, they nevertheless do a very good job emphasizing the conceptual fallaciousness of consumerism as something that undermines the integrity of people’s individuality. In its turn, this explains the cult status of Fight Club – the themes and motifs, explored throughout its entirety; reveal consumerism as misleading pathway towards happiness.

Apparently, it is not simply an accident that in one of film’s final scenes, Durden talks about his vision of a perfect world as such, where people would cease being consumerist automatons: “In the world I see, you’re stalking elk through the Grand Canyon forests, around the ruins of Rockefeller Center” (01.37.55).

Obviously enough, Durden’s idea as to what accounts for happiness in this life is being shared by a number citizens, who despite being encouraged to indulge in consumerism on full-time basis, subconsciously strive for something greater than simply attaining the status of ‘settled individuals’.

Therefore, it would only be appropriate, on our part, to conclude this paper by restating its initial thesis – it is namely because themes and motifs, contained in Fight Club, correlate with great many people’s anti-consumerist subconscious anxieties, which explains film’s unwavering popularity.

References Diken, Biilent


Organizational Research and Theory Essay cheap essay help

As defined by Daft (2009), organizations are bodies with goals, structured and coordinated activities, and are linked to the external environment (p.11). Organizational theory depends on how a company operates and how the environment affects the running of the organization. In simple terms, organizational theory, also referred to organizational behavior, is defined as the study of how individuals or groups of persons act in an organization.

The organizational research and design are essential during restructuring or effecting changes in organizations; however, it is essential to apply the correct organizational changes to increase effectiveness and efficiency (Bollingtoft, Hakonsson and Niesen, 2009, p.79).

Organization theory is a tool used by managers to understand, diagnose, and respond to organizational needs (Daft, 2009, p.10). This theory can be applied to all industries, for-profit and non-profit organizations. Since organizations are not static, there is need for constant changes to adapt to new environment in the market. Some of the causes of the constant change include globalization, competition, diversity, technology, ethics, and social responsibility.

On the other hand, organization designs are means of evaluating which/and why certain methods are chosen to effect and manage structure and culture, and to control activities in order to achieve goals. Moreover, the benefits of proper organizational design are; the company is able to handle contingences, gains competitive edge, facilitate management of diversity, and promote efficiency, speed, and innovation.

Introduction to Organizational Theory Code of ethics provides a framework of operation and code of conduct for persons and stakeholders in an organization (Berbeito, 2004, p.122).

Code of Ethics The intent of this code is to guide all stakeholders and employees on lawful and ethical behavior. This code applies to all people including the directors. Various codes of ethics are discussed below.

Compliance with laws, regulations, rules, and policies: The employees and the directors should learn and comply with the rules, regulations, and policies of the company and the government, while any contravention will result to disciplinary measures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflict of interest: Employees should not engage in activities that will result in conflict of interest; they should engage in acts that promote the interest of the company.

Employees’ relations: Employees should promote harmony and avoid discrimination at the work place. In addition, they should embrace diversity, inclusiveness, and understanding.

Confidential company information: Confidential company information is defined in three ways: information that is not known to the public, information that confers the company economic advantage and any information that reasonable measures are taken to keep it secret. All employees have the obligation of protecting classified information from the public domain or other competitors. The employees have a clear understanding of what information is confidential or not.

Violation: Violation of the code of ethic will result to disciplinary measure to the parties involved, and this may be in form of dismissal, legal recourse, or compensation for losses incurred by the firm as a result of employees failure to comply with the code of ethics.

The relationship between organizational theory, design, and change on one hand and organizational structure and culture on the other hand is that, they both depend on each other and influence one another to an extent that neither will be effective without the presence of the other.

Organization culture refers to the common values and norms that control how individuals in an organization interact. It includes interaction between members in the organization, with customers and suppliers and other persons outside the organization. On the other hand, the organizational designs are routes picked by managers to manage the structure and culture, while change is the process of current position to a desired one.

Organizational structure involves formal or informal frameworks and policies that define reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes. Moreover, organizational structures are indicators of type of culture in an organization. Managers can use these structures to shape the culture, values and strengthen or introduce the desired culture (Daft, 2009, p.381).

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Research and Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational Design within the Global Environment There are several types of organizational structures used in organization, each having its advantages and disadvantages. Centralization is a structural policy where the decision-making organ of the organization is concentrated at the top of the organizational hierarchy while decentralization is structure where decisions are made in consideration of all levels of the hierarchy (Griffins and Moorhead, 2009, p.418).

Employees at the lower end of hierarchy are involved in decision-making in decentralization, while in centralization, they are not involved. The importance of decentralizing is that decisions are made by the persons who are involved in the implementation – lower rank staff.

The factors that affect the balance between centralization and decentralization are purpose and goals of an organization, knowledge, and experience of the executives, size of the organization, geographical dispersion, technical complexity of tasks, and the period of the decision. Further, others include the importance of the decision, views of subordinates, planning and control procedures, and environmental factors (Rao


Aristotle’s Ethical Theory Essay custom essay help

Virtues results from human actions as perception of moral character of a person emanates from various activities he/she does. Human actions and activities aim at attainment of excellence, which is a virtue in every aspect of life. Synchronized actions focus on achieving one or more objectives as ends of excellence.

The difference between plants or animals and human being is the rational principle. The rational principle makes human being have ability to make decisions and act in a particular way. Through thoughts, human being can coordinate actions that determine ethics because actions underscore ethics.

For instance, the goodness or badness of ‘a good player’ or ‘a bad player’, are descriptions of the act of playing, and they portray virtues of players. Actions are imperative in achieving virtues since no one can have virtues by mere theoretical understanding of what ethics are. Due to diversity and degree of actions, it is very complicated to attribute certain actions to specific virtues, thus humans do not have stable character traits.

There are two types of virtues, moral and intellectual virtues; moral virtues emanate from habits, while intellectual virtue is an innate characteristic that undergoes transformation in the course of life due to learning and experience. Nature gives primary moral virtues and through perfection by habitual activities, one attains a set of given moral virtues.

Therefore, habituation is a process of achieving ethics because learning and continued exercising is fundamental in achieving excellence in a certain field. For example, one becomes a runner by running, likewise, people become ‘good’ when they do good or ‘bad’ by doing bad deeds. The emphasis here is that, actions have direct relation with virtues for virtues cannot occur without actions. Consequently, some actions underscore certain virtues. Interestingly, same action produces both a virtue and vice.

For instance, in the act of playing there are both good and bad players. This shows that, deficiency or excess of an action results into vices, while intermediate actions give virtues. Some actions such as killing have no virtues, and therefore, if actions only determine moral virtues, there could be indefinite virtues in society proving that humans do not have stable characters.

The assertion that human beings do not have stable characteristics poses a serious threat to ethical theories because it demands continued teaching of morality. If human moral values changes constantly due the influence of actions, then it is a daunting task to control moral virtues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The weakness of philosophical theories is that they are mere intellectual theories void actions or activities, which require habitual practice as a process of achieving moral virtues. Ethical theories need to incorporate flexible models that have actions to gather the unstable characters of humans.

Since humans do not have stable character traits, ethical theories provide basis of the understanding moral virtues, but achieving the virtues demands actions. Knowing what actions give certain moral virtues enables one to pursue morality by habitually exercising them.

However, one should also know that excesses or deficiencies of actions will result into vices and moderation of actions is vital in achieving desired virtues. Pleasures and pains accompany pursuit of actions because excessive pleasures results into overindulgence, which is a vice, while too much pain results into great fear, which is also a vice. Hence, moderation of actions enables one to achieve moral virtues, though it is hard to determine what are the actions, and the extent of exercising them.


Due Legal Process in the United States Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasonable Suspicion and Probable Cause

Exceptions to Warrant Requirement

Right to Counsel



Introduction Due process is legal principle that ensures protection of civil rights against violation by the government in order to guarantee justice, fairness, and liberty in the application of the law. The due process of the law is fundamental in law application since at some instances, government can act in contravention to the law process thus violating an individual’s rights. The United States amendments provide for the basic rights of citizens and further protect them against unfair treatment by the government.

According to Fourteenth Amendment of United States, “no State shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,” (Garlinger, 2009, p. 32). This amendment gives United States citizens immunity against undue processes of the law by the government. This essay explores the due process of law regarding the Fourth and the Sixth Amendment of the United States.

Reasonable Suspicion and Probable Cause The fourth Amendment in the United States constitution provides rights to citizen not to have unreasonable searches of their premises and arrests without warrant. However, the police too have right to conduct warrantless searches under exigent circumstances. Exigent circumstances are situations that require immediate and expedient action of law enforcement by the police, for example, in face of evidence destruction or planning of crime.

Reasonable suspicion and probable cause are two approaches that the police use in determining exigent circumstances. Reasonable suspicion requires the police to use their judgment in deciding the exigent circumstances without any tangible evidence so that they can conduct warrantless searches. On the other hand, probable cause demands the police to have tangible evidence of exigent circumstances before conducting warrantless searches.

Sonntag argues that, ” reasonable suspicion as opposed to a probable cause requirement strikes the appropriate balance between the legitimate law enforcement concerns at issue in the execution of search warrants and the individual privacy interests affected by no-knock entries” (2003, p. 635). Probable cause limits police investigation and gives a chance to the suspect to escape or destroy important evidence.

For example, an exigent circumstance where the police suspect destruction of criminal evidence demands the police to either use probable cause or reasonable suspicion approach. Exigent circumstances based on probable cause exist when “facts and circumstances within the officer’s knowledge are sufficient to warrant a prudent person, in believing, in the circumstances shown, that the suspect has committed, is committing, or is about to commit an offense” (Sonntag, 2003, p. 651).

The requirement of facts and concrete reasons when determining exigent circumstances are quite strict for the police to conduct warrantless searches and arrests. Reasonable suspicion approach gives the police leeway to conduct warrantless searches and arrests contrary to the United States Fourth Amendment because the police can determine exigent circumstances based on mere speculation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under circumstances where the police officers do not have enough evidence to determine exigent circumstances by probable cause approach, and the matter in question is of great public interest, then, reasonable suspicion can warrant searches or arrests. Davidson describes reasonable suspicion as “a particularized and objective basis for suspecting the person stopped of criminal activity, and probable cause to search as existing in the belief that contraband or evidence of a crime will be found (2006, p. 3).

The determination of reasonableness needs objective suspicion of suspects. If the police officer believes and suspects that there is an imminent criminal activity, destruction of evidence, and the criminals are aware of police tracking them, then reasonable suspicion can suffice warrantless searches or arrests. Therefore, factors surrounding exigent circumstances determine whether the police will employ probable cause or reasonable suspicion in their warrantless searches and arrests.

Exceptions to Warrant Requirement Although the Fourth Amendment of the United States constitution protects citizens against searches and arrests unless warranted, the Supreme Court has realized that this is not always applicable and has come up with exceptions to warrant requirement. These exceptions are exigent circumstances, searches with consent and automobile exception amongst others.

An exigent circumstance is a situation where it compels police officers to conduct warrantless searches or arrests due to danger the circumstances pose. Glenn argues that, “police officers who have established probable cause that evidence is likely to be at a certain place and do not have time to get a search warrant may conduct a warrantless search or seizure” (2007, p. 142). Due to danger an exigent circumstance poses to the police, public, or destruction of evidence, it qualifies warrantless searches or arrests of the suspects.

For instance, exigent circumstances occur when one is in great danger and needs rescue, when there is danger of evidence destruction, and when there is an impending criminal activity. Under such circumstances, there is no enough time for the police to acquire warrant and at the same time prevent the imminent danger.

Warrantless search can also occur when an individual consent to it. The condition of the consent demands that, the person giving out consent must be the owner or sharing the searched property or residence. For example, husband or wife can consent search of their bedroom but not a relative living in the same house. Automobile search is an exception of warrant requirement because automobile cannot wait for the police officer to obtain a warrant.

Warrantless searches and arrests are applicable “if a government agent has probable cause to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime in the time it would take to get a warrant, the car, driver and contraband or evidence could be long gone” (Harr


Challenges Facing Small and Medium Enterprises in Turkey Research Paper essay help free

Proposed research topic The challenges that small scale business in Turkey face when competing with multinationals and large-scale business. The research will finally devise a way that the government can assist in development of small-scale businesses (SMEs).

Introduction Republic of Turkey is the sixth largest Turkic country, located in Southeastern Europe. The country ranks number 15 as largest country in the world in terms of GDP. It is ranks 17th largest Nominal GDP, in the world. According to census 2009, the country had a population of 77million, with a quarter of them living in the rural areas.

The population is dense with an average of 93 people per kilometre squared. Two thirds of the population are in the age bracket of 19 to 55 years. This youthful population is increasingly establishing small-scale business as their source of income.

SMEs are also a form of innovations. Though the country is, highly industrialised, small-scale business survival rate is under threaten from international multinationals and large scale businesses. The small businesses are facing a challenge in competing with multinationals, monopolies and large-scale businesses.

Trade is the backbone of the economy and thus its efficiency results to better functioning of the economy. According to EU definition, an SME is any business that has between 10 and 250 employees. If the employees are between 10 and 50, then the business are small scale and between 50 and 250 as micro scales[1].

Aim of the research The purpose of the research is to understand the problems SMEs face in the changing competitive business environment. It will also make recommendations that can assist future business people in performing their duties effectively.

Objectives The following are the objectives that the researcher will satisfy through the research:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To evaluate and understand the problems facing SMEs in Turkey

To find out the role the government can play to make business playing ground level

To evaluate what are the main reasons that make SMEs fail within their first five years

To devise a mechanism that can be used by existing and prospectus SMEs holders to remain competitive in the developed Turkish environment.

Theoretical background SMEs are the backbone of developed economies; however, they are facing a challenge to start up and remaining competitive in Turkey. The greatest threat of growth and sustainability is from multinational and large-scale businesses, which have dominated a large position of the country’s economy.

Over three quarters of Turkish population live in the urban and cities where business flourish. SMES, in cities, urban areas and rural areas are facing similar problems mostly associated with the competition they get from the large established companies. The government have tried to protect the local companies but the success of set programs is not high. Despite the economy being among the well developed in the world, SMEs are required especially in this era of recovery from global recession.

Literature review This section will focus on studies and data collected in Turkey as well as other countries on problems that SMEs face. It will also evaluate some of the way the government of Turkey has implemented to level the world of business environment in the country.

The rate of start up businesses failure

The rate of start up survival varies across industries and economies. There are some economies with a high rate of sustainability because of strategies set by their governments, and there are countries, which rarely retain the SMEs. Certain industries are move vulnerable to fail than others. The service industry suffers more as it faces the highest rate of fail compared to good sector. Mining has the lowest rate of failure (see the appendixes for the latest statistics on failure)

Problems facing SMEs Unfair competition

Multinationals operates in different countries, thus they are able to fetch for raw materials at a competitive price that local SMEs companies. When raw materials are sort at a low price, then the cost of production of a certain product or service is relatively low.

At low prices of production, then the companies are able to sell their goods at relatively lower prices than the prices quoted by local companies. Other than physical raw materials, the companies are able to get cheap labour, by decentralizing their labour intensive processes to developing countries where labour is relatively cheap. This lowers the cost of products even more.

The large-scale companies and multinationals enjoy economies of scale. They are able to produce and sell at high volumes, a system that reduces common costs associated with a certain product. This makes the companies able to sell large volume at a low price[2].

We will write a custom Research Paper on Challenges Facing Small and Medium Enterprises in Turkey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Capital

For an efficient and competitive business, capital, both financial and human are required. Although Turkey has among the world best banking system, the system follows the traditional banking system where loans are preferred to businesses that have solid assets like land and properties. At development stage, SMEs do not have those required assets and thus they have limited access to loans. Limited access to loan is a limited growth rate.

When the loans are available, they are from local companies, which are relatively at a higher rate than the rate offered by international banks to multinationals. Lack of capital and high rate of borrowed loan result to slow growth rate in SMEs; some companies depend on self-financing or borrowing from friends or relatives. This many not be adequate and thus limits the rate of growth the company can have.

Minimum capital limits the level of technology that an SME can use in production. The available capital has a limited level of technology that it can adopt which may be inappropriate. On the other hand as technology changes, the old machines need to be upgraded or faced out all together, however, SMEs are not able to do this as these assets are held by loans they are financing[3].

Technology innovation and globalization

Since the mid-1990s, economist, politicians and policy makers have been concerned about the effect that technology have on SMEs. They are of the opinion that the rate of technological development in the world is offering a challenge to the SMEs. They are left stuck with the old technological system, while their competitors, who are large scale and multinationals, have moved to higher better technologies.

The rate that the world technology is growing is high. The pace is so high for local SMEs to cope with. Other than the world general rate, multinationals and large-scale companies are the drivers of technology. They ensure that there is an improvement in technology to benefit what they do.

This is where SMEs are caught. They do not have the expertise and the funds to finance a certain research. When a large company has adopted an in-house technology, it goes a long way in improving efficiency in the company. This goes a long way in reducing the cost of production. SMEs are left to struggle upgrade their technology all in vain[4].

The Turkish culture

The people of Turkey are more willing to buy from well-established companies who produce goods with high level of efficiency, other than buying for local companies trying to upgrade their standards. This country notion is at the expense of SMEs and they suffer a reduced market. When multinationals are adverting, they are able to place different advertising tools in the countries streets, media and social networks.

This is at a high cost. SMEs cannot be able to pay such costs and retain the business running successfully. Lack of such strong marketing tools works to the bad of the company as there is minimum awareness of the existence of SMEs products in the country. Some products that are innovated by SMEs, but they lack proper access to the market. The results are companies with a reduced sale.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenges Facing Small and Medium Enterprises in Turkey by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lack of managerial expertise

SMEs suffer from lack of professional expertise. It happens because families, which leave them to their children who may not have the required level of managerial experts and professionalism, manage some of them. The success of a business is dependent on the quality of decision that its management can make.

If they make quality, timely and speedy responsive decisions, then they are likely to succeed. The case is different in Turkey. SMEs managers lack the exposure and professionalism that large scale and multinationals have. Multinationals are able to get employees from all over the world. This diversity of employees creates a pool of knowledge and expertise necessary for current business world.

Generally, managers, who are mostly the owners, develop their own system of management, which is trial and error to resolve different issues in their business. This kind of decision-making is more intuitive than analytical, resulting to a narrow short-term focus than aiming at developing long-term strategic decisions. Although the same intuitive mind led to the establishment, the same mind may limit the growth. When change arises making complex decisions becomes a problem, then the SMEs suffer.

For a successful business, education training and information are necessary. Managers and leaders of SME s lack the three important elements and thus suffer. Studies shows that those people operated by educated people in their area of speciality as well as business management have high chances of survival than those run by less educate people[5].

Scanty Markets Information

Information is power; however, SMEs lack this important component of production. When a company has access of updated timely information, it is able to make decisions that are responsive to its needs. For example, customer preferences keep changing, for success a business need to keep with the pace of change so as it can always produce goods that met customers need and expectations.

The lack of information make the companies suffer this advantage of offering quality goods. Since Turkish multinational and large-scale businesses have access of this information through their internal research and development programs, they are able to remain competitive and even overdo the local SMEs.

There is also a level of ignorance on the part of SMEs holders, they mostly depend on information they get directly from the market and forgets there are national and international databases that can offer much needed information. They thus make decisions with scanty information. Decisions made from scanty information

What the government have done to protect SMEs Turkish government have recognised the need to protect local and international SMEs. Although the country is a capitalised country, the government have controls the economy using monetary and fiscal policies. Some of the ways it has implemented are:

Setting price ceilings and floors

The government have set floors and ceiling for some commodities in their efforts to protect the consumer and the SMEs. This is in industries like oil and petroleum and electric energy. These moves aim at creating a level playing ground. The success of such strategies is that they address specific industries and leave majority of industries exposed to unfair trade from large scale and multinationals. Another move that closely links with setting prices is having tariffs and non-tariffs trade barriers.

Raw materials, semi finished products and finished products imported in Turkey are taxed differently to protect local manufactures. For example, beef from United States of America is highly taxed as it enjoys subsidies form the home country making it very competitive to beef in Turkey. Tariff and non-tariffs are moves to ensure that price is controlled.

Adoption of Micro and SME banking

Turkish central banks have recognized the effect that Grameen banking system can have in the economy. The banking system founder, Muhammad Yunus, focused on micro and small scale businesses. Although the system targeted developing countries, it has increasingly taking course in developed country with turkey being one of them.

The government in embracing this move aims at creating a better playing ground among different players. SMEs can now get some loans at relatively better prices. The challenge is on the amount of loan that these institutions can offer. There are also concerns about their sustainability.

Developing a public database

One of the areas that Turkish government has looked into is on creation of a database that SMEs can use to make decisions. The databases also have links to international information that can assist businesses in making more decisions that are informed. There are different databases divided in different industries and updated at most weekly. The only problem with these sites is that they only contain general information that managers in SMEs may consider not very important.

They tend to focus on the economy at macro level while SMEs would be better off with micro statistics on their areas of operation. There is also ignorance from SMEs owners and managers. They have not embraced scientific decision-making mechanisms and thus they do not use these sites[6].

Research Methodology There different methods of collecting data to fulfil the objectives of the research, however, the researcher will use primary research methods and secondary research methods. Measures will be undertaken to ensure that all data used is relevant. The approach will be on a larger perspective but will be shortened by analysis to be applicable in the case of Turkey.

Primary sources of data

Primary method of collecting data aims at collecting first hand information about an issue. In this case, the researcher wants to evaluate the issues faced by SMEs in Turkey. He will use the following methods of data collection:


Interviews will be conducted on both SMEs traders and customers in general. SMEs operators will be approached and interviews conducted to explain the challenges that they have faced when operating businesses in Turkey. Before being given the questionnaire, the researcher will have discussed with them the trend in business to ensure that they relax and give true information.

Since the number of SMEs is high, the interviews will be conducted face to face in five provinces, which are İzmir, Bursa, Istanbul, Ankara, and Adana. The questions will also ask the operators to give their opinion on what they think government could do to assist them (please see the appendixes 2 for a sample questionnaire to SMEs operators)

Interviews to consumers of different products will be conducted to get in-depth information on the reason why they buy from multinationals and large companies instead of SMEs product. This data will assist in recognizing the bridge between what the multinationals and large scale are producing and what SMEs are producing (see appendixes 2 for sample questionnaire).

Focus groups

Focus groups are the second method of data collection that will be used. Under this method, groups will be made to discuss the trend in SMEs companies. The groups will consist of approximately ten business people in SMEs as well as consumers. The researcher will be the focus group leader and thus he will focus the direction of the group.

Secondary sources

A number of materials exist in the library, the researcher will use them to get data; focus will be on those materials written by professionals in trade and businesses. All material to be used will be vetted for relevance and the qualification of the writer. The focus will remain in Turkey but to get a deeper understanding, review of journal s and academic articles written for other developed countries will be done.

Other than books, the researcher will use government resources that will give policies and trends in the country. It will also use executives reports regarding the type of good customers prefer. For example, a certain industry say cosmetics will be targeted and business statistics on which products chosen will be developed[7].

Electronic sources This will mainly be the world’s trade statistics as well as Turkey government website. The sites will be preferred as reference point since they offer more updated information than books, which may have been written some years back. Certain sources those are not academic like Wikipedia, yahoo answer and Answer.com will not be used. Any electronic source used must pass the test of integrity. United Nations and World Bank websites will be of use to get data from an international body and angle.

Rationale for choosing these methods When using secondary data, the researcher will develop a rich historical background on the matters at hand. The method will offer good literature, which will broaden the topic of research for better analysis. Secondary sources of information on the other hand will give information not limited to Turkey but will offer information in other developed countries. This is important for better analysis.

When using interviews, some information that might have not been captured in books and journals available in the library will be captured. This is a source of rich data for a more updated and responsive analysis. It should also be noted that books, periodicals and journals may have some theories they advocate that are not responsive, however when primary source of data is used, applicable solutions are developed.

Focus groups will be facilitated to discuss various issues facing SMEs; they will offer rich information that can be used for quality analysis. Different industries will be combined in focus groups and common problems and solutions devised. Internet sources will be used to get updated information about the current trend in the market[8] [9](Appendixes 4 gives a timeline of how activities will follow).

Results, Findings and Discussion From the literature review, it is clear that SMEs are facing numerous challenges competing with established multinationals and large corporations. Although the government seem to be willing to assist SMEs, there are a lot to be done by the government and entrepreneurs. Government cannot protect SMEs forever but need to develop a level-playing group for both large scale and small-scale businesses.

Before an entrepreneur establishes a business, he should take the initiative of attending business basic managerial course and realise the benefits that can accrue from scientific methods of decision-making. Government libraries, statistics should be of great use to traders as they get updated information on current business trends. This will assist them in making quality decision competitive decisions.

Other than the government using the old system of protection, it should appreciate that Turkish economy has changed and it need changed policies and strategies. The best solutions should come from the traders themselves since they have information at hand[10].

Bibliography Oxley, Martin, and Brendan Light. “Research 2.0.” International Journal of Market Research 51, no. 2 (March 2009): 153-161. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost .

Steier, Lloyd P., James J. Chrisman, and Jess H. Chua. “Entrepreneurial Management and Governance in Family Firms: An Introduction.” Entrepreneurship: Theory


Analysis of Impact of Culture Shock on Individual Psychology Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Xia defines culture as a vague concept with differences in such factors as sight, customs, religion, tradition, and thoughts. When people move to another country, they often encounter these differences (Xia 97). Due to the extreme differences in culture that people often encounter, it becomes quite hard to adjust to new culture and they are mentally affected hence experiencing stress because of alien traditions.

This stress is as a result of confusion and emotional discomfort and it is manifested by a number of symptoms like anxiety, depression and feeling vulnerable (Xia 97). However, Xia’s research suggests some steps that can help reduce the shock or its impact. Accordingly, he states that Pre-Departure preparation reduces chances of suffering stress.

People need to be prepared for the new and different culture before travelling abroad in what is called pre-departure. Xia also purports that Understanding the stages of culture shock is also pertinent to adjustment process. The author addressed four steps; honeymoon phase, (Xia 98), Negativity phase, Adjustment phase, and Mastery stage (Xia 98).

According to the author’s analysis, when an individual has already settled in the new culture, he/she has great chance of limiting or totally alleviating stress as he/she continues adapting. Self confidence builds efficacy which in turn builds the belief that an individual can do a certain task.

Similarly, optimism decreases anxiety and instils the zeal to learn (Xia 100). The author also found out that acceptance of the new culture as it is makes an individual more comfortable and adjustment is smooth and successful (Xia 100). Another crucial factor identified by Xia is Social Support.

When people offer solace, encouragement, approval and advice, personal ability to function and adjust is enhanced (Xia 100). The methods suggested to improve adaptation to new culture may not work all the time for all the people, familiarization with new culture and understanding culture shock stages works better for most people (Xia 100). Reducing stress when entering new culture is pertinent but author notes that this cannot be eliminated entirely.

Some anxiety and depression motivates learning (Xia 100). Due to high levels of, culture shock is common. With such a Situation, cross cultural communication is now a global concern with individual ability to easily and effectively adjust to new culture being rewarded and given more attention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Xia, Junzi. Analysis of Impact of Culture Shock on Individual Psychology. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 1. 2(2009): 97-102


Advances made by Sir Robert Peel Essay essay help online: essay help online

Sir Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet was a British Conservative who was and still is a respected leader in national and international affairs. He had 2nd Baronet to his name for the reason that he shared the same name with his father who was referred to as 1st Baronet. He had two stints as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was Home Secretary, a period during which he was instrumental in establishing the contemporary idea of the police force which has impacted law enforcement in other parts of the world since then (Adelman, 1989, p. 4).

As Prime Minister, he annulled the Corn Laws and came up with the Tamworth Manifesto that led to the establishment of the Conservative Party from the defunct Tory Party.

Peel got himself into political affairs at the age of twenty one as legislator for Irish Cashel Tipperary, being elected unopposed. He had the backing of his father and Sir Arthur Wellesley who was later to become Duke of Wellington. Peel’s maiden speech at the commencement of the 1810 sitting was praised by the Speaker as second only to that of William Pitt.

During his tenure as Chief Secretary in Dublin in 1813, he recommended the establishment of a professional law enforcement force, which later came to be referred to as the “Peelers”. For the subsequent decade he had stints at a succession of somewhat unimportant positions within the Tory administrations (Ramsay, 1969, p. 26). He also shifted constituencies twice, first to Chippenham and then Oxford University in 1817. From the 1930 he shifted to Tamworth where he stayed until his passing away.

Peel showed that he was one of the growing lights of the Tory party and first got into cabinet occupying the Home Secretary docket in 1822. During his stay in that office he instituted some significant alterations of British criminal law, the most remembered being the setting up of the Metropolitan Police Force through the Metropolitan Act of 1829.

Changes were also carried out in criminal law where the crimes liable to be punished by death were trimmed down. Adjustments were also carried out on the gaol scheme whereby payment for gaolers was initiated and learning for convicts.

Peel stepped down as Home Secretary after Lord Liverpool who was Prime Minister at the time befell incapacitation (Clark, 1964, p. 34). George Canning replaced Peel. Canning passed away later and after Lord Goderich’s stint as premier, the Duke of Wellington took over and Peel was once again the Home Secretary.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Police reform is one of the high points that Peel is well renowned for. He instituted the Metropolitan Police Force for London. The one thousand police officers taken up at the time were warmly dubbed Bobbies and in other quarters as Peelers, terms that have remained in place until today.

These officers were very successful in reducing crime drastically in London. Peel instilled principles in the force which classified the moral obligations the officers must tag on in a bid to be effectual in their duties. By the late 1950s, all metropolitans in the United Kingdom were duty-bound to set up their own law enforcement forces (Clark, 1964, p. 36).

Law enforcement in other parts of the world has borrowed from Peel’s principles. For instance in America, police officers are expected to carry out their duties with the highest ethical standards. The principles not only touch on the law enforcement but are in conjunction with the community whereby the law enforcement is the community, and the community the law enforcement.

Peel was later to become Prime minister, then opposition leader and again Prime Minister, periods within which he instituted notable economic reforms (Adelman, 1989, p. 18). He passed away on 2nd July 1850 aged sixty two.

Reference List Adelman, P. (1989). Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830-1850. London and New York: Longman. pp. 4 – 18.

Clark, G. (1964). Peel and the Conservative Party: A Study in Party Politics 1832-1841. 2nd ed. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, The Shoe String Press, Inc. pp. 34 – 36.

Ramsay, A. (1928, 1969). Sir Robert Peel. Freeport, New York: Books for Library Press. pp. 26-27.

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Is Terrorism Ever Justified? Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents The Terrorists

Never Justified


Works Cited

There are two kinds of terrorists: the homegrown and the foreigner. In the land of the free and the brave there are terror groups who abuse their liberty from government control and manipulations. They abuse their individual has the right to express himself and to pursue areas of interest without the need to consult the government as long as all activities are within the bounds of the law. This is because they express their frustration and anger through killing innocent civilians.

The same thing can be said of terrorists who come from abroad and bringing with them their religious fanaticism will blow up a building or use themselves as suicide bombers. They have issues; they may be emotionally and psychologically distressed because of what was done to them. They may feel oppressed and marginalized but their acts of terror will never be justified.

The Terrorists Before going any further it is important to turn the spotlight on the main actors by defining what it means to be a terrorist. According to the Patriot Act, “domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use of force or violence by a group of individuals based in the United States” (Addicott, 2004, p.3).

The key idea here is that this type of terrorists operate are born and raised in the land of the brave and the free. In other words American citizens will be labeled as terrorist if they “use force and violence against persons or property and if they intimidate or coerce a government, a civilian to further political or social objectives” (Addicott, 2004, p.3). They may be religious extremists or paranoid members of a militia group, they will be accorded that infamous label if they perform terror acts.

International terrorism on the other hand is defined in similar terms. The Patriot Act provides that definition as involving violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that violate the criminal law of the United States or any state and it would be a criminal violation “if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or any state” (Addicott, 2004, p.3).

The definition is similar to the one found above except for the fact that these violent acts are being committed outside the United States. But if these same groups will enter the United States to wreak havoc then they are international terrorists who are in American soil. The Al-Qaeda operatives who blew up the World Trade Center can be labeled as such.

An example of domestic terrorism is the Centennial Park Bombing in Atlanta, Georgia at the height of the 1996 Olympic Games. The pipe bomb used was assembled by Eric Robert Rudolph, a white supremacist and member of a homegrown terror group whose main goal is to advance right-wing ideals such as the destruction of abortion clinics and gay bars (Juergensmeyer, 2003, p.30). This type of terrorist can be an average-type of American teenager or young adult but with deadly intent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An example of international terrorism is the handiwork of an al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia known all over the globe as the Jemaah Islamiyah because they target foreigners.

Their most infamous terrorist act to date is the 2002 Bali bombings which transformed a beautiful resort into bloody crime scene. There is no need to elaborate on the impact of Muslim extremists and how their religious fanaticism drives them to kill thousands of innocent civilians.

Terrorism is a despicable act because it is not a byproduct of passion, the spur of the moment act that resulted in the accidental death of a person. It is deliberate. This is because “terrorism is a goal-directed, calculated, premeditated use of force” (Addicott, 2004, p.4). This is the reason why it must be condemned and the perpetrators must be brought to justice for what they had committed can never be justified (Smith, 2008).

It can be argued that those who wanted to join a terror group do not see themselves as terrorists. At least they see themselves as soldiers and freedom fighters (Gilbert, 2002).

Their passionate hearts are aflame because they are convinced with the justness of their cause and they swell with pride because of their conviction that what they are about to do is the most important thing and it will benefit a lot of people (Stern, 2003). Eric Robert Rudolph and other white supremacists will not hesitate to use a home-made bomb to force others to listen to their rants and demands.

International terrorists on the other hand like Al-Qaeda, Hezbollah, and Jemaah Islamiyah are driven by religious and political convictions (Hamzeh, 2004).

Their religious views can be simplified as the need for others to bow down or acknowledge their religion as the only one and therefore those who will not adhere to their beliefs will be marked as infidels and therefore violence can be inflicted on them because they are empowered by a higher source (Giraldo, 2007). The Islamic terror groups are driven by their fanatical understanding of what the Koran told them to do. But at its core is another secondary issue and it has something to do with politics.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Terrorism Ever Justified? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The political aspect can be summarized in one word – Israel. Their hatred for this tiny nation is understandable but it is hard to believe that a person can kill himself simply on the basis of political ideologies. This brings to the realization that religion and politics are seen as one, the intermingling is hard to separate.

This means that religious beliefs help shape their politics. Intense hatred for Israel can be explained by the constant fighting. But knowing that the Arabs hated Israel even when the nation was still in its fledgling state after World War II plainly reveals that there anger is fueled by something more than the need for retribution and this is because the Arabs were the first to strike.

The dastardly acts committed in September 2001 were committed by Al-Qaeda but in the Middle East there is another group that is well-known among extremists and they are called the Hezbollah.

Today, Hezbollah also known as the Party of God, “…transformed itself from a radical, clandestine militia to a moderate, mainstream political party with a resistance wing … Underling all of Hezbollah’s actions are its claims of deep faith and a literal interpretation of God’s word as expressed in the Koran” (Harik, 2005). Hezbollah emerged in the early 1980s when radical clerics decided to put an end to Israeli occupation of Lebanon.

Never Justified Acts of terror can never be justified because at its core these terrorists are criminals. If one will remove the Arab sounding names and the fancy labels usually associated with terrorism such as Jemaah Islamiyah and Hezbollah, if one will strip these groups to the basics and analyze their work, they are nothing more than criminals.

What they have accomplished are not glorious acts there are criminal acts. Using violence against people, intimidating them and creating panic is a crime. At least in the United States all of these terrorist acts are at its core are crimes resulting from breaking the laws of the land. Thus, the 1993 World Trade bombing is a criminal act and the perpetrators must be apprehended as criminals.

Acts of terror can never be justified because there are other means to express their frustrations, anger, and concerns. One is bewildered by the lack of diplomacy. If Islamic radicals believe that they are in the right path and that their religion is the only path then why would they encourage their members to go on dialogue with their Western counterparts? It does not require a genius to realize that the more attacks on the U.S. mainland will only increase retribution.

But this is just one of the major reasons why dialogue is needed. The more important reason why they must engage in dialogue is the simple fact that they are killing innocent civilians. Not only is their tactics not working to make the world aware of their plight – as of recent history Afghanistan and Iraq were reduced to rubble by incessant fighting – they are also killing those who have nothing to do with Middle East politics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Terrorism Ever Justified? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The death of a single individual must be cause for mourning. The lives of innocent men, women and children cannot be considered as material things that can be sold or bartered. In this case the lives of innocent people are treated like pawns in a chess game. The terrorists knew that their lives have value but not valuable enough when it comes to their religion and extremists beliefs. The lives of people are means to an end.

They utilize faulty logic. For instance it is common rhetoric among terror groups that they are killing people so that Americans and Israeli soldiers will be forced to stop the killing of their own people. Why is that they can view their own children as precious and yet use a different guideline or value system for the children of other people and consider them as an expendable unit in their struggle for freedom or religious expression.

They must consider the fact that every time they pull the trigger and push the button for their radio-controlled bombs a child will become an orphan or a parent will lose a child. When Timothy McVeigh detonated a bomb in front of a Federal building he did not only destroy the lives of government operatives, he also destroyed the lives of little children who happen to be in that building on that day.

Vengeance can never be the justification for their actions. If the child of a terrorist was killed during a time of war, he could not express his remorse and demand retribution by blowing up the children of other people. Terrorism by the way is not an exact science in that it kills randomly. What is the result of such action? What was accomplished by random acts of terror? Nothing was accomplished and therefore it is useless to kill innocent civilians because of a religious or political cause.

Conclusion Acts of terror can never be justified. This is because terrorism does not pay, in other words they can create a chain-reaction of events that will lead to more destruction and mayhem. Peace can never be achieved using terror. It will only generate fear. Terrorism is an impractical solution to a religious or political problem.

Case in point is the handiwork of the Al-Qaeda operatives who used commercial jetliners to destroy the World Trade Center. Their objective was to bring America to its knees. But the end of the story is not their victory but the destruction of Afghanistan and Iraq. The cycle will never end thus terrorism is not the answer to life’s problems. This is the reason why acts of terrorism can never be justified.

Works Cited Addicott, Jeffrey. Terrorism Law: The Rule of Law and the War on Terror. AZ: Lawyer


The Politics of County Budgeting Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Major causes of South County budgetary problems

Ways of curbing the South County’s financial problems

Challenges in developing the plan

Available options

Factor to consider when developing the plan


Work Cited

Introduction South County is a non-charter county, which has been enjoying healthy fiscal years under stewardship of devoted, skilled and diligent board of commissioners. The country is under direct jurisdiction of county administrator as well as the director in the Office of Management and Budget. This year’s low revenue returns has caused South County to face financial problems thus hindering funding of the multi-million dollar budgeted county projects, which include library programs, rural fire protection units and parks management.

Major causes of South County budgetary problems South County has been protecting it natural resources such as limestone and pure water sources for a long period by choosing the type of industrial development to be set up in the county. This has minimized the county’s ability to attract more business investments in the area that would have lead to increased realisation of Ad Valorem revenues.

Secondly, Ad Valorem revenues in South County are low because of the fact that 75 percent of properties in the county are tax exempted. Therefore, this indicates that private property and businesses on the remaining 25 percent is responsible for revenues used in maintenance, construction and basic operating expenses of the county.

Due to the growing unplanned and unbudgeted projects passed by the board, the county has been using General Fund Contingency thus resulting to a shortfall of property tax revenues in the previous five years. “This general Fund Contingency has dropped from a healthy $16 million to $9million, the bare minimum amount permitted by county policy (Groves, p.172)”.

Fourthly, the other cause of financial problems at South County has emanated from the county’s board commissioners. They have been holding the yearly property millage rate and probably reducing it in the same five-year range. This has negatively affected the growth of revenue base of the county.

Ways of curbing the South County’s financial problems In order to increase revenue, the county should come up with policies to attract investments that are more industrial. They also ought to ensure preservation of the county’s natural resources and environment rather than limiting the type of industrial activities. Private sector investment will result in more employment and subsequently more spending during paydays thus leading to more revenue realisation.

The diverse industrial engagements would guarantee the county increased revenue, which will consecutively ensure timely funding of projects. On the same note, there will be a boost on Ad Valorem’s returns due to increase in private and individual property ownership in the county.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, the Office of Management and Budget should inform the board how holding of annual Ad Valorem millage rate is adversely affecting the achievement of county’s budget goals. This will be convincingly achievable through highlighting procedures for funding more projects due to steadily expanding revenue base from increments in Ad Valorem millage rate. It would be possible to avoid current and future budget dilemmas should the county board accept to adopt and implement these among other strategic plans.

Challenges in developing the plan Obviously, every county board member has personal interests that he/she wishes to reflect in the budget. This is the reason why development of a budget plan encounters many challenges. Other than the politics of the county, there are other challenges.

First among the challenges is the fact that the commissioners have been previously adamant to adopt the obviously available revenue options. They fear that presenting opposing plans will be a turn down by the commissioner since they feel that the public will also reject the adoption. Another challenge is low revenue sources in the county.

As seen earlier, a large portion of South County is under tax-exempted facilities therefore limiting tax generation. Thirdly, the Office of Management and Budgeting (OMB) lack authority to push for plans that can ensure economic sustenance and growth without obstruction by commissioner who have personal interests.

Available options Among the favourable options, I would recommend a raise of the millage tax and extension of sales tax. Due to unstable nature of taxing districts, I would not opt for Municipal Services Taxing Units (MSTUs), since even the public will reject such units (Groves, p.173). This combination will ensure reliable revenue increase to oversee funding of planned projects and save on Ad Valorem revenues. The advantage of sales tax is that, every person even those people passing through South County do pay.

Factor to consider when developing the plan Before starting to develop a plan, I would request the OMB to provide me with previous budgets, which would help in analysing the budget growth for a couple of previous years before making decision. I will also request for factors used to decide on budgetary allocation programs especially those that officials in OMB have no full control over (Groves, p.202).

Ad Valorem revenue data will be important since I would sort to estimate the amount needed in case of a deficit budget. Such information among other data would be crucial guides in deciding the cause of action and assist in developing a plan.

We will write a custom Essay on The Politics of County Budgeting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion After identifying the way forward and before presenting pre-budget plans, other important considerations are a requirement in order to build political and public support of the plan. Above all, the plan should convince and guarantee increase in revenues and should not be over taxing to the public. To add on that, it should not conflict people’s political interest, such as the board of county commissioners.

Work Cited Groves, Satanford et al. Evaluating financial condition: A handbook for local government, Nebraska, NE: ICMA Publishers. 2003. Print.


Global warming is occurring Essay custom essay help

Introduction Global warming refers to the rise in the normal temperature of the earth’s near-surface atmosphere and water bodies ever since the middle of the twentieth century and its predictable continuation.

As reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, in the year 2007, the universal surface temperature rose by 0.74 to 0.180C for the duration of the twentieth century (National Research Council, 6). This was the panel’s fourth assessment report and the study concluded that a better part of this phenomenon referred to as global warming in is as a result of human activity.

Climate representation extrapolation concluded in the most up-to-date IPCC report point out that the earth’s surface temperature is to be expected to go up an additional 1.1 to 6.40C during the twenty first century. Even as some quarters dispute these projections and disagree with existing evidence of global warming as being caused majorly by human activity, the facts are just too compelling.

The main cause of this phenomenon is the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere and these bar heat from escaping from the earth’s surface (Ramaswamy, 1138). Thus, a way(s) of reducing the amount of these gases in the atmosphere needs to be worked out.

Occurrences illustrating increase in global temperature Sea levels getting higher

For the last century, observations show that sea levels moved higher world over. The average figure stood at more or less seventeen centimeters. Observations show that the order at which the level went up in the last decade is shockingly almost two times that of the last century.

An example of an area going through this phenomenon is the marshland going under water at Bayou Chitigue, Louisiana. The estimated sea-level rise for this marshland is 1.38 centimeters per year. For a period of four years, straight up buildup averaged 2.07 centimeters annually which means the land’s elevation was corresponding to the increase in sea level.

Coastal marshlands constitute the most useful ecological units in the world. These lands at the land-ocean periphery offer loads of direct gains to humanity, as well as home for money-making fisheries and wildlife, storm defense, enhanced water quality by way of deposit, nutrient and effluence elimination, leisure, and visually pleasing values (Peterson, 17).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These precious ecological units will be extremely susceptible to the consequences of the fast increase in sea level projected to take place in the course of the next century as an outcome of global warming.

Rise in global temperature

Every single one of the three main universal surface temperature reconstructions gives an indication that the planet has become hotter ever since 1880. The largest part of this warming has taken place from the 1970s, with the twenty hottest years taking place from 1981 and with all ten of the hottest years taking place in the last twelve years.

The years beginning in 2000 up to date have seen a reduction in solar output with the period 2007 to 2009 a noticeable solar least amount. Despite this, surface heat levels keep on rising (National Research Council, 11).

The effects of increase in universal temperature are evident from the outbreak of a variety of viral ailments like malaria. The causal agents of these illnesses thrive well in environments with elevated temperatures. The outbreaks have especially been experienced in the developing world.

As a result, the economies and health of people are affected negatively. Mortality rates of both children and adults have gone up in the last two decades. Economies suffer because a larger part of the resources are directed at curbing these ailments through vaccinations and efforts to eliminate the causal agents altogether.

Other than viral infections, high temperatures pose difficulties to persons with cardiovascular complications. In severe occurrences, persons have lost lives as a result of heatstroke aggravated by elevated temperatures. High temperatures also lead to heat fatigue difficulties and respiratory difficulties as a result of harm to lung tissues which is a danger to persons with asthma.

Warming oceans

The world’s oceans have taken up a great deal of the augmented heat, with the upper seven hundred meters, that is, two thousand three hundred feet, of ocean illustrating increase of 0.3020F ever since 1969 (Peterson, 18).

We will write a custom Essay on Global warming is occurring specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Increasing heat levels have an effect on the physical nature of all oceans. As air temperatures go up, water density decreases and the water parts from a nutrient-filled chilly stratum underneath. This forms the starting point for a sequence effect that affects all oceanic life that depends on these nutrients for continued existence.

The most pronounced effects of this warming on oceanic populaces are alterations in natural homes and food provision and shifting ocean alchemy. Single-celled plants, phytoplankton, that thrive at the ocean floor and algae utilize the process of photosynthesis for making food.

The process takes away carbon dioxide from the air and changes it into natural carbon and oxygen which provides for virtually all ecological units. Studies show that phytoplankton survives in cooler oceans. In the same way, algae which are a plant on which other oceanic life feeds is declining due to oceanic warming. Thus, the most important nutrients are barred from finding their way upward and are stuck to a small stratum near the floor.

Annual growth cycles have been affected leading to disruption of entire oceanic food chains. Heat-driven organisms like phytoplankton have commenced their annual growth phase earlier in the season as a result warming oceans (National Research Council, 13). Creatures that once traveled to the floor for nourishment are now hitting upon areas devoid of nutrients.

Migration patterns that never existed before have been manifested along the east and west coasts. For instance, heat tolerant groups have spread out northward. The effect of this is a new jumble of species in a totally new location, in the end leading to alterations in predatory routines (Peterson, 18). Those species that will not be able to become accustomed to their new environment will die and become extinct.

The chemical composition of oceans is another aspect that is being altered due to increasing global temperatures. Higher carbon dioxide levels being emitted into oceans cause a rise in their acidity. With higher acidity levels, phytoplankton is trimmed down. The result is reduced marine plants to absorb greenhouse gases. Elevated acidity levels also impact negatively on other life forms like corals and shellfish. These might become extinct with time if nothing is done to counter global warming.

Disappearing ice sheets

Ice sheets at Greenland and Antarctic are diminishing at high rates. Statistics from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment illustrate how Greenland dropped ice ranging from 150 to 250 Km3 annually from two thousand and two to two thousand and six. Antarctica dropped more or less 152 Km3 of ice in the period from two thousand and two and two thousand and five.

Ice sheets outline the earth’s surface and form the principal freshwater source. Shrinking ice sheets put many humans at risk from floods, rise in sea levels, droughts and deficiency in drinking water (Church and White, 18). The areas that are majorly threatened include Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and several other small island nations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global warming is occurring by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ecological units in these areas are being messed up and life that has been thriving there now faces extinction if nothing is done. Animals that won’t thrive in flooded areas such as polar bears face such threats.

Extreme weather events

Quite a number of excessive climate events have taken place in the last few years and they are as a result of global warming. These include pronounced heat waves and intense precipitation. They are expected to increase if appropriate steps are not taken to curb rise in global temperatures (Peterson, 18). Their effects are detrimental and lead to loss of lives since they are difficult to predict.

How to curb global warming

This phenomenon needs to be brought to a stop to avoid further negative effects and make the planet habitable for all forms of life. The first step needs to be reducing, reusing and recycling waste. We need to choose reusable commodities as opposed to non-reusable ones. Production of commodities with least packaging needs to be encouraged.

Recycling can be done on paper, plastics, glass and even metal products. This goes a long way in reducing up to an approximated two thousand for hundred pounds of carbon dioxide per year (National Research Council, 17).

Humanity needs to use minimal amounts of heat and air conditions in homes, offices and even in transportation means like vehicles. We can begin by insulating our walls and setting up weather stripping about all building openings in a bid to reduce warm up costs by an estimated twenty five percent.

Practices like turning down the heat while asleep or off in the course of the day and maintaining heat levels all the times are recommended. Statistics indicate that maintaining thermostats at two degrees lesser in winter and upper during summer is likely to keep at bay more or less two thousand pounds of carbon dioxide annually.

Car owners need to drive less and smart. Reduced driving translates to fewer carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Mass transportation systems like trains are effective. Whenever driving, we need to ensure that the vehicle is running resourcefully. Tires need to be appropriately inflated and the entire engine well serviced (National Research Council, 19). Every liter of fuel saved keeps carbon dioxide off our atmosphere in addition to saving on running costs.

All of us need to ensure we plant trees and maintain the world’s forest cover to maintain our world green. In the course of photosynthesis, these plants take in carbon dioxide as they release oxygen. With many of them then there will be a good balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Conclusion The general consensus is that global warming is as a result of human activity. Therefore, efforts need to be directed at environmentally safe practices if the planet is to remain habitable for people, other animals and plants. Universal cooperation efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol need to be encouraged and all world states need to back such efforts.

Works Cited Church, J. A. and N.J. White, A 20th century acceleration in global sea level rise, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L01602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024826. (2006).

National Research Council (NRC), 2006. Surface Temperature Reconstructions For the Last 2,000 Years. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Peterson, T. C. et.al., “State of the Climate in 2008,” Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 90, no. 8, August 2009, pp. S17-S18.

Ramaswamy, V. et.al., “Anthropogenic and Natural Influences in the Evolution of Lower Stratospheric Cooling,” Science 311 (24 February 2006), 1138-1141.


Pro-life and Pro-choice Sides of Abortion Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Thesis





Abortion is termination of pregnancy before its maturity. Pro-choice advocates for women right to decide whether to abort or not, whereas prolife advocate for no abortion. However, both support termination of pregnancy for medical reasons.

Pro-choice are of the opinion that a child should start enjoying human rights after birth. Their view is that when the unborn is in the mother’s womb, then the mother should have the right to decide whether to keep the pregnancy or not (Mangel, 1988). This paper discusses the two sides of pro-life and pro-choice.

Thesis Life is precious; it is every person’s reasonability to ensure it is protected. When a man and woman make love and conceive, a life is created in the body of the mother. There are two abortions that can happen, natural abortions; which is a medical condition and intentional termination of pregnancy by a mother. Intentional termination is not because of any danger but on feeling by the pregnant woman that she wants to terminate the pregnancy. Killing is illegal.

After conception, the mother carries a life. She can learn this through movements, unrests in the stomach and wastes from the foetus. After conception, a woman carries a living human being who is entitled to human rights as if living on the physical world. The mother is an agent to carry another life. Sometimes abortion can take place; this is when the life of the mother is at danger because of the pregnancy otherwise, termination of pregnancy is illegal (Sedgh, Henshaw, Singh, Bankole


Hazard from Space Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Mass extinction theory attributes the extinction of living organism to collision of extraterrestrial objects such as asteroids with the Earth. The collision results into drastic climatic change due to suspended clouds of dusts that affects radiation from the sun. Drastic and intermittent occurrence of meteors and asteroid resulted to a gradual loss of living organisms during the course of the Earth’s history.

The most credible example giving plausible explanation regarding mass extinction is the dinosaur extinction, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago. Rogers claims that, “…basic experiments have been done, and it seems clear that the iridium came from an extraterrestrial source within the solar system” (25). However, debate concerning dinosaur extinction still rages. The massive impact of extraterrestrial objects did not cause mass extinction of dinosaurs.

The extinction of dinosaur may not have occurred due to drastic impact of meteors and asteroids since the probability of extraterrestrial objects to occur in future is quite negligible. “Astronomers theorized that the Oort cloud of comets could cross the path of our solar system every 26 million years, and would possibly rain comets on our planet for a few million years” (Waldner 19). This prediction has not happened and it seems it will never happen.

Dinosaur basis of mass extinction theory do not give plausible explanation for extraterrestrial bodies since they occurred only once during the period of dinosaurs and there is no possibility of future occurrence. If there was subsequent occurrence of extraterrestrial bodies and concomitant loss of living organism, then this theory would be valid, but since the occurrence is indefinite, extraterrestrial bodies did not cause extinction of dinosaurs.

Selective extinction is another line of evidence that disapproves the dominant theory of dinosaur extinction. If the great impact of extraterrestrial bodies’ collision with Earth resulted into drastic climatic change, then under what mechanism did selective extinction occur? There is no credible explanation of the mechanisms surrounding extinction and survival of organisms.

The theory concentrates on extinction without giving plausible explanation of the survival mechanism of the other organisms. Moreover, extinction studies focus on dinosaur extinction alone and extrapolated findings, and may be, other organism did not undergo mass extinction as claimed.

Joblonski argues that, “lack of understanding of the physiology of dinosaurs makes the issue more complex; if they were endothermic, why did they not survive like birds and mammals? If they were ectothermic, why did small dinosaurs not survive like small reptiles? (205). Hence, the mechanism of survival or extinction remains insufficient in explaining the nature of mass extinction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the determination and dating of the occurrence of extraterrestrial bodies, iridium deposits on the rock surface gives substantial evidence. Iridium originates from the solar system and their sedimentation on the rock surfaces signifies the occurrence of the extraterrestrial bodies. However, “a new study has challenged the theory by claiming that those supposed clues are nothing more than fossilized balls of fungus, charcoal, and fecal pellets” (Rogers 34).

The evidence shows that even organic matter that occur naturally on Earth when subjected to cycles of fire can produce iridium, which is a fossil complex. Therefore, fossils records have proved that fungal sediments are ubiquitous and their presence over a long period of history under intermittent fire out brakes transformed them into cretaceous fossils. Therefore, based on the evidence gathered in this research paper, the extinction of dinosaurs did not result from a massive impact event.

Works Cited Joblonski, David. “Mass Extinctions and Macroevolution.” Paleobiology 31.2 (2005): 192–210. Print.

Rogers, Phila. “Berkeley Scientists Report First Evidence that Dinosaur Extinction Caused by Meteorite Impact.” Science Archive Journal 3.2 (1979): 23-39. Print.

Waldner, David. “Inferences and Explanations at the K/T Boundary…and Beyond.” Theory and Evidence 6.4 (2003): 1- 38. Print.


Staff Manual To Guide The Early Childhood Education Worker Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help

Table of Contents Program Overview

Program Services

Services offered to children

Health and Safety Policies

Procedures Regarding Families

Work Cited

Being an effective early childhood professional encompasses a wide spectrum of responsibilities. From designing an environment conducive to learning, to planning appropriate lessons for students and implementing them with effective educational strategies to being able to manage the class well and instilling discipline in the students, to involving parents and coordinating with others regarding the provision of quality education for the students.

It takes great effort to be able to manage all these skills at the same time, hence professional training with experience is required. This basic manual intends to help out the early childhood educator in his or her professional undertaking as part of a preschool center that upholds a high quality program for very young children.

Program Overview The early childhood program implements a play-based approach to suit the developmental needs of young children. A child learns best when he finds enjoyment in what he is doing, thus learning should be fun. PLAY is the world of children.

Learning through play has value and is an effective method of teaching. Through play, a child develops his mental functions as he learns varied concepts, and at the same time he develops body coordination, he learns how to handle emotions, acquires social skills and values as he interacts with other children.

All learning acquired by the child is an outcome of interactions between him and his environment (people, ideas and materials). A child is able to learn in an environment where there is freedom of movement and choice; this enables him to be an active participant in his learning as he initiates activities, asks questions, explores, observes, and socializes with other children and adults around him.

Emphasis is on the “process” of learning more than the “product”. With the child actively involved, learning becomes meaningful to him. Since it is the child who actually experiences learning, these are better retained.

The Philosophy of the preschool comes from the theories of Jean Piaget (1969) and Lev Vygotsky (1978). “Piaget believed that children create knowledge through interactions with the environment. Children are not passive receivers of knowledge; rather, they actively work at organizing their experience into more and more complex mental structures.” (Brewer, 2001:6). He insists that children need to use all their cognitive functions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These theories were designed to form minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered. Such beliefs reflect his respect for the thinking processes of children. Vygotsky (1978) believed that the social context influences children’s intellectual development more than by individual experiences. His theory places a great deal of emphasis on effective social interaction.

Piaget and Vygotsky have created a strong foundation for the constructivist model that the school upholds. It premises on the belief that learners “construct” their own learning, and in effect, have better retention of it (Decker et al, 2009). “In the Constructivist theory the emphasis is placed on the learner or the student rather than the teacher or the instructor.

The learner interacts with objects and events and thereby gains an understanding of the features held by such objects or events. The learner, therefore, constructs his/her own conceptualizations and solutions to problems. Learner autonomy and initiative is accepted and encouraged.” (Van Ryneveld, n.d.: n.p.).

The preschool uses an integrated curriculum based on themes of interest to the children. In the program, the Cognitive aspect is not the only one given importance but the Social, Emotional, Physical, Creative and Moral aspects as well. One of the goals of the preschool is to prepare students with necessary skills for kindergarten such as math, reading, language and creativity skills. Another major concern of the school staff is in the area of instilling good values such as consideration for others, respect and love of God, self and neighbor.

Program Services The early childhood center aims to serve the community by providing high quality programs for children. It offers quality care for toddlers and preschoolers as well as developmentally appropriate education.

This way, they likewise help parents in rearing their children well, ensuring that children get the best possible care and education that they need in their development. The center aims to optimize each child’s potentials in all developmental areas – physical, cognitive, social, emotional and creative, by providing them with opportunities and experiences beneficial to their growth and development.

The center is the ideal place for beginning learners. Armed with a sound philosophy, an efficient program and caring and efficient teachers and a conducive learning environment, this is where their bright future begins.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Staff Manual To Guide The Early Childhood Education Worker specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Services offered to children The preschool center accepts children aged 1.5 to 6.5 years regardless of gender, learning pace, ability, family situation, religion, socioeconomic status, nationality and ethnic origin. Grouping of children is according to developmentally appropriate practices with the suitable adult-child ratio, as follows:

One’s and Two’s: 4-6 children per group

Two’s and Three’s: 6-8 children per group

Three’s and Four’s: 8-10 children per group

Four’s and Five’s: 10-12 children per group

Five’s and Six’s: 12-15 children per group.

Two capable adults handle each class: one is an experienced teacher who is a graduate of Early Childhood Education and one is the Teacher Assistant who is at least a High School graduate. Both have obtained thorough training in Child Development and Education modules.

The program also welcomes children with special needs. The teachers network with special education professionals to integrate the services provided for the children. Teachers seek the support of the children’s parents and other agencies involved with children with special needs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Staff Manual To Guide The Early Childhood Education Worker by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Professionals from a wide variety of fields and disciplines devote much time and energy in helping these children live comfortable and fulfilling lives with the end view of mainstreaming them into society and the real world. Educators, therapists, psychologists, speech pathologists, physicians, social workers and even government officials join hands in the care and education of these children to ensure their optimum growth and development.

Health and Safety Policies The early childhood center puts utmost priority to children’s health and safety. To ensure this, the following policies are set:

Pick-up: The school administrator or child’s teacher must be informed as to who is/are authorized to fetch each child. In the event that the fetcher is unable to pick up the child, the parents should call and inform the school as to who will be the alternate fetcher or the alternate fetcher should present a letter from the parent or guardian authorizing him/her to fetch the child. The school does not release children to unfamiliar fetchers. In some cases, the school administrator procures a copy of the certified court custody of some special cases upon enrollment to prevent untoward incidents. The school expects punctuality of parents in terms of brining and fetching the children in school. Parents should not bring children earlier than 30 minutes before classes begin nor fetched 30 minutes after dismissal.

Accidents: In case of accidents or illnesses that may occur within the perimeters of the school, an “Incident Form” will be sent home to notify parents about the kind of accident or illness that occurred and the action taken. The injured child will be given first aid treatment and must be provided with follow-up treatment medication at home. For major accidents, the school physician will be called upon to check on the child or will be brought to the nearest clinic or hospital, if need be.

Sick Children: Children who fall ill in the school will be isolated and sent home immediately. In consideration to the sick child and to other children, a sick child must stay home when he is sick. He can rejoin his class when he is completely recovered.

Nutrition and Food Handling: The school provides a nutrition program for all the children. Food is hygienically prepared in a sanitized kitchen. The nutrition program considers allergies of certain children and try as much as possible to avoid ingredients that would cause it. Sometimes, allergic children are served an alternative but equally nutritious snack.

Procedures Regarding Families Teachers establish relationships with each child’s family. The school believes that learning is a partnership between the school and the home. This partnership is essential in supporting the child in his total development. The early childhood center emphasizes strong Parental Involvement if the program is to be effective.

Communication between the home and the school is vital to the program. The means provide where parents can actively take part in their children’s education include the narrative record, newsletters, parent-teacher conferences, parent seminars and school projects and events that require parental participation.

Work Cited Brewer, J.A., Introduction to Early Childhood Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2001

Decker, C. Decker,J., Freeman, N. and Knorpf, H., Planning and Administering early childhood programs (9th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. 2009

Piaget, J.


Coach Inc.: Is Its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable? Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Driving Forces Bargaining power of customers. The bargaining power of customers is a driving force for the industry as it forces companies to invent new product lines and designs to remain competitive as well as implement new strategies and trainings to gain more appropriate skills. Moreover, shifts in customers’ preferences can be observed when a company loses its leading positions in the industry or is not able to sustain its competitive advantage over its rivals.

New entries. The threat of new entries that may potentially become competitive can be considered another driving force that forces companies that operate within the industry to move further in terms of new technologies implementation, new strategies applied to the company’s management, research, and development. In this respect, the development of the industry happens due to threats of new entries and changes in bargaining power of customers.

Intensity of competitive rivalry. The intensity of competitive rivalry as well as threat of new entries and increasing bargaining power of customers are the major driving forces for the industry of luxurious goods because companies that operate within it have to make adequate decisions to change their strategies with regard to changing technologies, customers’ preferences and needs, and other threats that may alter the longitudinal plans of the company for the next 1-3 years.

Key Success Factors Brand building skills. If a company that operates in the market of luxurious goods is not capable of implementing training and developing core competencies necessary for building of brand, this company would not remain competitive for a long period of time because the brand building skills can be considered one of the key success factors for this industry and every company that wants to succeed in it should develop those skills.

Competitive design. Competitive and recognizable design of goods manufactured under a certain brand should be used to promote this brand as well as goods manufactured under it to succeed in the industry. In other words, new designs should be aimed at gaining acknowledgement and preference of customers. Moreover, designs should help customers to differentiate between goods manufactured by this and that brand and make distinctions easier with regard to certain cues used by each brand to remain unique.

Convenient retail locations. Convenient location of retail stores is another key success factor for the industry of luxurious goods because all categories that were planned to be addressed can be addressed via retail stores such as company-owned stores and factory stores in case of Coach Inc, a manufacturer of luxurious goods. Moreover, stores owned by the company can develop customer’s loyalty due to the attractiveness of their stores (Gamble, 2008, p. 311); besides, this a common success factor for all companies that operate in the industry.

Recommendations Strategic problem. How long will the coach Inc company be able to address the needs of its customers via implementation of low cost competencies and remain a brand whose customers have changing bargaining powers and are not able to remain loyal to the brand? In other words, the period when the company had to launch new designs once a year has passed while the company should remain competitive and launch new designs every month.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategic recommendation.

Focus on product differentiation. As the product differentiation can be considered one of the most effective strategies implemented by Coach Inc into operation, the further direction can coincide with the current one due to the proven success of this strategy implementation. Moreover, the company can expand into international market more actively via agreements made with manufacturers of luxurious goods in other countries to make and distribute goods under the Coach Inc brand.

Expand product offerings. This strategy is sure to contribute greatly to the overall success of the company and be beneficial for its further expansion into the international market including other countries than those with which the company has been successfully building partnership. As the company will expand product offerings it will gain new customers in other areas. For instance, use of leather in combination with other materials can be really beneficial.

Develop customer loyalty and brand recognition. Though this is one of the current strategies, it proved to be really effective and can be used in future to build relations of trust and loyalty with the company’s customers. As the intensity of rivalry competition and threat of new entries is high, the company should be extremely recognizable in terms of specific style, design, and attitude to customers.

Objectives. The company should expand its product line by five items that can be manufactured according to agreement by other companies under the brand of Coach Inc. The company should double the number of retail stores in the United States by the end of the 2007 and increase the number of retail stores in Japan in the same period by 70 items. Introduction of new styles during each month of the 2007 should be aimed at increasing of gross revenue and customer loyalty.

Reference Gamble, J. E. (2008). Coach Inc.: Is its advantage in luxury handbags sustainable? In J. E. Gamble


US Healthcare Reform Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The healthcare system of a country is of great significance since it determines the health of the country’s population. The population’s health is important due to the fact that it directly impacts on the productivity of the country. This means that healthcare should be available to every citizen.

Access to healthcare services is determined by the costs associated with their provision. Thus the services should be affordable if they are to be accessed by the majority. It is for this reason that the US government is committed to reform its healthcare system. This essay analyzes the economic impact of the newly signed US healthcare proposal. Three articles on the healthcare reform proposal will be analyzed.

Analysis In an article titled “healthcare reforms” (New York Times), the new legislation on healthcare came into effect on 23/03/2010 after being signed by president Obama. The new legislation aims at overhauling the country’s healthcare system by enhancing access to healthcare services (New York Times). The reform will require majority of Americans to be covered under health insurance policies. 30 million people are expected to be covered in the proposed system (New York Times).

To achieve this objective the government will subsidize the premiums for private health insurance policies held by low income and middle income earners (New York Times). This means that the government’s expenditure on recurrent costs will increase. On the other hand the citizen’s disposal income will rise as they spend less cash on health insurance premiums and medication. The legislation will also monitor private insurers by banning them from denying sick or costly clients insurance cover (New York Times).

Besides, those with per-existing conditions will be insured. This is a risk in the insurance industry since the customers with pre-existing conditions are likely to die or claim payments on regular basis. The profits will reduce as insurers pay more claims per year. The cost of the new system is $938 billion (New York Times). The federal deficit is expected to reduce by $138 billion under the new system (New York Times).

In a second article titled “what is at stake if the healthcare reform passes” (Biheri), the US healthcare system is described as inefficient. The current system is characterized by high costs, inconsistent and complex health covers (Biheri). Consequently, there is low demand for health covers and access to healthcare.

Currently, insurers are offering covers only to customers who are less risky in order to reduce cost associated with paying claims (Biheri). Consequently, they are able to maintain their competitiveness. The proposed system will facilitate access to healthcare through affordable insurance cover (Biheri). Thus the health of the population will improve and this will lead to high productivity in terms of higher GDP.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a third article titled “Obama’s healthcare reform bill and its impact on the healthcare markets” (Sunita), the US healthcare system was ranked at position 37 out of 200 nations that were studied by WHO. The US spends 17.5% of its GDP on healthcare and this has contributed to the nation’s budget deficit (Sunita).

Hence there is a need for a reformed system that promotes cost reduction. The proposed system will reduce the federal deficit by minimizing costs and generating income through tax accruing form the manufacture of medical devices (Sunita). The demand for health insurance is set to rise as more citizens get covered. The competition in the insurance market will increase as more firms enter the industry to take advantage of the high demand.

Conclusion The proposed healthcare system should be fully implemented since it will lower the costs of providing healthcare services. An efficient healthcare system will reduce expenditure on health services. The savings made under the new system can be used by the government to develop other sectors of the economy. However, there should be provisions for protecting insurers from the risk associated with providing cover to citizens with pre-existing conditions. This will promote investors’ confidence in the industry.

Works Cited Bihari, Michael. “What is at stake if the healthcare reform passes?” About.com. 16 Apr. 2010. Web.

New York Times. “Healthcare reforms.” New York Times. 3 Nov. 2010. Web.

Sunita, Jane. “Obama’s healthcare reform bill and its impact on the US healthcare markets.” The Today News. 10 Oct. 2010. Web.


Tell My Horse – A Travelogue by Zora Neale Hurston Term Paper essay help

An offspring of the first African American migration from the South to North and Northwest, the Harlem Renaissance spanned roughly twenty five years (1910-1935). With literature, art, and music as the primary vehicle, the epoch was characterized by racial pride and desire to “uplift” the race (Bean, 1991). Proof of humanity, the demand for equality, perseverance, belief in self and ability, teamwork – the corresponding counter-balance racist circumstances – permeated the ideological core of this movement/ era.

The Harlem Renaissance birthed many iconic African Americans figures with Zora Neale Hurston being among the cadre. Hurston’s literary repertoire comprised four novels, fifty plus short stories and plays as well essays with her 1935 short story “Mules and Men” and novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) as her magnum opus.

An ardent folklorist of African American culture, her studies in anthropology and ethnography exude her work. Hurston’s extensive travels throughout the American South and Caribbean furthered her folkloric scope/lens. So called unrefined speech patterns or dialect permeate her work.

Use of such idiomatic dialect as well as lack of political and even racial focus placed her at odds with Renaissance contemporaries and intelligentsia such as Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and Hughes, etc. who felt it was stereo-typical and fueled racist fodder. The conflict was only indicative of the dualistic nature of the era in terms of depiction of the African American experience in the United States and the Diaspora.

A travelogue – whether in the form of documentary, film, literature, or journal – describes a journey. Chronicling her ethnographic journey in Haiti and Jamaica is Hurton’s 1938 travelogue Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica.

Opinion divided among literary critics and devotees, Tell My Horse is deemed her worst and most insignificant work or a fascinating guide and invaluable resource depicting Jamaican and Haitian culture, in particular the mysteries and horrors of voodoo. The fascination element is intensified because Hurston provides a vivid and authentic depiction in part due to not being a mere observer but rather a participant/initiate.

Irony intertwined with allegory and incoherency characterizes the underlining message/theme and aura of the work. In the first chapter, Hurston provides a list of thought provoking and witty proverbs in which the surface meaning has an encoded dormant meaning. For example, the proverb “Rockatone at ribber bottom no know sun hot” Hurston translates as “The person in easy circumstances cannot appreciate the sufferings of the poor (Hurston, 9).”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The proverbs and her interpretations have a duel purpose – they illustrate irony, humor, and most importantly the richness of the Jamaican philosophic culture and are Hurston’s self-reflexive commentary on her narrative. The title itself supports the narrative strategy in terms of the double voice nature. Tell My Horse (‘Parlay cheval ou’ in French) is a popular form of figurative speech in Haiti.

The Horse symbolizes the voice of powerless speaking without repercussion. “Under the whip and guidance of the spirit-rider, the ‘horse’ does and says many things that he or she would never have uttered unbidden…. That phrase ‘Parlay cheval ou’ [tell my horse] is in daily, hourly use in Haiti and no doubt it is used as a blind for self-expression (Mikell, 221).” The narrative style is indicative of a pervading and coexisting dichotomy – freedom and constraint, self expression and vulnerability, the powerful and the powerless.

Tragically Hurston died in obscurity and poverty. Much acclaim/focus on her work, however, has surfaced in the past thirty years. Capturing the pure simplicities of African American life and the Diaspora, Zora Neale Hurton’s literary contribution leaves an indelible mark on African American literature and the literary world as a whole.

Works Cited Bean, Annemarie. A Sourcebook on African-American Performance: Plays, People, Movements. London: Routledge, 1999.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Tell My Horse. 1938. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

Mikell, Gwendolyn. “When Horses Talk: Reflections on Zora Neale Hurston’s Haitian Anthropology.” Phylon 43.3 (1982): 218-30.

Wall, Cheryl A. The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Ed. William L. Andrews, Frances Smith Foster, and Trudier Harris. Oxford University Press, 2001.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Tell My Horse – A Travelogue by Zora Neale Hurston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The Role of Political Marketing in Politics Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Marketing is essential in any aspect of our daily life. Politicians, as decision makers, market their manifestos with the aim of gaining popularity. It is therefore important to have marketing in politics. This paper focuses on how politicians can market themselves to the public when they are seeking a political office.

Marketing is vital because the public cannot vote for a candidate who is not known to them and thus this paper explains the various strategies that politicians employ in order to have an upper hand on elections day. This because a politician cannot just register with a political party and sit back and expect to win the elections.

Political marketing start early enough like two years before the elections year because if one waits until the official campaigns begin he/she will not be able to convince voters to vote for him/her. By then every candidate is at his/her peak of campaigning and the public is most likely to vote for the candidate who has been with them long before the campaigning period.

A politician should participate in public initiatives frequently by responding to the present problems of his voters to be, because that way they will feel he/she has their interests at hand and they will have confidence with him/her according to how he handles the present situations at grass root levels.

A chief campaigner should be identified because he/she will be accorded the duty of sensitizing the area residents on the manifesto of the political candidate. Most people can be influenced by somebody who interacts with them on a daily basis to vote for a particular candidate.

The candidate can also air his wish to vie for a political seat through radio and television programs. During such interviews the candidate should give voters to ask him questions because it will foster a good relationship between him/her and his voters.

Political candidates can also utilize social gatherings such as weddings and parties to air their manifestos. This is because most people don’t have time for political meetings hence such gatherings will provide an appropriate platform to air their manifestos.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But before the candidate is given a chance to address such a gathering he must have been active towards the success of that gathering because people cannot allow a person to come from no where and start addressing them. A manifesto is a written document that explains the problems that will be dealt by a political candidate thus voters usually listens to a candidate’s manifesto to gauge his suitability to represent them in parliament.

It is therefore important for a candidate to prepare a manifesto that addresses the problems of common people because after all they are looking for someone who can address their needs while representing them in parliament. The candidate should indicate the procedures that will be followed in solving the present problems. For instance if the region in question has so many youths who are unemployed the candidate has to state how such youths will be assisted to access gainful employment.

In African states political candidates are very aggressive because they use all the available means to market themselves. It’s common for political candidates to address any kind of a gathering even if it’s a funeral gathering. The lifestyle of the voters can be very influential in selecting the mode of marketing.

For instance, in societies where women come together during their monthly meeting candidates attend such meetings in order to mingle with these women. It is believed that if you want information to spread like forest fire just leak it to the ladies. Women are the first to know when something new is coming up. Women are the ones who know the cheapest shopping stores and the best doctors and etcetera.

Nowadays the world has been turned into a village by the emergence of the World Wide Web and thus social networking sites such as Facebook and twitter are the in thing. These sites attract many people because they are used for socializing and since the number of visitors to these sites has increased they are being used as a marketing tool. Barrack Obama is one of those presidential candidates who utilized these sites and since his success other political leaders and candidates are using these social networks to market themselves.

In conclusion, the effectiveness of the model applied in marketing a politician will depend on some factors such as the literacy level and poverty level. This is because he/he can not use social networking sites when most of his targets are not computer literate. Again the same mode of marketing may fail if his targets can not access internet and computers due to poverty. It is therefore important to have a good marketing strategy when someone is involved in politics; marketing is a vital undertaking for politicians


Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 Essay best essay help

Since the inception of faith, religions all over the world have always been in conflicts due to the differences in faith and beliefs. The differences and the beliefs that one religion is superior to the other has been a major cause of these conflicts. For example, some denominations may feel superior to the others within the same religion (i.e., a catholic and a protestant) or among different religious groups, for instance, a Muslim and a Christian.

Conflict between the Muslims and western Christendom has existed since Islam came into being. This rivalry has never ceased since then. There have been both political and economic clashes between these two religions. Islam came into being in 622 AD and it is credited to be among the last of great civilizations.

The Islam religion managed to change the Arabs into a new form of community, which was more united and this enabled them spread beyond the Arabia, Persians, and even into Africa and European parts. The first clash between the Muslim and Western Christendom dates back the year 711 A.D when the Muslims tried to besiege Constantinople.

Among the most well known and well documented conflicts between the Islam and Christianity which also was a sign of the fall of the Ottoman Empire was the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.

The Ottoman Empire was and remains one of the greatest and fondly recognized civilizations of the modern times. The empire was the largest and one of the most influential Muslim empires of all times and it lasted until the 20th century.

The empire was founded in the late 13th century by several Turkish tribes, which were ruled by the descendants of Osman 1 until the dissolution of the empire in 1918. Within 100 years since their establishment, the Ottomans had changed from the small kingdom it had started as to the heirs of one of the strongest and most respected empire.

The success of the Ottoman Empire has for a long period been attributed to the disunity and the weaknesses of their adversaries as well as excellent and superior military techniques that the empire held.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Russo-Turkish war origins can be traced back to the Crimean war in which Russia underestimated the power of the Ottoman Empire and when they entered to war Russia was defeated and lost some of its territories to the empire.

Thus, though Russia was helping the Balkan states in regaining their independence, their main aim was to recover the territories it had lost earlier. Another aim of entering into war was aimed at protecting the Armenians who were the minority group of orthodox Christians and they were suffering much from the Muslim empire rule.

In the year 1876, the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Ottoman Empire where the two states were defeated but Russia with the approval of Austria attacked and defeated the Ottomans (Spielvogel 762). The Russian army passed through Danube and met with the ottoman soldiers. The war took a period of about 5 months and when the Ottoman army could resist no more, they retreated and the Russian soldiers marched on and on annexing some of the empire land.

The ottomans could not take that anymore and they requested for a peace treaty. The Russians agreed and with it the peace treaty was signed which went by the San Stefano. By the treaty of San Stefano, a large Bulgarian state was also created and the treaty also resulted in some of the countries under the Ottoman rule which were fighting for independence being granted the same and these included Serbia and Romania.

The Russian success was not a positive indication to other European powers and in the year 1878, European countries with Germany under Bismarck being the leader, called for a congress in Berlin to discuss a revision of the San Stefano treaty. When the congress met it reduced the agreements, which had been signed under the treaty to the humiliation of Russia.

The Bulgarian state was reduced in size and the rest of the territory returned to the Ottoman Empire and it was after this Congress of Berlin that European powers formed alliances in order to safeguard their security.

After what Russia had experienced in the Berlin congress, it terminated the alliance and thus Germany had to make an alliance with Austria with Italy joining later.

We will write a custom Essay on Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons for the Russo-Turkish conflict Nationalism

In the middle of 19th century there was a rising wave of nationalism across the Ottoman Empire. It was at this period that the Balkan States which had been under the rule of Ottoman successfully revolted against the empire and gained their independence with the help of other European countries.

Related to the Balkan states the following activities led to the conflict; The founding of the independent Bulgaria, the revival of their language, the intellectual awakening and the rise of the orthodox Christian church were some of the factors that reinforced nationalism and realization of Bulgaria’s independence and unity among other Balkan states.

It was after gaining the independence that Bulgaria felt that it needed to establish territorial and ethnographic boundaries to separate it from the other Slavic nations. It was during this period that anything related to Ottoman was considered negatively and Islam as a religion was regarded as a reminder of the ottoman occupation, and with the help of Russia this was made possible (IHRC 7).

Ottoman Abuses of Christians Living in the Empire

At the end of the Crimean war, which pitied Russia against the Ottoman Empire, there was an agreement that Christians and Muslims were to share equal rights. While some of these reforms were initiated afterwards, some key aspects of discrimination still remained, for example, there was no place where Christians were allowed to confess against the Muslims.

This created a Muslim like immunity towards offenses committed against the Christians. In some instances it allowed the Muslims to take advantage of the situation and exploited Christians badly. These practices were mostly felt where the Christians were the majority and this was used as a tool to keep them off, as a result revolts grew within and the Russians saw it as an opportunity to help them by attacking the Ottoman Empire.

Weakness of the Ottoman Government

The empire army and economic status began weakening; this caused its instability and made them vulnerable to external attacks from their rivals. The military instability caused the empire to experience internal problems and weakened the very foundation of the empire. The empire insistence and devotion to its traditions also caused their relations with the rest of European countries which were Christian dominated and as observed by Lioutas,

In the year 1800s the Empire experienced a decline as a result of a lack of advancement, corruption in the government, a decline in military power, which facilitated external attacks, along with negative feelings towards them and poor relations with other countries; this resulted in isolation from the West (Lioutas 1).

Another factor that led to the weakening of the Ottoman Empire was its internal army conflict, for example, before their war with Russia, the Ottoman Empire had engaged in war with Muhammad Ali from Egypt which resulted in the loss of Egypt for the empire. Internal wars were fought resulting in liberation and essentially loss of land therefore decrease in empire size; slowly and steadily, parts of the empire particularly in the borders were lost (Haberman


Harriet Ann Jacobs’ Narrative Annotated Bibliography college essay help near me

Table of Contents Jacobs, Harriet Ann

Ferguson, Moira

Yellin, Jean Fagan

Titus, Mary

Yarbrough, Fay A.

Washington, Margaret

Works Cited

Jacobs, Harriet Ann Harriet Ann Jacobs is one of the most prominent female abolitionists of the nineteenth century. Her personal experience enabled people to give a clear insight into the whole scope of issues concerning slavery. Thus, whereas many former slaves wrote about the dangers slaved had to endure, their struggle for freedom and, finally, their escape and building a new life, Jacobs revealed the issue which were not explicitly articulated before “from motives of delicacy” (qtd. in Washington 57).

Admittedly, in her Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Jacobs tackles many such “indelicate” issues which make the reader consider slavery from different social and psychological perspectives. Many scholars analyzed Jacobs’ narrative and biography, and each of this works depicts new facet of one of the most obscure pages of American History.

Ferguson, Moira Thus, Ferguson reveals landmarks of Jacob’s biography and at the same time briefly depicts the epoch. Ferguson does not only provide some dates and events, but makes a deeper insight into the inner world of the remarkable woman. For instance, the reader gets to know that Jacobs was disappointed with ignorance of her masters and understood that she could rely “for emotional support primarily on” her grandmother and her brother (Ferguson 98).

The present research is a valuable source for the further analysis of Jacobs’ narrative and life since it is based not only on the Jacob’s writing but uses many other reliable sources. The article provides the researcher with information about most important events in Jacob’s life and helps to understand the peculiarities of that period highlighting the process which were taking place in the contemporary society.

Yellin, Jean Fagan Another valuable source is more concerned with the narrative of Jacobs (Yellin 137-146). Yellin provides a brief depiction of some important biographical data and passes on to the narrative. Yellin tries to understand the reasons which made Jacobs write such a truthful story denoting that Jacobs was ashamed of that part of her life (Yellin 141).

This source deals with two very important issues: Jacobs’ inner world and her peculiar literary style which made her narrative so emotional and sincere. It is necessary to add that apart from Jacobs’ book Yellin uses her letters and other writings, and this makes the present source very valuable since it reveals to great extent Jacobs’ inner world. The source is very useful for the further research since it analyses and evaluates those factors which influenced the creation of the book.

Titus, Mary Titus makes even deeper insight into the psychological and social factors which became a basis for Jacobs’ book (199-216). Thus, Titus claims that Jacobs does not only depict the story of her life but reveals the essence of “poisonous system” dealing with “social ills” and “bodily ills” (199). Titus considers the peculiarities of Jacobs style stating that she uses “the language of disease and contamination” to reveal the cruelty and viciousness of the society based on slavery (202).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Titus provides a deep analysis exploiting various sources on the topic referring to other scholars who considered slavery in the United States and American literature on the slavery. Of course, such unbiased source is indispensible for the survey concerning Jacobs’ narrative and personal experience since it provides useful ideas about the message of the book and its role or its place in the literature which was a very potent weapon in the struggle for slavery abolishing.

Yarbrough, Fay A. Of course, one of the important sources for the research can be an article by Yarbrough which deals with the sexuality revealed in Jacob’s book. Yarbrough claims that Jacobs was one of the pioneers to reveal the “constrained position of slave women” (567). Reportedly, the sexual component of females slave life was particularly important since it touched many psychological issues where affection and disgust, love and suffering were intermingled.

The source is really important since Yarbrough considers Jacobs’ experience in the historical and social discourse comparing and contrasting her case with many other slave females. This broad approach (considering Jacobs’ narrative from historical perspective) helps to understand the role of the book in American literature.

Washington, Margaret Another valuable source for the analysis of Jacobs’ narrative is the article by Washington where she deal with the sexual issues raised in the slave female experience. She compares two brave women, Harriet Jacobs and Sojourner Truth, who were not afraid of “openly admitting” their “sorrow and shame” claiming that “their sagas contained the pulse of the people” (Washington 71). The article is mainly concerned with the personal experience and feelings of slave women.

Besides, Washington denotes the exclusive importance of such sincerity which contributed to the process of slavery abolishing. The source is based on numerous reliable sources including Jacobs’ and Truth’s narrative and scholarly writings which makes it unbiased and very precise. This article enables to see the importance of the sexual component of the narrative which was implicit and underestimated for a long time.

Works Cited Ferguson, Moira. Nine Black Women: An Anthology of Nineteenth-Century Writers from the United States, Canada, Bermuda, and the Caribbean. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998.

Titus, Mary. “This Poisonous System”: Social Ills, Bodily Ills, and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl”. Harriet Jacobs and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: New Critical Essays. Ed. Garfield, Deborah M. and Rafia Zafar. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 199-216.

We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Harriet Ann Jacobs’ Narrative specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Washington, Margaret. “From Motives of Delicacy”: Sexuality and Morality in the Narratives of Sojourner Truth and Harriet Jacobs.” The Journal of African American History 92.1 (2007): 57-73.

Yarbrough, Fay A. “Power, Perception, and Interracial Sex: Former Slaves Recall a Multiracial South.” Journal of Southern History 71.3 (2005): 559-588.

Yellin, Jean Fagan. “Incidents in the Life of Harriet Jacobs.” The Seductions of Biography. Ed. Rhiel, Mary and David Bruce Suchoff. New York, NY: Routledge, 1996. 137-146.


The Major Components of Bioethics in Healthcare Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Provision of quality healthcare is paramount for a healthy and productive population. The field of medicine has well outlined principles and standards that are expected of all the professionals and specialists in the healthcare sector. In the United States, a significant percentage of the healthcare industry is under private operators (Boyle, 2001). The nature of services as well as how they are offered become of much interest for everyone in order to avoid any instances of unethical practices in the name of healthcare.

All medical professionals should uphold their commitment to adhere to the ethical obligations and values as provided in the course of their training. The essay discusses some of the major components of bioethics in healthcare. It gives examples in clinical practices that may be viewed as unethical with reference to the current nursing standards.

Ethics entails the enhancement of right actions and good things by members of any given profession. It basically refers to the standards and actions that are expected of a group as provided in the profession’s code of ethical conduct. These actions are usually stipulated in the code of ethics for any given field although some may be at a personal level or unwritten (Morrison


Ethical and Legal Issues Analytical Essay essay help

Nurses constantly experience ethical dilemmas and legal issues during the course of their profession. These experiences are very challenging as they compel nurses to make immediate ethical and legal choices based on the interest of patients, relatives or physicians. Under certain circumstances, nurses find themselves in great dilemma in trying to balance legal and ethical issues regarding certain medical procedures.

Though there are codes of ethics and legal responsibilities that nurses must adhere to, the needs of patients are very complex in that, they may result into ethical and legal conflicts. “In decision-making, the nurses’ choices and actions should reflect best clinical practice, be the right things to do morally, and be within the legal scope of policies, procedures, and practice acts” (Guido, 2009, p. 12). Hence, ethical and legal issues bind nurses in their profession. This essay analyses ethical and legal aspects of two case studies in nursing.

The first case study is an ethical issue, which falls under dilemma of autonomy. According to Smith, “…dilemma of autonomy occurs when individuals other than the patient must determine, or attempt to determine, what’s best for the patient” (2005, p. 75). Nursing ethics demands that the patient act autonomously in making informed choices about medication or other health related issues.

In this situation, the patient had the right to deny further chemotherapy; may be because the medications were not effective or the patient had lost hope of recovering. At least, these were indications of the patient’s dissatisfaction with chemotherapy and it was ethically right for the boy to decline any further chemotherapy administration.

In contrast to the patient’s interest, the physician, the nurse and the parents acted in beneficence. In this case, dilemma of beneficence ensued as the physician, patient and family differed on the issue of medication. “Dilemmas of beneficence occur when health care providers, the patient, and/or family members disagree about what course of action is in the patient’s best interest” (Leddy


Importance of the Medical Records in Medicine Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

A medical record generally represents information concerning a patient that is written following a patient’s visit to health care facilities. The record contains the medical history of a patient as well as all the treatment procedures and methods that are carried out while in hospital.

It is a significant document because it assists in making medical decisions as well as sharing the responsibility with the patient. Bearing in mind that it is a legal document, it can be used to protect both the patient and the doctor while in court. In addition, it has got a legal obligation since it can be used to file a case.

The document can be written in different forms and most importantly, there are different systems used in the same which are inclusive of PIE charting, traditional narrative, charting by exception as well as source oriented and problem oriented (Iyer, Levin,


History of Developing Nations Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

During 19th and 20th century Europe was fully involved in the struggle for freedom. In the process of achieving freedom its economic, political, and cultural sectors were affected in different ways. At the beginning of 19th century, the presence of napoleon brought a great achievement in European empires. By defeating great empires Europe believed that was the road for attaining freedom and independence (Walsh-Atkins 35). In 19th century a great improvement of its economy was realized.

The improvement of the economy was as a result of several inventions that were made. For instance, people started using telephones, electric light, and some discoveries in the medicine field that improved the people’s lifestyle. It was now possible in Europe to prevent many diseases (Soames 112).

The advancement in medicine field led to double increment of population. Economically, the construction of railroads brought a great positive change, as people conducted their commerce with fewer obstacles. These advancement encouraged urbanization and the population in cities increased rapidly.

A lot of economic and cultural changes that were experienced in Europe in 19th century were as a result of industrialism (Spielvogel and Duicker 330). Some of the changes experienced came naturally as a result of rapid growth and advancement of technology. Most of the European nations had some difficulties to adapt to the new era. The internal fallout among individuals brought about new political movements, and changed values.

After the World War 1 the economy of Europe was affected greatly especially by inflation. This happened as a result of government funding the military with a lot of cash. Due to this, the government was forced to print and supply a lot of money, such that one would carry a lot of paper notes to purchase something. The First World War led to the deterioration of Europe where a lot of people were left homeless, as the economy had declined completely .The economic challenges resulted to political radicalism.

On the other hand, the culture of the people in Europe was also greatly affected. Women were the most affected as they were forced to terminate their work and get married. When the labor declined, they were then ordered to go back to work (Soames 230). In the European society, households reflected some other social aspects (Walsh-Atkins 70). The house in which one lived served as his or her shelter, as well as his level of status.

The middle level women who were taken from industries were made guardians of domesticity. Their main responsibility at homes was to cook and maintaining good life within the home compounds. The working class women were not in apposition to take care of the home, and hence were regarded as immoral for not caring for their homes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The political environment in Europe changed in 1850, whereby the leaders who opted to go by the will of the citizens were given a chance to rule. Most of the politicians made use of the press to reach the public. The new political leaders who were appointed gave the growth of the state a priority. States were competing, and the newly appointed politicians applied force to achieve some goals (Soames 112).

The success of the nation was set to be the final determinant of the political success. Towards the end of nineteenth century, most of politicians emphasized on the will of the state, and the idea of social reforms was also introduced. The main aim of social reforms was to unite people within the nation states.

Works Cited Soames, Grenville. A History Of The World From The 20th To The 21st Century. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2005.

Spielvogel, Jackson, and Duicker, William. World History. (5th ed), New Jersey: Cengage Learning, 2006.

Walsh-Atkins, Patrick. As/A-Level 19th and 20th Century European and World History. London: Philip Allan Updates, 2001.


Policy Making on Federal Spending Expository Essay argumentative essay help

It’s the responsibility of the government to acquire some resources to finance its spending. There are several sources from which the government gets finances. For instance, through taxation, fund raising by selling its goods and services, and also through borrowing from a potential donor among other sources.

The main sources of centralized government revenue are the taxes from the individuals’ income, and the payroll taxes (Steuerle, 2004). Taxes play a great role in contributing to federal revenues because they are compulsory payments. Taxes are not paid in exchange of anything whether goods or services. Other sources may include, organizational income taxes, excise duties, and custom duties among others.

For the last half-century, the payroll taxes have been increasing, with organizations taxes decreasing, and the individual income taxes remaining unchanged. In mid 1950s, individual income tax was the greatest source of the government revenue, followed by the payroll taxes.

Starting from 1965, the payroll taxes became the major contributor of the government revenue (Steuerle, 2004). They increased rapidly due to the introduction of Medicare. The taxes that were received from Medicare, and the social security taxes led to the increment of payroll taxes from 1.6% in 1951 to 6% in early 1990s. Other sources that contributed to the increment of payroll taxes are national workers pension, and railroad retirement fund.

Government spending is defined in three major ways. Firstly, the government spends its money by buying goods and services for current use by its citizens. Secondly, government spends its money to buy goods and services to be used in the future, like infrastructure (Steuerle, 2004). The third way through which government spends its money is by acquiring goods and services through its own production, and by use of its labor.

The main way through which the government spends its money is by securing the future of its citizens. When the first type of spending is combined with the second type, they form gross domestic product. In the year 2010, the United States central government spent $3.6% trillion, which was an equal amount of 24% of the GDP. Out of the $3.6%, approximately $2.2% was financed from nations tax revenues, while the remaining part was borrowed, creating a deficit to be recovered by future taxpayers.

The largest issue faced in federal spending is federal debt. The financial problems and recession in US economy brought about a decrease in tax revenues, and on the other hand, spending increased. In the year 2007, the national budget had a deficit of 1.2% of the gross domestic product (Schick, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2009, the budget deficit increased to 10%, which was the highest deficit since 1945. The current reports concerning the economy declare that, the increasing government debt may turn to be unsustainable in the long run.

The greatest issue at hand is that the interest rates on the federal debts are a bit higher than the rate of income growth (Schick, 2007). This situation may lead to debt consuming the high levels of income rates, unless the debt would be settled on time. If this situation would not be considered on time, there would be a higher probability of income falling, and new debt adding to the old ones. The private sectors in turn will have an increased risk of non-payment cases. These sectors will end up with weak financial base, and reduced annual profits.

Reference List Schick, A. (2007). The Federal Budget, Politics, Policies, Process. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Steuerle, C. E. (2004). Contemporary U.S. Tax Policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.


is due tonight, if you need me to extend the time I will do so if needed, I have listed all the requirements for this assignment. Basically, the assignment is about The Sun- In Astronomy. Answering questions, dealings with images, some mathematics, and defining keywords. If you get stuck on a section PLEASE leave it blank, I will understand. I need someone who pays close attention to detail and communicates back to me, thank you! college essay help online: college essay help online

1st sheet- is defining keywords in astronomy dealing with the sun. The 2nd section is strictly viewing images that I will upload in order so that it will help you more in that area, the last section is dealing with mathematics. It is ok if you get stuck on a section it is ok to leave it blank. How I will upload it will be in the order you see in the worksheet for example: image 1: WL image 2: CA image 3: HA image 4: Prominence image 5: YK image 6: Eclipse image 7: A1 image 8: A2 And so forth, if you get stuck please message me if you need any additional information. Thank you!


The Movie Tarnished as a Threat: Did They Fear Egoism, Altruism or What Hid in Between? Essay essay help

The art of cinema is comparatively new to the mankind, its history dating back to the twentieth century. Despite cinema’s obvious youth, the pace at which it is developing is truly amazing. With its specific ability to speak to the audience directly, it has the most efficient influence on the people, in contrast to literature and the rest of the arts.

However, the issues suggested by filmmakers can be contradicting and suggesting the ideas which are hard to chew from the start. Such is the series called Torchwood, with the ideas which they speak about very inspiring, yet suggesting quite hard food fro thoughts. In one of its episodes, Children of Earth, the filmmakers exercise the ideas of egoism and altruism as an integral part of human’s character, adding the issue of deontology to the range of the qualities of a man, as the only possible compromise between the two contesting notions.

The Aspect of Altruism: Putting Your Shirt on It Whenever one talks about altruism, it is presumed that the notion is taken as the most positive pattern for all people to follow and adhere to. With the interpretation which the movie suggests, altruism obtains another shade of meaning, which features people’s responsiveness for what is happening, altruism being the highest grade of admitting one’s fault or duty.

In the traditions of the Marvel comic strips, the movie features the hero who is willing to become a martyr in order to save the Earth from the danger of being consumed by an alien race.

Rather childish and naïve, the story touches the deepest of the audience’s soul, rendering the heartstrings long forgotten by the adult public, and making people feel that there is still something virtuous about the human nature. Understanding that the qualities of a man’s character which are the three pillars of the world and justice are still there in the secret shelter of their hearts, people start perceiving the film as one more reminder of the best of a man.

They are given the picture of the savior who is about to come to the rescue without fearing to perish in the fight, with his long odds which do not leave him the chance to stay alive in the struggle. Next to the image of a hero, three is the world of people shown in the most despiteful way, the remainders of the past peaceful life scattered across the ruins:

“We are shown a bleak, ugly world where there is no hope and savior. Therefore we carve one.” (Ireland 20)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An Egoist’s Point of View: Mine, Mine, Mine! However, the most touching scenes of he episode also unlock the ideas which lead to the understanding of the nature of egoism. The episode shows the heroes as the only saviors of the world, which adds certain drama and pathos to the movie, yet creates the grounds on which the egoistic features of the lead characters are forming. In the attempt to sacrifice everything what they own, including their own lives, the lead characters cannot but be posed as the martyrs who take the death penalty passed by the fate as the people without a sin. They become heroes in the very sense of the word, half gods, to the amazed public. The Earth dwellers start worshipping them as the rescuers, which has a certain negative effect on the moral qualities of the characters. Indeed, the temptation is too hard to resist, since the image of the martyr has always been considered as one of the most attractive by a number of adults, not to mention the impressionable and sensitive teenagers.

Thus, forming the grounds for the egoistic feelings to flourish, the movie proves to have a certain negative effect on the audience.

This immortality does tend to feed Jack’s superiority complex. He often remains austere and arrogant, separating himself from the crowd and from the joviality that permeates the offices at torchwood headquarters. (Ireland 84)

However, instead of claiming that people who are possessed by egoism as the craving for a better environment and a better life are vicious and do not deserve being called decent and righteous, it is better to fathom the essence of egoism. Ad every philosophic notion, it is supposed to be a double-sided sword, with a sudden positive effect to prove through the thick of the negative features of the phenomenon.

It is quite clear that egoism is a part of a man, and thus it is rather unreasonable to deny one’s own piece of soul. It would be wiser to consider what this piece grants the person with.

However hard it is to admit, it is evident that accepting gratitude without a wink of one’s eye is considered the most vivid manifestation of egoism in the modern world. Thus, a humble acceptance of the thankful words and even the refusal to accept the latter is supposed to be the most natural behavior.

Whereas humble behavior of the kind is supposed to be the model to follow, what the characters of Children of Earth show is claimed to be a double-dyed egoism. Taking no consideration of the specific features of a human’s nature, righteous people make the same mistake of demanding too much of mere mortals.

We will write a custom Essay on The Movie Tarnished as a Threat: Did They Fear Egoism, Altruism or What Hid in Between? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Deontology: the Golden Mean, or the Road Paved with Good Intentions Taking into consideration the fact that the idea of deontology means first of all the golden mean between the notions of egoism and altruism, it is quite understood that the moralizing element of the movie is still present, despite all prohibitions and numerous critical reviews. Like any movie based on a Marvel-like comic strips, it could not escape the omnipresent morality, which can be seen quite clearly form the ways the story unwinds.

Since the very notion of deontology represents a sufficient food for thoughts itself, it is necessary to remind that it is partially resulting from the embracement which gratitude sends to people (Seglow 3). Though such reaction is rather weird from the logical point of view, it is a part of a man’s psychological features, and the numerous explanations for this phenomenon cannot give the full picture of what is happening in a man’ soul as he or she accepts the tokens of gratitude addressed:

Deontology, consequentialism, contractarianism and virtue ethics all have trouble with gratitude. The reason why gratitude is an “embarrassment“ to ethical theory stems from the way these traditional approaches neglect the centrality of contribution (Seglow 3)

With such approach, it is no wonder that people take gratitude with a mixed feeling of pleasure and embarrassment, as if they have been praised for a worthless thing or as if they have been accused of something shameful. Such is a man’s nature that he or she both desires and fears to be praised. Sacrifice is considered as a normal and logical path of behavior in the modern society, though, taking a good consideration on the history of a man’s development it becomes clear that sacrifice has been established as virtue not so long ago.

The history shows that it is more apt to a man to behave according to the law of jungle, than to act in favor of trained for the dangers of life in a less advanced way. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the movie gives a good example of what such people’s traits as egoism and altruism can lead to, once they have been too exaggerated. Indeed, the filmmakers have suggested a good lesson for the audience to learn.

Works Cited Ireland, Andrew. Illuminating Torchwood: Essays on Narrative, Character and Sexuality in the BBC Series. Jefferson, BC: McFarland


Neil Simon’s Brighton Beach Memoirs Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online

Neil Simon’s Brighton Beach Memoirs can be considered as a semi-autobiographical play because the writer inserted his childhood memories of living in New York before the World War II. The play differs much from other Simon’s works because it represents a combination of two genres uniting skilful characterizations and humor. Brighton Beach Memoirs narrates the story about Eugene Jeromes, a boy who is dreaming to become a great baseball player or, in case of failure, an outstanding writer.

The play also discloses the problems of the Jerome family whose actions and deeds are skillfully supplemented by refined humorous situations and sufficient emotional charge. Brighton Beach Memoirs is a coming-of-age play where Eugene cannot be defined whether he is an adult or a child. The hero fells that all his ambitions fail because of his mother’s pressure.

Eugene has still difficulties in making his choice; he wants to fulfill himself in two completely different professions thus showing that he is unable to be responsible for his life. As an example it is possible to present the quarrel between Eugene and his mother revealing that each character has his/her unique image of the way the world should work: “Eugene: It’s the last batter Mom. Mel Ott is up. It’s a crucial moment in the World Series history. Kate: Your Aunt Blanche has a splitting headache” (Simon 4).

The actor’s play cannot be considered the pink of perfection, but it managed to render Eugene’s searches and transformations. The wide range of his interest is constantly changing the actor skillfully conveys all those transformations. The actor has a deep sense of timing and space so that he could fluently deliver all humorously and emotionally colored scenes. His theatrical proficiency helps him disclose the character’s experiences while interacting with other characters.

More importantly, the acting style accurately rendered the historical and culture context of the events. The interaction between Kate and Eugene shows an antagonistic polarity and both heroes represent the example of generation gap. In the end, it should also be stressed that the actor skillfully addresses the audience and immediately renders the “memories” about Jerome’s childhood. In general, the proficient cast made the beginning and the ending parts a valuable experience.

The directing of the play managed to extend the subtext through the portrayal of actors as adults and children. In particular, the director provides an original approach to Eugene transformations through the observation of his past and future perspectives. The directing team effectively presented the composition of the play. In particular, the play slightly deviate from the original script and the pircturization was accurately rendered through various scientific devices and techniques.

In order to enhance the humorous effect, the director author-justified tweaks and aisles to create the link between the play and the original script. In addition, the director strived to render the play as the funnier property through deploying Eugene as the representative of the financial dynasty. He did not only include all members of the family, including father Jack, mother Kate, Eugene’s older brother Stanley, but other important characters that supplement the overall ideas of the play.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The directing team did not take the risk to deviate from the play’s setting and plot and, therefore, it tried to preserve historic, cultural, and social context. Although the play was more humor-oriented as compared with the original variant, the setting and the atmosphere reminded of the times and events before the World War II. In particular, everything from the traditional furniture and costumes to make up and decorations were closely related to that period of time.

The scene design was presented in brown gamma of colors that is typical of the 40s of the past century. Such a decorations would highlight the caring and the warmth of the family relations, notwithstanding some stressed from the inside and outside world. The scenery emphasis was the home interior reflecting a warm color pallet. The exterior, however, was also represented through roofing section and provided the lighting that also reflected all the interior tendencies.

Due to the fact that theatre is nothing but a black box, the bulk of the decoration area was slightly alienated from the audience. The costumes fitted well in the overall atmosphere presenting the same palette color. In general, the director strived to engage the audience into the performance so that each person viewing the play could participate in the events taking place on the stage.

In general, the plot was structure carefully and the directing managed to reach an old-fashioned effect. All the problems of the play were also carefully revealed, they involve the reader in the flow of events and conflicts where the culmination and denouement were also thoroughly arranged.

The portrayal of crowed daily life and routine, however, partially resembled of the 80s American family. Besides, the play was richly endowed with details and carefully designed costumes to involve the audience in the pre-war times. Despite the excellent directing and acting, some elements of the original script were lost due to the discrepancies in genres and techniques.

Works Cited Simon, Neil. Brighton Beach Memoirs. US: Plume, 1995.


Marketing in real life Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Marketing is an important exercise in a company; it ensures that target customers access goods and services a company manufactures. Manufacturing can only take place if marketing department sells final products effectively. Marketing team also advises a company on the products on demand.

Marketing links customers and a company. Before this course, I thought that marketing is advertising for goods and service. I also believed that it stops when customers have realised the existence of certain products in the market. After the course, I have a better understanding of what marketing is. This paper gives a personal understanding of marketing.

Marketing No single statement can explain what is marketing; briefly, it is a link between customers and a company, the feedback from either side is crucial in improving goods and services produced. It works back and forth where customers influence the company products and service and the company persuades customers to buy its products.

The number of stages involved in marketing varies; however, it involves the process taken from designing a product to delivery of such products to the target customers. When designing a marketing strategy, the most important thing is developing a market segment. This is a small group in the larger community that have similar attributes such as similar likes, values, age, income among other. Understanding market segment is important for product development.

The following are the main stages in marketing:

Product design: in this stage, the company comes up with a product to sell to a certain market segment. The development is through an in-depth research and analysis of customers’ needs.

Product promotion: in this stage, awareness of the products is the most important thing. Product promotion is through promotions and advertisements. This is to ensure that the customers are aware of a product in the market.

Pricing, product differentiation, and distribution: in this stage, emphasis is on putting efforts to improve the quality and cost of the developed products to compete with similar products effectively.

Objectives of a marketing strategy Some objectives of an efficient management strategy are:

It aims at analysing internal and external environment that a business operates in, to device mechanisms for effective product communication to the target customers.

It analysis consumer behaviour both in domestic and global markets to ensure that it advises its company effectively on the best practices to adopt to remain competitive

Through marketing research, the department can advise other sections on product developments and the best approaches they should take to attain effective product differentiation.

Through survey of the prevailing market conditions and analysing competitors, marketing assists a company in setting prices.

It aims at advising a company in product development and differentiation.

An effective marketing strategy fulfils all the above-mentioned objectives not in isolation but all at a go. When all the objectives are met, a company gains a competitive advantage, as it is able to relate with its customers well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advantages of a marketing strategy Marketing links a company to its target customers. If this link is not effective, there will be a breakdown of communication between these two parties. Information is power; marketing offers much needed information for strategic decisions. When producing goods, there is a target market that company aims. Human beings are not static; their needs change with time and space. Understanding of customers’ trend is important for an effective business.

When a company produces goods and services, it does so with the aim of selling. Creating awareness and persuading the customers to buy a company’s goods is the role of the marketing department. It thus ensures that the main objective of a business that is profit making is attained.

Marketing assist, a company to compete effectively and probably win the competition. How well a company persuades its customers goes a long way in determining whether customers favour it or not. To satisfy customers, marketers provide much needed information on which products are on demand, to assist the company make products that meet customer-changing needs.

For example, it advises a company when designing distribution channels, supply chain, and retiling systems. When determining the integrated marketing communications combinations to use then information from the marketing department is crucial.

Factors that limit the understanding of marketing among consumers and among other business disciplines Other departments in a company have misunderstood marketing. They do not understand the role it plays in a company. In a company’s structure, marketing is not among the major department and has its importance limited to advertising. They fail to understand that marketing department assists in making strategic decision that give a company competitive advantage.

Customers see marketers as sales representatives; they do not understand they do more than just selling. They have the perception that marketers come to persuade them buys certain product. However, marketers are a link between a company and its customers. It is through marketing that a company understands the expectations of its target market.


Managing Workforce Diversity Report essay help free

Executive Summary Workforce diversity is an issue that has generated sufficient interest from business managers, and scholars. Simply put effective management of workforce diversity as recognizing, understanding and appreciating the uniqueness of each individual in the staff. This should however not be motivated only by the potential to increase profit margin. Even so, a diverse workforce might result in increase employee creativity and innovation.

Similarly, an employer who has a good reputation of managing effectively the workforce will automatically attract, recruit and retain the best talent. As result, this group will bring on board different knowledge and experience of dealing with a diverse client base. On the other hand, diversity has its limitations. Some employees might not fit in very well and hence fail to play along the team for general good of the organization. Despite this, the benefits outweigh the limitation as portrayed IBM Company and Bank of Montrel.

Both the two companies have a reputation of advocating for a diverse workforce. They have included workforce diversification in their corporate strategy and set programs to ensure they achieve these objectives. As a result, they have achieved tremendous success and increased employee productivity. Perhaps, the only challenge they have had to face in the process is committing most of their time and resources (money) in pursuing this endeavour.

Introduction Without a doubt, the greatest asset an organization can have is its human resource. Therefore, issues affecting the staff have increasingly become popular among business managers, scholars, policy makers and other stake holders. One issue that have particularly generated sufficient interest is managing workforce diversity. O’leary


Advertizing vocabulary of the coca cola company in Russia Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Use of foreign language in media, especially advertisements has grabbed extensive attention from linguistic researchers recently. The advent of the phenomenon in the Russian language too has gained some attention . Ustinova points out that 76 percent of the total advertisement s spots in Russian television are dominated by Russian-English mix . Clearly, English has a dominant place in advertisements presented over Russian television.

There is a definitive intrusion of English in the content and structure of both print and television advertisements. Russian advertisements have been observed to become a giant cauldron of social-cultural mixture that has helped in the evolution of the modern Russian language – as a mix of English and Russian. Advertisements by multinational corporations translated in Russian have been accused of slowly infiltrating the Russian language with English words.

The effect of advertising language on Russian lingo has brought forth a conflict between Russian culture and language. The advent of English words like “email” or “Halloween” has crept in the Russian language through advertisements. Since its entry into the Russian market in the 1990s, the Coca Cola Company has brought in English words in the Russian vocabulary.

This primarily has been due to the advent of English advertisements by multinational corporations (MNCs) who had to promote their brand through advertisement campaigns translated in Russian. As it has been mentioned by academicians, “translation plays a facilitating role as it enables the colonizer and the colonized to communicate.”

Therefore, many believe that the inclusion of English words in the advertisements of MNCs has been a deliberate attempt by the western colonizers to intrude into Russian socio-cultural mix. This paper analyzes the advertisements of coca cola in Russia and tries to ascertain the amount of English words that has been brought in by their advertisements.

The aim of the paper is to identify the advent and usage of English in advertisements of Coca Cola in Russia. Therefore, the aim of the paper will be understand the use of Russian words, or English words, or a mix of Russian-English in advertisements . This will demonstrate the penetration of English in Russian usage that affects the cultural discourse of the society .

The method that is adopted in analyzing the Russian advertisements of coca cola over a period of time is through analyzing the ads of Coca Cola in Russian. 11 coca cola advertisements have been studied from print, television, and internet media. The advertisements and their contextual content are described in the table shown below. The advertisements are analyzed for their voice over, and the language used in the text displays.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Table : Coca Cola advertisement description

Sr. No. Year Media Content English-Russian Mix 1. 2010 TV Coca-Cola: History of Celebration The advertisement has a mixture of English and Russian. Though the background voice over is in Russian, the song “Wave your flag” is in English. Further, the language used for the textual display in the end of the advertisement had 10 words, out of which 3 were written in English. (YouTube) 2. 2008 TV The Power of Scream The whole advertisement has voiceover only in Russian, except for the brand name. however, the last screenshot with the texts has been written in English. Words like “Coca Cola Euro 2008”. 3. 2004 TV Despina Vandi The coca cola advertisement featured during Athens Olympics. The whole advertisement has voiceover, as well as texts in Russian, except in the end while mentioning Athens 2004 and the brand name. 4. 2009 TV Coca Cola Commercial The advertisement too has been translated from English. However, the ads do not have any English text in it except for the brand name. 5. 2007 Print All be Cool – Be Inspired (in Russian) The print advertisement has everything written in Russian, except for the brand name that has been written in English. 6. 2010 TV Christmas Ad This ad shows Santa Claus drinking Coca Cola, and children decorating the Christmas tree with small teddies with Coca Cola written on them in English. The voice over is in English, however, all the visual texts, except the brand name is written in Russian. 7. 2005 Internet “Be friends with Coca-Cola! Be online!” The internet marketing campaign launched in Russia in 2005. The campaign aimed at internet users in Russia and provided them with 30 minutes of free internet access using ROL. (Just-drinks). 8. 2010 Print Coca Cola Light The print ad has a Russian model depicting slimness for Coca Cola Light, a deviation from the western Diet Coke. The text is in Russian. (MIKHAIL KOROLEV) 9. 2010 TV Coca Cola The advertisement shows animated insects stealing a bottle of coke from the garden. The text in the advertisement is in Russian, with only the brand name written in English. (Coca Cola) 10. 2010 TV Coca Cola This advertisement shows the historic change in the bottle designs of the beverage since initiation. The years are written in English numerals, while the other texts are in Russian. Further the brand name is in English. The voice over too is in Russian. 11. 2010 TV Football World Cup 2010 The advertisement shows coke to be the official sponsor of 2010 FIFA World Cup. The texts in the advertisement are in Russian, except for the acronym FIFA, numerals, and the brand name. The above table shows the collection of advertisements of Coca Cola from Russia. These are a mix of ads from different time frames, and have a mix of both print, TV, and Internet campaigns. In case of the first advertisement, it runs with a voice over in Russian, describing the spirit of a winning goal.

However, the name of the player is written in English. Further, in the end, the whole of the texts describing is written in Russian, but the brand name is written in English. In fact, in all the advertisements studied, the brand name is written in English. The Russian print ads of Coco Cola in table 2 depicts that the brand name is always written in English. As has been mentioned by Ustinova, that the brand names are written in English –

The name of the product and/or company is a must in the layout of an advertisement. It occurs in written and/or spoken forms as a brand name, as an element on a label, within the text of the body, wrapper or a slogan. When a brand name is transformed into a verbal form, its actual shape is determined by considerations of globalization and localization, together with the product and company identities.

Table: Russian Print ads

Source: (Wilsdon; Mikhail Korolev; Collection of Cool Coca-Cola Ads)

Further, the content of the ads are important as they demonstrate the importance of the ads and the content or the message of the campaign. As in case of the Coca Cola advertisement, the punch line “Open Happiness” has been translated into Russian. The target of the coca cola is usually the youths, as the target customers are clear from the advertisements. An increasing tendency of the advertisers is to use English in advertisements targeted towards the youths .

We will write a custom Research Paper on Advertizing vocabulary of the coca cola company in Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the more recent advertisements of 2010 showed that there are more English songs used in the ads. This is to attract more young customers, as they are supposed to have adhered to their allegiance towards the global language. Therefore, the television commercial of the World Cup with the song, “Wave your flag” depicts the company’s aim at targeting the youth as the song has not been translated into Russian.

This is so because, only ads without any translations in Russian are aimed at youths . For instance, the coca cola advertisement titled “Teen Machine” was not translated to Russian, as the target of the ad were teenagers. Therefore, there was more of graphic and visual display than text.

Further, the “Brr” ad by coca cola demonstrated a true global feeling with people from all round the world showing the same zest for the drink. However, the text that has been used, and the voice over in the end were both in Russian. The 1992 Olympics sponsorship advertisement of Coca Cola too used an English song in the background of the advertisement, though the voice over was in Russian.

The textual displays, the name of countries were all in English, therefore displaying the prominence of the language in Russian advertisements. Though the spoken language was in Russian, many for the coco cola advertisements had background songs that were in English. As has been observed in the case of 2010 Christmas advertisement, 2010 World Cup ad, 1992 Olympics ad, etc. has been described by Ustinova,

… Russian is used to serve as a matrix language and give a sentence its basic structure. However, the current tendency evolves that English is present in abundance in advertisements on technology, computers, cosmetics, imported food and cars and it is not possible to define English as a matrix or a host language.

This therefore, has led to the use of certain blended words in the advertisements that has entered the Russian vocabulary. Therefore, it has been observed that in many cases due to the advent of mix of Russian and English in ads, there has been a mixture of English Russian words in the regular lingo –

In TV commercials, when English words are voiced by Russians, a ‘Russified’ variant of English pronunciation is noticed, especially in those sounds that do not have the equivalents in both languages. English sounds are adapted to Russian framework or substituted by sounds that exist in Russian language.

Russian has lost its singular homogeneity since the advent of the advertisement and the increase in commercial discourse. There has been an increase in the usage of English words, or Russian words that have been anglicized and been adopted in the Russian language. Therefore, even though most of the coca cola ads have texts written in Russian, and voiceovers were in Russian, there was a definitive deficit in visual and musical aid to support the Russian, as they usually played English pop songs that helped in anglicizing the children.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertizing vocabulary of the coca cola company in Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited BBC, “Anger at ‘satanic’ Coca-Cola ad.” 20 December 2007. BBC News. Web.19 December 2010.

Coca Cola. 2010. Web.

“Collection of Cool Coca-Cola Ads.” 2010. Toxel.com. Web.

Just-drinks. RUSSIA: Coke launches internet marketing drive. Web.

Korolev, Mikhail.Coca Cola Advertisement. 2010. Web.19 December 2010

Smith, Karen. “Applying a Postcolonial Model to the Evolution of Translation Strategies for.” 2002. Annual postgraduate conference for the social. Web.

Ustinova, Irina. “English and American Culture Appeal in Russian Advertising.” Journal of Creative Communications, 3(1) (2008): 77–98. Print.

—. “English and Emerging Advertising in Russia .” World Englishes (2006): 267-277.

Wilsdon, Nick. “Russian Advertising Must Be in English.” 22 November 2010. Russian Marketer. Web. YouTube. 2010. Web.


Employee voice: Does union membership matter? Essay (Article) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Summary




Work Cited

Summary Past research in the field off industrial relations revealed that employee voices are best represented by the trade unions. Unfortunately, there is a recent decline in unionism, a fact that has led to the establishment of new nonunion means of employee voice representation by the employers. These channels concentrate on employee voice; however, it has failed to put into consideration employees’ perceptions.

This article suggests that the employee perception of voice is divergent between the different ranks of the institution. Additionally, it recommends that trade unions will possibly augment employee perceptions of voice at a wider institutional level. The study involved 2949 employees of a public sector scientific organization in Australia. Contrary to the expectations of the research, it was noted that union membership had a momentous pessimistic impact on employee voice at the institution level (Benson


Rhetorical Analysis of the Communist Manifesto Rhetorical Essay college essay help near me

Communism is one of the most influential utopian social theories that have a great influence on the development of many countries. The first document that presents the detailed outline of the main principles and goals of communism is The Communist Manifest written in 1848 by Engels and Marx.

This document is considered to me one of the most influential in the world history. We can put it in the same rank with the Bible and Koran for its influence on the word society. The Manifesto provoked many positive and negative responses, it has a great influence on the literature and rhetoric. A detailed rhetorical analysis of the document reveals the influence of it on the reader, as well as provides a “corrective” understanding of the text.

As it has already been mentioned, the Marxist theory provoked many discourses and was analyzed by many linguists from the point of view of its “rhetorical power” and function of the language as the main rhetorical means.

A famous philologist and linguist Bakhtin described the use of language in its relation to the particular circumstances and he emphasized the process of subject formation: “pre-empts the phenomenological theory of the subject by producing a broader concept of subject-formation at the Level of society. He casts his argument in terms of ideology rather than simply language, making the case that ideological construction is in fact material and does contribution to subject-formation” (Bernard-Donals 15).

The rhetoric of Marxism also influenced the works by Virginia Woolf. One of the examples is the essay Profession for Women. In this essay, she explores her mind and call woman overcome prejudices and obstacles in their life.

The essay is devoted to the role of woman in the society and her struggle with the social prejudices. The idea of communist equality is one of the core ideas of this work. However, Woolf does not put women in opposition with men. She emphasizes that every woman should explore her personality and develop as an individual.

According to Krista Patcliffe’s book, “examination of Wool’s critique of women, language and culture we can outline her feminine rhetorical tradition. The genre concepts of this tradition are: material conditions, language function text, author, style and audience” (33).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another philosopher and sociologist Michel Foucault was the follower of structuralism. In his work, The Archaeology of Knowledge, in which he discovers different approaches to the history of discourse. He explores the discursive relations between statements. Gloria Anzaldúa’s From Borderlands is another work that explores the problem of social equality, gender equality in particular.

It is an autobiographical work which key concept is the author’s acquisition and development of spiritual awareness, which is represented as a source of empowerment leading to self-transformation” (Slepoy 3). The language of the work is extremely beautiful. In such a beautiful language, the author describes the modern tendencies of society, relations between man and women and the role of women in the society.

The Manifesto begins with the outline of the purposes and of communism in order to attract the public attention. The main intention of the author was to make the document easy to understand by the general public. The Manifesto is written with the purpose to describe communism as the best way of life and prevent fears of people and government for this political movement.

So, the general subject of the Communist manifesto is to explain to a broad public the benefits of the communist theory and to call the workers from all over the world to unite and struggle against class inequality and defeat the bourgeois capitalist society.

The manifesto call to a proletarian revolution and establishing a new society based on social, economic and political equality. This idea runs through the text in different interpretations. It is the main theme of the document and its thesis.

The structure of the document has a big meaning for the influence on the audience. The writing is divided into four parts, each part of the document describes a particular theme. Marx starts with the explanation of the structure of the society in different times and class struggle:

“The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight,” (Marx and Engels 7).

We will write a custom Essay on Rhetorical Analysis of the Communist Manifesto specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second section describes a new working class “proletarian”. The authors emphasize that it is the only and perfect social structure and only working class can create new “social paradise”. The third and fourth parts of the document are devoted to the discussion of the forms of socialism and describe a “true socialism”.

The manifesto has a very strong “rhetorical power”. First of all, it is based on opposition: the authors oppose two classes bourgeois and working class. They focus on the exploitation of one class (workers) by another (ruling bourgeois). Furthermore, the text has a great emotional power as it addresses the issues that worried people at that time.

The tone is solemn and contains notes that evoke the desire for struggle. The authors address the reader that makes him/her feel involved and significant. His purpose is to inform, explain persuade and motivate the reader.

In addition, the authors use various stylistic means, such as comparisons, hyperboles and repetitions, “It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere” (Marx and Engels 8), and emotionally colored words, such as adjectives, for example, “In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation” (Marx and Engels 8).

Moreover, the authors use broad explanations and examples in order to support their point of view. Thus, the language of the document contributes to the text and helps in supporting the main idea of the document.

The Communist theory had a great influence on the social and cultural development in many countries. It was very popular in Europe and its influence can be compared only to the influence of Bible and Koran. The principles of communism are described in the Communist Manifest by Marx and Engels.

This document has a very big “rhetorical power” due to its structure, language and stylistic means used by the authors. A detailed rhetorical analysis of the writing can help explain the influence of it on the reader, as well as provides a “corrective” understanding of the text. This document remains the best example of the art of rhetoric. It became a basis for many scientific works and had a great influence on works of modern and post-modern writers, psychologists and linguists.

Works Cited Bernard-Donals, Michael F. Mikhail Bakhtin: Between Phenomenology and Marxism (Literature, Culture, Theory). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rhetorical Analysis of the Communist Manifesto by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Web.

Ratcliffe, Krista. Anglo-American Feminist Challenges to the Rhetorical Traditions: Virginia: SIU Press, 1996.

Slepoy, Graciela Susana Moreira. An Exploration of Gloria Anzaldua’s Feminist Thought in Borderlands/LaFrontera: The New Mestiza. Web.


The Rise of Mass Society Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Drama and theater



Reference List

Introduction Just like any other period, the gilded age is associated with various changes in America and is linked with modernization of America. There were a lot of changes in the United States of America during the nineteenth century as the nation transformed from agricultural, secluded, rural, and traditional society to an industrialized, integrated, and urban


“The Magna Carta” by Stephen Langton Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Influence on past and current American law

Significance of the Magna Carta

Works Cited

Introduction The Magna Carta has become known as the first successful attempt on limiting the powers of a ruling authority by citizens under the authority. The document, signed by King John of England in the presence of witnesses, gave more freedom for the people of England in later years.

The documents in the Magna Carta set course for development of human rights and empowered parliament in the making of decisions. In the US, the founding fathers used the Magna Carta as a reference point when formulating the American constitution. This article entails a brief history on the source of the Magna Carta and details on its influence in American Law.

Background The Magna Carta was first drafted by Stephen Langton, an Archbishop who was perceived as one of the most influential Barons in England. The document was previously known as the “articles of the Barons’, as it was drawn to reflect the discontent of Barons in light of King John’s rule (Clanchy 141).

The document has also been referred to as the Great Charter or Magna Charter. The charter aimed to award more freedom to the non-serf community in the country, and thereby reduce the arbitrary powers of the king. It could be viewed as the first step to establish a constitution within a country. King John was reluctant to sign the charter into law since his powers would be reduced. The charter also set a foundation for the establishment of parliament.

Several events led to the signing of the Magna Carta. In the year 1205, King John of England had a disagreement with Pope Innocent III on who would be the next Archbishop of Canterbury, whereby the king swore that the pope’s candidate would never be allowed into England (Holt 107).

As a result, Pope Innocent III excommunicated the king and banned church services in England. King John also levied high taxes on the citizens of the land, whenever such money was required. The Magna Carta came into effect in the year 1215, and was reissued with a shorter version in 1227 by King Henry III (Danziger and Gillingham 278).

Influence on past and current American law The statute held in the Great Charter of 1297 set the pace for the development of citizen rights in England. Due to the close connections between England and America, documents citing English liberties would also influence American liberties. Article 21 of the United States Constitution states, “That no freeman ought to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.” As such, the US constitution has become the supreme law of the land.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The most important aspect of the Magna Carta is that it placed everybody under the rule of the law, or as stated in the document, the rue of the land. This enabled greater justice and fairness in the country since the law would be effected for all members if society, thererby abolishing the norm of the class system.

The Magna Carta contained elements of English common law and a few other new laws, which were used by Americans when designing their own constitution. In its scope, the Magna Carta later developed to recognize all English in its statement of “any freemen”, the same way as the American constitution applies to all Americans in the phrase “we the people”.

Certain provisions in the Magna Carta required for the preservation of the rights awarded to citizens. In this case, the Magna Carta specified that subsequent alterations of the law should not cancel out rights of the English citizens. America uses such provisions from the Magna Carta in the formulation of laws by ensuring that new laws do not negatively affect the rights of the citizens.

This fact is entrenched in the Ninth amendment to the constitution, stating, “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” The Magna Carta limited the slightest of changes in its wording, just as the American constitution requires that only a majority vote can amend a previous law.

Another key influence of the Magna Carta is evidenced in the Bill of Rights, for instance in the Fifth Amendment (the Suspension Clause), which states, “No person shall…be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”

The Magna Carta had previously declared,”No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned…or in any other way destroyed…except by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to none will we deny or delay, right or justice.” This was therefore the reference point of the Fifth Amendment.

Although the Magna Carta was not intended to be universally democratic by the barons who designed it, the document became an integral part of the British constitution, and later the American constitution. By limiting the power of the king to raise taxes, the founding fathers adopted this idea when developing a revenue system that would suit the country. The president of the United States of America is not allowed to arbitrarily raise taxes or spend money at his discretion. The President has to explain to congress why the government should implement certain policies while congress votes on the proposed policy.

We will write a custom Research Paper on “The Magna Carta” by Stephen Langton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Magna Carta set a foundation for an appropriate legal system. Just as the king of England was under the rule of the land, the American president would also be under the rule of the new constitution. The Magna Carta imposed that crime offenders be fined according to their capacity to pay such fines, and that no one should be condemned without through judgment of peers and law.

The American constitution requires that suspects be tried in a court of law before they are declared guilty or otherwise, in the presence of a group of peers, or trial by jury as interpreted from the Magna Carta.

The American revolt against the British was as a result for what the Americans believed was an infringement of the rights awarded to them by the Magna Carta. An interpretation by Sir Edward Coke argued that the Magna Carta provided the same rights for all Englishmen, whether in England or in America (Linebaugh 113-114).

Another justification for the rebellion was as an argument against the taxes imposed by parliament in England, to which the Americans argued that it was taxation policy without representation. Americans believed that they should be free to rule themselves, just as the Magna Carta had enabled then formation of parliament in Britain, thereby allowing for self governance.

Significance of the Magna Carta The Magna Carta was the first written document citing the laws of the land and their application. Governments around the world have established written constitutions which specify the governing and application of law n their jurisdictions. The Magna Carta also gave way for the development of the basic human rights as championed by organizations such as the United Nations and the United States (Flood 31).

The notion of a speedy and unbiased trial, as stipulated by the Magna Carta, called for an effective judicial system. Another great contribution of the Magna Carta was the idea of majority rule. This has allowed for good governance of the United States by allowing citizens to vote their leaders and the elected leader will be the one with majority votes. This concept also dominates the Congress in the development of new laws.

The Magna Carta made a couple of significant contributions to the United States constitution. As noted, the chapter on the Bill of Rights draws heavily from the Magna Carta by emphasizing on the equality of the citizens (Turner 39-40). All Americans, including the President are liable under law for breach of the constitution.

The American constitution is the Supreme Law of the land. While individual states within the United States of America may enforce their own laws, such laws should not contravene provisions in the United States of America Constitution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Magna Carta” by Stephen Langton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Magna Carta was the source of English law, and later American law (Thompson 9-10). It also provided protection of the citizens from adverse policies formulated by people in authority while its legacy lies in the empowering of individuals by its protection of human rights. The provision of “due process” of law was previously aimed at providing checks on powers of the king, while the same currently implies checks within the government system.

The supremacy clause, embedded in the constitution, provides that there is a higher law that applies to everyone in the country, including the executive and the legislature, just as the king could be liable for breach of common law as implied by the Magna Carta. The bill of rights and other provisions that are based on the Magna Carta are enforced by the Supreme Court.

Works Cited Clanchy, Micheal. A History Of England: Early Medieval England. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 1997. Print

Danziger, Danny and John Gillingham. 1215: The Year of Magna Carta. New York: Simon


The Business Link to Sustainable Development Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Business Idea Generation Process

Business Branding

Main Project Activities

Profit Story

Project Sustainability




Introduction This report describes our project, which is a business that is environment friendly. The focus on eco-business stems from the understanding that the transformation of our environment brings with it intricate relationships bearing both enterprise and livelihood opportunities.[1]

Consequently, the project we came up with, as Spedding advices, is financially viability, environmentally sustainability, and socio-culturally acceptable.[2] Much of what is presented in this paper stems from my role in developing the project. My main contribution to the project consisted in researching on different aspects of the business and doing a market analysis.

Business Idea Generation Process The idea for our Eco-business dawned on us after scanning the New York City (NYC) neighborhoods. NYC being an urban area, many of the inhabitants are preoccupied throughout the day in their various jobs. Therefore, it is very difficult for them to engage in gardening or any other activity of the same nature.

While carrying out our survey, we realized that in NYC there are a number of individuals engaged in community gardening. However, upon further investigations, our respondents intimated to us that despite the numerous faming activities that take place in the area, people find it difficult to partake in those farming activities due to time constraints.

Secondly, in order for them to engage in farming, they have to travel a long distance to community gardens. Moreover, growing vegetables at home tends to be impossible due to lack of implements that would facilitate the same. Finally, many residents that we spoke to do not know where they could buy implements for home gardens.

Business Branding Having identified the aforementioned concerns, we recognized a prime business opportunity. Our business idea revolves around assisting or helping NYC people to start growing vegetables in the comfort of their homes. We are keen on helping people start growing vegetables for their own consumption but also because of the related environmental benefits.

In so doing, we came up with a brilliant idea that we now call INTO-MEET-SEE. We chose the brand name because we hope to encourage people to take plants into their homes. Our brand name suggests to individuals that, ‘bring a plant INTO your home then you could MEET green around you’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, this phrase has in itself profound insight than the ones overtly seen. In fact, in our opinion, the brand name implies ‘let us make intimate connection with nature and the environment”. In other words, the business idea involves helping people to be friendly with the natural environment thus being ready to preserve it. Consequently, our idea will to promote a development platform that enables people to meet their needs without compromising the livelihood of future generations.[3]

Main Project Activities Our project recognizes that despite many people sustainable development is very critical.[4] Since development tends to be perceived to entail the degradation of the environment. Our business entails various activities including online business, renting planter, selling planter-kit, selling holiday kit, as well as events and promotions.

Our promotional activities involve the establishment of an open market, each season, so that people can come and exchange whatever they have grown. Secondly, we provide website services through which members can post pictures of their plants, and share gardening tips. Third, we provide a weekly-customized planter to customers as a way of enhancing the growing trend of Eco-green movement.

Profit Story As a business entity, we will generate profit from the sale of complete plant kit. Furthermore, we have other products such as events-holiday kit, customized planter, and fertilizer. We predict that the selling of fertilizer will be our major profit source once the market is saturated with our planter kits. The fertilizer will be generated from organic material, which can be obtained free of charge from garbage collection centers.

We plan to obtain leftovers from Wal-Mart, Costco, restaurants, spent-grain Microbrewery, and Coffee grain. Furthermore, in order to enhance profitability, we will use a hybrid truck in transporting the fertilizer. Moreover, we will carry out our transportation within a 100 miles radius, hence making our business more sustainable. In addition to the radii of transportation and the use of hybrid transportation, we also use recycled paper for broaches and catalog. This will help ensure that there is no wastage of materials.

Project Sustainability The materials we use are biodegradable hence harmless to the environment. Additionally we make planter from recyclable materials. Most importantly, the kind of fertilizer that we use is completely organic. Consequently, our project is sustainable because it uses less costly materials effectively and with no harmful effect on ecosystem.

To determine the viability of our project, we did a SWOT analysis and came up with various factors, which we have to address. Regarding strengths, our business is 100% environment friendly hence a positive brand image. The project is also profitable due to the minimal costs incurred in obtaining materials as mentioned earlier in this essay. The greatest opportunity for our project emanates from the current eco-green trend that many people have taken to with gusto.

We will write a custom Essay on The Business Link to Sustainable Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We believe that many people will find our product timely and very beneficial. However, the weakness of our project is that it tends to be hard to increase awareness especially because we are limited to the 100 miles radius. Through the internet we can advertise our products widely, but the logistics of delivering the products may prove challenging. The most critical threats that our project faces include high competition since the project is easy to imitate.

Conclusion The trend of coming up with eco-friendly business ventures started long ago. However, what eco-friendly means has changed over time. For instance, in 1962, Rachel Carson helped change understanding for environmental degradation from merely “deforestation, mining destruction, factory pollution, and other visible changes.”[5]

She illustrated that insidious degradation is evidenced in absence of birds to sing and move across the mountains, because of people’s behavior to devastate the natural environment.[6] This assertion was quite simple but very profound in the sense that it created the awareness that industrial chemicals were bound to destroy the peace and tranquility in the natural world.

One critical element we endeavored to include in our project is recycling. Recycling is understood to be “aspirin, alleviating a rather large collective hangover…overconsumption.”[7] To us, the use of recycled materials was a measure of lowering the environmental effect of garbage materials.

The recycling culture entails producing and then disposing less.[8] We strongly believe that our project is an instrument through which one can create awareness about eco-friendly approach to business. Through a project like ours, we believe biodiversity loss is reduced. Biodiversity is very critical because an ecosystem is only stable when biodiversity is enhanced[9].

Bibliography Livio, DeSimone D.


Tehran Chokes and Blames Severe Pollution on US Sanctions Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Summary




Reference List

Summary This article (Dehghan 2010) explains the effects of pollution on Tehran and why sanctions are imposed by US government. Tehran is overpopulated and since the major mode of transport is by road a lot of carbon dioxide is emitted into the air hence the air in that city is polluted and when this gas is added to the gases emitted by the newly established refineries, the amount of carbon dioxide and other toxins doubles.

This is an example of negative externality since pollution is caused by the daily activities in Tehran. In the recent past, people could stand minimal pollution but the current situation has become unbearable. The sanction against Iran hinders it from trading with other nations. On its part the Iranian government has been pointing an accusing finger on US government.

Introduction An externality emerges when a third party is affected by any economic undertaking, thus they may experience either cost or benefit. A benefit is normally referred to as a positive externality, whereas a cost is termed as a negative externality. Things like technology are considered to be positive externalities because they benefit not only the inventors but the society at large. Negative externalities include air pollution and the social cost of drug usage (Mankiw 2008).

In this regard, Iran is the world’s largest source of crude oil but then it has not been refining this oil due to lack of adequate facilities. The trade in crude oil has been doing well in the past until recently when US imposed sanctions on Iran which barred other nations from trading with Iran. While the government insists on the effect of air pollution, these sanctions have impacted negatively on Iran due to pollution. This paper seeks to establish the effect of pollution and sanctions, and the solutions to these types of externality.

Analysis The trade in crude oil has been beneficial to Iran because its economy relies on oil since its terrain cannot support other economic activities such as agriculture hence mining forms the base of economy in Iran.

Just a few months ago the US government has imposed sanctions that have hindered trade between Iran and other nations and since Iran exports crude oil to other countries where its refined and then imported to Iran, the country has been devastated. The production of oil in Iran and motorized transport has resulted to excessive air pollution which in turn has made the city to be in bad condition.

The sanctions have affected other economic sectors including banking because large amounts of money held by banks have been frozen hence there is inadequate supply of currency in Iran (Wright 2007). The US government imposed sanctions with the aim of punishing the Iranian government but then the punishment did not land on the intended target because by looking at the situation on the ground its not the government that is being punished but the common people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pollution has persisted which has led to the closure of learning institutions because the gases emitted are quite toxic such that people have to put on gas masks to avoid breathing in the carbon monoxide and its harmful compounds (Dehghan 2010).

In this regard, air pollution is considered a negative externality. The certainty of production and consumption externalities leads to differences in private and social costs of production and usage. This implies that the costs and benefits of externalities should be added to the social cost and social benefits respectively (Mankiw 2008).

This is the case of Tehran since sanctions and air pollution has resulted in social costs as explained in the previous paragraphs. The following graphs explain the concept of negative externality, where: MSC = Marginal Social Cost; MPC = Marginal Private Cost; MPB = Marginal Private Benefit; and MSB = Marginal Social Benefit.

Graph 1: Negative externality in Consumption

This type of externality is experienced since the MPB (the demand curve of Tehran’s oil producing companies) exceeds the MSB (the demands of the society). Thus, the people of Tehran tend to like a quantity Q1 and the companies producing oil prefer quantity Q2.

Graph 2: Negative Externality in Production

The shaded area represents the externality brought about by production. This is because the MPC (the cost of producing crude oil) is less than the MSC (the effects of pollution on people and the environment). Thus, the MPC is skewed to the right. The strategy of controlling the externality would require merging the social cost/benefits to the private costs/benefits.

We will write a custom Report on Tehran Chokes and Blames Severe Pollution on US Sanctions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In trying to solve the problem of pollution and sanctions, Iran has been forced to look for alternatives to make sure its crude oil is refined because it does not sell crude oil because it does not have a refinery plant. Thus Iran has opted to refine the crude oil herself. Perhaps this is because the government of Iran is aware of the demand for oil is high all over the world.

Kessler (2008) explains that it is clear that the government of Iran did not consider the effects of polluting the environment and this means they don’t have proper mechanisms of recycling the gases generated at their refinery.

According to an article from the Tehran Times (2010), the Iranian government has realized that the sanctions could lead to economic decline but then its latest option has done more harm than good because vital sectors such as education has been halted. In addition, to that the health of Tehranians is at risk and of late more people have been admitted into hospitals because they can not breathe well.

Besides, the mayor of Tehran, Qalibaf has urged the government to improve public transport with the aim of reducing air pollution. Measures include using alternate means of transport such as mass transportation and bicycling and imposing restrictions on road usage (Tehran Times 2010).

The government cannot afford to ignore the refining of crude oil but it should consider introducing mechanisms of capturing the gases before they are emitted into the atmosphere. Alternatively, the refinery plant can be relocated to an isolated place far from human settlements (Torbat 2005).

Conclusion Air pollution has been the major cause of Tehran problems. The Iranian government should consider giving in to the demands of US government for the sake of its citizens so as to have the sanctions lifted because the sanctions will eventually lead to decline in economy which will result to other problems such as civil unrest.

According to Fassihi and Cummins (2008) the refineries of oil emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which depletes the ozone layer which in return contributes to global warming. Air pollution is therefore a negative externality that should be avoided. Hence, the government should consider these effects and engage with the American government in negotiations.

Reference List Dehghan, Saeed. 2010. “Tehran chokes and blames severe pollution on US sanctions”. The Guardian. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tehran Chokes and Blames Severe Pollution on US Sanctions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fassihi, Farnaz and Cummins Chip. 2008.”Iranians Scheme to Elude Sanctions”. Wall Street Journal. Web.

Kessler, Glenn. 2008.”US links Iranian Bank to Fifth Avenue Building”. The Washington Post. Web.

Mankiw, Gregory. 2008. Principles of Economics. 5th ed. USA: Cengage Learning.

Tehran Times. 2010. “Improving Public Transport is right Solution to Air Pollution”. Web.

Torbat, Akbar. 2005. ”Impacts of the US trade and financial sanctions on Iran”, The world Economy, vol 28, No.3, pp.407-437.

Wright, Steven. 2007. The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The foundations of the war on terror. Ithaca Press.


Subway Restaurant Service Marketing Term Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Theory



Empirical study




Theory Service marketing substantially differs from goods marketing because the former entails involvement of the consumer in the production process. In other words, the processes utilised in service marketing are less mysterious to the consumer since he can view or contribute to them.

The reverse is true for goods marketing because it only starts after the production process has been completed. This means that interaction is a key element in service marketing. Furthermore, the consumption process also makes service marketing distinct from conventional goods marketing because this process takes place in the presence of the producer or service provider. Consequently, the producer has immense opportunities for value addition either during the production phase or the consumption phase.

In this regard, Gummesson (1979) argued that it is essential for service producers to move away from focusing on the aspect of exchange and instead dwell on interacting with their clientele. In goods marketing, a lot of emphasis is given to the exchange process; here plenty of innovations have been designed in order to hasten or improve this exchange of goods and money. However, such a perspective is inapplicable within the service marketing industry.

Furthermore, effective service marketing can only occur once companies make the shift from viewing marketing as a distinct enterprise function to an integral part of all organisational processes. Therefore, integration is an essential aspect of service marketing. All in all, service marketing can be effectively done once the concerned organisation manages those interactions and production processes well.

Fisk et al (1993) adds that when marketing services, the affected parties must recall that four main characteristics need to be put in mind when doing so: perishability, inseparability, heterogeneity as well as intangibility. These are all concepts that should be altered so as to make the service a worthwhile experience. Because of the exclusivity of services, then certain marketing concepts need to be used as the foundation for marketing.

The moment of truth theory suggested By Normann (1983) implies that service marketers usually do it part time rather than full time. Concerned parties must be highly motivated to interact with the consumer and should not view this aspect as nothing more than procedure. Furthermore, the service marketer must be trained or have knowledge in carrying out these interactions. He must also be equipped with the skills needed to do so.

Service quality perceptions are a critical aspect of the service marketing process. In other words, the quality of services provided and the experiences that consumers get of that quality is truly what matters in these provisions. A marketer must fully understand what is constituted in these processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the models that can be useful in this area of the SERVQUAL model that was established by Parasuraman et al (1988). This model identified five major areas that can be utilised to assess the quality of services offered by a certain individual. The first consists of tangibles; although services do not normally focus on goods, they do require certain resources in order to make those provisions effective.

In the restaurant business for example, firms do need food and housing premises as essential components in this industry and they do offer unique avenues for value addition. For instance, the issue of decor as well as the quality of food presented are crucial parts of tangibles. Secondly, one can look at employee behaviour. Perhaps one of the most crucial aspects of service marketing is employee interactions with consumers.

Most buyers will only interact with this category of people and their perceptions of what an organisation stands for will be defined by this category of people so utmost attention should be given to them. Reliability is the third aspect used in assessment of service quality. This is normally understood as the degree to which a service provider will be able to provide the same consistent results over time. Fourth is responsiveness; this means the pace at which a provider meets the needs of the client.

It is a crucial aspect of service provision and hence marketing because clients often compare different enterprises based on this concept. Lastly, the latter model covers the issue of empathy which refers to the ability to put oneself in the client’s shoes and hence deal with any challenges that come along the way.

In this case, the research is mostly focusing on a fast food restaurant called Subway. The restaurant business in Sweden is quite competitive and for players to stay ahead then they need to leverage on high service quality as projected in marketing.

If they do this well then those efforts will immediately translate to increased customer satisfaction, greater sales and hence greater profitability. However, poor service marketing in the restaurant industry may actually result in poor perception that can then be used to persuade others against the use of a certain restaurant and this could destroy business for them.

Many fast food restaurants may focus on traditional marketing channels to attract new consumers but it is the use of service centred marketing approaches that increases customer loyalty and hence causes persons to keep coming back to the same restaurant over and over again.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Subway Restaurant Service Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Customer retention have always been essential in ensuring continued profitable and it would be a plus if Subway operated under such a principle. Furthermore, studies show that reaching new consumers is always more resource intensive than retention of old ones so the former should be given utmost precedence.

Problem Fast food restaurants would like to improve their positions in the Swedish market because this industry is quite competitive. However, these firms may not always be sure about the components of their service provisions that can lead to these strong positions.

Because consumer preferences keep changing, it is essential to assess what those customer expectations of quality are and whether fast food restaurants comply. In this regard, the research will be solving the problem of minimal information being available to service providers concerning quality because these expectations are never stagnant and what was acceptable in the past can no longer be so currently.

The other problem facing the fast food industry is the issue of specialisation. Because of the franchise nature of most of these businesses, it is often difficult for firms to establish a unique selling point that will cause them to stand out among the rest of their competitors within the industry. To this end, companies must know what makes other competitors stand out and hence be in a position to offer something unique to the fast food consumer.

This research will therefore attempt to demystify some of the sources of specialisation in the industry hence putting various companies at a unique position to take advantage of the loopholes that exist. Alternatively, this information could cause certain businesses to realise that they have been left behind in the innovation timeline and they need to improve by incorporating those emerging trends in the fast food industry.

Fast food restaurants are often assessed through a series of lenses by the people that matter the most to them i.e. the consumers. It is however difficult to know how a particular restaurant is performing in comparison to others in the industry.

This research will attempt to solve the latter problem by looking at a specific restaurant i.e. Subway and through the method of observation; it will give a report on the performance of this Franchise relative to that of other fast food franchises in the country. This could possibly encourage the firm to improve its performance or cause other competitors to learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the latter enterprise.

Limitations There will be several limitations to this kind of study because it will utilise participant observation. First of all, because the report will give a finding on just one restaurant experience with Subway, t might not be fair to generalise those findings to the entire franchise. Because franchises are owned by different businessmen and women then chances are that each one will be run in a different way. This report may simply be applicable to the specific outlet being looked at and nothing more.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Subway Restaurant Service Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most observations are highly dependent on the attitude and opinion of the researcher[1]. In this case, the ideas held by the group concerning Subway are likely to affect the findings because one is likely to look at those things that seem to be related to their previous perceptions. In this regard, there may be more of opinions and attitudes in the report rather than objective facts that can be relied on by the owners of the franchise.

It should be noted that there are various Subway restaurants around the country and the world so selection of the ultimate sample space would be a great way of ensuring that the findings are correct. However, because this report is simply based on one experience, one can do it anywhere. It also implies that if one selects a very busy Subway restaurant compared to a less congested one then there would be immense differences in the findings.

The method of observations is often applied in scenarios where the topic under consideration is a sensitive matter[2]. To this end, if one wants to look at the issue of race or income brackets then this kind of study would have been appropriate.

However, when the topic is not sensitive, then soliciting responses from other parties other than the researcher would yield better results. In this case, service quality in a restaurant is under consideration and this may not necessarily be classified as a sensitive issue. However, because the report needs to simply be about an experience then the latter method will be applied.

Observations can limit a study because not every relevant aspect can be seen clearly. For example the sources of food served to clients at Subway would be an important parameter but they cannot be observed by the client. Furthermore, one cannot observe some attitudinal issues. For example, employee attitudes cannot be observed; they can only be inferred from certain behaviour so those intangible aspects of research may not necessarily be handled well in this kind of study.

Time is always an essential component of observation research. A good study must establish reliability by continually observing the issue under analysis so as to ascertain that the same thing goes on all the time. If only one observation is made then chances are that one may have recorded an extraordinary event rather than an ordinary one. Just because a waiter makes the mistake of handling a client badly on one day does not imply that the same individual will do that all the time or that other employees in the premises also do the same.

This study is more of a descriptive research. Although certain parameters have been curved out earlier on in the paper, it is still difficult to ascertain what aspect of behaviour from either the employees or the consumers will have contributed to some of the issues that need to be analysed.

It is difficult to replicate this kind of study in the future because all the groups under study are unique in their own way and they all make for interesting reports after the study. This is an unconventional method of research and it may not always yield all the issues that are being looked for by the concerned parties.

Any good research should be easily duplicable but because this report simply involves a onetime experience at Subway then chances are that there could be difficulties in ascertaining whether these respective issues are related to the overall experiences at Subway.

Ethically speaking, there could be a problem with the issue of unobstructive research. Because the researcher will appear as a regular customer, the concerned franchise might raise some objections about this invasion of their privacy[3]. Whenever a certain group is being involved in a research it is always a good idea to get consent from them.

However, informed consent causes the subjects to alter their behaviour since they are aware of an external observation. This eventually leads to inaccurate findings of the said restaurant. It is for this reason that such an unconventional method of collecting information was used i.e. unobstructive observational research.

Empirical study The empirical study will utilise observation as a method of collecting data from Subway restaurant. This kind of study is not structural in nature. Consequently, no hypothesis was formulated prior to conduction of the research. Instead, the subjects in the Subway restaurant shall be observed and recording made.

Thereafter, these observations will be placed in context by making assertions about them after. The main issue to remember is that certain levels of disguise can be tolerated in participant observation. In this case, the researcher will be appearing as a customer but he is really doing something more. In the fast food restaurant setting, the repercussions for carrying out such a study would not be as enormous as lying to members of a cult that one actually professed to their faith and their beliefs.

Report: After visiting a Subway restaurant, there were several things that could we managed to observe as a group. First of all, we looked at the external appearance of the restaurant chain and found that there were plenty of things to be appreciated. We liked the look of the restaurant both inside and outside.

It was particular interesting that one could choose to sit either on the outside or the inside of the restaurant. Alternatively, customers were at liberty to carry take away and this all contributed to the number of options available to the customer. The restaurant has an interesting green colour scheme that made the place quite interesting.

We were also impressed by the fact that the restaurant is open seven days a week so that clients can walk in at the time of their convenience. This restaurant chain was open when some private ones besides it were closed. That kind of flexibility means that one may choose to have their meal on or off work. It is possible to establish a routine with the organisation because of this aspect and one may not necessarily have to result to the use of certain unconventional cooking avenues at home so that one can make up for their inconvenience.

We also found that frying was not as prevalent as it was in other fast food restaurants[4]. Theirs was a focus of the healthier alternatives. In fact, because the company was not doing a lot of this frying, it was possible to order for a meal and wait for it to be prepared as one was watching.

This was also crucial in ensuring that a meal was custom made to our requirements. We were all able to instruct the concerned attendants about what we expected for our sand witches. There were a couple of ingredients to choose from; some of use wanted lettuces, pickles and pepper in our meal while others wanted other additives like mayonnaise and tomato sauce. We were able to tell the restaurant attendant exactly what worked for us and this definitely contributed to our satisfaction.

In terms of the actual taste of the food; two of us were impressed by the food but one of us complained about it. He felt that the amount of meat that had been placed in it was really too small; in fact the sandwich was supposed to rich in ham but most of it was actually filling. He asserted that it was really difficult for him to even feel the overall effect of the sand witch given the fact that his estimations were unmet.

On the other hand, other two members of the group were quite happy with our meals. We thought that it was quite tasty. In fact, that was one of the fears that we had about Subway; we had assumed that since this organisation is not for its healthy treats then we should not focus too much on taste[5]. Most healthy choices have often been categorised as tasteless so when one can secure a meal that is rich in nutrition but still appeals to the taste buds then this would be a great way of adding value.

We also found that their customer service was average. We entered the restaurant at a time when it was quite busy so most of the attendants could not give us too much attention. However, that was the very reason why we had gone into that restaurant in the first place; we wanted to fast service.

If the cashiers and the waiters took their time to talk to everyone then the service would be quite slow. One of us made the observation that the place was quite hygienic. However, we quickly noted that although gloves were often changed after completion of each order, it was not always true for each meal.

In our case, one of use wanted beef and another wanted chicken meat in his sandwich and another was vegetarian. Instead of changing gloves after completing the sand witches with meat, the concerned attendant simply continued to place all the ingredients from the meat into the vegetarian sand witch and this contributed towards his disgruntlement with the service.

None of us found any serious health or hygiene issue in the restaurant though. We therefore thought that the employees must be well trained on doing this. Most of the greens and fillings were properly covered in order to avoid contamination. Nothing on our plates appeared to have gone bad so we were definitely in for a real treat.

There were a series of items on the menu but the emphasis on healthy foods restricted the food choices. We soon realised that if one was not a fun of sand witches then Subway should not be the fast food restaurant of choice. We would have wanted many other thins from the restaurant chain but found that their continual emphasis on nutrition disallowed them from ever taking those risks.

In terms of the prices, we realised that they were all quite standard. Nonetheless, one of the group members who had been unhappy about the amount of meat in his sand witch affirmed that he could get a bigger sand witch dose at a cheaper price from a competing food establishment. This meant that most of the assertions made by the latter individual concerning the meal were actually related to his unhappiness with the price and the quality of the food.

We all knew that healthy options often must be accompanied by an additional sum but we were surprised to learn that such was not always the case with Subway which did not necessarily have extreme prices. We also found the experience worthwhile in terms of the cards because the franchise has a Subway card.

One of the group members had acquired this card and it had allowed him to get rewards for buying at Subway and he was telling us how we need to get it as well. We thought that the card was a very clever way of dealing with orders and payments at the chain and that many other franchises need to do the same.

The method of preparing the meal was also quite okay to use. We did not have a problem with the level of bread toasting that the firm had employed. Furthermore, we liked the degree of temperature that the food had reached and everything was as expected. In other words, the sauces and breads tasted as they should and so did all the fillings that were used in the sand witches. The only problem that we found was in the quantity of the ingredients.

One of the group members felt that the sandwich was much lighter than he had expected. He told the attendant about this aspect and received a very welcoming response. The employee patiently explained that this was the standard weight of the sand witch but there were other options that would allow for a greater weight. We felt that this was an effective way of responding to the objection because the employee could not just change their standard offerings upon request.

He had to depend upon orders from his manager but since this could not be done immediately then he made do with what was available. It should be noted that we had also given out objections about the kind of issues that were not happy about the employee who had handled the veggie sandwich together sing the same gloves that were used to make the non vegetarian meal. She quickly apologised for that mistake and told us that the same would not happen again. However, the mistake had already been done.

Analysis As stated earlier in the theory review, services often entail co creations with the consumer. Clients in Subway can contribute towards a better service outcome by stating what they want and also by witnessing what is being done. Firms need to take advantage of this aspect by adding value to the creation process[6].

Subway has clearly realised the power of this component by listening to consumer’s input during meal making. One can customise one’s requirements by choosing among the various toppings and meats available in the restaurant prior to compilation of the sand witch.

One may also instruct an employee on the amount of that that the meal should be subjected or any other issue that can affect the outcome of the food. This implies that the company does take seriously this aspect of service marketing. They no longer focus on simply securing a transaction but often work on other aspects that are synonymous to services.

As stated earlier, the consumption process is also another crucial part of co-production. Companies need to look for ways of heightening the consumption of their service in the fast food restaurant business especially because they can witness this occurrence first hand and may therefore be in a position to judge whether the method is actually working for them or not[7]. This is another opportunity for value additional in service marketing.

Subway has utilised this opportunity well by providing adequate space for consumption of their food in the restaurant. As stated earlier, we were happy with the overall decor and look of the restaurant. It enabled us to relax and enjoy ourselves as we settled down to eat our meal.

The fact that there was even an outdoor environment contributed to this perception because we could look at other things in the process. The company therefore marketed their products to us through this interaction with us upon making our purchase. That made up satisfied with its offerings and it is likely that we will go back to Subway some other time.

Integration of all organisational functions is always an important part of service marketing because marketing ceases to be just one of the many processes utilised to make profits. Subway seems to have recognised this aspect very well. They are currently marketing their service at the onset; during acquisition of the raw materials.

They have curved a niche for themselves in the healthy foods section and have shown that fast food restaurants need not be regarded as unhealthy eating options. Such an aspect automatically makes the company stand out from its competitors and markets it. Functions such as human resources seemed to have been integrated in the marketing process as well. The company appears to have done a good selection of employees during recruitment and has also trained them well when it comes to handling customer complaints.

We were content with the responses we got about the lighter than usual sand witch as well as the handling of the vegetable sand witch with the meat sandwich. Even though we could not get what we wanted exactly, the employees had done a good job given the constraints on time and resources. This testifies to the fact that the firm had actually integrated its human resource function with its marketing function.

It understood that customer retention is the key to their growth and therefore ensured that existent consumers were happy with their offerings. They were also aware that one unhappy client would spread the word around and spoil it for them. as explained in the moment of truth theory, employees need to have the right skills in order to be involved in service marketing. It appears as though Subway employees have received this kind of training since the ones that interacted with us did so professionally.

In the SERVQUAL model, service quality is assessed through five major parameters. These parameters are important because they will reflect positively upon the concerned consumers’ perceptions[8]. This will market the commodities to them and cause them to come back.

It will also establish a reputation for the company as well. In terms of tangibles, Subway has worked well on its decor but needs to improve on the quantity of doo served. A diversification of the menu will also contribute to better service quality. Employee behaviour is quite on point as they have reasonable customer service given the time constraints.

We were not in a position to assess reliability because we did not go back there. On the other hand, empathy was prevalent as the employees dealt with our issues as they should have. Lastly, we found that the company’s pace was quite good so they were responsive enough. So their responsiveness was quite okay. This was especially seen after we stated our complaints concerning the use of the same gloves.

We liked the apology and felt that most of the weaknesses we found at the restaurant were forgivable. We did have a difference of opinion concerning the quantity of food but that matter was only raised by one of us. All in all, it can be said that service marketing at this franchise is implemented well.

References Duck, S.


The Battle of Pharsalus Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Historical Information and Dates Conditions under which the citizens of the Roman Republic had to live. The beginning of the first century BC was not the most successful period for the Roman Republic (McCarty 56). The development of the political crisis made the vast majority of leaders proved their powers and abilities to be supported by the citizen and get the necessary positions to rule the world. Still, it was hard to define those powers were more appropriate to the conditions under which the Romans had to live.

There were three evident leaders during the period under analysis: Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Leoni 42). To provide favorable conditions for Rome, these three people signed the political alliance known as the First Triumvirate; and though this step did not have some official status, it was an influential step in the history.

However, the death of one of the leaders, Crassus, changed considerably the development of the events as a result of which, Caesar and Pompeius found it obligatory to get power due to their own achievements and possibilities. In fact, it was evident that certain changes had to be made to define the leader and distribute powers.

Events before the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar and Pompeius could not reach the necessary agreement to divide their powers in Rome, this is why they decided to start a fight at the end of which the citizens could see whose powers were greater. Rome was divided into those who supported the activities by Pompeius (they were the representatives from the Senate aristocracy) and those who believe in Caesar’s power (they were the plebs or the plebeians, the representatives of not famous Roman families).

Due to the evident supremacy in the army, Pompeius achieve positive results of his activities, and Caesar was deprived of his rights in the Senate and had to dismiss his army in Gallia. Still, it was unacceptable for Caesar to lose the power and accept Pompeius as the leader of Rome. This is why, in the middle of the 49th century BC, Gaius Julius Caesar declared the war to Rome and began his activities to reduce the power of Pompeius.

The history behind the two commanders. The authority of Pompeius was justified by his activities during the war with Spain in 77th BC. Though he did not achieve the desirable laurels, he understood his personal priority and abilities to convince people around. Within a short period of time, Pompeius gained recognition in the East, celebrated his victory in the Temple of Jerusalem, and returned to Rome as a definite leader. In his turn, Caesar was known as one of the most thoughtful and artful figure in the history.

Before the First Triumvirate, Caesar’ activities with Catilina demonstrated how mature his actions could be in order to gain the desirable power. Frankly speaking, the backgrounds of the two leaders were great indeed, and both of them had special priorities in particular spheres which made them the two worthy opponents to each other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What the two great leaders fought for. In fact, the purpose of why Caesar and Pompeius supported the idea of was similar: to get the power of the Roman citizens and conquer the whole world (Leoni 43). However, the conditions under which this power had to be gained were different for the figures. Till that moment, Pompeius had the support of the Senate, and Caesar was supported by poor people, the plebeians.

The events in the Italy helped Caesar to prove how wrong the choice of the Roman citizens was; within a short period of time, Caesar returned to Rome with the victory and made the troops by Pompeius leave the city. At the end of the 49th BC, Caesar was proclaimed as the dictator (McCarty 59).

However, to prove his maturity and possibilities to control Rome, it was necessary for Caesar to pass through one more fight with Pompeius. It was the main event in 48th BC that had to define what leader was able to rule in Rome and spread powers over the whole world. It was the fight known as the Battle of Pharsalus due to the fact that the events were developed near the city. This Battle finally proved the powers of one leader and diminished the possibilities of the other leader.

The Battle of Pharsalus: The Beginning Commanders who made a decision to fight. As it has been mentioned, there were two main leaders who participated in the Battle of Pharsalus: Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Taking into consideration the achievements of both figures, they made an attempt to rely on personal strategies.

Caesar realized that there was no need to wait and take some steps to improve the living conditions of Rome. It was very important to fight with Pompeius till they had some provisions, food, and weapons.

Under the current conditions, it was hard to enlarge the amounts of the existed supply, this is why Caesar made a decision to shorten the terms of the attack and started the necessary preparations soon. Pompeius, in his turn, realized that he had greater army, this is why it was possible to win due to the number of people (McCarty 59). Everything that was required was to organize the activities correctly.

Place to be chosen for the fight. Due to the recent events and the necessity to take considerable steps, the place for the fight was chosen. The plains of Pharsalus seemed to be a perfect location for both opponents: the right flank of the Pompeius’ troops (they were more than 600 horses) and the left flank of Caesar’s army were placed close to the River Enipeus so that soldiers got the necessary access to water.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Battle of Pharsalus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was August 9, 48 BC, the date when the battle between the troops of Caesar and Pompeius began (Dando-Collins 114). Pharsalus was the town in Phthia in the southeastern part of Thessaly. Though the battle was called in the name of this town, it did not take place right in the town. All the events were developed close to the river where the leaders made a decision to place their troops. Much attention was paid to the disposition of the armies of both leaders.

Armies offered by the leaders. Different sources identify different number of people who participated in the battle under analysis. In spite of numerous controversies, it was still defined that Pompeius had more people in his army (Dando-Collins 123). The most powerful side of Caesar’s army was his famous 10th Legion.

Its people took the steps with the help of which Caesar achieved success in Spain and other fights before the Battle of Pharsalus. To protect his bets people, Caesar made a decision to put the 9th Legion on the first lines so that Pompeius’ army could not hurt the representatives of the Legion Ten. The army of Caesar consisted of numerous veterans who had certain experience and knowledge about the development of the strategies.

The peculiar feature of those troops was the ability to focus on the quality but not on the quantity. In spite of small numbers of cavalry and infantry, each soldier was loyal to Caesar. The decision of Caesar about the commanders of the troops was almost evident: the River of Enipeus was under the cover of Marc Antony, and the center of the battle was supported by Domitius Calvinus, “who had previously led the screening force in eastern Greece.

As was the custom, the weakest troops took the center. In this case the central division was made up of three of the new legions” (Dando-Collins 115). The right wing of the Caesar’s army was controlled by General Sulla.

The army offered by Pompeius was obviously bigger, still, it was hard to be confident about its maturity. There were 6 legions used by the commander: one legion was formed from the veterans, two legions were of the average level, and the rest three legions were rather poor as their experience was not that bright as the one got by the Caesar’s troops.

The vast majority of Pompeius’ hopes were connected to his cavalry that consisted of more than 7000 people properly trained and experienced. The commander of the cavalry, Titus Labienus, was the former member of the Tenth Legion. It was planned to mount a kind of two-front attack in order to defeat Caesar: certain attention was obligatory for the right side of Caesar’s army as there was the famous Tenth Legion. Assistance had to be expected from light forces like archers and slingers.

The Battle’s Development: The Most Important Step Was to Begin the Attack When the armies were formed and the purposes were set, it was very important to take the first steps and take the leading positions from the very beginning. The decision made by Pompeius was hard to predict still easy to justify: he allowed Caesar’s troops to begin the attack in order to promote his own troops with more time and to save their powers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Battle of Pharsalus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is why the fight was closer to the Pompey’s camp (Image One), and the army of Caesar had more place to change positions, to return, and to control the situation. So, taking into consideration the conditions and decisions made, it is right to say that the Battle of Pharsalus was started by the troops of Julius Caesar on August 9, 48 BC in order to prove their rights and abilities to rule in Rome.

(Image One: Historical Map of the Roman Civil War 49-45 BC)

Tactics Chosen by the Leaders in the battle of Pharsalus Achievements by Pompeius: ideas which helped to begin with dignity. The field was divided into two: the side of Pompey and the side of Caesar. Due to the decision to allow Caesar troops to attack first, Pompey deprived himself of the possibility to have more space for the battle and for departure. Still, all his ideas and strategies were based on the idea that he had more people in all lines.

“His thirty-six hundred archers and slingers dashed out from behind the lines and formed up in the open to the rear of their charging cavalry. On command, the bowmen let loose volleys of arrows that flew over the heads of their galloping troopers and dropped among Caesar’s charging cavalry.” (Dando-Collins 123)

What was decided was to create the army of 3 lines which were 10 men deep and to make the most experienced legions responsible for the right and the left flanks. In fact, the chosen tactics seemed to be an effective idea from the very beginning. Within a short period of time, the right flank of Caesar’s army was defeated and had to give up and move back. Though the Pompey’s army was a bit surprised, they did not find anything suspicious and moved to defeat the last group of people.

The right flank of Pompey was followed by the left flank of Caesar and pressed by the right flank where the soldiers used pilums to act without sound and not to attract other soldiers’ attention. Inability to predict the moves of the enemy was the first reason of Pompeius’ defeat.

However, there was another mistake made. Before the battle, Pompeius created a powerful plan on how to defeat Caesar: he wanted to attract his attention by means of personal infantry and allow his auxiliary troops to attack from the behind and use the quantity as the main benefit.

However, his plan was disclosed and Caesar was aware of possible actions by the enemy and was ready to oppose them. “Caesarian auxiliary scattered from the path of the cavalry, and the men of the 10th Legion on the extreme right were forced to swing around and defend themselves as Labienus’s troopers surged up to them” (Dando-Collins 123).

alking about the weapons used in the battle, the troops by Pompey did not take good positions. All they had were the javelins which were inherent to the Roman army and the bows with arrows to kill the enemy on long distances. Still, much attention was paid to personal protection of each soldier: special Roman helmets called galeas and huge shields called scuta. Roman legionaries carried heavy issues to be confident in protection; still, it was not always easy to make some fast and urgent moves which led to death.

August Julius Caesar: the activities of the winner. One of the most interesting issue to be studied from a pure historical perspective were the activities and ideas offered by Caesar. Without having a huge army and a number of heavy and safe weapons, this leader was able to organize his troops and achieve the victory. The activities demonstrated during the Battle of Pharsalus proved as another great evidence of Caesar’s maturity and talent. Evaluating the steps taking, it was evident that Caesar’s tactics was based on mutual support of each legion:

“Caesar, keeping his battle order, had placed the 10th Legion on the right wing, and on the left, the 9th, which was much weakened by the combats of Dyrrachium. To the latter he added the 8th in order to form something like a full legion from the two, and ordered them to support on another. He had eighty very completely organized cohorts in line, approximately twenty-two thousand men.” (Ardant 42)

As it has been already admitted, the troops in the Caesar’s army were much more experienced and trained in comparison. This is why each step and each attack was properly planned by the best strategists and the outcomes were predicted. The peculiar feature of this troop was their attention to the weapons which made no sounds in order not to attract the attention and astonish the enemy.

In this particular battle, the legions made use of the already mentioned pilums which were two meters long and made of iron shanks and wooden shafts. The soldiers in the battle did not find it necessary to use some heavy weapons to get abilities and move fast.

Logistics Used weapon in the battle. The auxiliary troop consisted of 3000 men who had to stand behind the right cavalry. It was very important to make use of some heavy weapon to promote quick moves and reflect the reactions of the enemy properly. In fact, this troop helped to win the battle and defeat the enemy.

The point is that the strategic move of Caesar differed from the one of Pompey by the decision to use auxiliary forces at first and then make use of heavy cavalry to defeat the enemy. And Pompey used all his heavy army first and then tried to save the situation by means of the part of auxiliary forces like it is described on the Image Two.

(Image Two: The Battle of Pharsalus)

Finally, the success of the chose campaign was predetermined by the weapons used. The Roman Legions were the first who made used of detached artillery in the battle. “In addition to auxiliary archers and slingers, each legion had a detachment of artillery, intended to support a siege of defend the legion’s camp, but sometimes used in field battles” (Rice and Anglim 50).

Success in weaponry technology. The army of Caesar seemed to be more advanced in the usage of the offered weaponry technologies. The leader understood that his people were not enough to cope with the quantity used by Pompey, this is why it was obligatory to rely on some unpredictable measures and steps. The results were amazing: unpredictable use of simple pilums with the help of which it was easy to kill the enemy as well as the means of transportation and prevent the attack.

Outcome Gaius Julius Caesar Victory and the reasons of his success. The results of the battle of Pharsalus were the following: the army of Julius Caesar won the fight and Pompey run away to Egypt in order to find some protection and support. In fact, it was not difficult to predict the results of this battle as the maturity is usually more important in regard to quantity.

To win the battle, it is necessary to take the right steps and to make the necessary conclusions. Caesar made use of his tactical moves: he used more trained soldiers; he paid more attention to hand-to-hand combats; and he used less heavy weapons to promote the soldiers with space and possibilities to move.

The mistake of Pompey was the choice of new soldiers who did not know anything about group fights and attacks. Though many young people were eager to participate in battle, their experience was not as great as it should be. This is why the success was on Caesar’s side. Respect to veterans and their practical skills played an important role in the outcomes of the battle. And the power was offered to a person who chose tactics instead of rude and definite power.

Effect on History The effect of the Battle of Pharsalus is great on Roman history as well as the history of the whole world. The results of the battle determined the rights of Julius Caesar and made him the most influential figure in Rome. His future actions and fights made him a great political figure.

It was the end of the wars connected to the First Triumvirate and an awesome beginning of the dictator who made Rome the greatest republic in the world. There was no other enemy for Caesar in Rome. He proved that his ideas and his steps deserved attention and recognition.

He was a powerful man and could use this power to promote the development of his land, to improve the relations with different countries, and to admit the fact that there was always place for loyalty, respect, and betrayal that could destroy the whole nation within a short period of time.

Conclusion Pompey and Caesar had rich past and experience to create the army and lead a number of soldiers to the desirable victory. In spite of the fact that the conditions under which the leaders should organize their activities were almost the same, a variety of techniques and ideas used was rather impressive.

Pompeius made one single mistake that was inability to consider Caesar tricky moves and tactics. Pompeius infantry should play an important role according to the leader’s plan: Caesar’s troops were not too big, and it was possible to attack them the flank and from the rear. Pompeius truly believed he could win the war and proclaim himself as the imperator of Rome. Still, all his plans and ideas were frustrated by the tactics chosen by Caesar.

Works Cited Ardant, Charles-Jean, Battle Studies. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2004.

Dando-Collins, Stephen. Caesar’s Legion: The Epic Saga of Julius Caesar’s Elite Tenth Legion and the Armies of Rome. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

“Historical Map of the Roman Civil War 49-45 BC.” Map. Emerson Kent: History for the Relaxed Historian. 2010. Web. .

Leoni, Manuela. In Caesar’s Rome with Cicero. Tarrytown, NY: Marshal Cavendish, 2009.

McCarty, Nick. Rome: The Greatest Empire of the Ancient World. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2008.

Rice, Rob and Anglim, Simon. Fighting Techniques of the Ancient World 3000 BC – AD 500: Equipment, Combat Skills and Tactics. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

“The Battle of Pharsalus.” Map. Wildfire Games. 2004. Web.


Einstein’s Dreams Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction/Thesis statement One of the most characteristic aspects of today’s Western living is the fact that, as time goes by; we grow to appreciate the values of tolerance to ever-increasing extent. However, it is not only that the motivational force behind such state of affairs can be accessed through methodological lenses of liberal, but also ‘hard’ sciences, such as physics.

The reason for this is simple – ever since Albert Einstein formulated the Theory of Relativity in 1905, the socio-political and religious discourses that revolve around the notion of ‘absolute’, had ceased to represent any ontological value, whatsoever.

According to Einstein, it is namely the system of coordinates, within which we perceive the evolution of a particular phenomena, which defines such phenomena’s spatial subtleties. Therefore, when assessed from the point of view of different systems of coordinates, the spatial subtleties of the same phenomena will appear qualitatively different.

In other words, the event A and event B that simultaneously occur in system C, will appear to occur consequentially, when we observe them from the perspective of system D. Thus, within the methodological framework of Theory of Relativity, the physical constants that have traditionally been associated with the concept of ‘absolute’, such as physical objects’ dimensions, mass and even the flow of time itself are being referred to as relative.

The qualitative essence of a discussed subject matter depends on a perspective from we choose to discuss it. What it means is that there can be no ‘truth’ as ‘thing in itself’. And, once there is no ‘truth’, there is no need indulge in political or religious violence, while trying to ensure the primacy of one ideology/religion over another.

Thus, it is quite inappropriate to refer to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity as such that has purely scientific significance – as he have shown earlier, this theory directly relates to the essence of socio-political realities in post-industrial world. Therefore, it makes perfectly logical sense for physicists to strive to popularize Theory of Relativity to the broader audiences, as they rightly perceive it as such that relates to people’s everyday lives rather directly.

In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of such our thesis, by summarizing, analyzing and reflecting upon Alan Lightman’s 1992 novel Einstein’s Dreams, as we believe that the reading of this particular novel provides people with insight onto what had helped Einstein to succeed with accomplishing one of 20th century’s most important scientific breakthroughs, and also onto an overall humanitarian significance of Einstein’s theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Summary Einstein’s Dreams is the hypothetical retelling of dreams; Albert Einstein had supposedly been having through spring and summer of 1905, when he worked on designing the Theory of Relativity.

Given the fact that Lightman’s novel features the absence of a classical plot, and also the fact that novel’s thirty chapters (dreams) appear semantically unrelated, in literary sense of this word, it would only make a logical sense for us to proceed with the task by summarizing the essence of themes and motifs, contained in these chapters, rather then focusing on the discussion of chapters’ plot-related semiotics.

In order to ensure paper’s structural integrity, we will summarize novel’s themes and motifs by dividing novel in three equal parts, with ten chapters in each part.

April 14, 1905 – May 10, 1905

Throughout the course of novel’s entirety, Lightman provides readers with the number of insights onto the subtleties of time and onto the relative essence of time’s emanations. The ten initial insights can be summarized as follows:

Time is best discussed as something concurrently rather than linearly defined, because the relativity of the concept of spatiality implies the existence of parallel universes, which in its turn, explains the phenomenon of Déjà vu: “In the world in which time is a circle, every handshake, every kiss, every birth, every word, will be repeated precisely” (5).

The flow of time can be compared to the flow of water in the river. In springtime, rivers become overflown with water. So it is with people – every once in a while, their lives become overflown with time: “In this world, time is like a flow of water, occasionally displaced by a bit of debris, a passing breeze” (6).

The events in every person’s life lead to simultaneously different outcomes, due to time’s multiple-dimensionality: “In this world, time has three dimensions, like space” (10).

In this world, there are two ‘times’ – biological and mechanical, which do not always correlate with each other: “There is mechanical time and there is body time” (11).

The flow of time is geometrically counter-proportionate to the distance from the center of the Earth, which is why people subconsciously strive to build houses on high grounds – they believe that by doing it, they will extend the span of their lives: “People most eager to live longest have built their houses on the highest stilts” (14).

The notion of time is an objective notion, which is why is has traditionally been associated with the notion of divinity: “Those of religious faith see time as the evidence for God” (16).

Causes and effects do not relate to each other in dialectical but rather in erratic manner – sometimes, effects precede causes. Nevertheless, causes and effects always derive out of each other: “Future and past are entwined” (18).

The reason why under normal circumstances the flow of time is barely felt is that ‘normal circumstances’ imply existential stagnation: “If time and the passage of events are the same, then time moves barely at all” (23).

The notion of the end of the world is synonymous to the notion of the end of time. The end of the world implies the victory of entropy’s forces. In its turn, entropy’s victory implies equality: “In a world of one day they (people) are equal” (27).

People that are being trapped in time cannot adequately address the challenges of a present. This is exactly what fills their lives with misery: “The tragedy of this world is that no one is happy, whether stuck in a time of pain or of joy” (31).

May 11, 1905 – June 9, 1905

Since time defines the qualitative subtleties of non-organic and organic evolution, it can be thought as the measure of order in university, because evolution actively opposes the forces of energetic entropy: “If time is an arrow, that arrow points toward order” (32).

The flow of time can be slowed down to the extent that split of a second becomes an eternity: “There is a place where time stands still. Raindrops hang motionless in air” (33)

The hypothetical visualizations of the absence of time imply nonsense: “A bead of water on the window. A coiled rope. A yellow brush” (38).

There is no ‘past’ as something that exists simultaneously with the ‘present’. Past is rather an ideal ‘substance’, which is why it can only exist in people’s minds or in reflection of their minds’ workings – books and documents: “The past exists only in books, in documents” (39).

The flow of time is not evenly continuous but rather sporadic: “In this world, time flows not evenly but fitfully and, as consequence; people receive fitful glimpses of the future” (41).

The reason why most people live in the state of a constant rush is that such mode of their existence helps them to slow down the stream of time: “In this world time passes mere slowly for people in motion” (43).

In order to be able to adopt a proper view of time, one must be ready to expect unexpected: “A man stands at the graveside of his friend… He looks ahead to the day when… his friend will be out of his bed and laughing” (50).

While facing life’s challenges, people grow too appreciate time as their greatest asset, which is why one’s tendency to waste time is being considered a vice: “Time is too precious. A life is a moment in season” (52).

The workings of people’s sensory apparatus define their perception of time: “In a world where time is a sense, like sight or like taste, a sequence of episodes may be quick or may be slow” (55).

The reason why continuous flow of time is being closely associated with the notion of mortality is that, had time been associated with immortality, people’s existence would cease making any sense, whatsoever. It is namely people’s mortality that stimulates them to adopt active stance in life: “The Nows are constantly reading new books, studying new trades, new languages. In order to taste the infinities of life, they begin early and never go slowly” (56).

June 10, 1905 – June 28, 1905

Since, when being projected upon people’s lives, time implies a varying degree of perceptional intensity, time must be discussed in qualitative terms: “In a world where time is a quality, events are recorded by the color of the sky” (60).

The scientific understanding of time suggests the impossibility of fortune telling and prophesying: “Imagining the future is no more possible than seeing colors beyond violet” (62).

The subtleties of time can be visualized: “In this world, time is a visible dimension” (64).

Time cannot be thought of as ‘thing in itself’ – it is namely the particulars of people’s physiology that correlate with how they perceive time: “Time is a stretch of nerve fibers: seemingly continuous from a distance but disjointed close up” (67).

When an individual comes to realization of its own mortality, he or she becomes predisposed towards sanctifying time: “Each man and woman must journey to the Temple of Time” (72).

The flow of time in two different systems of coordinates remains correlative only for as long as these systems are being located close to each other: “Clocks separated by distance tick at different rates, the farther apart the more out of step” (73).

The flow of times determines the qualitative essence of surrounding realities: “Every action, every thought, every breath of wind, every flight of birds is completely determined, forever (by time)” (76).

One’s ability to ‘travel back in time’ is being defined by the extent of his or her imaginativeness: “Time bounces back and forth, producing an infinite number of images, of melodies, of thoughts” (79).

The manner in which we perceive past has little to do with how past had actualized itself in reality, when it was present: “Events, once happened, lose reality, alter with a glance, a storm, a night” (82).

In order to be able to enjoy life in general, one must learn how to appreciate life’s precious moments in their ‘stillness’: “The moment is frozen for all people and trees and soil caught within” (85).

Analysis The significance of Lightman’s novel can hardly be underestimated, because by helping readers to gain a better understanding of time’s subtleties, author simultaneously provides them with the insight onto the main ideas, behind Eienstein’s Theory of Relativity.

Nevertheless, the close reading of Einstein’s Dreams, points out to the fact that, in many instances, author misrepresented Einstein’s perception of time. For example, sometimes Lightman discusses time as physical rather than purely ideal category, which in its turn, undermines the soundness of many ideas, articulated in the novel.

It is important to understand that the concept of ‘time’ is nothing but simply the professional term, to which physicists resort while trying to simplify the procedural framework of theoretical calculations – much like the term ‘energy’. There is a motion, perceived as the measure of kinetic energy. There is a height of physical object’s elevation, perceived as the measure of such object’s potential energy. There are electromagnetic waves, to which physics often refer to as ‘energy’.

We will write a custom Essay on Einstein’s Dreams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yet, there is no ‘energy’ as ‘thing in itself’ – ‘energy’ is just a figure of speech. The same can be said about time. In the universe, there is no ‘time’ per se – there is just physical matter in the state of perpetual motion. This is exactly the reason why time is being measured by the motion of hands in mechanical watch, by the downpour of sand in sand-watch, and by the flow of electrons in electronic watch.

Therefore, it is quite impossible to agree with Lightman when he implies that time has ‘quality’. Quality is an attribute of objectively existing objects’ physical emanations. However, since time is essentially an ideal concept (much like an ideal gas), or rather – the figure of speech, it cannot have quality, by definition.

After Einstein had discovered E=mc2 formula, people with little understanding of physics assumed that by discovering this formula, he defined how energy, time and matter interrelate. In reality, however, the application of E=mc2 formula simply allows physicists to express energy in mass units (kilograms), and to express mass in energy units (joules) – that is about it.

Therefore, even though Einstein’s Dreams does contain a number of perfectly legitimate suggestions, as to particulars of how people perceive the drift of time, Lightman’s novel nevertheless cannot be considered completely faultless, in conceptual sense of this word.

As it was rightly pointed out by Strawson (1993): “He (Lightman) presents himself as a sensitive collector of precious particularities, and some of them come off. But his close observation is somehow fraudulent. It shows no real concern for detail” (The Independent). This, however, only slightly affects novel’s literary value. In this next part of our paper, we will explore the validity of this suggestion at length.

Response Despite the fact that, as we have mentioned earlier, in his novel Lightman sometimes tends to treat time as essentially material category, novel’s overall sounding promotes the view on time as not simply one of physical constants, but rather as the measure of how these constants relate to each other. Thus, it will only be logical to go about explaining the presence of conceptual inconsistencies in the novel by the particulars of a literary genre, chosen by the author as representational medium.

While referring to Einstein’s Dreams, in her review-article Bell (1996) states: “Lightman redefined the nature of plot and the possibilities of action, either internal or external… In very real terms, he has taken us on the process by which scientific thought becomes, on one hand, theory and on the other, art “(121). Apparently, Einstein’s Dreams cannot be thought of as a scientific work, but rather as science-inspired.

Therefore, the fact that throughout the novel, Lightman implies time’s materialness, can be explained by essentially poetic manner, in which author conveys his time-related ideas to the readers. Just as Friedrich Nietzsche, in his famous work Thus Spake Zaratustra, Lightman expounds onto discussed subject matter from highly personal perspective, which explains somewhat irrational sounding of ideas, contained in the novel.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Einstein’s Dreams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, as a whole, Einstein’s Dreams should be regarded as essentially ‘specialized’ literary work – while being highly renowned physicist himself (hence, possessing a scientific mindset), Lightman had succeeded in ridding his novel of moralistic, religious and politically correct overtones – thus, adding to objectively defined literary and philosophical value of Einstein’s Dreams.

Conclusion As we have stated in Introduction, by providing readers with insights onto the very concept of time, and by introducing them to what he believes were the inspirational motives, behind the creation of Theory of Relativity, Lightman had succeeded in exposing the notion of ‘absolute’ as utterly erroneous. In our opinion, this is exactly what accounts for novel’s socio-political significance, as it exposes the concept of tolerance as scientifically substantiated.

In scientifically and culturally advanced post-industrial society of intellectually flexible urbanites, no political or religious ideology should be concerned with imposing its dogmas upon society’s members. As Theory of Relativity had proven beyond any doubt – it is specifically the perspective that defines the particulars of our perception of a particular physical object or event.

Therefore, there can be no ‘truth’ deserving to be imposed upon others, especially if it happens despite their will. Given the fact that, throughout novel’s entirety, Lightman subtly promotes an idea that people should be concerned with making the best of their own lives, as opposed to trying to ‘improve’ the lives of others, it will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that novel’s themes and motifs fully correlate with the foremost conceptual premise of Einstein’s theory.

In its turn, this advance even further the idea that in 21st century, it will not be religion providing people with answers of how they should tackle life’s challenges, but solely science. Since Einstein’s theory endorses the validity of relativist outlook onto surrounding realities, we can say that it is specifically inside the core of this theory, where political scientists should seek the origins of 20th century’s concept of pluralism.

Works Cited Bell, Elizabeth “He’s Relatively Familiar: Albert Einstein in Contemporary American Fiction”. Journal of American Culture 19.2 (1996): 119-125.

Lightman, Alan “Einstein’s Dreams”. 1993. Esnips/Scribd. 15 Dec. 2010. Web.

Strawson, Galen “Time out of Mind: Einstein’s Dreams by Alan Lightman – loomsbury Pounds 11.99”. 1993. The Independent. 15 Dec. 2010. https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/book-review-time-out-of-mind-einsteins-dreams-by-alan-lightman-bloomsbury-pounds-1199-1471604.html


Business Communication Trends Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The Role of Business Communication in the Work Place

The Trends of Business Communication in the Work Place

Effective Communication at the Work Place


Reference List

Introduction Business communication is the communication that deals with promotion of a product. In this sense a product may be anything a company or an organization produces including its services. It may also include the organization itself. The relay of communication within the business or the organization can also deal with legal issues.

Business communication therefore means the passing of information from one end of a supply chain to another. This means that communication can also be between the consumer and the manufacturer. Communication in the work place should be effective such that good communication skills are enhanced. This work reviews the role, effects, and the trends of business communication in a business environment.

The Role of Business Communication in the Work Place Good interpersonal and communication skills can make a person’s career prosper. Employers and workers are known to benefit from top-notch communication skills. Effective communication skills bring about good rapport by establishing familiarity. Establishment of familiarity brings about trust with clients and co-workers and not forgetting the rivals.

Business communication helps in solving conflicts within and outside the organization. A manager who has effective communication skills will always be tactful in dealing with disagreements. It is quite agreeable that when conflicts are handled tactfully by managers or workers, there will be no addition of ripples to the turmoil.

It should be understood that in the first place, miscommunication is the reason that creates conflict. When good communication strategies are employed by the staff of the organization, team members will always get along smoothly thereby increasing the productivity of the business.

Communication also finds its place during meetings (Fielding, 2006). An employee may be required by their company to attend and participate in different meetings. This means that communication skills must be employed to bring about productivity. One of the reasons why communication skills are inevitable is that it enhances the exchange of ideas and strategic decisions (Harris, Brewster,


Jefferson, the President Essay college essay help: college essay help

A change is like a rest, it is inevitable and however much people can dislike it, they must encounter it anyway. It is interesting that whatever happens and at any given time, whoever or whatever does it, does so in pursuit for a change. This change may be personal, private, or public.

Virtually all people wish to make a revolution, given the opportunity and this is why politicians-to-be spend much of their time campaigning in an attempt to see their revolution strategies. President Thomas Jefferson of the United States is not an exception. He passes for a man of historical significance. As he thought, his eight-year service as a president truly marked a revolution. This follows from his contributions in the fields of education, taxation, politics as well as US and the world at large.

The third president of the Unites States, though dead and gone, is still remembered for his great works evident today. Firstly, following the prevailing chaos of the then US because of overdependence, Thomas set out to instigate what is currently referred to as the Declaration for Independence of the US.

This was in itself, a revolution that he personally steered. In addition, the 1800 elections that saw his winning against John Adams marked a revolution.

This follows from the new era of the Democratic – Republican Party that on the other hand, ended the then Federalist party. Jefferson also sought to transform the area of taxation. In collaboration with Aaron Burr, Jefferson attacked the then taxation system welcoming a new one that suited all people, around the globe.

President Jefferson’s service is highly recognized because he brought a change in the size of the US. He is in fact referred as the ‘chief architect of the US westward expansion.’ In the field of academics, Jefferson established the famous University of Virginia, which was the first ever in US bearing no religious connections. He also declared his entire estate of Monticello a site for the construction of a school for the orphans. This school is currently running accommodating the orphans of any person working in the navy.

Though many such schools exist today, Jefferson remains the founder of such schools. In his pursuit to offer quality services, Jefferson opted to liberalize most of the then laws that barred the development of the US. While he ended some, he saw the dawn of others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, he steered the fight against primogeniture, a law that deprived most family members of their right of inheritance. In addition, he brought about the revision of the then criminal codes.

Virtually everywhere, all countries observe the issue of religious liberty. It may sound strange for today’s people who do not understand the genesis of this liberty. It took Jefferson eight years to fight for the enactment of this bill, which became a law in 1786. Moreover, Jefferson directed the US Money Unit and coinage, used today.

He brought the use of decimal system, evident in the US today. It was because of his efforts that the Dollar was adopted in 1792 as the US currency, rather than the then pound. Building on Jefferson’s achievements as a president, he passes for a revolutionist. He serves as both a pioneer and an agent of change. His many revolutions stand out even today, not only in education circles, but also in political and economic sectors, to mention but a few. It suffices to infer that his presidency marked a revolution.


Analysis of Data on the Green Space Areas in Sydney with Regard to the Importance of Dwelling Construction Programmes Report college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Materials and Method

Results and discussion


Reference List

Every area inhabited by people suffers from the influence of production and technologies i this greater or smaller way. This report is aimed at providing analysis of data presented in different literary sources aimed at shaping the concept of open spaces areas and investigating their value for Australian people.

If the experience of these researchers turns out to be effective, it can be implemented in other urban areas of the world with regard to constant ecological problems, contamination of water, air, and soils, global warming caused by a number of external factors, and other issues.

Figure 1: Major open space components of Sydney (Coleman 2006, p. 4).

Introduction As different programs on urban consolidation are aimed at investigating the use, potential benefits, and possible implementation of similar practices in other areas, the current report is aimed at analysing the open space areas of Sydney with the help of secondary sources.

Mapping out the greenery in the area will help us to consider its biodiversity, green space and human activities there. It is crucial to be aware of the green spaces of Sydney and its suburbs to see the scope of the problem, connected with urbanisation and industrialization.

However, Sydney can be considered one of the greenest cities as every citizen of this city has an opportunity to spend some time in the green area due to the number and location of parks of different types. It is obvious that the green coverage must be in the city and the thorough research of such places may help to preserve the nature in big industrial cities. The understanding and acceptance of the problem is crucial for making a step to the problem resolving.

Materials and Method The data for the research was collected through the internet databases that contain a number of issue papers about the open space areas and the effect of the number of parks produced on the overall ecological situation in an inhabited area.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, the materials for the report include secondary sources whereas the method concerns data collection and data analysis. Investigation concerned the problems existing in the sector of open space areas in Sydney and possible ways of solving those. However, this very issue suggested a dilemma because residential areas cannot be extended at the expense of open space areas eliminating parks and green territories.

In this respect, it is necessary to look at the Fig. 1 to see how effective the location of green spaces is organised in Sydney when people live within easy reach from parks and gardens. Though the data collection was conducted with the help of information retrieved from secondary sources, it is necessary to perform the analysis of data collected.

The information from the map shows that there are a number of green spaces in the area. The largest spots are the Royal Botanic Garden, Moore Park, and Sydney Park. Being the biggest green spaces in the area they play a crucial role in the distribution of land resources in Sydney with regard to the burning issue of dwellings for people and impossibility of their construction without bringing damage to the open space areas.

Thus, the fig. 2 introduces the dwelling projections that are planned for the period of several decades with regard to the number of dwellings in local government areas.

This information means that each hectare of the employment land stock will have 33 dwelling completions which means that South Sydney, Leichhardt, and Marrickville local government areas will be appropriate for the planned number of dwelling per 1 ha. Of the employment land stock whereas the number of dwellings to be built in Botany local government areas exceeds the available resources.

Figure 2: Inner Sydney new dwelling projections and industrial land supply from Department of Planning (1992, 1994) (Searle 2003, p. 7).

The data presented in Fig. 3 suggests a comparative analysis of available and planned resources in the abovementioned local government areas.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis of Data on the Green Space Areas in Sydney with Regard to the Importance of Dwelling Construction Programmes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Local government area Planned resources Available resources Botany 2010 1956 South Sydney 17100 17160 Leichhardt 5150 5184 Marrickville 3960 4000 Results and discussion Analysis of sources has shown that the problems are mostly related to the involvement of open space territories into the programmes that deal with dwelling completions plans aimed at providing residents of the city with appropriate number of houses in order to make sure that the problem of housing is solved for the next several decades.

According to the study aimed at analysing the urban consolidation projects, “urban open spaces include: parks, sporting fields, bushland, creeks…, private backyards and gardens, courtyards and balconies, attractive and safe streets…” and other types of open space areas (Byrne and Sipe 2010, p. 2).

In this respect, there is no problem related to the dwelling programmes though this cannot be claimed concerning other types of construction projects as the data available on this issue included the land resources available in four local government areas.

Some problems concern the consolidation of urban open space areas in order to provide more space for people to have some rest from daily routine and ecological factors influential in every country all over the globe. As suggested by Searle (2003) “inner city areas have inadequate local open space even with below-peak population levels” (p. 3).

In this respect, it is necessary to analyse the ways in which the open space areas can be extended and suggest possible solutions for this issue taking into consideration the importance of dwelling programmes aimed at providing residents with appropriate number of residential areas. So, comparison of programs and assessment of needs of population is of primary importance for making adequate decisions on this issue.

As the results of the research show that the area of Sydney has sufficient number of open space areas such as large parks, squares, and gardens, it is necessary to make certain alterations in the design and location of these areas so that it is possible to provide people with adequate number of green territories within urban area whereas this decision should be also coordinated with the projects that deal with housing and planning of the number of residential units.

Cooperation and consolidation on the issue of open space areas and necessity of new dwellings can be beneficial for the authorities and programmes engaged into consideration of this controversial issue.

Conclusion The research was based on the analysis of data collected from secondary sources and some information received from analysis of facts. In this respect, the research shows that it is necessary to solve the problem of dwelling construction planning with regard to the projects and programmes available for consolidation of open space areas. Every decision made on the issue of land should be coordinated with other programmes and projects involved in this sector of activity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Data on the Green Space Areas in Sydney with Regard to the Importance of Dwelling Construction Programmes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Byrne, Jason, and Sipe, Neil, 2010. Green and open space planning for urban consolidation – a review of the literature and best practice. Issues Paper 11, Uran Frontiers Programme. Web.

Coleman, Mitchell, 2006. City of Sydney, Australia. [pdf]. Web.

Searle, Glen, 2003. The limits to urban consolidation. Issues Paper 14, Uran Frontiers Programme. Web.


Today’s Society Should Move toward Adopting Vegetarian Diet: Arguments For Essay essay help online

Nowadays, people try to find out as many safe ways to protect their health as possible: constant physical trainings, qualified medical services, and less harmful environment are taken into consideration. Still, not all people are aware of how their eating processes may influence their health as well as relations with each other. This is why more attention is recently paid to the ideas of vegetarianism and its positive effects on human life.

Though not all people are eager to move toward adopting a vegetarian diet, there are still a number of supporters who want to take a step and improve personal health by means of appropriate diets. Many people from different countries truly believe that their chosen diets are good ways to improve their lives, and it is very important to provide them with information in order to decrease the number of failures and clearly define the expectations.

While some people would consider vegetarian diets do not have a positive impact on human life and human health in particular, it is seems to be interesting to admit that vegetarianism is a powerful means to promote safer environment, improve personal health, and support ethical ideas which are inherent to people’s relations with nature, animals, and other people around.

One of the most evident reasons of why vegetarian diets are characterized by positive impacts on human life is all about the environmental conditions under which people have to live. Several investigations prove that “from an environmental perspective, what a person chooses to eat make sense” (Marlow et al. 2009, p. 16995), this is why the attention to the diet may considerably predetermine the quality of human life.

Moreover, the less animals are eaten by humans on a daily basis, the more animals may be used to fertilize the land and facilitate the increases of agricultural outputs. In addition to the support of the chosen diet, “Lord Stern of Brentford, former adviser to the government on the economics of climate change, said people will have to consider turning vegetarian to help reduce global carbon emissions” (Batty


Race and the Body: How Culture Both Shapes and Mirrors Broader Societal Attitudes Towards Race and the Body Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Disciplining the racial body Research on racial, ethnic and feminist studies reveals that gendered power relations traverse active production and mediation of ethnicized and racialized bodies. What this means is that by virtue of their femininity, women for example are often relegated by society to less powerful positions in comparison with men, on the basis of their feminized bodies and images.

As a result, the feminized and racialized body is often a culmination of a “double-edged construction of otherness” (Guzman and Valdivia 207). For instance, if we decided to feminize and devalue Latino bodies, it means that Latino bodies get displaced twice.

On a general point of view, the Latino bodies could be seen to lie beyond the Latino culture margins, as well as the mainstream of beauty and femininity. Furthermore, Latino bodies would also be categorized as dangerous and impure bodies in need of medical interventions and state-sanctioned inspections, in large part due to powerful cultural discourses of cross border contamination as well as disproportionate sexual reproduction.

As a result of such historical shifts as geographical Diasporas and migrations, global economic transformation and newly established global identities, these forces have combined to bring to the foreground erstwhile minoritized cultures. Specifically, cultural and demographic changes in ethnic and racial diversity imply a representational and empirical growth in Latino and Latina bodies (Guzman and Valdivia 208).

In recent years, the Latinos in the United States have continued to enjoy increases in market power, population, and culture influence. As a result, this has led to the need to acknowledge the complexity, multiplicity and richness of this racial group.

However, the tendency to describe and categorize the Latino and Latina bodies in the United States population as “Latino and Latina” is a more recent development. The entry of the Latina and the Latino bodies into the mainstream culture in the United States has been racialized by the gendered process of Latinolization (tropicalism).

The gendered elements of “tropicalism’ has been commodified by the global media. For example, the dominant Latino male lover is often depicted as dark-haired, macho, and mustachioed. On the other hand, the female Latino is portrayed as a submissive, red lipped, hot, curvaceous, with long brunette hair, and seductively dressed beauty with long earrings (Guzmann and Valdivia 213).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of such words as “energy”, “hot”, and “motion” mostly associated with the yellow and red images of suns and fires add to the nearly combustible and tropical feel of Latino and Latina bodies and selves. Whether mobilized in combination or in isolation, such a categorization often constitutes the “tropicalisation” elements of Latino and Latina bodies and populations in the united states, a process that is also seen to homogenize, organize, and policies a hitherto heterogeneous, multiple and dynamic “Latinidad”.

There is extensive evidence in literature to support the claim that women of color have for a long time now had their bodies (and more so their buttocks and genitals) excessively exoticized, sexualized, and pathologized. A good example here is Jenifer Lopez whose butt has excessively been objectified by the media, prompting even her to joke that even before the Americas got to know her name, they were already familiar with her butt.

The Latino population in the United States is for example, often positioned by public policy discourses as inherently diseased, mostly immigrant, and sexually uncontrollable (Guzmann and Valdivia 225).

By default, the rise in the number of Latinos among the United States general population is usually seen as a public health problem. Since Latinos have documented higher birth rates in comparison with the other races, as a result, they are therefore often regarded as a threat to the dominant national identity in the United States, in comparison with other segments of the population.

Breaking the taboo on sports and race That Blacks are quiet dominant in such sports as athletics, soccer, rugby, baseball and cricket, is not in doubt. One might then wonder if this is largely due to the combined force of genetics and race. Viewed at from another point of view, Entine (4) wonders if this is nothing more than white voodoo designed in such a manner as to let the Whites dominate the boardroom, while the Blacks are banished to the basketball court, the track, or the football field, the modern-day equivalent of the plantations.

In as much as this may best be seen as nothing more than pure scientific debate, nevertheless, there is compelling evidence in literature to support the claim that black superiority in athletics is indeed decisively and persuasively “ confirmed on the playing field” (Entine 5). In the sporting arena, Blacks have asserted themselves as the superstars.

In addition, the ratio of Blacks in a majority of the sports by far outnumbers that of their White counterparts. This apparent disparity is often impacted on by the genetic as well as cultural forces. Seeing that the existing socio-cultural barriers are fast getting eroded, consequently, we can only project that this disparity will widen in the years ahead.

We will write a custom Essay on Race and the Body: How Culture Both Shapes and Mirrors Broader Societal Attitudes Towards Race and the Body specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the issue of black superiority in sports has not gone down well with proponents from certain quarters. Some see racial stereotypes of black moral and mental inferiority in all this. In other words, the admission of the success registered by Blacks in sports by the Whites is not so much a compliment as a racialist proxy (Entine 5).

The significance of this statement does not go unnoticed. Historically, the whites have demonstrated a fascination for black physicality, and this is a central issue to colonialism. Many people associated such racist stereotypes of an “animalistic” black nature to the idea of physical differences, and the resultant suggestion that somehow, blacks are intellectually inferior to their white counterparts.

Black athletes may have for a long time now been seen to dominate sports but in general, the Black race has not in fact dominated sports; it is only the Black athletes who have been successful, and not the larger black race. For instance, the Whites are very much in control of the top management and ownership of the diverse franchises of major sports.

In this respect, whiteness may be seen as a symbol of wealth, political power, rationality, economic advancement, and civilized culture. In contrast, issues of the natural, musicality, sensuality, laziness, hyper-sexuality, cultural pathology, intellectual deficiency, and athleticism, are associated with blackness (Entine 4).

In addition, these forms of deeply ingrained stereotypes play a very significant role when we wish to explain for instance, why “the image of a raging Mike Tyson spitting out the torn piece of ear of his opponent stirred such personal reactions among both blacks and Whites” (Entine 4).

Works Cited Entine, Jon. Taboo: why Black athletes dominate sports and why we’re afraid to talk about it. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Print.

Guzman, Isabel and Valdivia, Angharad. Disciplining the ethnic body. Latinidad, hybridized bodies and transnational identities. New York: Taylor


Suicide of Tyler Clementi Essay college essay help

Tyler Clementi was a college student at Rudgers University in Piscataway Township, New Jersey, who allegedly committed suicide after his sexual encounter with another person was exposed to the public over the internet by his two friends, Dharun Ravi and Molly Wei.

The online broadcast took place without the knowledge of the eighteen-year-old freshman in college and it made him to jump to his death from the George Washington Bridge on September 22, 2010. Ravi, through his Twitter feed details, had hinted that he was to broadcast another live video of Clementi’s gay relationship with his boyfriend (Pilkington, para. 8).

However, this did not happen as Clementi was outraged at the continued exposure of his privacy and he went and committed suicide. Because Ravi and Wei are responsible for invading the privacy of Clementi, they should be severely punished due to the fact that through their selfish acts, someone died.

Every American deserves his or her right against unsanctioned invasion of privacy, and Clementi was no exception (Baniser and Davies, para. 2).

More so, since he was eighteen years of age, he is a fully-fledged citizen of the United States of America. This fundamental human right has been the value of the American way of life and the so-called technological inventions of this century should not try to contravene this fact. The legacy of respecting other people’s privacy has been an essential ingredient in the maintenance of the American culture that started over four hundred years ago.

Some young people who violated this essential virtue that has held the American people together for years caused the suicide of Clementi. Therefore, should they be allowed to go scot-free because of technological improvement? No, the tenets of a society are timeless and Ravi and Wei, who are all eighteen years of age, were old enough to judge that their actions were likely to make someone feel irritated.

Currently, many young people are violating the rights of their friends, just as Ravi and Wei did. This has caused many damages as many of the affected have ended up killing themselves in order to avoid the ensuing humiliation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Should we allow this trend to continue? If such habits are allowed to continue, especially among the American youth, how will our society be in the next ten or twenty years? As the old saying goes, prevention is better than cure, the severe punishment of Ravi and Wei will serve as an example that such kind of habits cannot be tolerated in the modern American society as they are likely to break the very fabric that has maintained it for many years now.

More so, since this incident has received increased media attention, the whole nation is watching the outcome of the case. Therefore, the severe punishment of the offenders will serve as a lesson to prevent the future occurrences of such violations of law that have far-reaching consequences. This can teach the significance of civility, with special emphasis that the misuse of modern means of communication is not allowed.

In the first place, broadcasting a live video over the internet of the sexual encounters of Clementi is a societal evil that could have not occurred. Besides breaching the privacy of someone, the offenders did a horrible mistake of letting the public know of the habits of their friend.

Friends are supposed to guard the interests of one another, and instead of doing this, Ravi and Wei went contrary to this very basic tenet of friendship and washed their friend’s dirty linen to the entire public, an action that regrettably caused his premature death. Due to this, the offenders are supposed to be in big trouble because of their uncaring attitude of failing to think of the consequences of their actions.

Clementi, a gifted violinist, was someone who had a good-looking future. And, for his friends to joke with his private life in public is horrible. Instead of minding their own business, Ravi and Wei put up cameras to catch the actions of Clementi for fun and they should bear the blame for his death.

The circumstances surrounding Clementi’s eventual death began when Ravi posted a Twitter message that read, “Roommate asked for the room till midnight. I went into molly’s room and turned on my webcam. I saw him making out with a dude. Yay” (Foderaro, para. 1).

On the same day Ravi posted the message, Rutgers University had started a campus wide initiative to teach its students on the ethics of the use of new technology. However, disregarding this initiative by his college, Ravi went ahead and posted the damaging information on the private life of his roommate.

We will write a custom Essay on Suicide of Tyler Clementi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The actions of Ravi and Wei “gravely violated the university’s standards of decency and humanity” and the efforts of the institution to encourage “civility within the social life of the campus” (Foderaro, para. 13). Therefore, because of the catastrophe that followed the violation of the rules of the university, severe punishment should be given to the offenders so that others may not repeat the same mistake.

Within the state of New Jersey, it is considered a criminal offense to invade the privacy of someone with the intention of gathering or seeing images portraying another person’s nakedness or sexual encounter while he or she is not aware of such actions.

This fourth degree crime can make one serve a potential prison sentence of up to ten years, if other charges are also included in the crime. In addition, the dissemination of such pictures to the public is a third degree criminal offense that can make one to serve a prison sentence of up to five years.

More so, within the regulations of Rutgers University, collecting images of someone without his or her consent is an outright violation of the student code of conduct. As a result, Ravi and Wei are likely to be thrown out of the institution. Therefore, being students at the university, Ravi and Wei cannot prove to be ignorant of the repercussions that were awaiting their action of invading the privacy of someone.

Before the advancement in technology, schoolchildren bullied one another, especially by the use of physical force. However, with the invention of modern technology, things have changed and the physical altercations are rarely used as schoolchildren bully one another by the use of the power of the technology.

Notable is the use of the internet to send derogatory comments of someone. This is even worse as someone’s reputation can be severely damaged when millions around the world discover something about him or her. This is the kind of situation that Clementi was put into when Ravi and Wei posted his pictures on the internet without his consent with the intention of harassing him. Therefore, for instigating the harassment, the two should face the penalties of the law.

The death of the talented young man is very dreadful, especially since it took place in America and in the twenty-first century. Clementi’s young life could have been saved if his two ‘friends’ did not stream his video on the internet for the view of the public. What was intended for fun ended up ending the life of someone who was described as “very friendly with a very good potential for the future” (Foderaro, para. 6).

In the United States, suicide is the second most common cause of death among teenagers, and, most of the time this is caused by disagreements among the teenagers themselves. Since college life is a time when most young people discover themselves, it is essential that one find productive social relations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Suicide of Tyler Clementi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this was not the case with Clementi as he failed to enjoy his life in college because of the continued harassments of his so-called friends. It is astonishing that Ravi and Wei were not considering the consequence of their actions by infringing on the rights of their fellow college mate.

In conclusion, it is certain that Ravi and Wei should be severely punished for publishing the videos of Clementi and his boyfriend online as their cruel game ended the life of someone who had a great future. If they could have not done this, Clementi’s life could have been preserved. He committed suicide because he was unwilling to face the public humiliation of his action.

Works Cited Baniser, David, and Davies, Simon. “Privacy and Human Rights.” Global Internet Liberty Campaign. Privacy International, n.d. Web. http://gilc.org/privacy/survey/intro.html

Foderaro, Lisa W. “Private moment made public, then a fatal jump.” N.Y. / Region. The New York Times, 29 Sep. 2010. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/nyregion/30suicide.html?_r=1

Pilkington, Ed. “Tyler Clementi, student outed as gay on internet, jumps to his death.” Guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited, 30 Sept. 2010. Web. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/30/tyler-clementi-gay-student-suicide


Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” Critical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Sylvia Plath in her poem Daddy talks about her relationship with her father. She also evokes images of the holocaust just like in her poem Lady Lazarus. In the poem, Plath talks about the unhealthy relationship she had with her dad and the toil it took on her.

The poem begins with the speaker declaring that she will no longer put up with the shoe in which she has lived in for thirty years “You do not you, do not anymore the black shoe” (Plath 1). According to a feminists lens Plath is a woman who has decided that enough is enough and she will not live under oppression. The oppressor is represented by the show owner and in this case, it is her father. She had lived under his oppression for thirty years and just like the foot in the shoe, she could not breathe.

The shoe represents the male dominance over women in the society. In a patriarchal society, men oppress the women because the women have no power. However, the woman in the poem is willing to go against the male domination she will no longer be trapped and squeezed in the shoe.

Her feet will get a space to breath because she has decided to break herself loose from the shoe. The feminists’ theory of Marxism captures the imbalance of power between the speaker and her father. Their relationship represents the imbalance of power between men and women in a patriarchal society.

Moreover, the speaker in the poem after she becomes an adult compares male domination to a train that was used to ferry Jews to concentration camps in Nazi German. She feels like the people trapped in those trains that cannot escape their fate and will have to reach one of the camps such as Auschwitz and Dachau. Suffering of the Jews represents the suffering of the women in the feminist’s theory.

Plath says, “Daddy, I have had to kill you/You died before I had time (Plath 6-7). The speaker puts an end to her father’s life albeit metaphorically, she wants to end everything that represents oppression in her life. Her father had oppressed her and she was going to seek emancipation. She liberates herself by killing the memory of her father that had tormented her for so long. She had been reduced to nothing as she says in line 5 that she could barely breathe.

The father in the poem inhibits the speaker from writing her own history because she has lived under his shadow. She fails to live her life the way she would want because she is not free.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, she represents women in the male dominated society who live under the shadow of their male counterparts and fail to shine as long as they are under oppression. She had lived under her father’s shadow and later marries a man similar to her father whom she also kills for oppressing her, “The vampire who said he was you/ And drank my blood for a year” (Plath 82).

On other hand, it is alleged that women desire to be dominated by men. This kind of thinking is not acceptable in feminism because it reinforces the notion that women must be controlled by men. Plath says, “every woman adores a fascist/The boot in the face, the brute/Brute heart of a brute like you” (43-45). The lines seem to reinforce the ancient thinking that victimization is a pull for the women that women will be attracted to fascists.

During the second stage of feminist movement, feminist critics looked at the way female authors represented women in their artistic work. Sylvia Plath wrote her poem with a female character that represented a woman who had suffered but was willing to change her situation.

The character in the poem is complex as she struggles from childhood through adulthood to come to terms with the loose of her father at a young age. The speaker in the poem had been socialized into a society that oppressed women. This is why she had lived in her father’s shoes for thirty years. She was seeking protection from her father just as a foot gets protection from the shoe but she never got it. It means she had accepted her traditional role for thirty years until she killed her father and rid herself of his ghostly memory.

Moreover, feminists in the current stage of feminism, feminists look at the ways that female writers use to make their work acceptable in a literary world dominated by male critics. According to Gubar and Gilbert (45) women, writers could choose between mimicry in which the female characters behave and look like men or less their work would be considered inferior in literary terms.

However, women found a way of overcoming the standards that the males had set through the use of the concept of the ‘mad woman’ and angel in the house. The later concept represents a woman who conforms to society’s expectation of how a good woman should behave while the former does not behave according to societal norm hence mad.

Through the madwoman, a female author got a way of channeling out her frustrations. In the poem Daddy, the author employed the concept of madwoman. Through the speaker in the poem, Plath projects her rage against oppression. She also gets a chance to confront the source of her rage directly. In the poem, she demonstrates her inner turmoil that was brought about by her father.

We will write a custom Essay on Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She condemns her father for domineering her and shows how women are abused both psychologically and physically in a patriarchal society. Through the madwoman, Plath condemns the institution of marriage that makes her suffer just as her father had done. She was mistaken in marrying because she marries a man who treats her like her father or even worse because she says the man sacked blood out of her life. The madwoman character helps Plath to overcome her father’s suffocation.

The tone of the poem is powerful and full of anger. The strong words that the poet uses show her overwhelming feeling for instance in the last line of the poem she says “Daddy daddy, you bastard, I’m through” (Plath 95). Elsewhere in the poem, she uses the word kill. Kill is a strong word because it talks about death which is not a pleasant subject.

She also says that she wanted to get back at her father for abandoning at an early age. She tried to kill herself and join him in death but her plain had not succeeded yet because she was saved “At twenty I tried to die/ And get back, back, back to you/ I thought even the bones would do/ But they pulled me out of the sack/ And they stuck me together with glue” (Plath 58-62).

She uses figurative language to pass the message in her work. The metaphors about the holocaust evoke the strong hatred she has for the male dominated society.

She talks of “an engine, an engine/Chuffing me off like a Jew” (Plath 31-32). Plath employs this figure of speech to show how she feels about her oppressive father. She also says that he is “Not God but a swastika” (Plath 46). She sees him in every German man that she meets. The German are connected to the Nazis who oppressed the Jews and made them to go through untold suffering in the various concentration camps.

She sees herself as a Jew and even talks like one. She likens herself to the Jews to show that she suffered under her father’s hands as the Jews in the Nazi’s. Furthermore, she uses imagery to create a picture in the reader’s mind of her father’s appearance by saying that he had a neat beard and Aryan blue eyes. The features symbolize the Nazis who wanted to kill all the Jews to maintain racial purity.

She also calls her father a vampire due to the pain he had brought upon her. The vampire depicts a situation in which the father continues to haunt her long after his death because he returned in form of her husband and after she killed both of the villagers rejoiced because the never liked him. The villagers’ rejoicing symbolizes Plath’s emotions after she managed to purge herself of the men who made her suffer.

Finally, the poem employs stream of consciousness and the speakers thoughts are demonstrated as she addresses her dead father. She tells him that she always feared him and could not talk to him. She tells him how she prayed that he would be back but now prays no more.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through her thoughts, we see her psychological turmoil and the hold that the men have on women in a patriarchal society. Plath succeeds in telling as about her personal problems in the poem as well as the problems that women encounter in a patriarchal society. On a triumphant note, she is able to free herself from her father’s domination and thus there is hope for women in their quest for total emancipation.

Works Cited Gubar, Susan and Sandra Gilberts. The madwoman in the attic: the woman writer and the nineteenth-century literary imagination. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. Print.

Plath Sylvia. Daddy. n.d. 17 Dec. 2010. https://www.internal.org/Sylvia_Plath/Daddy


Alexander the Great Biography Expository Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Alexander the great was born on late July 356BC in the capital city of Macedon kingdom. Alexander’s father was Philip 11, who was the honored king of Macedon and his mother was Olympias. Alexander’s mother was the fourth wife of Philip II the king among his other eight wives [1]. The mother to Alexander the great was the favorite wife of king Philip II. Olympia was also from a royal family as her father was a king.

On the day that Alexander was born, several incidences were said to have happened in his father’s kingdom [2]. His father received good news that his army had worn in a two combined army war. Also, he was informed that on the Olympic games that were taking place during that period, the winners were his horses.

On this same day when Alexander was born, it was marked by the 7th wonder of the world of burning down of the temple of Artemis. The burning down of the temple led to the conclusion that it was because Artemis was absent confirming the birth of Alexander. All these incidences that happened on the day that Alexander was born were later associated with the leadership quality of him in the future.

In his early childhood, there were two people who are greatly recognized by their efforts and contribution in Alexander’s life [3]. These two people are Lanike, the nurse who used to look after him in his early childhood and Leonidas who was a relative to his mother and used to tutor Alexander when he was a young boy. Another person who had agreed to participate in tutoring Alexander was Lysimachus; both of them assisted Alexander to discover more about his social life.

When Alexander was ten years old, he demonstrated courage and ambition characters to his father, which made his father to be overwhelmed by joy.

This incidence happened when Philip his father wanted to buy a horse from Thessaly trader. Unfortunately, this horse refused to carry anyone and the king told the owner to take it away. Alexander through his intelligence discovered that the horse feared its shadow and requested his father to be given a chance to tame the horse himself. Alexander managed this successfully, and his father assured him that his intelligence would serve better a bigger kingdom than Macedon[4].

His father considered Macedonia kingdom very small for his son’s ambition. As a sign of joy and assurance of a brighter future for his son, Philip bought that horse for Alexander. The horse was given name Bucephalus same as “ox-head”, and his father wanted it to be his sons companion in all his journeys. A time came when this horse died of old age, and Alexander named a certain city Bucephala as away of remembering that horse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Alexander attained the age of adolescence, his father started making arrangement for his higher education. Philip wanted a tutor who would be of much help to his son, as he had developed high hopes for his son to become a successful leader who would enlighten people’s lives [5].

He ignored the requests of many tutors even for a tutor Platos who had volunteered to resign from his academy to be Alexander’s tutor. Philip searched far and wide for a tutor, and later decided to take Aristotle, who also accepted to be Alexander’s tutor. Philip the king gave them one of the temples to act as their classroom.

Philip decided to reward the work of Aristotle of teaching Alexander by building again Aristotle’s hometown, releasing all those were in exile, and completely freeing those who were enslaved. The temple in which Alexander and Aristotle were conducting the studies was in Mieza and was like a boarding school. Other children of Macedonian dignitaries were also learning together with Alexander. Most of these children were the future friends and generals of Alexander[6].

In this temple, Aristotle taught Alexander and the other children variety of fields. Some of the major fields that were covered by Aristotle included medicine, philosophy, and social values among others. This was to equip Alexander and his companion with wide knowledge to enable them face the future challenges of all aspects. Out of Aristotle’s teachings, Alexander developed special interests in specific fields among others. For instance, he did well in lliad.

Alexander the great has been intended to become a leader since the time he was born. Some of the qualities that showed a sense of leadership in him included, he was from a famous lineage, his physical appearances, and mental capabilities acquired through his short but productive schooling[7].

Alexander was the first son of Philip, and had inherited the bloodline of royalty from both the parents. His clear expression and commanding loud voice was considered to be a good attribute of a future leader. When he was a very young boy it was noticeable that he had a good speed and a unique determination.

When it was realized that Alexander is an intelligent person, Aristotle was introduced to him, to give some lessons and acquire more knowledge to better his promising future. In addition, Alexander portrayed an admirable public profile in the whole of his childhood. Everyone liked his character of courageously accepting challenges despite his status by then.

We will write a custom Essay on Alexander the Great Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Alexander schooling with Aristotle ended when he was 16 years old. When his father was greatly involved in the war he became Lieutenancy of the Realm. At this age, Alexander showed some interests in the field of medicine by recommending the best medicines to his relatives and friends[8].

His first great victory was recognized at the age of 17 years, when his father gave him the authority of being the leader during the attack of allied Thebes, and Megara. Moreover, the Maedi showed some signs of rebelling the Macedonian rule, and Alexander was very quick to respond to this rebellion.

Alexander reacted furiously by crushing the maedi revolution, chased them from their territory, and colonized them through the efforts of Greeks. That is how he became the founder of Alexandropolis city. Soon after, Alexander was confirmed to have saved his fathers life in a certain campaign concerning the Perinthus city.

During this time, Philip the king had already started entrusting his young son to some complicated activities[9]. For instance, he told Alexander to initiate an army to lead the campaigns in Greece. Alexander took this responsibility very keenly, as he considered the likelihood of other Greek states involving themselves with that matter.

Alexander made great preparations that made Illyrians to think he was about to attack them. In return, Illyrians also started to prepare to attack Macedonia, but they received a strong resistance from Alexander.

Theban garrison rebelled against the ruling of Philip the king, and the king decided to unite with his son Alexander and their army to make a journey and occupy the city of Elatea. On their journey to Elatea, they received great resistance from Athens and Thebes. During the fight, Philip the king led the right side, and Alexander the son led the left side together with the kings trusted armies[10].

The fight took place for a very long time, and finally they defeated the Thebans and crushed them. As a celebration of their victory Philip the king and his son Alexander were welcomed by all the cities but received a showdown in Sparta.

Alexander and his father Philip the king had a conflict, when the king decided to marry Cleopatra Eurydice who was a relative to one of kings general. Alexander discovered that his place in kingship would be taken away from him incase Cleopatra bore the king a son [11].

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alexander the Great Biography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alexander reacted furiously to his father’s action, and fled away together with his mother and his brother. He left them in Dodona, the capital city of Epirus. Alexander extended his journey to Illyrian, and was welcomed by the Illyrian king despite that they had fought few years before.

After six months, their family friend made some efforts to reconcile the king with his son, and Alexander returned to Macedon. After one year, the Caria governor was ready to offer his daughter to Alexander’s half brother. Alexander’s friends together with his mother advised him to oppose that idea, as it would be an indication that his half brother would be the king’s heir.

Alexander was determined enough to fight against this act by sending a certain actor to stop the governor from giving out his daughter to an illegitimate son. That actor was to advise the governor that his daughter was supposed to be offered to Alexander.

At the age of twenty, his father Philip passed away as a result of assassination by Pausanias the captain [12]. After that deadly act, Pausanius tried to escape with no success, he was also killed by people some of them Alexander’s companion. This incidence made Alexander to be proclaimed as the new king at his tender age of twenty.

After taking over the thrown, Alexander ordered all his potential rival opponents to be killed. Some of the people that Alexander wanted to be eradicated from his kingdom were close relatives. Alexander did not mind whether his rivals were relatives or not but he wanted all of them killed. His mother Olympias also took this opportunity to get rid of her co-wife. Mercilessly, olympias ordered Cleopatra and her daughter to be burned alive.

Alexander did not take the actions of Olympias of killing her co-wife and her daughter kindly. He was very furious by those actions of his mother. In addition, to ensure that his new kingdom was free from all enemies, Alexander ordered the murder of Attalus, his daughter, and grandchildren as he considered them to be dangerous in his kingdom [13].

The death of Philip the king made several states to be rebellious for instance, Thebes and Athens, but Alexander was quick and ready to respond to their rebellious status. Alexander’s advisors wanted him to apply diplomacy but he quickly formed an army of more than 3000 men to attack the rivals.

Work Cited Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. SanFrancisco: Paw Prints, 2008.

Kishlansky, Mark, Geary Patrick, and O’Brien, Patricia. Civilization In The West. (4th ed),

New York: Pearson Long man, 2005.

Stoneman, Richard. Alexander the Great. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2004.

Footnotes Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. SanFrancisco: Paw Prints, 2008 pp. 11.

Stoneman, Richard. Alexander the Great. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2004 pp. 14.

Ibid pp. 12

Kishlansky, Mark, Geary Patrick, and O’Brien, Patricia. Civilization In The West. New York: Pearson Long man, 2005 pp. 87.

Ibid pp. 102

Stoneman, Richard. Alexander the Great. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2004 pp. 15.

Ibid pp.18.

Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. SanFrancisco: Paw Prints, 2008 pp. 20.

Kishlansky, Mark, Geary Patrick, and O’Brien, Patricia. Civilization In The West. New York: Pearson Long man, 2005 pp. 125.

Stoneman, Richard. Alexander the Great. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2004 pp. 85.

Kishlansky, Mark, Geary Patrick, and O’Brien, Patricia. Civilization In The West. New York: Pearson Long man, 2005 pp. 206.

Stoneman, Richard. Alexander the Great. (2nd ed), New York: Routledge, 2004 pp. 103.

Gunther, John. Alexander the Great. SanFrancisco: Paw Prints, 2008 pp. 121.


Global Teams Differences Essay essay help

An organization is made up of employees and administrators who have a common goal within a given organization. As an organization grows more branches are opened up beyond the borders. Although the regional branches have the same goals to the head office they have different organizational cultures. This paper focuses on the differences that arise due to diversity in cultures, language, time zone and technology and the benefits of global teams.

When a regional office is established in another location the management should consider hiring employees from that region to manage and coordinate the activities of that office. When team members of that office comprise of locals chances of success are high because there is no language barrier because some clients prefer to converse in their vernacular language rather than in international languages.

Lussier and Achua (2007) argue that deploying employees from the main branch could bring doom because the foreign employees may not understand the local languages which can negatively impact on their productivity. This is because the language barrier could make it impossible for them to persuade the local people to purchase goods and services from their organization when they can’t even utter a single word in the local language.

Different areas have different cultures and this culture continue to be practiced by employees within the organization and this is what brings diversity in organizational culture. In Islamic nations businesses are closed at lunch time to allow Muslim believers to go to the mosque for prayers.

These cultures should not interfere with employees’ performance in such nations. The management should extend its daily schedules to compensate for the time spent in the mosque. In some cases the customers could be interested in a product or service but since there is no effective communication between the buyer and the seller the sale can not be accomplished.

For instance, if an international bank which has its head office in London opened another branch in Egypt, it would be advisable to hire banking staff from that country because they know how to handle the local people since they share the same language and cultures.

In Egypt, men are supposed to keep their distance from men hence if a male employee from London was to work in this country he would find it difficult to cope with such cultures. On the other hand the locals would be comfortable with these Islamic laws because they have practiced them from childhood.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being acquainted to the language of customers fosters good relationship with the customers because the employee can effectively attend to the needs of the client. Eliminating language barrier is important because communication between clients and organization’s staff is a too way traffic. Organizations gauge the performance of their branches by the feedback they get from their clients in those areas. This feedback is important because it helps the organization to improve its products and services (Hughes, Ginnett,


The Personality of a Quality Leader Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Summary




Work Cited

Summary Leadership is the capability to revolutionize an individual’s action so as to accomplish the objectives set by the leader. To commence this, character is believed to be the firm base of which the leader should poses to accomplish his goals.

Character is the set of traits that mould a person’s thoughts, actions, feelings and reaction. It comprises of empathy, making good judgment, portraying strength of will, achieving goals, displaying a strong sense of conscientiousness and maintaining self respect (Western, 83). A leader’s behavior reveals his personality when it comes to leadership and also depicts the leader’s temperament.

Physical traits like being smart, witty, and handsome, genius or even a great organizer does not qualify one to be leader. A leader possesses the definite exercise of leadership, that is, he or she may give direction or guidance to some other human being in a way that the other person will be willing and able to implement the directions. In every business setting, quality leadership must be portrayed for the business of the premise to strive.

Background People who have been put in the leadership position in many cases have not portrayed the personality of a quality leader. From the decisions, policies and actions implemented by the current leaders, moral belief and behavior is missing.

A lot of leaders have been seen to give in to pressures from the outside world even though he or she is pressured towards doing what is morally wrong and unacceptable. The majority in the society seem to follow the majority even though they are on the wrong and this should not be the case with a leader. A leader should be able to stand when everyone else is against him or her as long as what he or she stands for is morally right (Ciulla, 5).

Body Supervisors and managers have the authority to attain certain tasks. This means that they are bosses but not leaders since leadership makes the associates strive towards accomplishing certain goals and not bossing.

To be able to lead well, a leader requires wisdom in his mind and he or she must believe in his heart that neither his actions, money nor recruiting skills can earn him character. Since many leaders work towards being successful and earning money, they must understand that money is not the root to gaining other people’s favor nor is it a way to make others do what is supposed to be done. Though money can buy all the material things, it cannot buy moral character, honesty, sincere belief and behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A successful leader should have in mind that he or she cannot purchase trust, honesty, kindness, respect, courage to make the right decision and also the aptitude to choose the right thing to be done. He or she must be aimed at ‘doing the right thing’ and not ‘doing things right’. A good leader should also be trustworthy. He or she must be able to trust himself in the decisions he takes on as well as gain other people’s trust and maintain it. Thus leadership should be trustworthy (Flynn, 86).

Good leadership does not entail blaming others for a wrong decision implemented or a choice made. Instead, it focuses on undertaking corrective actions and thinking of other challenges to embark on. This does not mean that the leader is at liberty to make wrong decision and excuse himself. Rather, he or she should make correct and timely decision making by consulting both his had and his heart and base his or her decisions on the leadership characters.

A good leader should also take time to know his or her associates and appreciate them where good has been done as well as correct them where they need corrections. He or she must develop team spirit and ensure that associates understand their respective tasks and have the spirit to accomplish them.

Conclusion Good leadership does not mean bossing others around but rather creating a spirit that will provide conducive environment for others to live and work in. this is only possible when one possesses the characters necessary for a leader.

Work Cited Ciulla, Joanne. Ethics, the heart of leadership. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

Flynn, Gabriel. Leadership and Business Ethics. Volume 25 of Issues in Business Ethics. New yolk. SAGE publishers, 2008.

Western, Simon. Leadership: a critical text. Massachusetts: SAGE, 2007

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Why Credit Companies Target College Students? Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why credit companies target college students

Attitude of college students toward credit card usage



Introduction This paper discusses why credit card companies should not market to college students .The culture of spending has become an important shaper of societal approach towards money and is now a widespread way of life in colleges.

In a bid to get more customers, the credit card companies target college students, and to do this, they employ assertive marketing techniques in order to attract students. College students have been raised in homes where money acquired through credit is used without inhibitions (Ritzer 1995).Since credit is available easily, students tend to overspend.

College students now have easier access to credit than any earlier generations. However, the use of credit cards and the debts that is a consequence of cards have become an increasingly monetary threat to students.

Today’s credit card companies are getting outrageously ridiculous with their marketing ideas and strategies. Many of their strategies are pointed towards people who are more likely to be irresponsible. The one strategy I would like to talk to you about and my opinion about it is credit card companies should not be on campus marketing to college students.

Why credit companies target college students One point of view to this is that credit card companies target college students because many of them are young. Younger people are most likely naive and do not spend their money wisely. They would use a credit card for everything and maybe let the balance pile up and only pay the minimum. This would make the interest pile up and when they did pay their bill, most of the payment would be going towards the interest. This would be making the credit card companies more money.

Another point of view would be that maybe credit card companies think that if people are smart enough to go to college that maybe they are really smart with their money and are completely in control of their financial status. Maybe the companies view it as a place to pick up some continuous valued customers.

I got that point of view when I asked my mother to read what I was writing and that was her point of view! I do see her point of view as a valuable opinion and I enjoyed her criticism of the topic. But let me tell you some of the facts and things that I have learned while studying this argument.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a report from trueCredit.com students graduate from collage while being indebted to credit companies for significant amounts This report further indicates that ten percent of undergraduates graduate with thousand of dollars as loans. After finishing your studies it’s a night mare for you to start thinking of paying debt to credit cards companies. It’s more than enough for a twenty year old to think of how he will pay school loans, utilities and rent if he used them and how he will support himself in life.

There will be bills to be paid every month and other additional debt, for example, car loan. That is already a lot of concerns that must handled by a young student. Prior to going to college, a student should employ some fundamental principles to avoid falling into the debt trap. These are some interesting facts I learned from an author named Latoya Irby. She was also interested in this argument. I learned a lot from her.

Students who are in college are the main target of credit companies. This is so because of several rationales:

They expect the credit accrued from the cards will be cleared by the student’s parents.

Students face many years of clearing the debt. Companies go even further to give credit to students who have no security. For illustration, a student can have access to credit without any security being required. This proves that they are out for blood so to speak. They prey upon young people and try to get them hooked and sucked into the system. I think it is sad that this is allowed to go on, especially in a place where we go to better ourselves. Of all places a school is not a place that these types of things should be happening.

Attitude of college students toward credit card usage The change of outlook towards money has become an essential means for the broadening of the college student’s consumer habits. Findings intimate that the resultant attitudes towards money: “power, prestige, distrust, and anxiety” (Yamauchi and Templer 1982) are linked to purchases that are compulsive, whereby the use of credit cards averages these correlations.

Studies entailing a wide range of adult consumers revealed that approximately 1%-6% fall under the category of buyers that are compulsive. When Faber and O’Guinn’s (1992) “clinical screener for compulsive buying” is used to examine the respondents, 6% of questioned college students are deemed to use money for purchases out of compulsion.

As a result, the indicators point to the need for an enhanced comprehension of the attitude towards making purchases of college students. Some factors, that include: psychological and socio-economic influences are the main contributors of the attitudes towards the use of credit cards.

When buying trends of college students are analyzed, a sentimental attitude towards credit and gender were the main affecters of the students’ decision to use (or not use) credit for purchases.

We will write a custom Essay on Why Credit Companies Target College Students? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This sentimental attitude towards credit affected how clothes, entertainment, gasoline, travel and food (that is not home made) were bought. Females made more purchases of clothes, while males made more purchases of electronics and entertainment related goods. Females were found to have made purchases that followed the principles of economics more than males.

Conclusion According to a press release statement of the American Consumer Federation, when the credit card debt and study loans of a student are added, the total is approximately $20,000. Consequently the debts of the student that has attended college may exceed those of the populace that has not attended collage which means that students who use credit cards will be burdened with severe financial concerns later on in life.

This paper has discussed how credit accrued by students while still in college has significant consequences on their future monetary health. This paper concludes that credit companies should not market to college students, so as not induce students to undertake debts unnecessarily which would lead to a long-term financial burden.

References Faber and O’Guinn. 1992. “A Clinical Screener for Compulsive Buying”. Journal of Consumer Research, 19:459–469.

Ritzer, G. 1995. Expressing America: A Critique of the Global Credit Card Society, Thousand Oaks , CA : Pine Forge Press.

Yamauchi, K. and D. Templer 1982. “The Development of a Money Attitudes Scale”. Journal of Personality Asses


Reading between the Lines: Poetry, Movies and Social Problems Essay essay help site:edu

What makes a man’s life different from the life of a wild beast is the fact that the former can learn the valuable lessons which h is being taught as the life goes on. It is not necessarily that these lessons must be the result of the man’s life, on the contrary – it is preferable that one should learn on the mistakes of the others.

This is also art that people can have valuable experience from. Learning the priceless lessons given to them by the authors of the poems, novels and movies, people understand that there are things which they have to take for granted. Not to repeat the mistakes of the others, we begin acting the way which was inspired by the authors of the pieces of art.

Morning by Pablo Neruda: Rising with the Sun, Aching with the Moon One of such pieces is the poem by Pablo Neruda called Morning. Neruda managed to snatch a part of people’s life and put it into several precise and sharp lines. The perfection is what the poet tried to seize with the magic word of his, comparing the rising sun with the rising beauty of a woman.

The unceasing string of comparisons is cleaving the poem, picturing the natural beauty of a woman as the beauty of the world at dawn, comparing the marvelous sight with the wonders of the nature which a man is only about to explore, and which he never will, for they are far too beautiful – and too simple and too complicated at once for the civilized mind. The world beyond the artificial is what Neruda tried to embrace, letting the readers peep at the perfection of the beauty itself.

However, it is not only art for the sake of art which Neruda is pursuing in the poem. He is also trying to convey the beauty of the country which he is living in, trying to make the readers see the worthiness of the lands which they inhabit. The way Neruda makes a woman and the land some so close to each other, almost merging and fusing, is truly incredible.

Perhaps, he wants to show that the earth is a woman indeed, aching of the grief which people have caused her, yet willing to warm the hearts of her own children, the people who are trampling her and feeling the warmth of her heart with their feet. Neruda describes the beauty of the nature with all talent of his, so vivid that it calls tears to people’s eyes.

The second important thing to learn from the poem is that people are all children of the earth, and thus, there is no need in tormenting the poor mother with wars and unceasing grief. It is high time to leave in peace. The earth is crying for calm life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sonnet XVII by Pablo Neruda: What Is There within? People’s craving for love is truly unexplainable, yet the desire to find the destined part of one’s world is the cry which can be heard in every poem veer written. The lyrical poems are so specific that one can barely touch tem, the current running down them as if they were livewires. The Sonnet XVII by Pablo Neruda is no exception.

What is the poem speaking of? – Well, love, of course, the love everlasting and lasting only a couple of moments, t fire which is burning one’s heart down to the ground and which raises the soul to the ecstatic seventh heaven. Unlike the rest of the poets, Neruda does not try to depict his bellowed in the most impressive light, making it clear that love shines the heavenly light on the face most usual, brightening it for the fallen in love, but leaving it unchanged for the by-passers.

Thus, Neruda teaches us that love, a cruel blind lady, is a magician as well, making the roses grow where only the thorns used to. The stars in the eyes of the soul mate can be invisible for the others, but the person destined can see them eve through the mist of tears.

One more important thing to learn from the poem by Neruda is the idea that the tow people once fallen in love become one, creature which lives in another dimension, different from the rest of the world. The land of a fairy tale is where love takes the two and, once united, the people in le are bound to have their hearts intertwined for the rest of their lives. The loyalty is the second important lesson which the poem teaches the audience.

The United Fruit Company by Pablo Neruda: Trading Things and Feelings Each of us has probably felt once a part of the country where he or she is living in, suffering the losses which the country did and feeling the pain which the country felt. A poet and a patriot, Neruda was so tuned with the country of his that he could not but speak of the events which took place in there, and this resulted in a poem called Canto General. A piece of this great work called United Fruit Co. was telling the story of the famous rebel Ernesto Che Guevara and the ways in which he managed to bring the regime down and make the country breathe freely.

Neruda’s poem gives sufficient food for thoughts. Indeed, the striking talent of his has been shown in the most explicit way. However hard it was for the poet to rake over the past evens, he managed to depict the rebellion in a vivid and picturesque way. The events of the rebellion have been carved in the memory of people since.

The important lesson learned from the poem is that whatever a man could feel or think about the country which he was born in, the homeland will always stay an integral part of him, his heart and soul. Whenever there is a danger crawling to approach the land of the forefathers, the call of the home will make people stand up against the enemies and fight. So bright were the invaders which brought the land down depicted that every single man reading the poem felt that he needs to protect the country from the aggressors.

We will write a custom Essay on Reading between the Lines: Poetry, Movies and Social Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second important thing to draw from the poem is that there is always the way out from the situation, however desperate it could seem. The only thing one should remember is never to give up, the fight is won only as the last foe has been brought down to his knees. This is a man’s world, after all, the world of battles and fighting for freedom and justice.

The Anatomy of a Decision by Jason Van Steenwyk: Anatomizing the Will What makes people take this or that decision? What are they motivated as they make a certain step? These and some other questions are being answered in Jason Van Steenwyk’s The Anatomy of a Decision. Setting the military background and describing a typical army and its typical members, man-units, the author manages to show the importance of making a choice, and explain what makes people take certain step toward their destiny.

One of the most valuable lessons which one can take from the novel is, perhaps, the one of being able to make a decision. It is all about not to hesitate when what the circumstances demand contradicts the moral norms and rules once set for a man. Following one’s own heart is more important than putting someone else’s order into practice, Steenwyk shows. Staying a human while such is the environment that it is easier to become a beats which follows what has been ordered is the lesson which the author teaches his audience.

Next to the idea of humanity lies the vision of the war. In spite of the fact that there have been a plenty of books written about the war in Iraq, and many films on the topic have been shot, none makes the war seem the way which Steenyk suggests. He must be the first who showed how useless and cruel the war was, and that the political reasons of the war had nothing to do with the noble feelings which called people to fight in the war. However sad it is to acknowledge, none of the wars was worth the lives which were spared in the battles.

At Night Iraq by Michael Bautista: Beyond the Daylight Another idea of what was happening during the notorious Iraq war is represented in At Night Iraq. Michael Bautista narrows his vision of the Iraq war to a single night, which is supposed to be a focus of what the people of Iraq are and what the life in the country is like. In contrast to the popular idea that fear and chaos are at reign in the country, with people inhabiting it being most hostile and unfriendly, Bautista shows the Iraq family which treats an American soldier as a guest.

The members of the family shatter the man’s idea of what the people of Iraq are and what the purpose of the war is. The war itself loses the very idea, since the people whom the soldiers are fighting wit seem nothing in common with the image of a daring rebel created by God only knows whom and existing God only knows why in the minds of the soldiers who were fighting with the Iraq army.

One of the things which the story teaches the readers is the idea that the war itself is useless, since it is unnatural for people to kill each other. The molecules which the mankind is made of are all the same and thus the people who spare their lives killing each other are actually doing the things which contradict their own nature. However, the people who started war do not care about such trifle – this is the profit which pushes them to the further military actions.

One more social lesson to learn from the novel is the different traditions and customs of various nations. What passes for god manners in the United States might be considered rudeness in the eastern countries, and vice versa. The culture clash is often the root of the problems which emerge in the process of different nations socializing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Reading between the Lines: Poetry, Movies and Social Problems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is necessary to take into consideration the customs of the country which one is talking to, especially if the situation is far from being non-confrontational. In cases of conflict, there is nothing worse than ignoring the cultural values of the opponent country. Tolerance must be the principle of a dialogue between nations.

The Lifelong Accident: the Movie Crash Because of the misunderstandings constantly arising between people, the world seems such a lost place, with all misconceptions messed into a single mass which people are doomed to entangle till the rest of their lives. However, perhaps this is the very thing which makes people’s life so intriguing.

Describing the lives of a bunch of people, the movie itself is a block of flats where different people live their own lives, and watching the movie reminds of peeping in the windows of this block, watching secretly the lives of all these people.

Different scenes of Los Angeles life, starting from an ordinary family where a district attorney is trying to come to terms with his irritated wife, tired of constant conflicts, creates an image of a typical white collar, up to the scourges of society trying to make their profit stealing cars and selling them to the same mishaps of people as they are.

One of the core issues of the movie, the social aspect which is naturally haunting the movie, is the idea that all these social layers are interwoven into a solid life pattern. Without a single element of the chain, however minor it could seem, the whole construction is brought down.

The life of every singe human being is priceless; it is to be appreciated more than the riches of the world taken all together. Only understanding this idea, one can become a decent part of the society. All the problems starting from divorces and ending with wars and catastrophes are the result of this simple truth unaccepted by some people.

Another important thing to learn from the film is that the situation still can be handled. While a man has the wish and the power to change, the chances are not lost yet. Staying humane when the environment is far from being peaceful and unclouded is the idea of the movie which one should understand and take into the life pattern. Unless people find a place in their hearts for the ones surrounding them, the problems haunting the society will remain in their places.

Conclusion In conclusion, it is necessary to say that the postulates of humanity which people are told from the pages of books and the screens of their TV-sets are not to be ignored and neglected. Each of them is a peace of wisdom which people need so much in our times.

When everything around is a mess, the presence of some moral guidelines is vital, and the literature and movies are the sources which people can take the ideas from. The wisdom which the authors speak to the grateful audience is the core of the peaceful environment which people are craving for. Whatever the troubles pouring on the people might be, the need to stay humane and susceptible to the feelings of the others.

Society has always been haunted by numerous problems. As Crabb noticed,

“It requires little insight to conclude that something is wrong with people. The human machine has got its wires crossed somewhere.” (78) However, it is up to people to make a change to the world and turn it into a place where every single man can feel free and happy. In spite of the fact that this might seem another utopia, the idea of the relationship based on a humane approach and the trust in people is better than leading constant was, either explicit or hidden, conflicts brewing within the society.

With such approach, the hope that the world will change for better seems no longer a mirage. Turning into a goal, though distant yet quite possible to achieve the idea of common well-being and the environment free of wars and confrontations becomes another stage of the mankind’s development. What people are to do now is to try to achieve this stage. The lessons learnt from the work of the great will be of great use on the way to perfection.

Works Cited Crabb, Lawrence and Larry Crabb. Understanding People: Deep Longings for Relationship. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1987. Print.


Concept of the People Psychosocial Health Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Psychosocial health is defined as the ability to engage both the mental and social facets of a person’s life, and looking at these in terms of the effect they have on their emotional and mental growth. It is also referred to as the complete and stable state of physical and emotional wellbeing and is mainly experienced in young children who are still growing.

This is because in their formative years, children pick out their virtues from the society, the people around them, their environment and what they are exposed to in their daily lives. These set the parameters between good and bad, and what norms are encouraged in the society and what they should pick from the society; hence they adopt the principles that help them grow through life.

The mental state of people also stems from this stage, in that in general, people whose mental states are on form are able to handle issues however big with moderation. They look at situations around them from a positive perspective and this outlook in most cases gives them a relaxed mindset when they tackle the issues around them.

These people, in most cases had real positive upbringing, their guardians took time to teach them what they knew about life hence are generally positive about things around them. Their relaxed and composed physique creates around them an attraction of people of almost all facets, and their social circle tends to be too big, as in they have very many friends and people that relate to them.

The other group of personality that is different from the positive minded people is the unstable characters. They have a tendency to react negatively to the situations they are exposed to in life, and as such they act irrationally. Irrationality in thought and general judgment is evidence to poor psychosocial health, this is factored in the type of upbringing an individual had. These people tend to have confined or very limited social lives and are mostly wary about what other people think of them, majorly the negative aspect of their lives.

Sometimes it is the experiences they go through that make them react this way, but it’s mostly rooted in their subconscious mind, and they can barely do anything about it. Our case study revolves around Mr. and Mrs. Carters family, the degree to which they nurture the virtues in which they raise their family of three children and the parent-children relationship in the home compared to their own lifestyles’, also in their formative years.

This is in respect to the accepted standards of the preferred psychosocial health, which includes: Having a good feeling towards oneself, a feeling of easiness and contentment when with other people, the ability to have control over one’s emotions (In terms of tension and anxiety), keeping around an optimistic attitude about oneself, being grateful for the small things in life, setting goals and working towards achieving them fully and to admire and appreciate the beauty that nature holds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mr. Carter’s family is composed of three children with very different characters. Their children are Chrystal, who happens to be sixteen years old and is the eldest of the three children in the family. Others are Tracey, 11 and Roy Jr, 9 years. The couple really loves their children and they happen to be a closely knit family, they want them to grow up to be disciplined and straight members of the society.

Chrystal has undergone some traumatizing experience in life, first being raped by a non-family member. She gets into an argument with her parents and her father ends up abusing her verbally while her mother hits her with a broom.

Though she had no intention of reporting the matter to the authorities, she only shared it with her counselor at school in confidence. The counselor stepped overboard and reported the matter to the police who arrest and incarcerate her parents. With their parents in prison, Chrystal and her other siblings are placed under the care of their grandparents for four good days.

These are the same parents who provided their parents with the weak background when they were abusing drugs and neglecting their parental duties. After their parents were released from prison, Chrystal’s siblings went back to their parents’ care, while she remained with her grandparents for four months while the parents and other children underwent observation from a protective service worker who would testify in court the following month to determine the course of action to be followed.

In his report and analysis, the protective service employee tables her report acknowledging the fact that the Carters are a very strong family unit who love and cherish what they have between them. He goes deeper to assess the relationship between the parents and their grandparents, and the children to the parents.

Mr. Carter complains of his parent’s misconduct in his upbringing, saying he barely took care of him, his mother spent more time partying than taking care of her family, so Mr. Carter took care of the family, and he was barely eight years old.

On the other hand, Mrs. Carter also had issues with her upbringing. She was time and time again physically abused and was molested by her own brother at the age of fourteen. Her father took alcohol and her mother was weak, so there was a leadership vacuum in the family as much as the parents had been around. He also observes that they are open to counseling and understand their roles as parents in the home.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the People Psychosocial Health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though they do not have government support, they work almost always but manage to spend quality time with their children. Other glaring issues in the family are the unresolved cases, like Chrystal was raped the previous summer. No person had been arrested in connection to the case, yet the family rarely talks about this incident. The father blames the mother about this, he alludes that the mother was the cause of this incident.

The other case is that of Roy Jr., who happens to be suspected of having a condition called ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This is a situation which affects the child’s ability to concentrate and remain focused over long periods of time (Young, 31). The respect the children showed to the mother has drastically reduced ever since she went to prison.

The family and the children are being raised from where Mr. Carter grew up. It is a three bed-roomed public housing apartment in which they have stayed in for the seventeen years they have been together. Mr. Carter’s mother, in her sixties, still lives in the same apartment. The neighborhood is not so safe and people who peddle drugs just walk about the building, as a result of which there is frequent police patrol and many undercover police on the ground to provide safety.

Surveillance systems are also in place, the walls have graffiti on them and the streets are very much littered with garbage. Social activities are prepared and catered for financially by a tenant association, and they have a notion about their surrounding that once got into their own house, they need not to get out because the police, whose presence was always heavy, could patrol and offer the security.

The society with which these children are raised is not straight. So much needs to be done to ensure that Mr. Carter’s family grows up adherent to the right norms in their society. However much he and his wife have tried to bring up a family anybody would adore, there are some problems that are happening to the children that they may find so hard to let go.

Chrystal, having been molested has lost much of her self-esteem and trust in the people around her, much so the fact that the person who committed the beastly act is still at large. She is so insecure that the only person she feels comfortable talking to is neither a friend nor her age mate, but her counselor at school. In the long run, if anything happened to her counseling she would develop irrationality and her perspective towards some things in life like men would be so negative.

The other problem in this case is that the parents are bringing up their children in a drug infested area. Drug peddlers as well as consumers ply their trade within the vicinity, at their ages the children would grow to find it so normal to use the drugs because they have grown up watching people use them. It would also be easier to have their peers influence them to abuse the substances. The solution to this would be to move out of that neighborhood and find a more conducive and clean environment within which to bring up their children.

Works Cited Young, Bryan. Handbook of clinical neurology: Disorders of consciousness. Volume 90. NY: New York university press. 2007

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The Coca-Cola Company Research Paper college essay help

Executive Summary The main objective of this research paper is to carry out a comprehensive analysis about the Coca-Cola Company. In so doing, the paper would focus on exemplifying an appropriate company background of Coca-Cola, considering the financial overview of the company, and most importantly, formulating a problem statement of the company along with the historical background of the problem as well as the main players and actors who contributed to the problem.

Furthermore, the paper would illustrate the potential challenges, issues, and prospects of the company with consideration of the discussion of the related literature, alternative solutions and their implementations, and implications for future use. Finally, the paper shall focus on accumulating pertinent recommendations in conjunction with a relevant conclusion.

Company Background: Overview Bloomberg Businessweek (1) suggests that the Coca-Cola Company produces, allocates, and delivers nonalcoholic beverages and syrups internationally and it is predominantly renowned for the production of sparkling and still beverages; to specify, the business’s sparkling beverages comprise of nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages with carbonation, for example, energy drinks, and carbonated waters and flavored waters.

Some of its other products from still beverages comprise nonalcoholic drinks without carbonation, together noncarbonated saccharine savored waters with enhanced quality, cloister free energy-drinks, lucrative juices, and lovely savored drinks, including ready-to-drink teas, high quality coffees, and superior sports drinks; moreover, the business also offers fountain syrups, and other healthy food supplements those are favored by the health conscious customers.

With the glory of running such as a successful business for over centuries, this US-based company possesses a very bold supply chain offering diversified products to consumers all over the Saudi Arabia creating a passion that fastens the billions of its enthusiasts.

Problem Statement Coca-Cola Company the worlds leading multinational company are continuing its global operation in more than two hundred countries in the soft drink and beverage sector with stronger brand position. Through out the global operation Coca Cola Company has evidenced huge crisis from the national and international legislation, competitors, and diversified culture and disturbed its operation and profitability but none can keep any stopple to its progress.

Middle East and GGC countries are also a vital market for this MNC[1] but also suffered from different crisis starting from the gulf war while US sanctions prohibited their national MNCs to do business in some Arab counties that seriously injured the company in this region (ECOS 10). Later on gulf crisis, the MNC faced some other crisis concerning the religious sentiments of the Arabs. In a promotional campaign poster with Muslim retailer is saying her prayer in front of Coca Cola’s monogram in the wall rather than the Kaba while another computer graphics presented “No Makkah- No Mohammed” – that generated serious public protest in the Arab world that leads to a of Coke in Saudi Arabia (Slide Share Inc 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starting from Arab Israel conflict in sixties, Coca-Cola evidenced a long ban in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and after long interval Coca Cola reentered in the Saudi Arabia market in 1988 by joining venturing with previous center part Olayan Group but the operation don’t goes smooth (The Olayan Group 1).

The Coca-Cola Company Inc would like to explore its operation in Middle East specially to strengthening its CCBCSA[2]. In Saudi Arabia, with this view the management has engaged this researcher to present a report on the company.

Research Objectives


Mergers and Acquisitions Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

A merger refers to a situation where two or more companies unite to form a single company and this kind of bonding is found among medium sized and small companies. Acquisition occurs when one company is bought by another one. These two aspects are meant to promote growth of the companies involved. This paper addresses the various mergers that took place in United States and their effects.

Let us take a look at the merger that took place in the banking industry in the year 2004 between the Bank of America corp. and FleetBoston Financial corp. In this merger the bank of America corp. acquired the ownership of FleetBoston financial corp. This means that the company that was bought existed under new ownership and as a result its identity was changed to resemble that of the bank of America corp. (Straub, 2007)

A cross check on the history of FleetBoston suggests that the bank had successfully merged with another financial institution known as BankBoston and its previous identity was fleet financial group. The history of FleetBoston indicates that this is not the last merger that’s happening involving FleetBoston.

This shows that the management of this organization is determined and will do anything just to make sure they remain operational with a wider customer base. The bank of America had also entered into a merger which had seen it grow tremendously and since it was ranked third in US it had the required base to buy the FleetBoston bank.

The bank of America also had a failed merger with a stock brokerage institution known as Merrill Lynch in 2008.The merger seemed attractive on paper but on the ground it was very tough.

According to Depamphilis (2008), the bank of America lost many customers after acquiring the ownership of the stocks brokerage firm because the existing customers had personal relationships with the employees of the outgoing owners; people can not trust people who are not known to them. This loss of clients happened because the bank of America could not retain the organization culture of the outgoing Merrill.

Before an acquisition takes place there are a few things that the new owner to be should consider and they are namely (1) asset assessment, (2) historical earnings, (3) future maintainable earnings assessment, (4) comparable company and comparable transactions and (5) discounted cash flow assessment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These factors are used to determine the cost of acquisition (Depamphilis, 2008). In this case the cost of buying FleetBoston was 47 billion. The above stated factors were important and remain like so because by acquiring the ownership of FleetBoston the bank of America was going to bear all the losses that were being incurred by the bought company and besides it had to take the unknown risks. In the final end the FleetBoston was no more because its shares were now owned by the bank of America.

Straub (2007) argues that there are various reasons for mergers and acquisitions. First, merging companies reduces the cost of operations as opposed to when the companies are being run as independent entities. This results in rise in company proceeds because there are several sellers of goods and services hence the union causes the group of companies to have an upper hand in business.

When a smaller company buys a bigger company it stands to raise its proceeds and also improve its market share. This is because the acquired company could have managed to gather many customers and hence the new owners do not need to look for new customers.

Acquisition promotes cross trading because the incoming company can sell its products and services to the existing customers of the outgoing owners. For instance if a company that deals with insurance brokerage was bought by a company that sells automobiles the customers of the insurance company can buy automobiles from the new owner of the company.

An example in Information Technology industry involves the case of Google when it purchased Like.com in August 2010 for almost $100 million with an aim of improving the IT infrastructure of Boutiques.com. Google integrates managers, websites, employees, network, and data in driving its IS strategy. With its newly implemented e-commerce site, Boutiques.com, Google seeks to widen its market base by offering customers new ways of searching and purchasing clothes and accessories (Efrati


Working during high school Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction


Learn the real world


Make an extra coin

Academics may suffer

Lack time for the family


Reference List

Introduction Many teens in high school get thrilled at the idea of working part time while still in school. The opportunity to make money is good and some parents give their children the liberty to work while still in school. For others, they would hear none of it because to them it is a complete waste of time. Whichever opinions parents may have the issue of students working throughout high school should be thought through carefully before making any decisions.

Some students might find that their expectations about their prospective jobs are very different from the reality on the ground. However, if the students are open minded they will adjust well into the work place. Students should be allowed to work throughout high school to learn life skills and get a greater understanding of how the world operates once they are legal adults.

Networking Working while still in school presents students with a golden chance to start networking early in their life. The students who do part time jobs in companies get the opportunity to meet their future employers and if they become good employees while doing their stints as part time employees they will improve, their employability levels in the future because they will not be strangers in the same work places.

Moreover, their former employers can offer them valuable assistance in case they need a reference from their current or former employers.

The employers can also guide them in the right direction to take if they proof to be worthwhile employees. Students should also not shy away from working as volunteers in non profit organizations because such services might provide them with an opening in the future through making connections with people who might play a major role in their future careers. However, that should not be the primary goal of volunteering because one should give expecting nothing in return.

Learn the real world Students who work while still in high school get an opportunity to see how the real world operates and thus are better equipped than those who do not venture in the business world earlier. Working enables the students to integrate some of the things they learn theoretically in class in a real environment and makes them develop analytical skills as they deal with the challenges they encounter in their workplace.

This increases their understanding, which may translate into better grades. Moreover, they gains skills that one cannot get in the classroom such as interaction with different clients or customers and thus they are equipped to deal with people from diverse backgrounds. Such students can comfortably work in any part of the world because their interactions with various people prepare them to become global citizens (Anderson


Letter by Galileo to a Friend Creative Essay writing essay help

My Dear Castelli,

It is my hope that you are fairing well and progressing favorably with your works on hydrodynamics. As for me, I feel that I have come to the end of my life’s journey and I reckon that I have at the most a couple of days before my life is over. I therefore wish to share with you, my beloved student and colleague, some thoughts on my discoveries and experiments which I have involved myself in over the years.

While I have had many inventions in my time, I concede that my discovery of the use of the pendulum for the measurement of time is the most significant one and while this blindness that afflicted me has prevented me from seeing my work to completion, I believe that my ideas will be utilized by others.

As you my friend are aware of, I have dedicated many years of my life in analyzing the motion of the pendulum. I first proposed the use of the pendulum to keep time while I was trying to solve the longitude problem that had been advanced by his excellence King Phillip III. My thesis was that by use of the pendulum regulated clock, the hours, minutes and seconds that have elapsed since noon could be established.

Through many experiments, I have come up with a number of claims about pendulum motion which I believe will be consequential for the use of pendulums in time keeping. All of my discoveries have been made not only by observation but also by mathematics since I am firm believer that mathematical reasoning should be used to establish conclusions in physics (Matthews, 2000).

My idea for a clock is to attach a stylus to a solid pendulum and each time the pendulum passes the vertical, the stylus should strike an elastic bristle fixed at one end and resting in the tooth of a horizontal crown wheel. This would result in the movement of the crown wheel forward one wheel therefore acting as a counting device.

As of the present, I have invented the dead-beat form of the pinwheel escapement and although the importance of this invention is not obvious today, I harbor strong suspicions that it will someday be the basis for an accurate mechanical clock (Matthews, 2000). I am confident that in the near future, the pendulum will be the mechanism used for time machines and I have no doubt that it will replace the water clock and sundials.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, I do concede that the water clock has been one of the greatest aids in my scientific experiments. In my calculations of the speed of falling objects, the water clock provided me with the means through which I could accurately time the fall of objects from different heights (Hopwood, 1947). By use of my water clock, I have conclusively shown that some of Aristotle’s mechanics are greatly flawed. While the great Aristotle proposed that different bodies fell at different rates, it is not obvious that all body fall at the same rate.

My experiments have been in a bid to find a law which governs the increase that is exhibited by bodies as they fall. My inclined-plane experiments for relating time of fall to distance travelled have been most success. For the measurement of time, I employed a large vessel of water which I placed at an elevated position.

At the bottom of the vessel, there was placed a pipe of small diameter which gave a thin jet of water which was collected in a small glass (Gilbert


Career Goals in Educational Technology Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The Educational Technology faculty is the integrative part of Northern Colorado State University. The University offers the Master of Arts and the doctor of Philosophy degrees in Educational Technology. According to the admission criteria for the Graduate School, each applicant should write about his/her career goals in this educational establishment. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to outline the career goals for a student, who wants to study at the Educational Technology faculty.

As the Master of Arts degree is aimed to develop knowledge and skills in the spheres of instructional system analysis, media design and computer applications, it seems to be not so difficult to outline the career goals an applicant would have.

The Doctor of Philosophy degree prepares professionals: scholars, consultants and researchers. The graduators have profound knowledge on the use of technology in educational settings. Thus, if a student wants to apply for one of these degrees, he/she should pursue the goals that can be realized owing to the Educational Technology faculty.

One of the spread and reasonable career goal for an applicant is to achieve success in the field of educational technology. A graduator of this faculty will take an active part in the educational process, and will use technological devices as means destined to optimize the educational and training process for the benefit of both teachers and students. For this, necessary knowledge and skills in instructional system analysis, media design and computer applications will help.

The Educational Technology faculty allows its graduators dedicate themselves to the teaching, and scientific work. This can be the basic career goal. If an applicant wants to be a successful teacher in this field, it is necessary to possess not only profound knowledge and skills, but educational experience, as well.

Moreover, the future teacher supposes to know all advantages of educational technology. As this includes software, hardware, Internet applications and activities, educational technology accumulates and keeps considerable amount of educational and training information, and help to improve human performance owing to technological and human resources, combined in educational and training process. A true teacher should facilitate the learning process with the help of educational technologies.

If an applicant wants to be engaged in scientific work connected with educational technology, he/she should take an active part in the special programs during the course of study. It supposes investigative, research, and creative work. The scientific activity is intended to be directed for the improvement and development of educational technology. One can elaborate theories, practice different approaches, write educational materials based on personal scientific achievements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why does an applicant want to study at the Educational Technology faculty of Colorado University? Some people want to apply their knowledge and skills in different spheres of human professional activity; some of them want to dedicate themselves to the educational technology, being a researcher or a teacher in this field. However, both degrees of this faculty make any person literate in the sphere of educational and training processes, where educational technology is applied.

Thus, educational technology can be considered as a tool for further, and many-sided personal development, and the core of the professional sphere for those who want to be engaged in the active and creative process of this discipline. The career goals of any applicant depend on the life context, where knowledge and skills will be applied. Regardless from the goals, the Educational Technology faculty remains one of the essential faculties in the modern education and the world, as well.


Should Illegal Immigrants be Deported? Essay scholarship essay help

The issue of illegal immigrants, and what to do with them, presents a major political and social issue for nearly every Westernized country in the world. In his article Costs Will Rein in Arizona’s Immigration Crackdown author David R. Francis hypothesizes that they are “perhaps 50 million illegal, undocumented immigrants” living in the shadows of Western democracies.

In Francis’ words, illegal immigrants represent “a problem for Canada, Britain, France, Italy, and Spain. India tries to limit immigrants from Bangladesh. South Africa has troubles with illegal Zimbabwean immigrants. Even Mexico has to deal with illegal aliens from Honduras and Guatemala” (Francis n.pag).

At the heart of the discussion lies the question: should illegal immigrants be deported? This paper will present both sides of the argument, and concludes with the suggestion that the idea of physical borders be revisited in the future, and replaced with global citizenship.

Cost remains the most significant countering consideration in whole scale deportation, which may explain why of the projected 11 million illegal immigrants currently residing in the United States, the government deports under 4 percent annually (Francis n. pag.). On the con side, simply put, finding, detaining, and deporting millions of illegal immigrants could easily bankrupt the already strained economy of certain U.S. states.

In Francis’ words, “beside the moral, humanitarian, and legal issues surrounding illegal immigrants, their apprehension poses a sizable financial cost. In Arizona, police could arrest them under the new state law, but keeping them in already crowded jails costs roughly $100 a day per person.

For 5,000 people, imprisonment costs could add up to $182.5 million a year. That’s a hefty charge for a state struggling with a budget deficit of at least $368 million” (Francis n. pag.). States that admit to an illegal immigrant problem, such as Arizona, could doubtless cut their expense by surrendering illegal immigrants to the federal government for deportation. However, as Francis notes, the federal government lacks the resources to effectively expedite deportation: “In fiscal 2008, the US deported 369,221 people.

Deportations rose to 389,834 in 2009 under the Obama administration, and are predicted to reach 400,000 this fiscal year” (Francis n. pag.). However, the actual cost to deport illegal immigrants would be “least $94 billion” (Francis n. pag.). The Obama administration does not have the funding in place to take action against the problem of illegal immigrants, let alone to deport them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Francis’ words, “the priorities for the Obama administration are aliens who pose a danger to national security or a risk to public safety, recent illegal entrants, and fugitive aliens” (Francis n. pag.). However, the federal government “only has resources to remove approximately 400,000 aliens per year. In other words, Congress has not approved the money to enforce fully the immigration laws it has passed” (Francis n. pag.)

On the pro side, the idea of amnesty, or earned citizenship for illegal immigrants has been bandied about in recent years as a means of adding potentially millions of dollars in revenue to the tax base, when those who have been subsisting in the American shadow economy can finally come out as fully fledged citizens and begin paying their taxes like everyone else (Goldberg 11A).

However, as Goldberg notes, amnesty could be perceived as a slap in the face to those who currently attempt to enter the United States through legal means. In Goldberg’s words, “in Hong Kong, the wait just to legally enter America for the purpose of residing here can be as long as 15 years. In the Philippines, some people have been waiting for 23 years.

“Earned citizenship” for illegal immigrants already here no matter how arduous the process still amounts to line jumping, even if it’s not technically amnesty” (Goldberg 11A). Amnesty was granted, according to Goldberg, in 1986, “to about 3 million illegal immigrants on the promise that it was a one-time deal” (Goldberg 11A). Since then, illegal immigrants continue to pour into the United States, and Goldberg points to the power that this “illegal” group now holds.

“Since [1986], millions more illegal immigrants have poured into the country. And now they are such a sufficiently powerful constituency, emboldened by our identity-politics culture, that they demand “justice” and further concessions in public protests across the country” (Goldberg 11A). The pro may be more money in the government coffers, however as Goldberg points out, “many illegal immigrants are now part of the economy and the society,” and as such, expect access to the same rights and privileges as citizens (Goldberg 11A).

Again, in Goldberg’s mind, this insistence on rights is an affront to those citizenship seekers who are going about it through the proper channels. Says Goldberg: “Illegal immigrants are in a position to demand little. You don’t break in and then insist on accommodation” (Goldberg 11A).

Children often fall on the wrong side of immigration laws, and this is an area of concern for immigration policy makers, since children require protection. On the pro side, deporting children along with their parents, even those who have been born in the United States, has the dubious benefit of keeping families together.

We will write a custom Essay on Should Illegal Immigrants be Deported? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, on the con side, the United States immigration system has come under fire in recent years for its unfair treatment of children caught in the illegal immigration quagmire. In the words of author Bridgette A. Carr, “in both domestic and international law, a common legal standard for cases involving children is the “best interests of the child” standard.

The United States immigration system runs counter to this prevailing norm. Most United States immigration proceedings include no determination regarding the best interests of the child, although such proceedings frequently result in decisions that directly affect the placement of children. This failure to analyze the best interests of the child in immigration proceedings results in a failure to protect many children caught up in the United States immigration system” (Carr 124).

Children’s immigration status remains “uncertain due to their parents’ immigration status or their own,” and according to author Joaquin Rodriguez, deporting them only showcases the rampant “governmentally imposed oppression upon young Latinos” (Rodriguez 440). Rodriguez argues that America was built on immigration, and has lost sight of its heritage. “The United States is a country of immigrants with a government committed to the ideals of equality, tolerance, and acceptance.

With forefathers who sought refuge from an oppressive government, this country quickly developed a rich tradition of willingly harboring foreigners seeking a new life. However, this welcoming attitude has drastically faded in the past few decades as the national focus has turned to cracking down on illegal immigration” (Rodriguez 440).

Deporting the children of illegal immigrants, according to Rodriguez, will have far reaching cultural consequences. “By splitting families, the courts will weaken the sense of cultural identity among Latinos in this country” (Rodriguez 462). Given the current interest in welcoming diversity in the social fabric of the United States, Rodriguez argues that deportation needs to be considered in a cultural context.

“Diversity is now widely recognized, highly regarded, and purported to be welcome in the United States…[therefore] courts should embrace, rather than shun, this class of immigrants by interpreting deportation statutes with a thoughtful appreciation for potential cultural consequences” (Rodriguez 462).

Deportation advocates point to the importance of deporting criminals and terrorists from home soil, for the protection and peace of mind of legitimate citizens. On the pro side, deporting criminal and terrorists make these undesirables the concern of their home countries. On the con side, criminal activity cannot always be proved, and those suspected of terrorism will most likely suffer torture in their home countries, again, whether or not their terrorist activities have been proved.

Author Amy Bracken points to recent deportations of Haitian criminals in the United States, many of whom had clean criminal records at the time of deportation. “Although the vast majority of criminals deported to Haiti lived in the country at some point, most weren’t there for long, and many consider themselves, and are considered by others, far more American than Haitian. Most deportees left Haiti when they were younger than seven years old and lived in the United States for more than 20 years” (Bracken 7).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should Illegal Immigrants be Deported? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Britain, the suggestion of amnesty for illegal immigrants who had resided in the country for a number of years and not broken any laws met with a lukewarm reception in the Evening Standard. Then mayor of London Boris Johnson proposed that “those who have lived [in London] for several years…be given citizenship, on condition that they are able to support themselves and have no criminal record” (“Migrant amnesty just won’t work.” 9).

The Evening Standard agreed with Johnson, “on compassionate grounds…Illegal immigrants are routinely exploited by unscrupulous employers and landlords, pay no tax and are fearful of reporting abuse to the police. The case against an amnesty, however, is stronger…It would mean admitting an unknown number of people, and their dependants, to the benefits of citizenship, an open cheque that we cannot afford (“Migrant amnesty just won’t work.” 9).

Where deporting terrorists is concerned, little sympathy exists, except in the case of deporting suspected terrorists to countries where torture is de rigueur. The high court in Britain ruled that “a suspected terrorist can be held as long as deportation proceedings last; however, once the suspect is ordered deported to a torture-state, he must be released in Britain.

Why? European law bars deportation to torture-states; and, since British citizens are not subject to indefinite detention, the court said non-citizens shouldn’t be either” (“Rights, and then what?” A12).

Not all Western democracies follow Britain’s lead however. Canada, for instance, has not yet decided what to do about terrorists up for deportation to so-called torture states. As a result, “suspected foreign terrorists are jailed indefinitely, without criminal charge, pending deportation. The Supreme Court has ruled that deportation to countries where torture is likely should happen only in exceptional circumstances, which have yet to be defined.

Meanwhile, four Arab suspects are in jail, and a fifth is at home after a judge accepted his argument that his 21 months behind bars somehow neutralized the danger he poses” (“Rights, and then what?” A12). Western democracies have a responsibility to protect their citizens from terrorism, however, does that mean they condone and support torture? The jury remains out on this question.

In conclusion, the idea of “illegal” may come under scrutiny in the years to come. In a world that increasingly does away with borders in economic terms, it makes little sense to continue to uphold physical borders. If global citizenship were ever to replace national citizenship however, the question, as always, would become, “Who pays for it?”

Works Cited Bracken, Amy. “No mercy: Haitian Criminal Deportees.” NACLA Report on the Americas 42.5 (2009): 6-10. Web.

Carr, Bridgette A. “Incorporating a ‘Best Interests of the Child’ Approach into Immigration Law and Procedure.” Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal 12 (2009): 120-159. Web.

Francis, David R. “Costs Will Rein in Arizona’s Immigration Crackdown.” Christian Science Monitor 30 Aug. 2010. n. pag. Web.

Goldberg, Jonah. “For Starters, Build a Wall.” USA Today 23 May 2006: 11A. Web.

“Migrant amnesty just won’t work.” Evening Standard [London, England] 9 Mar. 2009: 14. Web.

“Rights, and Then What?” Globe