Trust Versus Mistrust Essay (Critical Writing) Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Erik Erikson’s notions of trust and mistrust

Biophysical perspective

Psychological perspective

Social dimension



Reference List

Introduction Erik Erikson’s model of psychosocial development is one of the approaches that are supposed to describe a person’s behavior across the lifespan. This model includes several important concepts that can be used for explaining the way in which an individual’s identity is shaped. In particular, one can speak about the stage, when a child learns to trust and mistrust.

This development stage can influence values, attitudes, and perceptions of a person. This is one the main aspects that should be distinguished. In turn, this paper is aimed at discussing these notions from biophysical, psychological, and social dimensions since they are important for the evaluation of a person’s development. These are the main questions that should be examined more closely.

On the whole, it is possible to argue that the choice between trust and mistrust has profound implications for the behavior of a person and his attitude toward other people. Additionally, parents and social workers should make sure that an infant is not exposed to significant hazards during this psychosocial stage.

This task is critical for promoting the socialization of a child, his/her self-esteem, and subjective well-being. This is the main argument that can be put forward.

Erik Erikson’s notions of trust and mistrust According to Erik Erikson’s model, during the first fifteen months, a child should establish a “balance between trust and mistrust” (Ashford


Concept of Liberalism Ideology in Modern Society Essay college essay help near me

In the modern society, people consume products according to the media adverts implying that individuals exist in a state of falsehood because what they expect in life is not what they get. The media is changing the way people behave, as well as their ways of life.

For instance, the advertisements made on television, print media, and the social media do not represent the views of the consumer, but instead they aspire to convene the interests of the capitalists, including the most powerful organizations. Recently, the youths are obsessed with the idea of role model and they desire to behave, dress, and look like their preferred role models.

Multinational Corporations are aware of the media influence on the lives of the majority and they are making effective use of the same to exploit innocent consumers (Ademola 534). Young girls are struggling all over the world to attain slender bodies since the media forces them to believe that such bodies represent beauty. Similarly, men are made to believe that handsomeness is associated with certain qualities, something that strains their lives without a valid reason.

For instance, a number of media adverts use the images of women to advertise products since it is believed that it would attract the majority. Companies manufacturing beauty products use these adverts to promote most of their products globally. It is satirical to note that women are used as advertising images, something that implies profit are valued than the self-image of women.

The behaviour of organizations regarding their powerful adverts could be explained through the application of liberalism since the ideology supports private ownership of property and free market economy. The ideology was adopted following the industrial revolution in Europe whereby many countries aspired to outsmart their competitors in the global market.

It was felt that the government had no role in the market since this was interfering with the achievement of the global roles. The ideology suggests that the government has only one role, which is to provide an enabling environment that would guarantee individual fulfilment. For this to happen, the individual has to be granted certain rights, especially the right to make a decision on whatever would satisfy his or her wish and desire.

This has enable organizations to reap maximally because the society has no business to interfere with the beliefs, desires, wishes, principles, and the choices of an individual. However, the ideology suggests that the government should only intervene when it is felt that the market is experiencing some problems, such as economic recession.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major function of the state is to put in place effective infrastructural structure, such as construction of roads, improving the communication system, and offering adequate security to individuals and their products (Hertz 16).

In this case, the companies producing beauty products are in a position to dominate the global market because governments provide security to its products and the same goods are able to reach the consumer at the most convenient time.

Through improved communication systems, the organization has been able to influence the market through powerful advertisements. The ideology does not permit inequality implying that the state has to provide a fair play ground for all actors to show their potentials (Brett 249).

The existence of the free market cerates wealth and this is the main reason why capitalists support it. The market operates according to its internal logics whereby the best organization would be rewarded while the lazy one would be punished severely. If an organization offers quality products at a reduced price, chances are high that it would dominate the market.

Some of the companies enjoy the economies of scale owing to its size and capital resource base. Critics of liberalism argue that the ideology does not aim at realizing the major objectives of the community since it insists on individualism, something that is likely to destabilize peace.

Liberalism is one of the macroeconomic theories that suggest that the world economy is becoming mutually dependent, expanding, and intensifying global relations, particularly in commerce. The theory further observes that trade has played a significant role as far as economic growth among is concerned.

The theorists holding this view do not approve the idea of autarky whereby states fail to open up their economies for global investment. The practice of protectionist policies is highly disputed by the theorists who suggest that it hinders the free flow of resources, both human and capital.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Liberalism Ideology in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For there to be a substantial development, the economy should be left to the market forces whereby the internal logics are allowed to flourish. If the state does not intervene in economic matters, the consumer is likely to suffer because of the inconsiderate nature of profit making organizations.

Liberalism is the cause of all evils in society according to Marxists because it supports individual ownership of property. People are forced to consume according to the media adverts, yet they do not fulfil their wishes.

Works Cited Ademola, Owolabi. “Effects of Gender-Role Orientation, Sex of Advert Presenter and Product Type on Advertising Effectiveness.” European Journal of Scientific Research, 35.4 (2005): 537–543. Print.

Brett, Martin. “The Impudence of Gender on Mood Effects in Advertising.” Psychology and Marketing, 20.3 (2003): 249–273. Print.

Hertz, Newton. The Silent Takeover: Global Capitalism and the Death of Democracy. London: Arrow Books, 2002. Print.


Culturally Competent Essay essay help: essay help

Ways of teaching cultural competency to jurors A critical reflection on cultural assumptions is necessary in forming a culturally responsive learning strategy. From this perspective, jurors are taught to reflect on cultural assumptions that lead to stereotyping and widely accepted misconceptions. Culturally-responsive teaching is critical in instilling self-awareness among the jurors. In this regard, jurors are able to identify any cause of cultural misunderstanding.

Consequently, a sense of respect and acceptance of cultural diversity is achieved among the jurors. Culturally-responsive teaching activity such as diverse instructional groups is essential in eliminating individual differences (Sleeter, 2013).

An inter-cultural communication method is another important aspect of culturally competent teaching. This method acknowledges that each juror has a unique cultural value. This can be evidenced from the diversity of traditions, norms and learning behaviors. From this perspective, mutual respect among jurors is achieved amicably.

A teaching methodology that positions the learner as the subject of learning is an effective teaching component. In this context, jurors are perceived to be the learning subjects. From this perspective, jurors’ compassion, integrity and respect of others is accommodated and influenced to meet required standards.

The effective means to influencing a learner are through accommodative strategies such as extra learning lessons or verbal discussions between teacher and learner. Active listening is also an important teaching competent for culturally competent instructors. This strategy is effective for critical reflection among jurors who speak different languages.

Intentionally structured environments are essential in harnessing perspective-taking behaviors among the jurors. This strategy involves the formation of intentional group of students from diverse racial backgrounds with an intention of accruing positive beliefs and values form each other.

In this regard, an effective culturally competent teaching for jurors embraces the need to understanding other peoples’ worldview and personal beliefs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ways that could have broken the barrier between Juror B37 and Rachel Jeantel The barriers between Juror B37 and Rachel Jeantel were evident during George Zimmerman trial (Lawrence-Brown


Physical Inactivity Essay college essay help

Physical inactivity is a current global issue that crosscuts various regions and age groups. The current prevalence indicates a high level of sedentary lifestyle; minimum recommendations for physical activity are not met by 31% of the world’s population. The global prevalence of physical inactivity is at 17% (Kohl 3rd et al., 2012).

Physical inactivity is associated with 3.2 million deaths annually in the world. In a CDC report cited in Harvard School of Public Health (2013), active individuals have less medical costs on an annual basis. Therefore, it is estimated that physical activity could help reduce the annual medical costs by at least $70 billion in the U.S.

Physical inactivity has gained momentum due to increasing urbanization and computerization. In a study in China by Kohl 3rd et al. (2012), rapid economic development was associated with reduced physical activity in adults and more television viewing by children. Increased rural-to-urban migrations have been linked to a reduced prevalence of physical activity.

Currently, the major forms of energy expenditure are occupational, domestic, and transport-related (Kohl 3rd et al., 2012). As people continue to embrace technology, these major forms of energy expenditure are slowly fading away.

According to WHO (2013), the prevalence of physical inactivity in 2008 was highest in America and the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Whereas physical inactivity is prevalent across all age groups, males are more physically active compared to their female counterparts.

Efforts have been underway to promote healthy diets and control of alcohol and tobacco to avoid amplification of physical inactivity effects. Physical activity is not identified as a standalone public health issue since it is coupled with diet. Physical inactivity is a global health problem because of its detrimental effects, yet individuals continue to embrace an activity-free lifestyle.

In the current times when the diet is an issue due to the increasing fast food shops, physical inactivity is gaining more attention. A poor diet that is high in calories predisposes one to risk factors like elevated LDL that can be reduced and/or converted to HDL by physical activity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Physical inactivity is a multi-sectored issue; it is based on people’s personal behaviours, the environment, and policies. There have been increased efforts to promote physical activity, but little impact has been achieved. While the prevalence of physical inactivity has remained stable in developed countries, it is rapidly increasing in developing countries as behaviours of developed countries get adopted in these developing countries.

The main perception held of physical activity is that it helps to lose weight, but this is not the only cause for engaging in physical activity. Physical activity is very important for normal body functions and evidence shows that individuals who engage in physical activity have a longer life expectancy compared to those individuals who do not engage in physical activity (Harvard School of Public Health, 2013).

The reason why I chose physical inactivity as a public health problem is due to the high occurrence of non-communicable diseases (CVDs, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and cancer) that are attributed to physical inactivity. Physical activity is recognized as the fourth factor that needs to be addressed in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (Kohl 3rd et al., 2012).

There is a lot of promotion on the essence of physical activity but little impact is being realized. More political attention is required to reinforce the importance of physical activity through policies. Inclusion of physical education in the school curricula is the most recognized policy, but this policy is short-lived because most individuals do not engage in physical activity beyond school-going years.

References Harvard School of Public Health. (2013). The Benefits of Physical Activity. Web.

Kohl 3rd, H. W., Craig, C. L., Lambert, E. V., Inoue, S., Alkandari, J. R., Leetongin, G.,


The Consciousness Raising Model Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Abstract Consciousness raising model is a process of creating awareness in a new language, learning it and then using it in conversations. Generally, the first step in consciousness-raising model in relation to English language is creating awareness that the language exists, and then distinguishing it from other languages and lastly, using it to communicate. New language consciousness is important, as it helps in making communication easier.

Even though people master their first language easily, it is also possible for them to master other languages, especially when the best strategies of consciousness-raising are adopted. In most cases, when learning strategies used match with the learners’ needs and preferences, the learning process becomes easier.

Nevertheless, consciousness-raising strategies in second language learning are usually based on motivation of learners, aptitude test, learner’s cognitive ability, and the styles used in learning. These strategies have been proved by personality and social psychologists to be among the factors that determine individuals’ cognitive abilities.

Introduction Consciousness-raising model is used to promote and develop cognitive ability of a learner in acquisition of a second language. Second language acquisition is the process that allows learners to master a new language, which is usually different from their first language.

Teachers play a big role in raising consciousness on new language by allowing them to recognize its form, meaning, and context, and then learning how to use it. For example, a learner may first learn phrasal verbs used in English and then try to distinguish them from other sounds in other languages before they can be able to communicate using the language.

Generally, in raising consciousness about a new language, learners’ differences cannot be ignored, hence the need for discussing second language acquisition in relation to the psychology of the learners.

Therefore, this paper will discuss consciousness-raising model and strategies, as well as the styles that can be used in promoting second language learning, specifically the English language. It will also discuss the various individual differences that influence consciousness in second language acquisition, including personality traits and mood of the learners (Robinson, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individual Differences and Consciousness – Raising in Language Acquisition

In order to come up with the best strategies for consciousness-raising process in second language acquisition, it is important to consider individuals’ differences and characteristics, mainly because they give the basis about their language aptitude, learning styles, and motivation, which are very important contributors in the process of learning a second language (Dörnyei, 2005).

Individuals’ differences and characteristics that have contributed largely towards raising consciousness in second language acquisition include personality, moods, and learning motivation strategies.

Therefore, it is important to consider values, interests, learning coping styles and social identity and relationships of the learners (Johnson, 2004). In addition, their cognitive perceptions and psychological aspects of life including health and educational lifestyle should be given priority in the process of raising consciousness in second language acquisition.

Besides, individuals’ characteristics such as attitudes, emotions, skills, socio-economic status, and gender should also be given enough emphasis in order to develop better strategies of learning a second language.

Evidently, proper analysis of these qualities will give more genetic codes about an individual’s cognitive skills, interpersonal abilities, and emotional attachments, which are very important in acquisition of second language (Macaro, 2010)

Individual moods and Consciousness – Raising in Language Acquisition

Individuals’ moods and personality play an important role in the way individuals communicate, as well as in their self-esteem and beliefs. Therefore, a teacher should be sensitive to these moods and personality traits when raising consciousness about a second language in order to prevent instances of anxiety and fear in the learning process (Dörnyei, 2005).

Again, personality, temperament, and moods go hand in hand in the learning process, hence the need to consider them in the second language acquisition and learning process. Given that a learner is being introduced to new ideas and sounds, it is important to ensure that they are in the best mood to recognize and internalize what is being taught in order for the learning process to be effective.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Consciousness Raising Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to this important role that personality plays in the learning process, it is important to give it more emphasis in order to enhance effectiveness of second language acquisition and consciousness-raising process. One of the ways of studying personality involves the use of the big five model.

This model involves controlling the use of common sense, hence determining an individual’s emotional stability and consciousness, which lead to good results and good performance in the learning process (Saville-Troike, 2005).

Personality and Consciousness – Raising in Language Acquisition

According to social and personality psychologists, an individual’s personality has great effect on the process of his or her linguistic ability and second language acquisition (Ellis, 2003). Again, personality plays a significant role in speech acquisition, which makes it important for personality aspects and applied linguistics to be largely considered in the process of teaching oral language including speech.

Indeed, research shows these two aspects have an important impact on the theoretical aspects and application in raising consciousness in second language study and learning. Besides, it is important to consider language aptitude of the learner, since it has great influence on the cognitive aspect of second language acquisition.

It is also important if the individual’s mental ability is considered in teaching some language styles and methodologies, since the reasoning and thinking skills should be well developed for consciousness-raising process to be effective. Nevertheless, psychologists believe that the process of acquiring new knowledge and processing information depends mostly on the mental abilities (Ellis, 2003).

Motivation and Intelligence Development

According to research, it is clear that second language acquisition depends on an individual’s intelligence quotient. Hence, it is important to improve the intelligence of learners in order to facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Ellis, 2003).

Modern language aptitude test, which involves testing numbering, phonetic script, and spelling clues, is also very important in the process of learning English as a second language; hence, the test should be used as one of the strategies of raising consciousness in learning second language.

In addition, factors such as role learning ability, grammatical sensitivity, and phonetic coding ability should be put into consideration in the process of learning English as a second language.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Consciousness Raising Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For an individual to learn more effectively, it is usually important that auditory ability, verbal intelligence, and inductive language learning ability of the learner be improved to gain more knowledge about the rules governing the use of English language (Ellis, 2003).

The use of good motivational strategies has been regarded as some of the means and ways of improving second language acquisition, since it increases learners’ self-confidence, thereby giving them more courage to express themselves using the new language learnt. Motivation also gives learners, the courage to be involved in self-evaluation, hence leading to self-improvement towards learning of the second language (Dörnyei, 2005).

Styles Used in Raising Consciousness in Language Acquisition

Theories such as task motivation theory can be used in order to improve awareness in English language acquisition. Parental influence, learner’s beliefs, and giving feedback to learners can also be effective in motivating learners to become more aware about the use of the new language (Lamb


Presentation on John Locke’s A Letter Concerning Toleration Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction In pages 37-62, John Locke discusses the necessity of toleration in relation to different religious views accepted in the society and focuses on the idea to distinguish between the civil jurisdiction and religion.

The main points discussed by Locke are:

The necessity to differentiate between civil jurisdiction and religion.

The role of the magistrate’s power regarding the issue of idolatry.

Articles of faith and the issue of the person and magistrate’s responsibility for salvation.

Tolerating the church effectively.

Permission of different religious visions in the church.

The issue of heresy and schism.

Main Points The necessity to differentiate between civil jurisdiction and religion

The issue of differentiation between civil jurisdiction and religion is discussed in pages 37-39.

In paragraph 1, page 37, Locke asks about possibilities to distinguish between civil jurisdiction and religion and pays attention to the magistrate’s authority in relation to religion.

Referring to the notion of ‘indifferent things’, Locke answers his question in paragraph 1 presented at page 38 where he states that ‘indifferent things’ cannot be introduced into religion even if they are under the magistrate’s jurisdiction.

The idea is developed and modified in paragraph 4, page 39, where Locke states that the magistrate’s responsibilities are limited by responding to the interests of any man because the magistrate should take care for avoiding prejudice (Locke, 2009, p. 39).

The role of the magistrate’s power regarding the issue of idolatry

In pages 40-44, Locke focuses on the issue of the prince and magistrate’s power to influence the problem of toleration related to the issue of idolatry.

In paragraph 6 presented at pages 40-41, Locke states that there should be the balance regarding introducing everything into religion in order to avoid prejudice or idolatrous visions, and there should be bounds according to which the prince and the magistrate can change anything related to the religion according to their civil power.

In paragraph 7, page 42, Locke develops his argument and states that idolatry can be discussed as a sin which cannot be tolerated.

However, in paragraph 9, page 43, Locke claims that, despite the double consideration, the focus is on the magistrate’s position because the magistrate should always be tolerant (Locke, 2009, p. 44).

Articles of faith and the issue of the person and magistrate’s responsibility for salvation

In pages 45-49, Locke discusses articles of faith and the issue of person’s salvation with references to the magistrate’s responsibility for it. In paragraph 12, page 45, Locke states that he cannot agree with allowing all the possible speculative opinions and preaching, but following the idea of laws, such toleration is necessary to provide the safety of the commonwealth.

In paragraphs 14-16, pages 46-48, Locke adds to his vision, stating that men’s rights for worshipping cannot be violated, and persons are responsible for their salvation independently because such an approach is contributing to protecting the commonwealth’s safety.

In paragraph 17, page 49, Locke states that the magistrate’s responsibility for the public’s good begins from his responsibility for his own soul, and such an approach will lead to the public peace (Locke, 2009, p. 49).

The church should be tolerated by the magistrate effectively

In pages 50-54, Locke discusses the effectiveness and principles of tolerating the church by the magistrate. In paragraph 22, page 51, Locke states that the magistrate can oppose involving different religious movements into the church and society.

In paragraph 26, page 53, Locke explains his idea stating that the magistrate can be afraid of the other churches because of the possible social unrest.

However, in paragraph 27, page 54, Locke reminds that different people follow different religious ideas, and toleration is necessary in the peaceful society (Locke, 2009, p. 54).

Different religious visions should be permitted in the church

In pages 55-58, Locke proposes that different religious visions should be permitted in the society in relation to the church development.

In paragraph 28-29, page 55-56, Locke concludes that people have the rights to be permitted to have different religious visions, as it is typical for the market place, for instance.

In paragraph 30, page 57-58, Locke states that refusal of toleration regarding the church is main cause of evils in the society, as a result, toleration and diversity of visions are necessary (Locke, 2009, p. 57-58).

The issue of heresy and schism

In pages 59-62, Locke pays attention to the issue of heresy and schism with references to the idea of toleration.

In paragraph 31, page 59, Locke states that the representatives of the other religions cannot be discussed as heretic or schismatic in relation to Christians, referring to the idea of toleration.

In paragraphs 32-34, pages 60-61, Locke concentrates on the fact that any separation in views related to heresy and schism cannot add to the development of the peaceful society.

In paragraph 35, page 62, Locke concludes that the focus on schism is the separation in its nature, and it should be avoided (Locke, 2009, p. 62).

Reference Locke, J. (2009). A Letter Concerning Toleration. USA: Cambridge University Press.


Assessment of Students in Schools Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Assessment of students is a vital exercise aimed at evaluating their knowledge, talents, thoughts, or beliefs (Harlen, 2007). It involves testing a part of the content taught in class to ascertain the students’ learning progress. Assessment should put into consideration students’ class work and outside class work. For younger kids, the teacher should focus on language development.

This will enhance the kids’ confidence when expressing their ideas whenever asked. As in organizations, checks on the performance of students’ progress should be undertaken regularly. Notably, organizations have a high probability of investing in futility because they lack opportunity for correction.

However, in schools there are more chances of correcting mistakes. Similarly, teachers and parents should have a basis of nurturing and correcting the students. This is only possible through assessment of students at certain intervals during their learning progress. Equally, parents or teachers can use tests as they teach as a means of offering quick solutions to challenges experienced by students while learning.

All trainers should work together with their students with the aim of achieving some goals. To evaluate if the goals are met, trainers use various assessment methods depending on the profession. This is exactly true when it comes to assessment in schools. Assessment should focus on the student learning progress.

It should be employed from the kindergarten to the highest levels of learning institutions such as the university. The most essential fact about assessment is that it has to be specific. This implies that each test should try to evaluate if a student is able to demonstrate the understanding of certain concepts taught in class. Contrary to what most examiners believe, assessment should never be used as a means of ranking students.

I this case the key aims of assessment will be lost. Ranking is not bad, but to some extent it might create a negative impression and demoralize the students who are not ranked at top in class. They feel that they are foolish, which is not the case. In general, assessment should be used for evaluation of results and thus creating and formulation of strategies for improving the students’ learning and performance.

Importance of assessment in school Assessment forms an important part of learning that determines whether the objectives of education have been attained or not (Salvia, 2001). For important decision making concerning the student’s performance, assessment is inevitable. It is very crucial since it determines what course or career can the student partake depending on class performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is not possible without an exam assessment. It engages instructors with a number of questions, which include whether they are teaching the students what they are supposed to be taught or not, and whether their teaching approach is suitable for students.

Students should be subjected to assessment beyond class work, because the world is changing and they are supposed to adapt to dynamics they encounter in their everyday lives. Assessment is important for parents, students, and teachers.

Teachers should be able to identify the students’ level of knowledge and their special needs. They should be able to identify skills, design lesson plans, and come up with the goals of learning. Similarly, instructors should be able to create new learning arrangements and select appropriate learning materials to meet individual student’s needs.

Teachers have to inform parents about the student’s progress in class. This is only possible with the assessment of the students through either exam or group assessment. The assessment will make teachers improve learning mechanisms to meet the needs and abilities of all students. It provides teachers with a way of informing the public about the student’s progress in school.

Whenever parents are informed about the results of their children, they have to contribute to decision making concerning the student’s education needs (Harlen, 2007). Parents are able to select and pay for the relevant curriculum for their students. They can hire personal tutors or pay tuition to promote the learning of the student.

Students should be able to evaluate their performance and learning in school with the use of assessment results. It forms the basis of self-motivation as through it students are able to put extra efforts in order improve their exam performance. Without results, a student might be tempted to assume that he or she has mastered everything taught in class.

Methods of assessment Various mechanisms can be used to assess the students in school. These include both group assessment and various examinations issued during the learning session. The exam could be done on a weekly, monthly, or terminal basis. Through this, a student is required to submit a written paper or oral presentation. Assignments are normally given with a fixed date of submission.

We will write a custom Essay on Assessment of Students in Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The teacher determines the amount of time required depending on the complexity of the assignment. It can take a day, a week, or even a month and this ensures that the student does not only rely on class work. It promotes research work and instills the self-driven virtue to the student. In addition, short time exam gives a quick feedback to the teacher about the student performance.

Exam methods of assessment Before looking at the various methods of exam assessment, it is important to understand the major role that the assessment plays in the learning of the student. Carrying out an assessment at regular intervals allows the teachers to know how their students are progressing over time with respect to their previous assessments (Harlen, 2007).

Actually, testing of students helps in their learning and creates motivation to learn more and improve their performance in the future examination. It also guides the teacher on ways of passing on the knowledge to the students. There are three purposes of assessment and these include assessment for learning, assessment to learning, and assessment of learning.

All these help the teacher in planning of his lessons and means of getting feedback from students. Moreover, these three factors of learning join the efforts of parents, student, and teachers in the process of learning. There are several repercussions realized when parents do not monitor closely the performance of their kids.

Education experts assert that parents who fail to monitor their children’s learning progress are like farmers who sow seeds during planting season and wait to reap during the harvesting season yet they did nothing about it. The success of the student is easily achieved when there is harmony among the parents, teachers, and the students.

Methods of assessment can be categorized into three steps: baseline, formative and summative (Stefanakis, 2010). The baseline is considered as the basic and marks the beginning of learning. The summative one carries the bigger weight than the formative in the overall performance of the student. It carries more marks and it is usually done at the end of the teaching period in the term paper.

The aim is to check for the overall understanding of the unit or topic by the student. As the formative assessment is a continuous process during the learning session in the classroom, the instructor should use the general feedback and observations while teaching. It can provide an immediate solution to the teacher because the area that troubles the student is easily identified and the teacher takes appropriate action.

Teachers should never ignore the formative or wait for the summative at the end of the learning term. Even if the teacher discovers weakness of the student, it might be less useful since there will be no room for improvement. Actually, it is more of a reactive measure rather than proactive summative assessment. Various mechanisms can be used to realize the formative assessment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Assessment of Students in Schools by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These include surveys, which involve collecting of students’ opinions, attitudes, and behaviors during class (Nitko, 2001). They help the instructor to interact with the student more closely, creating a supportive learning environment for the student. The teacher is able to clear any existing misconception from the students due to prior knowledge. It can also involve reflections of the student.

Here, the student is required to take some time and reflect on what was taught. It necessitates the student to ask several questions regarding what was taught, for instance, questions about the hottest topic, new concepts, or questions left unanswered. It also involves the teacher asking questions during a teaching session. This makes the teacher to point out the areas the students have not understood.

By doing so, the teacher is able to focus and put more effort on some topics as compared to others. The teacher can also decide to issue homework or assignments to students. This gives students an opportunity to build confidence on the knowledge acquired during class work (Stefanakis, 2010).

Most importantly, the teacher could include the objectives and expectations of each lesson and this can be in form of questions. These questions create awareness and curiosity of students about the topic.

For the above methods of assessment, various formats have been adopted. First is the baseline assessment, which aims at examining individual’s experience as well as the prior knowledge. There are pencil and paper easement method, which is a written test. It can be a short essay or multiple choice questions. It checks for the student’s understanding of certain concepts.

The third is the embedded assessment. It deals with testing the students in contextual learning and it is done in the formative stage. The fourth involves oral reports that aim at capturing the student’s communication and scientific skills. They are carried out in the formative stage. Interviews evaluate the group and individual performance during the formative stage.

There is also a performance task, which requires the student to work on an action related to the problem while explaining a scientific idea. Usually, it is assessed both in the summative and formative stages. All these formats ensure the objective of the assessment is achieved (Harlen, 2007). The above exam method promotes learning and acquiring of knowledge among the students.

Group methods of assessment Assessment is a flexible activity as what is done to an individual during assessment can also be done in a group and still achieve the objectives of the assessment. Group work aims to ensure that students work together. The method is not as smooth as that of an individual’s assessment since awarding of grades is a bit tricky and not straightforward.

The instructors will not know which student has contributed a lot in the group work, unless the same grade is given to group members to create fairness in the process of assessment (Paquette, 2010). It is advisable to consider both the process and finished product when assessing group work.

By just looking at the final work of the group, no one can tell who did what and did not. Individual contributions are implicit in the final project. The teacher should employ some other measures to be able to distribute grades fairly.

The solutions of assessing group include consideration of the process and the final work. The instructor should assess the process involved in the development of the final work. The aspect of the project includes punctuality, cooperation and contribution of the individual student to the group work (Stefanakis, 2010). The participation of each student and teamwork should be assessed.

Fair grading requires looking at the achievement of the objectives of the project. In addition, the instructors can let the students assess and evaluate themselves through group participation. This enhances group teamwork and yields a fair distribution of grades. This is realized because the members of the group know how to research and present written analysis of their work.

Self-assessment aims at realizing respect, promptness, and listening to minority views within the group. Another effective way of ensuring that group work becomes successful is by holding group members accountable. This actually curbs the issue of joy riding among the group members. Individuals are allocated with a certain portion of the entire job.

This involves asking members to demonstrate what they have learned and how they have contributed into the group. In addition, the products and processes are assessed. Another interesting scenario is realized when the instructor gives students the opportunity to evaluate the work of other team members. The gauging of individuals involves the investigating of various aspects of the projects.

These include communication skills, efforts, cooperation, and participation of individual members. It is facilitated by the use of forms, which are completed by the students.

Group work aims at improving both accountability of individuals and vital information due to dynamics experienced in the group. To some extent, an instructor can involve the external feedbacks. These feedbacks are finally incorporated into the final score of the student’s group grade.

There are various mechanisms for assessing and grading the group. First, there is shared grading. Through this, the submitted work of the group is assessed and same grade to all members is awarded without considering the individual’s contribution. Secondly, there is averaging of the group grade. Through this, each member is required to submit the portion allocated.

After assessing the individual’s work, an average of all the members is evaluated and this grade is awarded to group members. This average group grade promotes members to focus on group and individual work. There is also individual grading, where the student’s allocated work is assessed and grades given to individuals.

This enhances efforts during working with all the members. In fact, this method is the fairest way of grading group work. There is also an individual report grading in which each member is required to write individual report. After submitting, assessment is done and a grade is given to the student.

Finally, there is an individual examination grading where questions are examined based on the project. This encourages students to participate fully during the project. It is hard to answer the questions if you have not participated in the group work.

How assessment prepares students for higher education/ workforce/ student character It is a fact that in any institution exam is an inevitable criterion of assessing students. Whichever the system adopted by the governments of various countries worldwide, exam is an important event as teachers are able to allow those students who perform well to progress in their learning (Stefanakis, 2010). Those who have not met the minimum grading will require extra tuition before they are promoted.

This will involve the initiatives of parents to hire tutors for the student. Exam assessment prepares the student for higher levels of learning, because the higher institutions of learning have exam assessment too. Therefore, it is important for the students to get used to exam as well as research, which will boost the student understanding during lectures in the university or in college.

Similarly, at the end of a university degree course the students are required to carry out a project either as individual or group work. The knowledge and experience of teamwork gained during the lower study levels will play a great role in successful completion of tasks in the university.

Another important factor of assessment is that it helps a student to develop his or her character from childhood to adulthood. For the first time a student joins the school the test should be initiated.

From small things the student is asked by the teacher or by other colleagues, he or she learns how to associate with other students especially during the group work tasks. The student learns and embraces teamwork, cooperation, and accountability. These virtues are a foundation for character. In addition, the student acquires communication skills especially during the presentation of project work or during class sessions.

These small facts about life accumulate and contribute to life outside the school. The student is able to work in any environment. The exam credentials are vital requirements in the job market. All firms base their employment qualification on exams. More often, employers choose best workers based on their exam papers.

This approach has been vital since employers might not have time to assess ability to demonstrate their skills (Stefanakis, 2010). Therefore, the underlying basis is both exam and group assessment. Group assessment helps to build teamwork, which is a vital virtue in the workplace. Most projects in an organization are done in groups. Hence, teamwork aspects are very crucial during implementation.

The student utilizes the knowledge and experience of group work during school. The working environment is not so much different from socialization in school. In any organization, the success of a company is determined by the teamwork and unity of the workers. These vital virtues are learnt and developed in school and are enhanced by assessment.

References Harlen, W. (2007). Assessment of learning. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

Nitko, A. J. (2001). Educational assessment of students (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River,N.J.: Merrill.

Paquette, K. R. (2010). Striving for the perfect classroom instructional and assessment strategies to meet the needs of today’s diverse learners. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Salvia, J. (2001). Assessment (8th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Stefanakis, E. H. (2010). Differentiated assessment how to assess the learning potential of every student. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


What Does It Mean to Be Human? What Are the Ethical and Social Implications of This Definition? Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

For ages, philosophers, poets, novelists, dramatists, and several literati have attempted to device their own definition of humanism and what it means to be human. The humanism of sixteenth century defined it to be the process of learning, discourse, and reasoning.

Poets during the Elizabethan renaissance have created extraordinary, thought provoking works that explores human nature and the human desire. Often dubbed as the golden age for love sonnets, this essay dwells into the definition of human nature delineated by the three great poets of the time – Christopher Marlowe, Phillip Sydney, and Edmund Spenser.

The sixteenth century works analyzed in the essay are Amoretti by Edmund Spenser, Astrophil and Stella by Philip Sidney, and the poem “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” by Christopher Marlowe. These works are analyzed to unravel the humanist philosophy that the three poets explained.

For example, according to Marlowe, humans feel the beauty of the nature and get a pleasure from observing such the nature as “valleys, groves, hills, and fields, woods or creepy mountain yields” . Thus, being able to feel the beauty is very important .

Philip Sidney provides an insight into what the poet believed to be humanness in his poem Astrophil and Stella. Sydney shows the presence of love as an individual theme and how it helps in addressing challenges of life . For Edmund Spenser, to be human also meant to be free. The poet states that humans should not “suffer tyranny”.

He notes that it is very important for a human to be free and this freedom . I believe the study of these three poems help in understanding the various aspects of humanism as portrayed in the sixteenth century literature. These three poems provide a complete answer to the questions.

The three poets believe to be a human is to understand the beauty of nature and imagine life. However, it is difficult to overlook the ethical and moral issues associated with the definition of humanism that these three poets present. This essay undertakes an assessment of the philosophy of humanism that Marlowe, Sydney, and Spenser present through their poems and the ethical issues pertaining to the definition they present.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Philip Sydney, poetry holds the power to move righteous individuals and create virtuous action . Sydney’s philosophy was based on the Horatian formula that the main purpose of poetry was not to delight, but to teach. Most of the renaissance poets emphasized and realized the discursive power of poetry.

Sydney even stressed it to the extent that poetry held a greater discursive and tutorial power and object than philosophy or history. The sonnet sequence that we study for this essay, Sydney’s Astrophil and Stella, is one of the finest specimens of Elizabethan love sonnets.

In this sonnet sequence, Sydney presents the dialectic processes and the literary effect of the poem. In the first sonnet of the sequence, Sydney poses and answers the rhetorical question of the importance of art as an inspiration to good writing. The very beginning of the sonnet describes the steps to inspire literary writing through art:

Loving in truth, and fain in verse my love to show

That she (dear She) might take some pleasure of my pain:

Pleasure might cause her read; reading might make her know,

Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain;

We will write a custom Essay on What Does It Mean to Be Human? What Are the Ethical and Social Implications of This Definition? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This presents the climax presented in a rhetorical form to the readers. In latter sonnets, Sydney presents the logical structure and creates a distinction between the agent and the action. The opening sonnet of Sydney also presents the overall subject that the sonnet sequence deals with. The poem is an exclamation of a lover to his beloved and the aim of the sonnets is to express his feelings in the best possible way to this beloved.

The aim is to move her heart with the description of his love-stricken condition. Overall, Astrophil looks for the conventional topics that lovers of the sixteenth century would feel necessary to steal his lady’s heart. Nevertheless, to his dismay, the expressions that Astrophil presents are all ill fitted, and hence he finds himself in a quandary of ideas impregnated with painful details of his present state.

Sydney follows the sixteenth century tradition of presenting humanistic ideas in this poem. He questions rhetoric as a form of humanistic art. The overall story of the sonnet sequence is that of Phip a young gentleman from the country who falls in love with Stella, a proud girl born into aristocracy.

However, Stella refuses to accept his love and marries a rich man. This dejection makes him go through a series of heartache and “coltish gyres”. In the end he realizes that all the aristocratic snobbery is just a hindrance to his talent and ends the sequence with “Leave me, O Love which reachest but to dust” .

Astrophil and Stella precisely describes the sequence of the ideas of humanism preached by the sixteenth century literati. Sydney in this sonnet sequence presents an anatomy of love that experiments with human emotions and reaches out for the unattainable love.

Further, the poem itself explicates the importance of reading the classics, embracing the teachings through literature, and gaining in knowledge: “studying inventions fine, her wits to entertain, / Oft turning others’ leaves, to see if thence would flow” .

The poem explicates that the older generation of poets should be read and the new generation of poets should be also be read to expand on the meaning of live and love as presented in the third line of the first sonnet: “Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know” (1).

Similar understanding of literature and knowledge is expanded in sonnet 71 of Astrophil and Stella:

Not sure if you can write a paper on What Does It Mean to Be Human? What Are the Ethical and Social Implications of This Definition? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Who will in fairest book of Nature know

How Virtue may best lodg’d in beauty be;

Let him but learn of Love to read in thee,

Stella, those fair lines, which true goodness, show.

So while thy beauty draws the heart to love,

As fast thy virtue bends that love to good:

“But ah,” Desire still cries, “give me some food.”

The first four lines of the sonnet are an expression of human emotion but also stresses on the discourse and learning of knowledge. The stress that Sydney places is on the concept of learning and acquiring of knowledge.

Further, it should be noted that in the first sonnet as well as in sonnet number 74, Sydney stresses on the fact that one should not emulate the past: “Some do I hear of poets’ fury tell, / But (God wot) wot not what they mean by it: / And this I swear by blackest brook of hell,/ I am no pick-purse of another’s wit.”

However, Sydney himself draws from classic tales and clichés to describe his verse, he advices against the use of previous knowledge and create knowledge of their own. He stresses on gaining true knowledge through the exploration of one’s own art and emotions. This accentuates the importance of learning to humanism defined by Sydney.

The approach adopted by Christopher Marlowe was slightly different from that of Sir Philip Sydney in terms of approach to new learning. In his poem “The Passionate Shepard to His Love” Marlowe adopts hard pastoralism to counter the prevalent trend of poetic expression of soft pastoral life.

In a way, this poem is an exposition into the politics of depiction of pastoral life in sixteenth century and prior literature on the subject. In this poem, he expresses the hardships of pastoral life and the discomforts that the different cycles of nature provides to human existence are described in the poem: “the flowers doe fade, and wanton fields / To wayward winter reckoning yeeldes”.

The aim of the poet is to present a story of two lovers as well as fill the sonnet with mythological lore . These “mythological shards” helps the readers to understand the various social layers of the society that is described in the poem. It helps in identifying the readers with the world the poet describes in the poem.

For instance, the very first stanza of the poem initiates the process of deifying the mistress of the Shepard who will eventually be transformed into a goddess in the final stanza.

However, there are certain constraints encapsulating this change, and the magical powers that will be bestowed on the lovers: “Come live with me and be my love, / And we will all the pleasures prove / That valleys, groves, hills, and fields, / Woods, or steepy mountain yields.”.

The presence of Nature in Marlowe’s poems is stressed upon with the emphasis on words like “hills”, “groves”, “Valleys”, “woods”, etc. The description of the landscape emphasizes on the presence of Nature on human life. Nature is shown in a greater than life figure in Marlowe’s poems. This logically makes the readers believe in the connection between love, human life, and nature.

Leiter points out “Love for Marlowe’s human beings results in a projection of human vitality into nature as though she had expanded in sympathetic imitation of the lovers’ “living and loving.”” . The pastoral imagery described throughout the poem establishes the image of the Shepard’s lover as the floral goddess.

The poem emphasizes on the passion of human beings that ahs been depicted through the pastoral imagery of the sixteenth century literature. The humanism that Marlowe preaches has found its inclusivity in the power of Nature. The emphasis that Marlowe presents in the poem is to “love” and “live”.

The strategy that the poet employs is to make love and life work its way through the pastoral landscape and feel its presence in the embrace of nature. Hence, for Marlowe, these pastoral images have metamorphosed the pastoral images into love. This is why his maiden love metamorphoses as a nature Goddess.

The poem initially begins with an expression of love to the Shepard’s beloved, and then engages in the description of the rustic landscape of pastoral life. The Shepard’s expression of love in the poem, however, remains vague, and Marlowe replaces the popular description of a lover’s lament with the pastoral description of nature. The description of the rustic nature is emphasized in the beginning of the poem:

And we will sit upon the rocks,

Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,

By shallow rivers to whose falls

Melodious birds sing madrigals.

And I will make thee beds of roses

And a thousand fragrant posies,

A cap of flowers, and a kirtle

Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle;

The poem begins with valleys and hills and transforms into the modern life in beds and table in the second half of the poem. The poem essentially takes a round trip of the countryside and the readers have been transformed from the various facets of country life to the mundane life of city.

The poem exudes in pastoral innocence as a stark contrast to the excesses of courtly world. The rustic pleasures of the shepherd described in the poem, stands as a stark contrast to the aristocratic sports.

The Amoretti has often been considered as an autobiographical account of Edmund Spenser’s love eulogies to Elizabeth Boyle. The poem holds references to Spencer’s ideas of Christian marriage and doctrines related to the gender relations that are considered proper according to the sixteenth century society. The main themes that the sonnet sequence expresses are that of love, liberty, and loss.

The sonnet sequence begins with a “complete series of artistic products” . Spenser definitely uses a literary type language with little artistic variation. In the poem, Spenser stresses on divine, platonic love as a form of human nature. The human passion described by Spenser in the poem transforms into platonic love.

The poem stresses on human love, joy, and misery is seen as analogues to divine love. The poem creates an analogue of human love and divine love and thus, creates a discourse on education through love and redemption through faith.

The Augustine church believed that carnal desire was the ugliest form of human corruption and love should be established between mind and heart and not between bodies. This Augustine belief created a shift in the previous understanding of love and carnal desire as expressed through previous literature.

Spenser’s poetry stressed on the tension between the two concepts of love – platonic and carnal. In Amoretti, Spencer presents the tension between the process of courtship and the wills as a contest between the two lovers and not a process of mutual acceptance of love:

Happy ye leaves when as those lilly hands,

Which hold my life in their dead doing might

Shall handle you and hold in loves soft bands,

Lyke captives trembling at the victors sight.

In the beginning of the poem, his mistress completely helplessly enthralls the narrator; however, by the second stanza, the narrator describes the mutuality of the two lovers in the poem. As the sonnet progresses, Spenser re-creates the narrator’s mistress, who is transformed from a creation of the poet to a status of a demi-goddess.

In the 35th and 83rd sonnets of Amoretti, the mistress is transformed and first becomes an “Angel” and then is described as God: “my soules long lacked foode, my heavens blis” (Spencer 77). In Amoretti 22, Spencer presents the divinity of love.

He stresses on the holy presence in human love: “This holy season, fit to fast and pray, / Men to devotion ought to be inclin’d” . Spencer further states that the praying and fasting is for his “sweet” mistress: “For my sweet saint some service fit will find” . Further, in the 68th sonnet of Amoretti Spencer describes Easter as a lesson that lovers need to draw from the life of Christ and uses a stylistic ruse on his mistress.

Essentially the episode of crucifixion becomes as metaphor for erotic love that creates a vehicle for love. Thus, the love presented by Spenser is one that denotes resurrection rather than passion. Thus, Spenser presents the carnal love as a cause of human failure and degradation. Platonic love is considered by Spenser as a means to achieve divine embrace and shun away the humanistic weaknesses.

Amoretti presents a strong statement of the Augustinian concept of love and human nature is described as one that is corrupt and usually urges for the baser desires of the flesh. However, Spencer stresses on his Augustinian discourse of a love that is above the carnal needs of humans and embraces spiritual love.

The humanistic poets of the sixteenth century usually modeled their writing on the pastoral writing in the beginning of the sixteenth century in order to differentiate themselves from the country discourses.

The pastoral mode of poetry adopted by humanist poets like Sir Phillip Sydney, Edmund Spenser, and Christopher Marlowe therefore stresses on the English humanist education through lyrical print. These works usually emphasized on the economy and temperance of life, and the pastoral features dismissed the formal features associated with the verses.

Further, these writings also delineated the irrelevance of studious learning and acquiring of knowledge. Thus, all the three poems has a hero who belongs to the simple, ordinary folk of the time like the country gentleman in Astrophil and Stella and the shepherd in the Passionate Shepherd. Ethics can be disassociated with the humanist philosophy as the former rejects the naturalistic philosophy.

The humanists delineated little ethical question. The ethical question has not been questioned even in the poems presented by the three poets. However, they showed a strong sense of disassociation from the prevalent societal structure in sixteenth century England.

Works Cited Benson, Robert G. “Elizabeth as Beatrice: A Reading of Spenser’s “Amoretti.” The South Central Bulletin 32.4 (1972): 184-188. Print.

Brown, Ted. “Metapoetry in Edmund Spenser’s Amoretti.” Philological Quarterly 82.4 (2003): 401-417. Print.

Leiter, Louis H. “Deification through Love: Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love”.” College English 27.6 (1966): 444-449. Print.

Lewalski, Barbara K. “How Poetry Moves Readers: Sidney, Spenser, and Milton.” University of Toronto Quaterly (2011): 756-768.

Marlowe, Christopher. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. 2005. Web.

Sinfield, Alan. “Sidney and Astrophil.” Studies in English Literature 20.1 (1980): 25-41. Print.

Spenser, Edmund. The Complete Works in Verse and Prose, London: Spenser society, 1882. Print.

Sydney, Phylip. Astrophel and Stella, London: Thomas Newman, 2010. Print.


Contributions of Higher Education to Obtaining Employment and Skills Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Negative perception of graduates

Lack of skills among graduates

Selectivity of skills

Institutions and employment

Exponential growth of students

Increase in job opportunities

Perception of universities

Competition for higher skill jobs

List of References

Access to higher education plays a significant role towards an individual’s acquaintance of skills and employment. In most occasions, it provides an individual with an opportunity of outcompeting persons that lack degrees. Most employees prefer graduates to individuals who stopped at A-level because they associate graduates with success.

Graduates from higher education centres also portray good characters in diverse organisations, in which they work. Most of the graduates acquaint good characters from interacting directly with the society.

For instance, majority of the graduates portray a sense of belonging; they join many groups that assist the society in meeting some set standards. This paper aims at providing detailed information about why higher education is somehow an effective means for both obtaining employment and learning the necessary skills for the workplace.

Negative perception of graduates In the past, most employers preferred graduates to A-level students when deploying employees. Unfortunately, the current employers have developed negative perception towards graduates. According to them, most graduates lack some capacities. For instance, they argue that most graduates lack not only business awareness, but also self-management.

Some graduates also portray their lack of skills in carrying out some organisational responsibilities. It is also evident that some of the graduates seek employment without preparing. This is evidenced by the opinion of the interviewed employers.

According to the employers, over 40 percent of the graduates that apply for jobs show unpreparedness (Atfield


Victorian and Modern Corsets Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction Corsets have a long and amazing history. They have survived historical moments to the current time. Over time, they have continuously been modified to shape the bodies of women into what the society expects them to appear like. During the Victorian era, corsets were not only body shapers, but also indicators of a woman’s class and her moral standing.

This article describes Victorian corsets, and compares and contrasts them with today’s corsets. It will examine the materials used to make corsets in the two cases, and how and why they were and are worn.

Description of Corsets Shape

Narrowest Victorian corsets took after the shape of a hourglass. They were narrowest at the middle with the upper and lower ends opening up to accommodate the bust and the hip area respectively. They did not have any strips hanging from either ends. There was a strap at the back running from the top to the bottom through small holes on both sides; this strap was used to tighten it to the body.

The front middle lower end extended by few inches downwards below the waistline. The front middle upper end extended to accommodate breast halfway in a manner today referred to as over-bust.

Modern corsets in some few ways take after the shape of Victorian corsets. One difference is seen in the middle part which is not as narrow as that of Victorian corsets. Unlike the Victorian corsets which can be said to have been significantly over-bust, today’s corsets are customized and come in the forms of over-bust and under-bust.


Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Silk corset Victorian corsets were made up of a variety of materials. Heavy linen, cotton and sometimes soft leather were popular materials (Winter 1). Colored silk was used to make corsets for special events such as weddings (Pinterest 1). Reinforcement to the corsets was by means of whale bone (Winter 1).

According to Eleri, the whale bone referred to here is not actually a bone at all but “keratinous material found around the upper jaws of baleen whales, used to filter plankton and krill” (Eleri 1). The whale bone was popular because it is flexible and very strong. Furthermore, it can be cut into very narrow strips without compromising strength. The whale bone strips were inserted into corsets to give them strength (Eleri 1; Winter 1).

Winter also noted that some plants with very strong fibers were also used to offer reinforcement to corsets. This was expected because whale bones probably could be rare at times. Steel was another strengthening material used at this time.

Iron maidens were also popular especially in the late Victorian era. Winter described iron maidens as “molded iron devices shaped like a woman’s body or in a manner anticipated to shape the body” (1). Corsets made out of iron maidens were particularly very stiff (Winter 1).

Spiral Steel Modern day corset significantly make use of fabrics such as cotton, silk and leather. The reinforcement or boning materials are numerous with the most common ones being white steel, spiral steel, plastic, and reeds. Modern technology has enabled today’s corsetieres to use light and flexible boning materials (Corset Making 1).


The Victorian corsets were heavy and posed a lot of discomfort due to the weight of the reinforcement materials used to strengthen them. Though they were considered flexible then, the reinforcement materials were really not very flexible. Winter noted that working women and servants could not wear corsets because they inhibited their flexibility in regard to mobility (Winter 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Victorian and Modern Corsets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The shape they aspired to create in women meant that they had to be very narrow at the middle. Taking into consideration the anatomy of a human being, this meant that the lungs and diaphragm were put under some form of pressure. Magnifying this unfortunate state was the fact that the corset had to be tied very tightly.

Doctors of the time strongly spoke against corsets, and as if to support the doctors’ claims women in corsets often fainted. In some cases, whale bones could break and pierce the body of the wearer (Winter 1). Victorian corsets were not comfort to wear, but all the same they were always worn.

Corsets today are very convenient to wear. They are light and flexible, and are not as tight as the Victorian ones were. Today’s corsets are customized to conveniently fit into different shapes of women’s bodies. This makes it possible for a woman to go for the most convenient corset for her body (Lingerie Addict 1).

How and Why Corsets were/are Worn Why they were/are Worn

A corset formed part of a daily attire that a woman was supposed to wear during the Victorian era. It did not matter where one resided, a corset had to be on. This piece of clothe had a huge influence in the life of a women and its significance was more than that of any other normal clothe.

Corsets were used to shape women bodies and equally significant they shaped their lives. It is argued that the sociological aspects of womanhood during the Victorian era gave corsets great significance. According to Winter, “tightly laced corsets and close-fitted clothing created the difference….it enabled the wearer to produce a form-fitted, moral, and fashionable appearance, indicating good breeding” (1).

Therefore, corsets were worn has a means of showing that one is brought up well and well behaved. This helped women from the upper class in a society to maintain their honor. They were also significant for women from poor families looking for marriage partners – wearing a corset was a show of one who is well cultured and therefore intuitively one who could become a good wife.

The Victorian era demanded high morals and women wearing corset was a significant way of showing that. Women associated with loose clothes were connected with loose morals and servants. The servants could not work well with corsets on as they could restrict their mobility while working (Winter 1).

Another reason why corsets were worn was to create a shape which was considered feminine. Victorian corsets are said to have been very narrow just above the waistline. The shape that women aspired at this time was that of a hourglass or a wasp.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Victorian and Modern Corsets by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is surprising that even young girls had their versions of corsets. It was important that they also showed their class in the society. Therefore, girls grew up knowing that corsets formed part of female clothing (Winter 1).

In general, wearing a corset in the Victorian era was more of a mandatory societal expectation of a woman of moral standards and upper class. It was also used to shape their bodies into the expected hourglass-like feminine shape (Winter 1).

As the popularity of corsets grew, they were made to fit different activities. For instance, there were corsets for swimming, bicycling among other sport activities. The image shown here belonged to that of a corset called a ventilated corset. It was worn by women who engaged in sports activities and was also popular during summer (Pinterest 1).

It is surprising that there were corsets for men though their prevalence was quite low. The men corsets were made to offer support to the abdomen. There were also corsets made for pregnant women styled to support the growing abdomen (Winter 1). This was simply an era corsets ruled.

Modern day corsets are mostly worn for purpose of beauty unlike Victorian corsets which were worn for many reasons. There is a difference in the prevalence of corsets during the Victorian era and today. Today’s corsets do not carry even a quarter of the significance they had during the Victorian time. They do not enjoy the popularity and prestige that their counterparts enjoyed during the Victorian time. However, this is not to say that they are useless today.

Majority of women today do not wear corsets and even for those who do they do not wear them on a daily basis. They are significantly worn selectively and by only women. It is rare to find children corsets. This is in contrast to the Victoria era whereby young girls and even men wore corsets.

However, corsets are still playing the role of shaping the woman body as they did during the Victorian time. In addition, corsets are also used in fashion shows (Lingerie Addict 1).

How they/are were worn

Having examined the question on why corsets were/are worn, it is time to examine how they were worn. The wearing of Victorian corsets has been marred with controversies. It is known that they were worn under a dress (Winter 1). But how tightly they were tied has been a subject of speculation. Nevertheless, as the diagrams below show, it is suspected that they were tightened very strongly.

(Fashion 1)

It is said that the corsets were so tight that many times women fainted as a result of being unable to breathe well.

The impression created by different authors writing on Victorian corsets is that a woman had to get some assistance to wear a corset (Winter 1; Eleri 1; Pinterest 1; Fashion 1). This was probably because of significance that the hourglass-shaped body carried. This shape was significant and a tight corset also spoke volumes about the integrity and morals of the wearer. Integrity and right morals ruled the Victorian era.

This is contrast to today whereby corsets are less tight and there is no societal pressure to make them tighter. Unlike Victorian corsets which were worn as undergarments, modern day corsets are made in a manner that they do not have to be worn as undergarments.

Conclusion Corsets formed a very intimate part of the lifestyle of a woman in the Victorian era. Corsets were worn to help shape the body and were also a show that one is well behaved and not loose. The society expected women to wear their corsets and as a result corsets were very common and popular in the Victorian era. Today, corsets are not very common though they are popular.

There is also no societal expectation for women to wear corsets. Boning materials used in reinforcing Victorian corsets were steel, iron maidens, or whale bones. These materials made Victorian corset quite heavy. Today’s corsets are reinforced with light materials which include steel, spiral steel, plastic and reeds. As a result, they are light and convenient to wear.

Works Cited Corset Making. Boning. Corset Making Supplies, 2013. Web.

Eleri, Lynn. Well-Rounded: A history of corsetry, from whalebone to Lycra. Slate, 2010. Web.

Fashion. How to Lace a Corset. Fashion, 2013. Web.

Lingerie Addict. Corsets: shapes, silhouettes, and fabrics. The Lingerie Addict, 2013. Web.

Pinterest. Steel Embrace: Antique Corset Love. Pinterest, 2013. Web.

Winter, Denise. Cinching Up in the Victorian Era – Corsets! Denise Nadine Design, 2005. Web.


Effect of the Political instability on Haiti’s development Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The Problem Haiti is a country that suffers from major political instability, which has deterred the country’s growth and development. Between 1950 and 2008, the country had a record eleven coup d’états highlighting the volatility of the political scene there. In spite of the restoration of democratic rule in 2006, Haiti has continued to suffer from political instability.

Indifferent and ineffective governance that continues to accentuate the instability already experienced by Haiti characterizes the country. These factors have deterred economic development in this South American Country.

The socioeconomic factors in the country are the most serious causes of the instability. The BBC (2012) records that Haiti has a huge wealth gap with a minority 1% owning nearly 50% of the country’s wealth. The poor have engaged in widespread riots or joined gangs due to the lack of alternative means of employment.

The climate of instability has led to a rise of powerful urban gangs and militia who often operate with government sanction. The legitimacy and authority of political leaders are sometimes derived from the power of this militia (Carey, 2005).

At the same time, political instability has had the effect of further plunging the country into economic disarray. The Haitian economy has suffered greatly in light of the political turmoil that has plagued the country. In the mid 1990s, the deepening political crisis led to a drop in international aid. By the end of 1997, the lack of a functioning government led to a freeze in international aid to Haiti, an act that left the formal Haitian economy virtually collapsed (Donais, 2005).

The dependency theory sheds some light on the rampant poverty that has fueled the political instability in Haiti. This theory states “as long as the Third World is linked to the north they can never break free of their dependence and poverty” (Diaz, Trapp


The International Economy and International Economics Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents National Income and Product Accounts

Overview of Trade Imbalances

The Forex: Participants and Objectives


International economics are increasingly turning out to be an important sphere of research as global markets become highly assimilated. As matters of fact, governments, businesses and consumers have come realize that their existences depend on what is taking place within the international market.

International economics is defined as a sphere of study that explores the outcomes of lending, borrowing, investment and trade on an international scale. Conversely, international trade looks at how macroeconomic models can be used to comprehend international economics.

Some of the salient features of international trade include consumer behaviour, firm behaviour, perfectly competitive monopolistic and oligopolistic market structures, and consequences of market distortions.

The gross domestic product (GDP) is an important economic variable that measures the economic conditions of an individual/country. The gross national product reflects the output of economic activities within a specified period of time. For instance, the GDP/capita depicts the economic condition of a person in a country.

It is important to mention that the GDP per capita differs significantly across countries. Table 1 provides up-to-date data on GDP and GDP per capita for a selected cluster of countries. Inflation and unemployment rates are used to measure the economic well-being of a country. Inflation is an economic variable that compares consumer price indices between two different periods. For instance, a lower inflation rate means that the economy is doing well and vice versa.

The latter (unemployment rate) is used to measure the percentage of the unemployed people within a country. Table 2 depicts inflation rates and unemployment rates for some selected countries. It is worth mentioning that some data in table 2 are abnormal as a result of the economic meltdown that occurred in 2008.

Some economists employ a government budget to gauge the performance of economic activities. Tax revenues are commonly used to fund public projects such as the construction of highways. Generally, a surplus in the government budget occurs when the amount spent by the government on public projects is less than the total amount of tax revenue.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, a deficit in the government budget occurs when the tax collected is inadequate to finance public expenditure. It deserves merit to note that a Forex market is needed to facilitate transaction among different currencies in international trade. Many countries face the dilemma of whether to fix the exchange rate of their respective currencies or allow the rates to fluctuate according to the market dynamics.

It is against this backdrop that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established to monitor and help countries solve their international currency dilemma. The IMF has created a list of currency regimes in all countries participating in international trade. The exchange rate systems adopted by some countries are depicted in table 3.

The trade balance of a country is another key international statistics that indicate the economic well-being of a country. A country is deemed to have a trade surplus if the value of total goods exported surpasses the value of the total goods imported. On the other hand, a nation is considered to be experiencing trade deficits if the aggregate quantity of goods imported surpass the aggregate quantity of goods exported.

This information is critical because it enables economists to describe the international investment position (IIP) of a country. It is worth mentioning that the IIP is an economic indicator that measures the aggregate value of foreign properties owned by local inhabitants minus the aggregate value of domestic properties owned by foreign persons.

The world has experienced several economic crises since the last century. The most recent one occurred in 2008 when world output declined and unemployment rate increased. What is more, there was a substantial decline in international trade as both domestic and international investments shrank.

An economic recession usually occurs when the real gross domestic product of a country declines in addition to a rise in the aggregate rate of unemployment over a specified period of time. Thus, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were established in order to curb economic crises.

For instance, the main goal of the World Bank is to offer grants and loans to foster economic development among poor countries. On the other hand, the IMF is mainly tasked with monitoring the international exchange rate systems as well as offering short-term loans to countries experiencing balance of payments (BOP) problems.

We will write a custom Essay on The International Economy and International Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More National Income and Product Accounts The national income depicts the aggregate amount of money generated by factors of production within a year. Some components of the national income include profits, rents and wages. The national product (national output) depicts the market value of all final goods and services generated within an economy during a given year.

Figure 1 depicts the circular flow of money within an economy. It deserves merit to mention that the national income (value of total income) should be equivalent to the national product (value of total output). As noted earlier, the gross domestic product reflects the output of economic activities within a country in a specific period of time.

On the other hand, the gross national product (GNP) measures the total amount of goods and services produced using domestic factors of production. The GNP includes all production activities that occur within and outside the country.

The national income defines the manner in which the GDP is computed. The equation below shows that the gross domestic product is an aggregation of the consumption (C), investment (I), government spending (G), and expenses on exports (XE) less expenses for imported goods (ME):


The consumption variable of the equation (C) represents domestic and/or foreign products and services procured by residents. Investments (I) denote the costs incurred while undertaking fixed investments. XE denotes the total amount of goods exported to other countries. ME denotes the total goods procured from another country.

G denotes the total amount spend by the government on public projects (i.e. Construction of highways). Imports are usually deducted from the GDP equation since imported goods are a subset of the government, investment and consumption expenditures. In other words, the gross domestic product level is not directly affected by imports.

The balance of payment (BOP) accounts is a documentation of the financial transactions between the inhabitants of one country with the rest of the world within a specified fiscal year. The BOP account is composed of several smaller accounts. These include current account (CA), merchandise trade account, services account, goods and services account, and financial account. The following equation represents the CA balance:

Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Economy and International Economics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More CA = XEG,S, IPR, UT-MEG, S, IPR, UT

Where G= includes imports and exports of goods; S= services; IPR= income payments and receipts; and UT= unilateral transfers. A country is deemed to have a surplus current account if current account>0. This means that the value of exports surpasses the value of imports. If the current account<0, then the country has a deficit current account because imports are greater than exports.

The trade balance shows various ways to record the difference between imports and exports. The merchandise trade balance is somewhat constricted in measuring trade between countries dealing with traded products. Finally, the financial account balance measures the aggregate imports and exports.

The international investment position (IIP) of a country can be compared to a balance sheet since it reveals the aggregate foreign assets owned by domestic inhabitants and the aggregate domestic assets held by foreigners within a specified period of time.

Consequently, a nation’s net position with respect to international trade is either surplus or deficit. If the net position is a surplus, then it implies that the aggregate value of foreign assets owned by domestic inhabitants surpasses the aggregate value of domestic assets owned by foreign inhabitants.

Statistics suggest that the United States is arguably the biggest debtor country in the world. In other words, the country’s IIP is in deficit and the monetary value of that shortage is the biggest in the world. For example, in 2008, the amount of money the US owed the rest of the world was estimated at $3.47 trillion. Although some Americans are worried about the numerical size of the debt, it is worth mentioning that this debt is less than 25% of the country’s annual GDP.

Overview of Trade Imbalances Some people consider a trade surplus to be a good thing and a trade deficit a bad one. However, a trade surplus/deficit can be good or bad subject to the prevailing economic conditions. A trade surplus occurs when exports surpass imports whereas a trade deficit emerges when imports surpass exports. Some people suggest that trade deficits usually results in loss of jobs in the economy.

Nonetheless, when all outcomes of trade imbalances are considered, a trade deficit can only result in short-term job losses. It has been demonstrated that there exists an inverse relationship between trade deficits and the unemployment rate.

For instance, figure 2 shows the trade deficit and unemployment in the United States between 1980 and 2009. According to figure 2, when the trade deficit increases, the unemployment level decreases. This phenomenon contradicts the earlier perception that trade deficits cause job loss in an economy.

In a nutshell, trade deficits, when assessed with respect to their short-term and long-term economic effects, can bring about positive or negative effects depending on the prevailing economic conditions. For example, a trade deficit may indicate extreme borrowing that could result in a significant decline in the living standards since more resources are redirected to service accumulated debt.

In this condition, a trade deficit is clearly disastrous for the economy. On the other hand, a trade deficit can augment domestic investments and eventual stimulate economic growth. In this case, debt repayment can be achieved without compromising the living standards of the households.

What is more, a trade surplus may simply reflect discreet foreign savings as well as procurement of foreign assets in order to finance the pension scheme. In this condition, a trade surplus may prove to be useful for the economy. In addition, a trade surplus can also depict a period of reimbursement of previous debt. This situation may be tolerable if it is accomplished in harmony with the rising standards of living.

Nevertheless, if the trade surplus emerges during a period characterized by a declining gross domestic product, then the trade surplus would occur when the living standards are declining. In this situation, a trade surplus would be a bad thing for the economy. Nonetheless, problems associated with trade deficit can be alleviated via an increase in the gross national product (GNP).

In order to assess the trade imbalance of a country, one should start by establishing the country’s investment status (net international asset). A country’s investment status is comparable to a balance sheet which reveals the aggregate foreign assets held by domestic inhabitants. It also reveals the aggregate domestic assets held by foreigners within a specified period of time.

As a result, a nation will be in a credit position if the value of foreign properties owned by its citizens transcends the value of local propertied owned by foreign inhabitants. Conversely, a country is said to be in a debtor position if the aggregate amount of domestic assets held by foreigners surpasses the aggregate amount of foreign assets held by domestic inhabitants.

There are four potential trade imbalance situations that a country might encounter. These are: (1) a creditor country experiencing a trade surplus, (2) a debtor country experiencing a trade surplus, (3) a creditor country experiencing a trade deficit, and (4) a debtor country facing a trade surplus. Figure 3 shows an assortment of potential investment positions a country might face in an international arena. The left side of the figure implies that the nation is a net debtor while the right side implies that the nation is a net creditor.

There are important observations that can be derived from the situations above. First, trade deficits are harmful to the economy when the prospect for economic growth is low and the country is facing enormous international debt. Second, trade deficits may be less harmful if the nation is in a credit position.

What is more, trade deficits are less harmful if they take place in an environment characterized by increasing investments that spur economic growth. Third, a trade surplus can be harmful to the economy if it increases while the country is in a debt position. Finally, a trade surplus is harmful when the repayments of debts in the future will be lower than projected.

The Forex: Participants and Objectives The foreign exchange market entails currency trading by key international banks. These international actors (banks) function as mediators between real sellers and buyers of currencies such as individuals, businesses and governments. In many cases, the international banks keep foreign currency reserves and are prepared to swap them for local currency when the demand increases.

Although each bank can set the exchange rate (ER), the market forces of supply and demand will eventually determine the real exchange rate. To put it another way, each bank establishes the ER at each period in order to balance the demand and supply of foreign currency in the Forex market. It is important to make out two different sets of partakers in the foreign exchange market.

The firsts set consists of partakers whose transactions are documented on the current account. The second set comprises of partakers whose transactions are captured on the financial accounts.

An individual who engages in exports or imports of merchandise must swap currencies in order to complete the transaction. For that matter, tourists and investors who travel overseas usually participate in the Forex market to swap their currencies.

Investors usually engage in the Forex market on a daily basis. These investors include commercial banks, insurance firms and investment firms which engage in the Forex market in order to reap maximum profits on their investments or assets. What is more, some of these investors usually manage the assets owned by other parties.

For example, insurance and investment firms handle hefty investment portfolios which represent capital utilized to compensate claims on deaths and accidents. A substantial number of these firms have forayed in international Forex markets in order to maximize the returns on their investments. For instance, the Bank of International Settlement spends approximately $3 trillion worth of currency in the Forex market each day.

There are three main objectives that drive the investment decisions of investors. First, investors are concerned with the rate of return on their investments. Investors are usually attracted by investment portfolios that promise a high rate of return on their investments. Second, investors are concerned with the level of the risk posed by the asset.

It is important to mention that there is a direct relationship between the level of risk and the anticipated rate of return. Therefore, the main issue of concern for investors is how to handle the exchange between investment returns and risk. Liquidity is the third issue of concern for investors. It basically implies the rate at which investment portfolios can be converted to cash.

Insurance firm must hold investment assets that are somewhat easy to convert to cash in order to meet compensation claims that arise suddenly. Commercial banks must also invest in fairly liquid assets that can be easily converted to cash in order to fulfil cash requirements of their depositors.

The exchange rate is defined as the amount of units that a given currency is swapped for one unit of another currency. For instance, the exchange rate between a British pound and a US dollar can be expressed as £/$. In addition, the value/worth of currency can only be ascertained by by comparing it to another currency.

A currency is considered to have appreciated if its value/worth increases in comparison to another. On the other hand, currency depreciation implies that the value of a given currency declines with respect to another currency.

There are several exchange rate terms that are commonly used in the Forex market. For instance, currency arbitrage implies purchasing a currency at a lower rate in one market (i.e. London) and reselling it later at a higher rate in another market (i.e. New York). The spot exchange rate is defined as the exchange rate that facilitates trading to occur right away.

Forward exchange rate reflects the value of the exchange rate on trades that will occur in the future to fulfil a prearranged agreement. Finally, hedging is defined as activities performed to minimize the risks that emanate from currency trading.

Appendix Figure 1: A Circular Flow Diagram

Figure 2: U.S. Trade Deficits and Unemployment 1980–2009

Figure 3: International Asset Positions

Table 1: GDP and GDP per Capita (PPP in Billions of Dollars), 2009

Country/Region (Rank) GDP (Percentage in the World) GDP per Capita (Rank) World 68,997 (100) 10,433 European Union (1) 15,247 (22.1) — United States (2) 14,265 (20.7) 47,440 (6) China (3) 7,916 (11.5) 5,970 (100) Japan (4) 4,354 (6.3) 34,116 (24) India (5) 3,288 (4.8) 2,780 (130) Russia (7) 2,260 (3.3) 15,948 (52) Brazil (10) 1,981 (2.9) 10,466 (77) South Korea (14) 1,342 (1.9) 27,692 (33) Indonesia (17) 908 (1.3) 3,980 (121) Kenya (82) 60 (nil) 1,712 (148) Ghana (96) 34 (nil) 1,518 (152) Burundi 158) 3 (nil) 390 (178) Table 2: Unemployment and Inflation Rates

Country/Region Unemployment Rate (%) Inflation Rate (%) European Union 9.8 (Oct. 2009) 0.5 (Nov. 2009) United States 10.0 (Nov. 2009) 1.8 (Nov. 2009) China 9.2 (2008) 0.6 (Nov. 2009) Japan 5.1 (Oct. 2009) −2.5 (Oct. 2009) India 9.1 (2008) 11.5 (Oct. 2009) Russia 7.7 (Oct. 2009) 9.1 (Nov. 2009) Brazil 7.5 (Oct. 2009) 4.2 (Nov. 2009) South Korea 3.5 (Nov. 2009) 2.4 (Nov. 2009) Indonesia 8.1 (Feb. 2009) 2.4 (Oct. 2009) Spain 19.3 (Oct. 2009) 0.3 (Nov. 2009) South Africa 24.5 (Sep. 2009) 5.8 (Nov. 2009) Estonia 15.2 (Jul. 2009) −2.1 (Nov. 2009) Table 3: Exchange Rate Regimes

Country/Region Regime Euro Area Single currency within: floating externally United States Float China Crawling peg Japan Float India Managed float Russia Fixed to composite Brazil Float South Korea Float Indonesia Managed float Spain Euro zone; fixed in the European Union; float externally South Africa Float Estonia Currency board


Computer-based information systems and e-business strategy Essay essay help free: essay help free

Information needs for business managers tend to be similar for most businesses when one considers the same level of management. There are usually three levels of managers whose information needs are slightly different from each other.

These include operational managers, middle managers, and executive or senior managers. Computer-based information systems provide the information needed by the aforementioned categories of managers, which assists them in their work. The following are the information needs of the three categories of managers.

Operational managers usually benefit from such systems by getting all the information related to the short-term or daily operations of the organization. For instance, the computer-based information system provides such managers with information related to attendance of employees, shifts of employees, and so forth. Such information helps operational managers make structured business decisions.

On the other hand, middle management benefits from a computer-based system by getting managerial or tactical information. The middle-level managers use this information to make short plans or decisions. Such information includes annual production details or even quarterly sales analysis.

The information also helps them supervise the operational level by giving managers specific activities that they should perform. Lastly, computer-based information systems help senior management make decisions. The systems provide these managers with strategic information, which the managers use to make strategic or unstructured decisions.

Such decisions may include setting the objectives and policies of the enterprise. The information they get also helps them to manage other managers within the organization. Senior management gets information from the system detailing trends in costs incurred by the enterprise or even the revenue trends.

With this kind of information, senior managers can make decisions aimed at increasing revenues and reducing the costs incurred by the enterprise.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An e-business strategy is an elaborate plan that an organization develops detailing how it intends to conduct its business over the internet. Most people wrongfully view the strategy as just internet business. However, the e-business strategy is an elaborate and skillfully developed document defining the long-term and short-term e-business goals of an enterprise.

E-business strategy should ideally form part of an enterprise’s business plan, and it should be contained in the organization’s corporate strategy. The strategy should interconnect with virtually all strategic plans of the organization including the IT strategic plan, the marketing strategic plan and the organizational strategic plan.

The adoption of an e-business strategy is likely to affect the information systems function of a company. This impact takes the form of threats as well as benefits. Adoption of an e-business strategy is likely to enhance the involvement of the information systems functions in supply distribution. It is however important to note that not all middle managers will be eager to accept the adoption of an e-business strategy.

Middle managers are likely to oppose the adoption of an e-business strategy the organization brings other middle managers or IT consultants from outside to implement the e-business strategy. In this case, middle managers in charge of the information systems function are likely to frustrate the adoption of the e-business strategy because they may feel that the new team is taking over their functions.

It is therefore imperative that as an organization adopts an e-business strategy, it ensures that it implements sufficient change management activities to get everybody’s support. Otherwise, an organization can fail miserably in its attempt to adopt an e-business strategy.


An Ethical Analysis of Animal Rights Term Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Abstract


An Ethical Analysis of Animal Rights

Animal Rights Advocacy




Abstract This paper reviews the issue of animal rights from an ethical perspective. It begins by noting that this issue has gained prominence with advocates asking for animals to be given greater rights. The paper explains the human exceptionalism perspective, which gives humans a higher moral status due to their sophisticated cognitive abilities.

The paper uses a number of ethical theories including utilitarianism, Kantian theory, and virtue ethics to demonstrate that animal rights can be denied on ethical grounds. It then highlights some of the arguments given by animal rights advocates and shows their shortcomings.

The paper concludes by reasserting that animals cannot be given equal rights to human beings as long as human beings are expected to live a rich and fulfilling life.

Introduction The relationship between humans and animals has historically been characterized by humankind adopting a superior position and exploiting animals for his own good. This historical view of animals as creatures with no rights of moral status has been challenged aggressively in the recent past. A number of arguments concerning the status of animals have emerged over the decades.

These arguments revolve around the issue of whether animals should or should not be given rights in the same way that humans have rights. The contemporary animal rights movement has gained significant support over the past two decades. Members of these movements advocate for animals to be granted rights, which would limit the manner in which they are used.

On the other hand, animal rights opponents assert that human beings are the only creatures who deserve rights due to their higher moral status. This paper will set out perform a critique of the animal rights arguments with the human exceptionalism perspective in mind. It will then make use of a number of ethical theories including utilitarianism and Kantian theory to demonstrate that animals do not deserve similar rights to humans.

An Ethical Analysis of Animal Rights The issue of animal rights has slowly emerged as a controversial topic in need of ethical consideration. Using a number of ethical theories, this issue can be analyzed in order to determine if animals deserve rights as the proponents of animal rights assert. A major perspective used to deny animal rights is human exceptionalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the human exceptionalism perspective, human beings differ psychologically from other animals and because of these differences; human beings have a special status. Human beings have more sophisticated cognitive abilities giving them a higher moral status than that of the other animals.

Beauchamp and Frey (2011) acknowledge that while animals have a capacity to think, the reasoning capacity of humans is superior to that of animals. In addition to this, human beings have a moral status that is fundamentally different to that of other animals.

Human exceptionalism declares that human beings stand uniquely at the top of moral worth. Phelps (2013) admits that the fight for animal rights will be hard to win since priority is given to the needs of human beings.

A number of ethical theories support the supremacy of human beings as underscored by human exceptionalism perspective. Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative theory can be used to address the issue of animal rights. According to this theory, for a creature to be afforded rights, it has to be able to act as a moral agent.

Acting as a moral agent means carrying out the right action in spite of the impulses of the person/creature at the moment (Scott, 2010). According to Kant’s theory, the ethical action is the one that follows the rules at all times regardless of the consequences of the action. This action is guided by pre-defined rules and regulations. From a Kantian perspective, a creature is afforded a moral status if it can follow rules at all times.

Animals lack the ability to follow rules since they are driven by desires and often act on impulse. Unlike human beings, who can suppress their desires and choose the right action, animals are compelled by their desires. Due to this lack of ability to act as moral agents, animals cannot be granted autonomy since they do not have a moral status.

Utilitarianism looks at the sum satisfaction of all beings instead of looking at the interests of a single being. For the utilitarian, the ethical action is the one that causes maximum benefit for the highest number of people (Dogan, 2011). From the utilitarian perspective, killing animals is right since it benefits many people. The animal provides food products or clothing items that are vital for human enjoyment and survival.

We will write a custom Term Paper on An Ethical Analysis of Animal Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Animal rights activists are having a hard time convincing people to stop eating animals (Freeman, 2010). Aaltola (2011) admits that the animal industry is a substantial source of financial gain for the community. This financial gain benefits millions of people ranging from the farmers who take care of the animals to the businesspeople who trade in animal products.

From the utilitarian perspective, human beings have a right to thrive and prosper. This cannot happen without treating animals as lesser creatures since human thriving depends on utilization of animals. Wesley (2013) forcefully asserts that “animal rights are a serious threat to human well-being” (p.6). For example, killing animals for food or clothing remains inextricably bound with human thriving.

Without animals to provide meat and other products, human beings would not enjoy the balanced diet necessary for their growth and development. Animals play a significant part in medical and scientific development.

They are used for testing to provide a better understanding of illnesses and their corresponding treatments before the drugs can be administered to humans. Researchers insist that using animals in medical testing is necessary for medical advancement to be made (Marna, 2009).

Virtue ethics theory also supports the denial of some rights to animals. According to this theory, the ethical action is one that is done with good motives or without vicious motives. The character of the agent who carries out the action is analyzed to assess the ethical nature of the action taken.

Rainer and Tibor (2012) document that it is the obligation of human beings or their agents of their governments to prevent the violation of the rights of those living under their jurisdiction. The virtuous action might therefore require the extermination of animals that pose a threat to human existence.

The ethical action is the one that results in the positive actions for the parties involved. A denial of animal rights and liberty often leads to better outcomes for the animals. Cochrane (2009) argues that freedom is only intrinsically good for animals that are able to choose and reflect upon a particular kind of life.

Upon this reflection, this group of animals can then choose on a particular kind of life or change their plans based on their reflections. For most human rights activists, practices such as keeping animals in zoos or using them in circuses is analogous to human slavery and should therefore be abolished (Cochrane, 2009). However, research indicates that animals have higher chances of survival under captivity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on An Ethical Analysis of Animal Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rudy (2013) confirms that freedom is an elusive concept for animals and for humans since many animals appear to fare better in captivity than they would in the wild. This fact seems to negate the position that it would be ethical to let animals enjoy their freedom and autonomy since such action would be detrimental to the welfare of the animal.

In spite of viewing humans as superior to animals, human exceptionalism does not allow for animals to be treated cruelly for no apparent reason. Governments and animal welfare organizations insist that domesticated animals should be treated well by farmers (Phillips, et al., 2010).

To address the challenges that arise from experimenting with animals, there are Animal Welfare laws in place (Rollin, 2012). These laws ensure that animals are not forced to endure unjustifiable gruesome horrors.

Animal Rights Advocacy The notion of animal rights stems from the belief that animals have valid claims to existence, which might be translated into actual rights. Dogan (2011) asserts that animals have “a right to life, to liberty, to subsistence, to relief from suffering, and to security against attacks on their physical existence” (p.473).

Animal rights advocates state that the interests of animals are of vital importance to them and they should not be limited by human beings. Herzog, Dinoff and Page (1997) observe that the animal rights perspective involves a fundamental shift in world-view. Human beings are brought up knowing that they have a higher moral status and intelligence than animals.

Animal activism requires the person to concede that animals have rights and a moral status similar to that of humans. Boddice (2011) observes that the notions of rights, suffering, personhood, and citizenship are particular to human beings and might not be transferable to animals.

A strong case of animal rights is made by the philosopher Professor Tom Regan. He argues that animals have rights based on the moral obligation of human beings not to inflict unnecessary suffering and death upon animals. Traditionally, there is a strong co-relation between the capacity for higher order thoughts and the possession of rights.

Animal rights advocates declare that rights should not be dependent on the mental or cognitive capacities of creatures. Instead, each creature has inherent rights that should be respected by others. In spite of the insistence on a uniform view of all creatures, Herzog et al. (1997) reveal that animal rights activists demonstrate more concern for particular animals.

This concern is sometimes guided by the mental capacities and perceived intelligences of different species. Animals that are perceived to have higher intelligence are given a higher moral status than those that have lower mental capacities.

Kelly (2008) elaborates on the line-drawing by animal rights activists by noting that most of them argue that great apes deserve more rights than other animals because their interests are more similar to those of human beings.

Animal rights proponents assert that the denial of animal rights has an adverse impact on human morality. While the rights of animals are disputed, there is general agreement that all human beings have certain rights.

Human beings are required to act in a manner that does not violate the rights of others and any behavior that might encourage the violation of human rights is undesirable. Denial of human rights might lead to inhuman treatment of animals. One of the extreme expressions of this inhumanity is animal cruelty.

This behavior not only affects that animal, which is the victim of the abuse, but also the person perpetrating the act. The effect of animal cruelty on individual morality is well established.

Flynn (2001) documents that animal abuse is likely to lead to a distortion or inhibition of empathy and even make it easier for the person to disregard the lives of fellow human beings. Animal cruelty is therefore likely to lead to cruelty to human beings since it leads to a blunting of the conscience.

Another argument made for animal rights is that animals, just like humans, have experiences and are subjects of lives. As such, they should be accorded respect treated like human beings in terms of being given rights. The reason for this is that animals share similarities with human beings and while differences do exist, we should focus on the similarities.

Kelly (2008) elaborates that from this view, animals are regarded as having individuality, autonomy and even sovereignty. While this might be the case, animals differ significantly from human beings. Their experiences cannot be deemed similar to those of humans.

In addition to this, animal rights advocates assert that animals should be entitled to certain rights since they are sentient, meaning that they have the capacity to experience pleasure and pain. The presence of sentience is used as the grounds for granting rights since ethical theories assert the undeniable badness of the phenomenology of pain (Hadley, 2013).

However, this argument fails to consider the fact that animals do inflict pain on each other. This is especially the case when predators attack and kill their prey (Morrison, 2009). Rainer and Tibor (2012) states that protecting the rights of animals presents a dilemma since it might mean getting rid of the animals that prey upon others. However, this would violate the rights of the predator to live freely and obtain food.

Discussion In spite of the varying viewing concerning the existence or lack of animal rights, opponents and proponents both agree that animals have value. However, this value is not equal due to the significant differences between humans and animals. Animal rights activists present human exceptionalism as a negative thing that should be done away with.

They assert that human beings should be treat animals as equal and avoid violence towards them. Morrison (2009) reveals that the animal rights activists never argue against nonhuman animal predators. The predatorial behavior of animals against other animals is tolerated even though it inflicts harm to the prey.

In addition to this, the advocacy for vegetarianism by animal rights advocates is detrimental to animals. Hudson (2011) demonstrates that vegetarianism is harmful to animals since it leads to displacement of animals from agricultural lands.

Conclusion This paper set out to research the animal rights issue from an ethical perspective. It has shown that it is not practical to accept animals to the community of equals regardless of the huge differences in cognitive skills between them and human beings.

By using the human exceptional perspective, the paper has shown that various ethical values support the denial of animal rights. The paper has shown how giving animals’ equal rights to humans would substantially diminish the welfare and prosperity enjoyed by humanity.

While calling for better treatment and care for animals is a human and noble endeavor, the idea of granting animals rights as if they were people is detrimental to human existence. Such a move would subvert human rights since it would undermine the ability of human beings to utilized animals for human well-being and prosperity.

References Aaltola, E. (2011). The Philosophy behind the Movement: Animal Studies versus Animal Rights. Society


Survey of contemporary dances Report college essay help online

Introduction Dances are the integral part of the Western culture. However, the representatives of the various ethnicities may have rather different attitude towards them. Although almost every nation in the world historically has its own traditional dances, the perception of the contemporary dances may be different among people. The aim of this report is to present and interpret the results of the survey on the attitude of people to contemporary dances.

Method Internet Research

The research was conducted through the use of the relevant articles, books, and online video interviews. In particular, these sources included Questia internet library,, and Youtube.


In order to investigate the question of people’s attitude to dancing and the contemporary dance, in particular, a short survey was created. After its development, it was distributed among target group of university students. The fifteen individuals were questioned.

There were 80% of the females and 20% of males. The age groups were represented in the following way: 46.7% of the respondents – the age from 25 to 30, 26.7% – the age of older than 35, 13.3% – the age group from 30 to 36, and 13.3% – the age from 18 to 24.

The Results Internet Research Findings

The results of the medical research allow concluding that dance “provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional well-being” (Quin, Redding, Frazer, 2007, p. 1). Taking into account the results of the survey, it can be said that the respondents tend to be aware of the positive effect of dances on health.

Nowadays, the contemporary dances reflect the modern lifestyle and culture. It is said that they represent the adventures and visionaries of the modern choreographers (Morgenroth, 2007). Some people argue that there is a tendency of the feminization of salsa, especially salsa romantica, which tend to be less aggressive than salsa caliente (Negus, 1999). This statement is proved by the results of the survey.

Suzan Moss claims that the attending of the dance classes can contribute to the multicultural communication (Moss, 2000). Undoubtedly, dancing requires trainings. Matt Cornell, the contemporary dancer, says that it is really hard to maintain movement practice (QL2_Dance, 2012). The respondents gave different views on which kind of arts were the best forms to convey artists’ emotions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is interesting to know what the dancers and choreographers think about that and what inspires them. Sonya Tayeh says that she gets her inspiration from the cartoons and their superheroes as well as from paintings, and just from life experience (Boogie Zone, 2013).

The Japanese researchers of the contemporary dance emphasize the importance of improvisation in the contemporary dancing stating that the contemporary dance is the “process of dance creation itself” (Nakano


Environmental Justice and Water: Quality, Affordability and Sustainable Use. Facing the Dilemmas of the XXI Century Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction: Water Supply in the XXI Century. Threats and Opportunities The nature-vs.-nurture conflict will, probably, never go away. Posing a number of ethical questions to the entire population of the Earth, it persuades people to make choices that define the quality of their future life. The question regarding water quality and supply is one of such dilemmas.

Despite the fact that in the XXI century, environmental awareness was raised considerably and the exhaustion of resources was mentioned several times as the key threat to not only major industries and enterprises, but also to civilians, with the lack of bare necessities being the possible threat, the misuse of water resources still remains a major issue.

Sustainable use of the existing water resources can be seen as a more reasonable alternative to the issue under discussion. However, in addition to the environmental approach, an adequate economic strategy must be provided so that the costs for sustainability should not skyrocket immediately afterwards.

Regarding the Motivation: Health Concerns, Environmental Issues and Technology The motivations for the given paper to be produced are rather simple. Living in the world of consumerism, most people are used to use the sources provided to them without thinking of what the possible aftereffects of excessive use of the given sources may lead to.

While in case with renewable resources, the problem concerning excessive and thoughtless abuse of the existing sources may not be as complicated as one may think it is, with the resources, the mount of which is restricted, resource abuse will eventually lead to a catastrophe.

More importantly, the given catastrophe will occur not only on environmental level, but also on a range of other levels, including social, socio-cultural, political, and, primarily, economical and financial levels.

Current State of Debate: Silencing the Problem or Searching for the Solution? It would be wrong to claim that at present, the issue regarding the use of water, water supplies, water pollution, and other related issues, is not being discussed. On the contrary, there have been a number of complaints concerning the misuse of water and its scarcity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the concerns about water pollution have also reappeared in the media recently, giving enough food for discussing the issue of industrial waste dumping and the notorious oil spills. Nevertheless, the discussion seems unusually slow and lacking in arguments from both sides of the conflict.

The given phenomenon can be explained in several ways, the key one being that the economical concerns are the top priority for a number of states at present given the globalization process (Anand 18).

The Adopted Approach and Its Strengths: Taking Care of Water Resources Before going any further, it should be emphasized that there are several types of water, i.e., fresh water/tap water (also known as domestic water), which is safe for consumption, and industrial water, which is supplied to major companies for technical purposes (cooling, for the most part). The concept of sustainability is a good idea to raise awareness concerning the lack of water resources.

In addition, it is important that the given approach does not demand that the target audience should learn new information – based on the old concept of reasonable water use, it recycles the same idea concerning environmental safety that was popular all over the world in the 80s (Hillstrom and Hillstrom 226).

Sustainable Usage of Water and Its Disadvantages: Major Failures The concept of sustainable use, however, also has its problems. Aiming at shaping people’s perception of the value of water, the given approach appeals to people’s emotions rather than it does to their reasonability.

In addition, it fails to understand what it takes for people to change, since it addresses the need to preserve the environment, whereas it should describe the economical aftermath of water scarcity. As long as people are not affected by the water scarcity issue personally, they will never take actions to prevent water overuse, which the proponents of sustainability movement clearly fail to understand.

Striving for the Policies Reconsideration: What Can Be Improved The current approach leaves much to be desired in terms of the use of water resources, the principles in accordance with which water is supplied to the end customer, the quality of water, etc.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Environmental Justice and Water: Quality, Affordability and Sustainable Use. Facing the Dilemmas of the XXI Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More to the point, the sustainability principle, which seems completely flawless in theory, might not work in the environment of high competition rates, where the pursuit of monetary reward tops the list of priorities, and the necessity to solve the environmental issues is hardly even recognized.

In the given situation, it is reasonable to suggest that one should raise awareness concerning the significance of fresh water resources, as well as extreme scarcity of the latter.

While getting people to panicking about their water resources does not seem a legitimate solution to the existing problem of water scarcity and its effects on the environment, it is still highly recommendable that the means to cut overuse of water and raise people’s awareness concerning the exhaustibility of supply water resources, as well as suggest supplying a part of these resources to the states that need it badly seems a legitimate solution to the problem.

In contrast to the aforementioned suggestion, the strategy that is currently employed into water supply process appears to be more than unreasonable; if it continues for another couple of decades, it might lead to a statewide, if not continent wide, environmental catastrophe.

Conclusion: Reinventing the Existing Water Usage System. Sustainability at Its Best The existing policies on water usage are far from being flawless, seeing how more water than required is used on a regular basis; consequently, new policies concerning water supply, as well as its use, should be introduced so that the concept of sustainable water usage should be implanted into the U.S. system of water supply.

The implementation of the given changes, however, is bound to take considerable time, since the new water usage system will most likely require not only reinstallation of the existing technology, but also the reinvention of people’s perception concerning the way in which water should be used, or how valuable water is, for that matter.

Therefore, the key problem concerns the methods of introducing sustainability into the state system of water supply, as well as promoting the concept of sustainability to the U.S. citizens.

However, in order to improve the current system of fresh water disposal, one will have to consider the problem not only from the environmental standpoint, but also from the economical one. In other words, it will be necessary to come up with the suggestion that can be utilized globally. Among the existing options, the creation of a global freshwater market (Kvint 20) seems the most legitimate.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Justice and Water: Quality, Affordability and Sustainable Use. Facing the Dilemmas of the XXI Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By introducing economical principles into the sustainability policy, the states lacking water resources will be able to acquire the necessary amounts of water for a relatively low price, while the states supplying these resources will obtain small yet regular revenues, therefore, designing new and improved means of controlling water usage, as well as the impact of industries on water quality and the opportunities to avoid excessive use of the existing water resources.

While the costs for fresh water transportation to the states that lack water resources might be the cause for a financial concern, the money saved by reducing the amounts of water consumed by the citizens of the state will help provide less fortunate states with the required resource.

Basically, the given solution presupposes that a global water market should be created, where water could be seen as both a valuable resource and a merchandize that can be bought or exchanged for a particular service.

While the terms for the operation of such market are yet to be defined, the “water market” will definitely be a major breakthrough in the sustainable use of water resources, contributing to both economy and health improvement.

At present, it is highly advisable that the idea of reasonable use of water should be introduced to the U.S. citizens; thus, additional funds will emerge so that water quality could be upgraded a few notches. The given policy is recommendable not only for the U.S., but also for a range of states with plentiful water resources.

The less water is wasted in domestic and industrial settings, the more opportunities there will be for transporting water to the states where the given resources are scarce. With an efficient strategy on water use and the promotion of sustainability principles, water resources may possibly be replenished.

Works Cited Anand, Peter B. Scarcity, Entitlements, and the Economics of Water in Developing Countries. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd. 2007. Print.

Hillstrom, Kevin and Laurie Collier Hillstrom. Europe: A Continental Overview of Environmental Issues. Santa-Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. 2003. Print.

Kvint, Vladimir. The Global Emerging Market: Strategic Management and Economics. New York, NY: Routledge. 2009. Print.


Technological innovations in mining and metallurgy and textile manufacturing industries in medieval Europe Essay essay help online

Introduction Throughout history, trade stands out as the single most consistent pillar of global economic development. For many countries across the world, the extent of their development is defined by the level of involvement in trade at both local and international level. Wahl argues that it is widely acknowledged that medieval trade played a significance role in the development of regions and cities across Europe (1).

This assertion indicates that as early as the medieval times, the economic significance of various trading activities across Europe was well known.

Arguably, the regional development patterns witnessed in Europe to date are partly attributable to medieval economic activities as regions or cities that engaged in more economic activities back then tend to be more advanced in terms of development in comparison to those that hosted less economic activities.

However, the various industries that thrived in the late medieval Europe all played a significant role in defining the path taken by Europe’s economic development albeit at varying magnitudes.

This essay seeks to compare and contrast the economic significance of the textile industry and the mining and metallurgy industry of medieval Europe insofar as their contribution to Europe’s economic development is concerned.

Similarities between the textile and mining/ metallurgy industries of medieval Europe

The first most outstanding similarity in the economic significance of the textile and the mining industries of medieval Europe is that both industries provided massive employment opportunities for Europe’s populace. The textile industry was directly linked to agriculture, viz. its raw materials came largely from sheep, flax, and cotton (Postan and Miller 264).

In addition, at the time, agriculture was widespread across the European continent. The people who were employed to tend to sheep, flax, and cotton farms were thus indirectly employed in the textile industry. The fact that the tools and equipment used to carry out sheep husbandry and tend to cotton were rudimentary implies that large numbers of people needed to be employed to manage the sheep and cotton plantations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, the processing of wool from the time it was shaved from the sheep to the time it became some form of clothing also called for the input of many individuals in order to meet the clothing demands of the time. Therefore, the textile industry was very important in late medieval Europe because after agriculture, there was no other economic activity that was as widely practiced as textile production (Hunt and Murray 121).

Mining and metallurgy also take a central place in the economy of medieval Europe because this industry produced all the tools and equipments that were used in agriculture and textile production (Blanchard 3). Mining has a lengthy history; in fact, it is almost as old as humankind is (Boissonnade 178) and over the years, it has been getting better as technology improves.

In the late medieval Europe, mining played a key economic role as like textile production, it employed large numbers of people. This assertion stems from the view that towards the end of the 13th century, there emerged a flurry of mining activity in the mountain region of Bohemia (Blanchard 1). People travelled from everywhere across the European continent to participate in the mining of silver that had been stuck in the region.

Reportedly, up to 60,000 people worked on the Bohemia mines day and night (Blanchard 1). Considering the contemporary population of Europe, such a figure is large. Therefore, the mining and metallurgy industry, like the textile industry, was among the leading industries insofar as employment is concerned.

Besides employing large numbers of Europeans, both industries exhibited a shift from the traditional non-concentrated practice to a centralized and more concentrated practice where people move in from different places to be part of the industry.

Long argues that when the clothing demands of Europe exceeded the ability of the decentralized production system, production of textile products became centralized in cities and urban settings (79). Merchants established textile industries in the cities thereby attracting people to the cities to take up employment in the industries (Pedersen and Nosch 34).

This aspect encouraged movement of people from rural settings to the cities where due to higher price indexes generated by the dynamics of the back and forth movement of people who sought better remuneration, real wages in the cities turned out to be higher than those in rural settings (Munro 1). This disparity gave people a worthwhile reason for which to migrate to the cities that hosted the textile industries.

We will write a custom Essay on Technological innovations in mining and metallurgy and textile manufacturing industries in medieval Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Like the textile industry, mining and metallurgy also exhibited this magnetic effect on the European people. When silver lodes were discovered at Kutna Hora, it is reported that people came from Upper Hungary, Poland, Meissen, and Pomerania to be part of the mining expedition (Blanchard 1).

This move is touted as one of the reasons why the small mountain village of Kutna Hora did not develop into an urban community (Blanchard 1). Most of its inhabitants at the time hailed from elsewhere and thus they did not have an interest in developing the small village into an urban community.

The pattern of people moving from their homes and seeking employment in mining localities was rampant in Europe when mining became a paying economic activity like the textile industry.

Apart from the attraction of populations from their native settlements to places where the economic activities were concentrated, the textile industry and the mining industry both laid the foundation for the industrial revolution witnessed across Europe between the late middle ages and the early modern ages due to rapid expansion among other factors.

When textile production shifted from production for personal use (in the villages) to commercial production in urban-based industries, merchants concentrated on enhancing textile production by setting up rudimentary industries (Botticini 97).

This move was prompted by a rise in the demand for textile products, within Europe and beyond, due to the flourishing trade, which was taking root across Europe (Hunt and Murray 111). Therefore, albeit arguable, the need for more textile products prompted the establishment of textile industries across Europe, but with more concentration in regions such as England.

Similarly, the increasingly lucrative nature of trade in minerals inspired the establishment of mineral related industries across Europe. An example of these industries is the Fugger-Thurzo Company, which was the brainchild of Johann Thurzo (Mitterauer and Chapple 281).

The company came to be referred to as the “best organized industrial enterprise of its time” (Mitterauer and Chapple 281). This aspect implies that it was the most illustrious among the companies that were established at the time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological innovations in mining and metallurgy and textile manufacturing industries in medieval Europe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, from these developments, it is clear that the mining and metallurgy industry as well as the textile industry at that early time in Europe’s history, started setting precedence for the proliferation of industries across Europe in what came to be known as the industrial revolution.

Additionally, in both cases, there is a clear systematic departure from traditional production technologies to better and more efficient production mechanisms, which led to an increase in the levels of production. In the mining industry, such developments included the invention of the water mill, which provided various mechanisms that were employed at various stages of mining to make it more efficient.

The water mill made it possible to power the bellows in the smelter, made it easier to mine nonferrous and precious metals, and enabled only two workers (normally it would take 600 workers) to drain water from deep adits some of which were 200 meters deep (Mitterauer and Chapple 278).

New technologies such as the water mill heightened the production and improved the quality of the minerals that were mined as smelting and purification could be done at more advanced levels (Postan and Miller 157). This upward trend in the production and trade of minerals was compounded by a shift in international trade that was witnessed in late medieval Europe.

In the textile industry, a similar dynamism was witnessed with the quality of textile produced improving for the better over time. Initially, Italy was the center of attention in the international textile trade across Europe (Postan and Miller 231). At the time, the Italian industries produced fine and beautiful clothes. In the years that followed, with the advancement in technology, draperies took preeminence in the textile industry.

The proliferation of draperies across Europe led to a significant change in the economic fortunes of Europe reviving some towns that were almost dead in the Netherlands (Boissonnade 296).

Not many years later, England built its first great industry, which literally took over the textile industry by producing fine cloths among them, worsteds (Long 45). The building of the great industry in England marked the beginning of a major shift in textile production and trade to the patterns witnessed in early modern Europe.

Considering the various examples of similarities that existed in the textile industry and the mining and metallurgy industry, it becomes evident that though the two industries were completely different, the dynamics that mark the patterns of trade were similar for both industries.

There is a clear-cut gradual, but steady movement from rudimentary production technologies towards more efficient and better production technologies. The key point to be noted for both industries is that in the process of their gradual improvement, they employed more people and paid better wages thus contributing to the economic well being of medieval Europe.

Differences between the textile and mining/ metallurgy industries of late medieval Europe

Several similarities that existed between medieval European textile and mining and metallurgy industries have been outlined; however, this aspect does not to mean that there were no disparities between the two industries. To begin with, the relationship between the upcoming industry and the two industries was different.

The mining and metallurgy industry required heavy capital investment as the equipment that was necessary to improve it (Postan and Miller 213). As technology advanced, it became very expensive for merchants who invested in mining activities, which compelled them to have a closely-knit relationship with banking institutions.

For instance, the Fugger-Thurzo Company came into being courtesy of Johann Thurzo’s initiative, but it was only capable of carrying out its mining activities successfully after he enlisted the assistance of the merchant banking house of the Fuggers (Mitterauer and Chapple 281). The relationship in this example took the form of a partnership to enable the mining company expand its activities across many regions.

In the textile industry, the advent of the banking industry, though important due to the financial services, did not hold a central position in the success of the industry. The development of textile industries called for considerable capital investment, but it could not equal the capital investment that was required to set up a mining organization.

This assertion implies that the merchants obtained only normal banking services and modest credit services as opposed to the mining industry, which required heavy involvement of the banking industry due to the heavy capital investment involved.

Another example of differences in the two industries is the effect that the fluctuations in energy supply and discovery of new frontiers in the generation of energy had on both (Blanchard 5).

The sharp decline in forest resources witnessed in late medieval Europe prompted the mining and metallurgy industry to shift from its heavy dependence on charcoal to the use of coal as the purification and smelting of mineral ores into usable forms with varying degrees of economic importance required very heavy input of energy.

Initially, when charcoal was the most commonly used source of energy, it was quite difficult to purify and mineral ores to certain levels (Postan and Miller 210). The shift towards the use of coal ensured that higher temperatures could be achieved in the furnaces.

This move did not only improve the quality of the minerals that were supplied to the market, but also improved the quantity. In this sense, the decline in forest resources that occasioned the shift towards the use of coal as an energy source was a blessing in disguise for the mining and metallurgy industry.

For the textile industry, the case was different, as the decline in forest resources did not have so much of an effect on the development of its production. While it was important to develop better furnaces to produce better metallurgical products and invent highly mechanized technologies such as water mill to take mining a notch higher, such elements did not affect the textile industry significantly.

This aspect means that the development of coal as a source of energy did not have any notable effect on the textile industry, as the high temperatures associated with coal were not of importance to the industry. For the textile industry, only better spinning and weaving technologies mattered for they were a prerequisite for better textile products.

Finally, while technological advancement saw to it that mining and metallurgy work became more mechanized as characterized by heavy machinery that required a lot of energy input, the textile industry only changed to become more sophisticated. Its sophistication ensured that the expanding nature of textile demands could be met sufficiently.

Clearly, although both industries improved in production levels, there is a clear distinction between what the development process brought to each of them. The mining industry remained somewhat masculine in nature because the activities involved were only manageable to men.

This scenario was different from the textile industry, which although initially dominated by women, changed to incorporate the services of men but remained accommodative to women. The impression created by the view that women could fit within the industry is that it bore some element of femininity.

Conclusion This essay sought to establish similarities and differences in the economic significance of the developments that took place in the textile industry and the mining and metallurgical industry in the late medieval Europe.

It emerges that there were indeed several developments especially in terms of technological innovations, which ensured that both industries slowly, but steadily departed from the traditional systems of production to more sophisticated production mechanisms that occasioned the improvement in the quality and quantity of products released to the market.

The economic significance of both industries cannot be overstated because they contributed immensely to the economic development of the European continent. Apart from agriculture, the textile and mining industry were major income earners for medieval European economies.

Though there were some slight differences in the manner in which the two industries developed as years went by, it remains clear that the similarities in the development of the two industries were dominant. This aspect means that even these two industries were completely different, but the paths they took on their developmental journey were quite similar.

In addition, the dynamics that were witnessed in trade at the time ensured that each of the two industries played a significant role in the economic development of the European continent as a whole because different regions specialized in producing what they could produce best thus leading to their economic prosperity.

Works Cited Blanchard, Ian 2009, Medieval Crafts, Guilds and Industrial Development: A Central-Western European Comparison. PDF file. Web.

Boissonnade, Pisoper. Life and work in medieval Europe: the evolution of medieval economy from the fifth to the fifteenth century, New York: Harper


Ethics in the Media Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literal Explanation of “Ethics in the Media”

Implied Meaning of “Ethics in the Media”


Works Cited

Introduction Media ethics deals with the ethical standards, practices, and principles of media companies. Some of the media include film, art, theatre, broadcast, and the internet. There are different ethical considerations that should be taken seriously by practitioners, journalists, and analysts. This explains why different corporations and corporations attempt to control and manipulate the media.

Governments can rely on censorship to monitor the media. As well, business corporations can monitor the media through ownership. This discussion concentrates on the literal explanation of the topic and its implied meaning.

Literal Explanation of “Ethics in the Media” The success of any media company is determined by the quality of their information and news. This explains why media ethics is a relevant subject today. The media is a field that deals with the best standards, ethics, and principles for better practice (Patterson 72).

Various media companies should consider the need for the best ethical practices. This would become the best way towards successful societies. Some of the areas covered under media ethics include ethics of entertainment, journalism, and democracy. There are various regulations that ensure media companies act ethically and professionally.

To begin with, media houses such as print and broadcast media should always uphold the best ethical practices. The issue of “news manipulation” is evident also today (Kieran 38). From this understanding, it becomes clear that the government should be on the frontline to manipulate the media.

By so doing, the people will always get accurate information. Most of the news media can hide the truth and sometimes present wrong information to the audience. “Truth” is a critical issue because it tends to conflict with other ideals or values (Kieran 38). The ethics of the media becomes necessary in order to address the above issues.

Different media companies should be aware of issues that might result in negative implications. While trying to tell the truth, it becomes necessary to consider the question of “public interest”. Although some information might be very true such as confidential government information, it would be wrong to broadcast them because of public interest.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As well, the issue of privacy plays a significant role in the media. This is the case because privacy is a fundamental human privilege or right (Fawcett 39). This explains why the lives of certain persons and public figures are a major concern.

The other ethical consideration stems from the question of “taste”. The media should be ethical. This explains why journalists and other professionals in the industry should not reveal shocking images to their audiences. For instance, dead bodies or bloody scenes should be screened with caution. At times, professionals in the field tend to have conflicts with the law.

This arises from various issues such as the protection of personal or confidential information. “Sometimes journalists and other media companies decide to break the law in order to obtain their news” (Crook 63). This explains why there is need to consider the issue of media ethics today.

In the present world, the study and analysis of “global ethics” has remained a major topic of discussion. However, what comes out clearly is that there are very few morals aspects today. This explains why the media today should reconsider the best norms and ideals in order to promote the best practices (Black 49).

The issue of ethics in the media has resulted in new frameworks that help individuals identify the major challenges affecting different fields such as the newsprint media and journalism.

Implied Meaning of “Ethics in the Media” For very many years, the question of media ethics has been widely examined to promote best practices and information dissemination. Media companies and outlets always consider the quality of their norms and practices in order to address most of the issues affecting different cultures today.

The world is presently evolving through the wave of “digital convergence”. The situation has created a stimulating scenario that calls for new frameworks and ideals to address the issues affecting many people today (Chomsky 17).

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in the Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is agreeable that modern changes in technology continue to change the nature of the media. Although the issue of ethical standards determines the success of any media company, it is quite clear that different companies have failed to embrace the best practices.

It is evident that different reporters and undercover personnel tend to engage in wrongful media practices such as trespassing in order to obtain certain information and news (Chomsky 41). Sometimes they engage in deception and criminal activities in an attempt to get news. The current explosion of the internet and social media has changed most of the ideas linked to media ethics.

Despite the existing legal frameworks, a new kind of “information revolution” has changed people’s imaginations and memories. The world is today characterized by atrocities whereby individuals are struggling to succeed in their careers. Many people are trying to achieve their goals in a world that has become “inter-connected”.

The situation has resulted in dishonesty thus embracing unethical practices in the industry. The above explains shows clearly how the media industry continues to face new challenges. Media companies are required to address the challenges if they want to succeed and retain their audience’s trust (Chomsky 86).

The issue of “media ethics” seeks to promote the best standards in the industry. The bedrock for any ethical and successful company in the media is its standards of practice. Media companies should always embrace the concepts of fairness, transparency, openness, and accuracy.

The use of such concepts can play a significant role towards a successful and ethical practice. Companies should consider the best standards in order to overcome the issue of media bias (Richard 12).

The media is a classic example of the diseases that continue to eat away the world’s culture. It is evident that the media today plays a significant role towards a cultural breakdown. This continues to affect people’s local identities and cultural ideas. According to Ward (76), it has become impossible for different media companies to apply ethical standards in their affairs.

This has affected the integrity of the media houses. That being the case, there is need to revisit the issue of ethics in the industry. The approach will help different governments and corporations establish new ways to keep all media companies in check. This will eventually promote the best practices and ethics in the industry.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in the Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion While the media plays a significant role in the society, there is need to monitor and control their practices. This is the best approach to promote ethical standards, prevent bias, and discourage any dishonest media practices. The current technological changes continue to affect the integrity of these ethical standards. It would therefore be necessary to encourage the best practices in order to promote cultural development.

Works Cited Black, Jay. Doing Ethics in Media. New York: Blackwell, 2011. Print.

Chomsky, Noam. Media Control. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.

Crook, Tim. Comparative Media Law and Ethics. New York: Longman, 2009. Print.

Fawcett, Brian. Cambodia: A Book For People Who Find Television Too Slow. New York: Talonbooks, 1986. Print.

Kieran, Matthew. Media Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print.

Patterson, Philip. Media Ethics: Issues and Cases, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print.

Richard, Stephen. Ethics and the Media: An Introduction. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print.

Ward, Stephen. Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York: Blackwell, 2013. Print.


Supporting Good Practice in Managing Employee Relations Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Reasons for importance of employment status The Employment Rights Act 1996 defines status of employees legally. Some of the benefits include being aware of one’s rights, to help the government determine the revenue and its effect on status of employment, and to determine the percentages for taxes and insurance according to the employment laid by the government.

The self-employed in the UK can claim expenses against tax bills. It also affects how one pays tax to governments. In the UK for instance, a self-employed person is required to pay class 2 NICs. This is associated with benefits such as the basic state pension and maternity leaves among others.

Work life balance Work-life balance is the management of juggling acts that revolves around paid work and other personal activities. There are many advantages of life-work balance, these include reduced turnover and improved retention and recruitment, improved employee morale and engagement, and reduced stress, health costs and absenteeism among others.

Support for employee as a family member Laws require organizations to support their employees as family members. In the UK, labor laws accord workers the right to request flexible working time and time off for care of dependents. The flexible working includes job sharing, working from homes, and working part time among others.

The Working Time Regulations 1998 also require that parents and families get maternity, paternity, adoption and dependent leaves (The Working Time Regulations, 1998). As much as organizations care about making profits, they should also consider the needs of their employees.

Discrimination Organizations may discriminate against a particular race when considering promotion and salary increments. Sex discrimination may take a form of limiting promotion of women and salary increment on the basis of future pregnancy (Crosby, 2007).

It is also discriminatory to give job training to younger employees and leave out old ones. More so, assign particular responsibility to particular age and not others is also discriminatory. Furthermore, refusing to install wheelchair ramps is discriminatory to disabled employees (Crosby, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fair and Unfair dismissal Fair dismissal occurs when an employee is dismissed due to breach of employment contract. Employment contract can be fairly terminated basing on issues of improper conducts that negatively affect organizations’ reputation and redundancy or statutory obligation that the organization has to follow (Turner, 2013).

On the other hand, unfair dismissal is harsh, unjust and unreasonable termination of employee contract. When an employee is dismissed on grounds of his or her physical condition such as pregnancy or other reasons such as family issues, it is considered as an unfair dismissal (Turner, 2013).

Exit interviews Benefits to organizations

Exit information can be used to reduce costly turnover at the same increase employee productivity and engagement.

Allows retention of core competence within the organization

Improve quality of employee selection and recruitment

Builds good employee perception of the company (Hammonds


Water Quality and Treatment Report essay help site:edu

Introduction In many parts of Nova Scotia, people face a number of problems that are related to water contamination. Drinking water that is supplied to many homes has natural and synthetic substances. Impurities pose serious threats to the health of consumers.

Moreover, contaminated water has the capability of damaging construction equipments, including plumbing materials. Households would probably complain due to undesirable taste, odor, color, and stains in case water is dirty. In Nova Scotia, issues related to water contamination are caused by ineffective supply.

This is because supply of drinking water is controlled by the private sector. However, municipalities are also accused of supplying impure water. Since contaminated water could cause diseases, it is the role of the government to ensure that water supplied to people is pure and free from any impurities. In this regard, impurities that have the ability of harming the populace should be disinfected to prevent the spread of diseases.

It is recommended that before water is utilized, proper testing should be conducted by a licensed laboratory and the results made public. Testing would allow the authorities to determine the types of impurities available in drinking water. Moreover, the level of contamination would be determined (Foulkes, 2007).

Upon identification of impurities, the authorities should go a notch higher to treat drinking water using the most cost-effective methods. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main impurities in water that pose threats to the health of households. The paper would review available data to establish facts about water treatment methods and their effectiveness in Nova Scotia.

Relevance of Water Quality Issue Water is a basic need that should be provided to each citizen in any part of Nova Scotia. Research shows that an individual requires at least twenty to fifty liters of clean water daily for home use. Water pollution is detrimental to the survival of human beings because it brings about diseases. In the United Nations Charter, water is considered a basic need, which should be provided to all citizens at an affordable cost.

Clean water is essential in any economy because without it, children cannot attend school and companies cannot operate effectively. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all citizens and stakeholders to ensure that clean water is provided. Waterborne diseases are better prevented through maintaining high hygiene and treatment of water before consumption.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the public, the government, commercial bodies, construction companies, and water treatment utilities have a role to play as far as provision of clean water is concerned. They are all stakeholders that should be involved in policy formulation in case clean water is to be provided adequately.

The role of the government is critical. The government serves as the custodian of the public good. In this case, it should always come up with policies aimed at resolving issues related to water contamination. It should ensure that companies follow the laid down rules and regulations.

Whenever a company releases contaminants to water sources, it must be forced to come up with ways through which contaminated water would be treated. The role of the government is to regulate waste discharge through constant environmental monitoring and evaluation. Companies believed to be polluting water bodies should be deregistered as one way of ensuring compliance. Members of the public have a role to play in ensuring that citizens receive clean water.

In case supplied water is contaminated, they are the ones affected directly because they would suffer from waterborne diseases, such as diarrhea and cholera. Therefore, they have to ensure that wastes are disposed in accordance to the laws provided by Nova Scotia authorities (Cohen,


History of Soviet Union and America in 20th Century Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The factors that contributed to Soviet military successes after 1943 As it would be observed, there were a number of factors that contributed to the success of Soviet military after the year 1943. One of the main factors was that, Soviet Union had bulk military troops and resources than their opponents in the war, and in that case, they would emerge victorious in the conflict.

Another observable factor here was that, the Soviet Union received a lot of monetary and material support from their allies such as the U.S. and the UK. This served as a big boost, especially to the military forces, who utilized these resources strengthen their troops.

Even after reorganization, Soviet’s local industries could not produce half of what was required to move the country forward in terms of the above resources, all of which were essential to make a strong military. More importantly, the country received large quantities of basic supplies such as specialty items, ammunition, foodstuffs, trucks, and modest supplies of military materials from USA.

One of the key factors that can determine a country’s ability to lose or win a war is the comparative strength of the enemy. In this regard, another factor that would lead to the success of Soviet military after 1943 was the weakening strength of Germany military forces, who were their major rival in the war.

In order to be successful in any armed conflict, a country must be stable in a number of ways and some of the key aspects to observe here are things such as economical status and strength of the military forces of the country. In the years before 1943, the government of Germany had reasonably managed to supply all its forces with sufficient supplies in terms of military gear, arms, and equipment, among other things.

In fact, this made Germany military forces very strong those days, a factor that enabled them to defeat many of their rivals in the war. This, however, would be a short-lived glory for the Germans. In the period after 1942, Germany was unable to cater adequately for its military forces, and that would lead to their instant failure.

This came as a big advantage for the Soviet Union, whose army could access all the materials needed to win a war, due to the unfailing support of their allies. More importantly, the rapidly growing Soviet industrial base made the production of all the equipment and materials that were needed for the success of their military forces much easier.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other significant factors that contributed to the success of Soviet military forces after 1943 would include things such as their economic base, their technological competence, ability and experience of their military personnel, and the advantages of their geographic environment.

The Soviet Union had managed to establish an effective economic base since early 1920s. This initiative was aimed at increasing the production of reliable military equipment and products in the near future, as one way of strengthening the country’s military forces against external pressures.

The Soviet Union was also associated with a strong technological competence that would to a large extent help strengthen their military forces. Soviet military leaders were regularly exposed to great technical expertise on state-of-the-art war technologies, especially from abroad.

Through such exposures, Soviet Military forces acquired great expertise in sophisticated weapons, and this gave them the upper hand in the war against the Germans. In terms of soldiers’ experience and ability, Soviet military personnel possessed a lot of experience and competence compared to their rivals who lacked exposure to major wars.

Finally, the geographic environment of the Soviet Union helped them to alleviate a number of military disadvantages, thus enabling them to outdo their opponents in the war. As observed from the above situations, Germany had relaxed in many ways, particularly in the production of military equipment and products.

As a result of these failures, the Soviet Union was able to catch up with them and even surpass them in matters to do with military power and capabilities. This would place the Germans at a severely disadvantaged position in the Soviet-Germany war that took place between 1941 and 1945. In that case, Germany had no option but to retreat from the Soviet territory.

Issues surrounding America’s decision to use atomic bombs against Japan The decision for the United States of America to use atomic bombs against Japan as an attempt to bring World War II to an end would be surrounded many issues. The first bombing incident happened on August, 1945 on the city of Hiroshima, while the second one occurred two days later on Nagasaki. Less than a week after the bombings, the Japanese surrendered, bringing the war to an end.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Soviet Union and America in 20th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though the move by President Harry Truman to release atomic bombs on Japan appeared to be the only possible resolution to the most destructive warring event in the world’s history, it ended up raising endless ethical questions and concerns from allover the world.

This was a very controversial move that would see many people in the world disagree on whether this was actually the most reasonable approach that America could have used to bring the big war to an end.

Many people, especially the Americans, praised Truman’s move terming it as a bravery action that helped to bring the war to a timely ending. However, Japan and her supporters had largely condemned the move, terming it as inhumane.

Apart from deaths of thousands of people as a result of instant burns and radiation effects, the double bombings had also brought many short-term and long-term consequences to the Japanese citizens. For instance, survivors of the attacks suffered crippling mutilations, starvations, and illnesses as a result of radiation. Moreover, the incidents had left many Japanese with emotional, psychological, and spiritual damage.

As it would be observed, one of the major issues surrounding the US decision to use atomic bombs on Japan would be the argument of numerous bomb critics that the move was racially motivated.

It was believed that the Japanese had been victims of racism for many years, as it had been demonstrated through different mediums of communication, ranging from commercial advertisements to novelty works.

Most of this ridicule, however, was said to have been perpetrated by the Americans who had a dislike for the Japanese race, and who would openly refer to them using all kinds of racist terms and slurs. This extreme racism towards the Japanese is thought to have played a significant role in President Truman’s decision.

Another issue surrounding Truman’s decision was the fact that, many people across the world viewed it as a barbaric move that would bring bad image on the American leadership. For example, the issue raised many questions on whether Truman was actually prepared for the big responsibility that comes with the highest office in his country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Soviet Union and America in 20th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of using his wisdom to go about the issue, even after been advised by several religious leaders, Truman allowed himself to be influenced by some people in the government who advised him to go for the atomic bombs. In this regard, Truman would go down in the history books as the first leader in the whole world to use such a deadly weapon on another nation.

The other common issue surrounding Truman’s decision to use bombs on the Japanese was the perception of the bomb opponents that, there were better alternatives that America could have used to resolve the matter, before settling for the bomb decision.

For example, they could have organized a demonstration, perhaps through Russia, which had been in better diplomatic relations with the Japanese. This, among other reasonable approaches, would have prevented the diverse problems and consequences that occurred as a result of the bombings.

How the Marshall plan enhanced ideas set out in the Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan and the Truman doctrine were international relations policies set by George Marshall and Harry Truman, respectively. The Truman Doctrine was a foreign policy that was introduced in 1947, which was geared at extending economic and military support to Turkey and Greece as a way of stopping them from being absorbed into the Soviet sphere.

The Marshall plan, on the other hand, was an initiative of the U.S. government to extend support to Europe. The plan was unveiled in 1948 by the then Secretary of State, George Marshall, and was aimed at helping to reestablish the economies of European countries following the end of the Second World War. As it would be observed, the Marshall plan enhanced the ideas set out in the Truman Doctrine in a number of ways.

Truman doctrine was based on democracy and humanitarian principles whereby it was keenly observed that, America was ready to take peace beyond the ability of the common people who are in need of it from every corner of the world.

Through this view, the Truman policy proved to have a strategic bearing and meaning. This idea was further enhanced by the Marshall plan several months later, whose one of the major objectives was to bring countries together through trade relations and diplomatic links.

Truman had also expressed concerns that the main agenda behind the doctrine would be to recognize and assist countries that had shown resistance to attempted subjugation by powerful external forces.

Through this observation, Truman was more concerned that outside pressures or armed minorities could use their influence to coerce free people to join them, thus posing serious threats to the US national security. This idea was enhanced by the Marshall Plan through its European Recovery Program that extended support to the European nations, even the ones under Soviet Union’s military occupation.

Another key objective behind the Truman Doctrine was to set the pace for America’s foreign policy allover the world after the year 1947. This idea was also enhanced by the Marshall Plan through its large-scale rescue program that was purely based on foreign policy.

Some of the main goals of the plan would be to remove existing trade barriers between countries, rebuild countries that have been affected by wars, modernize foreign industry, and uplift the face of Europe economically.

Marshall’s comprehensive plan to help Rebuild European countries was widely accepted in the US. This would lead to direct approval of the plan by Members of Congress, who went on to approve huge amounts of funding towards the revival of Europe.

The funds kept on increasing over time, and the Committee of European Economic Cooperation was formed within a matter of four years, as a way of coordinating the European countries involved in the plan. This way, there is no doubt that the Marshall plan had actually played a key role in enhancing most of the ideas that had been set out in the Truman Doctrine.

Ways by which Khrushchev policies were a thawing of Stalinist ideas and practice Nikita Khrushchev was a Soviet leader who was recognized for a number of key events in the country’s history. Some of these events would include relatively liberal changes in the region’s domestic policy, the partial de-stabilization of the country, and the early Soviet program for space missions.

Khrushchev was a key icon in Joseph Stalin’s government, where he would serve as his assistant and close adviser for many years. Khrushchev had also served as an intermediary between the communist dictator and his generals. Khrushchev would become the next Soviet ruler following Stalin’s death in 1953. As it would be observed, Khrushchev policies seemed to be a thawing of Stalinist ideas and practice in a number of ways.

First of all, Khrushchev’s leadership policies appeared to be in contrary with Stalin’s approach of leadership. This was witnessed immediately after Stalin’s death when Khrushchev went on to denounce him in what was termed as the secret speech. Later on, Khrushchev would visit several countries in just a very short period of time, thus succeeding in doing what his predecessor had failed to do for many years.

Some of these countries included the People’s Republic of China, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and the United States. In fact, these international visits opened up the Soviet Union for global trade and economic affairs.

Khrushchev policies also brought a lot of freedom to arts, media and cultural institutions in the country. This, however, helped to promote the entertainment world through various interactive ways such as international festivals, engaging TV programmes, uncensored books, and foreign movies and films.

More freedom in the entertainment sector would come in 1956, when Khrushchev helped to facilitate the agreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, which paved way for more freedom of media relations between the two countries. Such engagements helped to liberate the minds of many people in the Soviet Union who had been victimized by Stalin’s dictatorship for many years.

Khrushchev also played a crucial role in the transformation of the industrial infrastructure of the Soviet Union, even though this had risked putting him in serious conflicts with some key people in the Soviet economy. It was also observable that, Khrushchev’s government mainly comprised of younger and well-educated personnel who had proved to be more useful in bringing positive transformations in the Soviet Union.

Khrushchev is also remembered for his role of introducing the concept of minimum wage in the Soviet Union in 1956. This was closely followed by a contemplated financial reform that helped to facilitate replacement of the old money bearing Stalin portraits. Khrushchev’s last battle against his predecessor was witnessed in 1961, when he ordered for the removal of Stalin’s remains from the Lenin’s Mausoleum.


Communication in Athletic Organizations Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

A major component of the life of an athlete is effective communication with his or her colleagues (Pedersen, Miloch, Laucella, 2007, p. 123). Communication plays a significant role in the daily life of every person since it either fuel or retard conflicts. As much as every person is endowed with the natural communication skills, some people communicate more effectively than others do.

Interpersonal communication is effected when there is transfer of information and thoughts from one person to the other in which a sender passes on an idea to the receiver. However, it is important to note that effective interpersonal communication in athletic organizations occurs only when there is mutual understanding between the parties involved.

Since misunderstanding between people is a fact of everyday life, effective interpersonal communication is important in avoiding conflicts between people in the athletic organizations, especially when the players are coming from different backgrounds like the case of the Indiana Purdue University Fort Wayne’s Men’s Tennis Team.

When an organization is composed of people of different races, ethnic backgrounds, gender, or religious affiliation, these aspects usually pervade most contemporary conversations. That is why in most athletic organizations, effective communication mainly centers on the core principles of competency and civility.

Competency in speech implies that the dialogue becomes both appropriate and effective by communicating with thoughtfulness, knowledge, and skills (West


Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda leaders ‘killed’, news analysis Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

This news story gives the press statement issued by the Iraqi Prime Minister, Nouri Maliki, and U.S. officials. The statement said that two officials of al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdad, were killed when Iraqi forces with U.S. support attacked their hideout (“Al-Qaeda in Iraq says leaders dead”; “Iraq al-Qaeda leaders killed in rocket attack”).

The subject matter in this story is that both the U.S. and Iraq saw the killings as a major breakthrough in the War on Terror. This is because the demise of the terrorists was a significant blow to the operations of al-Qaeda in Iraq and in the world.

In reporting this story, the writers of the news articles use selective data in reporting this useful information. The writers pick only information that supports the argument in the story and leaves everything else out. Since al-Qaeda is a global terrorist organization, the deaths of these two men could not have such a huge impact on the operations of the group as postulated by the writers.

The story is believable since it is based on evidence; even al-Qaeda itself acknowledged the death of the two men. In reporting this story, the writes do not ignore counter-arguments. For example, the BBC news reports, “al-Qaeda had tried to camouflage Baghdadi by presenting several people with his name” (“Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda leaders ‘killed,” para. 18). Therefore, they give evidence to support the identity of the terrorists.

Of all the information that has been presented in this story, the writers mainly emphasize on the reduction in al-Qaeda’s influence following the demise of its top leaders. The implication of this story is that we are able to see the growth of democratic principles in Iraq. Following this attack by the Iraqi government, several Iraqis criticized how the attack was handled. Some years back in Iraq, no one could be heard criticizing the Iraqi government.

In presenting the story, the writers present some statements or overtones of values and emotions. For example, an al-Qaeda official was quoted saying, “you can kill our top guy but we’re still around and we’re in control of events” (Rising, para. 26). In this instance, the writer tries to bring the feeling that War on Terror is still something that needs a collaborative effort in order to be won.

Regarding word choice, the writers chose the most appropriate language that is able to persuade the readers to come to terms with the issue at hand. Since in times of war, clarity is usually the first casualty, the writers portrayed vigilance in protecting news statement from collateral damage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When reporting controversial statements, they preferred quoting the source directly. For example, “Can al-Qaeda pull off…how do Iraqis respond?”(Rising, para. 27). The story is written objectively by paying attention to fairness, factuality, and nonpartisanship. After the two terrorists were killed, the writers quoted response statements from both the Iraqi government officials and the al-Qaeda officials.

This story was written when the Iraqi government, with the support of the U.S., was involved in efforts of reducing the threat that was posed by al-Qaeda in Iraq. Since the announcement was made by the Iraqi Prime Minister, al-Maliki, it indicated the effort its government was making in fighting the insurgents. The writers have given this story against the background of the hotly contested election results in Iraq. After this incident, he gained reputation as the one who can restore stability to the country once again.

Works Cited “Al-Qaeda in Iraq says leaders dead.” News: Middle East. Aljazeera. 25 April 2010. Web.

Galey, Patrick. “Thousands march in Beirut to promote secularism in politics.” Be seen, be on the star scene. The Daily Star. 30 April 2010. Web.

“Iraq al-Qaeda leaders killed in rocket attack.” New statesman. New Statesman. 20 April 2010. Web.


Industry and risk analysis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Discuss the future outlook and industry trends related to the new venture The new the venture is a healthy snacks business that target mostly, commuters in the transport industry and also households within the country. In Kenya through improved infrastructure transport industry has been growing steadily. This has been evident in major towns and cities such as Nairobi, Kisumu, Mombasa, Thika, Nakuru and Eldoret just to mention but a few. In addition to this, food industry has become a giant sector in this era of increased urbanization coupled with globalization.

As population growth increases and demand for food also rise, food industry has played a great role in that it has made food available all the year round even when food crops have failed. It has been able to achieve this through technological innovation in food processing and preservation which has increased the shelf life of food stuffs.

For this reason, people have been able to access foods from many outlets even in regions where certain types of foods are not grown. Food industry is increasingly becoming a very important sector in any economy simply because it has made food available in ready to eat form; some of the processed foods take lesser time to prepare as they are precooked during processing and have made some foods which are only found during certain seasons to be available during all the year round.

In relation to transport industry which is growing steadily, it is projected that the industry of new venture will also grow. There is marked by economic growth in the country and this translates that potential consumers have relatively high purchasing power.

Also, this is very important because with growing economy of the country people are able to transact as they move from one point to another. Though the country had experienced political instability three years ago, there seems to be a stable political climate with ushering in of new constitution in the country.

Snacking is very common with commuters. Commuters will tend to have snacks in bus terminals as they are about to travel while others buy food snacks to eat when on transit. This is a clear indication that provided the business will offer products that are tailored to meet consumers’ needs there is market for these products and that the future outlook of the business is bright.

Discuss the legal or concerns related to the venture idea A sole proprietorship kind of business in Kenya does not have many legal formalities. To start with there need to be a business name which should be applied at a registrar of business so that certificate of registration can be issued. The business needs to apply for trading license from city council because it will be situated at Nairobi City in the central business district.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is necessary because it will enable the government to earn revenue. In addition, business needs to conform to public health laws such as Food and Drug Act that governs business that deal in food commodities for sale to the public of Kenya.

Discuss the approach to raising capital for the venture There are number of approaches which can be used to raise capital for this new venture. In order to be able to have a breakthrough in raising business capital, a business plan should be prepared. Business plan acts as financial tool which provide adequate information to facilitate secure capital particularly in form of loan from financing institutions.

The first approach to consider when raising the capital for the business is bootstrapping. This is where one uses any resources at disposal to get business started. Basically, this is in formed of home-equity loans and personal loans. Another approach is use of family and friends. Though this approach is not formal, family members and colleagues can help to raise needed capital.

Using personal loans is another approach to raise business capital. This can be in form of re-investment into the business. A step further can be taken for more capital if it is needed. This can be through cash out credit card transfers or home equity loans. However, when using such methods to have initial capital for a start up business it can be extremely risky and therefore need to be done with a lot of care ( Berkery, 2007).

Suppliers can also be used to provide business capital. This is in form of product development which necessitates customization with such suppliers for them to be able to respond positively. By guaranteeing that business will be able to pay for their material they have provided perhaps by holding inventory they may agree to support business through raw materials for making business products.

Some large suppliers may have some funds that have been kept aside purposely for investing in rising up businesses that would facilitates expand their investment portfolios and businesses. Besides this , they help business have steady follow of supply of the products they supply because they understand new venture vertical market well and may have competitive rates for their products (Pride, Hughes


Chapter 5 college essay help

Managerial Accounting for Managers By: Eric Noreen
After reading Chapter 5 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercise/problems: Problem 5-17 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
After reading Chapter 6 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 6-2, Exercise 6-12 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)

Problems are attached


Infanticide In Ancient Greece Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Infanticide In The Ancient Greece


Works Cited

Introduction Infanticide is an infamous practice that has existed in almost all human societies since ancient time. It is the gruesome practice of killing infants that unfortunately was very common in every culture and especially in the ancient times. Today, infanticide is heavily condemned and has been made a crime in all countries.

One of the ancient societies, the history of which has been tainted by the practice of infanticide is the Greek one. This paper is going to look at infanticide in the ancient Greece as seen in Euripides’ “Medea”, “The sayings of the Spartan Women”, and Xenophon’s “Spartan Society”.

Infanticide In The Ancient Greece There is much evidence showing how parents under stressful conditions decide to end the life of their child. From the splendor of the Persian Empire to the golden age of the ancient Greece, this barbaric act went on behind the closed doors depending on many reasons: population control, poverty, and the children with defects.

In most ancient societies, children were the property of the parents, and those children who the parents deemed unfit were killed or sold into slavery. This practice was common in militaristic societies like the Spartans who demanded that the children meet a certain standard so that the state can use them in the army. Infants who did not meet the standards were killed.

In the ancient Greece, like in other societies at the time the value of human life was perceived differently as compared to today. Infanticide was not only common, it was encouraged.

The Greek philosophers actually encouraged people to kill infants born with disability, considered defective and had no place in their society. In the Greek society this was carried out by exposure. Usually, this decision was made by the father and later on in Sparta it was a group of elders who determined the fate of the child.

In the famous play ‘Medea’ by Euripides, the main character kills her sons just to get back at her husband. She uses her children as part of her revenge against her husband. This shows the views that people held on the value of children. To Medea the children were only important to serve the needs and wishes of their parents. If the parents did not need the children then they were killed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may have been the same kind of reasoning that drove parents into killing the disabled children since they could not serve their parents in any way. The play by Euripides is all about a scorned woman who decides to take revenge on all the people causing her pain but the centerpiece of the play is the murder of her sons.

This play treats infanticide as a tool to exert pain on people. Medea sees Jason’s adultery and betray as awful as her murders, this is how she justifies killing all those people .

In the Spartan society as written by Xenophon, infants endured some horrible fates. Compared to Egypt where laws had been passed to prohibit infanticide, the Greek infants were at the mercy of their parents and the state.

The Spartan society was predominantly made up of warriors, which led to children being judged by their physical abilities to become fully fledged warriors. Upon birth, the children were checked for any disabilities or deformities. Those who could not meet a certain standard were murdered because they were deemed futile.

Infants were exposed or even thrown off cliffs. Male infants who had no defects were left in the wilderness to fend for themselves. If they survived then they had proven themselves fit. In this society, children were seen as a vessel for the state.

They had to prove their usefulness to be given the same rights as other people. In Xenophon’s Spartan society, children were born and bred to serve in the states military. Those who could not, were not worth living.

From the ‘Sayings of Spartan Women’, it is clear that even women supported the infanticide. In Sparta being a militaristic society, no woman wanted to give birth to a defective child. They all wanted sons who were worthy of serving in the Spartan army.

We will write a custom Essay on Infanticide In Ancient Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was honorable to fight and die for the state and women whose sons escaped war became very angry with them. One of the women is quoted saying she killed her son who returned after the whole army had died in war. She preferred having her son killed in honor.

This attitude translated into harsh parenting. The Spartan women were very famous for their tough upbringing of boys and were sorted after by people from other communities to help them raise good soldiers .

Conclusion In the pursuit of perfection, the ancient Greece encouraged infanticide. They demanded too much from their infants who could barely defend themselves. In a society where children were the property of the parents, those who were not fit, met a very painful fate.

Even though militaristic aspiration were the main course of infanticide, parents had many other excuses to kill their children and since it was not illegal they could do it as often as they wanted without having to bear responsibility. In the end, it seems that the value placed on the infant’s life is what determined whether they would live or die.

Works Cited Euripides. Euripides I: Alcestis, Medea, The Children of Heracles, Hippolytus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Print

Gray, Vivienne J. and V. Gray. Xenophon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print

Plutarch. On Sparta. London: Penguin Books Limited, 2005. Print


What Does It Mean to Be Human? What Are the Ethical and Social Implications of This Definition? Term Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Admittedly, poets have always tried to answer very complicated questions in their works. One of the most difficult questions is, of course, what it is to be a human. Poets of the sixteenth century had their own vision.

It is possible to analyze such works as Amoretti (Sonnets 54 and 75) by Edmund Spenser, Astrophil and Stella (Sonnet 2) by Philip Sidney and “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” by Christopher Marlowe. These works contain the answer to one of the most important questions for the humanity. Notably, these answers address different aspects of people’s life.

For example, according to Marlowe, humans feel the beauty of the nature and get pleasure from observing such wonders of the nature as “valleys, groves, hills and fields, woods or creepy mountain yields” (Marlowe n.p.). Thus, being able to feel the beauty is very important.

Edmund Spenser also stresses the importance of being able to feel. However, the author also emphasizes that people should also be able to empathize. Otherwise, the poet states that these people cannot be regarded as humans but they should be seen as “senseless stones” (Spenser n.p.). Besides, Spenser states that people should be able to “immortalize” “immortal thing” (Sonnet 75 n.p.).

People have a part of immortal light in them, so they should be able to immortalize things. Thus, people should create immortal masterpieces of art. For Edmund Spenser, to be a human also meant to be free. The poet states that humans should not “suffer tyranny” (Spenser n.p.). He notes that it is very important for a human to be free and be brave enough to enjoy this freedom.

Thus, the three poets reveal three aspects of humanness. They provide a complete answer to the questions. According to their visions, to be a human is to understand the beauty of nature, to be empathetic and be brave enough to be free. Admittedly, there are a number of social and ethical implications of this definition. It is necessary to examine the ways these values are shared in the world.

Works Cited Marlowe, Christopher. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love. 2013. Web.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sidney, Philip. Astrophil and Stella. 2003. Web.

Spenser, Edmund. Sonnet 54. 2007. Web.

—. Sonnet 75. n.d. Web.


Political model and Garbage can model Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Political model and Garbage can model of decision making


List of References

Introduction The decision making activity in modern organizations is becoming more complex. Managers are faced with difficult challenges as they attempt to understand, and navigate through the selection of the best alternatives.

However, choices have to be made and therefore, managers have to understand the decision-making content, and the context in which the decisions are made. This essay compares and contrasts the Political and Garbage can models, as well as providing examples in each case.

Political model and Garbage can model of decision making The Political model depicts the organization as a political arena where decision making is a contestable process. It assumes that goals and objectives are the major determinants of the process (Daft, 2010). This model is based on objectives because participants in the decision-making process are driven by their conflicting objectives and goals.

Furthermore, participants are inter-dependent and uncertain about the connection between their actions and the result of the process in which they are involved (Daft, 2010).

They use bargaining tactics, coalition techniques, and incremental strategies to decide issues that they perceive to be significant to them, and their personal preferences. In this model, negotiations and compromises are common during the decision making process so as to arrive at a resolution (Daft, 2010).

The Garbage can model provides a pathological picture of how the decision making process is done within a complex organization. It assumes that goals within the organization are well-defined, and emerge at any point in time, before or during the decision-making process (Lomi


The Ethicality of an Action Jay Gatsby Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Ethics is a field of study that defines human actions and behaviors. Scholars have presented different ethical theories to explain when an action should be accepted or condoned. In our modern society, actions are ethical or unethical, depending on their implications. While that is the case, very little research has been done to explore the ethicality of actions performed by characters in works of fiction such as films, novels, and television shows. In the book “The Great Gatsby,” Jay Gatsby decides to take Daisy Buchanan’s blame.

This happens after Daisy kills Myrtle Wilson, her husband’s mistress. This was one of Jay’s efforts to win Daisy’s love. Jay and Daisy were lovers before he became wealthy. This paper describes Jay Gatsby’s action and applies the utilitarian theory to establish whether Jay’s action was ethical or not.

Jay Gatsby’s Action As presented in the novel, Jay Gatsby was trying to win Daisy back because he firmly believed she was the love of his life. It was five years after Jay had lost the love of his life. At the same time, Daisy was jealous because her husband was engaged in an extramarital affair.

As a result, Daisy decided to kill Tom’s mistress in an accident. The accident took place in the presence of Jay Gatsby. Because of love and desire to reunite with his lover, Jay found himself in a dilemma. It was because of the difficulty that he decided to do anything to retain his lover.

As described in the novel, it is evident that Daisy would be in trouble after Tom realized that she had killed Myrtle. As well, it appeared that Gatsby was not sure of the possible outcome after the accident. With such kind of uncertainty and dilemma, Jay decided to take the blame on behalf of her lover.

In response to the dilemma, Jay Gatsby was the prime suspect, something that led to his death. Myrtle’s husband killed Jay and eventually shot himself.

Although the author of the novel did not clearly explain why Jay Gatsby acted in this manner, it would be agreeable that the character was trying to save his lover. He was on the path towards achieving his dreams.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At that moment, Jay Gatsby was sure of a reunion with his lover, and nothing was going to take her away from him. His financial position and wealth gave Jay the courage to take the blame. He was optimistic that he would deal with the issue later. However, Jay’s attempt to reunite with Daisy is what led to his death.

Assessing the Action Using Mill’s Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill is one of the ethical theorists who presented the theory of utilitarianism. According to Mill, utilitarianism is what governs human behaviors, actions, and ideas. Utilitarianism supports “actions that will result in happiness.”

As well, an action is “wrong” if it results in the opposite of happiness to the people. Mill’s utilitarian theory can be used to assess the ethically of Jay Gatsby’s action, as presented in the discussion above. This theory is applicable here because it helps ascertain whether the action undertaken by Gatsby is ethical or not.

There are various steps involved in applying the theory to a situation or action. As described by Mill, the basic idea behind the theory is the “happiness principle.” That being the case, an action is “right,” only it results in happiness. Alternatively, actions are wrong if they do not promote human happiness.

The theory defines “happiness as the absence of suffering or pain”. On the other hand, the theory defines unhappiness as “the presence of suffering.” With such considerations, it can be easier to establish whether an action is permissible or not. The use of the above steps helps individuals differentiate between a good and a bad action. An action is “good” if it results in happiness.

It can be easier to use Mill’s utilitarian theory to assess Jay Gatsby’s action and conclude whether it is unethical or ethical. From the book by Scott Fitzgerald, it is notable that Jay Gatsby decided to take Daisy as his own despite the fact that she was already in marriage. According to utilitarianism, Jay’s action does not result in happiness. Daisy’s husband and other people in society become bitter after the event.

As well, Gatsby decides to take the blame for Myrtle’s death. According to the utility theory, an action is good only if it promotes happiness. However, Gatsby’s decision to do so does not produce any happiness at the very end. Instead, George Wilson kills Gatsby after guessing that he was the one having an extramarital affair with his wife. After killing Gatsby, George shoots himself, thus “causing pain.”

We will write a custom Assessment on The Ethicality of an Action Jay Gatsby specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this novel, it is evident that such deaths would not have occurred if Gatsby did not try to reunite with Daisy or take the blame for Myrtle’s death. From the above discussion and application of Mill’s utilitarian theory, it is agreeable that Jay Gatsby’s action, as presented in the novel, is unethical.


The Economic Analysis: Outsourced (2006) Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

1. The international economic theory based on the idea of comparative advantage related to the economic globalization and dependent on using the Business Process Outsourcing is reflected in the movie Outsourced (2006) directed by John Jeffcoat.

2. The factor which moves from the source country to the host one is the labor or human resources.

3. It is possible to identify the winners in losers in the movie Outsourced with references to the economic benefits received by different groups of people involved in the business. Thus, the winners are the leaders and employees of the company located in the host country because they can declare the rules for the business’s development and decide what countries to choose for outsourcing.

Furthermore, their income increases depending on the work of the employees in the source country. The losers in the movie are the Indian human resources because their gains depend on the decisions of the company’s leaders, and these employees are fired when the company’s leaders decide to choose China for outsourcing.

Referring to the welfare analysis models, it is important to note that only the leaders of the company in the United States can benefit from the income distribution because they receive the low-cost services of the appropriate quality to attract more consumers and increase their profits.

They are also the winners according to the factor of the efficiency between production and consumption because the Indian market provides opportunities not only for gaining human resources but also for gaining more potential customers.

Importing the cheap labor, the United States’ company focuses on creating the significant comparative advantage while selling services for higher prices. The idea to reward employees with the company’s products contributes to the potential expansion of the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the welfare analysis model, the Indian employees are the losers because they experience all the negative results of the unequal income distribution and inappropriate efficiency between production and consumption.

4. The host country orients to outsourcing because the company can minimize the costs spent for rewarding employees, and it can expand the market.

5. The opportunities faced by the company in the host country are the achievement of the stable position within the market with references to the customers’ needs and expectations. The threats are in high costs spent for human resources, material resources, and services, in the intensive competitiveness within the industry, and in the necessity decrease the product and service prices.

6. It is possible to predict the decrease in the host country’s interest in the source country because of the focus on finding new markets, and the economic decline connected with the high unemployment rate can be observed.

7. The positive consequences of the global business trade are in (1) building the expanded global market with a lot of opportunities for employing people in different countries; and in (2) intensifying the strong economic connections between the developed and developing countries to improve the state of the low-income populations and undeveloped economies.

The negative consequences of the global business trade are in (1) the possible exploitation of the human resources from the source countries; and in (2) the possible host countries’ domination within the source countries’ markets.

8. To minimize outsourcing, a source country can state the wage standards for employees and a list of conditions which should be realized in the source country.

We will write a custom Essay on The Economic Analysis: Outsourced (2006) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga Arguments on the Problem of Evil Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction The problem of evil has been defined by different scholars. Polkinghorne (14) defines it as the process of reconciliation between evil and good. The problem of evil, therefore, tries to show that there is no logical way in which good and evil can exist in the way they are presented in religion.

This paper will discuss the problem of evil, state the main claims that have been argued by John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga, and show some of the arguments that other scholars have raised with regard to the problem of evil.

As mentioned in the introduction, the problem of evil questions the likelihood of a co-existence between evil and good that is normally present in religion. According to Oppy (27), religion argues that good involves what God wants and asks of humans.

Evil, on the other hand, involves what God does not want. However, Oppy presents an interesting argument that what religion terms as good or evil can be viewed as one element. Oppy (27) argues that the good aspect of religion involves the omnipotent and omniscient God. However, these adjectives can also be used to describe something evil.

Rowe (65) has, however, rejected the problem of evil by stating that there is a thin line between good and evil as expressed in religion. For example, many proposers of the problem of evil argue that the act of God placing judgment on humans can be viewed as both good and evil, thus there is no solid way of knowing what the specific act is.

However, Rowe (67) observes that the act is good because it is a judgment that will ‘supposedly’ be fair and just. This qualifies the act of God reigning judgment on humans as a good act. Rowe (67) further explains that evil can be seen in the free will that is actually bestowed on humans.

He argues that the act of God giving humans free will, as explained in the Christian Bible, is a good act. However, the choices that the humans make for themselves based on the free will that they have can be evil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem of evil has been divided into two main components. Different scholars have argued their cases using these two components. The first component is the logical problem of evil. The scholars who identify with this component argue that if an all powerful and ever present God exists, then evil does not exist.

The scholars, however, also agree that there is evil in the world, thus such a powerful and ever present God does not exist. One scholar who has tried to derail this component is Alvin Plantinga. Plantinga argues that the ever present and all powerful God exists, and so does evil. He argues that the presence of free will is what causes evil and not the existence of God.

This, however, has been criticized by several scholars who have argued that if the God involved is all knowing and powerful, then he knows when evil will occur and how to stop it. If he does not stop it, then it means that he does not want to stop it. Based on this argument, it is very difficult to explain the difference between good and evil (Beebe 57).

The second component is the evidential problem of evil. This is a component that is supported by scholars who aim at showing the existence of evil. There is only slight difference between the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil. Trakakis (82), who supports the latter theory, argues that there is no possible way of the co-existence of a bad spirit that causes evil together with a good spirit that does good deeds.

According to the proponents of this argument, if there was an omnipresent and omniscient God, then he would have been able to remove evil and any agents that cause it. The fact that evil exists, therefore, shows that the presence of such a god is questionable (Trakakis 94).

Many other scholars have tried to base their arguments on the problem of evil using religion and everyday happenings (Inwagen 67). Two of the most common scholars who have also tried to explain the problem of evil include John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga. The works of these two scholars are further discussed in this paper.

John Mackie’s argument on the problem of evil John Mackie was best known for his arguments about right and wrong as presented in both Philosophy and Religion. Mackie tried to describe the different possibilities that would have occurred if good and evil existed in the same realm. Being an atheist, therefore, Mackie’s argument revolves around reducing the relevance of God and religion.

We will write a custom Essay on John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga Arguments on the Problem of Evil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He argues that there is no God and this can be proven by the fact that there is a lot of evil in the world. According to (Inwagen 67), evil in this sense means the suffering that many human beings go through and not necessarily the bad actions one human being does to another.

Mackie also argues that many people have believed in the existence of the omnipresent God because it is not only catchy, but people also want to believe in something with more power than normal human beings. Mackie argues that the objective values that are supported by religion are not only false, but they are also not realistic.

Inwagen (69) supports Mackie’s statement and argues that it is extremely difficult to note where the consequences of doing evil come from. He also states that some of the consequences can make the involved individual become worse than they were.

For example, in the case of a man who is convicted of theft, there are many loopholes on the relevant punishment with regard to the problem of evil. Many people would commit this man to prison. If he were stealing to feed his children, then his children would go hungry and neither the court that sent the man to prison, nor the person whose property was stolen would be concerned about the welfare of the man’s children.

Mackie disregarded the argument of free will that many other scholars had used to explain the existence of both good and evil in the same realm. Apart from claiming that the idea of free will is of no value to the problem of evil, he also added the fact that it does not explain why a powerful god would let people suffer.

Mackie was of the idea that a perfect God would also create a perfect human being, thus there would be no evil. However, societal problems prove that there are some human beings who are purely evil. Therefore, if god is perfect, then why would he create such imperfect human beings? If God is perfect and creates perfect creatures, then who or what created these imperfect human beings (Inwagen 69)?

Like many other scholars, Mackie also argues that the choice of free will would have been applicable only if human beings would choose to do the right thing all the time (Inwagen 53). However, what is considered evil in one society might not be evil in another. In today’s world, the punishments of evil are also very different.

For example, stealing in Saudi Arabia is punishable through the chopping off one finger or hand. Stealing in other countries is mainly punishable through fines.

Not sure if you can write a paper on John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga Arguments on the Problem of Evil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Phillips (52) also argues that if God would allow evil to reside on earth, then God himself has aspects of evil. He further explains that God would only let evil and other bad things happen to human beings if he himself was bad. This reduces the relevance of God as portrayed by religion.

In as much as John Mackie had many followers, he also had various critics. Alvin Plantinga was one of the scholars who criticized Mackie’s theory of the logical problem of evil.

Alvin Plantinga and the problem of evil As mentioned, Plantinga was against the logical explanation of the problem of evil. He argued that free will should have an impact on the discussion of the problem of evil. He adamantly rejected the works of Mackie through his free will defence. According to this defence, Plantinga tries to explain the existence of an omnipresent and omniscient God, while also explaining why evil is necessary.

Plantinga’s main argument is that the fact that God gave human beings free will means that humans have the right to choose good or evil. If human beings did not have free will, then they would always have done good deeds (Plantinga 464).

Rowe (65) backs Plantinga’s argument by stating that the Christian Bible shows the difference between having free will and not having any will whatsoever. He argues that according to the Bible, the first human beings did not have free will, thus they always chose good deeds (Plantinga 466).

However, they had the chance to make their own decisions after getting the free will. It is these decisions that allowed evil into the world. From this explanation, one denotes that evil comes from decisions and choices and not necessarily from a bad spirit.

Plantinga also defended his argument by stating that it could be true that God allows evil things in order to test moral goodness. This means that God has the power to make the evil go away, but he does not do that so that he can test the righteous and the evil people.

Many critics of Plantinga have argued that his free will defence has only paid attention to moral evil, instead of talking about natural evil too. Moral evil can be defined as the evil that is done by someone because of their beliefs. The case of a doctor who decides to stop the treatment of a patient due to lack of money to pay the doctor’s fee is an example of moral evil. Natural evil, however, is that which has no cause or reason.

For example, diseases and death are considered natural evils. There are some people who are also considered naturally evil. According to region, many of these people are not righteous. Plantinga’s theory, therefore, does not give an explanation of the latter kind of evil (Trakakis 93).

Discussion on Plantinga’s response to the logical problem of evil Even though the Plantinga’s response to the logical problem of evil has been accepted by many scholars, it also has several loopholes. One such loophole is the fact that Plantinga agrees with the possibility that God might allow evil to be present in the society as a way of knowing the righteous and the evil.

However, according to Hasker (91), this means that the choices that are provided to man always involve some evil. If this is the case, then God also has some aspects of evil, thereby ruling out the opinion that God is good.

In the same breath, the argument does not fully solve the problem of evil theory because it does not discuss the relevance of natural evil. Religion has, over the years, explained that there is one single nonhuman spirit that causes natural evil. This theory does not discuss this aspect of evil, yet it has solely based its argument on religion (Hasker 91).

Conclusion Although there many scholars who have tried to solve the problem of evil, none of them has provided solid solutions. John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga are two scholars who differed in the best way of solving ‘the problem of evil’ concept.

Plantinga refuted all the work that Mackie had presented with regard to the problem of evil. He argued that free will was relevant in determining the solution to this problem. According to Mackie, however, free will was irrelevant.

Works Cited Beebe, James. (July 12, 2005). “Logical Problem of Evil”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009): 57 – 82. Print

Hasker, William. The Triumph Of God Over Evil: Theodicy for a World of Suffering. Nottingham, UK: Intervarsity Press, 2008. Print

Inwagen, Peter. The Problem of Evil. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print

Inwagen, Peter. Christian Faith And The Problem Of Evil. Oak Industrial Drive, NE: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004. Print

Oppy, Graham. Arguing about Gods. Leiden: Cambridge University Press. 2006. Print

Polkinghorne, John. Belief in God in An Age Of Science. New Haven, CT: Yale Nota Bene, 2003. Print

Phillips, Dewi Zephaniah. The Problem Of Evil And The Problem Of God. England: SCM Press, 2004. Print

Plantinga, Alvin. Warranted Christian Belief. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print

Rowe, William L. God and the Problem of Evil. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2001. Print

Trakakis, Nick. “Evidential Problem of Evil”. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006): 82 – 94. Print


Relativism Definition in Philosophy Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Relativism refers to a school of thought that asserts the relative nature of truth and other realities that characterize human existence in society. According to this sociological viewpoint, truth is usually variable depending on context and recurrent parametrical threshold (Binkley 12).

Relativists view truth as being subject to individual perceptions and prevailing circumstances that define human considerations with regard to various instances of discourse in social contexts. Moral relativism revolves around various benchmarks that define and regulate moral action during human engagement (Binkley 12).

In most cases, individuals propagate truth in a manner that favours their position on germane social undertakings. It is evident that ethical and moral action suffices in limited measure depending on what people have to lose or gain in different situations.

Relativism continues to experience controversy and contention due to its core ideals that seek to defend the relative and volatile nature of truth and ethical conduct in social contexts (Binkley 13). There has been debate on essence of the concept of truth relativism. This concept seeks to entrench the inability to define truth as being absolute and rigid.

For instance, truth that suffices in one context may not apply in a different or relatively similar context. Under this premise, truth depends on particular terms of reference and prevailing conditions that define such situations (Binkley 16). In fact, truth usually depends on particular parametrical thresholds such as cultural inclination and lingual orientation.

Cultural relativism seeks to highlight facts and realities that constitute truth in contexts of human interaction and engagement within cultural entities (Binkley 18). This research undertaking seeks to defend the proposition that truth is relative. It shall also analyze numerous points of view that investigate and assert the reality of this submission.

This shall include development of clear thoughts and deliberations with regard to manifestations of truth in individual and collective endeavours. The aforementioned objectives shall materialize through incorporation and utilization of ideas from credible and authoritative academic publications.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion Numerous definitions and implications suffice with regard to the concept of relativism. Scholars and modern philosophers have divergent views that seek to shed light on relativism as a critical facet of philosophical and sociological agency in contemporary society.

Through such efforts, they strive to establish a clear line of engagement that heralds scholarly engagements and counter engagements that overly embody relativism and its constituent realities (Thomas 32). Relativism entails scholarly positions that seek to assert proper understanding of truth and other cultural dynamics that determine perception and reception of truth and ethical conduct in society.

At the onset of 21st century, there were monumental scholarly adjustments that marked a shift regarding general view and understanding of relativist schools of thought (Thomas 32). This emanated from collective desire to decipher and demystify various factors and realities that give rise to deeper understanding of truth and ethics in social contexts.

Most people view truth as subjective and largely dependent on individual personality traits and attributes. This gave rise to various strains of relativism such as contemporary relativism and traditional relativism (Thomas 33). Both explanations hold contrarian views regarding the essence and rationale of truth and morality in society.

This research exercise primarily focuses on contemporary relativism and its relevance to human interaction and engagement in social contexts. However, it is important to establish a historical background with regard to traditional relativism and its evolution to modern views that manifest among scholars and enthusiasts of philosophical discourse (Thomas 36).

Philosophers such as Socrates and Thomas Kuhn conducted extensive discourse surrounding relativist realities in context of society and human engagements. They defended relativism by arguing that it holds relevance in all social and cultural undertakings. Gilbert Harman argues against those who dismiss relativism as irrelevant and inaccurate (Thomas 37).

He asserts that relativism reflects realities that embody and characterize human action in society. According to him, it is impossible for individuals to alienate relativism because it constitutes basic truth and factual representation of society. Gilbert argues that most things make sense in relation to prevailing circumstances and individual aspirations that characterize human thoughts and actions (Thomas 39).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Relativism Definition in Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He further argues that concepts of ethics and morality only suffice as components of immediate realities in a situation. Prior to this monumental shift, there was liberal application and usage of relativist ideologies without much thought on the overall reaction of contemporaries within philosophical discourse.

After the events of 20th century, relativism acquired new meaning and status with regard to application and relevance in society. This reality necessitated further research and scholarly undertakings that sought to give direction regarding relativism (Thomas 43).

Contemporary scholars insist on the need for clear distinction between various arguments that arise from scholarly exploits by researchers and enthusiasts. According to them, people should look beyond superficial definitions that seek to explain relativism and its relevance in society (Kendall 19).

They should search further understanding regarding the concept of relativism because it embodies other factual aspects. Historical evidence shows a correlation between truth and relativist ideologies. In most cases, the essence of truth manifests in personal attributes and values that define human action. Experts argue that truth is relative and usually manifests in such fashion and orientation.

However, this reality gives rise to the view that truth must be relative to something (Kendall 21). This gives rise to divergent relativist views that precipitate contrarian views with regard to definition and propagation of relativism. Different variations and dichotomies arise from interpretations relayed by scholars and theorists.

Although such views are mostly similar in orientation, they adopt different approaches that generate ideas regarding relativism and its relevance in social contexts (Kendall 25). Most scholars converge in their explanations and assertions that truth exhibits considerable levels of relativist approach to meaning and interpretation.

In light of such views, it is vital for researchers and scholars to underline their thought in a manner that supports further probe into the relative nature of truth. In their submission, they argue that relative truth manifests in propositional sense as opposed to its general presentation and inclination.

Devoid of such understanding and accurate view of truth, it is difficult for anyone to devise or formulate a rational approach to the relative nature of truth and moral conduct in society (Kendall 29). Proponents hold contrarian views regarding the propositional nature of relativity with regard to truth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Relativism Definition in Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some argue that propositional truth mostly depends on individual values and attributes that control subjective realities of interaction and engagement. This school of thought asserts that personality traits and attributes are central to development and propagation of truth depending on context and prevailing circumstances (Kendall 33).

Another counter argument argues that relativity arises from ability and willingness to establish favourable actions that assist in creation of assessments and evaluative procedures. Such assessment plays an integral role in actualization of ideals that enable realization of the objective nature of truth.

Although most scholars attest to existence of relative orientation to truth, they hold different views regarding factors that trigger and facilitate such relativism. For instance, some scholars view semantics as a viable trigger for relativism while others consider individual attitudes as key to development and propagation of relativist ideologies (Kendall 44).

Several philosophical scholars derive inspiration from arguments that support semantics as the sole source of relativist inclinations. The semantic view articulates the essence of truth as bearing various facets that characterize its interpretation and propagation in relation to application in social and philosophical discourse. They emphasize on content as a determinant of truth and variables that embody such scenarios (Daft 65).

This variable emanates from prevailing circumstances and factors that determine individual action and reaction in different situations. In this case, evaluation is an important factor because it enables progressive articulation and establishment of relative truth. Another area of concern for truth is the characters of those involved in particular discourse.

In the case of character as a determinant of truth, there is need to understand and appreciates its role as a parameter with regard to consideration of truth and rationality in social settings (Daft 65). This consideration accounts for contextual realities that form basis for arguments and counter arguments that govern discovery of truth and other areas that complement its relative nature.

In most cases, the value of truth anchors on verifiable manifestations that relate to content of specific discourse. Content suffices in relation to contextual engagements among in social deliberations. In evaluation of nature and quality of truth, circumstances play an important role because they guide and prompt human action.

This means that what is true in a particular context can manifest as less true in another depending on circumstances and prevailing conditions (Daft 68). Therefore, it is unusual for people to generalize truth regardless of contextual manifestations that surround such truth.

Various parameters of truth give credence to realization of structures that determine the essence and rationale of definitions and considerations with regard to social engagements (Daft 71). This gives room for determination of various factors that underline truth regarding issues that take place in society.

It is difficult to comprehend an absolute nature of truth because such situations negate reason and willingness to investigate and appreciate the dynamic and generative nature of truth. Whenever experts discuss truth in scholarly contexts, they maximize benefits that arise in relation to such endeavours and discourse (Gard 22).

Human beings strive to develop systems that enable them to articulate and establish favourable avenues for realization of core ideals and aspirations with regard to the relative nature of truth. This makes it possible for scholars to understand and create favourable discourse for exploits that embody determination of truth and other related ideological facts (Gard 23).

Different social contexts assign different meanings and approaches that define the overall nature of truth. Issues manifest differently depending on prevailing circumstances that define and govern human action with regard to such contexts. Relativity of truth creates impetus for probity and general acuity in pursuit of germane aspects that characterize its propagation and realization in social contexts (Gard 24).

Different societies ascribe meaning to truth depending on how they approach and articulate various situations of engagement and discourse. Such variations give credibility to the reality that asserts the relative nature of truth with regard to how people perceive and relate to interaction and discourse in social contexts.

It is possible for society to assign different meanings to similar issues because it all depends on context and prevailing circumstances (Gard 27). This reality is indicative of the relative nature of truth because it highlights core issues that determine creation and propagation of truth. On the other hand, individuals have ability to manipulate truth in order to align it to their personal needs and considerations.

In such scenarios, people apply subjective values in order to guarantee and justify personal beliefs and standards that favour their stand (Gard 29). In cases where people present similar sentiments on an issue, there is high likelihood for consensus and unison regarding truth and its essence in society. Such reality changes when people develop differences regarding prevailing issues and realities.

Such conflict of interest presents opportunity for development of ideological thresholds that govern determination of truth as a relative entity (Edel 43).

This makes it possible for individuals to investigate and understand situations before deriving conclusions with regard to existence of truth in its relative sense. In other cases, there could be situations that bear similar content but one is truthful while the other suffices as false (Edel 47).

Conclusion Propositions that seek to assert the relative nature of truth are usually inclined towards development of structural frameworks that offer guidelines on this reality. There has been debate on essence of the concept of truth relativism. This concept seeks to entrench the inability to define truth as being absolute and rigid (Edel 48). For instance, truth that suffices in one context may not apply in a different or relatively similar context.

Under this premise, truth depends on particular terms of reference and prevailing conditions that define such situations. In fact, truth usually depends on particular parametrical thresholds such as cultural inclination and lingual orientation (Edel 54). Indeed, it is evident that truth is relative to situations and circumstances that define social engagements.

Works Cited Binkley, Luther. Contemporary Ethical Theories. London: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Daft, Leone. The Philosophical Experience in Society. London: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Edel, Abraham. Methods in Ethical Theory. Newyork: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.

Gard, Michael. Theories and Modern Approaches. London: Taylor


The Sense of ‘Specialness’ is an Illusion Essay essay help online

Nowadays, it became a commonplace practice among sociologists to discuss the essence of the surrounding social reality, within the conceptual framework of the theory of Social-Constructivism, which denies the objectively predetermined nature of people’s tendency to act in one way or another, while remaining as the society’s integral elements.

Nevertheless, the close analysis of the theory in question leaves only a few doubts that it cannot be considered discursively valid. The reason for this is apparent – this theory’s main premise is inconsistent with the fact that, being essentially material (because they consist of physically – embodied individuals), human societies are subjected to the most fundamental laws of nature.

What it means is that the ‘socially constructed’ reality, inside of one’s mind, simply reflects the concerned person’s place on the evolutionary ladder – pure and simple. This also implies that there can be no good reason for people to consider themselves ‘special’, except for the fact that it increases the extent of their existential competitiveness, within the context of how they go about securing the concerned environmental niche.

As it was implied in the Introduction, one of the main fallacies, on the part of those sociologists that tend to deploy a phenomenological approach towards assessing the qualitative essence of the observable dynamics, within a particular society, is that they firmly believe that there are no dialectical links between the manner, in which people address life-challenges, on the one hand, and what accounts for the particulars of these people’s biological uniqueness (quality), on the other.

Partially, this explains the concerned sociologists’ clearly defined mistrust, in regards to the empirically obtained sociological data, represented in the form of statistics. As Berger noted: “Statistics can be very useful in answering certain sociological questions. But statistics do not constitute sociology” (7). This point of view, however, cannot be considered as such that represents an undisputed truth-value.

In order for us to be able to substantiate the validity of the earlier articulated disagreement with Berger’s idea, in this respect, we will have to make reference to the Durkheim’s sociological paradigm, which stresses out the sheer objectivity of how people happen to position themselves within the society.

This paradigm’s main theoretical premises are:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Society is the integral part of the surrounding objective reality. As such, it functions in accordance with the basic societal laws, which are in turn are consistent with the laws of nature.

Society is in the position to regulate the functioning of its systemic components.

The collectively observable specifics of how people interrelate with each other within the society, are the legitimate subjects of a sociological inquiry.

These specifics Durkheim used to define as ‘social facts’, while pointing out that: “We are the victims of an illusion which leads us to believe we have ourselves produced what has been imposed upon us externally (social facts)” (21).

What it means is that, contrary to the Constructivism’s provisions, there can be very little rationale in assuming that, due to people’s tendency to ‘habituate’ the emanations of the social reality around them, every particular individual is in essence an ‘existential sovereign’, capable of ‘bending’ the objective laws of nature – at least, within the context of forming its worldviews.

In this respect, we can only agree with Mills, who never ceased pointing out to the fact that the qualitative subtleties of people’s existential uniqueness cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the affiliated social/historical circumstances, which in turn reflect the unconsciously chosen survival- strategy, on the part of these people.

According to him: “Perhaps the most fruitful distinction with which the sociological imagination works is between ‘the personal troubles of milieu’ and ‘the public issues of social structure’.” (4). After all, as it is being well known to sociologists and psychologists, people do tend to perceive the discursive significance of a particular social phenomenon, in terms of how it may affect their personal agenda in life.

This agenda, however, cannot be referred to as something rather unrelated to what happened to be the currently predominant socio-cultural/political discourse, within the society. In its turn, this implies that people’s endowment with the sense of a self-uniqueness is rather instrumental – while believing that he is indeed being different than the rest, one ends up tempted to adopt the notion of ‘purposefulness’, as its life’s actual ‘fuel’.

Consequently, it increases the extent of the concerned individual’s evolutionary fitness, as the representative of the Homo Sapiens species – the stronger one believes that there is a ‘higher purpose’ to his life, the easier it will be for him to address different hardships, while trying to ensure the propagation of his genes.

Yet, by assuming that they are ‘special’, people do not help bringing about the factual state of affairs, in this respect. This reveals the actual significance of the Class Rule 3 (Where you sit determines what you see). The suggestion points out to the fact that:

We will write a custom Essay on The Sense of ‘Specialness’ is an Illusion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The specifics of people’s spatial localization, do not affect the fundamental manner (seeing) in which they perceive the objective reality, and the ‘biological’ essence of what happened to be the foremost agenda in their lives.

Regardless of how strongly ‘unique’ one believes to be, as an individual, his main objective in life remains the same with what happened to be the existential objective of the rest of equally ‘unique’ people – attaining of a social prominence (dominance), propagating genes (sex) and securing the access to the environmental niche’s resources (food).

The only reason why people differ, in respect of their existential attitudes, is that while striving to achieve the earlier mentioned objective, they have no choice but to adjust their perception of the surrounding reality to be consistent with the discursively defined conventions of a ‘behavioral appropriateness’.

This once again suggests that, contrary to the provisions of Constructivism, the flow of time does not change the fact that people are nothing but hairless primates.

Some of them are able to operate with highly abstract discursive categories (reflected by the high rate of these people’s IQ) and some are not – yet, it is specifically the prospect of ensuring their survival/dominance, which concerns people the most, regardless of what they happened to be, in the evolutionary sense of this word.

This provides us with the insight into the main premise of Sociological Realism – no matter what happened to be the particulars of their ethnocultural affiliation, all people are similar, in respect of being ‘programmed’ to seek survival/domination. However, the strategies that they deploy, during the course of the process, reflect the measure of the concerned individuals’ existential complexity.

Whereas, some people strive to maintain their evolutionary fitness by the mean of contributing to the pace of the ongoing technological/cultural progress (quality), the others pursue the same agenda by the mean of making babies on an industrial scale.

In the eyes of evolution, neither of the mentioned strategies can be deemed ‘superior’ – all that matters, is that the chosen strategy ensures the eventual survival/dominance, on the part of its affiliates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Sense of ‘Specialness’ is an Illusion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above-suggestion provides us with the argumentative framework, within which we can discuss the relevancy of the YouTube videos Fault Lines: Baltimore: Anatomy of an American City (Al Jazeera English) and Dinesh D’Souza Says Racism is not the Cause of Black Failure (AllanGregg), as such that expose the fallaciousness of the Constructivist assumption that:

Poverty is the cause of Black people’s taste for violence,

The legacy of White racism explains the continuation of societal failures, on the part of African-Americans.

For example, the foremost idea that it is being subtly promoted throughout the first mentioned video, is that the outbreaks of gang-related violence that take place on the streets of American large cities, often appear unmotivated.

Whereas, Constructivist (politically correct) sociologists refer to this in phenomenological terms, the ones affiliated with the Positivist and Realist schools of sociology point out to the ‘phenomenon’ in question, as thoroughly explainable – it is nothing but the indication that the Western civilization continues to degrade rather rapidly.

The Positivist/Realist rationale behind this suggestion is as follows: Human societies can be categorized as archaic (simple/primitive), on the one hand, and industrial (complex), on the other. In the archaic society, people’s individual identities are ‘dissolved’ within what happened to be this society’s ‘collective archetype’.

This explains why in primitive societies, people tend to lead highly ritualized lifestyles, while striving to objectify themselves within the surrounding environment – hence, their endowment with the essentially tribal (mechanic) sense of solidarity, extrapolated by the concerned people’s tendency to indulge in violence.

The existential mode of people in the industrial society, on the other hand, is characterized by their endowed with what Durkheim used to refer to as the ‘organic ‘sense of solidarity. That is, in this type of societies, individuals tend to assess the measure of their relatedness with others, along the lines of what happened to be the particulars of their social/professional affiliation.

Therefore, the actual reason why the streets in many American megapolises have been turned into nothing short of a battleground, is the same with what used to be the reason behind the ancient Romans’ inability to prevent Rome from being sacked by the barbarians in the 5th century AD.

Formerly, this reason had to do with the attitudinal decadence, on the part of ancient Romans, and is now being concerned with the process of contemporary Americans growing increasingly decadent, as well – hence, prompting the latter to adopt a passive stance, while seeing their countries being ‘colonized’ by the modern-day barbarians.

This, of course, implies that there is nothing ‘phenomenological’ about how human societies react to the external stimuli – even in cases when the reaction in question appears rather extraordinary. What it means that is namely the external social circumstances (or ‘social facts’) that define who we are, while simultaneously exposing the nature of our genetically predetermined behavioral inclinations.

That is, in full accordance with the initially stated thesis, people’s sense of ‘specialness’ (as such that is being consciously constructed) does not reflect the actual state of affairs with what they happened to be in the reality.

What has been said earlier fully correlates with D’Souza’s idea (as seen in the second YouTube video) that the legacy of racism in America does not explain the socio-cultural and economic backwardness, on the part of African-Americans.

After all, the fact that until recently, Black people in America used to suffer from having been subjected to the racial discrimination, can be well discussed as such that used to reflect these people’s former inability to impose their existential values upon everybody else – unlike what it used to be the case with the Whites.

The reason for this is quite apparent – due to having their ability to indulge in the abstract thinking somewhat undermined, American Blacks were predetermined to end up being exploited in the past, as the concerned historical era favored specifically the rationally minded individuals, as the most evolutionary adequate ones. Nowadays, however, this has effectively ceased to be the case.

The full soundness of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to the fact that, as of today, it is namely the individuals endowed with the sense of a tribal solidarity (along with the taste for ‘baby-making’), which appear to be gaining an upper hand in their confrontation with the rationally minded but behaviorally decadent descendants of former slave-owners.

For example, within the matter of forty years, the population of Ethiopia has tripled – despite the fact that, throughout this time, Ethiopians continued to suffer from the never-ending civil war and famine.

On the other hand, it is not only that, throughout the course of recent decades, the rate of the decadent Whites’ fertility has been reduced considerably, but they have also grown increasingly incapable of addressing even the most basic challenges of life.

In its turn, this has effectively turned them into the crowd of self-indulgent whiners, absolutely incapable of adopting an active stance in life – hence, their naïve belief that it is indeed possible to establish a ‘fair’ and simultaneously ‘multicultural’ society.

In other words, regardless of what happened to be these people’s views of themselves, the objective laws of history presuppose that the future will prove rather bleak for the people in question – in full accordance with the Darwinian Theory of Evolution.

Quite evidently, this again suggests that, contrary to the advocates of Constructivism, the functioning of human societies never ceases to remain ‘realist’ – that is, it reflects the full scope of the affiliated ‘social factors’ at play. As a result that, the idea that people’s tendency to assess the surrounding social reality through the lenses of a perceptual subjectivism makes them de facto ‘special’, does not stand much of a discursive ground.

Works Cited Al Jazeera English. “Fault Lines: Baltimore: Anatomy of an American City.” YouTube. 21 Aug. 2012. Web.

AllanGregg. “Dinesh D’Souza Says Racism is not the Cause of Black Failure.” YouTube. 24 Oct. 2011. Web.

Berger, Peter. Sociology as an Individual Pastime. 3-12. Durkheim, Emil. What Makes Sociology Different? 19-26. Mills, Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Print.


Role of an Integrator Essay scholarship essay help

Supply chain is a critical activity for small businesses and multinational corporations (MNCs) today. Supply chain management is essential for large and small businesses. Supply chain activities have led to the formation of the supply chain industry.

The industry includes transportation companies involved in logistics and supply chain activities. “The supply chain process entails the activities involved after the purchase of raw materials to the delivery of products and services to the consumer” (Naslund and Hana 483).

It is agreeable that there are new trends in this industry. To begin with, multinational corporations (MNCs) and large companies continue to implement new strategies in order to remain successful in their businesses. “Many companies will be looking forward to utilize integrators while others will use direct sourcing options in the future” (Naslund and Hana 484).

As well, companies in the chain supply industry will consider the best ways to improve transportation and service delivery. The approach will help them provide quality services to their customers.

Studies indicate that more corporations will be using integrators in the coming years (Hortacsu and Chad 1). The industry will also come up with new ways towards a “greener strategy”. This is the case because of the issue of global warming and climate change.

Supply chain collaboration will be evident in the future in order to promote a “win-win” situation. The question of corporate social responsibility will also become a fundamental issue whereby companies in the industry.

Companies in the industry will be required to support different communities and social welfare (Naslund and Hana 494). The use of social media, networking, and resource management will become critical aspects of chain supply in the future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above trends in supply chain explain why integrators will have a major role to play in the industry. Integrators will play a significant role towards making supply chains successful. In supply chain, negotiators promote a mutual understanding between the parties involved.

Integrators promote effective sharing of information and ideas. Supply chain integration is therefore “a strategy aimed at improving coordination and management of supply chains” (Naslund and Hana 494).

Many companies today require constant integration and coordination in order to make their supply chains successful. An integrator will help maintain the best relationships between organizations and their stakeholders (“Getting the Most from Supply Chain Analytics” 1).

Supply chain integration addresses most of the issues affecting a company and its partners. Supply chain integrators can provide useful answers to the questions related to delivery methods, ethical issues, legal aspects, and standards of practice. As well, integrators can help companies manage their supply chain practices (Naslund and Hana 496).

As the industry continues to grow, supply chain integration will continue to remain a critical part of supply chain management. Integrators will help address most of the complexities and challenges encountered during transportation and management.

It is also evident that different players are involved in the supply chain industry (Naslund and Hana 498). The situation explains why organizations should embrace the importance of integrators in order to promote their supply chain operations.

The above changes and trends in the industry explain why companies and multinational corporations should embrace the use of integrators. This will help address most of the challenges, risks and uncertainties encountered during the process.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of an Integrator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although some companies and organizations might decide to use direct sourcing options, it is evident that the role of supply chain integrators is relevant today than ever before (“Getting the Most from Supply Chain Analytics” 1). By so doing, companies will be able to promote a successful supply chain in order to achieve their goals.

Works Cited “Getting the Most from Supply Chain Analytics.” The Wall Street Journal 27 November 2013: 1. Print.

Hortacsu, Ali, and Chad Syverson. “Why Companies Acquire Their Supply Chains: Hortacsu and Syverson.” Bloomberg 1.1 (2012): n. pag. Web.

Naslund, Dag, and Hana Hulthen. “Supply chain management integration: a critical analysis”, Benchmarking: An International Journal 19.4 (2012): 481-501. Print.


Charity Organization “Hope for the Nations” Analysis Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Hope for the Nations is a Canadian charity organization which is aimed at helping children in different parts of the world. The organization’s motto is as follows, “Children at risk becoming children of change” (“Hope for the Nations”). The HFTN helps children in need to get education and such crucial things as nutritious food and drinkable water.

Ralph Bromley, the cofounder of the HFTN and its president, claims that it is really important to help children to develop as some of these youngsters can become future leaders, scientists, people of art, etc. (“Two Children of Change”). These future leaders can help the humanity to develop and achieve new goals.

People working for the organization and donators understand that children are their future and they are ready to invest their money, time and effort.

It is important to note that the organization also helps people to diminish aftermaths of natural disasters. Clearly, children in areas devastated by natural disasters need support. The HFTN helps communities as well as individuals.

For instance, the stories of individuals who got the aid from the organization are especially inspiring (“Two Children of Change”). These stories give people and children hope. These inspiring stories make children understand that they can also succeed in life.

It is important to note that the organization reveals data on the funds they allocate to different projects. This is really important as donators can make sure their funds reach people in need. The HFTN is transparent as it provides reports on the projects held and it shares news via the official website. Remarkably, the website is very efficient as it contains all the information different people may need.

Thus, it is easy to navigate the web site as there are major categories which provide information on the most important aspects. It is also necessary to mention that it is easy to find information on the history of the organization. Admittedly, it is really important that short facts are available for the web site guests.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though, the most important is information on the projects and the ways to donate. This information can easily be accessed. It is possible to easily access information on each project and find out the sum of money raised. Moreover, it is easy to get the necessary information on particular activities and strategies the organization will implement to achieve its goals. This transparency is one of the characteristic features of the organization.

Apart from this, it is also easy to donate as lots of ways of donation are available. There is also information on other forms of cooperation. People can find out about volunteering which is also very important as lots of people are unable to donate their money whereas they are willing to donate their time and effort.

Notably, the site does not simply contain certain information on the projects. It is designed to inspire people and feel their connectedness. Thus, each page contains a picture or several pictures showing children at risk or volunteers who are providing their help.

There are also videos depicting success stories that prove that the organization’s motto is more than words (“Two Children of Change”). The videos depict people successful people who used to be children at risk. Therefore, the official website articulates the major message of the HFTN and makes people inspired and involved.

Works Cited Hope for the Nations. 2013. Web. .

Two Children of Change. 2013. Web. .


Volvo Productive Model Case Study custom essay help

What were the main design principles affecting process design at Volvo’s Uddevalla plant?

In the 1970s, Volvo embarked on redesigning its production process in order to improve its competitiveness. This led to the establishment of Volvo’s Uddevalla manufacturing plant where workers played a key role in the production of cars. Volvo revolutionized the process of manufacturing cars by introducing the holistic or the reflective production model at its Uddevalla plant (Holweg


Social Media Marketing (SMM) Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons behind the popularity of SMM

Advantages and disadvantages of SMM to entrepreneurs

How SMM helps Pepsi gain more customer insight

Two businesses that have used SMM to their advantage

Future expectations of SM on marketing



Introduction The business realm across the world has been undergoing enormous transformations and one of the foremost changes in the entrepreneurship sector is the emergence of technological advancements (Evans


Hamlet Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Character of Gertrude

Transforming Gertrude


Works Cited

Introduction Gertrude, better known as Hamlet’s mother, and the adulterous queen who married too quickly after her husband’s death, is one of the minor characters in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Gertrude is often been suspected of perjury towards the dead king and her quick remarriage is often seen as a sign of her unfaithfulness towards her dead husband.

However, in the second part of the play, when Gertrude faces the truth of her first husband’s dead, she immediately stands a reformed character, sympathetic to Hamlet’s cause. She promises to keep up her connubial subterfuge in order to deceive Claudius.

This in one hand shows Gertrude’s ignorance of the truth of her first husband’s death and on the other hand proves her to be a woman with divided loyalties. This essay studies the character of Gertrude as Hamlet’s mother and a widow to the dead queen.

Character of Gertrude Gertrude is often described in the play by Hamlet as frail, which he had addressed to her whole personality. He has shown this “frailty” as weakness and lack of depth in entire character. Reading the play makes it clear that Gertrude was not an accomplice in the plot of murder of the late king.

Further, whether she was an adulteress is debatable, for Shakespeare does not suggest of any relation between Gertrude and Claudius before her late husband’s death. Gertrude is often misinterpreted as a shallow and self-centered character. However, a closer look defines her otherwise.

Gertrude was one who had overpowering animal instincts, in love with the baser needs of human flesh. She is one who can forget the grief of past quickly as she has a happy disposition even under adversity, and feels all around her should remain happy.

This is the reason Gertrude is found, at the beginning of the play, pleading Hamlet to loose his sorrow and stop grieving his father’s death. Instead, she pleads with him to marry Ophelia and make things comfortable for everyone. Thus, she was one of those people who reject unhappiness, and seek only the fun and frolic in life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can even see in Gertrude a woman who refuses to embrace old age. She clings to her youth. One almost feels that the charm of Gertrude’s youth will not diminish away, instead wither when she meets her end. She mostly plays a passive part in the play’s action packed scenes. Throughout the play, she appears to be Claudius’s shadow, following him everywhere.

Even Claudius believes that Gertrude does nothing but follow his wishes. However, one must not forget that when she learnt the true nature of her late husband’s death, she willingly conspired with Hamlet to avenger his father.

How did Claudius win Gertrude’s heart is a question that reverberates throughout the play? Was she Claudius’s mistress even before her husband’s death or was she just hasty in marrying his just after becoming a widow? The Ghost believes that Claudius won Gertrude with his “witchcraft”. The Ghost states that Claudius was “garbage” and prey to lust: “will state itself in a celestial bed and prey on garbage” .

More about This Topic Why Does Hamlet Act Crazy? 5 108 In Hamlet, act 1, scene 2, which dramatic convention does Shakespeare employ most? 5 167 What are Examples of Dramatic Irony in Hamlet? 5 93 What is Hamlet’s concluding thought after he has mused over the skulls and the idea of death? 5 133 This incestuous marriage of Gertrude distresses her son who loses his rightful claim on thrown to his uncle, Claudius. This is the reason why Hamlet fails to perceive Gertrude as a sensible and strong woman. This is what Gertrude the woman can be understood from the lines of other characters.

The very first words spoken by Gertrude is when she entreats Hamlet to shed off his mourning black clothes and be more cheerful. She tells him that death is inevitable and mourning incessantly over it with downcast eyes will flare only the passion of grief in him.

Gertrude appears to be a worried mother who is anxious to recover her son from his melancholy when she welcomes Rosencrantz and Guildenstern tot eh court. She says that she hoped that the two of them would be able to cheer Hamlet and discover the reason for his unrelenting glum.

When Claudius and Gertrude are alone, he tells her that Polonius believes he knows the reason for Hamlet’s depression, to which she answers: “I doubt it is no other than the main, His father’s death and our o’er-hasty marriage.”

We will write a custom Term Paper on Hamlet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This statement made by Gertrude is not that depicts a slothful woman who is just superfluous and just a shadow of her husband. Gertrude speaks to Polonius with directness apt for a Queen and describes his brevity of speech as “More matter with less art.” .

We then see Gertrude again in Act III. She asks Rosencrantz and Guildenstern with little guile if they were able to cheer up Hamlet and engage in any kind of sport. But before she leaves, she speaks a few words of kindness to Ophelia. She felt for the unhappy girl and wanted to comfort her:

And for your part, Ophelia, I do wish

That your good beauties be the happy cause

Of Hamlet’s wildness: so shall I hope your virtues Will bring him to his wonted way again,

To both your honours.

This almost sounds like the words of a sentimental woman who recounts that class barriers will not stop true love from meeting.

During the scene when the play was being acted within the pay, Gertrude asks Hamlet to sit near her. This gesture clearly shows that she wants Hamlet to feel assured of his place in the court. She remains silent until Hamlet asks her how she linked the play. To this she answers with her famous comment on the queen in the play, “The lady doth protest too much, methinks” .

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hamlet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Later, Gertrude tells Claudius as Hamlet had asked her to tell, that Hamlet had become mad. She says that he had killed Polonius, though he weeps over it. She adds that she did not want Claudius to see him in such a state of fearsome madness. Later, she states that she does not wish to see Ophelia, but consents to meet her when she gains knowledge of her distress.

When Laertes bursts in to kill Claudius she steps between them and stops him from killing Claudius, saying that it is not he who had killed his father. She then leaves Claudius and Laertes together, but later returns to inform them of Ophelia’s death. During Ophelia’s funeral, Gertrude scatters flowers on her grave and appears to be the only one truly grieved:

Sweets to the sweet: farewell!

I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet’s wife;

I thought thy bride-bed to have deck’d, sweet maid,

And not have strew’d thy grave.

Further, her motherly affections and concern for Hamlet become apparent when Hamlet and Laertes dual. The queen feels that Hamlet is out of training and offers her handkerchief to wife his brows and drinks to his success. When she finds out that the drink is poisoned, she warns Hamlet of the malice and dies. These words of warning were the last word she spoke.

More on the Topic Which excerpt from Hamlet, act 1, scene 1 is a stage direction? 5 180 What was the “moment of final suspense” in Hamlet? 5 505 Why does Hamlet kill Polonius? 5 38 Do you think Hamlet is a problem play or a tragedy? Why? 5 846 This analysis of the queen character demonstrates that she was a woman who refused to follow the king even when all others believed her to be just his shadow. She was one who wanted to move away from sorrow as quickly as possible and seek happiness in life. But her love for her son was undamaged and she remained faithful to him when she learnt the truth of Claudius’s malevolence.

Transforming Gertrude Act III is an important section of Hamlet as it is in this section all the mysteries of the dead king’s death are unraveled. It is in this act that Gertrude, for the first time, learns of the conspiracy behind her husband’s death. In the fourth scene of the act, hamlet goes to his mother, in a state of complete tension and dismay. He is almost in a hysterical state.

He had even contemplated murdering his mother assuming her to be a co-conspirator of his father’s death. In this scene, Hamlet quips her and insults her and even tells the he wished that she was not his mother.

She, then tries to end the dialogue with her son, she is seized by him and she cries for help. She cries out, “Thou wilt not murder me” . This is not a foolish cry of a woman, nut one who had seen Hamlet as a madman and one who was capable of murder drunken in anger.

It is then that she learns of the history behind the king’s death with a starlet exclamation “ As kill a king” . This shows that Gertrude had no knowledge of the nature of the dead kin’s death. Then the queen asks Hamlet why he was so angry at him: “What have I done, that thou darest wag thy tongue / In noise so rude against me?” (Act 3, Sc.4, 86).

Hamlets tells her that he hates her passion and lust, her desire for sexual passion which has driven her from the memory of his father to that of his brother. He, in his maddened rage, cries out that she could not even give youth as an excuse of her lust:

O shame! where is thy blush? Rebellious hell,

If thou canst mutine in a matron’s bones,

To flaming youth let virtue be as wax,

And melt in her own fire: proclaim no shame

When the compulsive ardour gives the charge,

Since frost itself as actively doth burn

And reason panders will.

Hamlet in his rage says that her lust throws away all morality and decency of relationships. Gertrude admits to all these accusations of Hamlet, and through every accusation made by Hamlet, she was able to see through the reality. Gertrude herself saw through her follies and realized them:

O Hamlet, speak no more:

Thou turn’st mine eyes into my very soul;

And there I see such black and grained spots

As will not leave their tinct.

It is in this scene that Gertrude stands a reformed character. She realizes that her passion and lust ahs been her sins and she admits to it. However, she does not want to contemplate on her sins. Gertrude does not cry over her follies. Gertrude thinks that Hamlet is mad when she sees him speaking to the Ghost. She then concedes to be on his side and makes a promise not to betray him.

Act III, scene 4 reveals Gertrude in a different light to the readers. Gertrude is transformed from a soft creature in love with her base instincts to a mature character. She was ready to do the right thing and be at the side of her son. She was no longer her husband’s shadow and had not fallen for Claudius’s charms.

Thus, one can argue that Gertrude could not be the woman who had committed adultery with Claudius before her husband’s death. This scene clearly shows Gertrude as a different person and changes the perception of her character to the readers.

Conclusion Gertrude is a minor character in Hamlet, but one that of great importance. She is initially labeled as an “adulteress” and “incestuous” by the Ghost of the late king and presumably Hamlet too believed in these accusations.

However, the fourth scene in Act III shows that these accusations were baseless. She was unaware of the murder plot that Claudius had devised, nor was she an ally to it. Gertrude’s surprise to the accusations are revealed her own words in this scene when she reveals her astonishment at Hamlet’s accusations and once she realizes her follies does not waste time in idle tears and promises to help Hamlet.

This scene is also important to the play as it shows Gertrude transformed to realize her mistakes and choose a path to redemption.

Works Cited Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. London: Penguin, 1992. Print.


Threat to Civil Aviation-Hijacking Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The threat posed by hijacking

Civil aviation industry response



Introduction In every nation, civil aviation sector is a significant part of the national critical infrastructure. As a means of transportation, this sector is always at risk from the terrorists and extremists. The 9/11 attacks on the United States’ civil aviation industry demonstrated the extent to which terrorism can cause damage to the economy of a country and mass murder of innocent individuals (Elon, 2004).

These attacks were a big blow for the Americans. On the other hand, the 9/11 was a celebrated victory for the Al-Qaida and the enemies of the US. The terrorists proved that airliners can be turned into powerful missiles. It is approximated that the terrorists used up to $500, 000 in planning for the attack and wreaked a damage costing trillions of dollars.

Equally, in the year 2006 the hijackers with homemade liquid explosives were arrested preparing to launch an attack on the UK’s aviation industry (Price


Water Pollution Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Water contamination is a major public health problem in Africa. This topic is of interest because water is a necessity for survival. Looking at this problem helps to illuminate a serious issue that needs quick attention. The people affected the most are children who do not understand the importance of purifying drinking water. This discussion is based on a UN report on CNN in 2010 on the need for purifying polluted water.

According to the report, contaminated water claims more lives than any form of violence. In the 21st century, the world faces a crisis of contaminated water, which is the result of industrialization and is a major problem in developing countries. Wastewater is a mixture of fertilizer runoff, sewage disposal, agricultural waste, and industrial wastes (UN Report, 2010).

The utilization of chemicals in farming is a serious matter for environmentalists globally. Africa’s drinking water sources include streams, lakes, rivers, and rainfall.

A report by UNEP in 2002 dubbed ‘The Africa Environment Outlook’ recognizes ground water pollution coming from nitrates, phosphates and additional chemical residues used in Africa as a cause for alarm. However, this is common in regions that rely on underground aquifers for drinking water (Nweke


The Relationship between Political Stability cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction Many people do not understand whether political stability leads to economic growth or it is the vice versa. Either way, the two elements have a close relationship. This essay will discuss the relationship between political stability and economic growth. In addition, it will also identify the theoretical foundations that justify the existing relationship between the two elements.

The relationship between political stability and economic growth is undeniable. Economic growth in a country depends on the development strategies created and implemented by its political system (Vahabi, 2004). A country’s political system is very important in determining its fate.

Various types of political systems used in the world provide different results, in terms of economic empowerment to citizens and overall economic performance. When there are positive economic results, people will approve the political system in place and continue to give it the necessary support (Vahabi, 2004). Thus, economic growth can lead to political stability.

On the other hand, poor economic results lead to destabilized growth and societal changes. The result is that people will condemn the political system in place. Thus, political structures can influence economic growth in a country. Political stability is an essential ingredient for economic growth because it enhances productivity, as well as development of human and physical resources necessary for development (Ricardo, 2010).

Discussion Two theories explain the relationship between political stability and economic growth. First, the good growth hypothesis theory argues that good economic growth can trigger stability in a country because people will be ok with the political leaders guiding them (Vahabi, 2004).

A country with this kind of atmosphere is unlikely to experience any form of political instability because people will not oppose government programs and the policies developed.

The second one is the destabilizing growth hypothesis theory, which argues that poor political systems can easily cause low economic development in a country. Poor economic development is characterized by changes in the general welfare of the people and the quality of life (Ricardo, 2010). These theories show the interdependence between political stability and economic development in a country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Levels of economic development are different in countries that have dictatorial and democratic systems of governance (Ricardo, 2010). For example, dictation systems of governance are used in some parts of Africa and Latin America. This system promotes an exclusive commercial environment where people have to do things in a similar fashion.

This has resulted in poor economic growth in those countries. In the case of a democratic system of governance, the economic results are mixed. For example, countries such as India had a democracy in the 1980s, but they experienced a prolonged spell of an economy with retarded growth (McCartney, 2009). The United States of America is one of the oldest democracies.

The country has achieved high levels of economic development over a couple of decades. The good thing about a democracy is the ability of business developers to work in an inclusive environment, where people consider the ideas and needs of other people. Other political systems such as authoritarian have a good reputation for promoting speedy economic growth just like the case of East Asia (McCartney, 2009).

Economic transition is an element of economic development that can cause political instability in a country. People have different ways of responding to change, especially if it directly influences on their welfare (Feng, 2003). Developing and implementing new economic policies in a country can be disadvantageous. Any form of resistance and protest against them can lead to an unstable political environment.

Many people do not understand the concept of political instability as much as they understand economic development. Political instability as a concept develops along four themes namely: government, political system, external environment, as well as law and order (Vahabi, 2004).

The government is very crucial to stability and economic development in a country because it holds the responsibility of developing legislation. A country’s political system develops according to the directive given by the government through a constitution. In achieving political stability, it is also important to ensure that both the internal and external environments of the government are safe and secure (Ricardo, 2010).

Studies have established that countries reap maximum benefits from their economies when there is enough political stability. Politicians are very influential people in a society. However, they can use their ability to mobilize people into supporting strategies that destabilize the economy if they have differences they want to settle among themselves (Siermann, 1998).

We will write a custom Essay on The Relationship between Political Stability


Contemporary case study of Brazil and the challenges facing its democracy college essay help online

Introduction Democratic consolidation is mostly termed as a critical consideration when it comes to developing and the thriving of a state across the world. However, democracy is something that is easily talked about than it is implemented by many states across the globe.

Democracy is built on the political landscape and the presence of a volatile landscape in the Latin America region has raised a lot of questions concerning the possibility of the countries in the region to consolidate democracy. Most commentators argue that it is quite daunting for the countries in the region to develop structures that promote democracy.

The rationale behind such conclusive views is that most countries in the region have volatile politics, which largely bar them from developing and embracing internal structures that are critical in promoting democracy. However, recent times have seen an implementation of changes in a substantial number of countries in the region, which point to the embrace of democracy.

One of the countries that has shown tremendous improvements when it comes to the consolidation of democracy in Latin America is Brazil. This paper explores the challenges facing democratic consolidation in Brazil. The paper argues that the embrace of structural changes in the political, social, and economic realms of Brazil is greatly helping the country to consolidate democracy.

The paper is divided into four parts. The first part of the paper paints the real picture of democracy in Latin America through a description of the military, political and economic problems that engulf democracy in the region.

The second part of the paper analyses the general landscape of Brazil; political instability, presidentialism, political parties, and populism and how they impact democratic consolidation and the executive-legislative relations.

This is followed by an exploration of critical issues that appertain to democracy in Brazil, like crime and insecurity, law enforcement, and the rule of law. The last part presents an analysis of the economic challenges in Brazil and how they impede democracy in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political, military and economic challenges facing democracy in Latin America

Political stability is one of the pointers to the prevalence of democracy in a given state or region across the globe. It is also critical to note that democratization is a political process, thus the level of democratization in any region across the world is measured by the level of independence and functionality of key political institutions like the judiciary, the legislature, and the executive.

Political stability in any region of the world is marked by a number of factors. Among these factors are the open space for the political participation of the masses, the presence of functional institutions, and the lack of interference of other institution by the executive. Indeed, a closer assessment of the political situation in the entire region of Latin America for the past few years indicates the lack of political stability.

A substantial number of countries in the region of Latin America have had extreme politics, marking the lack of open politics that are critical for the establishment of democracy. These countries include Haiti, Honduras, and Venezuela where there have been attempts by the executive of these countries to amass power through exercising power and influence over other key institutions in the country like the legislature and the judiciary.

The consolidation of power and the subsequent exercise of the same power is a key recipe to the lack of political correctness, thereby hampering of the process of democratization.

For instance, the regime of Venezuela has continuously pushed for the centralization of power, which implies the placement of a lot of powers in the hands of the president and the subsequent killing of other important institutions like the judiciary, which are critical in the administration of justice and key attributes of democracy.

According to ECLAC (1), the economy of Latin America has continued to show tremendous improvements throughout the 21st century, with the reduction in the cases of poverty and inequality in terms of resource distribution.

The sluggishness in the pace of economic development in the region has been a major source of illegal acts like the prevalence of gangs and organized criminal groups in countries like Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, and Jamaica. The prevalence of such groups in the region continues to promote a lot of social ills and instability, thereby undermining the democratization process in the region.

We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary case study of Brazil and the challenges facing its democracy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The early century in Latin America marked a period of industrialization. The emergence of mass politics that accompanied industrialization denoted populism in the region. A class of populist leaders emerged in the region then, who embraced oligarchic rule.

However, the influence of these leaders faded as military repression begun in a substantial number of countries in the region towards the mid of the 20th century. Therefore, the slow growth of most of the national economies of the region emanated from the lack of populist support and the consolidation of political power by a series of leaders who emerged in the region (Conniff 1-4).

Most countries in Latin America either follow the presidential system of governance or the super-presidetialism where presidents have power by virtue of ascending to power through massive support.

The presidential system of governance encourages the presidents in the region to engage in certain activities that denote the centralization of power and the constriction of the public arena, meaning that it is hard to attain democracy.

For instance, the President of Honduras amended the constitution through the removal of the clause that limited the term of the presidency, a factor that necessitated a coup in the country. Also, there were other strains of rogue leaders in the region who attempted to exercise a lot of power and control. An example is Pinochet of Chile.

Safdar (140) observes that a substantial number of countries in the region still strongly embrace the principles of autocracy, which totally negate democracy and democratization of institutions.

According to (Safdar 141), resource is another issue that hinders democracy in the region where a number of countries fall for populist forms of governance in a bid to secure the natural resources that they depend on. An example that can be given here is Venezuela, which promotes populism in the political realm as a way of attaining solutions to its economic and social problems.

Presidentialism, political instability, executive-legislative relations, populism and democracy in Brazil

According to Power (218), the political landscape of Brazil denotes the exercise of volatile and competitive politics. However, there have been significant changes in the political landscape of Brazil. Most of the changes in politics that denote the embrace of democracy in Brazil can be traced back to the last quarter of the 20th century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary case study of Brazil and the challenges facing its democracy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Democracy in Brazil can be better explained by analyzing the presidency in the county from the mid years of the 20th century. Major policy advances that point at the improvement of the political landscape can be traced from the beginning of 1990 into the 21st century (Power 218).

According to Pio (para. 2), there was an alternation between a quasi-representative government and authoritarianism in Brazil, a factor that made it extremely difficult for the country to embrace democracy and participation.

As observed earlier, populism as applied in Latin America is an intense issue. Populism grew in the early years of the 20th century and then declined in the mid years of the same century.

As one of the countries that are embracing the principles of democracy in the region, it is critical to note that populism in the country can be looked at in terms of political organization and the way political support is mobilized by the political parties in the county. Brazil has a volatile political environment, which makes it hard for the country to attain a highly democratic environment (Duarte 111-116).

According to Sachs, Wilheim, and Pinheiro (192-195), participation in the country is highly modeled along the social lanes. Perhaps, it is critical to mention the issue of class in the country and the role that is played by the social structures in mobilizing political support in the country.

Just like in the mid years of the 20th century, populism in Brazil is still highly supported by the people from the lower class who see this as chance of exerting their influence in the politics of the country (Sachs, Wilheim, and Pinheiro 192-195).

According to Mainwaring and Chalmers (4), the transformation of Brazil into a country that embraces democracy is closely associated with the dynamic interaction between the political regime in the country and the opposition, especially in the first regime of democratic rule that reigned between 1985 and 1987. The military regime was a real thorn in the flesh of politics in Brazil for the better part of the 20th century.

Joseph (1524) observes that Brazil is one of the countries in Latin America that have managed to promote democracy in the realms of race. In what is referred to as racial democracy, it is evident that people in the country have embraced the opinion of each other, irrespective of the presence of a mixture of different races in the country.

Nonetheless, it should be noted that racial democracy is something that has only been promoted in the recent years. What prevails in the country today is a racial environment that has been largely pacified due to the concentration of the country’s government on the implementation of policies of development that seek to put it at the scales of development being attained by other countries across the globe.

Military regimes in Brazil were seen as the main impediments to the embrace of democracy in the country. An end to military governance in the country was seen as a force behind the promotion of democracy. However, the most important question to ask at this point is whether all aspects of militancy have been eliminated.

A close observation of the political regime in the country reveals that aspects of militancy have been largely upheld by the presidents in the country. An example is the Belo Monte dam project, where the government used force to advance the project, violating the rights of the citizens in the course. This is just one of the indications of abuses of power in the country, which highly undermines democracy (Picq para. 1-7).

The last elections in Brazil marked a difference in the history of the country, where a female candidate was elected to be the president of the country. A lot of people are of the view that this is an important marker in the democratization of the country (Safdar 135). The elections depicted a higher level of democracy in the political realms with the support for political parties being done in a more open way.

However, the task ahead is huge for the president, especially the harmonization of the structures of governance in the country. In the recent years, the government received a lot of resistance from the judiciary because of what was seen as an opposition to the certain reforms that were being implemented by the government (de Staal 1).

The political institutions in Brazil in the contemporary times are highly functional with ideology still playing a critical role in informing political support (Snider 1).

Brazil embraces a system of governance known as presidential parliamentarianism. A number of commentators see this system as promoting centralization in the decision making landscape, irrespective of the fact that this system of governance promotes governability. It is, therefore, a hindrance to the promotion of democracy (Snider 2).

Rule of law, crime and insecurity, corruption, law enforcement

According to Mainwaring and Chalmers (4), one of the main challenges to the attainment of democracy in Latin America is the problem of attaining citizen security. Perhaps, the most critical question to ask when referring to the democratization process in Brazil is the issue of social inequality and the ability of the country to develop policies that favor equality.

Until today, Brazil still experiences a lot of problems of security, patterned by the difficulty to embrace the rule of law and the elimination of vices like corruption.

In spite of the embrace of change in most institutions in Brazil, the state of rule of law, which is a key factors that define and promote democracy, is still not well observed in the country. There is a lot of inequity in the legal system of the country, where the law largely favors the privileged citizens who belong to the upper economic class and the political class.

At this juncture, it can be argued that Brazil still suffers from the problem of impunity, which is a negation of democracy. The country has a complex court structure that is marred by incidences of corruption and manipulation of the judicial proceedings in favor of certain individuals.

There are also significant lapses in the civilian law system of the country, where cases of non-judicial executions and torture are often reported (Pio para. 21).

The level of insecurity in the region was at the peak in the last decade of the 20th century. However, this does not mean that the situation has largely changed in most of the countries today. In most countries in the region, the lapses in security and the observance of law and order continue to be the main cause of the high number of cases of crime that prevail in the region.

Crime is one of the hindrance factors in the consolidation of democracy in any state in the world because it depicts the lack of observance of law and order in the country. Most of the states in the region have remained weak, meaning that the regimes that prevail in these countries are largely incapacitated and cannot set up structures that can help to guard the rights and freedoms of the citizens (Mainwaring and Chalmers 5).

There are a lot of social challenges in Brazil, which makes it quite daunting for the structures of democracy to flourish. Most of the social problems in the country do not only revolve around poverty, but they are also steered by corruption, the disconnectedness of institutions, as well as the increase in the number of privatized security forces in the country.

The future of public security remains to be largely uncertain. However, education is playing a resounding role in eliminating social hierarchies in the Brazilian society (Snider 2-3).

The economic challenges facing democracy in Brazil

Research shows that Brazil is one of the countries in Latin America that have instituted a lot of changes in their economies, something that has immensely supported the growth of the economy. Brazil has fulfilled most of the attributes of a middle income economy having overcome most of the challenges that placed it in the category of least developed economies in the later years of the 20th century.

However, there is still an array of factors that still impede the country from attaining sustainable growth of the economy. According to Pio (para. 1), the democratic transition in Brazil is largely rooted in the economic crisis that faced the country in the 1970s, which made it hard to embrace military rule in the country.

Therefore, the country began to set up the structures of economic development through the promotion of local industries. These resulted in the transformation of the economy to an extent that the government was able to sustain most of its functions.

Unlike most of the countries that have closed economies that depend on oil and other natural economies in the region, the economy of Brazil is largely capitalistic. This makes the country to strongly fit within the international development framework (Safdar 141).

However, the integration of the country into the international economy and the accelerated pace of economic growth in the recent years has not fully transformed to economic welfare.

In a country where approximately 50 million people were living below the poverty line in the early years of the first decade of the 20th century, the failure of the government to institute a proper economic policy amounts to the abuse of the rights of the citizens.

This argument comes from the nature of economic policies that are implemented in the country without paying attention to the voices raised by the poor population in the country. The principles of democracy and participation in Brazil are highly impeded by the development agenda that is being fostered to promote economic independence.

However, the path that is taken in the enforcement of economic policies depicts the breaches of the rights of the poor citizens. Greater citizen participation does not receive significant attention in the key political and economic decisions that are made in the country.

An example that can be given here is the implementation of the land ownership structures of the Lula Regime without paying attention to the views of the public, which has predisposed the country to conflict over land and resources (de Staal 1).

Brazil is ranked as one of the most unequal nations in the world in terms of distribution of resources among its population.

Analysts argue that the broad gap of inequality in the county is not merely a sign of historical injustices that occurred in the country, but it also reflects the lack of consideration for the poor by virtue of sidelining the needs of the poor in the political and economic plans and policies that are implemented in the country.

This gap further subjects the country to an economic turmoil and a possibility of a mayhem situation between the government and the citizens who feel that they are being subjected to economic injustices by the political regime (de Staal 1).

According to de Staal (1), the political structure of Brazil is not also fully flourished. It is argued that political power in Brazil is controlled by a web of feudal networks. The feudal networks control resources and have a lot of influence on the political discourse in the country. A lot of economic ills in Brazil remain to be something that cannot be easily put to rest.

Power is hidden in the hands of the people who control the economy. Moreover, these groups of people receive better treatment from the government and the law enforcement agencies in the country. Moreover, the feudal networks also promote relations with the criminal gangs in the country, thereby undermining the attributes of security for their benefit.

Conclusion According to the argument presented in the paper, it is worthwhile to conclude that Brazil has made tremendous progress in embracing democracy. The observation in the paper points to the fact that most of the attributes of democracy in Brazil are founded on the aspects of development through the strengthening of institutions in the political and economic realms.

Most of the challenges that hinder the growth of democracy in Brazil are historical in nature and keep recurring in the present political environment in the country. The issue of inequality in the social and economic arenas continues to be the main impediment to the growth of institutions in the country.

Moreover, it is bound to keep imposing negative pressure on the growth of democracy in the country. Overcoming the issue means digging deep into the history and ironing out the structures of inequality that make Brazil the most unequal nation state in the world.

Works Cited De Staal, Gilles. “Brazil: No Economy Without Democracy.” Le Monde Diplomatique. 2003. Web.

Duarte, Adriano Luiz. “Neighborhood Associations, Social Movements, And Populism In Brazil, 1945-1953.” Hispanic American Historical Review 89.1 (2009): 111-139. Print.

ECLAC. Latin American and Caribbean Unemployment Rate Could Fall to 6.2% in 2013. 2013. Web.

Joseph, Tiffany D. “How Does Racial Democracy Exist In Brazil? Perceptions From Brazilians In Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais.” Ethnic


Paying a Salesperson Well Does Not Necessarily Lead to a Motivated Employee Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Motivation is the process or the act of stimulating human beings to work towards the attainment of a specific objective. Normally, human beings will only work when they have an urge or need to fulfil, or when they are after gaining something. Usually, people will work for money. However, it is important to note that money is not the only factor that can help in increasing the productivity of employees (Rynes, Gerhart,


Rural Injustice, the Fiction Term Paper a level english language essay help

The modern Chinese fiction is closely associated with concentrating on the rural settings and countryside to discuss important social topics and issues. The relationships between people within the rural settings develop according to the traditional social patterns and principles, but it is important to pay attention to the degree of closeness between rural inhabitants and to the role of the definite activities in their life.

Thus, the concept of justice can also be discussed with references to the discussion of the countryside life’s details. Furthermore, it is necessary to state that the people’s perception of injustice is more acute within the rural settings, where the personal boundaries between people are rather obscure.

The focus of this paper is on representing the issue of rural injustice in Ding Ling’s “When I was in Hsia Village”, Zhao Shuli’s “Hsiao Erh-Hei’s marriage”, and Mao Dun’s “Spring Silkworms” and on analyzing the use of the authors’ realistic approach and tone to discuss the idea.

Therefore, the specific aspects of the countryside are discussed in these works with references to the idea of rural injustice which should be examined with the help of focusing on the authors’ manipulation of the matter-of-fact tone and depictions.

In spite of the fact that in their works, Ding Ling, Zhao Shuli, and Mao Dun discuss different topics and concentrate on various aspects of the rural life, these authors use individual approaches to emphasizing their realistic tone in the discussion of the problematic idea of the rural injustice because the focus on the unmediated realism is necessary to reflect injustice as the part of the rural population’s everyday reality.

While living at the rural territories, the protagonists depicted in the works of the modern Chinese authors have to face injustice in different forms almost each day. In this case, the rural injustice has the roots in the people’s unjust behaviors, ignorance, and aggression against the other people.

Chen-chen, the female character of Ding Ling’s “When I was in Hsia Village”, experiences the obvious injustice with references to the villagers’ negative attitudes to this young woman. During the days after returning back from the Japanese territories, Chen-chen has to realize all the sides of the people’s injustice and unfairness related to judging her with references to the villagers’ words and actions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the villagers are inclined to talk that Chen-chen is useless as the community’s member; she cannot face the people as the equal one because of her ignorance related to the chastity norms and the community’s values; and she should be discussed as the real punishment for her family because of her provocative behaviour.

The villagers’ attitude toward Chen-chen can be represented in the phrase said by one of the community’s members, “Such a shameful woman should not be allowed to return” (Ling 271).

Paying attention to the description and characterization of Chen-chen as ‘a shameful woman’, it is possible to refer to the majority’s opinion and to take the opposition which is similar to the viewpoint of many people from Chen-chen’s community.

However, such an approach cannot be discussed as the just one in relation to the aspects of Chen-chen’s behaviour and sources of the public’s hatred and ignorance.

All the negative characteristics given to Chen-chen by the villagers can be discussed as the examples of the rural injustice because these people cannot look at the situation from the other point and understand the significant role of Chen-chen’s behaviour for the rural community.

Realism in Ding Ling’s work is accentuated in all the used techniques and approaches to write the story. Thus, the author chooses the technique of reportage to represent the story of Chen-chen, and she relies on the use of the realistic tone in order to describe and emphasize all the details of the community’s settings and of the villagers’ attitude to the young woman.

To illustrate the particular aspects and examples of the rural injustice, Ding Ling refers to the words of Chen-chen which describe her personal attitude to the problem. Thus, Chen-chen states: “Nobody treats me the way they used to.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Rural Injustice, the Fiction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Have I changed? I’ve thought about this a great deal, and I don’t think I’ve changed at all” (Ling 274). Chen-chen becomes the direct object of the villagers’ unjust and prejudiced behaviours because these people do not understand the woman’s sacrifices which contributed to their personal wellbeing.

To emphasize this fact, Ding Ling strengthens her realistic tone with the help of using the reportage as a narration technique. Instead of being grateful in relation to Chen-chen because of her sacrifices, the villagers are inclined to ostracize the woman.

Thus, these villagers are realistically described to be focused on prejudice and superstitions. Rural injustice reflected in personal relations becomes the clear result of such prejudice and false visions.

The focus on superstitions as the possible source for injustice is also reflected in Zhao Shuli’s “Hsiao Erh-Hei’s marriage”. Shuli’s main characters, the couple of young people who refuse to marry according to the traditional norms, are judged by the rural community’s members because of their unconventional behaviors.

The author depicts injustice in relation to the villagers’ actions and behaviors while stating that “no villager dared speak up for the young couple” (Shuli 103).

Referring to these words, Zhao Shuli accentuates the public’s fear to be judged unjustly because of their actions and opinions, but these villagers can also be discussed as the embodiments of the rural and social injustice because they are inclined to persecute persons who express a kind of courage to go against the traditional norms which are based on prejudice and superstitions.

Zhao Shuli focuses on this controversy in the people’s vision of justice while discussing the possibility to influence the people’s wills and actions.

Moreover, the focus on the public’s fear is accentuated one more time, with references to resolving the problematic situation of the traditional marriage. Thus, the author repeats that “nobody dared speak up. People were afraid of reprisals if they failed to bring the charge home to the Wang cousins.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rural Injustice, the Fiction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some chicken-hearted villager even whispered “Tolerance means peace” (Shuli 113). Zhao Shuli draws the readers’ attention to the fact that ‘tolerance means peace’ while using the obvious irony as the literary device because, in this case, tolerance is closely associated with the idea of the rural justice which is not observed in the villagers’ behaviors.

To represent the variety of the villagers’ characters who are rather selfish, prejudiced, and ignorant, Zhao Shuli uses his specific variant of the realistic tone which is emphasized with manipulating the colloquial or ‘peasant’ style and manner of writing.

From this point, the characters and situations seem to be extremely real because protagonists are characterized by using the speech patterns which are typical for the rural territories, and situations are depicted in the most comprehensible manner. As a result, the fact of the observed rural injustice can be perceived by the readers more clearly.

Thus, Zhao Shuli’s realistic or the matter-of-fact tone and the use of the colloquial style to accentuate this tone contribute to discussing the idea of rural injustice in the depicted village because this injustice is also rooted in the people’s prejudice and superstitions.

In the works written by Ding Ling and Zhao Shuli, rural injustice can be discussed as the product of the people’s relations influenced by their viewpoints, traditions, and visions. In “Spring Silkworms”, Mao Dun discusses the concept of rural injustice as the product of the external forces’ impact because these forces can become threatening for the rural population.

In this case, injustice is more related to the social and economic issues which play the important role in the Chinese rural communities while influencing all the spheres of the people’s life. Old Tung Pao’s family and many other villagers become the victims of the foreigners’ intrusion into their economic and everyday life. As a result, these people face injustice related to the issues of the labor exploitation in the field of the sericulture.

To emphasize the experienced injustice, the author uses a lot of realistic depictions to illustrate the state of villagers. Thus, Mao Dun describes the women and children participating in sericulture, stating that “none of these women or children looked really healthy. Since the coming of spring, they had been eating only half their fill; their clothes were old and torn. As a matter of fact, they weren’t much better off than beggars” (Dun 18).

From this point, the villagers could not be described as healthy and satisfied while developing the sericulture in the region, and these people could not expect that the foreigners’ rules would change the situation for better.

Referring to the threat of the ‘free markets’ for the members of Old Tung Pao’s community, Mao Dun reveals the instances of the social injustice with the help of depicting the villagers’ value system in a realistic and rather dramatic tone. Being the master of critical realism, Mao Dun combines the realistic techniques to describe the landscape and nature or people with the elements of irony and drama in his tone.

Thus, the depictions of “the peaceful green countryside” and of the sun’s rays which “forced open the tender, finger-like, little buds” are changed with the realistic depictions of villagers working in the filed of the sericulture as ‘beggars’ (Dun 13-17).

From this perspective, it is possible to note that the detailed description of the agrarian landscape with a lot of the realistic features and elements is chosen by Mao Dun in order to accentuate the idea of injustice with references to this rural background. In spite of the fact that the author often refers to the use of comparisons, his tone can be generally discussed as matter-of-fact.

Thus, a lot of rural scenes seem to be depicted close to reality that is why the readers’ strong reflection on the idea of injustice discussed in the story becomes more evident. Mao Dun’s reference to the idea of the rural injustice is based on the economic and social background.

In this situation, the authorities and foreign producers within the sphere of sericulture can be described as the causes for observing injustice in the rural communities. Focusing on Mao Dun’s specific writing style and tone, it is possible to note that the matter-of-fact tone with the elements of irony and drama is effective to reflect the idea of injustice in the literary work completely.

Ding Ling’s “When I was in Hsia Village”, Zhao Shuli’s “Hsiao Erh-Hei’s marriage”, and Mao Dun’s “Spring Silkworms” are the good examples of the modern Chinese literature focused on the rural problems and issues. Injustice in different forms is the topic and pattern depicted in many literary works written by the Chinese authors.

That is why, it is relevant to pay attention to the discussion of this topic with references to the authors’ works which are different in their themes and presenting the idea of injustice, but these works are similar in relation to focusing on the realistic tone to discuss the pattern in detail.

Although Ding Ling, Zhao Shuli, and Mao Dun choose to concentrate on realism as their method, the authors’ writing styles can be considered as rather different because Ding Ling develops her realistic tone with references to the focus on the personality, Zhao Shuli combines the matter-of-fact tone with the colloquial style reflected in the characters’ speech and descriptions, and Mao Dun refers to combining the realistic tone with the elements of irony.

As a result, Ding Ling’s approach is effective to represent injustice with references to personality; Zhao Shuli’s approach is successful to focus on the injustice based on superstitions, and Mao Dun’s technique is effective to represent the social injustice.

Works Cited Dun, Mao. Spring Silkworms and Other Stories. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1956. Print.

Ling, Ding. “When I was in Hsia Village”. Modern Chinese Stories and Novellas, 1919-1949.

Ed. Joseph Lau, Cen Hsia, and Leo Lee. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981. 268-278. Print.

Shuli, Zhao. Rhymes of Li Yu-tsai and Other Stories. USA: Foreign Languages Press, 1955. Print.


Influence of media in the voting choices of the audience Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Major Arguments



Introduction The influence of media on the voting choices made by individuals is evident. The current globalization has impacted immensely on the mass media technology. This forms the basic foundation of social communication networks and application of social media on campaigns and elections in the political arenas.

Media works as a spotlight in elections by influencing campaigns and decisions made by the electorates (Lane, 2007). Ideally, mass media simply stands for the different ways of communication. Sociologists and behaviorists have stressed on the basic influence of the media on peoples social lives, emotional cognition, attitude and behavior (Rutledge, 2012).

Media also influences people through radios, televisions, social networks and other sophisticated communication means. Thus, it remains critical in the global society as a part of great influence on the people’s cognitive thinking, attitude and behavior in general.

It involves a variety of communication channels that have presently undergone considerable transformation and development through intricate communication approaches. This is a vital provision in the media application during elections.

Major Arguments In the light of massive sociological and technological transformations, the role that the media plays in the development of individual and community behavioral and cognition patterns is evident.

For instance, identification with a particular character due to frequent encounter in the media like the television usually leads to a consequent transformation in behavior or character and attitude. This also influences the voting trends in case of elections.

Moreover, the media has usually been used to host various advertisements, educative forums, as well as awareness creation in the context of voting and public participation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals can also adopt certain behavioral patterns of their role models in the media to achieve a sense of gratification. This in turn leads to behavioral and change of attitude, which might in turn influence the voting preferences in case of a contest.

Generally, the continued encounter with different forms of media within the society has led to the emergence of diverse media psychology issues within the general society. A conventional example is the issue of media influence on the emotional lives of voters.

The investigation of how these elements impact on voters’ selection trends, social lives, perceptions or viewpoints, behavior and beliefs is necessary (Rutledge, 2012). It is vital to examine these voting influences and note the transformative roles (both constructive and negative) that they can cause in the voting arena.

Analytically, the understanding of this topic is essential for voters and the general public. Moreover, it will play a central role in the future election of leaders as one might be able to clearly note, articulate and caution particular behavioral pattern in the future electorate.

Since the media influences the emotions of the public, the concept and relationship between the two remain a critical area of analysis (Duflo, 2008).

For instance, if individual emotion is to be conceptualized as the mental construct and the media as the psychosomatic cradle of man’s discipline, the study of emotional influence of media on electorates remains significant.

Ancient socio-media analysts already postulated the need to identify the role of emotions and empathy largely drawn from the media (Lane, 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on Influence of media in the voting choices of the audience specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the recognition of the media-emotions interplay streams from the ancient scholars, who extended their research to emotional issues of response, emotional fulfillment, and the effects of media use on campaigns and political elections.

Voters are more likely to adopt certain behavioral patterns of their role models in the media to achieve a sense of gratification. This in return leads to emotional change. Political aspirants are able to exploit this provision during elections. Extensive research has been conducted on the human psychological processes involved in media reception.

As a result, various theoretical models emerged including the factor model of sensation, the two factor emotional theories as well as the excitation transfer theoretical model. Media seeks to influence the manner in which individuals perceive, interpret, apply, and respond to the information of political nature.

Through this discipline, the media psychologists are able to identify the key benefits as well as challenges and enhance the development of constructive media in the context of voting (Steele, 2012). This is a very important provision in the media application during campaigns and elections. This is a vital provision in the media application during elections.

Conclusion Media is critical during campaigns and elections due to its societal influences in the voting trends among the electorates (Lane, 2007). Precisely, this concerns the incorporation of psychological frameworks and influences of the voters.

Media influences the emotions of the public with a consequent influence on the voting provisions in the political contexts. Psychology assumes a critical role in comprehending the impact of integrating media technologies amidst the wide-ranging society.

The situation embodies a wide array of human experience of the media. Moreover, media significantly affects the application of campaign events, activities, theoretical models as well as practices.

Media embraces meditated communication. This incorporates pictures, audios, and other provisions. This might in turn influence the voting preferences among the electorates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Influence of media in the voting choices of the audience by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Duflo, E. (2008). Does the mass-media have political influence?. Web.

Lane, L. (2007). The Influence of the Media in Politics, Campaigns and Elections. Web.

Rutledge, P. (2012). What is Media Psychology?. Web.

Steele, C. (2012). Election 2012: How Social Media Will Convert Followers into Voters. Web.


The Particular Features of the Ecosystem in the Fitzroy Gardens Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Different types of ecosystems constitute the biosphere that is why people can find themselves within various ecosystems which function according to many ecologic laws. That is why, it is important to examine properly the qualities of ecosystems. According to Hollar, “an ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment” (Hollar 2011, p. 66).

To understand the particular features of the ecosystem’s development, it is necessary to note that “ecosystems are categorised into abiotic (able to live without oxygen) and biotic (oxygen-dependent) components” (Hollar 2011, p. 66).

Thus, the purpose of the investigation is to examine the biotic and abiotic components of the definite ecosystem found in the Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne, and to pay attention to the interactions between the components. The other objectives are to examine the ecosystem’s properties and to discuss the specifics of the energy flow and chemical cycling.

Methods The place under the study is the territory near Cook’s Cottage in the Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne (the territory N 24 on the map). The Fitzroy Gardens are located in East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The park can be discussed as the south-eastern territory of the Melbourne Central Business District (CBD).

The territory near Cook’s Cottage was chosen because the cottage is situated in a vegetable garden where there are many different kinds of grasses and herbs to observe in a single territory. The territory is known for the ‘chamomile lawn’ where various types of the English herbs are presented.

The characteristic feature of the garden is the focus on the herbs typical for Great Britain and Northern Europe (Cook’s Cottage Garden n.d.; Fitzroy and Treasury Gardens n.d.). The ‘chamomile lawn’ was chosen for the observation as the example of a specific ecosystem.

The active observation was used as the method to examine the ecosystem. The Fitzroy Gardens was visited on 29 December, 2012. The time period of observation was 2 p.m. – 4 p.m.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results and Discussion Biotic Components of the Ecosystem

The main biotic components of the ‘chamomile lawn’ in the Fitzroy Gardens are grasses and herbs. The number of herbs in the ‘chamomile lawn’ is more than of grasses because of the lawn’s purpose to present different kinds of the English herbs. The species-area relationship is presented in Table 1.

The results in on the chosen area were compared with the results on the near-by area, and it is possible to speak about the similar shape for the two areas within the ecosystem as it is presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The areas are rich in such medicinal herbs as Pot Marigold and Sage and such herbs as Fennel and Hyssop.

It is possible to predict the species richness for a sample area of 20 m2 in the ecosystem and state the prevalence of Pot Marigold and Sage as the main plants and Grass sp. 3 and Herb sp. 1, 2.

Table 1. Species in Two Areas of the Ecosystem (the ‘Chamomile Lawn’)

Area 1 Quadrat sizes (m) Area 2 Quadrat sizes (m) Species 1×1 2×1 2×2 2×4 4×4 4×8 Species 1×1 2×1 2×2 2×4 4×4 4×8 Pot Marigold x Pot Marigold x Sage x Sage x Grass 1 x Herb 1 x Fennel x Fennel x Hyssop x Herb 2 x Grass 2 x Grass 1 x Sorrel x Sorrel x Hazel x Hazel x Grass 3 x Grass 2 x Herb 1 x Grass 3 x Herb 2 x Herb 3 x Hyssop x Cumulative number of species 3 5 6 8 10 11 2 4 6 7 9 12 Figure 1. The Relationship between the Cumulative Number of Species and the Quadrat size for Area 1.

Figure 2. The Relationship between the Cumulative Number of Species and the Quadrat size for Area 2.

Interactions between Biotic and Abiotic Components of the Ecosystem

During the time period of observation, many ants and three different beetles were observed at the chosen area. Ants were crawling among the grass. Two beetles were crawling among the grass, and one beetle was sitting at the grass with blade like leaves. The abiotic components presented at the territory are some big stones and many small stones.

We will write a custom Essay on The Particular Features of the Ecosystem in the Fitzroy Gardens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no obvious shade because of the absence of large stones or trees at the territory. The soil can be discussed as fertile with some clay in it. Two grey feathers of birds were observed.

It is possible to speak about the effect of the abiotic environment on ants because the number of ants was observed near the big stone where the soil was rather wet. However, the observed living things have no significant impact on the abiotic environment of the chosen ecosystem.

Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

The energy flow is realised according to several trophic levels. The primary producers of the determined territory are plants (herbs and grasses) which receive the necessary sun energy as a result of photosynthesis (Callenbach 2008). The main three primary producers are Pot Marigold and Sage which have large green leaves.

The most common primary producer in the ecosystem is Pot Marigold because of its expansion within the territory. The consumers are animals and bacteria which feed on primary producers. The primary consumers in the definite ecosystem are the insects which can be eaten by the secondary consumers.

The observed primary consumers are ants, beetles, and hoppers. They can feed upon leaves of the grass and some herbs. The secondary consumers are different kinds of bugs which eat ants and a lizard which eat insects.

The tertiary consumer was not observed, but it can be a bird the feathers of which were found. There is less energy at the trophic level at which a bird can be observed and the limited number of the food. That is why the low density of the level is connected with the energy moved from levels to levels.

The food chain of the observed ecosystem is Pot Marigold and Sage ants, beetles, and hoppers two kinds of bugs and a lizard a bird.

Chemical Cycling in the Ecosystem

The dead organic material is presented in the form of dead leaves. It is impossible to compare the dead plant material with the herbs and grasses presented because of the changed shape and colour. The examples of the non-living animal material are not presented, but it is possible to conclude with references to the feathers found about dead birds at the territory.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Particular Features of the Ecosystem in the Fitzroy Gardens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are some small broken branches at the territory which were sent here with the wind. Dead organisms were not found under the layers of the grass, but it is possible to discuss the process of recycling of carbon and oxygen within the ecosystem.

Conclusion The purpose of the investigation was to observe the definite ecosystem in the Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne. The observed territory was an example of the grassland with different kinds of grasses and herbs presented. Some insects and the feathers of birds were observed at the place, and this fact allows concluding about the energy flow within the ecosystem.

The interactions between the biotic and abiotic elements are obvious with references to changing the wetness of the soil because of the presence of some big stones and the impact on ants.

Reference List Callenbach, E 2008, Ecology: a pocket guide, University of California Press, USA.

Cook’s Cottage Garden n.d. Web.

Fitzroy and Treasury Gardens n.d. Web.

Hollar, S 2011, Ecology, The Rosen Publishing Group, USA.


Rotana Hotel Management Report a level english language essay help

The corporate profile Rotana hotel management is a limited corporation operating as hotels and resorts Management Company in Middle East and North Africa regions. The company assets total over seventy facilities within twenty-six cities in Middle East and North Africa regions.

The corporation is headquartered in Abu Dhabi UAE where it originated. The company sales and marketing strategy aims to be effectual and practical in maximizing the expansion of each property’s market share.

Rotana hotel chains consist majorly of five star hotels with over thirty-five luxury guest rooms. Rotana hotel chains specialize majorly in servicing business and corporate clients. The hotel chains service the business communities around the cities they operate in and visiting corporate travelers especially in major cities in Middle East and North Africa.

The key clientele of the Rotana hotel management are corporate clients coming from domestic and international markets within the travel trade segments. The strategic locations of the properties are vital for their success due to their accessibility and proximity to other social services.

In addition, the repeated business the hotel management receive annually and the customer loyalty are vital to its success. Rotana hotel management is committed to offering its guests the most current technical business facilities both within the hotels conferences facilities and inside the rooms.

Situation analysis / Marketing strategy Corporate mission

Rotana hotels management is dedicated to offer its clients high quality and standard services. Offering quality and value to the quests is above everything in Rotana hotel management. The hotel management also recognizes their place in communities they operate and will always work towards developing cordial relationships with these communities.

Above all, the management will always respect and protect the environment of these communities. Rotana hotels management will strive to create and add more value not only to their clients but also to its suppliers, owners and the shareholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the management will continue to honor the hotel brand values while encouraging all the staff to widen their scope in an atmosphere of conviction and faithfulness.

Market research and knowledge

Rotana hotel depend mostly on corporate guests primarily guests from travel trade. With the current situation in the Middle East and North Africa where most of the hotels are situated, the market is expected to grow.

Moreover, with the continuous growth of the Middle East economies, corporate travels are also expected to grow thereby expanding the market. With these high expectations, Rotana hotel management must continue to focus on offering exemplary services to its clients at reasonable rates to build up customer relationships that go beyond one stay.

However, the hotel management is facing stiff competition from other group of hotels mushrooming in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Therefore, the hotel management must offer competitive room rates to maintain and attract other clientele.

The survival of Rotana hotel management in this highly competitive environment will depend on the client’s loyalty to the corporate brand. Thus, the brand must continue to provide quality, value, and deliver on its promises.

Customer profiling

Rotana hotel management is committed to offer value and benefits to its clients. Above all, the management is committed to offer standard services and facilities at affordable prices, which is according to the customers’ needs. Moreover, Rotana hotel management will always continue offering its guests with exemplary personal services as well as the reliable recognition that they always need.

In fact, it is in Rotana where guests are given more recognition. Above all, guests are provided with relaxed and luxurious environment ideal for business purposes.

We will write a custom Report on Rotana Hotel Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guests are also given an opportunity to develop personal relationship with the hotel that will result in increased efficiency, reliability, and value for their money as well as providing them with support they require at any given time.

Market analysis

The researches indicate that over 68% of the travelers are aware of the presence of Rotana hotel management. This number is continuously growing and is expected to reach its peak in the next few years. The market trends also indicate that the target market is growing at a steady and considerable rate.

The travel trade has grown averagely within the rate of 6-7% in all the countries where Rotana has facilities and at 9% in areas, it expects to put up new facilities.

The projected growth in the last five years has been slowed by world events. However, the current trends indicate that this growth rate will increase. Once it steadies, it is expected to increase with the increase in economic activities in the region.

Porters Five Forces

To facilitate the analysis of the industry and surroundings in which Rotana hotel management operates, the five forces model proposed by Porter will be applied. In other words, the Porters five forces approach will be utilized in evaluating Rotana hotel management competitiveness in the market (Porter 17).

The customers bargaining power

The Rotana hotel management products and services can easily be substituted with other services being offered by competing hotels at any point in time weakening the Rotana hotel management control.

The buyers of the Rotana hotel management services majorly constitute business and corporate travelers that in the last few years have reduced drastically. This clientele are the end users. Therefore, it can be concluded that the buyer’s power is quite high (Porter 17).

Bargaining power of suppliers

Firms within the hotels industry mainly deal with suppliers of highly perishable products. However, these companies may integrate to form a new competing company. Furthermore, firms such as Rotana hotel management are not capable of switching between supplying companies quickly and cheaply. This makes the bargaining power of suppliers rather high (Dunning 7).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rotana Hotel Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More New entrants threat

Because of renewed competition, Rotana hotel management had to go into additional cost to maintain its brand loyalty and promote new products. However, hotel clientele tend to be indifferent based on brand differentiation. There is an easy switch of networks among the non-loyal subscribers. This presents low product differentiation and barrier to entry (Dunning 7).

Competitive rivalry within an industry

Hospitality is one of the highly competitive industries in the world. Majority of local hotels like Rotana hotel management find it easy to set up since they could utilize their market leadership capabilities (Wernerfelt 175).

However, the foreign companies have an advantage in both technological and financial capabilities. Regarding the market accessibility, hotels are free to sell their brands to the consumers. The intense competition will lower Rotana hotel management control particularly, the prices of its services.

Threat of substitute products

There are several similar products offered by other hotels in the industry. Therefore, the threat of substitutes to the Rotana hotel management services is quite high. Rotana hotel management products demands are threatened by substitutes from other hotels products. In the condition that there is increased threat of substitute, there would be variety of alternatives.

This presents disparaging situation to the corporation. Rotana hotel management utilizes strong promotions in order to increase their brand loyalty and capture a considerable market share (Aiginger 64).

SWOT analysis Strengths

Rotana hotel management has well established differentiated strategy that distinguishes its products and services from its competitors. Moreover, the corporation has flat decentralized structures that eases management and reduces costs. In addition, the management and staff consist of diverse skills, which is resourceful to the Rotana hotel management (Davies and Ellis 1190).

The shared values of the hotel management are easily understandable and well communicated to all members of the staff. This is combined with strong and participative culture of all the stakeholders. All the staffs in Rotana hotel management are highly skilled and experienced, motivated and specialized.

The personnel consist of a well-trained team that is proud, respects, and promotes the corporation brand values. The staff of the corporation presents the brand values bring about brand loyalty in the midst of existing and new clients (Fyall and Garrod 23). The corporation also enjoys a strong reputation both within the domestic and international markets because of quality, reliability, and exemplary services to its clients.


Rotana hotel management differentiated strategy need to be well communicated both at the local and international markets. Moreover, seasonal staff turnover need continuous training and orientation, which might be costly to the corporation.

Some of the hotels rooms need renovation regarding putting in place technical equipments that support client’s services. The environment the chain of hotels operates is high volatile depending on the political climate each country presents in the Middle East and North Africa.


There are growth opportunities in the industry after long duration of slouch. Opportunities are also available in some countries such as Hong Kong and Russia where similar model of hotels are yet to be established. Moreover, direct competitors have been absorbed or merged with other thereby providing a vacuum for Rotana hotel management to thrive.

In addition, Rotana hotel management has already established strong and long-term relationship with the suppliers thereby reducing most of the supply costs. It is in Rotana hotels where guests enjoy personal services and quality. This has enabled the corporation to enjoy repeat corporate business. Therefore, guest dependency so far established and developed is another opportunity for the Rotana hotel management.


It is easy for new competitors to enter this market with similar products and brand. This poses a potential threat to the Rotana hotel management. New entries can either be from both domestic and international firms.

In addition to the threats of new entrants, substitute products offered by small and medium sized hotels and larger corporations are currently fully furnished with facilities that Rotana hotel management also offers.

Another threat is the slow growth of economy and some of the political instability being experienced in most parts of the Middle East and North Africa. This instability may cause some of the guests shy away from travelling to the Middle East where most of the hotels situated.

Product strategy and branding Rotana hotel management brand development and operations strategy is highly aggressive. The strategies are currently being administered in Middle East and North Africa states.

The strategies depend heavily on structures that have been put in place to keep up its reliability and existence on the Middle East and North Africa regional mass media, and worldwide satellite televisions.

The product and branding strategies has also been achieved through recurrent efforts and partnerships with marketing organizations around the world.

Market Communications and CRM The marketing strategy provides opportunity for the corporation to communicate its brand values, foster close relations with its clientele as well as other stakeholders and to be effective in identifying the needs of the customers. The corporation communicates its brand through its own PLCRS (Private Label Central Reservations System) as well as the internet technologies.

The PLCRS system provides instant messaging to all the communication tools that maintain its presence in Middle East, North Africa and around the world. The constant use of internet technologies provides a medium for hotels rooms reservations, customer relations, and online sales.

Macro-environment Political factors

Not only internal factors but also external environmental issues affect Rotana hotel management. These include political factors, economic, social, and technological factors (Hartline 99). Like any other industry or business, Rotana hotel management requires politically stable environment in order to achieve its goals.

In a stable political environment, any industry or business will thrive since they will generate revenue. Political stability has only been experienced by hotels situated in Abu Dhabi, Qatar, UAE and those in Saudi Arabia. However, those in Iraq and North African have experience intense political instability thereby reducing revenue generated considerably.

Economic factors

The recent economic recessions in Europe and other trading partners has resulted in many smaller business oriented hotels chains going under (Reid and Bojanic 71). The reason is that travelers have reduced considerably and few businesses are transacted. In addition, these hotel chains do not have supportive infrastructures as larger hotels do.

Fortunately, Rotana hotel management has considerable infrastructures that can support underperforming facilities. Therefore, economic recession not only affected smaller hotel chains but also larger ones including Rotana hotel management.

Social factors

Costs determine business and corporate travels. Since costs are continuously increasing, guests are constantly seeking value for their money (Reid and Bojanic 71). This is the reason why Rotana hotel management has come up with differentiation strategy. Another important social factor is culture. Most of the Rotana hotel management facilities are located in Arab countries where culture is different and highly restricted.

Technological factors

All Rotana hotels have been fitted with the modern reservation systems to add quality of services to the clients. The installation of on board reservations systems has to be integrated with the hotels central reservation systems to fully operate. The installations of such systems are always costly and require huge investments.

Internal-environmental factors Rotana hotel management structure

The corporation has adopted flat decentralized structures that have been perceived as simplifying management and reduces costs. Each hotel operates as a distinct entity with its own staff management strategies and culture.

The reason why the corporation has flat decentralized structures is that each hotel operates in different administrative and economic environment. Even though much of the operations have been decentralized, they have been integrated with central systems.

Rotana hotel management culture

Despite operating in different cultural environment, the corporation encourages participative culture among its staff and all the stakeholders. All the stakeholders are encouraged to contribute positively to the development of the corporation and promote its values. The provision of quality services, promoting brand loyalty and adding value to the services offered are encouraged among the staff, suppliers, as well as shareholders.

Rotana hotel management leadership and resources

The greatest asset of the firm is its leadership and staff. All the staffs in Rotana hotel management are highly skillful and knowledgeable, aggravated and expert in his area. The diverse skills, management, and staff are resourceful to the corporation. The well-trained personnel promote the corporation brand values.

In essence, the corporation leadership depends entirely on its staff while the staff operates under good leadership. The leadership roles and resourcefulness of the staff are integrated and this makes it possible for the corporation to achieve its goals (Nijssen and Frambach 117).

The effectiveness of the corporation marketing strategies The corporation marketing strategies are designed to resourcefully and effectively maximize the expansion of the entire facilities market share. In addition, the strategies have generated the sales targets and delivered the brand value and messages around the world.

The key objective of the marketing strategy is to attract guests and corporate clients into the Rotana hotels. Moreover, the marketing strategies are aimed at setting up and preserving individual links with significant travel operators in all its market segments.

In essence, all these objectives have been achieved. However, some of the strategies that have been put in place have proved costly to the firm. Ignoring the competitive structure, product positioning and appropriate market analysis has contributed negatively to the marketing strategy (Handlechner 67).

Recommendations An inquiry into the overall supply chain of the corporation reveals that the number of new entrants will increase considerably leaving the hotel operators with less concern to take advanced benefits of the market share.

Nevertheless, it has never indicated the closing stages of development as the target market is estimated to increase up to ten percent in the next three years. Furthermore, new hotel operators within the industry depend on value addition as a means of penetrating the market.

In line with the increasing commerce in the region and around the globe, the need for hotel services will also rise in the coming years. The fact that major players in the industry dominate the market share in Middle East and North Africa regions does not necessarily mean that they are the only contributors in the regions hospitality sector. The in-depth analysis on their operations and business activities as well as the recent developments is highly required.

Rotana should consider putting in place strategies that will increase its competitiveness in the global market place. That is, its strategies should be visible within the global context (Handlechner 78). Besides, the corporation operations must be geared towards increasing the customer value. Its services and products must be differentiated from those of the competing firms in addition to continuous provision of quality services.

Moreover, the corporation must focus on creating, communicating, and delivering the value offerings to the target market. In its differentiation strategy, the firm must position its products and services in such a way that the clients understand the ability to fulfill their needs. Pricing is critical in this strategy.

Customers will always go for high quality and high quality attracts high prices (Hartline 234). However, for the corporation to remain competitive and attain its goal of offering high quality and value to its customers, its products, and services must be at reasonable prices. In essence, it must position its products in feasible locations (Handlechner 117) (see the generic price-quality perceptual diagram in the appendix).

Customer focused survey Q1. Please rate each aspect of our service (tick)

The time taken to speak with our support desk staff

Very long




Very short

The staff’s expertise in solving your problems





The staff’s professionalism/courtesy





The staff’s interest in solving your problems

Very interested


Fairly interested

Not interested

The overall time it took to solve your problem

Very long




Very short

Q2. Please point out how satisfied you are with our overall services.

The hold time it take to be serviced

Very long




Very short

The staff’s expertise in services provision





The staff’s professionalism/courtesy





The overall time it took to be serviced

Very long




Very short

Q3. Do you consider thoroughly serviced?



Q4. Was your issue sorted out immediately you contacted support staff?



Q5. Have you seen or use our online support web site before?



Q6. Please provide a general remark on how you would like our services to be improved or other services to be provided

Works Cited Aiginger, Karl. “Competitiveness: from a dangerous obsession to a welfare creating ability with positive externalities.” Journal of Industrial Trade and Competition, 6.3 (2006): 63–66. Print.

Davies, Howard and Ellis Paul. “Porter’s competitive advantage of nations: Time for the final judgment?” Journal of Management Studies, 37.2 (2000): 1189–1213. Print.

Dunning, John. “Internationalizing Porter’s Diamond.” Management International Review, 33.4 (1993): 5-13. Print.

Fyall, Alan and Garrod Brian. Tourism Marketing: A Collaborative Approach. Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2005. Print.

Handlechner, Manuel. Marketing Strategy. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008. Print.

Hartline, Michael. Marketing Strategy. Farmington Hills, MI: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Nijssen, Edwin and Frambach Ruud. Creating Customer Value Through Strategic Marketing Planning: A Management Approach. New York: Springer, 2000. Print.

Porter, Michael. “Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy.” Economic Development Quarterly 14.1 (2000): 15–35. Print.

Reid, Robert and Bojanic David. Hospitality Marketing Management. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.

Wernerfelt, Birger. “A resource-based view of the firm.” Strategic Management Journal 5.2 (1984): 171–180. Print.

Appendix Appendix 1. Example of generic Price-Quality perceptual map


Dubai Economic Policy on International Trade Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Dubai’s openness to international trade is the most important factor in Dubai’s rapid development. Dubai’s policy on international trade has encouraged the development of infrastructure to support trade. Infrastructure built to support trade includes roads, airports, and power plants among others. The rapid development in real estate can also be attributed to international trade.

Trade in Dubai was affected by bureaucratic procedures in the 1990s. There were very many procedures that a business entity went through before it could be allowed to operate. The process of setting up a business was slow because of manual procedures.

The government in Dubai took corrective measures by forming Dubai Trade in the early 2000s (Emirates Competitiveness Council 6). Dubai Trade was an organization formed to speed up the process of starting up a business in Dubai. The Dubai Trade Portal provides online services for licensing and business inquiries.

Dubai’s openness to trade is enhanced by the operation of Free Zones. The Free Zones are isolated areas within Dubai that allow foreigners and local people to engage in business without paying common taxes such as corporate tax and income tax. Foreigners are allowed to own 100% of any business entity (Dubai Economic Council 12).

The Free Zones are set up in specific areas and may deal with specific products. An example of a free zone is the Dubai Internet City. It covers companies that deal with information technology and associated products. Dubai Healthcare City is another example of a free zone that specifically attracts medical expertise. Other Free Zones may attract capital from multiple sectors such as Jebel Ali Port Free Zone.

The Dubai government has pursued policies that have reinforced its dominance in regional trade. Imported goods are charged low custom duties. They are charged a 5% custom duty except for alcohol and tobacco (International Business Publications 103).

According to economic theory, comparative advantage applies to a country that produces a specific product at a lower cost than others. Most governments use custom duties to protect local industries from countries that have a comparative advantage. The government in Dubai pursued openness to trade as its main economic policy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There were not many local industries to lobby the government for protection from international trade. As a result of Dubai government’s policy on international trade, the value of goods traded through Dubai has increased at a rate that is 12 times the rate of increase in the global worth of goods traded across borders in the last 2 decades (Emirates Competitiveness Council 9).

Before 2000s Trade became difficult because of bureaucratic procedures that were required to obtain a permit. A trader venturing into UAE had to be inspected by “customs, health authorities, Free Zones, sea and airport services among others” (Emirates Competitiveness Council 4).

Traders were required to present the required documents in person. Dubai government had formed the Dubai Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation (PCFC) to oversee the engagement of international trade.

Dubai’s openness to trade is enhanced by the operation of the Free Zones. The Free Zones are isolated areas within Dubai that allow foreigners and local people to engage in business without paying common taxes such as corporate tax and income tax. One of the examples of Free Zones is Dubai Airport Free Zone. It is involved with the trade of a wide variety of goods and services.

Another example of a Free Zone is the Dubai Healthcare City that attracts medical expertise and related products. Dubai Internet City established in 2000 at a cost of US$250 million is also a Free Zone. The government allows foreign companies operating in the Free Zones to obtain100% ownership. They are also exempted from paying corporate tax for a period of 50 years.

Businesses are also exempted from income tax and capital gains tax. They can also transfer the entire profits to their preferred international destination (Library of Congress – Federal Research Division 19). Most Free Zones are located close to seaports or airports with a few exceptions located in areas set aside as export processing zones.

Dubai gained its competitive advantage as a regional hub in the Gulf region through Dubai Creek. The Dubai Creek provided a naturally-deep harbor that was unrivaled in the Gulf region.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Dubai Economic Policy on International Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Dubai Creek provided a better port than other areas in the UAE. In 1958-59, the Dubai Creek was dredged which allowed it to receive larger ships. It provided an advantage because ships in the Arab region had to be stopped about 2 miles from the shores due to shallow waters (Jones 196).

The government through its economic policies has enhanced the advantages that Dubai had developed by modernizing its ports. Dubai’s Jebel Ali port was developed in the 1970s. It is recognized to have the largest man-made harbor in the world (Emirates in the UAE par. 4). The other emirates lacked the same advantage as Dubai in using seaports.

Dubai chose to support a diversified economy because there was a forecast that its oil reserves would be depleted by 2015. Nyarko (8) explains that Dubai recognized that its economy could not be sustained by oil reserves early enough to develop policies that enhanced diversification. Abu Dhabi accounted for 90% of oil produced in UAE.

Abu Dhabi was producing 2.5 million barrels per day when Dubai was producing 240,000 barrels per day by 2006 (Nyarko 8). Abu Dhabi has been supporting other emirates through its oil revenues. Abu Dhabi has also been pursuing diversification policies but not at the same pace as Dubai. Its oil reserves may last more than a hundred years.

Two reasons emerge that made Dubai pursue a different economic policy. One is the historical advantage provided by Dubai Creek in the 1960s. Oil production also started in the 1960s in UAE when Dubai was already developing into a regional hub.

The second reason is that it had oil reserves that were projected to run out by 2015. Its oil production is also minimal compared to UAE in general. The other emirates relied on oil revenues and grants from Abu Dhabi which produces 90% of the UAE oil (Nyarko 8).

After 2000s The other emirates have also adopted Free Zones after reports of their success in Dubai. WTO (37) discusses that all the other five emirates excluding Abu Dhabi have followed the policy of establishing Free Zones after Dubai’s success. The first Free Zone was established at Jebel Ali Port in 1980 (WTO 37). Several other Free Zones have been established ever since.

There were 22 Free Zones in UAE by the end of 2005 (WTO 38). Some of the Free Zones are dedicated to a specific economic sector such as Dubai Internet City, and Knowledge Village. Some of the Free Zones cover multiple sectors (Welcome to UAE Free Zones, par. 1). They are mainly focused in processing exports such as the Jebel Ali Port Free Zone.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Dubai Economic Policy on International Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Free Zones have been effective in attracting FDI and human capital. The highly skilled labor and new technology attracted by the Free Zones has kept the quality of goods and services to standards similar to advanced economies. Dubai is more successful by being a pioneer in setting up the Free Zones in UAE.

The PCFC was transformed to become the Dubai Trade which brought together stakeholders from the private sector and the government. Dubai Trade became an independent entity in 2006. Dubai Trade reinforced e-services. Dubai Trade portal linked traders to common regulatory services such as Dubai Customs, and DP World (Emirates Competitiveness Council 6).

In 2008, Dubai Trade collaborated with DP World to launch Rosoom Electronic Payment Gateway which removed the delays in transactions that were being experienced because customers could not make online payments (Emirates Competitiveness Council 7). The creation of Dubai Trade has increased access to services. It has reduced the speed and cost of exporting and importing commodities.

The Dubai International Financial Center (DIFC) was launched in September 2004 to facilitate international trade and foreign investment. It is a self-regulation financial free zone that allows investors to trade in financial assets and foreign exchange (Library of Congress – Federal Research Division 12).

Dubai economic policy offers great support to international trade. Most of its policy implementations are an effort to ease linking to international trade (see Appendix A). Schiliro describes that Dubai is a “regional center for finance, real estate development, shopping, exports and re-exports” (6). Dubai has established itself as a service economy.

Dubai openness to international trade Modern trade policies use a combination of theories. Sometimes the mercantilist theory may require the protection of local industries. Comparative advantage may require countries to produce commodities in which they have a lower marginal cost. Sen (3) discusses that international trade in the neo-classical trade theory focuses on opportunity cost.

The theory focuses on optimization of productive efficiency, consumption, and the utilization of factor inputs at full capacity. Dubai appears to have followed the optimization rule. It tries to use its resources at full capacity. For example, its arid land is better used for real estate than for agriculture.

The emirate offers passage for exports at a lower cost rather than applying trade restrictions. The indirect benefits associated with the handling of goods and services help to build the economy.

Dubai ranks highly considering the time taken to obtain a permit. As it can be seen in Appendix B, only construction may be delayed when waiting for a permit. Construction activities take 55 days for one to obtain a permit (Dubai Economic Council 7). However, it is not much different from other countries which also take longer in the construction sector.

The Free Zones allow foreigners to own enterprises entirely. Foreigners can hold up to a 100% of a business entity. Foreign ownership in the Free Zones has an average of 84% foreign ownership compared to 49% in Dubai Main.

Dubai Main is the area that operates using local laws which excludes all privileges found in the Free Zones. The government restricts foreign ownership of businesses in Dubai Main to 49% (Dubai Economic Council 12). Corporate tax and income tax are charged as usual. The government holds a very small percentage of enterprises in Dubai (see Appendix C).

The Free Zones have a higher rate of training workers compared to Dubai Main. Firms that train workers represent 30.3% of firms in the Free Zone compared to 11.4% in Dubai Main (Dubai Economic Council 20). Dubai is able to benefit from transfer of expertise from foreign workers. Sections of the law also ensure that locals are employed. According to economic theory, knowledge influences economic growth.

Dubai Main has the higher total factor productivity in the retail sector, IT, and real estate compared to the Free Zones (Dubai Economic Council 21). The Free Zones that deal in goods only allow wholesale of commodities. Firms have to transfer their products to Dubai Main if they want to engage in retail.

The custom charges in Dubai are lower compared to other emerging economies. Imported goods are charged a 5% custom duty except for alcohol which is levied 50% and tobacco products are levied 100% (International Business Publications 103). The low custom duty has been influential in making Dubai successful in international trade.

The government benefits in the Free Zone areas through rates paid on offices, warehouses, and development of other physical structures. There are benefits of services such as registration, licensing, and permits. The area also attracts foreign investment (Dubai Economic Council 22). Trade is also able to enhance the tourism sector. The Free Zones have enhanced rapid development by attracting highly skilled labor, technology, and finance.

Results on trade policy Dubai has experienced a higher economic growth rate than the other emirates except for Abu Dhabi which relies massively on oil revenues. In 2012, Dubai real GDP grew by 4.4% compared to 7.7% in Abu Dhabi (The Economy – Gross Domestic Product, GDP, par. 1). Trade in Dubai has increased at a rate which is over 12 times that of the overall international growth rate (Emirates Competitiveness Council 9).

From 1994 to 2009, global worth of commodities involved in cross border trading increased from US$5 trillion to US$11 trillion. It represents a 120% cumulative growth. Within the same period, “Dubai’s export rose by 1500%, to a value of US$14 billion” (Emirates Competitiveness Council 9). It shows that policies on international trade are effective.

Dubai has experienced a higher real GDP growth rate than either Singapore or Hong Kong between 1991 and 2008 (Al Sadik and Elbadawi 122). In the period Dubai growth rate was 8.7%, Hong Kong 4.2%, and Singapore 6.4% (see Appendix D).

Dubai is compared to Singapore and Hong Kong because of a similar focus on international trade. Hong Kong and Singapore provide hubs for East and Southeast Asian countries. Dubai provides a hub mainly for the Arab and Gulf region. It also provides a hub for other areas in the world because of the advantage provided by its low custom duties and other privileges.

Conclusion Dubai rapid economic growth is attributed to its openness to international trade. Modern ports, real estate, medical expertise are some of the development areas that are directly influenced by its openness to international trade. The government needs to keep reviewing its policies on international trade to maintain the competitive advantage it has developed.

The competitive advantage has been enhanced by government policies such as the low custom rates, the privileges in the Free Zones, and supporting infrastructure. The government can maintain a competitive advantage by adopting modern technology as fast as they are innovated.

Works Cited Al Sadik, Ali, and Ibrahim Elbadawi. The Global Economic Crisis and Consequences for Development Strategy in Dubai, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print.

Dubai Economic Council. Business Environment, Enterprise Performance, and Economic Development in Dubai, Dubai: Dubai Economic Council, 2011.

Emirates Competitiveness Council. “Dubai Trade – Building Competitive Advantage through Collaboration.” Policy in Action. 03 (2012): 1-12. Web.

Emirates in the UAE 2013. Web.

International Business Publications. United Arab Emirates Business Law Handbook Strategic Information and Laws, Washington, DC: Int’l Business Publication, 2012. Print.

Jones, Jeremy. Negotiating Change: the New Politics of the Middle East, London: I.B. Tauris, 2007. Print.

Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. Country Profile: United Arab Emirates (UAE), Washington, DC: Library of Congress – Federal Research Division, 2007. Web.

Nyarko, Yaw. 2010. “The United Arab Emirates: Some Lessons in Economic Development.” UNU-WIDER Working Paper. 2010/11 (2010): 1-13. Web.

Schiliro, Daniele. “Diversification and development of the UAE’s Economy.” MPRA. 47089 (2013): 1-16. Web.

Sen, Sunanda. “International Trade Theory and Policy: A Review of the Literature.” Levy Economics Institute Working Paper. 635 (2010): 1-23. Web.

The Economy – Gross Domestic Product, GDP 2013. Web.

Appendices Appendix A

Dubai business environment in a comparative perspective

Source: Dubai Economic Council (9).

Appendix B

Days to get a license in comparison to other countries

Source: Dubai Economic Council (8).

Appendix C

Ownership of firms by percentage

Source: Dubai Economic Council (12).

Appendix D

Dubai real GDP annual growth rate % in comparison with other countries

Source: Al Sadik and Elbadawi (122).


Environmental Policy Making in Developing Countries Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

Introduction The interdependent relationship between the government and businesses leads to changes in economy and market, demanding proper environmental and economical practices. Economic stability is largely linked to the governmental institutions, in connection with the society and public demands.

A business setting or functions of an organization involve an intricate cooperation between the government, society and the company, moving the economy in cities and pre-setting future governmental actions.

Many aspects depend on how the market views the businesses with the linkage to the government and how it is being treated in the economic setting. One of the key aspects of any business is to be able to interest the government, public or society in the products or services that are being offered to people and organizations.

The pollution through fuel use, technology and many other aspects of civilized life has brought about many changes that humanity was not ready for, including a lessening of resources used for energy, a shifting pattern of crop’s growth and emergence of diseases. The Earth’s population must get ready for a new era that will require a more efficient use of energy and a better conservation of people’s health.

Brazil is the second fifth largest country in the world geographically and in terms of the population. In this view, Brazil epitomizes on the ongoing global tension pitying biodiversity preservation against sustainable agricultural practices and economic growth.

Brazil is a key emerging economic power, which has a GDP of US$6040 billion and a GDP per capita of US$326.21 billion in 2004 (European Commission, 2007). The country’s environment is one of the richest in the world because of not only the flora and fauna, but also because of its ecosystems, which contain an excess of 15 % of the plant and animal species known to botanists (Saxena, 2005).

The country is the source of water and also a water table of up to 12% of the available freshwater worldwide. Brazil is also undoubtedly one of the leading producers of food and Biofuel in Latin America and globally (Ferreira et al., 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To continue with this trend of a lead in food production and water, the country should try to institute measures, which aim at reducing the negative effects of poor farming methods, while improving farming practices.

Therefore, this paper discusses how sustainable and productive agricultural practices can be used to promote economic development and conserve the environment and thus, prevent the occurrence of the vicious cycle.

As is obvious from the present matters, industrialization has brought about a significant change to the lives of nations, individuals and the public. Industrial globalization has led to all countries cooperating for mutual and own benefit, so new technologies have become a great part of any nation.

Even though the advantages of technology greatly outweigh the disadvantages, there are now, many more ways to abuse the information that can be instrumental to the success of nations.

The laws that are being made and governments must carefully monitor the innovations that come into existence, as there are many people who will take advantage of the developed nations. It is clear that as a result, governments and businesses are forming alliances, cooperating in the common fight against pollution and moving towards prosperity and future possibilities.

The interdependent relationship between the environment, government and businesses leads to changes in economy and market. Economic stability is largely linked to the governmental institutions, in connection with the society and public demands. Brazil’s environment involves an intricate cooperation between the government, society and nature.

Many aspects depend on how the society views nature with the linkage to the government and how it is being treated in the economic setting. One of the key aspects of any nation is to be able to interest the government, public or society in the products or services that are being offered to people and organizations. The place of access for a business has some basic and concrete general patterns and structure.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Environmental Policy Making in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To make it easier for companies to locate and contact a connection to other institutions and businesses will be rather effective. The fact that there will always be people and organizations which provide a service or a product, communication becomes critical in the search for the right company. To market a product, cooperative relationships with people and nature would allow for an easier and quicker gain of finances.

An equally problematic result of the warming climate is the variation in the heat waves, rains and general changes of weather conditions. The environment is becoming hard to predict and the fluctuations cause a difficulty in relying on the climate.

Catastrophic events, such as floods and hurricanes lead to an even greater problem, as the land becomes polluted by the harmful substances and plants and animals become infected. The rising sea level is another consequence of the climate change. If there is an increase of one meter, it will cause devastation to many regions (Walter, 2008).

Understanding the Vicious Cycle


Social Bullying in Jeff Cohen’s “Monster Culture” Essay writing essay help

Bullying and hazing in America is a topic that has received extensive attention in the recent times. Even though there were people who took advantage of others some time ago, and it would seem the modern world has been modified to exclude such practices, nonetheless bullying still exists.

There are numerous personal and social examples that show how certain individuals take advantage of others, from sports to school and workplaces. The biggest questions are: what drives people to bully others, who is susceptible to bullying and hazing, and what can be done stop this form of abuse?

Jeff Cohen discusses the “monstrosity” of bullying, and offers a connection between reasons for such behavior and the cultural views of the present times. In his essay titled “Monster Culture”, Jeff talks about labels that are attributed to people who bully others (Cohen 2006).

This is a significant point because it might be seen as one of the reasons such behavior continues. It is possible to suppose that when someone bullies a person whom they can take advantage of, the negative label or stereotype of a bully is reinforced. For example, there might be a personal reason why someone wants to make fun of or degrade another person.

When others see such behavior, they think it is for no reason or they cannot comprehend why someone would bully that person. As such, the person bullying gets a label of a “monster” unjustifiably. Of course, there is no excuse to resort to violence or degrading behavior towards others, but the label of a “monster” causes that person to live up to the name or reputation.

They feel the need to keep up the public image because it adds to their confidence. It is obvious that everyone wants to be respected, feared and treated as a leader, which is the exact position bullies get themselves into. There is no denying that the culture also contributes to a bully image because the western world raises children to be confident and strong.

There is also a great focus on the individuality and personal freedom where a person can do close to anything to act out inner urges. Even though there is a definite connection between the modern times and labels, the problem exists on a much deeper personal level. A good example of the culture and people’s actions can be observed in an article about Miami Dolphins by Peter King.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sport culture has always been thought to be based on fairness and justice. The fellowship among sports men and women has been glorified on numerous occasions, showing comradeship and mutual respect. “The Mess in Miami” by Peter King brings to light a situation where football players bully their teammates.

This might be seen as an initiation event or a form of attention but in reality, it is clear that the players who are being bullied are not enjoying it (King 2013). The fact that there is always some rough play and pranking among team members is well known.

It is clear that there is no harm if people are having fun in the process. But often, some boundaries get stepped over, and it is fun no more. It seems strange that even adults become victims of bullying and hazing, and this raises concern as to what is going on in the schools and other educational institutions, not to mention workplaces, where people are suscepted to such unfair treatment.

The reasons for such behavior are numerous. As in the case with Miami Dolphins, it might be assumed that the teammates did not think anything of the matter when they were “bullying” others, as the sport is very tough and requires stamina.

It would be difficult to attribute evil and psychopathic intentions to the “bullies” because most likely, they did not go as far as to think that their actions might cause some damage to others. This leads into another important part of the problem, which is gender roles, and how masculinity is viewed by the society.

Don Sabo discusses how the social norms view men and activities they engage in. An essay titled “Pigskin, Patriarchy, and Pain” talks about stereotypes that have been enrooted into human society for many centuries. Men are viewed as strong, pain free, soldier type creations that are meant to survive in harsh conditions with physical and mental limitations.

Even though this fact is partly true and men are naturally made stronger, the morality and mental health are much different from the physical attributes (Sabo 2006). Even though a person might be male or have physical strength, their mental processes, self respect and confidence might be on a very low level.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Bullying in Jeff Cohen’s “Monster Culture” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People always look for respect and acceptance, and in case they are degraded physically, they suffer internally, as their feelings of self worth are greatly deteriorated. An example of this is Jonathon Martin, NFL player who is discussed in Peter King’s article.

The society and sports culture might think that men are tough and especially, those who get involved in rough sports and extreme situations, but being tough has nothing to do with the ability to handle degradation and abuse. Every person wants to be treated equally and with respect, so even if they do not show the pain from the constant abuse, it does not mean it is absent.

A deeper look at an individual’s personality reveals that there is a battle between several aspects of a person’s character. Angeline Price digs deeper to find the true reasons why certain people become bullies and others are being bullied.

An essay on “Working Class Whites” examines the stereotypes that exist in society, and how people’s internal workings relate back to the public views and norms. “White trash” and “good country folk” are contrasted to reflect the different types of ego. It has been known for some time that there is a battle inside every person between the morally right and rebellious sides (Price 2006).

One side is called “id” and is a part of ego that does not have a “filter”. Whatever comes into the mind, the person cannot qualify the action as negative towards others, and is unable to see the consequences that will emerge for the person being acted upon.

It is clear that his part of character is mostly dominant in the childhood stages, as children are not able to develop a sense of morality and predict the consequences of their actions. As a result, a lot of bullying and hazing exists in schools where children become scapegoats and victims of those who are older, stronger and more insolent than the rest.

Price aligns this side of an individual with the “white trash”, and this is clearly a socially formed label that is given to those apathetic to the public’s moral regulations. On the contrary, “good country folk” are given a positive label of being “an angel”, which is linked to the “superego”.

This is a part of the person that filters thoughts and actions, learns from mistakes and avoids disrespecting others. It is a certain fact that an individual is the basis for bullying, but there is another view by Christina Samivalli who proposes that bullying grows stronger in groups.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Bullying in Jeff Cohen’s “Monster Culture” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A peer-reviewed article titled “Aggression and Violent Behavior” offers to combat groups of bullies and group mentality instead of single individuals and victims. It is possible to agree that a group is much stronger and influential than an individual (Salmivalli 1996).

Forces such as peer pressure and the want to fit in with the “popular” crowd take a hold of people, predisposing them to behaviors and attitudes that are dominant in the group. Not to mention that there is a diffusion of responsibility within a group, which means that if there are several people partaking in a bullying activity, each individual person will feel less responsible in the act because others are participating as well.

In a way it is possible to see how this is true, as if there is an allowance from others to bully someone, and then it must be the common view and goal to join the activity. The greater the number of participants, the more people will feel inclined to join in, as the dissipation of responsibility becomes even greater.

The feeling of being empowered and supported by friends who are also bullies, serves as a great force and people become disentangled from their moral obligations to behave respectfully towards others. But in order to combat the problem, the group research and analysis is the second step in the process.

The primary step that must be looked at is at the individual level and the development of human personality, those of bullies and victims consequently. Matt Stein’s photograph titled “Condiments Display” shows how two football players are being bullied by their teammates. It is a clear illustration that the problem is not in the group, but within each individual person who allows themselves to participate in such actions.

“Condiments Display” illustrates how even though the two players seem distressed and are clearly not enjoying the situation, other players are continuing their “bullying” (Stein 2011). The presence of the group might add some incentive to bullies, but such behavior stems from individual specifics of the person’s character.

For someone to take advantage of others, abuse them physically or mentally, they have to have a certain trait in their personality that desensitizes them to pain and disrespect towards others. A person must be distant from the suffering of the fellow human being, thus finding a scapegoat in their face.

Psychologically, there are several reasons why this happens. That bully might have been abused as a child; improper parenting techniques might have eluded to teach the child that disrespecting and mistreating others is unacceptable by all standards. A personal approach to bullies is the necessary action to be taken.

Bullying and hazing is a definite problem in the society. Both offenders and victims must be taught self confidence and ways to deal with a situation that gets out of hand. Personal attributes are the key to making a change, so strong parental leadership and regulation enforcement are crucial in eradicating bullying and hazing.

Works Cited Cohen, Jeffery. “Monster Culture.” Readings For Analytical Writing, 3rd Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006. 105-123. Print.

King, Peter. “The Mess In Miami.” The MMQB with Peter King The Mess In Miami Comments. 2013. Web.

Price, Angeline. “Working Class Whites.” Readings for Analytical Writing. 3rd Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006. 390-94. Print.

Sabo, Don. “Pigskin, Patriarchy, and Pain.” Readings for Analytical Writing, 3rd Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006. 425-428. Print.

Salmivalli, Christina. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Tarrytown, NY: Elsevier Science Inc., 1996. Print.

Stein, Matt. “Condiments Display”. Photograph. Bleacher Report. Nashville, TN. 2011. Web.


Sarvodaya and Zapatista Organizations Approaches’ Comparison Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

This paper is aimed at discussing the functioning of two non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Sarvodaya and the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. They represent two different approaches to the functioning of NGOs. Overall, one can say that Sarvodaya emphasizes the need for cooperation and partnership as methods of addressing urgent problems.

In contrast, Zapatista exemplifies the radical protest against the state. Moreover, it is important to provide recommendations to these organizations that operate in different social, economic, and political environments. These are the main questions that should be examined.

First, it should be noted that Sarvodaya takes part in various projects. For instance, this NGO offers assistance to displaced families living in such districts of Sri Lanka as Mannar, Padaaviya, or Vavuniva (Sarvodaya). Secondly, this agency attempts to promote reconciliation and peace in Sri Lanka. One of its major objectives is to alleviate political, religious, or cultural tensions that can contribute to the rise of violence in this region.

This is one of the tasks that they try to perform. Apart from that, Sarvodaya promotes tourism in Sri Lanka since this activity is critical for the social progress in this country. On the whole, this organization can be described as a grassroots movement. Its functioning is based on the premise that separate individuals can achieve significant results by sharing “sharing work, knowledge, talents, and time” (Sarvodaya).

Moreover, separate efforts of individuals can contribute to significant changes in public opinion (Sarvodaya). In particular, they can promote democratic development in the society. This organization promotes small-scale gift-giving, but this strategy helps them address many problems. These are the main peculiarities that can be identified. These issues are important for understanding the strategies adopted by Sarvodaya.

In turn, it is possible to speak about the functioning of Zapatista Army of National Liberation. This organization differs dramatically from Sarvodaya. This organization was established to support indigenous people of Mexico (Inclan 1316). Moreover, one can argue that it is a paramilitary NGO that openly resists the policies of the Mexican state.

The representatives of this movement believe that the government is not willing or able to resolve the difficulties faced by the Mexican society. It should be mentioned that Zapatista is movement which emerged a very repressive political environment (Inclan 1326). At the beginning, this organization opposed a non-democratic state.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from that, Zapatista protested against “closed local governments” because they oppressed indigenous people (Inclan 1345). Nevertheless, the number of their protests decreases if they see that the government attempts to carry out political reforms (Inclan 1345). They expect the state to change its policies toward indigenous people of Mexico.

One should keep in mind that Zapatista combines various ideologies such as anarchism, socialism, and Marxism. Moreover, these people prefer to live in separate communities that are not regulated by the Mexican government. Nevertheless, they do offer a political agenda that the government should consider. This NGO does not contribute to gift-giving. This is one of the arguments that can be put forward.

This discussion shows that NGOs can function in different ways. For example, the representatives of Sarvodaya rely on the principle developed by Mahatma Gandhi. Their strategies is based on the premise by joining their efforts, separate individuals can bring significant improvements into the life of a community.

Moreover, this organization emphasizes the idea that people should focus primarily on conflict resolution. In contrast, Zapatista does not try to resolve its conflict with the government. This is the most important distinctions that can be distinguished.

It is possible to provide several recommendations to these NGOs. At first, one should speak about Sarvodaya. First of all, this organization should increase international awareness about the problems faced by people in living in Sri Lanka. In this way, they can attract additional funding and resources.

Moreover, they should establish partnerships with other NGOs that lay stress on peaceful resolution of conflicts. These are the main strategies that this organization can adopt. By taking, they can help a great number of people.

In contrast, Zapatista should change its rhetoric. They should try to cooperate with the government in order to resolve the problems that affect indigenous people of Mexico. For instance, they need to identify the specific problems that should be addressed and propose some viable solutions. At present, Zapatista mostly criticizes, but this strategy is not productive.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Sarvodaya and Zapatista Organizations Approaches’ Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, they should raise international awareness about the problems faced by people. This approach can attract more supporters to this movement. Furthermore, they should avoid violent conflicts with the state, because such conflicts can marginalize Zapatista. This is one of the points that can be made.

These examples indicate that non-governmental organizations may pursue various goals, but their strategies may differ significantly. Some of them can be viewed as grassroots movements that attach importance to cooperation and initiatives taken by separate individuals. In contrast, there are NGOs that pay more attention to open protest. Moreover, they are unwilling to search for compromises.

Works Cited Inclan, Maria. “Zapatista Mobilization under Transitional Conditions.” American Journal of Sociology 113.5 (2008): 1316-1350. Print.

Sarvodaya. Development Model. Sarvodaya, n.d. Web.


Karl Marx’s Biography Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Karl Marx’s biography

Philosophical ideas of Karl Mark


Works Cited

Introduction Karl Marx was a great German philosopher who lived between 1818 and 1883. Philosophical ideas of Karl Marx revolve around economics, political, and social perspectives of the society. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the philosophical ideas of Karl Marx.

Karl Marx’s biography Karl Marx was born in 1818 in the town of Prussian Rhineland. During his college education, Marx became an ardent follower of the thought of Young Hegelians which influenced most his works. His philosophy revolved around human society in the elements of class struggle and socialism.

As a journalist, he worked for renowned papers such as the Cologne and the New York Tribune, where his columns attracted both criticism and praise in equal measure. Marx died in 1881.

Philosophical ideas of Karl Mark Karl Marx expressed his sentiments on alienation and pain in the lower class workers imprisonment by the private individuals who have the resources to manipulate and twist social, development, and welfare aspects of the masses in the society.

Specifically, the views of Karl Marx on the nature of class struggle, causes and responses to these struggles by the masses were drawn from France during the period of 1848 and 1850. In fact, Marx argued that these private individuals are drawn from the bourgeoisies and the ruling elites in the society. The bourgeoisies are thriving in discrimination and exploitation of labor supply to satisfy their selfishness.

Since the bourgeoisies are the masters of labor production tools such as wages, this group, comprising of just a small percent of the society, comfortably sits at the apex of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid and cannot share the huge profits with the actual laborers who are subjected to harsh working conditions to create a surplus for their exploitative bosses (Shimp 17).

As observed by Marx, the powerful private individuals influence labor laws processes in any country to suit their private needs which he termed as selfish.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marx described these laws as ‘only good’ when the same meet their opinionated threshold characterized by mere confirmation of their will; which may not necessarily be in line with the will of the underage employees subjected to inhuman work condition with very little and unreasonable pay.

Karl Marx further pointed out that the agents of these masses such as labor unions are sometimes compromised to support the selfish course at the expense of the ordinary employees. Marx noted that the exploiters have formalized their definition partial policies in employee welfare and social interaction.

The passionate appeals by the exploited proletariats who give ‘free labor’ are ignored by the bias labor policies and internalized corruption among the agents who should regulate these private individuals (Marx 21).

Marx’s labor theory of value adopts a very simple approach to describe the type and source of profits in a production activity. Marx suggested that market equilibrium will be reached when market prices and production prices are equal as market competition will conspire to redistribute the excess value.

This interaction will ensure that profit would be equalized by the competition. Marx acknowledged the dynamics of the labor market.

In the ideal, the segmentation degree is controlled by union and government regulations that are designed to encourage rigidities and drive the costs of labor above the market clearing level. Therefore, the informal sector remains non proportional to reflect on the magnitude of the reforms required.

When there is an assigned probability of selection within a specific period of time, then the probability of an ingression into formal employment should be a rising experience function in the labor ratios (Marx 11).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Karl Marx’s Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marx was of the opinion that market equilibrium will be reached when market prices and production prices are equal as market competition will conspire to redistribute the excess value. Thus, increasing the function of production would eventually stabilize the profit rates in any long run production function.

Though the approach adopted by Marx was very abstract, he succeeded in extrapolating the factors of product to different labor determinant ratios such as socially standard compulsory labor and the abstract labor to a homogeneous labor called the “multiple of unskilled labor” (Shimp 22).

Karl Mark had bitter sentiments of alienation and pain in lower class imprisonment by the ruling class who have the resources to manipulate and twist social, religious, development, and political aspects of the society. Marx (1859) reflected in the actions of the political class in relation to the ordinary citizens.

Marx identified selfishness, definition partial policies, and class systems as propagated by the political classes in capitalist societies (Marx 19). Marx concluded that political revolution is possible if the masses change their perception on labor provision and the laws that imprison them.

As a result, he proposed a socialist approach through passionate appeal to the proletariats to rise above the normal way of life and start to question these bias policies and governance of labor which they provide for peanuts (Shimp 18). In a perfectly skewed labor market, Mark argued that wages are supposed to be determined by the cost of production and total output.

Unfortunately, this is not the case. The masses are merely spectators of exploitation as though our hands and minds are imprisoned in the dungeon of social classes.

Noting that these bourgeoisies cannot operate and meet their selfish goals minus the labor from the masses, Mark proposed that these ordinary workers could unite and move from mere spectators into agents of quantifiable and desirable change they long to witness (Shimp 19).

Conclusion Marx noted that the class struggles were influenced by the economic, social and political disparities between the bourgeoisies and the proletariats in the society. Marx concludes that the only solution to the class struggle is revolution to restore the socialism in the society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Karl Marx’s Biography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is achievable when the ordinary workers unite and move from mere spectators into agents of quantifiable and desirable change they long to witness. Marx’s theoretical review of historical materialism is applicable in the modern society. The philosopher relates the political, social and religious systems of the past as a result of capitalism.

The Marx notes that the building blocks of these systems are inequality, selfishness and vested interest. Apparently, these disparities have continued to promote class struggle in the modern society.

The above views are applicable in the modern society because of the fact that development and perception of an individual are greatly influenced by events in his or her external environment such as the type of education received, religious doctrines, and the social media of interaction (Shimp 17). At present, these are skewed towards fulfilling selfish ambitions of the minority who are the ruling class in any society.

Works Cited Marx, Karl 1850, The class struggles in France, 1848-1850. PDF file. Web.

Marx, Karl 1859, A contribution to the critique of political economy. PDF file. Web.

Shimp, Kaleb 2009, The validity of Karl Marx’s theory of historical materialism. Web.


Strategic Management Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Euro Disney was a company on the verge of economic collapse reflected on the grim figures of its financial statements. Below is an illustration of the statement from 1993/1994.

To steer the organization into profitability to become a market player and strategically position it in the market, the organization’s risk-taking intellectual executives had to embrace knowledge management skills integrated in the organization’s culture, behavior and vision to be a market leader, to gain a strategic market position.

One of the key elements for the management was to use value addition and analysis techniques in the design and implementation of its value chain activities in addition to embracing the four concepts of product, price, promotion and place in the pursuit of a bigger market share, a strong brand name and image which are vital for any business interest.

These value chain activities could help position Euro Disney at a strategic position if the business managers envisaged them in the infrastructure of the company by identifying the human resources available, their knowledge and skills, the technology they had. Technology was catered for by integrating different subsidiary companies in addition to identifying logistical needs of the company and its subsidiary companies.

These value addition activities are a chain of events and activities which add value to the final product making it more valuable than the original product and competitive in the market. In addition to that, as illustrated in the case study, these value chain activities lead to the final cost of the product being lower than the value of the final value-added product. This is a combination of activities such as economies of scale, experience, supply costs, and the product design process. Euro Disney failed in this (Strategic Management 1).

Euro Disney has integrated the above factors in its value addition process particularly in the development and design of many of its unique products tailored to reflect the target market. The unique products include identification of cultural values of the target market such as the European markets and the Japanese market.

One of the successful integration of value addition activities included the Japanese Tokyo Disney land, a target market. The management of Euro Disney identified the unique market characterized by the 2 million customers annually, its potential as a tourist destination, readily available infrastructure, and a large market for its unique products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management, strategically thinking like their customers, tailoring and adding value to their products, strategically used the value chain analysis to identify the market potential and improve the quality of their product offerings.

According to the article Value chain (Business Edition) (1), one of the primary activities the management of Euro Disney in its value chain analysis incorporated in the infrastructure of the organization was identifying strategic value addition activities such as the creation of resorts for family vacation entertainment centers, large and unique cultural offerings for its customers, and family vacations for those who wanted to stay for a short period of time in those parks.

However, Euro Disney’s management in its business strategies was using the same value addition activities to destroy itself. The decision by Walt Disney to build Euro Disney was a financial disaster culminating in the loss of $43 million against an investment of $ 600 million, reflecting poor management decisions in the use of the value chain analysis concepts. In addition to that, these value addition activities were clearly illustrated in the development phase the company invested in. These included phase one and phase two of the development plans (Strategic management 1).

The above chart clearly illustrates Euro Disney’s value chain activities and the financial management activities of the company in terms of the subsidiary companies it formed in its value chain activities incorporated in its strategic management plans.

The unique financial management structure illustrated above clearly illustrates the unique relationship between different European subsidiaries and Euro Disney. In addition to that other subsidiaries were managed by different companies such as the Euro Disney SCA by Euro Disney SA a subsidiary of Euro Disney.

According to the article Strategic Management (1) additional value chain analysis activities by Euro Disney included the management’s ability to identify logistical activities incorporated in the structure of the management as illustrated in the case study, out bound logistics, and the operations leading to it, the marketing and selling activities and tasks, services provided after the product had reached the market in this case including the kind of services customers received when enjoying the facilities and services of Euro Disney and those offered by subsidiary companies culminating in the company’s margins.

The organization was keen in factoring intellectual needs of the customers by identifying cultural and intellectual needs. This was vital in knowledge management initiatives of the organization. The wide variety of strategies in customer needs and customer behavior were deciding factors in value addition activities. These cultural needs included the French culture in addition to knowledge management skills of identifying and emphasizing on intellectual needs in the design of its products.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Strategic Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of value chain analysis was directly linked to the organization’s failure realized in the first year of business when students demonstrated identifying inherent design problems which did not factor customer needs in the event of a rise in the number of customers. The design did not incorporate the organization’s image in the context of European needs with an emphasis on European cultural context.

It clearly bore the characteristics of the American culture, thus a failure in the part of the organization in using its knowledge management skills and value chain analysis techniques in addressing customer needs. Such a poor image does not place a company in a strategic market position, particularly in its initial stages entry into the market. The company was plagued with loss-making financial statements, bad economic situation, and plummeting number of customers in addition to dwindling profits. The organization was on the verge of collapse.

It was incumbent upon the management of the company and its subsidiary companies to take bold and decisive actions to redesign its value chain activities and align the company with a vision that could integrate it into the exiting market create a good brand name and image in its value chain activities.

References Strategic Management, The value chain [Online] 1999-2007. Web.

Strategic management. The Value chain Web. 2002-2007. Web.

Value chain (Business Edition). IBM Corporation. Web.


Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Benchmarking involves comparing a business operations and performance ranking of a company or industry with top performers from other industries. Factors weighed include quality, time, and value. After benchmarking a company or the industry players need to improve from learning by doing things effectively and efficiently.

My industry is the investment and banking sector. Over the years the investment and banking sector has been hit hard by many challenges which have threatened to tear the industry, even to an extent leading to the winding up of some of the industry players. The most recent scandals were pyramid schemes and scrupulous deals that have seen consumers loose their lifetime investments.

Also banks have been hit by the global economic downturn which saw the closure of several banking halls. This has seen lose of consumer confidence in the industry. Many customers are trading cautiously in, scared of succumbing to any scandals.

The industry needs put in place measures that regulate the investment companies or associations to avoid arise of any loopholes in the industry which could expose investors to any kind of threat of their funds. The industry should improve the customers’ confidence by offering secured means of investing and guaranteeing adequate returns (McNair, Kathleen


America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution Research Paper best college essay help

Since 1979 after the Iran revolution America and Iran has been having diplomatic differences in their relations and in the way they run their Nations as well as in dealing with Global issues. Among the issues that have made these two Nation to conflict and enter into a cold relationship includes; terrorism, nuclear issues, hostage crisis, Israel, the Iraq and Afghanistan war, human rights violation among other things which are differently viewed between the two nations (Anderson, 1981: 65)

Terrorism has been one of the key aspects that have resulted into major conflicts between America and Iran. It is a problem that immerged from one person’s faith: Khomeini, who believed that “Islam should rule the world and that democracy was the root of all evil”.

On the other had the American society and government is built on the principles on democracy an issue that contradicts the principles of the Iranian government. Since his death, terrorism ideologies begun to spread, with a lot activities targeting the US and its International interests (Ball, 1998: 124).

In recent years there have been plans for larger terrorists’ strikes operation as many dozen terrorist’s networks springing up. Since then, terrorism has taken a strong hold due to support from the Iranian government which they are determined to support despite of the appeals from world governments religious denominations and intervention by US government.

In the last decade, installations in the US have been destroyed as wide scale killing of innocent children and adults has taken place with as brutal hostage crisis have always been experienced as a result of Iran’s support to the extremist organizations. These activities have been claimed by America to be inhuman and a violation of human rights.

This is because the American nation believes in human rights and democracy, which has no place in Iranian government. In addition, the Iran’s’ failure to control the extremist views has resulted to the unrest and destruction of life around the world (Hogan, 1996: 80).

Iran is one nation that has maintained a high profile in encouraging the anti- Israeli terrorist activities. Israel is a major US ally and any adverse action against it is seen as a threat to American interests. Nevertheless Iran has constantly supported for the ethnic cleansing of the Israelis with impunity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, it has rhetorically, operationally, and financially supported guerilla fighting against Israel. For instance, the Iranian readers such as Khomeini and president Ahmadi-Nejad has been praising the operation conducted by Palestinian terrorists towards Israel as Iran provides the Lebanese Hezbollah and other Palestinian terrorist groups such as Hamas with logistics and military support.

It has as well offered extensive financial assistance, training and artillery to the terrorist groups in Palestine such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades as well as the Liberation of Palestine-General Command which Iran doesn’t view as terrorist (Mitchell,2004:16).

This support has strengthened the terrorist who have integrated their operation, an action that has served to alienate further the relations between the two countries resulting in the US calling for sanctions against Iran and labeling it as a terrorist government accusing the Iran government as a world enemy and promising to fight against it (Boyle, 1999: 132).

In addition Iran has continued to play a destabilizing role in Iraq by supporting terrorist operations in Iraq both directly and indirectly. It has engaged in provision of training to some of the Iraq political groups, provided weapons to Shia military groups and training to enable them defeat the agenda of the coalition troops which is led by the US government.

This support has made the Iraqi extremist groups to conduct activities and operations against the country’s government and other organizations in the country resulting to massive loss of life and property. Moreover the increasing hostility of anti-Coalition attacks has been facilitated by Iran in providing the Shia military with the capability to build IEDs which have explosive projectiles similar to the one produced by Iran and Hezbollah (Nation, 1992:54).

This has been facilitated by the act of the Iran revolutionary Guards who with the Hezbollah initiated a training program to Iraq militants on the construction of advanced IED technology which was passed to the rest of Iraq militants. This has facilitated to constant terrorist attacks to US interests by Iranian sponsored weapons (Charles, 1991: 56).

The government of United States as well as other nations like United Kingdom have been accusing the Iranian administration, particularly the Ahmadinejad administration for its role in causing un warranted suffering of the Iraqi people as well as the US military due to its overwhelming support of the terrorist organizations in Iraq (Ninkovich,1988: 62).

We will write a custom Research Paper on America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition Iran’s supports the Shia militias who have continuously attacked the Coalition troops, Iraqi citizens and numerous installations in Iraq aimed at destabilizing the region and frustrating the US in its effort to bring stability in the region this action led to what President George W. Bush termed Iran as the “worlds primary state sponsor of terror” (Clarke, 2005: 161).

The intervention of America in the Iranian terrorism matters raised the level of differences between the two nations. As a result, this has brought about suffering of innocent countries and individuals for example Israel and other US allies when terrorists operations are carried out to these countries aimed at American interests (Paterson, 1988: 364).

For example many American Embassies in different countries have been attacked by Iranian backed terrorists resulting to Massive loss of life and properties. Some of the countries that have been affected by these operations include Kenya, Iraq, and Palestine among others, where people end up losing their lives (Crockatt,1995: 89)

American has viewed this as inhuman acts where unwarranted attacks on people have led to loss of several lives and in turn a threat towards its sovereignty and security.

On the contrary, the Iranian governments believe that this a noble cause whereby the Islamic people are fighting for their freedom from the western world (Powaski,1998: 80). On the other hand, America being a democratic nation has seen this as violation of human rights and basic freedoms which needs to be stopped making the US call for continuous sanctions against Iran. (Friedman. 2000: 108).

In addition to this, Iran has continuously disrespected the united State’ families and victims of the Sept. 11, 2001, the terror attack and the 1983 bombing of the U.S Marines in Lebanon who were sent to keep peace between the Christian and Muslim fighting’s that was going on and resulted to loss of 241 servicemen at a Marines facility in Beirut (Gaddis, 1990: 51).

As a result a judgment of $2.6 billion against the Islamic Republic of Iran has been awarded by the federal court in Washington, D.C., although the families of victims of the 2001 terror attacks are still pursuing the Iranian government to pay the damages for supporting the terrorist attacks.

The Iran government claimed that the accusation on Sept. 11 attack involvement was a big lie against it. Furthermore, on the issue concerning the 1983 Marine attack, Iranian claimed that Ronald Reagan himself needed to be blamed because instead of keeping peace, the U.S army sided with Christians and started bombing Muslims, forcing the Muslims to attack back. Thus the American Government should be sued for lying to people concerning these matters (Roy, 198).

Not sure if you can write a paper on America and Iran Relation After 1979 Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other major concern that has affected the relationship between America and Iran is the issue of the Nuclear weapon production. The Iran’s operation of production of nuclear weapons sent a spike of fear throughout the world and the world’s peaceful condition was at stake (Sivachev and Nikolai 1979: 43).

This was aggreviated after the United State’s invasion on Saddam concerning the production of nuclear weaponry, which was used by Iraq in bombing Iran during the Iraq-Iran war. On successful elimination of the nuclear weapons from Iraq, Iran took the opportunity to start nuclear operation, an idea that was rejected by United States and other powerful nations. Despite this, it is believed that Iran continues to manufacture nuclear weapons secretly (Gaddis,1987: 67)

This can be attributed to the difference in issues concerning Iranian nuclear program by the US nuclear experts and the US intelligence officials who have more access of vital information concerning Iran.

On the other hand the reports concerning nuclear terrorism on the Iran’s neighboring countries also made Iran fear that its security and political development is at stake if these countries like Pakistan were to attack them hence the Iran leaders and experts had to confront the situation ( Ulam, 1974:97).

This was a matter that the Iranian government was not ready to ignore and the country had to think of the necessary precautions it needed to undertake to prevent any attack that could be brought up by these countries. As a result Iran saw it as a need to have even a minimal nuclear deterrent capacity (Westad, 2006:219).

When the US announced its invasion to Iraq, Iran was supportive though its main objective was to eliminate Saddam’s nuclear threat. However, on the Pakistan and Afghanistan threat to Iran it reconsidered its quitting to shelf its weapons but instead it optimistically took this opportunity to install nuclear defense.

As a result it brought back the old Iranian nuclear threat to other neighboring countries and globally. However, Iran claims that its nuclear production is for defense purpose, a situation that have made Washington to reconsider its perception on Iran, as not simply a nuclear threat, but rather a potential in partnership on fight against global nuclear terrorism(Lewis, 2006: 91).

The US officials hence needed to understand the Iran’s stand on the nuclear terrorism issue to determine whether they were to collaborate with them. However, the collaboration of US-Iran was seen as a gateway that could allow Iran in its ambitions of nuclear weapons, this cooperation between US and Iran on nuclear terrorism campaign was seen to have possibilities in cooperating with Afghanistan, hence neutralizing the call for a nuclear shield against nuclear terrorism.

Although, Iran was no more afraid of Pakistan nuclear attack, US defense Secretary, William Perry, said “there is a real threat of nuclear strike against the US from non-state actors in Afghanistan and Pakistan.” In addition Iranian alleges that the anti-Shi’ite radicals in Pakistan would attempt to attack them if they managed to interrupt and make away with the Iranian nuclear artillery.

These views concerning attacks to Iran and US made their relations on nuclear terrorism fight come to an agreement despite the restrict measures imposed in Iran by US concerning the weapons production ( Zubok,1996: 78).

Despite its fight against nuclear terrorism by other Middle East countries, the Iranian plea to be licensed in nuclear production was denied. This has made the two nations to remain in continuous suspicion of each other concerning their security issues. The US due to Iran’s war like activities any significant increased in its arsenal would result in fears around the worlds and in particular towards the US Since it will be considered that such an amount of unrivaled arsenal would be directed towards the US and its installations in the world.

This can be seen in the US alarm over Iran nuclear ambitious which will jeopardize its peace if Iran were to acquire nuclear weapons and attack to United States. Hence it has portrayed Iran as not qualified for nuclear production. However Iran has condemned the US over its double standard nature since other nations in the world are allowed to purse nuclear ambitions while it is not (Ball, 1998: 34)

The Iran-Iraq war was major concern and took the intervention of the United States government. Immediately after the Iran revolution began, Iraq invaded Iran with an aim of stopping the revolution while in its infancy; for fear that the revolution would spread to Iraq. This invasion resulted to an eight year war between the two nations, which led to massive killing of government officials, military and civilians.

This war was condemned by United States, which sent peace troops, and forced them to make for peace resolutions. This action by the US led to resentment by the two countries. In addition, the Marines peace keeper whose mission was to settle the conflict between Christians and Muslims were condemned by Iranian for siding with Christian and attacking Muslims. This resulted to suicide bombing which coasted many American lives and Hatred between the two nations expanded.

The hostage taking of Americans in Iran has also affected the relationship between these two countries. Immediately after the revolution, the Americans in Iran were held hostage with the claim that the United States backed up Shah’s regime. Despite the United States plea to Iran to release their citizens the hostage crises still persisted.

The American families of the victim pleaded with the government as it accused Iran for its actions and refused to agree with the negotiations. This took place in 1979 to 1981, where 52 Americans were held hostage for one year and sixty nine days, after a faction of Islamic students and militias took over the American Embassy as a show of support to the Iranian revolution (Leffler, 2007: 348).

Due to unsuccessful of negotiations for hostage release the US army made an attempt for a rescue operation which failed resulting to death of eight Americans servicemen and one Iranian civilian. This hostage taking was viewed as a “retaliation and reciprocated disbelief” entanglement. It was seen as a blow to the United States governance despite the US freezing all Iranian assets in the in the United States.

The effect of this hostage crisis was had far more adverse effect on the American administration which was accompanied by the loss of presidency of President Jimmy Carter in November 1980. This situation strengthened Khomeini political power and his opposition to the US. On the other hand, it marked the genesis of U.S legal action and fiscal embargos against Iran as well as deteriorating the economic ties between the two nations which has its effect up to date (Gaddis, 1982: 253).

The Iranian government exercises exploitation to its citizen by its faith that democracy is an enemy of development. The minorities like women are exploited and are denied their rights of expression. They are made to be submissive to men. In addition, human rights, concerning movement freedom, speech freedom as well as expression have always been undermined.

This has made the Human Right Programs and movements in the US to intervene and try to reduce exploitation act a move that have been received with hostility in Iran. This is because they consider US as an enemy without the moral authority to intervene in its sovereign matters (LaFeber, 1993: 43).

The United States is also concerned with the false faith that is instilled in Iranians concerning their relation with the US as a result of the Iran’s media and government. For instance the suicide bombing is an issue of a human right of life which is exploited by the Iran’s regime.

From the revolution, the relation between the United States and Iraq have been at stake and involved with a lot of friction concerning human right, terrorism and war among other issues. This has brought about many differences in views concerning both internal and global issues which are disagreed by the two nations. As a result, this has coasted both nations and the world much in terms of properties and lives (January, 2008: 256).

In conclusion after the Iranian revolution, the relations between the two countries have always deteriorated with time as each country pursed its own interests and that of it citizens and allies. Despite the fact that the world is becoming one global village, this realization is still far from becoming a reality to both countries as their differences are continuously increasing in each and every agenda on their tables from human rights to nuclear ambitions (Lundestad, 1999: 412).

Reference List Anderson, T. 1981, The United States, Great Britain, and the Cold War, 1944-1947, University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

Ball, S. 1998, The Cold War: An International History, 1947-1991, British perspective, London.

Boyle, P. 1993, American-Soviet Relations: From the Russian Revolution to the Fall of Communism, Routledge, New York.

Charles, W. 1991, The Long Postwar Peace, Penguin Press, London.

Clarke, B. 2005, Four Minute Warning: Britain’s Cold War, Tempus Pub Ltd, Gloucestershire.

Crockatt, R. 1995, The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in World Politics, 1941-1991, Routledge, London.

Friedman, N. 2000, The Fifty Year War: Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War, Chatham Publishing, NC.

Gaddis, J. 2005, The Cold War: A New History, Penguin Press, London.

Gaddis, J. 1990, Russia, the Soviet Union and the United States. An Interpretative History, Penguin Press, London.

Gaddis, J. 1987, Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War, Penguin Press, London.

Gaddis, J. 1982, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy, Penguin Press, London.

Hogan, M. 1996, America in the World: The Historiography of US Foreign Relations since 1941, Chelsea House Publications, PA.

January, B. 2008, The Iranian Revolution, Twenty-First Century Books, IA.

LaFeber, W. 1993, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1992, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Leffler, M. 2007, For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and theCold War, Hill and Wang, New York.

Lewis, A. 2006, The American Culture of War: The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom, Routledge, London.

Lundestad, G. 1999, East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Politics since 1945, Oxford University Press, London.

Mitchell, G. 2004, The Iron Curtain: The Cold War in Europe, Chelsea House Publications, PA.

Nation, R. 1992, Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917-1991, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Ninkovich, F. 1988, Germany and the United States: The Transformation of the German Question since 1945, Twayne Publishers, Boston.

Paterson, T. G. 1988, Meeting the Communist Threat: Truman to Reagan, Oxford University Press, New York.

Powaski, R. E. 1998, The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991, Oxford University Press, New York.

Sivachev, N. and Nikolai Y. 1979, Russia and the United States, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Taubman, W. 2004, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, W. W. Norton


Baritone Voice as Primo Uomo in Mozart’s Operas Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Baritone Voice

Primo Uomo: Definition and Significance


Operas by Mozart


Reference List

Introduction The world of music has always been alluring for creative people. Music is one of not many art forms that are possible to specialize in even if one does not have a genius for it. Of course, in this case, becoming an extraordinary musician is impossible, but a person who has an utmost desire to play music will realize at least some of his/her dreams.

Music is the same indulgent for those who have been hurt by nature; the history of music abounds with examples of talented composers who either were deaf from birth or have gone deaf in the course of their music career. The greatest peculiarity of music is that it uses terms that may be unknown to those who are not involved into the world of music.

A person who does not have musical education will never be able to duly appreciate operas composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart or any other prominent musician. Mozart’s operas are especially interesting to view from this perspective because every single character in this composer’s works has a meaning for the entire opera and the part that he/she sings was given to this character not for nothing.

A number of Mozart’s operas, such as Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan Tutte, Die Zauberflote and their characters, such as Count Almaviva, Don Giovanni, Gugliemo, Papageno, and others are united by the presence of baritone voice as primo uomo. Hence, the aim of this paper is to consider these operas in more detail and to define how important these characters are for these operas and why namely baritone voice was chosen by Mozart as primo uomo.

Baritone Voice Definition. Baritone is the most common type of male voice “usually written for within the compass A to f, which may be extended at either end” (Sadie


Habermas and the Public Sphere Essay college essay help online

Introduction In 1962, Harbeneas introduced the concept of public sphere as an ideal and also as an empirical description through his seminal work “The structural transformation of the public sphere: an inquiry into a category of Bourgeois society”. Through his work, he created the impression that the public sphere was an arena where different people would come together to discuss issues of social interest.

In his opinion, every person was an equal participant and had an equal chance to participate in the open discussions (Colhoun 1992). Bennet et al. (2004) adds a contemporary twist to the public sphere definition by stating that it is “the collection of places and spaces-from neighbourhood cafes to internet chat rooms- where private individuals can speak their minds in public, form opinions and become independent agents in governing the state” ( p. 437).

In the contemporary society, the media has assumed a major role as an informer, educator and an entertainer to the masses. In capitalist societies, it also takes a mediating role between the social life, the economy and the state. In Kellner (2006) opinion however, the media have been neglecting its mandate as a tool to promote democracy and serve the public interest. As such, the author argues that the media has for decades now forfeited the crucial role of aiding the formation of a democratic society.

Drawing similarities between the current day communication media and what Habermas refers to as the “steering media”, Kellner (2006) argues that the media has a major role to play in the public sphere and especially in regard to promoting democracy, yet is has failed to rise to the occasion allowing a crisis in the public sphere to take place.

But does Habermas theorise the functions and nature of present-day communication media? Well, his writings suggest that he perceived the media as a tool for information transmission. To him, the media was not as important as debates and the eventual consensus building that formed the basis of democratic process (Habermas 1992).

This explains why he chose to highlight the dissimilarity between “the communicative generation of legitimate power on hand and the manipulative deployment of media power to procure mass loyalty, consumer demand and compliance with systemic imperatives on the other” (p. 452).

Analysing the above quote one gets the impression that Habermas did not consider the media as a tool that could bring about democratic transformation as he perceives it (media) as a tool that can easily be manipulated, and also interested in power and money. This means that Habermas excluded the media from contributing to the democratization process through giving people a platform where they could equally participate in debates and social discussions (Relic 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Kellner (2006), Habermas’ rigid perception of the media is partly explained by the fact that his perception of public sphere was defined at a time when print media was the only prominent form of media. During this time, Kellner (2006) observes that the print media fostered arguments that were rational, objective and agreeable.

Being a writer who got his opinions and concepts published in print media, Kellner (2006) believes Habermas had an open bias against other forms of media, which include broadcast (radio and TV) and the internet. This is despite the fact that broadcast media and the internet was presenting the society with new forums where public debate could be held.

In Kellner’s observation, the public sphere as stipulated by Habermas would be incomplete in its democratization attempts without the active participation of the ‘fourth estate’ as the media is commonly known. But why does Kellner reach to this conclusion? Well, in most democracies, governments constitute three arms namely: the executive, the judiciary and the legislature.

While these three arms of government are meant to maintain the checks and balances that would prevent abuse of power, the media, usually plays the crucial role of highlighting some of the shortcomings in government that the three arms would naturally keep mum about. In an apt definition of its role, it’s right to say that media in democracies play a watch-dog role in all institutions of government.

If one was to define democracy using Abraham Lincoln’s terms, it is “government by the people, of the people and for the people”. This then means that the governed people have a key role to play in a democracy. Notably however, people cannot play an active role if they are not properly informed. Here is where the media chips in.

According to Kellner (2006), the media balances power by providing the necessary checks and balances to a government. In their additional role, they should serve as informers and cultivators of active citizens who are ready to participate in governance whenever the need arises. Failure by the media to inform and educate the citizens, or failure to check the excesses of government would lead to a crisis in the respective democracies.

In Habermas’s theories, one gets the impression that the media is a sounding board through which social problems can be voiced to the political system.

We will write a custom Essay on Habermas and the Public Sphere specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on his description of the public sphere, this essay holds the opinion that the contemporary media can easily fit into the public sphere. This is because, the media is able to gather information from different corners of a society, broadcast the same, and encourage people to react on the same and even raise discussion issues where people can debate and exchange opinions regarding the same.

According to Kellner (2006) the democratic theory requires the public sphere to highlight social problems, give them a theme and if possible amplify them in such a manner as to catch the attention of the law makers. Out of the debates that take place in the public sphere, possible solutions can also be given to the law makers or other branches of government.

The contemporary media fits this discussion as it provides the public with a discussion forum outside the political confines and as a result, people are free to debate specific social issues and come up with possible solutions that they would like to see implemented by the government.

According to Sani (2009), for the contemporary media to fit the public sphere as defined by Habermas, it needs to be free, fair and objective. This means that whenever the media is laying down an agenda for the public to pursue, then it would have no hidden motives. Rather, it would be pursuing the need to promote and preserve democracy and the independent institutions of the government. Further, the media should be accountable as a watchdog.

The equal platform offered by media for people to debate and discuss issues conforms to the public sphere definition. According to Sani (2009), the free and fair media should hold the notion that every person has a valuable contribution that he or she can make.

This is supported by the idea that “there is no way of telling where a good idea will come from; valuable contributions come in different forms; a person’s contribution has the capacity to stimulate better ideas in others. It can also be refuted, reformulated or some value added to it” (p.5).

In one of its critical roles, the media serves as an information tool that disseminated educative and informative information to the masses, which in turn leads to development in given societies. In democracies, the role of the media is voicing the lowly voices which otherwise would not be heard is crucial to fair representation (Sani 2009).

More to this, the media acts as the public informer on the activities of the government. According to Sani, “the public has a legal right to know what its government is doing and the press is the representative of the public in finding that out” (p. 12). In a participatory society, the public’s right to information is crucial since it avails the information needed to create social awareness, which is in turn important in bringing out the truth about political controversies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Habermas and the Public Sphere by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Giving a voice to public opinion The media in democracies is expected to voice public opinion objectively to allow the respective governments understand what the public supports or dissents. However, political reality suggests that the newsmakers have a major effect on the news aired by the media unlike the ordinary citizens. Political observes however note that the news makers are often representative of the public opinion although this is not unanimously agreed (Sani 2009).

It is also apparent that sometimes the media fails to keep in touch with public opinion since it lacks the necessary connection with the public. Sani using the example of the media in the United States notes that while free speech is allowed, the degree of which the media is ready to engage in the same is often questionable.

In some cases, the media is very outspoken and often seems to investigate all leads to the story, while other stories are treated more cautiously. The language, the tone and emphasis used by the media when covering stories affect how the public perceive the public event.

Accusations of biasness in the media also seem to jeopardise its role in the public sphere. The US media for example reporting about the war in the Middle East seems biased towards Palestine. Most highlights create the impression that Palestine is the perpetrators and attracts the wrath of the Israeli’s.

But is this usually the case? Or do the US media deliberately shield most of the atrocities by the Israelis towards the Palestinians? While journalists may be to blame for this kind of partial reporting, where they gather their news from is the most likely sources of their biases.

According to Sani (2009), news sources mainly feature selected institutions, which exclude the general public. More to this, opinions voiced by elite people in the society are given more weight than opinions from the ordinary citizens. Views expressed by ideological dissenters are also ignored.

This goes against Habermas concept of equality in the participation of debates held in the public sphere. Sani notes that opinions voiced by the public receive quaint treatment often being ignored or simply published on the back or inner pages of the media.

This however changes when electoral politics are concerned. Suddenly, public opinions become important because after all, the public forms the electorate and therefore the power to elect people to governance posts lies with them. The same scenario is repeated in matters that require public support. Even in such issues, the media needs to play an important role in alerting people that they need to judge the political scene in order to influence politics in their jurisdictions.

Public sphere According to Sani (2009), “the public sphere is the means through which democratic decisions are reached” (p. 20). For media to be seen as a public sphere however, it needs to be accessible to all publics and also needs to be representative of all people. Traditionally, the media provided the link between the government and the governed people.

Considering the definition of democracy discussed earlier in this essay, it is clear that the role of the media as an informer and an educator of the masses is almost a clear cut. By providing the public with the right information, the media empowers them to not only make informed decisions regarding the form of leadership that is most appropriate for them, but also enable the public to hold the government accountable.

In the liberal theory, the public sphere “is an arena between the distinct areas of state and civil society that guarantees the protection of an individual” (p. 20). This suggests that the liberals perceive the public sphere as a political domain, while media is associated with the government.

Considering that liberals believe that the civil society should have more powers over the government, it is clear that the media in their perspective is expected to meet the information needs presented by the society. Notably however, privatisation and conglomeration which are current trends in the media industry hampers free flow of information, which in turn means that the media does not fully meet its democratic ideals (Sani 2009).

In the contemporary society Kellner (2006) argues that the public sphere needs to be redefined in order to include political struggles, discussions, information sharing and contestations that take place in public forums. The new definition according to the author also needs to take account of new developments in the media and hence needs to include new discussion platforms such as the cyberspace, face-to-face discussions as well as the wide array of broadcast media.

These forms of media are creating public spheres where debate, information sharing, and discussions can take place. The platforms advanced by the new forms of media can be used by intellectuals and activists to engage the masses for purposes of intervening in affairs affecting a specific society.

With internet use becoming commonly used among a sizeable fraction of the population, a new public sphere is in the making and it would be foolhardy to ignore the developments occurring therein. Blog sites have now presented people with real time discussion platforms where they are able to voice their opinions regarding a specific issue.

As such, Kellner (2006) observes that the web platforms have the capability to revitalize democracy by increasing the distribution of progressive and critical ideas to the masses, in addition to creating new possibilities for promoting positions, attaining social control and manipulating the masses.

To stress the role that the media plays in the public sphere, Kellner (2006) predicts that political wars in future will be fought not only in the traditional sites like parliament and the streets, but will also penetrate new realms in the computer world as well as other broadcast media. To this end, the author suggests that people interested in the culture and politics of the future should be willing to delve in the new public spheres created by information technologies.

The new challenge with information technologies producing a new form of public sphere lies in ensuring that the platforms created are not used as manipulative tools, but are rather used to educate and inform the masses. According to Kellner (2006), this can only be attained if people engaged in the democratic process teach the masses on the right and beneficial way of using the new technologies.

Such would include teaching them how top articulate interest and experiences on the new platforms and ways through which people can promote beneficial and objective debates amongst themselves. By doing this, the World Wide Web would create a new platform where new ideas would be shared amongst people and even common issues affecting everyone in the world like climate change would be discussed and solutions proposed.

The advantages of the new public sphere are identified by Abrash (2006) as easy access; social networks; and scalability. In regard to easy access, everyone who has access to the internet can participate in the relationships and online debates. The social networks on the other hand are not structured.

Rather, people join voluntarily thus meeting the standards set by Habermas that debates would be open to all willing participants. Regarding scalability, Abrash (2006) notes that the social networks where public debates take place start small and gradually grow to massive numbers. In some cases, participants are able to consolidate resources that promote growth and development in their respective areas.

Unlike traditional broadcast media which is regulated by the media code of ethics, and in-house rules that sets the boundaries of what can be published or not, there are concerns regarding the regulation of new technologies (Kellner 2006). More to this, there are also concerns about funding and accountability. No doubt these are challenges that will need to be addressed as the internet progresses to a fully fledged public sphere where democratic principles can be exchanged.

There is also no denying that the open participation structure adopted by contemporary media can turn chaotic. This then raises the need for a structure, which not only regulates the debates, but also sets specific rules on how participants can behave (Abrash 2006). This would ensure that the new public spheres are accountable, but does not means that people cannot speak as freely.

There is also the challenge of misinformation generated in new public forums as well as polarized discussion that seem to favour one group of the divide. Using the example of popular blog sites in the US, Abrash (2006) notes that white men are the dominant contributors.

In such a case therefore, one would expect that the debates would not be inclusive of female opinions as well as opinions from people from other races. In future therefore and in an attempt to promote democratic tendencies in such media, there will be a need to ensure that such media include diverse voices from different sections of the society.

Sustainability of the new media is also a key challenge. This is especially the case considering that the internet is a highly competitive environment, which would need a solid foundation and support from the participants in order to survive. Abrash (2006) further notes that sustainability would also call for the public media to engage with the market-driven economy in order to secure sponsorship and funding.

There is no ignoring that the web-based media will be subject to policy issues. At present, it seems that the web-based media is yet to receive the protection needed to ensure it survival and longevity in the public sphere. This then means that policies need to be formulated and enforced in order to encourage people to nurture and protect the public sphere created by the internet. Such policies could also encourage citizens to participate in the public spaces created.

According to Abrash (2006) however, the media holds opportunities for the public sphere unequalled by any other platforms where people can meet and discuss issues.

For example, the media is capable of “modelling new public behaviours” (p. 8). This assertion is informed by the fact that media has given the public a platform where opinions can be voiced. In an attempt to diffuse polarized opinions, the media uses moderators who set a coherent discourse of a debate. The ability of the contemporary media to broadcast over long distances sometimes transcending continental boundaries means that the participation and engagement of the public is also wider.

The contemporary media also encourages public spheres to be concentrated on shared interests and issues (Abrash 2006). Again, the ability if contemporary media to transcend national and geographical boundaries means that groups with similar interest regionally, nationally or globally can share their ideas and opinions on a common media platform.

With the internet gaining a central place in all these, face-to-face discussions are replaced by real-time virtual discussions. But what benefits has this had on the public sphere? Well, according to Relgic (2005) the technological innovations in the media have opened political possibilities that were unattainable in the past.

For example, the authoritarian governments that prevented people from accessing information are finding it harder to prevent such information from circulating. However, this does not in any way mean that the democratization process is easier to attain with the information age; Rather, how governments and the public use the new forms of media to create awareness is what really matters.

Examples Media use in peace times

As indicated elsewhere in this essay, climate change is affecting people of all walks of life regardless of where they are in the world. This then is an issue of public importance that is being discussed in numerous forums. While meetings between countries are only occasional, the debate on the climate change and the environmental impact that people are experiencing as a result is an ongoing debate in the media.

As Dobson (2008) notes, the environment is a common-pool resources, which is subject to abuse by some self-serving people at the disadvantage who are interested doing their part to maintain it.

In a website that publishes articles that cover ecological and sustainability issues in the world, Dobson (2008) offers his opinion about what is jeopardising efforts to conserve the environment. More specifically, he zeros in on ‘free-riders’ who take no active role in conserving environment, yet they benefit from the same environment in equal measures and possibly even more than who take conservation measures do.

Dobson (2008) uses the platform availed by the web to pass his arguments to readers that tradable carbon permits, which have been advocated as a solution to the climate change problem and those who continue to abuse the climate is not a solution, but only enhances the problem.

He argues that carbon traders set the prices at ridiculously low prices thus jeopardising the entire notion of carbon cap trading. He proposes a different type of solution where the public need to be informed that environment conservation should be a priority not because of the self benefits that people can accrue from the same, but because it benefits each and every individual in equal measure.

Yet, Dobson (2008) correctly predicts that such a process would still be dogged by the ‘free-rider’ problem. To this, he notes that the solution to climate change would have to include cultural, economic, political and technological ideals in order to be successful. Most of all, the government would need to expand and protect the public sphere for environment protection to take place.

According to Dobson, privatisation of key public sectors is putting the public interests at compromised positions because private properties are protected by law. By privatising key public services, the government is aiding in the corrosion of public sphere as well as the interest of the majority of the people.

In his argument, Dobson (2008) believes that privatisation is having a major impact on the public sphere and no wonder pool resources like the environment are being exploited by self-seeking private citizens. In a platform like the one used by Dobson, one gets the impression that a wide access of by people who have been wondering about government’s approach to environment conservation could have elicited more comments.

Presently, only one person has commented on the article meaning that either people have not yet accessed the forum, or do not find Dobson’s argument worth commenting about. This then raises doubts about effectiveness of new media as a debate platform in the public sphere.

Hobson (2009) observes that public debates regarding climate change often involve opinions voiced from cultural understandings, personal experiences and also from scientific understanding. When such varied opinions are brought together on a public forum, the participants perceive the debate as highly significant since it relates to policies set by government and practices observed by the public. Such debates are therefore more likely to shape the public collective perceptions about environmental matters.

The just concluded coverage of the British elections is an example of media coverage in peace times. Though the British media is supposed to give all parties equal coverage in the run-up to the general elections, Labour party and its leader Gordon Brown received 53 percent of the total media coverage, while the Conservative party and its leader David Cameron received 32 percent of the total media coverage. The Liberal Democratic Party and its leader Nick Clegg received the least coverage with only 15 percent coverage (O’Leary analytics, 2010).

War time example

The media has always been an information tool during war time, not only providing up to date information of the happenings in the battle fields, but also creating a sense of unity among the government, the army and the public (Stevenson 1995).

The Falklands war, which occurred in Britain in the 1980s is such one example where the media took an active role in disseminating information and creating forums where people could voice their opinions regarding the war. As one would expect, war times are laden with tension and the public have deep concerns about the welfare of the country.

As Stevenson (1995) notes, the Falklands War was no different. The media at the time was not as liberal as the case today and depended much on the directives offered by the Defence minister during their coverage. Lobby systems also affected the news that was aired to the public as well as the judgement held by journalists regarding what the public would like to hear. Stevenson (1995) notes that the media had an open bias during the war.

He argues that the media coverage misrepresented women by portraying them in their traditional home making roles despite the fact that they (women) were more actively engaged in economic activities following large numbers of men going to war. Meyer


Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty Cause and Effect Essay custom essay help

Over the past few decades, trade has helped many economies develop and consequently raise the standards of living for their households. Due to the rapid rate at which the world is becoming a global community, technological advancements have played a pivotal role in the development and enhancement of international trade in terms of communication, production and service delivery across the boarders.

This paper shall in detail focus on analyzing the impacts of technology on trade. It shall then evaluate the effects that such impacts have had on the poverty levels on a global perspective.

According to Pressman (2008, p. 27), trade refers to the commercial exchange of goods and services for money. The author claims that when such transactions are within the boarders, it is known as local trade and when they go beyond the boarders then it is known as international trade.

Due to globalization, many business entities have been forced to change their business practices in a bid to ensure that they compete effectively in the global scene. Technological advancement has therefore been the main determinant towards the success of any organization trading in the international markets.

This is attributed to the fact that all business entities are aggressively embracing capital intensive methods of production in order to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals in terms of quantity and quality of production. However, the assimilation of technology in trade has had diverse impacts on the poverty levels experienced by different economies across the globe.

Das and the IMF institute (2007, p. 14) asserts that on a daily basis, the world is constantly experiencing some form of technological advancements geared towards improving human interaction. However, these advancements come at a very high cost. Small and medium sized businesses which at most times lack the financial backing required to update their technology regularly are therefore at a loss in comparison to their financially able counterparts.

As such, small businesses and some developing countries are inevitably forced to trade locally since they cannot compete with multinational companies. Consequently, they never grow or realize their full potential. In addition to this, due to the technological divide, multinational companies are able to infiltrate and dominate domestic markets especially in developing countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According Lipsey and Mucchielli (2002), this has led to foreclosure of small businesses which cannot compete effectively with these FDIs. As a result, most of the local businesses end up without markets for their products, many employees are left without jobs and these factors lead to increased poverty within these economies.

In addition to this, through the use of technology, multinational companies are able to acquire scarce resources much faster than the local companies which lack the technical know-how. As a result, the local businesses cannot compete effectively for these resources, meaning that their profits and quantities are lower.

On the same note, Cypher and Dietz (2004, p. 166) claim that due to the expenses incurred in updating the technology to international standards, many business organizations have over the years been increasing the prices of their commodities in order to cover the costs incurred in transporting, training and installing these new versions of technology.

The rapid increase in prices reflects badly on the consumers because their salaries in most cases are not increased and as a result, they are forced to spend more than they save; a factor that has increased poverty in the world. Most of the third world countries are still in poverty despite the fact that international companies invest in them.

One of the greatest advantages of FDIs is technological transfer. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002, p.95), foreign investors bring in new technology which can be used to develop and improve the economic standing of the host nations.

However, many countries are still not capable of affording such technology and they are stuck on using the little that they have. In addition to this, these FDIs in most occasions repatriate their profits back to their parent countries instead of investing them in the host nations. As a result, the hosts are left in a poverty ridden state while the wealthier countries and companies become richer.

Communication is the key to success in any business venture. Statistics indicate that by December 2009, 26.6% of the world population were conversant with the internet and had mobile phones. The number has ever since been growing at an alarming rate. Through communication mediums such as the internet, telephones and facsimiles, businesses are able to identify new markets, make mergers and other transactions with ease.

We will write a custom Essay on Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics indicate that internet advertisement grew by 20% in the last year. However, many countries have not yet gone digital and as a result, they loose out on business opportunities which could have been at their disposal. On the other hand, wealthier countries and companies which have adopted these means of communication take advantage of the situation and record millions in profits while their poorer counterparts wallow in poverty.

In addition to this, technological advancements have enabled many companies to market and advertise their products on the international scene. It goes without saying that worldwide publicity is good for business. Through the internet, investors are able to identify viable investment opportunities in different countries.

For example, currency traders have highly benefited from the internet because they are able to update the rates and inform their clients on the changes in real time. As such, technological advancements have therefore helped such businesses make profits in the international markets.

Without such technology, such businesses would never thrive because they would otherwise have to deal with the local market which in most cases does not offer much opportunity and market. Therefore, the assimilation of technology in this sector has helped alleviate poverty in these businesses and subsequently; economies.

France states that, ‘technological advances in the transportation industries have also benefited wealthy countries more than poor countries’ (2006:p.102). Due to the development of cars and airplanes, the transportation of goods and services has been made faster and easier especially in international trade. However, the costs of these modes of transportation are too high and small businesses cannot afford to use them.

As a result, most poor countries and their businesses use ships as the main mode of transport for international trade. They take too long and are not entirely reliable. On the other hand, wealthier nations and their businesses use airplanes and automobiles to transport their goods and services to foreign markets.

On average, a ship travelling to Africa would take up to 4 weeks on the ocean. Within that duration, a company using airplanes as their primary mode of transportation would make more than 20 trips within the same period. This means that by the time the ship arrives, the market will already be flooded with goods and services brought in by other means. Poor transportation and communication infrastructure are closely related to the poverty levels of a given economy. In addition to this, France (2006) reports that:

‘If a country does not update its transportation industries, international companies will not want to build warehouses and distribution centers within that country. This, in turn, creates high unemployment rates, driving the people further and further into poverty,’ (p.102).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological development in trade and its impacts on poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most of the developing countries especially in Africa and Asia are characterized high unemployment and lack of creativity and innovation. This is because they mainly depend on agriculture as the main source of income and trade. The Africa research bulletin (2006, p. 6911) assert that due to poor technology, infrastructure and methods of farming, most developing countries which primarily depend on agriculture are facing high levels of poverty.

The authors acclaim that this is due to the fact that climatic conditions are worsening, and they lack formidable links to international markets due to poor transport and communication channels. However, due to technological advancements, countries like Thailand and Kenya have been able to develop agricultural provisions which can withstand the harsh climates.

This has seen the economies of these countries thrive because they can produce as much as they can and market their products abroad. In addition to this, most of the agricultural economies have also been able to access machinery which they use to produce their products (tractors, harvesters and soil analyzing equipments).

As such, they have over the years been able to produce quality agricultural products which fetch good markets on the international scene. Arguably, it is therefore a fact that technological advancement in the agricultural sector has helped alleviate poverty in the economies that rely on agriculture.

In most cases, technological advancement determines the standards of quality for the products in the international markets. Without adequate technology, a country or company cannot produce the right quality and quantity. Low quantity/ productivity is considered as a major source of poverty.

This is because it has negative effects on the standards of living of the households within a given economy. In addition to this, low productivity within such economies makes it Nevertheless, countries and businesses must always work to increase the speed of difficult to compete on the international scene.

As such, if a country or company cannot update their industries and technologies then they will not be competitive and will have a considerable increase in its poverty levels. Rivera-Batiz and Olivia (2003, p.576), state that technological advancement and transfer has contributed to the success of globalization. Through technology, many organizations and countries have in the recent years been able to form economic alliances and integrations.

However, it would seem like the countries that have benefited the most from such alliances are the wealthier ones while poor countries and small organizations are left to suffer. Statistics indicate that the establishment of trade agreements and treaties among countries has contributed highly towards the development of international business and technological transfer.

However, the establishments of such business relationships have to a larger extent contributed to increased poverty in countries that have no claim to these economic benefits. France reports that, ‘such business agreements cause the economies of many countries and smaller companies to collapse’ (2006:p.103).

In a bid to encourage equality and competition in the world, technological advancement and globalization have single handedly made it difficult for some countries and companies to venture in international trade. In as much as they may be fairing well in the local scene, the cost of going global is too high thereby rendering their efforts fruitless.

In addition to this, the use of technology in businesses has also led to high unemployment rates especially in developed countries where businesses are opting for capital intensive methods of production than human labor. The use of robots in the industrial and manufacturing sectors is slowly replacing human beings whose livelihoods depend on these jobs.

For example, ATMs are increasingly replacing human attendants in the banking sector, smart buses have eliminated the need for bus conductors and robots and other assorted machineries are currently being used in the manufacturing sectors to handle activities that human laborers are capable of doing.

Conclusively, the assimilation of technology in to trade has had many impacts on the poverty levels of many economies. Poorer countries and small sized businesses have a long way to go before they can realize the economies of scales brought about by technology. From this paper, the impacts of technology on trade have been discussed.

The fact that technology has enabled economies to rapidly advance due to efficient transport and communication systems has also been highlighted. The impacts of the assimilation to poverty have also been analyzed. Arguably, technology does present the business world with a chance to excel even more.

However, wealthier nations must ensure that they assist their poor counterparts embrace technology in order to create a business environment characterized by fairness and equitable distribution of resources. This will not only promote healthy competition, but will also have a hand in the global war against poverty and its associated vices.

References Africa research bulletin. (2006) Africa research bulletin: Economic, financial, and technical series. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers.

Cipher, J.M.


Product Innovation Thesis best essay help: best essay help

Salient features of the product for innovation emphasized on the continuously changing market needs and trends in the market. The trends identified the need to implement an innovation strategy on Rexona which had been a leading bathing soap and household brand for many years.

Due to the changing times, need, customer behavior, and substitute products, the first phase of innovation on Rexona commenced. Emphasis was on the kind of soap that addressed the problem of an oduor due to sweating, a problem associated with different physical and psychological effects. The parameters included

According to the article Innovation Zen (2006), a radical innovation made the toilet soap unique and synonymous with household use. Unique characteristic features of the soap, a common toilet soap, included an attractive smell and ability to maintain that status for a number of hours in addition to other extras. According to Innovation Zen (2006), an innovative approach on the product included analyzing the chemical characteristics of the soap and technologies available to address those concerns.

Chemical Researched Scientific research was conducted to bring to light the chemical processes involved when human beings sweated with an emphasis on the type of sweat involved and the chemical composition of the sweat. According to Innovation Zen (2006), human beings responded to two kinds of sweat, sweat due to stress or anxiety and sweat due to emotional stress.

According to Innovation Zen (2006) Rexona, a popular soap and household name synonymous with bathing was innovated along the line of the different types if human sweat. Modular and radical approaches to innovation were used in undertaking the innovation on the deodorant article (Innovation 2010).

The article Innovation (2010) asserts that research findings pointed to the arms and hands as the specific sources of the unpleasant smell. In addition to that Information and previous knowledge on the deodorant was collected and analyzed to identify various stages of product improvement in relation to research findings on the sweating of the body and the available technology to develop and innovate the deodorant.

According to Innovation (2010), technology was readily available and an innovative approach to product development commenced. This included developing an anti-perspiring chemical formulated in the house hold soap. The micro-capsules formulated into the innovation acted by blocking instant and long term chemical perspiration reactions which could result in unpleasant odours. This could in the end make the user feel fresh for a long time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Innovation (2010) “Our Rexona deodorant uses body-responsive micro-capsule technology that kicks in when it’s needed most, giving people the confidence to face the day’s more stressful situations.” This innovative approach was supported by scientific formulations and relevant technology to address instant or long term perspirations.

However the innovation has been incremental based on market needs and changing trends in addressing customer needs, tastes, preferences while remaining competitive in the market over the years. According to Innovation (2010) the innovative approach could impact well on the personal needs of individuals who use the deodorant in their homes.

The Market Today According to Timeline (n.d) the soap was developed back in 1899 and has undergone successive innovation till today. Currently the deodorant has been innovated to address scents varying from silver ice to extreme scents as critical needs in the market toady.

References Innovation. (2010). Intelligent Deodorant. Web.

Innovation Zen.(2006). Henderson – Clark Model. Web.

Timeline.(n.d). Web.


Business Research Methods Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Sample Design

Customer Service Levels

Areas of Improvement

Impact on Family


Sample Design Home Depot stocks a variety items for home use. When a customer checks in at the Depot, customer service representatives readily provide professional assistance on the products they intend to purchase. The buying process begins when a customer makes informed decisions on the kind of product to purchase and the options available including warranties.

The study and analysis was based on qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a questionnaire administered on customers who called in to help identify areas of business process improvements for Home Depot. This formed the source of primary data used in the study. Ethical considerations formed an important aspect of the study (Bryman


Instruments to encourage or discourage FDI and their implications for international business. Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Economic hardships like the recent economic meltdown, call for ways of jump starting different areas or aspects of a countries economy. It is for this reason that many countries have in the recent past designed packages to help breathe life into an otherwise failing economy. Foreign direct investment comes in handy to support government efforts at growing an economy. Ireland is a good example of a country that benefited immensely from FDI. From the brink of bankruptcy, FDI enabled it to transform its economy into a very promising one.

FDI becomes necessary because many governments especially in the developing and third worlds cannot afford the kind of capital necessary for setting up of industrial facilities or singly rolling out infrastructural projects like airports development.

Convincing foreign investors to invest in a country is not easy. It is for this reason that governments engage public relations firms and carry out fully fledged marketing campaigns. The aim of such campaigns is to help potential investors realize the investment potential in given countries. To effectively campaign and create awareness about investment opportunities, many countries have well organized agencies that promote investment. IDA in Ireland has been very instrumental in helping attract FDI through its promotional programs.

Foreign investors are not philanthropists; therefore, they do not invest where they do not foresee awesome returns or profits. Therefore, to discourage or encourage FDI, a government has to look into the attractiveness of its economy and play around with its control on industries in the economy.

Some of the control measures a country can manipulate include taxes, licensing, laws regarding partnerships with foreigners, risk security etc. By manipulating such measures, a country encourages international trading or discourages the same completely.

One factor that largely attracts foreign direct investment is availability of natural resources. However, availability of resources alone is not enough; government policies on resource management either attract or discourage investors. Much foreign direct investment goes into the oil well in the Arab world.

However, some oil rich countries have over time attracted more FDI than others. For example, for a long time, UAE has been the centre of the Arab world; attracting the bulk of FDI. However, in the recent past, small countries like Qatar have become the centre of focus. The countries attract FDI because they have natural resources (oil) but, most importantly, they have instituted friendly government control or policies with regard to the resources. When a country with resources applies anti-FDI policies, it affects growth of international trade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor that a government has to look into to attract foreign direct investment is the infrastructure. Depending on infrastructural developments, a government indirectly controls what sectors are invested into. Investors only go into a country where operation costs allow for a handsome return on investment. Therefore, when a country improves its airports, road transport and has good water access (ports), it is more likely to attract higher FDI than another with poor roads or one that is landlocked.

Privatization policies also attract or discourage FDI. In the recent past, due to the structural adjustment programs demanded of Africa by the IMF, most national companies were privatized.

A consistent privatization policy often attracts foreign investors. For instance, most telecommunication companies in Africa are owned in part by foreign investors. Taking Kenya as an example, Vodafone from the UK has a majority stake in Safaricom a leading telecommunication company. Privatization and participation of foreign investors helps integrate small economies into the international business.


Benefits/Advantages Of Outsourcing And/Or Off-Shore Outsourcing That Outweigh The Disadvantages Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Outsourcing and “off-shore” outsourcing provisions have currently intensified in the business arenas. According to Raman (2009, p. 16), outsourcing refers to contracting out a business process to another organization, which is independent, competent, and deemed fit to accomplish the agreed obligations.

Concurrently, off-shoring is described as the shifting of business processes to a different country. When corporations or businesses employ subcontractors in a foreign nation, then off-shoring becomes analogous to outsourcing. However, the difference sets in when corporations shift jobs to a similar company in a different country.

There are several benefits of outsourcing and/or off-shoring. This explains why most corporations and institutions in developed nations such as US and UK outsource their tasks to different organisations overseas (Herath


“What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Creativity in the work place

Knowledge Management

The P Cycle of a Successful Business Idea


Reference list

Introduction In an interview conducted by Ubiquity, Laurence Prusak (a researcher, scholar of management and a consultant) provided a few meaningful insights on management generally and specifically on the content of the book he co-authored with Thomas Davenport titled “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking,” published by the Harvard Business School Press.

In this interview, Prusak identifies that the people who generate business ideas are not exactly superhuman with unprecedented capabilities rather, they channel and direct their thinking and mental faculties in a specific area that most people will consider unproductive or wasteful. The result of their effort is the generation of ideas that can transform the fortunes of an organization.

Prusak further observes that idea generators in a business environment are not necessarily gurus, but they are most often the unsung heroes whenever the idea picks up. Others may simply be agents who pass over the idea rather than the originators of the same (Rodgers,1983).

Ideas are gathered in a number of different ways and these ways are neither formal nor structured, one may gather insights from reading certain literature, newspapers, journals having discussions with colleagues at work, whenever or even while attending conferences. The whole process need not be planned, Prusak further discussed the entire cycle and ecology of business idea generation, the origin of these ideas how they come about to be introduced into the organization and their final resting place (fate) after being disclosed.

The main problem with most executives and people in management positions in most organizations is the fact that they always like to maintain the status quo. A number of top executives are conservative and lack the spirit of adventure and transition (change). People tend to be comfortable with the current state of affairs as long as it still generates the requisite revenues and enables the entity to break even.

This in essence explains why a number of newly generated ideas will never live top see the light of day. In a number of business organizations, there exists a certain state of affairs that is considered stable, most executives are usually unwilling to disrupt this steady-state and therefore refuse to accommodate new ways.

An idea though attractive; its sustenance in an organization can only be guaranteed by an adventurous chief executive. Idea practitioners in most entities will, therefore, find it increasingly difficult to break this conservative barrier; some managers may be extremely intolerant to the extent that persistent idea practitioners who threaten the current state of affairs may be fired.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since ideas will always tend to be in competition with each other, it is advisable that a number of ideas be picked up at the same time, this is because an idea may be hot this minute and then other factors or ideas come into play and neutralize the anticipated gains. This is why it is essential to focus on either three or four ideas and assess progress so that when one of them comes out to be predominant, then it can be selected at the expense of the rest.

Creativity This is essentially a process involving the mind. It is concerned with the generation of fresh insights and knowledge in a given field and may occur either consciously and systematically in a programmed manner or out of the subconscious mind (accidentally).

Many fundamental discoveries and inventions that changed the shape and destiny of the world today were purely accidental inventions a case in point being, Sir Isaac Newton’s discovery of the location of the centre of gravity being in the earth’s crust while enjoying the shade of an apple tree.

It is of fundamental importance to distinguish between creativity and innovation. Since both may be used synonymously to mean the same thing, there exists a small distinguishing aspect. Where as creativity is involved with the generation of new thoughts, new ways and fresh products unprecedented before, innovation by contrast takes the new ideas further to implementation. It encompasses the entire process of creating and converting the said ideas into viable products or services that will find commercial application.

Graham Wallas in his 1926 publication of the text titled Art of Thought. The entire system of creativity can be explained in five staged model that starts from preparation, incubation, intimation, illumination and verification. At the preparation stage, the individual mindset focuses on the problem in question and tries to discover a number of avenues to solve it.

During incubation, the process is synthesized internally with no external manifestation of actions or happenings, at intimation, the solution is just about to be discovered and at illumination or insight stage the idea bursts out after it is conceived. The verification stage involves a further elaboration and explanation of the idea by putting it into action and proving/ assessing its viability (Wallas, 1926).

Creativity in the work place In the context of the workplace, creativity may result into both positive and or negative effects. Particular mood changes that may precede idea generation may be experienced. Research has shown that the activities succeeding the process of creativity are often associated with happiness, jubilation and emotions of elation, this can be justified by the breakthrough that was advanced by Albert Einstein in the field of physics, asked about his discovery of the theory of relativity, he mentioned that it was the happiest thought of his life.

We will write a custom Research Paper on “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The more positive the working environment is the more creative an individual becomes. It should, therefore, be an important lesson for line managers and chief executives to maintain a positive work environment to provoke calmness of mind and creative mental activity. This can be achieved in an organization by removing any obstacles that may cause anxiety or uncertainty. For example, a manager may remove instances of uncertainty on job security by guaranteeing security of tenure to the workers.

Further research has also indicated that people tend to be more creative when they are faced by an aggregate of positive and negative conditions, as a manger, therefore, it is essential to strike a balance between these conditions, while maintaining and sustaining a positive and conducive work environment, in order to incubate more creative ideas and thoughts a few negatives should be systematically and artificially introduced into the work environment to enhance thinking this can be achieved by introduction of complex problems to an individual with a few clues on how to solve the problems.

The process of introducing complex problems should be systematic in the sense that it should be done progressively and in phases so that the individual is not overwhelmed.

Teresa Amabile, a scholar of management, proposes that within the context of an organization three variables are required as key components to enhance creativity.

One of them is Motivation; motivation provides the urge and impetus to do certain things. Motivation can be used to moderate behavior within an organization and is either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivational attributes originate from the individual (employee’s) personal orientation. Aspects that can be used to determine whether an employee is intrinsically motivated include the level of job satisfaction and personal gratitude as well as enjoyment of the work one does.

Extrinsic motivational attributes are manifested from the events surrounding the job and include elements such as money and the operational reward system as well as threats of being sacked.

A number of managerial practices can, therefore, be employed to encourage motivation and thus creativity: First, Organizational Support through deliberate actions that are aimed at collaborating and cooperating with top management through which an organization can enhance creativity, the top management should encourage and be interested in any new ideas that are advanced by workers.

Secondly, Challenges in the workplace, in as much as it is important to match the available work assignments with the right personnel and the various jobs available, jobs and tasks should be slightly varied so as to not only reduce monotony of work but also expose employees to fresh challenges.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “What’s the Big Idea: Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking” by Laurence Prusak and Thomas Davenport by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, Freedom is also important to maintain tolerable levels of autonomy within the work environment to enable workers stretch and experiment with new ideas, freedom of thought and expression should be encouraged so that workers can be allowed to reason without fear of victimization.

In any successful business organization the levels of creativity can be fostered through among other things, providing the right levels of training to equip workers with the requisite competencies, providing moral and material (resources) support to creative minds, encouraging self-confidence and an attribute of taking up risks as well as providing an unlimited opportunity to explore new horizons. Management needs to change its mindset and attitude towards risk and be more receptive to agents of change (Thomas et al., 2003).

Knowledge Management This includes a number of strategic management practices that an organization should adopt in order to help in the creation, distribution and eventual adoption of new ideas, insights and fresh experiences. Proper knowledge management is important in among other things helping an entity achieve its strategic objectives of increasing productivity, reducing costs, minimizing wastages and idle time, increase innovation and creating a suitable competitive advantage against rival firms within the same industry.

Organizations should try and develop new knowledge development and management strategies incentives that should include putting up measures that encourage the dissemination and sharing of organizational information.

Making such sharing a mandatory requirement will encourage synergy and cooperation in the development of business solutions, this also enhances collaboration, interdependence and unity of purpose. Another way to encourage an effective knowledge management scheme is also through the incorporation of performance reward schemes in an organization. A problem that is shared is considered half solved and a desirable incentive should be set aside to the creative minds that provide workable solutions to complex organizational problems.

Another way that could effectively contribute to the management of knowledge within the organization is through the consultation of authorities and experts in a given field. Expert guidance and advice received from such authorities should be considered and their applicability assessed as this could be one of the ways problems can be solved.

In order to encourage the dissemination of knowledge, the organizational should develop a culture that encourages passing of information that includes even historical information about prior organization heroes, heroines and legends through acts of storytelling. In many organizations, this rich history is preserved in artifacts and cultural monuments and the knowledge of important personalities and their deeds or contributions to the entity retold in what can be considered as the entity’s folklore.

History can also be preserved through naming of important buildings or structures within the organization after influential individuals who contributed in developing certain skills or competencies or management that helped the organization sail out of tough times in the past through their acts of creativity and innovativeness.

Management may also adopt the best practices transfer as a method of maintaining knowledge and insights. In settings that are divided into a number of departments or regions, a pilot project that was a result an individual’s creativity may be set up and operationalized, results of this project may then be assessed and if they are found to be satisfactory, then knowledge transfer should be encouraged to other departments or regions experiencing similar problems.

The culture of apprenticeship should also be encouraged by managers. An apprentice is an individual who learns about the execution of tasks or acquires varied skills in an organization through observation (Rodgers,1983).

An apprentice works under supervision of an experienced employee. This apprentice-master relationship may be adopted by an organization if they want to socialize new employees into the system. Using this strategy, knowledge is transferred from one employee to another and key attributes about the functions and operations are established by one worker as transferred to another.

Experimentation is also a key variable in both the management and acquisition of new knowledge and competent solutions to organizational problems. A number of entities have invested heavily in research a fact which should be emulated if information about new product lines, efficient markets or better production methods is to be obtained.

Experiments encourage new inventions that may be useful in among other things integrating and establishing the desirable mix between new and old technologies, establishing a balance between the use of manual labor and automated labor and establishing which combination of goods should be produced to optimize returns and/or minimize production expenses.

The results of the research can also be disseminated in an s-curve model so to reach other persons outside the organization in a diffusion process. The s-curve model of knowledge transformation is used to match the growth in output against the increase in firm revenues.

The Innovation Life Cycle Curve, Source: Rodgers Everett M (1983) Diffusion of Innovation p.18

The assumption in the above framework originates from the fact that a newly invented idea will undergo the birth, growth and eventual decline phase. A newly invented idea will not sell much, but constant growth in the demand of a product resulting from this invention shall expand the market and sufficient levels of technology will be introduced to expand and thus yield more revenues over time.

With the stabilization of the newly introduced technology, steady-state equilibrium is attained whereby there are visible manifestations of a constant production process, output is optimized and a better level cannot be attained. Costs are moderated and there is minimal input in terms of new trends, modifications or adjustments.

People are used to the technology at this point and especially executive management now fully understands the innovation. As the confidence levels increase, it is important to start out researching and developing fresh ideas and technology because the current technology will soon level off and become largely obsolete.

It is of great importance to note that the technological failures witnessed in most organizations are largely because of timing; management should time and accurately determine a new technology is supports to replace an existing one. Certain evident characteristics like a constant return to scale or declining returns and increased cost of repairs and maintenance should be enough to signal to the executives and line mangers that a shift in technology is required.

At that point when an existing technology becomes obsolete, a new form of technology emerges to replace the obsolete level and therefore maintain the prior output levels witnessed and the innovation cycle continues.

The P Cycle of a Successful Business Idea Davenport and Prusak illustrated a continuum through which creative business ideas move from their initial inception and introduction into the entity to the final level where the new ideas are seen to be too common and pervasive to the extent that no particular individual in the organization feels that they carry any new significance.












At the progenitor stage the idea is conceived by an individual in the enterprise, it is at its initial levels and the originator still considers it young. It may or may not materialize depending on the external environment around the organization and particularly the attitudes of line managers towards encouraging newness, this is a delicate phase of the idea and in case the idea finds the ground to be unreceptive, just like a newborn who is not taken care of, it will shrivel and die.

At the Pilot Phase the idea is first brought into action and practically applied in management. At this point, the level of credibility is quite insignificant and the scale is equally modest. The idea is still being explored to establish deeper insights and understanding.

The Project Phase sees the idea gradually emerging from the closet, there is a tentative awareness of this new idea operating and this captures the attention of top management. Key executives within the organization just appear to notice this new development but no keen interest is taken to acquire further knowledge.

At the Program stage changes begin to appear to the organization as a result of the implemented idea, the invention hits the ground in a massive way and there is a much-broadened awareness of the successful effects of the new idea. The levels of credibility rise and at this point the idea receives perfect response from executive management.

The next stage is the Perspective Phase where the innovation is established. There are sustained levels of progress and success. At this point a new equilibrium is established because the idea has been tried and tested, executive managements are unwilling to let in another new from of technology that is not tested and whose results cannot be easily predicted (Andriessen, 2004).

Executives will rather stick to the current form of technology in which they have full confidence in terms of performance and returns rather than introduce something else that will destroy the status quo. The Pervasive Stage closes the cycle and by this time several years have elapsed, the level of awareness of the invention suddenly drops to zero, no one seems to notice it because it has become too common. Executives become unconscious that the idea ever existed in the organization.

Conclusion Knowledge and creativity management is of great significance to managers and employees of an organization. The obstacle that is with management is the fact that they fail to recognize the need for change and struggle to maintain the status quo. This is a characteristic that stems from the executives being uncertain about the impact of the new technologies on profits. They will not be willing to accept any idea that will tamper with this (Amabile, 1996).

Top executives should be in a position to allow change to happen, they should also be able to adopt appropriate management styles that will not only attract but also retain highly motivated and creative employees. It is generally a difficult task to manage workers that are creative.

Management of brainpower is fundamentally different from managing other non human factors of production like land and capital. In most cases the generally accepted and largely bureaucratic approaches that are currently used in the management of organizations may not find any meaningful application when managing creativity and brainpower (the human intellect).

In order to breed new ideas it is important that management provides a perfect condition that will encourage conception of fresh ways. This can be done by modifying the working environment both internally and externally in order to provoke creative ideas. In order to reduce boredom and instill change that will keep workers on toes, new elements should be introduced in what is commonly referred to as job enrichment.

Employees could also be reshuffled after a given duration of time in order to expand their knowledge in a particular field. When a person is moved into a different job they tend to think differently and this may spur them into deducing new strategies and methodologies to be applied in providing solutions.

Re-engineering in itself may have started off as a good thing with well-intended purposes but it later grew into an undesirable evil. It was meant to re-do a number of old processes using modified technology and skills but ended up causing majority of people to be sacked or laid off because of redundancies.

Quality movements have since been established in the place of re-engineering and this coupled with knowledge management has been successful in helping individual employees in asking lead questions such as “what do we really know about this organization?”, “how much are expected to know about this particular production process?” “How do we know what we know?”

In the interview alluded to in the introductory pages, Prusak himself identifies the origins or causes of the P cycle as either being innovation, efficiency or effectiveness. This is all attached to the fact that everything is in wary or another inter-connected to the quest of finding a solution to current day problems in organizations.

Therefore the above three elements that give rise to the Ps in the cycle must be considered objectively and comprehensibly by both line managers, employees and top-level executives in the dominant coalition (decision-makers).

Reference list Amabile, T. et al. (1996). “Assessing the work environment for creativity”. Academy of Management Review 39 (5): 1154–1184.

Andriessen, D. (2004). “Reconciling the rigor-relevance dilemma in intellectual capital research”. The Learning Organization 11 (4/5): 393–401.

Rodgers, M. (1983), Diffusion of Innovation. New York, NY: Learning

Thomas et al, (2003) What’s the Big Idea – Creating and Capitalizing on the Best Management Thinking. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press

Wallas, G. (1926), Art of Thought. New York, NY: Willey publishers


Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company Proposal online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary The assessment of the quality of service delivery in an organisation is important as it allows consumers to make informed decisions. It also helps the organisation to respond appropriately to improve its services.

In the past, service quality has been defined as “the extent to which a service meets customers’ needs or expectations” (Asubonteng et al., 65). A common definition is, “Service quality is the difference between customers’ expectations of service and perceived service” (Fitzsimmons and Mona 25).

In order for this to be achieved, an analysis of the organisation using the SERVQUAL methodology is necessary. SERVQUAL methodology evaluates five dimensions of quality service delivery. They include reliability, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and responsiveness (Fitzsimmons and Mona 26).

A gap analysis in service delivery is also important as it allows the identification of “causes of service quality shortfalls in each or all of the dimensions” (Fitzsimmons and Mona 28). A service quality gap analysis for Oman Insurance Company was carried out with the aim of establishing the quality of services offered by the company.

An analysis of the five gaps identified followed with calculation of the weighted and un-weighted values of SERVIQUAL scores for each using the recommended formulae (Fitzsimmons and Mona 26).

The data used in the calculations was obtained from the analysis of the responses from questionnaires issued to both the customers of the insurance company as well as the employees.

The results showed a small but significant gap in service delivery for which recommendations were made on how to reduce it. This essay therefore discusses the procedure of analysing the gaps in service delivery in the company, the results of the analysis, and the recommendations towards improving quality service delivery at Oman Insurance Company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Service Quality Gaps The service quality concept constitutes about seven major gaps with three (Gap 1, Gap 5, and Gap 6) being important “since they have a direct relationship with customers” (Luk and Layton 113). Gap 1, which deals with customers’ expectations against management perception (Luk and Layton 114), was partially evaluated in the study.

Gap 2 deals with management perceptions versus service specifications while Gap 3 comprises service specifications against the delivery of those services (Luk and Layton 115). The fourth gap is the difference in service delivery and external communication (Luk and Layton 114).

Gap 5 highlights the difference between the perception of the customers of the services delivered against their expectations of the services (Luk and Layton 114). This gap formed the main approach in the survey.

Gap 6 focuses on the discrepancy between the expectations of the customers and the perceptions of the employees while Gap 7 highlights the discrepancy between the management and employees’ perceptions (Luk and Layton 114). These were evaluated using the questionnaire issued to the respondents for the study.

Methodology The analysis of the service delivery quality was made using data obtained using a questionnaire. The questionnaire prepared constituted two parts, which evaluated customers’ expectations and opinions about insurance companies against their perceptions of service delivery at Oman Insurance Company.

Confidentiality was guaranteed in the questionnaire by ensuring that there was no place for the respondents to fill in their personal details. Thus, their answers were anonymous. A score of 1 to 7 was assigned to the responses with 1 representing those who strongly disagreed with the quality and 7 representing those who strongly agreed with it.

The five dimensions of SERVQUAL methodology, which evaluated the quality of service delivery, were assessed. These included reliability, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and responsiveness. The questionnaire was pretested before the start of the analysis that involved the use of 20 individuals with knowledge of the insurance company.

We will write a custom Proposal on Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recommendations from the pre-test were then incorporated into the questionnaire with printing of the final drafts being made for issuing to the respondents.

The questionnaire was issued to clients who received services from the major branches of the Insurance Company. Selection was randomly made. This means that the sample of people selected was representative of the actual number of people receiving services from the insurance company.

The number of respondents was 200 clients. The survey was carried out over a period of five days. The results were then analysed with presentations being made from them.

Appropriate conclusions were also made. The making of recommendations on how to improve service delivery at the firm followed. The recommendations were mainly addressed to the management of the company.

Results Out of the 200 questionnaires prepared, three were not answered. The respondents did not fill two of them appropriately. As for the demographics, 146 respondents were male while the rest (54 respondents) were of the opposite sex.

The ages of the respondents were varied with the most common age being above 40 years, which constituted 59% of the respondents. Most of the respondents also had a level of education above college level with most being undergraduates. The results of the five dimensions of SERVQUAL methodology are as follows:

Tangibles The assessment of this factor of the company involved the assessment of customers’ perception of equipment, personnel appearance, and physical facilities in the company. The customers strongly agreed with the idea that an excellent insurance company should have modern looking equipment.

The average score was higher than the perception of the same in Oman Insurance Company. They agreed, though not strongly, that Oman Insurance Company had modern looking equipment though this was below their expectations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Service Quality Gap: Oman Insurance Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As for the physical facilities, the customers also strongly agreed that these should be visually appealing, but their perceptions of the same at Oman Insurance Company fell below their expectations. The appearance of employees in Oman Insurance Company was as per the customer expectations.

They therefore agreed strongly that they were neat. The average scores were, however, negative for the above factors. For an excellent insurance company, the customers agreed strongly that their materials such as pamphlets or statements should be visually appealing.

Their perception of this in the Oman Insurance company fell below their expectation. Thus, the average score was negative for the company. In general, the average score for the tangibles in the Oman Insurance Company was negative. The score was at -1.40. This represented the best score of all the five factors assessed on service delivery in the company.

Reliability On reliability, the questionnaire assessed the ability of the company to perform the promised service dependably and accurately (Wisniewski, and Donnelly 359). In the first question on reliability in the questionnaire, the expectations of the customers on an excellent insurance company was high, as they strongly agreed that it should fulfil promises by the scheduled time.

A number of respondents held the same sentiment about Oman Insurance Company with most of them strongly agreeing that the company fulfilled most of its promises to them on time. However, the average score was lower compared to their expectations.

The quality of problem solving for an excellent insurance company also featured on reliability with most of the respondents claiming and agreeing strongly that such a company should show strong interest in solving its problems.

Against this expectation, the Oman Insurance Company scored lower in the degree to which this characteristic was true for the company. The company was scored as being good at listening and solving problems in the services it offered though this was inadequate time for most of the respondents.

The performance of services for the first time by the company was also below the expectations of the customers, and so was record keeping in the company.

The overall expectations of the customers on reliability received a strong agreement with a score of 6.06 with the company scoring 4.26 on perceptions on the same by their clients. This means that a gap of -1.70 existed in the company in the area of responsibility. This was the largest of all the areas.

Responsiveness The assessment of responsibility was done by using questions, which focused on the “willingness to help customers and or provide prompt service” (Dick 28). In the first one, customers strongly agreed that adequate information should be given to them in the case of an excellent insurance company regarding when the services would be performed.

This was against a poor perception of the same in the Oman Insurance Company, which though above average, customers perceived that the services were not as good as their expectations of an excellent insurance company.

The employees were also a little less willing to help them as compared to their expectations of an ideal insurance company. This situation elicited a negative score.

The employees of the company also received a lower rating in their ability to attend to their clients compared to an ideal insurance company. Employees of an excellent insurance company were expected never to be too busy to respond to customers’ requests.

The respondents agreed strongly to this opinion. Oman Insurance Company, on the other hand, received lower scores in this aspect of service delivery making the overall score negative. The responsiveness gap score for the company was at -1.69.

Assurance The perception of assurance for the Oman Insurance company was weighed against the expectations for an excellent company in the same field. This involved evaluation of “Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence” (Valarie, Parasuraman, and Leonard 39).

It included factors such as competence, credibility, security, and courtesy (Dick 28). In the evaluation of employee behaviour, customers strongly agreed that, for an excellent insurance company, this should instil confidence in customers. In comparison to this case, the company received lower scores on the same with a negative score being obtained.

The customers also strongly agreed that employees of an excellent insurance company should be consistently courteous with customers. They felt that this was slightly poor in the Oman Insurance Company with a negative score being obtained.

The knowledge of employees in the insurance company was assessed in this section of the questionnaire with customers being asked if it was adequate to answer their questions. They strongly agreed that, for an excellent insurance company, employees should have knowledge to answer their questions.

Their perception of this in the Oman Insurance Company was lower thus earning it a negative gap score. The overall gap score in this category was -1.55.

Empathy Empathy is the last dimension assessed in the SERVEQUAL instrument. It involves assessing the “Care and individualised attention that the firm provides to its customers” (Wisniewski and Donnelly 363). Constituents include communication, accessibility, and understanding of the customer (Wisniewski, and Donnelly 363).

Oman Insurance company customers strongly agreed that the organisation offers them individualised attention. However, this perception of customers was not as good as what they expected from an excellent insurance company.

They strongly agreed that an excellent company should offer individualised attention to the clients’ needs. The resulting gap score was negative for the company.

The operating hours for an excellent insurance company should be convenient to all customers. They strongly agreed with this opinion. The company also received a negative score in this suggestion since most of the customers perceived the company as not offering convenient hours compared to an ideal company.

The employees were also described as giving special attention to each customer. Again, this was below their expectations of an ideal company. Upon evaluation, they had customers’ interest at heart since the score was the same both for the Oman Insurance Company and for an excellent insurance company.

Customers responded that employees of Oman Insurance Company understood their specific needs though their score was below that of an excellent insurance company with the overall score being negative. This dimension of the SERVEQUAL instrument received a negative score, which was at -1.52.

Discussion The results of the survey found an existing gap in service delivery at Oman Insurance Company. The Gap scores were -1.40 for tangibles, -1.70 for reliability, -1.69 for responsiveness, -1.55 for Assurance, and -1.52 for Empathy.

The un-weighted and weighted averages for all the dimensions were later calculated and presented in the table below.

Dimension Expectations Perceptions Gap scores Weightings Weighted average Tangibles 5.66 4.26 -1.40 19.8 -0.28 Reliability 6.06 4.36 -1.70 29.6 -0.5 Responsiveness 5.74 4.05 -1.69 19.9 -0.34 Assurance 6.13 4.58 -1.55 15.2 -0.24 Empathy 5.97 4.45 -1.52 15.7 -0.24 From the table, the average of the Weighted SERVQUAL score was -1.6

Conclusion Therefore, based on the above expositions, it suffices to declare the evaluation of service delivery in a company a crucial exercise that comes in handy to direct any changes that should be instituted in the company. The paper has used Oman Insurance Company as a case example to demonstrate the role of assessment of the quality of service delivery in the company.

In the analysis of service delivery for Oman Insurance Company, various aspects of the company were compared against an ideal insurance company. A questionnaire was the tool of choice for this task with respondents being the clients of the company.

The results highlighted an existent service delivery gap in the company. The company should use the results of this survey to alter its services in a bid to ensure that the gap is closed and the services delivered are up to the expectations of the customers. This outcome will go a long way in improving the performance of the company.

Works Cited Asubonteng, Patrick, Karl McCleary, and John Swan. “SERVQUAL revisited: a critical review of service quality.”Journal of Services Marketing 10. 6(2000): 62-81. Print.

Dick, Schaaf. Keeping the Edge: Giving Customers the Service they demand. New York: Plume Penguin, 2006. Print.

Fitzsimmons, James, and Mona Fitzsimmons. Service management: operations, strategy, and information technology. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print.

Luk, Sherriff, and Roger Layton. “Perception Gaps in customer expectations: Managers versus service providers and customers.” The Service Industries Journal 22.2(2002): 109-128. Print.

Valarie, Zeithaml, Autor Parasuraman, and Berry Leonard. Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. New York: Free Press, 2004. Print.

Wisniewski, Michael, and Moris Donnelly. “Measuring service quality in the public sector: the potential for SERVQUAL.” Total Quality Management 7.4(2000): 357-365. Print.


Field research in luxury beauty products Research Paper scholarship essay help

Studies have shown that of all luxury markets, beauty products industry is among the fastest growing markets in the world. Retailers and other industry players, such as designers have reported a booming demand for luxury beauty. United Kingdom is one of the countries with a well established luxury beauty products industry. Beauty products market segmentation in the UK includes, use of pictures, detailed company information, special offers, customer ratings and reviews.

There are many types of brands in UK beauty industry depending on the products attributes, benefits and symbolic dimensions. The consumers make decisions both rationally and emotionally, hence for retailers to achieve proper branding they have to combine both the rational and emotional components.

Two common types of brands used in beauty industry are: functional and symbolic. The functional brands focus on the visible benefit of the product. For example, Nivea products are functional, in that they are meant to care for the skin. Symbolic brands are emotionally dimensional because the customers consider the effect of the product in the future or on their health, For example, a mother will be very keen when buying cosmetics for her child.

Globalization of brands has been attained because of the fast growing communication links, transportation and easy flow of money. This has enabled greater access to larger markets, but there are also specialized brands for specific locations that are not global (L’Oreal International 2010).

The beauty market offers various categories of products, which include; First category, skin products, these are; body oils, creams and lotions. These products are used to make the skin smooth and cure skin conditions like stretch marks, cellulite, acne and spots. Facial creams e.g. cleansers, lotions and toners are used to make the face smooth give a uniform color and texture. Hair care products like; relaxers, hair oils, lotions and sprays are used to make the hair more strong, beautiful and natural.

Men’s products like shaving creams, toners and after shaves are also available in the market. This is new in the industry and has received positive regard from the men. There are also products for oral care like gels, pastes and mouthwash. They are used to strengthen the teeth, improve mouth breath and also some of them make them whiter. Bath and shower products; body wash, creams, gels and soaps for bathing. They help kill germs and treat the skin.

Second category are generalized as make ups, they are used to refine facial appearances. “These products include; lipstick, lip gloss, liner, balm, conditioners and boosters all for the lips.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other products are; foundation, which is used to level out the face, plaster spots and patchy skin shadow; mascara, a liquid, cream or powder, is used to dim, solidify and elongate the eye lashes; powders used to set the foundation giving a fine finish and conceals small flaws; “Rouge, blush or blusher used to reveal the cheeks’ color and also makes the cheek bones look more define. It comes in powder, cream and liquid forms.”

Other beauty products are deodorants. They are applied to the body to bring out a pleasant body smell. Though some people are allergic to deodorants and may experience skin conditions if they use them. Deodorants are divided into many types, including: antiperspirants that prevent bad odor and reduce sweating; eye liners, shadow and shimmer used to emphasize on the eye lids. They make eyes appear larger and give a youthful look; and other products like nail polish, concealers and emulsions, etc.

In the fashion industry products are identified with their brand name which distinguishes them from the other products in the market. A brand is the identity of a specific product or service. It is the personality of a product and how it relates to key constituencies. Brands are very vital in marketing of products.

A good brand will communicate the information distinctly, making the product look credible, connect to the target audience, motivate the buyer and build customers goodwill. The beauty products named above come in different brands.Some of these brands are Dior, Armani, Chasnel, Clarins, Clinique, Estee, Lauder, Guerlain, Kenzo Saint Laurent, Versace, Sisley, Shisedo, Lancome ,La Prairie Mac ,Borghese, Smashbox.

The price for these products ranges from low, medium to high depending on several factors like quality, quantity, availability, and demand of the product. There are sales offers to enable people to buy what they term as expensive to them. Most of the stores have assistants that help customers get what they want then pay at the cashier’s desk while others pay directly to the assistants.

Luxe corp says that “These beauty shops also offer other services to enable them meet their customers’ needs. The beauty shops offer other services like massage manicures pedicures, spas facials and body treatments.” An example of these shops is Beauty 2000: it offers acne and aging treatments, tattooing, facial care, skin care and others. The beauty shops are located in all types of locations both exclusive and commercial where they are easily accessible and discoverable (Luxe corp 2010).

The luxury beauty products industry has grown enormously all over the world. It has even been diversified by having products for men too and not focusing on women only like it was a few years ago. More men-targeting products should be introduced and marketing done to convince men to use them as some of them have not yet agreed to use of luxury products they argue it is gay.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Field research in luxury beauty products specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The branding of products has been major element that has assisted in marketing of luxury beauty products Beauty products have been known to transform people and even build their self esteem; hence the industry has also helped solve psychological problems.

Some of the big beauty stores in London are Harrods on Brompton road Knightsbridge founded in 1813. It started as a linen store and later was bought by a distributor of branded goods. It is well known for its fashion and beauty accessories made by prominent designers. Other major store in the UK is the Selfbridges, a chain of department stores founded in 1909.

These big stores have faced criticism, for example Harvey was once accused of harassing a man who was selling a magazine that had bad information about the store. Selffridge was once accused of using rotten raw materials for enhancing the products which were health hazard.

Due to the culture and economy of UK, fashion has always flourished despite the economic crisis witnessed recently, as indicated by the many high end fashion stores emerging all over London in a bid to satisfy the ever fashion hungry capital. These stores have recognized that the world of fashion has changed significantly due to globalization and melting of once diverse cultures into one.

The London inhabitants shopping trends have also changed in relation to this. This has been due to many fashion options for them to choose from and also availability of major fashion houses in the world are located in the UK. In addition they are style cautious which is boosted by the healthy economy that allows them to spend on such luxuries. Hence for any shopper looking for high end fashion and style products, London is a city that avails this all at once.

The fashion industry is a major revenue source in the UK. It brings in revenue through the beauty shows, trade events, and expositions on beauty products. The Natural and Organic Products of Europe Conference was leading event on lifestyle products. It led to an increase in sales for organic supplies and personal care products sales went up by 53%London’s beauty industry is attractive and has great potential.

However, during the 2008-2009 global economy recession, worldwide luxury beauty industry sales fell by 8%. Luxe corp (2010) notes that “the recession was bad news for luxury brand owners, with consumer spending hit hard, with on online sale of luxury goods being one of the major contributors of the recession.” This led to an increase in digital marketing in the industry, but some brands are still reluctant due to fear of losing control of their brands. The recession led to a cultural drift in terms of consumers’ attitudes and preferences.

L’Oreal International (2010) shows that “luxury brand owners have become more relaxed on allowing people to talk about their brands in social media. This has created openness in the sector which was a rare trait before the recession. The brand owners were manipulating, protective and conservative, as a result tension existed between the desires to capitalize on digital platforms and hence the fear of losing control of their brands.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on Field research in luxury beauty products by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major drivers of the industry whom are the stakeholders, that is, the government, manufactures, the distribution stores and the designers should put more energy creativity and diversity in the industry. That way they can bit their major competitors since they have the advantage of trust that these products are safe for their health.

However, with the dynamism of the cosmetic industry in UK, improvements need to be made to match up to the bigger industries, such as the United States. Companies should diversify their products to a wider range in order to cater for the different needs of the customers globally.

The beauty industry in London needs to come up with pricing strategies, methods and models for their products, which meets the demand of the market and satisfy all customers exclusively. One of the strategies is the price theory. This theory emphasis that the business has to break even, that is, the price charged should cover both the fixed and variable costs.

From the price theory, a company can choose from the three ways of pricing; first, maximum pricing, this is setting the price a little above the breakeven point, make a small profit per unit but sell more. Secondly, skimming strategy whereby a firm sets the price as high as the customers can pay with hope of getting back the value of the costs incurred as soon as possible. This involves different prices for the products depending on their attributes (Kiehl, 2010).

Companies need to come up with an effective marketing strategy adaptable to their specific industry. The four commonly applied elements of marketing include: first, segmentation, this is dividing the markets into various groups.

Specific products should be sold with the consumer group attitudes and preferences in consideration; for example, some people shop to release stress, others to keep up with new trends or addicted to shopping, while others prefer advertisements that are informative not flashy or vice versa.

Secondly, targeting; this is identifying the audience of to whom the product targets. The retailers should know the spending capacity of the target group, and the age to avoid being irrelevant. Importantly, the products availability and price features need to be communicated to the group targeted.

Thirdly, are the channels of distribution, promotional tactics and mode of communication. A beauty products company can reach its target audience through advertisements on radio TVs, magazines billboards and the internet too; a company can also organize events like fashion shows and beauty pageants (L’Oreal International, 2010). Companies should also embrace online marketing as a means of reaching to their customers and boosting their sales volumes.

Types of digital media being used are social media like face book, Twitter and mobile phones service. Lóreal a major luxury beauty product distributor is one of the brands that have embraced digital marketing. “It has highlighted modes for digital marketing strategies for all its goods, by adopting a more integrated approach abandoning previously piecemeal strategies.”

Due to the vulnerability of the fashion industry to economic situations, companies need to adopt new, creative and more sophisticated ways to market their luxury and fashion products. There are mainly two means of approaching the industry situations: Firstly, the blue ocean strategy, which is aimed at improving creativity.

The economy is taking deviations and the players need to find new means of growth and remaining relevant in the market. Secondly, pull strategy, this is the main driver of the demand for luxury products and is aimed at holding the company’s clients even in cases where customer’s attitudes and preferences are varying.

For companies to meet the demands and challenges put across by the fashion cautious city, they need to catch up with the ever changing fashion trends and embrace flexibility in their production by diversifying their brands, mode of retail, marketing and service. This has been witnessed in the kind of products that the design and fashion houses are always producing, for example D


Dyslexic Students: Success Factors for Support in a Learning Environment Research Paper college admission essay help

Introduction Dyslexic people have been misunderstood in the past by the people who are involved in their training and correction. Some of them have been labelled as thick or even people who cannot spell. However, research has proved that dyslexia is not a representation of one’s intelligence.

The condition has a number of causes though the presentation is different in individuals with varying levels of inability to read.

This essay reviews the literature on dyslexic students, the available methods for their support in learning, and the factors determining the success of these methods in the learning environment.

Literature search and review Brief topic outline

The subject of information studies is broad. There are a number of possible studies in each of the fields. The topic for this study is ‘Dyslexic Students: Success Factors for Support in a Learning Environment.’ The paper presents a search of literature with information on the same.

During the search, some of the related findings on the topic are the diagnosis of the condition, the causes, and the prognosis of this condition. However, the interest of the search is on the success factors in the learning environment when correcting the condition.

Some of the topics that still need review in this area include the pathological signs in the brains of dyslexic students and the effects of social factors on the condition. Therefore, the research questions include:

What are the types of learning environments for dyslexic students?

What factors support learning in this environment?

Literature search strategy

The search strategy used a combination of methods. Electronic databases were preferred for the search. The key words were dyslexia, dyslexic students, learning support, and learning environments. The search was conducted in more than one database followed by analysis of the results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The references of the results were then searched with the relevant ones being analysed for the study. The search for relevant books was through the COPAC library catalogue, which yielded useful publications for the study. A systematic approach was used in the search.

A targeted approach was later adopted for use to eliminate the less useful publications. The bibliographic tools used to carry out the search included the library catalogues and the databases. Since knowledge is constantly accumulating on the subject under study with research findings being published regularly, a limitation in the search was made.

The search, therefore, was limited to the research publications made since the year 2000. They were deemed to be current and useful to the study. For the purpose of ease in the compilation of the search results and a detailed analysis of the literature, only literature published in the English language was considered for review.

Search results

From the original search, a number of results were obtained. These were then scrutinised followed by a final list of 20 references, which were then used for the study.

The results include Bell, J 2010, Doing your research project : a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, Blaxter, L, Hughes, C


IT Security and Control Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

According to Hawker (151), IT Security and Control include physical, logical, and administrative measures organizations put in place to ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability to authorized users. Information system avail data to authorized users through validation and verification procedures.

These procedures are defined an organization’s information system policies. In addition, data integrity standards should be enforced when data is being transmitted to prevent it from unauthorized access, intentional or accidental modifications, and malicious damage.

Comprehensive approaches subject organizations’ information systems to regular security checks and system audits (Peltier 2). Regular system audits ensure that responsible organizational managers are able to track users and establish potential threats and sources of malicious attacks, unauthorized access, eavesdropping, and other security-related measures. These measures are implemented within and outside organizational boundaries.

Organizations benefit from IT Security and Controls by integrating and aligning them to organizational goals and objectives. Peltier (1) argues that organizations have defined standards, policies, and procedures for implementing security measures and controls to prevent data loss or damage. Information can be sold or mined to enable radical decisions to be made.

Peltier (2) argues that users should form informed decisions on system usage when login sessions commence and should be made aware that they are being monitored.

Peltier (11) asserts that security and control measures such as firewalls implemented at different levels, risk analysis, encryption of data using different techniques, e-mail and other communication policies ensure that organizational information is kept confidential and made available only to the intended parties. Firewalls filter outgoing and incoming data to ensure no corrupt data, malicious software or computer programs accesses an organization’s information system.

Organizations impose administrative controls on data, which is a valued asset, at different levels to ensure accountability and responsibility for system users. This may include passwords verifications and access rights’ mechanisms. Data integrity is maintained organization-wise.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Logical controls ensure firewall protection for outbound and inbound data. An organization may not be at risk of loosing sensitive information to the outside when software is installed to control access to information in addition to implementation of access privileges to system users.

Organizations benefit from the use of physical controls by enforcing policies such as the use of cameras and clear definition of duties. Thus organizational activities are monitored to avoid potential incidents and threats to data corruption, espionage, and damage.

Information is a valuable asset to any organization. It should be managed well. Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (27) asserts that the movement of traffic in both directions enables a system performance evaluator to determine the vulnerability of system components and controls.

Such performance measures can also be evaluated against the policies and objectives of an organization. Deviations from established benchmarks determine the degree to which performance of the information security controls are effective (Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous 57).

Other measures include the use of software tools to evaluate performance standards of networked computer systems in addition to conducting tests to evaluate effectiveness of system security. A performance evaluation plan is developed by an organization and tests conducted against benchmarks to identify security loopholes.

Information security and controls are embedded in an organization’s culture at personal and organizational levels. Tests should be consistent with organizational management security control goals and objectives (Gallegos, Senft, Manson, Daniel and Gonzales, 124). Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (101) argue that data integrity should be consistently maintained in line with an organization’s information security policies. These could ensure that the quality of data remains consistent with overall organizational requirements.

Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (101) argue that “security, integrity, real-time processing” are vital information systems elements that are enforced to ensure that an organization’s data is not compromised. Accurate, consistent, and reliable data are elements integrated in an organization’s approach to data integrity and availability to ensure system processes and contents are reliable.

We will write a custom Essay on IT Security and Control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different organizations have different approaches to information systems security. They may be on a logical, physical or administrative level. According to Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (98) administrative controls and security policies include legal aspects and regulations by governments and organizational measures. On the other hand logical and physical controls heavily depend on an organization’s information system’s administrative policies.

Logical controls rely on software that provides controlled access to information in addition to the use of other devices such as firewalls to filter incoming and outgoing and data. Other measures include data encryption. Data encryption standards are well specified by an individual organization. Measures are constantly put in place to ensure logical security measures are not violated.

According to Gertz, Guldentops and Strous (98), physical controls envisage controlled access to computer rooms, lock and key, among others. A combination of these measures data integrity. These measures are enforced on applications, the host, and on an organization’s network. They are visualized as being implemented on different levels of an organization’s information systems.

Land O’Lakes International One of Land O’Lakes International information security policies emphasized on systems users to log in with their ID’s and passwords as a stringent security requirement. Other security measures included controlled access to the server room in addition to maintaining rigid organizational information security policies.

An interview with Land O’Lakes International IT manager revealed that a cost-benefit analysis and an evaluation on the return on investment (ROI) on the IT infrastructure indicated that the current system was compatible with the security needs of the firm. These basic IT security measures and policies ensured that the company’s information system was secure from free from unauthorized access, data modification, information and data disclosure. In addition data integrity, availability, and privacy were maintained (Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (27).

Research findings indicated that the company was subject to information security threats, including viruses and malwares. A further analysis of the company’s information systems security was adequate to address security requirements.

However, information is a key and sensitive asset to any organization.

Potential threats still existed on the security requirements of the organization’s management information systems. Therefore, the need for an advanced security system was vitally important.

Not sure if you can write a paper on IT Security and Control by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research findings further indicated incident records and their frequency to monitor security-related issues (session audits).

Delta Delta IT’s approach to IS security and controls started on the administrative levels of the company. Information Systems security policies were implemented on the Network server and on database access with limited privileges. Access privileges on writing to files, reading files, and updating them on the same folder could not be accessed from a similar server.

A further security measure included firewall implementation to filter outgoing and incoming data to ensure authenticated data and users accessed the network. These included the use of p2p, wireless a/p, and wireless computers which could be accessed remotely.

The company’s approaches to system security included a logical and administrative approach. Legal requirements and information security policies were defined and implemented organization wise. This approach ensured data and application integrity. The company’s network was also protected from unauthorized access and this approach provided an in-depth defense for the company’s information system.

The information systems security manager was always on the edge in updating and implementing new information security and controls that emerged in the market enabling the organization address emerging trends on information systems security and controls.

The report established that the use of USB flash drives by organizational employees had the potential risk of exposing the system to viruses and malware software. In addition, the current IT security systems, policies, and controls were effective based on results from continuous tests and system audits.

The information systems manager affirmed that the organization evaluated system security effectiveness by continuously carrying out system audits by monitoring the server and wireless and network log in relation to security

Comparative Analysis Land O’Lakes International and Delta

Land O’Lakes International security policies were implemented with special emphasis on user ID and password schemes as validation and verification measures in addition to rigidly enforcing physically implemented security policies On the other hand, Delta implemented information systems security policies on its network such as controlled access to reading, writing to files, and other transactions with associated policy privileges.

Land O’Lakes International emphasized on physical security policies while Delta’s approach to network security policies emphasized an e-approach, thus, data validation, verification, authentication and authorization mechanisms characterized the organization’s management information system.

While the information systems manager of Land O’Lakes International did not see a proactive need to keep the organization’s security updated on a continuous basis, Delta’s information systems manager kept the company on the edge in keeping with emerging trends in information security and controls (Lane 1). Thus, there was need for Land O’Lakes International to improve and update its management information systems in line with current information systems threats and potential risks.

Literature Analysis Hawker (151) argues that information system should ensure data integrity and implementation on physical, logical, and administrative levels. Land O’Lakes International’s IT manager proactively implemented the organization’s security policies on a logical and administrative levels (Lane 1). However, Delta’s security policies were on a physical approach.

Land O’Lakes International’s were more prone to security threats and risks as no logical security implementation mechanisms were in place as opposed to Delta that ensures logical security controls were enforced (Peltier 11). Delta’s information security controls were on the administrative levels ensuring tighter information security audits and controls contrary to Land O’Lakes International’s security systems (Gallegos, Senft, Manson, Daniel and Gonzales, 124).

Gertz, Guldentops, and Strous (57) argue that organizations should continuously subject their information systems to regular security audits and critically evaluate such systems on their compatibility and compliance to organizational business goals and objectives. Both companies have not clearly outlined strategic plans, alternatives and contingency measures to meet the ever-changing trends in the software industry. On interest was Land O’Lakes International strategic plans and policy documents in implementing newer security measures and tools.

Both IT security managers need to review their policies and make them compatible with emerging trends with information systems security needs in a dynamic environment. These make management and systems users accountable for their actions.

A strong, reliable, and secure information system must provide complete security and in depth defense for an organization’s information system. Overall, security must be on administrative, logical, and physical levels. These measures ensure data and information security are maintained according to organizational policies and procedures.

Logical controls need to be implemented to ensure data and information integrity and authentication mechanisms are sound, while physical controls asset provide security and administrative controls assert an organization’s consistence and enforcement of information systems legal requirements and policy implementation.

These information systems security controls could ensure information integrity, classification, access control, identification, authentication, authorization, and in depth information system defense.

Further still, this approach could enable companies implement information systems security governance to ensure leaders and other systems users are accountable for their actions. Systems audits should be conducted on a continuous basis to ensure users are tracked and are aware that they are continuously monitored. Adequate resources should also be made available to policies are well enforced and no information security lapse or loopholes exist within an organization’s information systems setting.

References Gallegos, F., Senft, S., Manson, D P.,


Activity Based Costing and Its Main Advantages Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Table of Contents Traditional Costing Approach

Activity Based Costing Approach

Discussion and Analysis of Details

Reference List

Traditional Costing Approach Using the traditional costing method, the total cost of each product will be as shown in the schedule below. The total cost column represents a summation of the variable and fixed costs.

Number of Units Variable Cost Fixed Cost Total Cost 0 0 3,000 3,000 1 1,100 3,000 4,100 2 1,200 3,000 4,200 3 1,300 3,000 4,300 4 1,400 3,000 4,400 5 1,500 3,000 4,500 6 1,600 3,000 4,600 7 1,700 3,000 4,700 8 1,800 3,000 4,800 9 1,900 3,000 4,900 10 2,000 3,000 5,000 Because the relationship between price and output is such that a selling price of 3,000 yields zero sales and a reduction by 100 on this selling price increases the sales units by one; the selling price and the associated profits/(loss) for each unit will be as represented in the schedule below:

Unit Selling Price Total Unit Cost Associated Unit Profits 0 3,000 (3000) 1,100 4,100 (3000) 1,200 4,200 (3000) 1,300 4,300 (3000) 1,400 4,400 (3000) 1,500 4,500 (3000) 1,600 4,600 (3000) 1,700 4,700 (3000) 1,800 4,800 (3000) 1,900 4,900 (3000) 2,000 5,000 (3000) Activity Based Costing Approach Using Activity Based Costing, the fixed cost is assigned to each particular product thus whereas the selling price shall remain as established, the associated profits will change significantly as a result of the apportionment as shown below:

Number of Units Variable Cost Fixed Cost Total Cost 1 1,100 3,000 4,100 2 1,200 1,500 2,700 3 1,300 1,000 2,300 4 1,400 750 2,150 5 1,500 600 2,100 6 1,600 500 2,100 7 1,700 429 2,129 8 1,800 375 2,175 9 1,900 333 2,233 10 2,000 300 2,300 Discussion and Analysis of Details This model of determining cost is involved with the identification of all necessary activities of the entire production process and allocating the associated cost of each activity to the entire products produced. This allocation is based on the actual uptake or consumption of each activity onto a product.

The main advantage of activity based costing model is that it helps to identify and pinpoint the products, processes or activities which are not operating efficiently. This will be done through comparing their output and consumption. Activity based costing will also be useful in helping to pinpoint the unnecessary costs in the entire production process which the entity can do without.

This model of estimating costs is also key in the allocation of resources in the production process, using the model, more resources can be assigned to the more efficient products, activities or processes while fewer resources can be assigned to the inefficient activities.

The model can also find application in the cost control strategy adopted by the entity because it will provide the necessary information to management on the departments or individual products that are operating below the acceptable (ideal) standards. This method may also be of importance in helping to fix the selling prices of the output. Based on the estimated cost of the product and the level of profits that are expected by the firm, the entity is able to know the price at which sales will be most.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main limitation of this model however is that it might be extremely difficult to determine and accurately apportion certain costs in the entity to each particular product, for instance the salary of the chief executive officer may be difficult to be accurately assigned to products because the chief executive’s input is not easily and directly traceable on the particular product.

The CEO’s efforts are evenly balanced on the general well being of the firm and are hard to establish a particular criterion that will accurately apportion these efforts. It has also been argued that the ABC model of cost estimation is increasingly expensive and complicated to be used in the management and control of costs (Horngren, Datar


Advantages of Anonymity in New Media World Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free

Anonymity services have become quite popular with the emergence of the World Wide Web. In particular, anonymity software services allow users to conceal their real names. Concealing real information on the Internet because it is helpful for users who are willing to know that the site they surf remain anonymous for the Internet provider.

Such a function has an advantage for enhancing user’s security because it prevents the public organization from illegal invading their database. Consolidating security contributes to the prevention of web bugs and invisible GIF, which passes information from user’s personal computer to the Web site’s third parties.

Hence, restricted access to computers allows users to increase security and remain anonymous. There are many other benefits of anonymity in a virtual space, including undesired publicity, avoiding excess attention to details from personal life, and increased safety of private information.

Giving publicity to some aspects of famous people’s life can have negative consequences for their reputation and welfare. Therefore, anonymity establishes certain rules that ensure safety and privacy of surfing the net and attending certain sites.

At this point, educators should assist students in developing appropriate online behaviors and explaining why online ethics is important for users (Hsu et al. 2011). Although free speech has always been important since the emergence of the Internet, anonymity should still be protected to prevent the leakage of confidential information (Rigby 1995).

Therefore, anonymity should be protected as a product of social tolerance to private space of individuals who strive to be anonymous, yet reachable.

There are many occasions when bloggers suffer from commentaries or even threats concerning the content of their websites. Therefore, they often prefer being anonymous to avoid complications (Tanowitz, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, there is a growing tendency in removing the boundaries between the readers and the reporters, which attracts the audience and contributes to the reliability of information posted online.

Nevertheless, many of the pseudonyms are still quite popular among the readers and, therefore, there is no need for revealing your name. The assumption that anonymity does not contribute to the reliability and credibility of the content is false because posting information online is strictly regulated by cyber law (Cook, 2010). Thus, anonymity is the matter of personal preferences.

In defense of internet anonymity, specific attention should be given to privacy issues because most of individuals reject to reveal their real names for the purpose of security. This is of particular concern to the victims of criminals, educators, and many other individuals whose rights should be protected by law (McElroy, 2011).

At this point, most of the problems often arise because of inappropriate use of personal information, which can have much more serious consequences to user’s welfare. Moreover, revealing personal information is also the matter of ethics because some of the issues of personal life can damage career or reputation.

In conclusion, defending anonymity is not only beneficial for users in terms of concealing their personal life, but also in terms of their security and welfare.

Due to the fact that most of the online space is used by journalists who often unveil provocative information about governmental or political affairs, it is highly important for these users to remain anonymous to minimize the risks for their lives.

Anonymity should not be confused with security and illegal content placement because there are many other means that ensure the validity and truthfulness of facts.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Advantages of Anonymity in New Media World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Cook, M. (2010). In defense of Anonymity Online. The Guardian. Web.

Hsu, J-L., Hwang, W.-Y., Huang, Y-M.,


Beef industry in Australia Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction The beef industry is the biggest agricultural activity in Australia. Moreover, it is the second biggest beef exporter after Brazil internationally. Every state and territory of Australia sustains breeding of cattle in an extensive scope of climates.

The Australian “small population means that consumption is low, which allows Australia to export a significant volume of beef each year mainly to Korea, the US, and Japan, while cattle production in the country covers a region of more than 200 million hectares” (Hammond 2006, p.190).

The beef industry in Australia achieved an advantage following the detection of BSE (mad cow disease) in Japan, Canada, and the US, since Australia is without the disease. Contrary to breeding systems in different parts of the globe, cattle in Australia feed on pasture as the chief source of food (Bell et al. 2011).

The aim of this analysis is to assess the beef industry in Australia, find opportunities, and threats, and recommend ways to better the industry. The beef industry in Australia encounters several challenges like increasing salinity, vegetation control, and degradation of soil among other internal and external factors.

The execution of the recommendation practices could necessitate reaction to particular subjects. In degraded regions, re-vegetation could help, or a modification in farming method. This paper discusses the analysis of the industry and recommends ways to reduce emanating threats.

Industry analysis At a domestic strategy stage, the macroeconomic as well as the regulatory environment might have a powerful impact on factors of competitiveness of the industry. Domestically, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on input costs courtesy of its influence on several aspects, for instance, rate of interest and inflation.

Worldwide, macroeconomic strategy could have an impact on real exchange rate. A broad range of other environmental factors may affect the effectiveness of the industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental factors that are likely to result in failure or success of the beef industry in Australia are the ones that affect transport, processing, and communication systems as well as the ones that affect access to information and innovation.

For the beef industry, the chief primary resource is land for grazing. In the entire land limitation, competition from other farm animals (Dairy industry), crops (cotton and horticulture industry), and non-agricultural activities is crucial (George et al. 2009).

The beef industry in Australia encounters great competition from South America in markets like Canada and Korea. Brazil stands as the leading exporter of beef in the world and the second major beef producer following the US.

The beef industry in Brazil has grown powerfully in the last decade, with production rising by 36 per cent to 9 million tonnes in year 2009. Over the same period, exports have rose at a much quicker rate, rising by 227 per cent to 1.6 million tonnes.

The sturdy growth of the beef industry in Brazil has been the outcome of significant new venture in infrastructure and cattle breeds, which is anticipated to promote growth in the near future. The beef industry in Brazil has a powerful competitive level in international markets where it has access, mainly due to its cheaper cost arrangement.

Distress concerning foot-and-mouth disease in several provinces in Brazil has affected the export capacity of Brazilian beef (Ferraz


Mix Methods Analysis in “Seeing From a Different Angle: The Role of Pop Culture in online essay help

The Article Main Concern The article in question considers the issue of entertainment media influence on the adult education, its influence on the educators in their personal and professional life. This article provides issue analysis in terms of the mixed method research approach which makes it possible to consider the issue from different facets and, thus, examine it more thoroughly.

The Article Purpose and Problem Statement The purpose of the article under consideration is to explore “US adult educators’ consumption of entertainment media” and to define “how it affects their thinking about group identities, and how they draw on it in their teaching and learning, particularly in regard to teaching about diversity issues” (Tisdell


Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Types of storage tanks and flammable and combustible liquid stored in them, their fire protection systems, and brief servicing in case of spill

The devastating and costly experiences involving fire and flammable and combustible liquids have led to formulations of better guidelines and storage facilities for handling such liquids.

Practically, protecting flammable and combustible storage tanks from fire involves “the use of fixed or semi-fixed foam fire protection system” (NFPA 23).

Systems with proper installation and maintenance tend to be reliable. The foam is useful in “preventing, controlling, or directing extinguishment of any combustible or flammable liquid fire within the tank” (NFPA 27).

The fixed system refers to an installation system running from the main foam location through permanent systems to the hazard under protection. This system is complete and has permanent installation. On the other hand, a semi-fixed system installation has fixed discharge systems. It links with pipes, which end in a safe location from the hazard.

Open Top Floating Roof Storage Tank This storage tank is like cone roof tank. It does not have a fixed roof. The “pontoon roof floats above the flammable or combustible liquid” (OSHA 50). There is a rim that seals “the space and the shell or side wall of the tank” (OSHA 50).

Cone Roof Storage Tank This storage tank has a fixed cone-shaped roof. It also has vertical sides. This tank meets API standards. The tank’s design allows the roof to “blow off and leave the tank shell intact when internal explosion occurs” (OSHA 52). Thus, the tank can retain the liquid as the resulting fire will only burn the top of the exposed content.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal Floating Roof/Covered Floating Roof Storage Tank This type of storage tank has both the “floating roof tank and cone-shaped roof” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof lies directly on the tank’s liquid content. It has open vents at the sides. The internal floating roof can be “pontoon type or steel double deck” (OSHA 53). The internal floating roof may also have a sealed design area protection.

Ground/underground tanks There are also flammable and combustible liquids stored in horizontal style tanks. These are underground and aboveground tanks.

These tanks have steel construction and meet specifications of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Uniform Fire Code of the International Fire Code Institute (IFCI). Still, underground tanks may also have different materials from steel.

However, these materials master meet standards of steel or conform to design standards for storage of flammable and combustible liquids.

The operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond “the design pressure of the tank” (NFPA 343). These tanks have systems that release excessive internal pressure that may result from exposure to fires. Such relief systems must meet the standards in the NFPA provisions.

These tanks also have dikes and drainage systems as required in the NFPA guidelines in order to prevent any accidental discharge of flammable and combustible contents. This is usually to protect nearby facilities and waterways.

Underground tanks must meet NFPA standards and other provisions. These tanks must undergo thorough tests before installation. Underground tanks must also meet corrosion standards as different states require (NFPA 343).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of Flammable and Combustible Liquids stored in the tanks The NFPA 30 Code provides minimum standards for flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks, storage, transportation, and handling. In addition, it also provides various classifications of flammable and combustible liquids.

This classification uses boiling point and flash point of these liquids as set by “American Petroleum Institute (API) or American Society for Testing and Materials methods” (NFPA 467).

Flashpoint refers to a “minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid” (NFPA 467). A liquid, in this case, refers to any material that has more than “300 fluidity of penetration asphalt” (NFPA 467).

We can apply two common methods to classify flammable and combustible liquids. These are non water miscible (hydrocarbon) and water miscible (polar solvent) methods.

Hydrocarbon liquids include jet fuels, gasoline, and crude oil among others. On the other hand, polar solvent liquids consist of esters, alcohols, and ketones among others (OSHA 53).

Classification of Flammable Liquids Flash Point Boiling Point Class IA Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IB Below 73 0F or 22.8 0C Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Class IC At or above 73 0F Below 100 0F or 37.8 0C Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.

Classification of Combustible Liquids Flash Point Class II At or above 100 0F (37.8 0C) and below 140 0F (60 0C) Class IIIA At or above 140 0F (60 0C) and below 200 0F (93.3 0C) Class IIIB At or above 200 0F (93.3 0C) Source: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1969 edition.

Source: 29 CFR 1910.106

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fire Protection Systems of Flammable and Combustible Liquid by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fire protection systems of flammable and combustible liquid tanks The first step to fire protection requires the use of approved tanks for storage and holding of flammable and combustible liquids. Thus, storage tanks for flammable and combustible liquids must meet NFPA 30 Code and the OSHA standards.

Storage tanks have steel walls approved for storing flammable or combustible liquids. However, different materials for these tanks (underground) must meet standards of steel as well as required design.

Manufacturers and operators of these tanks must ensure that normal “operating pressure of the tank cannot go beyond the design pressure” (OSHA 54). Atmospheric pressure tanks cannot substitute low pressure tanks.

During installation, engineers must ensure that the “spacing (shell-to-shell) of aboveground tanks must not be less than three feet” (OSHA 54). This is the distance between two tanks of flammable and combustible liquids.

The distance between two adjacent tanks is crucial during installation. This is necessary to facilitate firefighting in cases of fires. Thus, irregular arrangements or compact tanks need wider spacing between them for ease of accessibility.

The tanks must also have a distance of 20 feet between them if they are flammable or combustible liquid tanks and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. This distance depends on the pressure at which the tanks operate.

For instance, it will be different if the pressure of a flammable or combustible tank exceeds 2.5 psig, or in cases where the tank has emergency venting. Emergency venting allows the pressure to go beyond 2.5 psig.

There should be no accumulation of flammable or combustible liquids next to liquefied petroleum gas container by any means. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) container cannot share the same dike with flammable or combustible liquid tanks. The LPG container must be 20 feet away from a flammable or combustible liquid tank. In all, LPG can never be installed in diked areas.

Fire protection from storage tanks also accounts for atmospheric pressure. The designers must ensure that atmospheric storage tanks have adequate vents to eliminate developments of pressure or vacuum.

Pressure and vacuum can damage the “roof of a cone roof tank or can go beyond the tank’s design pressure” (OSHA 54). This may occur due to filling, emptying, and changes in atmospheric temperatures.

Normal vents must conform to three provisions. First, they must meet specifications of API 2000. Second, vents must also conform to other accepted provisions. Finally, vents must also be larger than or equal to withdrawal and filling pipes. The recommended vent diameter should not be less than 11/4 inch.

Storage tanks also have protection mechanisms that inhibit “overpressure which may originate from pumps discharging liquid into the tank” (NFPA 45). This is necessary because discharge pressure may surpass the design pressure of the tank.

Aboveground storage tanks have devices that relieve “excessive internal pressure, which may result from exposure to fires” (NFPA 45). Relief systems must also meet NFPA 30 set standards.

Storage tanks have drainage systems. Drainage systems cater for any accidental discharge and prevent flammable or combustible liquids from getting into waterways. As a result, there are dikes that retain flammable or combustible liquids around the tank. The size and volume of dike must also meet certain standards.

First, volume of the dike must be able to contain the amount of liquids that the tank can release at a given times when it has a full capacity. This method considers “the volume of the tank and height of the dike” (OSHA 54) in order to determine the capacity of the dike.

Second, tanks with fixed roofs, which have liquids with boil over tendencies, consider the volume of the largest tank that an enclosure serves so as to determine the carrying capacity of the dike if these tanks have full capacities. At the same time, this process must also consider capacities of “all tanks within an enclosure where the dike is” (OSHA 54).

Dikes must meet specified construction standards. This takes into account the location and weather factors such as flooding. There are also emergency procedures in case of flooding at the site. Overfill protection systems are above the ground as recommended under IFC and NFPA Codes.

The system also ensures that all sources of ignition are under control in accordance with the “OSHA standards and other applicable codes” (OSHA 51).

Sources of open flame are under strict restriction with visible signs of “NO SMOKING BY ORDER OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT” as stipulated in the IFC 2003 standards (OSHA 57).

Installed electrical devices meet the standards of NFPA 30 current version, ICC Electrical Code, and National Electrical Code. Electrical pumps also have control mechanisms, which allow them only to function when the dispensing nozzle is out of its normal area or bracket.

The control uses a manual switch for activation. These control mechanisms stop nozzles once they are in the bracket, or not in normal positions of dispensing.

The storage tanks of Class I or II liquids also have mechanisms which minimize accumulation of static electricity during dispensing. This uses proper grounding and bounding systems.

The storage tanks also have corrosion control methods that meet OSHA requirements and other standards.

The storage tanks meet material specifications and quality recommended for piping, pipes, and valves.

All underground tanks have connections at the top. In addition, all vents terminate at the end as required under the OSHA standards.

Servicing flammable and combustible liquid tanks in case of a spill The NFPA 329 sets standards and recommendations for handling all releases of flammable and combustible liquids, and gases (NFPA 45). The most important recommendation is to find the source of the spill, and then conduct a thorough cleanup and disposal.

All tanks storing Class I, II, or IIIA liquids must avoid cases of accidental spills so as to protect nearby property, facilities, and waterways. Storage tanks must also have remote impounding and impounding tanks with dikes. In some cases, storage tanks may require both remote impounding and diking, and a closed-top diking.

The NFPA Code and other applicable standards provide specifications on spill control and secondary containment. Storage tanks located outside and exposed to rainfall have design to contain spills from the single largest container.

At the same time, it must also have the capacity to hold “a volume of a 24-hour rainfall based on a 25-year storm” (NFPA 234). The system also has channels to drain accumulated water.

Controlling spills also requires maintenance and inspections of storage tanks regularly. Locations prone to flooding need constant “inspection and review of the emergency plan provisions” (NFPA 234). This is because floods may weaken foundations and other supporting structures. This also applies to areas prone to earthquakes.

Storage tanks maintenance and operating procedures must conform to set standards of approved codes. There should be a prompt cleanup of any spills and proper disposal.

The codes do not have any specific training requirements. However, the industry must ensure that it improves compliance through regular employees training on safety standards.

These trainings should focus on popular areas like handling, storing, and transferring flammable and combustible liquids. In addition, trainings should also include regular maintenance practices.

How to putout fire and control spillage using different methods People operating storage tanks for storing flammable and combustible liquids must be familiar with the hazards and characteristics of such liquids. Spills can result into costly fires.

Therefore, before any fire occurs, the person responsible for the spill should act promptly and cleanup the area. This is because acts of carelessness during cleanup can cause injury, illness, spread of the liquid to the environment, fire and severe damages to property, or even claim lives.

It is important that people handling flammable and combustible liquids know essential steps in handling spills and controlling fires. Therefore, adequate training, supply of cleanup materials, and protective equipment must be available in the location.

Flammable and combustible liquids need cautious handling, storing, and transferring. However, the general rules to eliminate cases of fire from flammable and combustible liquids involve avoiding sources of open flames such as “smoking, avoiding static electricity, ensuring electrical gadgets are compliant, and preventing hazardous mixtures” (OSHA 53).

Eliminating cases of hazardous mixtures of flammable and combustible is necessary in preventing cases of explosions and fire. Therefore, it is necessary to label all containers used in storing flammable and combustible liquids. It is also important to keep distance between storage tanks and classes of different flammable and combustible liquids.

It is also fundamental to prohibit “smoking and other sources of open flames in areas with flammable and combustible liquids” (NFPA 473). This is the basic step to reducing cases of fire and explosions at such locations.

Therefore, people should not smoke, use matches, lighters, and other materials which may produce flames or sparks when dealing with flammable and combustible liquids. Location of signage must be visible for all people visiting the plant.

Location of fire extinguishers should be conspicuous for all employees for accessibility during a fire. Employees should be familiar with operating instructions of fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers also need regular inspection and maintenance to ensure that they are functional.

According to OSHA, inspection of fire extinguishers should be at least once a year (OSHA 57). There should be a date of inspection and the next date of inspection clearly indicated on the extinguisher.

OSHA recommends that fire extinguishers should be placed facing up and regular inspection of hose for any blockage. Seals should not indicate any sign of tampering.

Employees must also learn how to face a fire with an extinguisher. The NFPA recommends that people should recall “PASS” when handling fires (NFPA 469). These are the steps to observe when extinguishing a fire.

They are pulling or pressing the lever or pin of the extinguisher, aiming at the base of the fire, squeezing the handle to release extinguishing agent, and sweeping from side to side until the fire goes out.

NFPA also indicates that it is dangerous to turn back on a fire. This is because the fire has the potential to flash up again. NFPA and OSHA warn that people should leave the facility in case of a large fire that they cannot handle with available facilities.

They must call the fire department immediately. This should be clearly indicated on the emergency plan in case of a fire. The fire department must provide training on dealing with fires in extreme cases.

Fire fighting remains a dangerous undertaking. It is necessary to invite a fire department to train workers on various methods of handling fires. At the same time, they should also tour the plant and provide recommendations as necessary. It is necessary to identify faulty areas and potential sources of fires.

Cases of poor services of fuel tanks that led to catastrophic disasters: what was wrong or poor service? No fires are similar based on their causes and patterns. However, they have same destructive effects on the environment, property, and sometimes on lives of people. These are the cases of BP Texas City Refinery Explosion and the Buncefield fire of the UK in 2005.

BP Texas City Refinery Explosion The CSB report indicates that BP failed to “implement all the safety recommendations about the blowdown drums before the explosion” (CSB 1). Initial reports had indicated that the company was familiar with the issue of blowdown drums.

Previously, Amoco proposed to replace blowdown drums that vented into the atmosphere. However, there were budget strains changes, and it did not make any changes. OSHA had also expressed its concerns about unsafe design of such pressure releasing system. BP ignored safety issues in order to cut costs.

Blowdown drums and stack operate by means of carrying “the mixed liquid, and or vapor hydrocarbons from venting relief and blowdown valves during unit upsets or following a unit shutdown” (CSB 5). Usually, remaining hydrocarbon vapors detach themselves from the liquid and rise to the top of the stack and escape to the atmosphere.

Heavy, hydrocarbon vapors condense and fall back to the bottom of the blowdown drum for subsequent collections. However, according to the report based on the industry provisions, this method of discharging vapor is hazardous. The codes and other acceptable standards recommended that such facilities should discharge their wastes directly to the sewer.

The company knew that the vapors, which passed through the blowdown drum, were highly inflammable liquid contents, and thus, any explosion could be highly risky. Further, blowdown drums were also sources of fire hazard.

The company heavily depended on the blowdown drum. However, it failed to implement any recommendations from various inspection reports.

Specifically, CSB report put it that the company “failed to replace the internal baffles, decommissioning the quench system, and adding more inlets, which possibly reduced its effectiveness” (CSB 32).

Earlier reports had indicated that the company should install flare systems or closed relief systems. These designs have abilities to reduce such risks considerably.

Many reports have indicated failure of the company to upgrade its systems to acceptable safety standards even after recommendations. Blowdown drum should not vent into the atmosphere due to their risks to the flammable and combustible liquid facilities and the surrounding environment.

The BP Texas City Refinery safety standards of 1977 noted as follows “the industry standards did not permit new blowdown stacks, and BP ought to have connected the blowdown drums to closed systems or flares when the operations of the company outgrew existing facilities, or when it made major modifications to the units” (CSB 67).

The company made changes to the blowdown drums in order to increase their carrying capacities. However, the company did not include any connection to a safe disposal system such as a flare as recommended.

In the year 2002, engineers from the company recommended that BP should connect relief valves to a flare for discharging wastes in order to conserve the environment. However, the company disregarded this recommendation in order to save costs on maintenance.

BP Texas City Refinery Explosion shows the importance of upgrading systems that handle flammable and combustible liquids. It is clear that the explosion resulted from poor and outdated blowdown drum, which could not meet increased activities at the refinery.

Thus, it is important for companies to build their storage facilities to meet acceptable standards in the codes and regulations of various states.

The Buncefield Fire 2005 The report showed that the explosion probably emanated from ignition of a vapor cloud suspected to have originated from a storage tank. This could have happened from overfill of unleaded petrol. However, the report cannot account for the violet blast that occurred at the facility.

The finding points to a failure of the shut down system that lock tank when it is full after delivery. It also focused on the composition of the liquid. This case resulted into a serious environmental concern due to its impacts on the groundwater.

The Buncefield Fire raised issues relating to three areas. This included “design and operation of storage sites, emergency response to incidents, and advice to planning authorities” (HSE 18).

From the design and operation point of view, the facility failed to contain fuel and water (firewater) used in firefighting at all levels. Thus, the facility failed in containment standards. The primary aim of a containment structure is to ensure that the liquid does not spread outside the vessel and dike area.

This indicates that future designs must consider building dikes and other methods of containing the liquid to prevent it from leaving the tank and forming flammable or combustible vapor. The report recommended bund and drains as means of providing secondary and tertiary containment strategies.

There was also a case of “overtopping”. This practice has the potential to produce dangerous and explosive mixtures from flammable and combustible liquids. The report also noted that the design of the tank could have also been a source of vapor formation.

There was also a problem with the location of the pump house. This is the main source of cooling water for the whole plant. The pump house was close to storage facilities and also downhill. The reported indicated that it could have been the source of earlier ignition.

The pump house acted as the source of firefighting for the facility. Its earlier loss left the site with no means to fight the fire. The Board noted that pump house could have exploded internally from the vapor that entered it after escaping the vessel. It posed a threat to fire pumps.

The Board noted that the response to the situation was “very impressive” (HSE 21). It has shown how effective emergency response works in case of a major incident.

It also showed the need to improve in responding to emergency incidents across the UK and other places. The Board noted that the facility, residential, and commercial development should not be near plants like Buncefield.

Works Cited CSB. BP Texas City: Final Investigation Report. Texas: CSB, 2005. Print.

HSE. Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board. London: Crown, 2006. Print.

NFPA. NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 2012 Edition. Quincy, MA: NFPA, 2012. Print.

OSHA. Regulatory Compliance Guide. Washington, DC: OSHA, 2002. Print.


Toyota Corporation Issue management plan Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Issues Identification

Issues Analysis

Strategy Options

Action Plan

Evaluation of Results

Reference list

Introduction Toyota Corporation is a Japanese automobile manufacturer that is involved in robotics, biotechnology and financial services. The corporation has been in the industry since 1937, and has had a stain-free history and experienced an unprecedented growth in its operation, currently with over 500 subsidiaries and a labor force of more than 300,000 globally; however over the recent times, the corporation has been facing nightmares of all sorts.

The company has been encountered by a number of crises ranging from leadership crisis, public relations, diminishing returns, and the global economic meltdown to the most recent crisis, the accelerator pedal defaults. In counter to these unanticipated situations threatening its continuity and in an attempt to recover from these crises, the corporation’s public relations department was necessitated to formulate an issue management plan.

In developing the issue management plan, the corporation has identified the important aspects that need consideration: the crisis management methods to be adopted, the Toyota communication plan, and the corporation’s management team. It consists of ways of response to the crisis in reality and perception and metrics to define what scenarios are to be handled as crisis (Gottschalk 2002).

Issues Identification The company’s issues identification approach takes into consideration the entire process of ascertaining the financial, political, legal, government and communication problems associated with the crisis at hand. It all started with the financial warning that was issued by the corporation anticipating its first ever loss since its operations commenced close to seventy years ago.

A financial forecast that revealed the first ever operating loss was attributed largely to the slump in sales of the manufactured automobiles and robotics and the fact that that the value of the Yen was continuously becoming inferior to the dollar and other major world currencies.

Toyota problems was compounded by stiff competition from other automobile manufacturers notably Honda and the slump in the global economy occasioned by the events in Wall Street. Manufacturers of automobile around the world were faced with a tough challenge due to a shake in the operating environment that caused a sharp shift in demand because of the deepened financial crisis that spread over consumers in worldwide.

According to The Economist (2010), “the entity had reduced its operating estimate to a loss of 150 Billion Yen in its fiscal year that ended March 2010; the reduced estimate was subsequent to surprising the international economic markets by decreasing its group working earnings predictions by an unparalleled 1 trillion Yen.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota’s situation was further aggreviated by the recall crisis of its recently manufactured automobiles with supposedly faulty braking systems. This all started on 28th August, 2009 when a Californian highway patrol officer was travelling on Highway 125 in Santee California with members of his family when the Lexus ES350 they were travelling in unceremoniously accelerated out of control hitting other vehicles and rolling over an embankment bursting flames, killing all the four occupants.

The incident was said to have been caused by a stuck accelerator that made the vehicle speed uncontrollably. This was followed by a series of similar accidents and complaints from customers over the issue, which led to the recall of over 8.1 million with US reporting 5.5 million cases and also led to suspension of sales of about eight of its best selling brands costing the corporation at least $54 million every day on lost sales.

These crises coupled together have rely had a negative impact on the company’s operations in terms of moneys spend in rectifying the faulty pedals, lost sales, reduced profitability, decreased production and also its public relations. Notably the devastating impacts of these crises are evident on the company’s share, which has hit a new low of $71.80 in the New York stock and the corporation has reduced its networth by about $25 million.

Issues Analysis Due to the proneness of the corporation to variations in the industry, the corporation has adopted a crisis contingency plan to cover uncertainties occurring, unlike in earlier times the corporation operated without a contingency plan that left the corporation at the risk of bad reputation, public scrutiny, even compromising its continuity in case where a crisis erupts.

The recall crisis took the American market by storm because of the negative publicity and anxiety caused to other customers with the latest Toyota models, the public went into a frenzy with many fearing to use our automobiles and discussions on social networks, televisions and print media reaching fever pitch.

The management of the corporation in the US market went into a crisis meeting to evaluate the accuracy of the allegations and possibly do some damage control. The mangled wreck of the vehicle was collected and taken to the Toyota laboratories for investigations. However, preliminary reports on the crash from both the corporation and independent local authorities indeed showed that the Lexus ES 350 was acquired on a loan from Bob Baker Lexus Showroom of San Diego where the personal car of the victim was being held for repair in return. It was also clear that the Lexus may have been fitted with the wrong floor mats thereby interfering with its gas pedal.

From these investigations, management learnt of the inherent risk in the latest automobiles from the American plant supplied into the market. In October 2010, an article in The Economist highlighted the level of hazard caused by the company’s automobiles.

We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those affected were mainly individuals who had purchased their latest automobiles from the American plant. It was also reported that nine other separate incidents where local authority investigations on other accidents involving Toyota vehicles were done.

Majority of the accidents were a consequence of wrong bottom mats and a number of others due to the spruce pieces on the Sienna models. Investigations reported also revealed that the other fatality accidents were as a result of unintended acceleration of the vehicles.

“In depth investigations and analysis by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) further revealed that the mats used on the floor of these automobiles were specifically meant for the RX 400 SUV Toyota Lexus but these were erroneously used on the ES 350 model.” This manufacturing error resulted in the accelerator gearshift to wedge against the rubber mats causing the vehicles to speed up abruptly.

Strategy Options The issues management plan shall incorporate specific management strategy options to be taken during crisis, depending on the nature and extent of the crisis, to minimize the impact of a looming crisis and provide a response mechanism that will mitigate any crisis occurring.

The strategic options should address diverse scenarios of crises ranging from environmental crisis, natural calamities, and technological mishaps; confrontational crisis such as industrial action or crisis arising from management goofs and skewed management values.

For effective strategic positioning in anticipation of crisis, the corporation should provide for crisis planning. Since most crises occur within the predictability of a corporation, for the anticipated crisis, it should identify the dangers or risks involved in its market and come up with an issues management plan, which shows the measures to be put in place when crises strike.

Crisis planning is aimed at minimizing the impact of the crisis and provides a response system and also aims at putting the organization at the best possible position to counteract and recover from crises. However, when planning, the crisis team should be inclusive and not limited to specific disasters, although it can lay more emphasis on the anticipated crisis. A more effective way for the organization to take is creating a crisis management function within its operations.

This operates as a division in the organization and its functions includes; predicting any occurrence of a crisis, planning to curb crisis, communicating and advising the management about the vulnerability of the organization. Issues planning will address matters like crisis management methods, communication plan, management team and the evacuation team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another option is creation of a crisis team that is well prepared to combat any crisis. The management should identify the main players to take positions in the team, based on their specialty, character and ability to work.

The crisis team responsibilities include: restoring information networks, control and commands in times of a crisis while acquiring information, so as to provide the senior staff with adequate information on the situation. To enable teamwork and to solve the crisis, the crisis team needs to adopt crisis management, for example performing drills or scenarios to create an imaginary crisis, to evaluate how the team would respond in times of a real disaster.

At the post-crisis stage, the management should put in place a crisis recovery plan. This involves steps that are necessary to bring back the organization to its functioning position. This involves: existing backup of important information, logs, staff and other lists; conducting an insurance review to make sure that it can adequately compensate all risks incurred; exploring legal elements of recovery with the legal department; and reviewing all current service agreements and check for post-crisis provisions and recovery support.

In a case where the company has experienced enduring crisis, which hinder the company’s operation, it could consider discontinuing the business segment, brand or subsidiary affected by the crisis for sometime or forever; or engaging a strategic business combination, such as merger, takeover or amalgamations.

Although this may seem unwise in the short-term, in the long-term it makes sense to the company in terms of; the crisis may spread to other segments, savings in future losses, company reputation and improve on the company’s return on investment (Reid 2000).

Action Plan For the organization to successfully implement the strategic options at hand, it needs to adopt an action plan. More importantly the action plan should incorporate an elaborate and well-structures communication plan. The communication plan involves coordinating, directing and communicating and providing the levels of command and channels of communication among the crisis team, the stakeholders and media when handling a crisis.

Crisis communication can transform the unexpected into the anticipated and save the company’s credibility and reputation. More importantly is the media management strategy. Media centre is set up that will be headed a chief spokesperson or a senior communications and public relations officer.

From this centre, the Chief Executive Officer and the Managing Director will be personally available to give media updates on the state of affairs. The chief spokesman is supposed handle the media while the rest of the staff are advised to keep off not to communicate with the media personally or give any information that could interrupt the process.

However, the adopted action plan should not be static rather flexible and adaptable with pertinent inclusion of issues and specifics that have come up. The action should ensure inclusion of a clear hierarchy of command that mentions by name and authority assigned to a given position in the case of an emergency. The contact of such personnel both physical addresses, postal addresses and cell phone contacts shall be part of the list to ensure information is conveyed expeditiously.

Evaluation of Results This will entail establishing a mechanism for setting an agenda for evaluation and review. In evaluation of results, feedback is an important pointer. In the midst or after a crisis, the company should institute a corporation feedback mechanism where affected parties will forward their responses and feedback on how they think the situation was handled and ought to have been done or not.

On the corporation’s official website, the management should place a commentary or feedback portal that is interactive and offers necessary information. Also the corporation should design a facility level stakeholders’ scorecards” managed by the corporation’s CSO (The Economist 2009).

Reference list Gottschalk, E. (2002). Crisis Management. Melbourne: John


Mediation in IT Outsourcing Report essay help

Table of Contents Mediation process

Issues in Mediation

Lessons learned


Mediation process Mediation process is an exercise aimed at bringing two parties into an agreement in an outsourcing deal. Vendors or suppliers of Information technology products and services are made to agree on the terms of their relationship with the organization(s) requiring these services.

This mediation process is usually supported by an expert who will at all times ensure that the parties focus on their main goal of entering into a mutually beneficial outsourcing agreement rather than their differences (Rost, 2006). In the mediation process each party will come up with its terms of references and the mediator will facilitate the negotiation process (Sparrow, 2003).

Negotiations between organizations like Condy software services and WeRunIt is usually very challenging because Condys’ agenda will be profit maximization through high sales while WeRunIt will be aiming at maximum profitability through low cost production.

According to Hale (2005) in most cases parties are in agreement as regards the ultimate formation of the outsourcing relationship but the cost and terms/ conditions of engagements usually bring in contention. It is in here that mediation process brings in sobriety to the parties so that their discussions will be directed towards achievement of their ultimate goals.

Issues in Mediation The mediation between WeRunIt and Condy software services mainly focused on the contractual price, period and other conditions. The two organizations debated for a long time over the pricing structure and payment frequencies. This was the most contentious issue but finally the parties came to a crunch and an agreement was arrived at.

Condy agreed to take the responsibility of creating and maintaining WeRunIts’ website. It also signed in to put up an e-commerce module in the website to facilitate online payment and maintain databases of entrants to different promotions. Condy was not able to accept the responsibility for supporting accounting systems of WeRunIt since they did not have expertise in the area.

Contractual period and the termination rights were also discussed and both organizations agreed on a five years renewable contract only to be terminated by a five months notice period by either party. Condy actually lobbied for a longer period of time since the initial capital required to roll out the project was high while WeRunIt wanted a shorter contract period so that it could test the competency of the vendor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The service level agreements were also agreed upon and remedies on cases of downtimes were discussed. WeRunIt actually rooted for an absolute 24 hours a day uptime for the website and e-commerce module but with negations from Condy 2% allowable downtime was agreed to be normal. The service level agreement actually focused more on the quality and reliability of service by Condy software services which WeRunIt was actually assured.

The two parties agreed that ownership of the e-commerce software used would belong to Condy, while the domain name and the web site to WeRunIt. Condy accepted responsibility for the WeRunIt s’ data safety at their premises and therefore it was mandated to ensure that they have proper disaster recovery and back up plans.

Lessons learned During the mediation several lessons were learned and these includes;

The role of mediator is very challenging and requires a person who is impartial and is able to keep both parties in to discussing relevant issues to the agreement (Greaver, 2000).

Mediation agreements are not the making of the facilitator rather the parties consequently they are more binding and results in an amicable settlement.

In mediation not all the expectations are usually satisfied.

References Greaver, M., 2000. Strategic outsourcing: a structured approach to outsourcing decisions and initiatives. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Hale, J., 2005. Outsourcing training and development: Factors for success. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Rost, J., 2006. The insider’s guide to outsourcing risks and rewards. New York: CRC Press.

Sparrow, E., 2003. Successful IT outsourcing: From choosing a provider to managing the project. New York: Springer.

We will write a custom Report on Mediation in IT Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


African identity Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

American scholars studying the topic of slavery and in particular African slavery have engaged each other on the issue of African identity. Many of these debates have focused on the ethnological labeling of Africans based on their ethnic identities. One such ethnic grouping that has managed to draw a lot of attention is the Igbo ethnic identity.

The issue of Igbo ethnic identity was brought to the fray by the story of Olaudah Equiano, who in his autobiography claimed to have been born in Igbo land but an American slavery scholar by the name Vincent Carretta disputes Mr. Equiano allegations stating that he was born in America, South Carolina to be precise.

Despite this controversial assertion, Mr. Equiano books managed to attain global acclaim due to its depiction of 18th century African Atlantic identity.

According to his autobiography, Mr. Equiano was captured in Nigeria and sold to American slave owners. Mr. Equiano was later able to purchase his freedom and as a freedman, he was able to travel to different parts of the world learning the various cultures before deciding to settle permanently in England.

Mr. Equiano story is one such depiction of how many of the Africans who were enslaved in various parts of the world during the eighteenth-century slave trade were able to form their identities. As a slave, Mr. Equiano got to travel to the United States and stayed there for quite a while serving his master.

During this time, he was able to learn various aspects of the American culture. As a freedman, Mr. Equiano was able to travel to different parts of the world including Central America, the Caribbean and the Arctic and in these places; he also had an opportunity to learn new cultures of the people that were leaving in these areas.

After deciding to settle in England finally, Mr. Equiano also was able to learn aspects of the English culture and integrate it into his own identity. The story of Mr. Equiano is an essential illustration of the many debates that have been held over time by African slavery scholars on the twin issues of creolisation and retention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some opponents of creolisation argue that even after arriving in America and other foreign destinations, Africans still were in a position to retain their African identities and maintain contact with their African heritage.

However, both sides of the divide seem to concur that the process of African identity development involved the integration of new cultures into the existing African cultures resulting to the new African American and other such corresponding cultures.

One of the specific aspects of African identity during the eighteenth century slave trade period is the aspect of group identity. Group identity was most notable among the well-traveled African slaves who had an opportunity to live in different cultural settings and consequently learning the cultural aspects of the people living in these places.

In order to clearly illustrate this aspect, the story of Domingo Alvarez is used, a Benin born man who was able to live in various parts of the world, including West Africa, Brazil and Portugal. Domingo Alvarez worked as a slave in Brazil and during this time, he was able to apply his knowledge in matters of divinity and healing which he acquired from home to help other people.

This uniqueness enhanced his reputation making him one of the most popular slaves in the farm. However, after using his powers to poison his master Domingo Alvarez, was jailed and on completion of his jail term sold to another master.

The new master wanted to apply Domingo Alvarez in the healing of his wife, but when this failed to materialise, Domingo Alvarez was sold to a third master who in turn wanted to profit from his slave’s talents.

After saving some money that he got from going into business with his master, Domingo Alvarez was able to purchase his freedom and practiced freely before being arrested by Portuguese authorities on charges of witchcraft; this saw him spend time exiled to a remote part of Portugal.

We will write a custom Essay on African identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the trial in Brazil, the issue of Domingo Alvarez identity arose several times and various people who were called to testify made different assertions as to the origin of this man. Domingo Alvarez himself testified that he was born in Nangoˆ on the Mina, however various people who were called to testify had different claims about Mr. Domingo Alvarez birthplace.

This was because Domingo Alvarez had traveled far and wide and consequently, he was able to learn various cultural practices that formed the basis of his identity. During his interactions with the people, Mr. Domingo Alvarez was able to deploy the most convenient identity that resulted in these people making presumptions about his birthplace.

For instance, many people who interacted with him assumed that he was from Mina Nation. However, one of his long-time friends asserted that Mr. Domingo Alvarez was actually from Cobu.

After all, is said and done, the story of Olaudah Equiano and Domingo Alvarez reveals the complexities that went into forming the Atlantic African identity.

These were people whose lives were periodically changed whereby they were taken from one socio-cultural setting to another and consequently, they had to make appropriate adjustments in order for them to fit into these settings.

Therefore, a study that seeks to analyse the African Atlantic identity should place more emphasis their complete life stories as opposed to simply focusing on their ethnic origins.


The Gods Must Be Crazy Essay (Movie Review) essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Interpersonal communication forms



Introduction Interpersonal communication has several meaning according to its application ranging from personality traits, interactional tools, and the mind orientation. To date, there has never been a universally accepted definition what it is thus challenging for one to define his/her meaning.

However, through the life process one acquires a unique collection of experiences and ideas defining who or what they are, and in my opinion, this is a suitable definition of cultural origin and practice. Interpersonal communication trends entail those patterns that revolutionize and changes over time, which can be within days, months or years.

Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly establish the effects of interpersonal communication patterns, perceptions, verbal codes, nonverbal codes, social episodes, and roles on personal communication in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy by Jamie Uys in 1980.

Interpersonal communication forms In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, the director presents an interesting cultural interaction between the native San tribe living in the Kalahari Desert and the western culture. The plot of the film focuses on the San relatives headed by Xi who are ignorant of modern life outside the Kalahari Desert. Along the story, there is a blossoming love between a scientist and a teacher, poachers, and nature reflection.

The San tribe has everything they need and the gods are fair to them until the Coca-Cola bottle threatens this unity (Uys, scene 18, 1980). The journey to return the Coca-Cola bottle ends up with a long search for two sons who boarded a water track belonging to poachers. Xi displays his survival skills to the modernized parties and the film ends with a happy reunion between father and his two sons.

The cultural patterns in the San tribe directly affect their communication. Being a relatively primitive society, they seem to worship the sky and believe that the jet lanes in the sky are roads made by the gods who were very kind to drop for them a Coca-Cola bottle.

Being a patriarchal hierarchy, the male is the head of the family cluster and makes the crucial decisions. For instance, Xi had to make the final decision to return the bottle since it was bringing a ‘curse’ to his household (Uys, scene 12, 1980).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a communal living culture, the children are expected to play together and have to bow their heads when speaking to the adults. In fact, the communication of visual information and ideas for the last four centuries has been the function that has enabled science to advance, has it has helped people to see how things work.

The members of this culture have different sounds for different occasions. For instance, hunting which is a preserve for the males is organized and executed in a unique communication signs. Whenever the hunting is successful, the young adult children would be the first to make it into the village and the adults would share the catch to all the households.

The male adults have their special caucuses where they spit on the ground as an approval sign or sigh to reject an opinion. Thus, Visual representational meaning of the communication conveys the relationship between the parties and the depicted structuring.

The creation of a visual representational meaning proposed the space-based model for analysis centered in the placement of objects within the semiotic space as controlled and regulated by culture of the parties involved.

In the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, several events connote the nonverbal communication of the San tribe culture. For instance, when the younger son of Xi has to face the hyena threatening to kill him, he reaches for a rod and places it on his head to extend his height probably because hyenas don’t eat adults.

On the other hand, the throwing away of the Coca-Cola bottle by Xi could be translated as a sign of disappointment or anger. Besides, throwing food on the ground before and after eating would symbolize feeding the ancestors who provided for their daily needs.

Across the film, Xi is fond of placing his left hand on either the forehead or the chest of the person he is communicating with to symbolize peace, blessings, or love for humanity (Uys, scene 16, 1980). Moreover, the marking of animal footprints would represent the nonverbal communication of tracking animals.

We will write a custom Essay on The Gods Must Be Crazy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are several special features to the verbal and nonverbal codes used by the members of the San clan in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy. There is gradual transformation on the film. The only difference in culture lies on the degree and multitude under which it is applied and actively recognized by the community in their proactive reorganization for relevance and meanings of the codes used.

For instance, the San culture has embraced dependence as families and adopts extended affiliations as opposed to nuclear family ties. As these families grow bigger and bigger, the majority has finally accepted every member of their families as equals when allocating resources, opportunities, and roles.

This trend has necessitated the adoption of cognitive descent, which is a fusion between traditional and spiritual belief orientation that ensures continuity (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

Basically, the verbal and nonverbal codes within this culture are controlled by a collective responsibly and common understanding of what is expected of each member who is assigned a unique role.

There are three kinds of meanings that are concerned with building relationships between the communicating parties that clearly come out in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy: those of (1) attitude, (2) social distance, and (3) contact.

Contact is one of the most important visual systems as it enables the viewer to distinguish between images that depict different objects, such as person or animal. Contact visualization is commonly achieved by use the plot that introduces the characters at the beginning of the story (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

Being a predominantly conservative society, the San tribe in the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has distinct social episodes that are governed by specific cultural rules. For instance, in episode 12, when Xi finally makes it to the cliff top surrounded by low lying clouds, he automatically assumes that he had made it to the world’s edge and releases the bottle down the cliff (Uys, scene 19, 1980).

He then makes it back to his family and the whole clan welcomes him with a warm reception. In this episode, it is apparent that making a journey to the edge of the world and coming back a live is equivocal to going to war and coming back alive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gods Must Be Crazy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This symbolizes the blessings and protection from the gods and must be celebrated. In addition, the San clan believed that they are the only human being on that world and Xi reacts very strangely and assumes that the people he met outside the San clan are actually gods who seemed comparatively huge and had road vehicles.

Unlike this uniform social structure of interpersonal communication exhibited by the San Clan, it is apparent that the same would not be possible, especially in the Middle Eastern social structure of interpersonal communication that functions in class system stratification though inclusive of hidden discrepancies associated with caste system such as discrimination of the minorities due to skin color, gender, race, nationality, and religion since it is a state acquired in life and not determined by birth.

Being an intriguing idea, the film focuses on social norms as a mirrored reflection of what a society would like to visualize from a string of intertwining ideas. Social norms involve impersonal consciousness, stepwise process, and absolute necessity assumptions aimed at creating a sustainable, friendly, and acceptable irksome feeling (Alder, Rolls and Proctor 2012).

The film seems to propagate the significance of culture in interpersonal communication. To begin with, the story line is thought-provoking. On the other hand, it has an interesting struggle premise taking the route of a thought-provoking to venture down the path of action and belief scenes.

Reflectively, this creates a feeling of imaginative casting. Factually, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy is very fascinating in aligning beliefs to culture and how the same is interpreted in the interpersonal communication through symbols and codes. This is a vicissitude of life, items that Xi and his two sons turn about to be a necessity for their survival (Uys, scene 21, 1980).

Conclusion Generally, the film The Gods Must Be Crazy has an interesting plot besides its richness in augmenting interpersonal communication as a component of culture. The director has fused a documentary approach and humor to present a favorable piece of art that would be of great benefit to an individual interested in exploring intercultural communication and its variable at micro and macro levels of a geographical setting.

References Alder, R., Rolls, J.,


Debate of Gun Control in America Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Gun control issue

Major debate

Views of opponents

Views of proponents


Gun control issue The issue of gun control raises a very contested debate whenever any act of violence is committed and a gun is involved executing it. Several stakeholders, including politicians, policy implementers, gun lobbyists, and the civil society have been engaging in the discussion for over a century, but an ultimate response is yet to be reached.

Those suggesting that ownership of the gun is illegal and unethical observe that the local authorities and the federal agencies in charge of the gun control policy are not doing enough in terms of policy formulation because the rate at which people acquire guns and use them to destroy life is alarming.

Indeed, it is a threat to the national security. For the advocates, they present a dissenting view by noting that the law goes too far, which amounts to infringement of individual rights.

Opponents of gun control defend the argument that each American should be allowed to own a gun since introducing control measures prevent individuals from protecting their lives and property. For instance, hunters, sport shooters, and recreational gunmen should be allowed to acquire guns since their aim is not to harm anyone, but instead to enjoy their lives (Lavery


Early intervention programs Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract The number of children whose academic, social and intellectual life is affected due to mental and developmental conditions is on the rise. Most of these conditions develop to uncontrollable levels because of ignorance or negligence. The many myths surrounding mental or developmental conditions are a major cause of families of affected children to develop bitterness and to shy off from seeking appropriate help in time.

Several early intervention programs have been put in place, and the number of beneficiaries of these programs is increasing by the day. Affected children are given a different perspective in life and their families are helped to deal with any form of intimidation and shame they may be going through.

This research seeks to look into early intervention programs and their effectiveness. Other factors tackled herein include the memory functions that affect reading comprehension as well as the various developmental factors that influence reading acquisition.

Introduction Young children are more exposed to attack on their health, and are therefore more likely to have disability or handicap of any form. If such a discovery upon a child is made, early intervention is put into application. It either includes helping the affected child and his immediate family to prevent development of such a condition or assisting in control of the condition, in cases where the condition has already developed.

Early intervention is not only restricted to hospitals and health care centers, but it is also practiced in schools, homes and in other relevant units. It also covers children in all stages of life including new born babies. Early intervention is not merely done for the child’s welfare, but also for the child’s family and for the society at large; a child on whom early intervention is done tends to be more productive and profitable to his family and the society.

Importance of early intervention Research reports from reliable sources indicate that parents of children who have a handicap or a similar condition are more likely to divorce or separate than parents of non handicapped children (Sousa, p 54).

It is also reported that the careers of the parents are greatly affected, and one of the parents ends up being laid off or resigning early from work. There is also a tendency of such families to keep to themselves because of shame and low self esteem (Lapp, p 98). All of the above effects are likely to be a major drawback to the child’s mental and emotional growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also easier to shape a young person into anything, and the ease with which one can learn and do an acquired thing decreases with age. Since children gain knowledge and grow physically, mentally and psychologically faster when young, it is recommended that early intervention is carried out the earliest possible (Sousa, p 101).

A child’s conscience is innocent, and it is easier to teach a child to adapt to a handicap without developing self pity than it is to teach an adult or an older person. It is therefore advisable to implement an early intervention program as soon as any development of a condition is suspected (Sousa, p 101).

How successful is early intervention? It has been proved that early intervention works, as gathered from collected data, parents, teachers, and siblings of affected children. The beneficiaries of such programs are said to perform better in school, to have better proficiency in employment and to have better relations with people than those who did not undergo the program (Richardson, p 243).

According to research findings, those that do not have early intervention practiced on them are very anti-social, and they show no appreciation for education. Most of them also repeat classes and lack motivation for pursuing studies beyond O-level (Lapp, p 132).

There are various early intervention programs that have shown efficiency over the years. Such programs are different in what they tackle, and they affect different classes of conditions that affect children and their families. Successful programs include: those that cover children between the age of three and six years inclusive who show problems in how they behave (Lapp, p 152).

An example of such a program is Exploring Together Preschool Program (ETPP). Another type of early intervention programs are those that deal with helping children who are at a risk of getting certain diseases because of being overweight. Other programs help children who have mental problems and children who are hyperactive and are at a risk of having emotional crisis and are in need for excessive attention (Sousa, p 146).

For children who are a bit older and they have difficulties in reading, programs are implemented to assist them to have fluency and to build their vocabulary. This is done by giving them passages to read over a period of several weeks or even months, depending on the rate at which the children are learning.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Early intervention programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The complexity of these passages increases with time as the children develop “automatic decoding.” According to Richardson, reading done persistently and consistently over a period of time eventually develops the ability in the child to be fluent and sharp without any effort to think about it, something he calls “over reading.” The two most effective ways of assisting such children are the use of reciprocal teaching and the use of self questioning (Richardson, p 310).

Brain based factors using memory functions to build reading comprehension The working memory of the brain is what in to read, to understand and to reason argumentatively. The information one reads is developed in the brain and laid up in the memory (Sousa, p 155). For a child to have full comprehension of what he or she reads, several functions of the memory have to be in place.

The receptive memory enables the child to have the decoding ability of what they read. After decoding, the contents of the material are not yet home. The proper functioning of the conservative memory will enable the decoded message to be retained in a specific part of the brain, after which the message is developed and built upon in the multiplicative memory (Richardson, p 245).

The significative memory will help the child to compare or relate the information they read with any other related information that may have stored in their memory. Both the restorative and the determinative memory functions process the read information so as to give it more meaningfulness (Richardson, p 247). How meaningful a piece of information is will be seen by the output seen from the child. These functions enhance the child’s remembering ability and his application of the knowledge (Lapp, p 149).

Basically, reading comprehension entails the ability to not only read a particular article, but to also acquire meaning from it and to have a helpful interpretation of the contents therein. For children who may have sustained mild or severe brain injuries, reading comprehension becomes somewhat challenging.

Most of these children suffer from dyslexia, a condition in which a child may be able to read any article with fluency but with difficulties in understanding the contents of the article. Brain health and fitness is important if one is to have accurate comprehension of what they read (Richardson, p 65).

Developmental factors that interact with the acquisition of reading The development of a child is influenced by various factors which in turn influence the way in which the child will acquire reading skills. The relationships that surround a child determine how the child will develop mentally. Such relationships include those between the child and his parents, siblings and other influential people in the child’s life.

The child also watches how the parents relate to each other, how elder siblings relate to each other and how teachers relate to each other (Lapp, p 105). The above mentioned relationships have a way of programming the neurons of the brain to produce positive or negative development of the child. This directly affects the performance of the child academically and in other areas (Sousa, p 204).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Early intervention programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rate of development of the brain in the lifetime of a child is determined by the developmental rate of his brain in the first three years of his life (Richardson, p 196). In these three years, the development of the child’s brain is mostly determined by those who give care to the child.

In most cases, a child has both parents working the whole day, and the child is left in the hands of a nanny or in a day care nursery. Research shows that children who pass through day care nurseries have better reading acquisition skills than those who do not. This is because in such nurseries, the child is not just looked after before the parents get home from work, but they are also prepared for pre-school (Sousa, p 121).

Another developmental factor that influences how a child will acquire reading skills in their academic lifetime is the kind of socioeconomic status they are brought up in. Poverty in a family slows down a child’s development, and it has been found to have direct traumatic effects on the child.

It limits the child’s thinking capacity and it draws out the morale of developing themselves by learning (Lapp, p 43). Such children have a low self esteem and they believe that they cannot achieve what another child can. The effects of poverty on a child follow that child in other areas of his life and up to an advanced age (Lapp, p 49).

Because of lack of money, the child’s parents may also not be in a position to pay for the child’s fees or to buy resourceful materials and books. Therefore, the efforts of a child who has self motivation to read are invalidated.

Poverty also has indirect effects on a child. Poverty has been a known cause for domestic fights between parents, which adversely affects the child’s development and perspective of life. Parents who result to drinking, drug abuse and prostitution become a bad influence to the child, who may end up adapting a similar lifestyle (Richardson, p 476).

Poverty translates to under nutrition and malnutrition. This means that the child does not have the opportunity to eat foods that contain nutrients which enhance brain development (Lapp, p 174). As a result of malnutrition, the child is also prone to deficiency diseases. This affects the child’s development in many ways.

For example, the sick child is not able to participate in outdoor activities that go a long way in helping a child develop. He is not able to play and interact with other children. Sickness may also mean that the child will be out of school many times. This may lead to the child having to repeat some classes; a major cause of low self esteem and a poor self image in the child (Lapp, p 186).

Conclusion Conditions pertaining to the child’s mental wellness are influenced by various factors, some of which are unchangeable. It is virtually not achievable to make a child immune, or so to say, from development of any condition that may affect their thinking, reasoning and developmental capacity, but it is possible, upon suspicion of any development, to change the course of a child’s life using a suitable early intervention program. Early intervention programs are not only effective and beneficial to the child, but also to their families and to the society at large.

Works Cited Sousa, A. David. How the brain learns to read. California: Corwin Press, 2005, p 246.

Richardson, S. Judy, Morgan, F., Raymond


Volunteer tourism Essay essay help

Introduction Volunteer tourism is undertaken by the tourists in the local communities where they volunteer to help the by helping eliminating material poverty. It is an alternative form of tourism because the tourists opt to make their travel locally.

Motivations for participants in volunteer tourism The main motivation of this kind of tourism is to volunteer in working for the host community as the tourists learn more about their culture and other things. They satisfy the desire to work but not to be just tourists. They work for no pay in the communities that they travel to and this benefits in providing free labor, though short term to the host country or community.

There are other tourists that are motivated by the desire to give (Sin, 2009, 487-491). When they visit these communities they try to alleviate poverty materials by giving items to the people. The needy people benefits from these items and the tourists are satisfied. They argue that they feel good when they give. There are other tourists that participate in volunteer tourism in order to contribute to the host community in any way possible.

This is done through community service activities that these participants undertake. They do volunteer work that help the community and they themselves feel that they have contributed to the community.

Others argue that they learn a lot through community service because they get a chance to interact with the people in the community and learn a lot from them. They learn cultural differences between different communities and how they differ from each other. They also learn how the reception is done by different communities and how they differ from each other.

According to (Sin, 2009, 487-491), volunteers in this kind of tourism are also motivated by the desire to try themselves out in doing something.

There are people who engage in it in order to try whether they can do volunteering. This is mostly for people who are doing it for the first time and who are curious to know whether they are capable of doing it. This motivation has increased volunteer tourism in most countries. People also do it in order to try their ability in doing some activities. They test their capability in doing that particular activity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of volunteer experience Volunteer experience causes intrinsic motivation which is a result of mutually beneficial interaction. The intrinsic motivations tries to satisfy intrinsic needs like self actualization and therefore the tourists will feel satisfied when they are in volunteer travels. This is basically for people seeking self actualization (Stebbins


Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview

Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan

The Vision

SWOT Analysis

Market analysis

Risk Management Plan



Kudler Fine Foods: An Overview Kudler Fine Foods was established in 1998 and deals with food products. It has been growing and expanding steadily over the years and it now plans to diversify on its products portfolio. This is in addition to ensuring that the customers are being served effectively and efficiently (Atkinson, 2008).

The company is planning to improve on its catering services and open another store. This will be enabled by effective marketing and strategic changes within the company. By carefully studying the internal and external environment of the company, it will be possible to carry out a marketing campaign that will improve the competitiveness of the company in the market.

It needs to integrate modern technology with its operations to enable it reach out to many people through the internet and thus increase its market base. This will also make operations faster and efficient (Atkinson, 2008).

Main Aim of Draft Strategic Plan The main aim of the draft Strategic plan for Kudler Fine Foods is to provide a framework for improving its catering services together with coping with the growth and opening of another store.

The first action in the formulation of the strategic plan is to re-draft the vision and mission statements to reflect the values of the company and make it relevant and competitive in the market. The vision will be focused on offering a variety of food products to cater for the diverse nature of the clientele’s culture. This change in vision will result in a corresponding change in the mission statement in order to pursue the new vision.

The second step will be a SWOT analysis of the firm. This will involve the review of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the industry within which the firm is operating within. This analysis will help in the drafting of new company values and aligning the same with the new vision, mission, objectives and goals as mapped out in the company’s strategic plan (Keizer, 2009).

A market analysis is required to determine the feasibility of expansion brought about by the opening of a new store. The expansion plan is the major part of the project. This will involve the marketing strategy and many other important aspects related to the new establishment (Alkhafaji, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the final step in the expansion plan. Once the new food store is established, the project will be considered as complete. The company will have a website through which it advertises all its services, in addition to a fan page on Facebook and MySpace. The different outside catering services and new outsourcing activities like mid-morning catering for tea and snacks will also be introduced (Lumbourgh, 2009).

The Vision The vision statement should focus on the diversity of the clientele. This is given that the customers are mostly drawn from the working class, students and travelers. They all have different preferences; for example, the travelers will prefer take-away snacks, working class customers are likely to eat from the joint whereas the students fit in both categories.

The idea of outside catering also needs to be embedded in the vision statement to highlight Kudler Fine Foods’ prowess in providing outside catering services. This will directly affect the mission statement.

The values of the company include offering first class service to its customers and an established good customer relation. The cordial relations extend to the business environment to include the suppliers and community at large.

The employees of Kudler Fine Foods share a familial relationship. Innovation and diligence amongst the staff will be highly rewarded. This should be maintained at all times to foster a working environment conducive for invention, innovation and a productive working culture.

SWOT Analysis 1. Strengths

A competent management team which is self motivated

A positive track record in the community

An established and wide customer base

Growth in corporate clientele base

Competitive advantage over other food stores because of the variety of foods offered

Location in the Central Business District

Extensive sitting space which can accommodate a large number of customers

2. Weaknesses

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inadequate members of staff

Increased operation costs, for example electricity and license fees

A financial management system that is prone to errors

3. Opportunities

Provision of services on a twenty-four hour basis since the bus companies in the vicinity have buses arriving and departing late in the night and at dawn

Increase in the number of events organizing companies providing opportunities for outside catering

4. Threats

Market is very sensitive to price fluctuations

New competition in the market from new establishments

Lack of enough experienced staff

Market analysis Improvement of Kudler Fine Foods’ stores is included in the plan for expansion and restructuring of the company to deal with the competition in the market. In order to successfully capture customers’ preferences and needs, a market analysis will be carried out for a period of two months.

This is in order to analyze customer satisfaction, needs and experiences that will help determine the scope of operations in the new store (Alkhafaji, 2003). The new foods’ store will be four streets away from the parent store and will be named Kudler Fine Dishes.

It is targeting clients drawn from the establishments on the other side of town, clients interested in subjecting their palates to nice food. This will take the services near the client in addition to attracting new clientele. Kudler Fine Dishes will have a new look. Branding and enhancement of staff appearance will also be carried out.

Training on members of staff will be carried out to improve customer relations and management skills amongst all the new and old members of staff. This is in line with previous feedback on the conduct and quality of services provided by staff.

An analysis will be carried out to discern different food preferences during different hours of the day. It will also include gauging the perception of new services, for example outsourcing to a different company the mid morning catering services. The new establishment will have a smaller sitting capacity.

The project is feasible and Kudler Fine Foods is in a position to successfully implement the project of opening a new food store. This feasibility statement is aimed at highlighting the position of the management on the project and the unanimous acceptance of the same.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Plan for Kudler Fine Foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new food store is scheduled to open in five months’ time and its operations will start immediately.

Success Factors for Implementing the Plan

A strong financial base

A competent and focused management team

Self motivated and hardworking staff

Pre-amble planning and analysis of the project

A wide client base

A positive track record in catering services

Budgetary Allocations

Activity/ Product Units Allocated Cost (US$) Real Cost (US$) Space Rent 1 600 Interior design


Institutional Implementation of Technology Coursework scholarship essay help

The interviewee, an instructional technologist, works in a training facility that provides instructions to teachers on how to incorporate technology into their class plans. From the interview it was established that the major forms of technology being put into use are computer systems and networking facilities.

The interviewee trains teachers on how to use computer software to draft lesson plans as well as ensure proper delivery of lecture material. Some other forms of technology that are implemented include projection systems, interactive whiteboards, interactive tablets, wireless responders, laptops, digital cameras, iPods, flip cameras, televisions and document cameras.

These teachers go through sessions of training to show them how they can use the likes of power-point presentations while delivering lectures. They are taken through all the basic operations that are associated to a particular technology so that they can put it into use as effectively as possible.

With most forms of technology, reliability and stability is heavily dependent on the expertise of the handler and the frequency of use (Jonassen, 2005). The more acquainted to a particular technology a person is, the easier it is for him to use it reliably. The security of the technologies mentioned above depends on a number of factors.

Computers systems especially those with connection to external networks are prone to attacks by viruses and Trojans, as well as invasion by hackers who may end up maliciously locking up the systems. Fortunately, various antivirus and firewall software have been developed and these can be used to maintain the integrity of the systems. Other machines such as projectors and televisions are prone to break-downs occasioned by power surges (Maier, 1998).

The interviewee offers most of his training on location and most of the time she is the sole member of staff. Being a trained professional, she can easily operate the various systems that are installed in the schools she visits to offer the training.

Once she has departed from the institutions after providing the necessary training to the teachers, the users of the technology at a particular time then become the only required staffs. In some instances, the teachers may decide to employ the services of an assistant especially in setting up things like projectors and monitor screens. In this case the assistant and the teacher become the two staff members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the interview, the technological integration training is ideal for individuals with experience in classroom teaching and who comprehensively understand the curriculum. This is understandable because for most of the time the tutors will be the only staffs attending to the specific technologies. In schools with computers connected to an outside network, the services of a network administrator may be required.

I have been able to learn that there are professionals out there who specialize in training individuals (specifically teachers) on how to properly use technology in a classroom setting to further enhance their delivery.

It was interesting to note that entrenching the use of technology into classroom activities can serve to lighten the work of passing the message across. I have also been able to learn that the teachers while putting into use network related activities can work in tandem with network administrators to ensure that the sites they intend to have their students conduct research from contain material that is appropriate.

Reference List Jonassen, D. (2005). Modeling with Technology: Mindtools for Conceptual Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Maier, P. (1998). Using technology in teaching