Introduction Transnationalism is a contemporary phenomenon that involves migration of people from one country to another, but they retain ties with their home countries. The notion of transnationalism is “being here and there at the same time” (Cano, 2009.p. 1). Movement of people across borders has been made easy by improved modes of transport, technology, and communication. Transnationalism involves living in one country but belonging to another.
The scoop of the paper will be on the definition of transnationalism, reasons that lead migrants to become transnational migrants. The way transnationalism has changed in the 21st century and forces behind the change. Finally, on the way nations have responded to the change in migration.
Migrants to transnational migrants Migrants move from their home country because of various reasons such as economic pursuits, hostile environments or for adventure. People who move to search for greener pastures leave families behind, and hence they remit money back home.
Such people have strong ties with the people left behind similar than those who move away from their countries because of personal reasons. They feel that they have an obligation to take care of their country even if they are away. Therefore, family obligation is a very strong factor that makes migrants become transitional migrants (Schiller
Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender Analysis in health care
Introduction Gender analysis assesses the effects of actions on both women and men. Gender analysis tends to focus on women more than men. The institutional structures view women as insubordinate. This could be termed as an aspect of women marginalization. Women are not involved in planning, decision making, policy formulation, training, employment and in projects. Women have been marginalized in politics, schools, economic and family setting.
Consequently, men have emerged as the privileged gender. Men who come from high social status have enjoyed the impacts of development. The economic status of women usually denies them a chance to access and maintain quality healthcare (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 1).
There is a need to examine gender relations in health care. This will enable policy makers to implement policies that benefit the least advantaged gender in the society.
This essay defines gender analysis and discusses the application of gender analysis to the health status of women of different incomes. The paper will also examine the implications of gender analysis to public policy and how research can contribute to gender analysis.
Gender Analysis in health care Gender analysis in healthcare can be defined as the process of evaluating effects in healthcare provision from a social and economic perspective on both male and female genders.
The aim of gender analysis is to promote sustainability of healthcare provisions, enhance equity and identify areas with challenges. The assessment highlights areas of involvement, achievements and failures associated with either men or women. Gender analysis will provide the information required to plan and implement effective programs (Hunt, 2004, p. 100).
According to Office for Women’s Policy (2005, p. 8), gender analysis in health care involves identifying healthcare experiences for both men and women and noting the disparities. The aims and objectives of the policies are analyzed to obtain their impacts on men and women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data on different groups including the high, middle and low social class women and men is obtained and analyzed. Investigations on the effects of the policy on different genders are recorded and evaluated. Innovative solutions are obtained to overcome the challenges.
Recommendation of the most appropriate solution that will achieve gender equity is considered. The policy and the program are communicated and the indicators mentioned.
To examine health status of women of different incomes, it is necessary to obtain information concerning sex in the community, households and in the workplaces. Their health care needs, the level of income and access to health care are also important to gender analysis (Women and Healthcare Reform Group, 2009).
Gender analysis involves aspects like convenience and access to health care facilities. It also involves attitudes and perceptions about health for both men and women. Gender analysis will seek to obtain information on health care providers and investigate their attitude towards male and female. The influence of different instructions such as schools and religious institution can be analyzed. The implications of diverse attitudes from policy makers in health matters should be examined.
The equipment, infrastructure, environment, waiting time and access to facilities can be analyzed. The source of motivation for health care providers and the hospital guidelines used can be assessed. The services that are offered, community involvement, education materials and organization structure can contribute to the assessment of gender analysis.
Financing in health care is an aspect of gender analysis. The focus is placed on areas that are given priority in relation to gender analysis. Analyzing the stakeholders and decision making process on their ability to recognize gender issues in health institutions is significant. Obtaining information on service delivery for both genders is essential for gender analysis in healthcare, as Jackson et al (2006, p. 1) mention.
Social indicators of health and illnesses between men and women should be analyzed. Depending on the roles and the economic social status, differences may affect the access and availability of health care resources. Poverty may increase vulnerability.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women who are left with the responsibility of providing and childcare may lack the resources to access health care. Cultural norms have a great impact on the perception of health by both men and women. Men and women give different levels of attention to illness, preventive measures and treatment. Culture affects the attitudes of both genders.
Quality healthcare is important in healthcare provisions. High social class women have access to quality health care owing to their economic status. The low class struggle to obtain and access healthcare. They are exposed by their environment and sometimes lack information on measures to prevent preventable illnesses. A large number of women belong to the low social class and the middle class. Consequently, they receive low quality health care than men. Poor quality health care may have negative effects on women.
Policies impact the implementation and the outcomes of every program in healthcare. Policies are the foundation for programs undertaken in health care institutions. The assumption is that policies address prevailing health issues. Gender blind policies ignore the differences between male and female and foster widespread gender inequalities. Gender aware policies are neutral, specific or redistributive.
The aim of gender awareness policies is to recognize the differences in men and women and attempt to attain equality between them. They also address specific issues in one gender and transform existing policies in order to accommodate both men and women irrespective of their situation (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 32).
According to Moana (1999, p. 4), policies based on gender analysis avoid discrimination of one gender. Most of the policies eliminate gender discrimination against women, who are often the victims of gender inequality. Basic health care is a human right and should reflect in public policy.
Health care policies that reflect gender analysis overcome unconstructive cultural practices and promote the availability of healthcare at an affordable price for women of all social classes. They also enhance accessibility to health care facilities. The application of gender policies will enable women to have access to reproductive healthcare services. Occupational challenges related to childcare and health care for women in career development will be alleviated if policies that are gender sensitive are implemented.
According to USAID (2012), gender analysis can be achieved if men and women collaborate in the evaluation and implementation of policies. Policies that are implemented should incorporate the community. It should not be viewed as a means of attaining equality but as an avenue for improving the lives of the marginalized. The programs should ensure that both men and women from low to high social class benefit.
Muecke (1996, p. 385) notes that healthcare providers pay little attention to gender when offering services. The value of gender analysis can be recognized if the quality of healthcare given to women is known. Gender analysis will enable healthcare providers improve the quality of healthcare given to women from diverse economic backgrounds.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If gender analysis is implemented, women with low income will access quality health care. Health services will be convenient and accessible. Programs that are implemented in health care will become a success because some of the issues and challenges will be overcome. Policies will be effective in meeting the needs of diverse groups in society. Gender analysis will contribute to the awareness of gender issues while enhancing the capabilities of women in society (Office For Women’s Policy, 2005, p. 5).
Research in gender analysis will inform the policy makers to formulate policies that will improve the quality of healthcare for women. Additionally, policies should be communicated to women, to whom the quality of healthcare services is directed (Muecke1996, p. 385).
World Health Organization (2002, p. 10) reveals that research provides a clear understanding of the issues in gender. Moreover, research can be effective in providing a solution for the challenges encountered in the analysis of gender. Research can also be used to set agendas and to determine the measures that are effective for prevailing problems.
Conclusion Gender analysis mainly focuses on women. In health care, gender analysis eliminates the inequality related to gender, sustenance and meeting the goals of programs, identify issues and enable equal distribution of health resources to both genders of all social classes. Gender analysis informs policy formulation and is based on research.
Women of low income are more vulnerable than men. Gender analysis is a process that recognizes that men and women have different roles and are economically diverse. Women have been marginalized by the social institutions. Change will be realized if men and women collaborate. Gender analysis will improve the health of both genders if gender aware policies are implemented.
Reference List Hunt, J. (2004). Introduction to gender analysis concepts and steps. Development Bulletin, 64, 100-106. Web.
Jackson, B. E., Pederson, A.,
“War” and “The other Wife” Essay essay help online free
In this paper, I will strive to show the significance of characterization, at the expense of other elements of literature, towards the successful revelation of the deeper meaning of the following two short stories: “War” By Luigi Colette and “The other Wife” by Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette. As we shall see characterization can be employed as the main vehicle towards the realization of a writer’s thematic concerns.
“The Other Wife” by charlotte is about a woman, who is married to a rich husband; the story has three characters, Marc, Alice and Marc’s ex-wife (Colette). The bulk of it comprises of dialogue between Marc and Alice who have just arrived at a hotel for lunch. Incidentally, Marc’s ex-wife is in the same hotel. Through exchanges of pleasantries that reveal the traits of Marc and Alice, Calotte foregrounds the themes of patriarchy and sexual love.
Marc is a controlling husband. He finds pride and power in dominating his wife and feeling needed. For instance, when his wife lets him order lunch for both, he is so pleased that: “He sighed as if he had just moved an armoire, gazed at the colorless midday sea” (Colette). This simple act gives him great pleasure.
His wife, Alice, on the other hand is emotionally dependent on him. She is passive and unobtrusive. She willingly lets Marc make even the smallest of decisions for her. For example, when Marc asks her what she would like for lunch, she so naturally lets him order dinner for both: “Whatever you like, you know that” (Colette). She is so proud of his complements that she seems to rely on them to reaffirm her self-worth: “Her firm, round breasts rose proudly as she leaned over the table” (Colette).
It is through the characterization of Marc and Alice, the contrasting of Alice with Marc’s ex-wife, that the story’s themes are revealed. By characterizing Marc’s ex-wife happy and contented and Alice as timid and dependent, the story’s themes are realized.
“War” on the other hand is a longer piece. It’s about how parents who have children at the battlefront view war (Pirandello). The horrors that are committed during war can never be justified by simply invoking patriotism. It is through the characterization of the fat red faced man that the main theme of this story is communicated.
At first, we think him stoic and patriotic and the other parents are embarrassed when he says such things as: “Why then should we consider the feelings of our children when they are twenty? Isn’t it natural that at their age they should consider the love for Country even greater than the love for us” (Pirandello). And later;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everyone should stop crying; everyone should laugh, as I do…or at least thank God—as I do—because my son, before dying, sent me a message saying that he was dying satisfied at having ended his life in the best way he could have wished” (Pirandello).
But we get to know that is mere bravado, his unwillingness to face his son’s death is what inspires his talk. Eventually, it becomes inevitable that he should face reality and “he snatched in haste a handkerchief from his pocket and, to the amazement of everyone, broke into harrowing, heart-breaking, uncontrollable sobs” (Pirandello).
It is through the characterization of this man as vulnerable that we are forced to really wonder at the worth of war, even with patriotism at stake. As clearly shown, characterization is a powerful conveyer of inner meaning in literature.
Works Cited Colette, Sidonie-Gabrielle. “The other wife”. 2007. 28 Jan. 2012. .
Pirandello, Luigi. “War.” 2009. Web.
Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Comparison between China and USA Business in China and America
Countries operate around different political regimes with unique policy formulation, implementation, and review that affects business environment. These policies are aligned by policy makers towards self interest protection and profit optimisation. At micro and macro levels, these protectionist policies have merits and demerits in short and long-term business engagements.
Notably, business related policy formulations in specific market environment have weaknesses capable of attracting conflict of interest especially when the same policy functions in the international trade market scenario.
Since the beginning of the new millennium, China has become an economic powerhouse in terms of aggregate investment portfolio and economic growth. The systematic and consistent rise is attributed to political and economic policies which also double as source of tension between America and itself.
Located in the heart of the Asian continent, the Democratic Republic of China is founded on the principles of Communism and ruled by a single party government. Despite capitalism dominating business environment across the globe, China has managed to hold firm on the Marxist-communist foundation and has struck a balance between the science of politics and communist business system.
Characteristic of a communist system, the government of China is active in monitoring and directly intervening in major sectors of the economy. Due to deep rooted culture of concentrated power in the hands of the politically established government, who have liberalised its market and facilitated internal investment by foreign investors, China offers attractive investment incentives and waivers on taxes to potential investors.
Comparatively, then ne-liberalist system controlling business environment in the states of America is equally developed. Reflectively, this system is based on the ideology of totalitarian democracy in which decisions on business and other matters of public interest are made by a democratic republican or democrat government elected by the majority. Despite consisting of three political parties, that is republican, democratic, and independent, the first two are dominant in the economic, social, and political spheres of America.
Aiming to start a medium shoe making business with relatively sketchy market network, the first choice of business location is in the Democratic Republic of China, especially in strategically located town of Shangai.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This choice of location is as a result of the large untapped market of China and regions surrounding it, the friendly communist regimes with direct intervention in business activities, massive cheap and readily available labour, and friendly business regulation policies on investment and business functioning based on acculturation. Despite being at the same level in comparative analysis, China plays a bigger role as a retail business leader and industrialist.
According to Markus 2007,
China is not just the World Factory, most booming market for resources and consumer goods and the fastest growing economy in the world with an average GDP of over 10% in the past decade. It is also the most attractive destination for foreign investment since China opened its door to foreign businesses in 1978. (p.23)
Within business organisation and practise, labour is vital especially in balancing over head cost of doing business. Reflectively, existence of abundant, cheap, and sustainable labour supply gives a business an upper hand in the competitive market and ensure its survival and sustainability in long run. China has a skilled pool of cheap labour.
This aspect is attractive in doing business within its territories. The population of China is ethically aligned and appreciate the essence of commitment and hard work towards achieving greater heights. Comparatively, America’s labour market is expensive, highly structured and professionalism work ethics have been internalised by the labour market same as that in China (Jonathan, 2006).
In order to gain from this comparative advantage, doing business in China saves resources that could have been directed towards training workforce since skilled labour is available and relatively affordable as compared to that in America where living standards are higher and minimum wage bigger.
In addition, the culture of Chinese people promotes self discipline and appreciates excellence in service delivery as a means of making the economy better. In the process of achieving this, the self motivating culture facilitates competence and combines skills with loyalty to give positive result. Thus, this would give China an upper hand as a preferred choice for retail business location since cheap labour would translate into more profits (Ambler, 2000).
We will write a custom Essay on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To meet the demands of its population, China has successfully transformed the economy and economic systems from traditional agricultural dominance into advanced and reliable service industry system consisting of international banking systems and liberalised private sector through its business policies.
These banking systems make credit available for entrepreneurs in the private sector and facilitate public borrowing. Subsequently, the economy has been expanded and series of opportunities are available for internal and international investors. As noted by Rainer (2007), interactions between banking sector and private businesses in China have made it a hub for entrepreneurship and emergence of wide market.
Thus, to gain from this advantage, retail trade investment in China is more viable than the vulnerable market of America which often fall a victim of market swings (Rainer, 2007). Interestingly, from the study on number of investors for the two countries carried in 2006, Rainer (2007) noted the following:
For the first time, China attracted more foreign investment than the United States. The world’s fastest-growing economy is the second largest behind the United States, and by mid-century, it is expected to be number one. (p. 67.)
According to Ambler (2000), China has rich resources which have managed to ensure success of companies such as Gamble and General Motors which were established in the terror back in the late 1980s. Reflectively, despite series of swings in global economy characterised by periodic inflation and deflation, China’s economy remain stable following the acquisition of membership certificate from World Trade Organisation.
America on the other hand, has similar flexible business policies that promote trade (Ambler, 2000). Moreover, the results of the American Chamber of Commerce survey indicates that of 450 American companies in China, nearly 69 percent have directly benefitted from substantial profits more than their counterparts based in America (Jonathan, 2001).
This success is attributed to existence of investments opportunities, ready market, and competitive advantage as a result of consistence in service delivery, insurance efficiency, and reliability in the banking system, and flexibility in retail industry (Xiaowen, 2001).
Markus (2007) states the prevailing positive economic climate in the economy of China offers unlimited opportunities to sellers to expand market territory from small streets to upmarket with ease (Markus, 2007). In an attempt to capture attention in the global market, China adopted the strategy of maintaining relative advantage through exportation of goods and services tagged with competitive price as a policy (Curran and Acker, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over time, this strategy has paid off in the continents of the global market where China has created market for every brand of its products irrespective of economic classes in these markets. Besides, the population of China consisting of nearly a third of the world population and offer ready market, labour, and services in every industry irrespective of its size.
According to Harvard University article (2004), as a substantial proportion of the middle class experience upward mobility, demand chains are created periodically to sustain continuously production and supply. Therefore, creation of an international market within the boundaries of the republic of China can reap relative advantage of the expansive market for its products and a channel of accessing related markets at global level (Harvard University, 2004).
In the global business arena, China predominate large scale manufacturing of competitive goods and delivery of affordable services. Mass production of cheaper goods is due to its ability to balance overhead cost by use of highly skilled, readily available, and cheap labour in the manufacturing industries as compared to America’s expensive labour market.
According to Xiaowen (2001), over the last decade, China has made substantial investment in product development and research. Consequently, gains from intellectual capital have created expansive opportunities for marketing. These opportunities act as incentive for global investment in China (Xiaowen, 2001).
China is endowed with natural resources same to America. As a matter of fact, availability of raw materials is the basis of viability in investment planning. As a result production resonates on the periphery of low-cost. According to Jun (2006), the dynamics of cheap raw materials and their availability can be attributed to quality and dominance in international trade by China more than American market.
For instance, mass production of textile and toy in mega factories in China is as a result of availability of cheap raw materials. Subsequently, the low cost of production encourages mass manufacturing and boosts the cumulative profit gained from a bundle of production units (Jun, 2006). Though America is more strategically located, market for shoes would be higher in China which consists of a third of the world population (Bucknall, 2000).
American market has more or less same advantages as China. In fact, democracy and total market liberalisation policy in America is advantageous to business set up and operation. Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion. Besides, competition for shoes product is very stiff as compared to the same in China.
Conclusively, it is apparent that China is better off as a strategic location for establishing business as compared to America. Among other reasons for the better position can be attributed to cheap labour, ready market, government commitment, and the spirit of entrepreneurship.
Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion Thus, as a potential investor in shoes manufacturing business; I prefer the town of Shangai in China as the location for my business because of its untapped market, political stability, and strategic location.
References Ambler, T. (2000). Doing Business in China. Economic Policy Journal, 11(3), 25-41.
Bucknall, K. (2000). Cultural guide to doing business in China. (3rd ed.). London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The textile Industry Essay essay help online free
The textile industry is one of the biggest industries in the world, as the market for its product is growing at an exponential rate. This industry is concerned with the immediate role of producing material in yarn and cloth form; which are the primary ingredients in the manufacture of clothing.
In the 18th century, the British inventors wanted to exploit the world markets with their technological designs and at the same time there were restrictions on selling the designs, models, or the machinery to other parts of Europe. James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny while Richard Arkwright came up with the first textile factory in 1771 in Cromford, England.
Samuel Slater later opted to start his own factory in Rhode Island in 1792. In the early 1800s, other factories started coming up in Boston and other parts of the United States. Since then the textile industry has flourished not only in America but in the whole world. Factories with modern state of the art equipments have been built in major cities in the world; and demand and supply of their products are at a rising trend (Gathi, 2001).
International trade is one the most complex areas in the legal arena. This is because there are a number of players involved, both state and non-state actors forming trade organizations. The levels of interactions amongst the parties involved are difficult if not tedious to keep track of. Before the trade act of 2005, the textile industry in America was not doing so good.
The relationship between the US and China for example has been in the dark side for decades. Exports and imports between the two countries have been hampered by the political interests and differing ideas of these two countries. The textile markets between these countries have never achieved their full potential. Looking at the American industry, the number of jobs that were lost in this period with trade barriers were totaling to the thousands.
This meant that more Americans were jobless and there was little income coming from this sector. The removal of the trade sanctions in 2005 has seen an increase in the trade of textile and especially in the trade of the demin material.
Everybody in the word seems to be in love with the denim jeans. It therefore would be no surprise to find at least 10 pairs of jeans in each house hold in America. The denim business is a giant catch, raking in over 50 billion dollars each year. There are over 70 countries involved in the production of jeans in the world; the big producers are China and Mexico.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business of denim has become so global, that it is literally evident in the threads that make the materials. Different countries e.g. India, Azerbaijan, Turkey, United States and Pakistan produce the cotton that is used to make the denim fabric. Snyder’s Fugitive Denim looks at the business of Jeans and its impact on the lives of those involved, as well as its impact on the environment.
One of the counties explored was the United States. Different fashions have come and gone but the denim jeans seems to have outlived them all; only evolving to become the iconic fashion symbol of the 20th and perhaps the 21st century. However, in the last few years, cotton production has been of low benefit to the farmers as the world market prices plunged.
Farmers in the United States enjoy subsidies from the government unlike some of their counterparts from others parts of the world. They also use methods of farming that are less harmful to the environment. When you buy your jeans from the shop, chances are that the pair contains up to 3.5 % of pesticides used during production.
It is no wonder that the American farmers have adopted safer methods that avoid the usage of Pesticides. The farmers are using genetically modified cotton seeds. The impact of the toxic pesticides has been felt by farmers in the third world; who do not have the privilege of advancing their farming methods. Farmers in these regions end up developing lung and other long term diseases such as cancer.
Furthermore the textile industry has been riddled with scandals of child and slave labour. The most affected counties being china and Cambodia which have numerous scattered sweatshops. Other impacts of the textile business are those of water pollution and soil degradation. Being a water intensive type of farming, farmers channel water to their farms from the rivers.
This leaves some of the rivers with no way of supporting life. Some of the water also gets contaminated with the chemicals from the farms leaving the soils toxic and dangerous to human life. The world system theory suggests that the world economy has disparities in economic development. That development largely depends on the technological knowhow of a state. Making the United States at the top of this hierarchy followed by her counterparts in Europe.
And the tasks or works that require higher levels of skill and capitalization are reserved for these regions making the third world a peripheral region and receiver of the remnants of the maldistribution of resources. Hence, current progress of the world economy tends to enlarge the economic and social gaps even further.
We will write a custom Essay on The textile Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leaves the third world a beggar of sorts (Chase-Dunn and Grimes, 1995). It would be safe to say that the world-systems theory is drawn from the dependency theory. This is further defined as a macro-sociological existence, where different states or regions depend on each other for the basic survival kits which include food, fuel, and perhaps protection.
There is a presence of a power hierarchy. There are regions or states that exist in the core and are considered to dictate terms of business to the other regions that exist within the periphery. Technology seems to be a power weapon in the quest for domination.
The peripheral countries are structurally disabled to pull themselves out of the murky situation and formulate policies that are development oriented. The core states maintain the system as well as try to pull out the peripheral states by offering their surplus (Goldfrank, 2000).
Do I agree with this world-systems theory? It is quite evident that the third world countries have remained in the same status as they were economically; while the developed countries continue to rich themselves from the spoils they get from their exploits.
Even though the developed world is offering help on one hand, the other hand seems to be taking. This makes me agree with wallerstein’s theory.
Works Cited Chase-Dunn,