Psychology as a formal discipline has a long history, dating back to the Ancient Greeks. The discipline has a fond relationship with philosophy, and was in fact curved out from mainstream philosophical thoughts that had been expressed by ancient philosophers thousands of years ago.
Many civilizations throughout the course of history have offered speculative ideas about the nature of thought, soul, and spirit, a focal point that is mainly perceived as the precursor to the field and discipline of psychology (Baldwin, 2009). In Ancient Egypt, for example, the Edwin Smith Papyrus holds ancient description of the human brain, including some speculations about its core functions (Mandler, 2007). It is the purpose of this paper to critically evaluate the historical developments of psychology
According to Baldwin (2009), “…a history of psychology is nothing more or less than a history of different ways in which man have looked upon the mind” (p. 1). Thales, Plato, Pythagoras, and Aristotle are ancient Greek philosophers whose philosophical thoughts and orientations greatly assisted and influenced the development of modern psychology (Benjamin, 2006).
In the book De Amina, Aristotle vividly wrote philosophical concepts about the psyche and what it really means for the body and spirit to be alive. In the same book, the philosopher discusses critical issues of perception, behavior, intellect, aspiration, and imagination.
These issues, though discussed philosophically, came to form the basis of 19th century psychology. According to Mandler (2007), Aristotle and Plato were indeed the founding fathers of empiricism and psychodynamics respectively. The two concepts continue to influence the field of psychology to date.
Scholars, however, have noted that the early development of psychology as a discipline was not well documented as was the case with other disciplines such as philosophy and the sciences (Baldwin, 2009).
According to Klemm (2008), “…scattered reflections on psychological questions indeed abound throughout the entire history of science but the continuity of psychological investigation has often being interrupted, while a really fruitful development of psychology belongs to very recent times” (p. 1) .
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This scenario led to the overwhelmingly popular assertion by contemporary psychologist Herman Ebbinghaus that psychology has a very long past that is unfortunately enshrined in a brief history.
Some contemporary western philosophers such as Rene Descartes, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill were also instrumental in the formation of psychology as a distinct field of study. Descartes lived during the renaissance era, and can pass as a primary contributor to the formation of psychology mainly due to his works on rationalism, nativism, dualism and mechanistic interactionism (Mandler, 2007). As a philosopher, he argued that truth could only be found from careful use of reason, thereby rebuffing the evidence of the senses.
Consequently, the way to know the truth, according to the philosopher, was through the human capability to reason. One implication of his Cartesian rationalism was that the capacity of humans to reason is characteristically inborn, not mentioning the fact that specific types of knowledge do not actually rely on the experience of the senses; rather, such knowledge result from an individual’s native or inborn capacity to reason (Mandler, 2007).
Descartes was also instrumental in differentiating between inborn ideas and derived ideas. As already mentioned, innate ideas are derived through the employment of individual reasoning capacity while derived ideas are attributed to our experiences in the universe (Mandler, 2007). According to the author, the philosopher’s “…innate versus derived ideas foreshadows one of psychology’s recurring issues, the relationship between nature and nurture” (p. 27).
Also, the philosopher can be called a dualist since he advocated for a definite separation between the mind and the body, arguing that the body have the properties of extension and movement while the mind didn’t. He believed the body functioned like a complicated machine and that the mind was capable of influencing the body. His insinuations, though in philosophical science, provided fodder for the development of modern psychological thought in the 19th century.
John Locke was a rationalist philosopher who contributed considerable knowledge on human understanding. He trashed the notion of the existence of inborn ideas in humans, and did not completely advocate for nurture influences on the nature-nurture issue (Benjamin, 2006).
One of Locke’s major contribution in psychological thought is the assertion that human, though endowed with inborn faculties such as the capacity to think, do not entirely derive ideas from reason as notions could originate from many other sources that only requires basic mental faculties.
We will write a custom Essay on Towards Understanding the History of Psychology through Philosophical Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Locke also entirely rejected the principle that some notions seem to come so early in life, and hence must be inborn. Instead, Locke argued that even before the young children are able to use language successfully, they are already benefiting from the external experiences around them (Baldwin, 2009). His philosophical thoughts contributed immensely to the formation of psychology as a discipline.
George Berkeley was yet another empiricist philosopher whose contributions hugely assisted the formation of psychology as a formal discipline. Specifically, Berkeley’s seminal studies on sensory processes have been instrumental in giving the field of psychology a formidable backbone (Baldwin, 2009).
The philosopher’s outstanding work on vision was the foremost systematic pointer of how empiricist reasoning could be applied to the broad study of perception. In particular, Berkeley attempted to demonstrate that individual perceptions of distance, geographical locations, and size of objects are decisions that depend completely on experience. Other notable philosophers include David Hume (impressions and ideas), David Hartley (psychophysical parallelism), and John Stuart Mill.
The development of the science of psychology has undergone immeasurable changes ever since psychology was finally recognized as a discipline in the 19th century. According to Mandler (2007), religion and philosophy set the firm foundation for the evolution of psychology in the 19th century.
Prior to this convergence, various philosophers, including Emanuel Kant, had expressed outright skepticism that the discipline of psychology would never become a true natural science. But this and other assertions were definitely proved wrong by the works of several scholars and psychologists, whose scientific contributions to modern thought gave psychology a solid background.
According to Green (2001), “…the origins of the science of psychology are grounded in Wundt’s theory of memory and the recognition of the importance of experimental design, Fechner’s introduction to psychophysics, Ebbinghau’s laboratory for the study of memory, and Gaulton’s introduction to statistics and measurement of mental abilities” (para. 4). It can be safely argued that all the sub-fields of psychology evolved from these fundamental facets of the discipline
Reference List Baldwin, J.M. (2009). History of Psychology – a sketch and an interpretation. READ BOOKS. ISBN: 1444683225
Benjamin, L.T. (2006). A history of psychology in letters, 2nd Ed. Main Street, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing
Not sure if you can write a paper on Towards Understanding the History of Psychology through Philosophical Thought by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Green, C.D., Shore, M.,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
One of the most influential ideas offered by liberalists in their time is connected to money and its role in human life. The representatives of liberalism truly believe that money can make people free. Taking into account this assertion, it is possible to admit that money can also make people happier because freedom and happiness are the concepts which are usually connected to each other.
However, there are a number of philosophers and great thinkers who cannot agree to this idea and believed that money should never be regarded as a means of freedom and happiness but vice versa as a source of inequality, poverty, and disappointments.
Such brilliant modern philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx introduce captivating approaches which help to realize a true essence of money and to get a clear idea about what can make people free and happy. On the one hand, it is difficult to imagine that ideas of Rousseau and Marx may have a lot in common; however, on the other hand, their attitudes to money value deserve attention.
Marx and Rousseau were eager to improve the society they lived in and make people free; to achieve these purposes, it is necessary to prove that money does not have such power to provide all people with necessary freedom and happiness because their main purpose is to create inequality and to divide people into groups in accordance with demands and possibilities.
Almost the whole century divides such brilliant and educative philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. However, time is not the only factor according to which these men and their ideas have to be compared.
They are the representatives of different countries, traditions, and beliefs, and still their works and ideas are characterized by a peculiar similarity that is connected to the value of money and its power over people. Rousseau and Marx defined the power of money that was inherent to any type of society; however, this identification was not the symbol of money as something emancipative.
They spoke about the power of private property and the necessity to make some changes because rights people maintained had nothing in common with equality; Rousseau underlined the idea of people freedoms but under such condition which could promote orderly society, however, he could not decrease the necessity level of rights of property. The ideas of these two philosophers demonstrate that private property made people isolated and self-interested but still dependent on each other and unequal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having such attitudes to money, human freedoms, and rights, Rousseau and Marx could easily create a kind of powerful opposition to the representatives of liberalism who strongly believed that money was one of the most crucial sources of human freedoms and happiness. However, the idea of relations between money and freedom has faced a number of philosophical difficulties.
Liberalists made numerous attempts to prove that freedom and money had a close connection to each other because a person without money cannot become free. According to the liberalistic point of view, freedom has to be economically defined. A person has money, and this is why he/she is able to buy freedom and to be happy.
Such weak and sometimes even humiliating ideas made the vast majority of philosopher develop their own strategies and theories in order to prove that such money dependence should influence human freedoms. Rousseau admitted that he “should wished to live and dies free” (Rousseau 2) and he did not underline the necessity of money for this freedom; and Marx believed that “man (a worker) only feels himself freely active in his animal functions” (Marx, Estranged Labor 74).
Can money make people free and happy? Hardly! If you have money, it is impossible to say that sometimes you may have enough money to be satisfied and enjoy this life. When a person gets an access to money, this person is enslaved by it. This is why it is possible to say that people are not free especially when they have money.
And what is more important if people are enslaved by other people, they can easily recognize this dependence and its power. And when people are enslaved by money, they are not able to define this dependence and continue living under this invisible but still crucial dependence.
The desire to get more money leads to inequality between people. And if so many people are eager to destroy all features of inequality, why do they continue supporting the idea of having money and making money powerful? In other words, it is possible to say that money can make people happier for a while but never free; and when the moment of happiness passes, the long-lasting period begins that makes people work for money, think about money, and live for money.
Karl Marx said that “free development of each is the condition for the free development of all” (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 12). This person truly believed that it is possible to achieve freedom and happiness only by means of properly arranged order. According to him, money is condition for development but still not its result. If a person has money, he is eager to be identified among the rest. If this identification takes place, the process of inequality begins.
We will write a custom Essay on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And if inequality continues its development, there is no chance for people to have freedom. Almost the same attitude to freedom and money was represented by Rousseau. He underlines a chance of any person to be born free. Of course, much should depend on the conditions under which people live; however, they should not forget their true human nature that explains the only “free men” may be involved “in search of the truth” (Rousseau 15).
In comparison to Marx, Rousseau seems to be more pessimistic to the idea of money. If Marx believed that the value of money was crucial for inequality that develops within a society under specific conditions, then Rousseau identified money as the reason to start fights, develop discontents, and increase the desire to have more and break the already established norms.
Though money plays such a significant role in this life, it cannot make people free from all things and conditions inherent to this world. People are not as strong as it may seem because they may become blind in respect to the requirements and peculiarities of their life. Money may promote survival, prosperity, and success but such concepts as freedom or happiness should have nothing in common with money.
So, if the answer to the question whether money makes people free and happy is a certain NO, another question should appear. What can make people free and happy if money cannot? In fact, it is very difficult to give one clear answer to such philosophical question. Rousseau as one of the most sophisticated and polite philosopher suggests paying more attention to human lives and the ways people prefer to choose.
For example, he underlined “either desire or an opportunity of emerging from it” (Rousseau 31) as the most powerful components of human happiness. If a person believes that his /her desires as well as his/her faculties are equal, he/she may become happy.
As for freedom, Rousseau believed that there were different types of freedom that could be achieved by means of human participation in processes required from community. And Marx in his turn evaluated freedom as freedom from interference in people’s education, communication, evaluation, and realization (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 40). And human happiness is closely connected to human needs, labor, and ownership.
In general, the idea of human happiness and freedom may be regarded from many different sides. First, each person has his/her own demands, needs, and interests. Of course, much depends on the community a person lives in.
This is why it is possible to believe that human freedoms come from human faith and desire: if you want to become free, you are welcome to use your skills, knowledge, and faculties to achieve the desirable aim. As for human happiness, it is more personal issue: friends, food, health, knowledge, etc. When a person knows what makes him/her happy, achieves purposes, and enjoy the feeling of satisfaction, this person may be called happy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The works by Rousseau and Marx help to define that much about happiness and freedom depends on human surroundings. It is useless to represent some definite claims and prove their correctness. Constant development of this society requires considerable changes and new requirements for freedom and happiness. It is difficult for one person to define what makes other people happy, and this is why it is better to be responsible and confident in personal happiness and personal freedoms.
Works Cited Marx, Karl. “Estranged Labor.” In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Marx-Engels Reader. 2 ed. New York: W.W. Norton
Fashion and Appearance Essay essay help site:edu
Fashion is transitional rather than static, it is this dynamism in its nature that makes it difficult to comprehend and study as a concept in isolation. This is mainly because fashion is interwoven into culture, music, personalities, the economy and a number of other social barometers. Fashion in itself is the custom style and form of appearance that prevails over a specified period of time.
In essence, this means that fashion is short lived and usually acquires manifestation and common usage in the form of dressing and costumes. All that form of fancy attire that acquires a social place and is popular at a given point is what constitutes fashion; this might not however just be limited to dress and costumes but also encompasses other elements within a social perspective such as walking style and even talking and body language.
A number of different world civilizations have diverse cultures and fashion trends and this has been unparalleled not just in recent times but from time immemorial. The West has probably had the greatest influence on the fashion that is currently in the world at any given time (Kitwana, 2000).
The Hip hop fashion and appearance for instance, is western and has constructed a strong social identity that has come to be associated with the youth. Hip hop fashion has a distinctive style of appearance and dress code that is Afro American in descent. This has strongly impacted the social fabric of the youths for instance in major American cities like Philadelphia, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Jersey, Chicago and Miami.
All the above cities have a special contribution to the type of hip hop culture seen in the universe today. This type of pop culture and mode of dressing basically compliments and deeply expresses the attitudes of the people and their form of musical conduct. Various diverse ethnicities around the world have now formally accepted this culture and appearance and indeed mimic these western antics; this is largely seen in Africa and Latin America.
The hip hop fashion has probably created booming business for sportswear and jeans clothing manufacturers around the world, such include Levis Strauss, Kangol, adidas, kappa and sportif. This is because the youthful generation has embraced these designs in society and has come to be associated with these forms of baggy and flashy dressing with sagging outfits.
Over time, the world has witnessed a number of hip hop icons wearing tracksuits, bomber jackets, sneakers shoes and bandanas. Because such icons command a lot of authority among the youthful generation, they are seen as pace setters and role models by many. This can now explain the reason behind the creation of a thick social fabric that regulates social behavior and conduct hinged on this hip hop culture (Grammer, 1996).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1980s for instance, popular accessories ruled the atmosphere of pop culture including elements such as Clark shoes and adidas shelties these were often adorned with laces that were considered “phat” or oversized. A number of hair cuts and hair do’s were also made famous by strategic musical icons like Will Smith who popularized the “hi top fade” and Christopher Reid of Kid n Play who popularized the Jheri curl among others.
From this it can be observed that a variety of fashion and appearance designs usually have fashion ambassadors, these are social icons who find acceptance and command respect from society, because their conduct is admired by a majority of dwellers in these setting, their ideas are bought without question and hesitation, they thus help to play a significant role in moderating social conduct and creating identities.
Tommy Hilfiger became a fashion icon especially on the late 90s as a preferred sportswear. There was however significant levels of competition from other trendy fashion brands like DKNY and Calvin Klein. To illustrate the interrelationship between the media (publicity) and social icons, an incident that occurred in New York City can be useful.
Snoop Doggy Dogg (an afro American rap icon) was once invited to appear in the popular television show “Saturday Night Live” this show usually interviews celebrities, top politicians and famous businessmen, in this particular television talk show, Snoop appeared wearing a sweatshirt with the Tommy Hilfiger label, the next morning this brand made many sales in all the New York clothing stores.
This trend has indeed made a number of clothing labels to be associated or linked with popular musical and media personalities as this is on the surest ways to guarantee increased sales volumes (Wilbekin, 1999).
After the 90s and presently, a number of business executives and artists established their own designer and fashion labels. The following are examples of such designs by prominent artists and designers of fashion in the west: Phat Farm (Russell Simmons), Sean John (Puff Daddy), Roca wear (Jay Z), Shady Limited (Eminem), Akoo (TI), Makaveli
WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The WWI-War was influenced by conflicts among military groups from countries known as world’s supreme powers. It was a four year war i.e. from 1914 to 1918, centered between two disputed allies’, central powers and the triple entente. Sources indicate that close to seventy million soldiers were deployed with fifteen million people perishing as a consequence of the fateful period (Caddick-adams).
In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live with minimal supplies and restricted space for operations.
Soldiers serving in the frontline during the First World War faced a lot of challenges and difficulties when fighting for their own countries. As a way of hiding from ruthless enemies they had to live in unhealthy trenches at the expense of their health.
Due to this fact they faced frequent deaths as a result of attacks by dreadful diseases and unpredictable enemies who attacked via gunfire or bayonet (Caddick-adams). Though living in the trenches could keep them safe from the enemy that was not so in the case of attacks by frogs, rats and lice. Furthermore, trenches provided conducive environment for their multiplication hence a big threat to the health of soldiers.
Regardless of a conducive environment or not, lice could still multiply fast due to their short breeding periods and caused painful itches which led to high fever followed by severe headaches. In the filthy trenches they were expected to be on high alert and constantly having their weapons ready at any moment just in case the enemy attacks.
In addition, movement was minimized and attending to any personal issue was scheduled after fully completing assigned duties. Such kind of life was boring consequently leading to deterioration in the quality of life.
Sources indicate that bodies were left lying and rotting on the ground or buried in shallow graves. As a result the entire battle field was clouded with a stinking smell that was a disguise to the dedicated soldiers. Overflowing shallow latrines, also contributed to the disguise by its stinking smell. In addition, sometime the soldiers fell short of adequate water supply which forced them to go weeks and sometimes even months without taking bath (Caddick-adams).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly introduced soldier in the frontline had difficulties in adapting with the situation on the ground but with no option of turning back they had to adjust for the sake of their survival. Most of the frontline soldier suffered a disease known as shell shock, a mental illness that eventually leads to mental breakdown.
The First World War significantly affected the civilians or persons at home front, forcing them to adjust and adapt by the situation. Rationing was not only done on luxurious commodities but also on the basic ones such as food supply, attires and many more household materials (Caddick-adams).
As a result, various households had to adapt to the situation by venturing in home gardening to act as a substitute for the missing diets. Fortunately, to the civilians who lived in countryside were not greatly affected since most of their home use products were locally supplied. Many home use equipments were eventually turned into weapons to act as protection devices against enemies.
The First World War was characterized by displacement of people so as to create room for battlefields. Once an area was declared a battlefield by the government it had to be evacuated no matter what, hence civilians had no option but to comply. Furthermore, who would want to stay close to battlefields with an ongoing war at place?
Women also had to take great responsibilities due to the fact that men were sent to war. They had act as the sole breadwinners by ensuring each member of their family was quite comfortable as far as provision is concerned. Sometimes they could go the great extents by carrying the entire burden left by the absence of men for the well being of their families.
In some instances women were also expected to frequently supply food to their husbands when fighting in battlefields. Education and formal job were left at stand still due to insecurity was a big threat to future of civilians as they could not study or make a living.
The impacts of the WW1-war were felt by both persons at fore front and home front. Soldiers at the fore front suffered from diseases and poor living conditions that accelerated their deaths. Not forgetting persons at the home front who were displaced, unemployed and had to work extra hard to meet their needs. As noted from the findings the WW1-war was characterized by negative impacts both to civilians and soldiers whether at home or at fore front.
We will write a custom Essay on WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Peter, Caddick-adams. The home front in world war one. BBC. March 14 2005. Web. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/wars_conflict/home_front/the_home_front_01.shtml
Business Issues: Vodafone Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Power, Politics and Conflict in Organizations
Organizational structure and Goals
Introduction This essay analyses Vodafone Group in relation to work motivation, power, politics and conflicts in the organization and finally organizational structure and organizational goals. Basically, management approach to employees determines how well they take to their work. Defining power balance in the organization, in the way organizational structure is set; helps focus resources on organizational goals as opposed to power struggles and derailing conflicts.
Work Motivation Human behavior unlike animal behavior often has a rationale behind it. It is widely accepted that even our instincts are based on a belief system or collective thoughts that inform our interpretation of situations. Vodafone appreciates that workers are intelligent beings out to self actualize through their every day work endeavors.