Tourism In Latin America Essay Essay Help Online Free

Tourism in the Latin America has become a vital revenue source, mostly in Meso-America and the Andes. In this case, tourism looks at the culture of these Americans and also the physical aspect of the region. Many tourists go to the regions of Latin America for the purpose of cite-seeing or cultural interactions.

There has been a colossal contribution towards the economy from the sector of tourism. Tourism has contributed towards the population flow in the countries of this region like Brazil (Lumsdon and Swift, 2001).

Tourists move away from their home areas in search of cultures that appeal to them and also to interact with the native people. This cultural tourism occurs in close contact with the local society. Most of these countries are rich in culture. The citizens of Brazil, for instance, have a vast variety of food and a diverse social life.

This has increased number of tourists visiting the area. Due to this influx of tourists, there is an urgent need for a suitable strategy that will address their needs. In the Latin American regions, it is not only the culture of its inhabitants that attract tourists but also the entertainment and the sporting activities of the region (Gui, 2001). The Latin America is made up of many countries that have a desirable geographical value and culture.

Such countries as Brazil and Ecuador have a lot to offer the outside world. This paper looks at the impacts of trade on the environment and the culture of Salvador. In order to understand this aspect of tourism, both local and foreign tourism are brought into focus. This case study will consider culture as the main tourist attraction in Bahia.

Tourism has greatly impacted the region in several ways. For instance, Bahia was visited by over two million tourists in the year 1993. Statistics shows that this number is expected to rise to four million visitors, leaving Bahia to be the second largest tourist attraction spot after Rio de Janeiro.

Research shows that “the government invested more than twenty million dollars in the sector for the year 1993 and 1994” (Stonich, 2001). During this time, Brazil was in the forty seventh rank of attraction centers internationally. This gives Salvador hope for improved tourist activity in time to come.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Stonich (2001), many Latin American countries have also experienced a similar growth in their tourism industry. Apart from Bahia, tourism is seen as the means of rehabilitating the prime ancient districts. These ancient centers have been found to appeal greatly to the foreign tourists.

The architectural designs of the region are the most notable of the all the other attractions. In other nations like Salvador, rehabilitation has brought about the issue of depopulation of the areas (Lumsdon and Swift, 2001). These areas were inhabited by the poor in the urban centers who finally ended up in the slum areas. In most cases, tourism is reckoned to be the means of improving the poor regions from the economic perspective.

For many Third World nations, “an admired architectural heritage and culture are considered as an economic treasure and asset” (Gui, 2001). Tourism has had a large impact on the economy of many countries (Stonich, 2001). The impact of tourism on the economy of many Latin American nations is major. Tourism is the main foreign exchange earner that plays a fundamental role in the development of these nations.

Works Cited Gui, Santana. Tourism in South America. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press, 2001. Print.

Lumsdon, Les,


Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Communication is one of the most important elements in a firm’s operations. Through effective communication, a firm can establish a strong relationship with the various organizational stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, government, and employees amongst others (Griffin, 2011).

In the course of executing their duties, business executives experience communication problems, and thus they are concerned on how to understand better the various stakeholders especially the employees. Jackson (2006) is of the opinion that it is paramount for firms’ management teams to overcome internal and external communication barriers.

The communication interactions and approaches adopted by organizations directly influence the functioning of their departments and hence their overall business performance. This paper evaluates the case of Jebel Ali Free Zone in a bid to develop a better understanding of the communication difficulties experienced by organizations.

The paper also evaluates a number of barriers and difficulties that the firm experiences in its communication processes. They include the existence of cultural barriers, lack of feedback, lack of clarity, system design faults, and lack of honesty and complexity of the organization. Finally, the paper proposes a number of solutions to deal with these problems.

General information about Jebel Ali Free Zone Jebel Ali Free Zone (Jafza) was established in 1985. It is a member of the UAE’s Economic Zone World. In its operation, Jafza is committed at delivering optimal customer service. Its commitment to customer service enabled Jafza to attain ISO 9001: 2000 certification (Business Services, 2012, Para. 1).

Since its establishment, the organization has undergone a significant transformation. Currently it acts as a hub for over 6,700 companies, which are both domestic and foreign companies. The companies are from 150 different countries across the globe. The organization was founded on the premise of becoming an international business hub.

Its establishment was also intended at providing its clients with an opportunity to access a wide range of valuable business features such as optimal location, effective and efficient infrastructure, and logistics. Over the years, the organization has become a key driver within the rapidly growing United Arabs Emirates economy (Business Services, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization is situated at Dubai, which serves as an optimal midway between various continents such as Africa, Europe, and Asia. Consequently, Jafza provides its clients with the opportunity to increase their customer base. As an international business hub, Jafza enables businesses to access a customer base of over 2 million people.

Jafza also acts as a gateway to other economies within the United Arabs Emirates, Middle East, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which are less than 24 hours away. The zone is located between Al Maktoum International Airport, the largest container port, and Jebel Ali Port in Dubai, which ranks as the sixth biggest cargo port.

Jafza is unique in that there is no other free zone that lies between two major logistic enablers. The organization also prides in a 6-lane highway, which facilitates transportation of custom bound goods between ports within 20 minutes. Establishment of an effective and efficient infrastructure is one of Jafza’s key strengths (Business Services, 2012).

In a bid to increase its client base, Jafza has incorporated a number of commercial incentives such as full repatriation of capital and profit earned from the firm’s operations, zero income and corporate taxes for the duration of fifty years, 100 per cent foreign ownership and elimination of local labor restrictions for investors.

Additionally, Jafza has also eliminated currency restrictions. The organization also provides diverse state-of-the-art facilities some of which include Light Industrial Unites (LIU), warehouse and showroom facilities, land, and office space. The purpose of establishing the light industrial units was to provide clients with an opportunity to store their light industrial products and undertake light assembling and production.

The firm ensures that the LIUs are adequately supplied with sufficient power, which enables them to undertake their business operations smoothly. Other facilities that LIUs have include sufficient parking space and a container loading dock. Jafza has established eight blocks, which compose the 68 showroom-cum-warehouses to meet the needs of its clients. The rooms serve various purposes such as distribution, display, and storage. On the other hand, Jafza owns a sizeable plot of land, which is available for leasing.

Management problem – communication difficulties Jafza Jafza is cognizant of the importance of attaining operational efficiency. Consequently, the firm has established a number of departments, which include sales and marketing, property, civil engineering, and administrative services departments (Business Services, 2012, Para. 3). The departments’ operations aim at attaining one objective, which is to appraise the applications made by the various clients who intend to establish their operations in the Free Zone.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Upon the client’s approval, the departments provide additional vital services to clients. In spite of existence of goal congruence between the various departments, their responsibilities differ. Successful communication forms the foundation of Jafza’s operations. However, in the course of its operation, Jafza faces a number of communication difficulties as discussed below.

Cultural barriers Culture is one of the major issues that organizations have to take into account in the course of their operations (Krizan, 2011). However, companies that are involved in cross-border activities are the most affected by the existence of cross-border cultural differences. In its operation, Jafza has established itself as an international business hub. Consequently, the firm faces a number of cultural challenges.

Jafza serves clients who are characterized by diverse language and cultural backgrounds. The cultural differences emanate from the fact that the clients come from different countries. Some of the major cultural differences that Jafza experiences are associated with differences in ethnicity, physical challenge, religion, lifestyle, age, and gender. Consequently, the firm experiences a number of communication barriers.

One of the main cultural barriers associates with cultural ethnocentrism and relativism. According to Krizan (2011), cultural relativism emanates from differences in values and behaviors amongst the parties involved. One of the standards of measuring cultural relativism is ethics such as what one culture considers being right or wrong.

By developing such an approach, some of the Jafza’s employees experience a challenge in the process of interpreting the intended meaning by the clients. On the other hand, the firm also experiences communication difficulties within its departments due to ethnocentrism.

In a bid to develop a strong human resource base, Jafza has sourced its employees from different countries. However, some of the employees consider their culture as more superior compared to other cultures. As a result, this aspect leads to lack of effective collaboration between the firm’s departments. Collaboration between departments in an organization is attainable by ensuring effective communication.

Despite the existence of similarities between employee behaviors, their culture may be completely different, which leads to the formation of stereotypes and distrust amongst employees in various departments.

In its operation, Jafza experiences a major problem due to the existence of stereotypes within its departments, which fail to appreciate the importance of cultural diversity. Consequently, the firm suffers through reduction in the level of integration between departments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, some employees in Jafza departments consider their culture as superior to others. Consequently, they prefer working with employees of their cultural background compared to others. This aspect means that there is a substantial level of distrust amongst the firm’s employees. However, the success of Jafza is dependent on the operations of all the departments. Existence of communication difficulties due to cultural barriers is adversely affecting teamwork within the firm.

Considering the fact that Jafza deals with a wide range of clients from different countries, the organization has to deal with the issue of cultural diversity. In an effort to deal with this challenge, Jafza has to train its workforce continuously to manage the existing communication gaps effectively.

One of the issues, which the firm has to focus on in its training process entails helping the employees to appreciate cultural diversity. Additionally, Jafza has to ensure that its employees in the various departments are bilingual (Hartley, Chatterton,


Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha Term Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Similarities


Impacts of the two characters

Value of the characters inline with revelation of Biblical story

Lesson/teaching from the character

Reasons for choosing this lesson

Strengthening my life

Works Cited

The story of Elijah and Elisha is quite interesting. The two were God-anointed prophets who served and helped people to be saved.

The two men are considered to be among the most respected prophets in the Old Testament who served God with faith and trust. Even though the two men had some similarities, they had some contrasts that were evidenced during their time.

Similarities Both Elijah and Elisha were prophets appointed by God to serve the people. They both came from Samaria hence they went through same life experiences (Elijah and Elisha para. 5). They preached the gospel and saved people’s hearts. The two have similarities in their names.

Even though they differ, the names have close similarity in their pronunciation. Another notable similarity between these two men was in their miracles. The miracle that Elijah performed last was similar to the one Elisha performed first when he began serving as a prophet.

The miracle was separating water of Jordan by using a cloak. They also restored the lives of people while serving in their ministries. For instance, Zerapath was healed by Elijah while a woman coming from Shumen was restored back to life by Elisha.

Therefore, both prophets performed miracles even though different in nature. Furthermore, the two prophets had similarities in the way they spoke and conveyed their message.

They talked in the same way to their kings. Even though they had these similarities, the contrasts between them were noticeable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contrasts/differences Even though the two prophets conducted miracles, they did not resemble each other. Most of Elijah’s miracles were inclined to destruction of life and death. On the other hand, most of Elisha’s miracles were based on life restoration as well as healing.

Therefore, it can be said that Elisha was a prophet of grace while Elijah was a prophet of judgment (Elijah and Elisha para. 5). Elijah gave testimonies that were against sin and evil of men while Elisha’s testimonies were inclined on salvation of people and preaching on God’s mercy.

Elijah’s mission concerned or was directed to the public. He often engaged with sinners and those that led them into sinning. On the other hand, Elisha was majorly involved with people and prophets of God.

Through the compassion of God, he blessed people by preaching and carrying out miracles.

Further differences can be observed in the way they lived. The life of Elijah was constricted since he did not socialize with people, while that of Elisha was active. Elisha engaged with many people and even visited his fellow prophets at their learning places.

The way their ministries ended was different. Elijah died through the fire on chariot while Elisha died in his old age. Elijah’s first miracle was prophesying that neither rain nor dew could be seen for a period of three and half years.

On the other hand, Elisha’s first miracle was praying for an unclean spring to have clean water. On socio-economic level, Elijah came from a poor background compared to Elisha who came from Abel- meholah (Gary para. 4).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to 2 Kings 1:8, in terms of physical appearance, Elijah had more hair on his body compared to Elijah who had no hair as stated in 2 Kings 2:23 (King James Bible, 2 King 1-2.5). In terms of their ministries, Elisha’s ministry lasted twice that of Elijah’s. Elisha did many miracles, almost twice which Elijah performed.

Impacts of the two characters As leaders and servants of the people, these two men feared God and served the people diligently leading them to their salvations. There is nowhere in the Bible that states the two prophets were implicated in any offenses.

They were committed in the life of God and this is manifested in the many miracles that they performed during their lifetime. For instance, Elisha loved people and often associated with them positively.

Value of the characters inline with revelation of Biblical story The two men’s characters show or provide various lessons that people in the current world can learn and help increase their strength and faith in God. The Bible is a holy book that passes, conveys, or teaches spiritual truth to enable people to change their lives and come near to God.

It is no doubt that the story of these two men as revealed through the Bible impacted positively to the lives of the people. They were dedicated in their work to God. They helped people to know God and preached about the good Lord.

Their trust and faith in God are some of the values that the two men portrayed in the Bible during their time. Therefore, they teach religious believers to have trust and faith in God. This is also manifested through the many miracles that God enabled them to perform during their ministries.

Lesson/teaching from the character From these stories, various lessons or teachings are helpful in our day-to-day lives. One of the lessons that I have learned from the story and which I believe that can help me in my life is trust and believing in the God Almighty.

Elijah and Elisha believed in God and were obedience in God who anointed them to be his servants. God, because of the faithfulness of the two, enabled them to perform many miracles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, I am touched and I now believe that with faith in God, nothing is impossible in our lives.

Reasons for choosing this lesson The major reason for me choosing this lesson is that in most occasions, I have never believed and had faith in God that He can change my life and make me achieve my goals. However, after reading this story, I was elevated and encouraged.

I was touched on how believing and having faith in God can change one’s life. God is able to elevate and anoint one into His kingdom when a person trusts and have faith in Him.

Strengthening my life This is a lesson that can strengthen my life. I can use this lesson by changing the ways of my life and giving all my life to God who is the Alpha and the Omega. By surrendering my life to God and doing according to his will, I believe His mercies will shine upon my life and strengthen my faith and trust in Him.

Second, my Christian life can be strengthened by attending church and being prayerful in my entire life. Faith in God entails always being close to God.

Being close to God is through prayers. Furthermore, I will transform or change my actions and deeds. I will endeavor to abide by the laws of God and always do well to my neighbors.

Works Cited Elijah and Elisha. Lesson 4. Web.

Gary, DeLashmutt. Elijah and Elijah: A comparison. Web.

King James Bible. Ed. Robert Carroll and Stephen Prickett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Tourism Industry essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Technology in the Industry

Benefits of technology on the industry

Challenges/disadvantages of Technology


Introduction Technology has transformed the lives of many people based on the way it has changed their way of doing things. Hospitality and tourism industry is one of the sectors that have witnessed greater changes brought about by technology.

It is not surprising that this industry is ranked among the best performing industry around the world. Technology has contributed a lot towards this success.

Technology is paramount in the success of Hospitality and tourism industry regardless of having some flaws as evidenced in the paper.

Background Information Hospitality and tourism industry is one of the best performing industry, both at regional/domestic and international level. According to the Tourism World Council (2004), the tourism industry contributes to around 10% of GDP in the world.

This rate is expected to increase by the year 2014 (World Travel and Tourism Council 2004).The force behind this rapid growth is the adoption of information technology in its management and operations.

Many businesses in hospitality and tourism incorporate information technology in their businesses thus standing a good chance of reaping huge returns of the same (Garzotto et al. 2004).

Computerised reservation systems are an example of an information technology system used in this sector to reach to the target customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology in the Industry Before the advancement of technology, it was very difficult for the tourist and hospitality industry to market its services to its customers. It was also very expensive because customers are always physically apart, miles away, for instance.

However, the coming of information technology has eased the transaction of business besides boosting the customer base. The fact that people are able to communicate and interact with one another in different regions has made it easier and cheap to market their products and services.

In the past, inter organisational system, which connected organizations, was the most popular form of IT. However, because of high costs, many businesses could not meet the cost of using it (Chih-Yao 2011, p. 1986).

The emergence of global distribution systems allowed easy connection and communication across boarders. This allowed fast transfer of information that helped to boost the industry in terms of the number of bookings.

Global distribution was a form of inter-organisational system that emerged from computer reservation systems that helped to integrate information from the airline. These integrations boosted the tourism industry since customers were able to make their reservations at one common marketplace.

These systems were used in 1960s, and there integration to the modern computer was impossible. The advancement of technology has seen the emergence of internet and the World Wide Web, which have transformed the way people interact and or do their businesses (Cristiana 2008, p. 345).

Businesses market their hospitality services and tourism products through the internet. This platform has connected the world. It has turned it into a global village. People can interact in different locations in real time.

We will write a custom Report on Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Tourism Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They can share their views and opinions without having to meet physically. Technology has led to the development of different forms or platforms that enable interconnections.

Nowadays, social media such as MySpace, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and many others are sources of information that both tourism and hospitality industry have used to reach customers across the globe leading to an influx of tourists hence boosting the level of their income (Alexis,


Career in Biomedical Sciences (Opportunities writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The career

Academic requirements

Career opportunities

Benefits and challenges

Boosting my chances

Reference List

Introduction After completing my studies, I would like to take up a career in Biomedical Sciences because since childhood it has been my passion to contribute in the discovery and development of cures for different ailments.

Secondly, I consider myself a very keen learner and I know that in the medical field this is one of the key traits that will make one successful in the future.

The human body is very fragile and if a person is not very careful of or attentive to oneself, he/she may end up aggravating an illness or injury while trying to cure it.

As such I believe that I am the one who can make my mind on getting a solution to a problem and think of it until the solution is reached.

Finally and most importantly, in my academic quest I have always found myself drifting towards biomedical sciences.

Like with any career, success is usually left out for individuals with training in the respective field and I believe my training will put me at an advantage in my chosen career.

The career A Biomedical Scientist studies and analyzes the human body trying to understand how it works. This helps him/her come up with practical solutions to implement when things are not going on well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most Biomedical scientists spend most of their days in laboratories, analyzing living things. Their experiments are usually based on small organisms, some as small as a single cell all the way to big mammals such as chimpanzees.

In some situations, Biomedical Scientists pick specimens from human tissues for analysis and experiments.

Academic requirements For one to qualify as a biomedical scientist, one is usually required to have a degree in Biomedical Science with the prospects of upgrading through graduate school.

This puts one at the advantage of taking up senior tutoring positions in colleges as well as high-ranking researcher posts in companies (Specialist Biomedical Science recruiters 2012).

In some cases some biomedical scientists are required to have a medical degree on top of their other qualifications. Traditionally graduate-school students are taken through various departments before settling they choose the one.

Once the student picks a particular laboratory, he/she is then required to spend time doing original research guided by the principal investigator. Ultimately, the aim is for the student to publish a dissertation which will then be up for review by peers.

Career opportunities In most instances, the employment opportunities for Biomedical Scientists are in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (Careers in Biomedical Science 2012). Some individuals opt to go for academic positions including lecturing in colleges.

We will write a custom Report on Career in Biomedical Sciences (Opportunities


James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem Essay custom essay help

Introduction Trowbridge was engaged by Allens on behalf of JHD, to formulate a report for the cash outflows from the James Hardie Industries as a result of litigations lodged by the victims of asbestos related diseases. The report was presented by Minty and Marshall to the company’s incoming directors.

Trowbridge is accused of having engaged in a misleading conduct that led the directors develop a foundation fund that was not in line with the company’s future claims (Castleman 2005). This paper will look at the conflict of interest between Minty and the incoming directors at JHD, and also discuss the effect of a code of conduct to the behavior of minty.

Conflicts of interest between Minty, Trowbridge and JHD

Based on the case, “James Hardie Industries and the problem of Asbestos” there are a number of instances that reveal conflict of interest between Minty, Trowbridge and JHD (Castleman 2005). This part will describe the instances of conflict of interest as pointed out in the case. The first sort of disagreement between the three parties is captured in Minty’s claim over the JHD deterioration.

The claims of James Hardie had been deteriorating as from March 2001, but Minty on his part had considered that the revised model would take care of the deterioration. One can make two conclusions from this case; that James Hardie chose not to reveal the deterioration facts to Trowbridge or Trowbridge did not make any follow up to request for data.

Minty was well aware that the incoming directors in Trowbridge would require the data contained in the report of February 2000, but deliberately failed to make the data available to the incoming directors.

This is an indication of mischief on the part of Minty, in the report; the incoming directors required that Minty includes the current data in the report and advice them on the “cost of diseases related to inhalation of asbestos” (Webster 2005). This was in view of the findings of Trowbridge consulting contained in the March 2000 report.

Trowbridge report was based on the cost of the Minty’s proposed “claims on the insurance industry in Australia” (Peacock 2011). Minty rejected any attempts to revise the claim assumption in which the current data had been ignored. They instead insisted that the James Hardie had failed to avail the current data to them and that this alone did not qualify the report to be misleading.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Trowbridge challenged Minty on presenting misleading information to the incoming directors in the February report (Peacock 2011). This challenge was valid in the sense that it would be assumed that the incoming directors would be provided with relevant information by the officers at the James Hardie.

The February report was simply meant for James Hardie and therefore Trowbridge should not have sought to delve into the report. They were supposed to carry out their own independent research without necessarily looking into the report of Minty (Webster 2005).

Trowbridge on their side did not also rely on the data provided by James Hardie in their assessment. The February report indicates that Trowbridge findings were based on the report of March and the “national and international trends posted in the findings of Watson and Hurst research” (Hinmann 2008).

During the restructuring process, the new directors had been warned that the scope of the February report was not sufficient to be relied on to develop the foundation funds for future claims. The new directors failed to question neither the report of February nor Minty’s presentation regarding the company’s historical estimates (Webster 2005).

There was an opportunity to raise these questions but the incoming directors instead kept numb about it. They also failed to refer to earlier reports posted in 1996 and 1998, based on Trowbridge submissions, the new directors were alerted that there would be claims lodged for more than 20 years.

They needed to rely on projections that would go up to 50 years to effectively asses the long-term effect of the claims on the company (Hinmann 2008). The James Hardie Industries were instead selective on the kind of material they considered imperative to the company.

It was established that Trowbridge was involved in misleading conduct as a result of Minty failing to inform the new directors of the significance of the current data. Minty justified the failure to reveal the significance of the current data in accordance with the recommendations of Shafron and Marshall that the current data did not have a significant impact on the claim’s projections.

We will write a custom Essay on James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trowbridge denied having engaged in misleading conduct as alleged by JHI on its part. Trowbridge was recruited to provide consulting services to James Hardie Industries by Allens (Webster 2005).

This meant that Trowbridge had to communicate their findings to James Hardie through Allens and not directly to the James Hardie Industries (Clarke 2007). Minty did not therefore have any mandate to directly contact the new directors to inform them of the new amendments in the report.

The evidence of Minty on the use of the February report is quite reliable as it was consistent with the facts provided by Marshall, which was ratified by MRCF. T

he evidence emphasizes that both Marshall and Minty were aware of; the proposed restructuring at the James Hardie, that the February report was vital in “determining the amount of funds required for the closed fund” (Webster 2005). Trowbridge therefore had only one mandate, to “stipulate and consent to the use of the document through a disclaimer” (Clarke 2007)

How Trowbridge Needed to Deal with the Issue

Opponents of the February report accuse Trowbridge of applying “the berry medium instead of berry high in regard to the Mesothelioma events” (Haigh 2008). In this regard, Trowbridge was engaged in misleading conduct. One of the independent actuaries; whitehead, also confirmed that the Berry medium curve was a better choice compared to the Berry high curve (Parker and Evans 2008).

Trowbridge needed to disclose to the commission that the choice of the Berry medium was not based on a personal level judgment. The choice although was criticized for delivering poor results for James Hardie Industries was equally supported by other professional actuarial service providers (Parker and Evans 2008).

The current data, which Trowbridge is accused of not providing to the incoming directors, was after all not important to the incoming directors (Haigh 2008).

The incoming directors needed information based on long-term projections, for them to make foundation funds. The long term projection of at least 50 years as had been provided for by Shafron would instead be more important than the February report (Hinmann 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Effect of the Code of Conduct on the Behaviour of Trowbridge and Minty

A professional code of conduct in any profession serves to guide the conduct of the stakeholders in the profession. The code stipulates what is the right conduct for the members of the profession and also states various penalties for those who contravene the provisions of the code.

The code alone however, does not guarantee that the members of the profession will adhere to its provisions. Effective enforcement of the provisions of the code is vital to ensure that every member in the profession does not go against what the codes of ethics describe as the norm (McCulloch and Tweedale 2008).

The penalties contained in the code play a main role in guarding the conduct of the players in the profession. The human behavior is known to be shaped in the right way either by reward or penalty. Penalty is an effective method where laws of conduct are drawn and provided for a particular group.

As a company involved in the provision of actuarial consulting services, Trowbridge was tasked to advice the incoming directors at the James Hardie Industries accordingly. Trowbridge had an obligation to ensure that the directors were properly guided in setting up a foundation for funding.

By failing to disclosing the information to the new directors at the James Hardie industries, set up an inadequate foundation fund. The investors in the company suffered losses because of the high claims resulting from asbestos related diseases. This could have been avoided if Trowbridge worked on the case in a professional way.

Trowbridge was engaged to formulate a report on the outflows from the James Hardie industries emanating from litigations lodged by those affected by asbestos (Fisse and BraitheWaite 1983). The report was to be based on the national and international disease trends, as well as the current data.

The report was presented to the board by Mr. Minty and Marshall, the report was used by the incoming directors to set up a foundation fund for making litigation payments. The report however, professionally failed to consider all parameters such as; the current data and the national and international claim trends (McCulloch and Tweedale 2008).

As a result, the report failed to provide an accurate basis for making future claims projections for James Hardie Industries. This oversight by a professional consulting company misled the company in making the future projections. With a code of conduct in place, such an oversight could be punishable; the perceived punishment would act as deterrence to the consulting firm.

However, it can also be detested, based on the case of James Hardie Industries and Asbestos problems, it is not possible that the code of conduct would change their behavior.

In regard of “section 52 of the trade practices acts” both the outgoing and incoming directors were not supposed to rely entirely on the February report (Degenhardt and Duignan 2010). The officers of James Hardie industries were supposed to be responsible for knowing that the report posted by Trowbridge was not meant to be used to create a foundation that would be funded.

The code of conduct also acts as a reference resource for professional practice. Minty and Marshall relied on the information of other professionals in the field in choosing the Berry medium curve. It clearly indicates that there was no approved resource on which to base important conclusions.

It is not possible for one to argue in court a decision that goes sour, if the decision was based on the advice of a third party. If a decision is based on a professional code of conduct, it is possible to defend the effects of the decision. Professional codes of conducts are based research findings.

This can well protect the decisions of the professional practitioners better than the decisions of fellow practitioners. This would also ensure that the decisions made on various professional solutions are harmonized.

Having omitted the data for nine months up to January 2001, Trowbridge was asked to explain the possible impact that inclusion of this data would have on the analyzed projections.

Rather than treat this as a unique case, Trowbridge relied on its experience to assure the client that the omission would not have a significant impact on the analysis. Trowbridge needed to have considered this as a unique case and carried out an analysis based on the omitted data before making conclusions.

Minty and Marshall deliberately presented James Hardie Industries with information that was inconsistent with the company statements. Minty and Marshall relied on the advice of an independent consultant that the current data would have no significance on the report. Minty failed to press for updated information from the company in order to use it to revise the June report.

Minty did not use the best information available as he alleged in his presentation. This type of professional negligence would be punishable in the provisions of the code. Being aware of this provision in the code and the penalty associated with it, Minty would have labored to get the relevant information from the company.

Reference List Castleman, B 2005, Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects, Aspen Publishing Inc, New York

Clarke T. 2007, International Corporate Governance: A Comparative Approach. Routledge, New York.

Degenhardt, L. and Duignan, P 2010, Dancing on a Shifting Carpet: Reinventing Traditional Schooling for the 21st Century, Acer Press, Victoria.

Fisse, P. and BraitheWaite, J. 1983, The Impact of Publicity on Corporate Offenders, State University of New York, New York

Haigh, G 2008, Asbestos House: The Secret History of James Hardie Industries, Scribe Publications Pty Limited, New York

Hinmann, L 2008, Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory, Thomas Wordsworth, New York

McCulloch, J and Tweedale, G 2008, Defending the Indefensible: The Global Asbestos Industry and its Fight for Survival, Routledge, New York.

Parker,C. and Evans, A 2008, Inside Lawyer’s Ethics, Cambridge University Press, London.

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Webster, P 2005, White Dust Black Death: the Tragedy of Asbestos Mining at Baryulgil, Trafford Publishing Ltd, London.


Turbo Charged Engines Essay online essay help: online essay help

Abstract Advancements in the creation of vehicle components with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role towards the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines adhering to drivability, improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations.

A turbocharger is an invention of Alfred Buchi (1879-1959), a Swizz engineer who used an exhaust gas driven compressor to increase the power of a diesel engine. A turbo charger used by an automotive is made up of a turbine, a compressor and a couple of common shafts.

A turbine is a pivotal part which initiates the process of energy accumulation. It captures kinetic energy produced by exhaust gases emitted during combustion. Turbo charged engines have various compartments which direct the flow of gas.

This flow is directly proportional to the air and amount of fuel that are sent to the cylinders. Since they are equal, the difference in size of the engine is critical since it determines the amount of power an engine produces. This implies that there is larger amount of flow in air which consequently increases the power of the engine.

Introduction Advancements in the creation of vehicle components with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role towards the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines that can adhere drivability, enhance improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations.

Awareness on sustainability from economic, social and environmental perspectives is indeed growing due to observable changes in society. There are numerous legal and social systems that have been developed by governments and even the business community to ensure that this critical aspect is addressed.

When a turbo engine has been integrated into one engine configuration, significant interactions and nonlinearities occur within it. The latter eventually results into the need for more advanced control methods [11]. Therefore, emission regulation has prompted the need for increased power of the engines, external gas recirculation system as well as drivability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Purpose

An understanding of the main purpose of this paper is very important as it highlights the findings from various publications on turbo charged engines and their effectiveness in enhancing condition of an operating engine to meet engine safety, low emissions, fuel economy and fast torque response.

The findings from the publications and other related articles on turbo charged engines will be critical in making particularistic conclusions on its efficacy in terms of increase in the power of engines, low emissions, fuel economy and drivability.


The scope of this report is limited to turbo charged engines, components and functions, and how a turbo charged engine can be effective when compared to non-turbocharged engines. In this respect, the paper gathers various findings from different articles as well as experimental literatures that have explained the various models of turbo engines.


There are quite a number of key assumptions that have been made to ensure that the objective of the paper is conformed to. One such assumption is that a turbo charged engine is more effective compared to a conventional supercharger.

This is due to the fact that the latter is driven mechanically while the former uses engine exhaust gas turbine. Bedsides, compared to a naturally aspirated engine, a turbocharged engine is more powerful. This is attributed to the increased air intake and more combustion of fuel due to turbine forces.

Turbo charged engines. A brief history of turbo charged engines A turbocharger is an invention of Alfred Buchi (1879-1959), a Swizz engineer who used an exhaust gas driven compressor to increase the power of a diesel engine. It is worth to mention that this practice of forced induction had earlier been tried by Gottlieb Daimler among other engineers during the 19th century.

Before turbochargers, the use of superchargers for forced induction was common. In the 1920’s, turbochargers were used in the production of engines of aircrafts. It later spread to the use of turbocharged diesel engines on ship and locomotives.

We will write a custom Essay on Turbo Charged Engines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The working principle of the Turbo charged engine

A turbo charger used by an automotive is made up of a turbine, a compressor and a couple of common shafts. The exhaust gas of an automotive engine has a critical role of propelling the turbine. The force drives the compressor and directs the compacted ambient air into an intake manifold.

The increased supply of air is very critical in the provision of a larger output supply into engine cylinders [15]. This causes the burning out of large fuel quantities. Unlike in non-turbocharged engines, turbo-charged engines allow for a larger torque output from the large quantity of burnt fuel.

It is imperative to highlight that turbo charged engines have improved operation efficiency at lean air-to-fuel ratio. This leads to improved fuel economy.

Turbo charged engines have regulated engine emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and particulates (PM). The reduced particulate emissions due to turbo charging emanate from increased temperature, air charge densities, and air to air fuel ratios [7].

It is imperative to note that the aforementioned factor increases oxygen availability. Temperature gives rise to the formation of NOx. The latter can be partially offset when air charge temperature is reduced. This is a function of an intercooler on turbo-charging. The intercooler also reduces particulate emissions by increasing the density of air charge.

At regulated levels, NOx emissions cannot be sufficiently regulated. As such, an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) is required to divert back the emitted exhaust gas into the intake manifold. The portion of the gas is then used to dilute the air that the compressor supplies.

Besides, the diluted air within the cylinders increases the charge specific heat capacity and also plays the role of inert gases. The gas impacts negatively on the formation of NOx emissions, lowers the temperature of peak flames and reduces the rate of burning.

Typically, the circulation of exhaust gas is a process that is accomplished in the valve of an exhaust gas recirculation tube that links the intake manifold with the exhaust manifold.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Turbo Charged Engines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, certain configurations of some diesel engines have been designed to include an intake manifold linked to a compressor with EGR throttle. The latter enhances EGR rates by creating the needed pressure drop on the valves.

Components of Turbo-charged engines

In order to achieve a properly functioning system, a turbocharger is subject to several applications. The interplay of various major components of an engine is critically a function of a smooth synchrony of all the components [1]. Each part which makes up a turbo charged engine is significant.

It is imperative to note that all components have to work together in order to achieve all the necessary processes. Turbochargers are made up of three major components. These include;

A turbine- this is an inflow radial turbine

A compressor- it is majorly a centrifuging compressor

A central hub- this makes the main rotating set of the engine


A turbine is a pivotal part which initiates the process of energy accumulation. It captures kinetic energy produced by exhaust gases emitted during combustion. It has sections which direct the flow of gas. Besides, in its normal performance, the turbine spins at a velocity of about 250,000 rotations per unit time [5].

In its determinant functions, shape and size characterize the overall output. Assemblies of turbo chargers combine different specifications of the engine according to numerous set ups of turbine compartments. It is therefore possible to determine the efficiency responsiveness and performance of a turbo charger. This is achieved through the mentioned choices of turbine attributes.

Turbine wheels are fitted to regulate the amount of gas flowing through the system. Their sizes are chosen in relation to expected outcomes. In general, large flow capacities are achieved through the use of large turbine wheels. This direct relationship is essential in making developments in turbo charger engines [6].

The performance of these engines is related to their sizes. Large ones have a high heat intake and spin the turbine with a turbo lag hence they achieve low rates of rotation [6].

Smaller turbochargers tend to attain higher acceleration. This does not mean that size is tagged to advantages. Both small and large sizes have demerits. Indeed, innovations of schemes which counter the drawbacks of size have led to designing of combined models;

Twin turbo- This is made up of a pair of turbo chargers which have been set to operate parallel to each other or sequentially. When placed in parallel, the two are connected in manner which enables them to share the engine’s exhaust chamber in 50-50 basis. In a sequential arrangement, the two run at different speeds. One runs at the resultant speed of the engine while the other runs at a lower regulated speed. Small turbo twins realize lower lags compared to large ones. This configuration is highly adopted especially in boxer engine and V-shapes [8].

Twin-scroll- These have a double inlet of gas. Smaller ones have more rampant responses compared to bigger ones. To attain a peak performance, twin-scrolls are configured at different time configurations. This is done at the camshaft and in every exhaust valve. Timing is normally customized to enable the system to recover quickly after generated energy is lost.

Variable-nozzle turbo – These use vanes to adjust air flow. They have a combination of sizes which have been made to give the engine optimal power output. Vanes are inserted at the front of the turbine to form slight overlaps with one another.

The angle of overlap is joined to actuators which act as control devices. The variability emerging from this arrangement creates back pressure when the engine is in function. Notably, this is important in making the engine become more fuel efficient [10]. Growth of turbo lag is also minimized significantly.


The engine has a centrifugal compressor. The compressor is made up of four parts. These include a collector, diffuser, a rotor and an inlet. This component is the chamber for gas work. As gases pass through the compressor, consequential energy is tapped axially from left to right. The impeller is placed strategically in the downstream of a discharge cone. The four components are described below.

The collector– it takes many different shapes. Its form is also chosen in relation to centrifugal compression. The collector of a turbo charger has empty chambers for collection. It has a direct connection to the diffuser such that it gathers the total flow of the diffuser. A collector contains numerous valves which are instrumented to control it. The specially adapted valves are referred to as blow-off valves.

Inlet– It takes the simple structure of a pipe. It feeds the compressor. It is made up of stationary air vanes and valves. The foils are fitted to manage flow of fluid. They swirl the flow such that both temperature and pressure are kept in control. It should be noted that the inlet takes a central role in controlling a compressor. This is the reason it has such specialized features [13].

Rotor– This makes the key part of a turbo charger’s centrifugal compressor. It is also referred to as the impeller and has a rotating set of parts. It has blades which are arranged uniformly. These blades rotate and determine the working gas energy.It resembles axial compressors in that its radius increases causing an acceleration of the gases’ energy and velocity levels. Innovations have been put in place in modern day compressors. A good example is the production of high efficiency compressors. The high speed compressor rotors which are able to exit gas at a speed close that of the sound which they produce [13].

Diffuser– It is placed downstream to the rotor. It lies at the flow path so that it can have the ability to change kinetic energy of working gas into force which applies pressure. This is achieved through diffusing the gas at a velocity which is lower than its original one. A diffuser has different forms and combination of alternating vanes. The combinations are sometimes made hybrid through the inclusion of pipes channels and wedges.

Rotating assembly

The rotating assembly has a shaft which connects the turbine and the impeller of the compressor [12]. It contains a system of bearings which support the shaft. This allows the shaft to rotate with maximum speed without much resistance.

The rotating assembly uses special bearing balls which depend on pressurized oil. It has a coolant which circles it. This can be water, oil or gas made depending on the heat expected from the turbine.

The ball bearings used here are very important. They have to be thrust to maximize their durability. This is because they play a heavy task. The coolant instrumentation is venerated in every segment because produced heat is transmitted around the whole system.

The operations of a turbo engine As noted earlier, the power of a turbo engine is directly proportional to the air and amount of fuel that are conveyed to the cylinders. Since they are equal, a difference in the size of engine is critical in the amount of power an engine produces [6].

This means that more air flow in larger thereby making their power greater. Smaller engines can be made to work similar to larger ones in terms of power. This can be achieved by supplying more air into a cylinder. In order to dramatically increase the power and performance of an engine, many engines are installed with a Garret turbocharger [2].

A turbocharger is made up of several components that include (See figure below):

A compressor inlet

A compressor discharge

A charge air cooler

Intake valve

Exhaust valve

Turbine inlet

Turbine discharge

Figure 1: A turbo system

As the diagram illustrates, ambient air passes through an air filter and is directed to a compressor which increases its density after the air volume has been compressed. The effect of the cooling the engine results into strong resistance against detonation and increase in density (mass/volume of air).

The fourth component in the diagram forms the intake manifold, a section where air passes before entering the cylinder. The mass and rate of flow of air in the cylinder in normally enhanced. This is attributed to the elevated density of compressed and cooled air as well as the fixed volume of air in the cylinder.

As indicated earlier, when the flowing rate of mass of air is high, fuel flow rate also increases at the same fuel to air ratio. The effect of the flow of air and subsequent combustion of fuel is more engine power for every displacement or engine size.

Additionally, the combustion of fuel which causes its complete burning allows the product to be exhausted via the exhaust manifold. The turbine receives the high temperature created from the combustion and creates backpressure.

This is important in the sense that it shows that the engine exhaust pressure is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere. A drop in temperature and pressure causes turbine expansion which in turn harnesses the energy of the exhaust gas. The energy is very important in the provision of enough supply of power to drive the engine compressor.

Turbochargers are different in size and are specific to particular engines. This quality allows it to provide a response of rapid flow of air at low engine speed when there is a demand for acceleration. The air that flows into an engine cylinder causes an increase in the rate of fuel flow and engine torque.

This effect is normally reached when the flow area of a turbine is small [3]. The size enhances a manifold pressure increase from the exhauster, a factor that increases the generation of power. The latter being a function of turbine results into an increase in fuel rate.

Controlling damages on turbo charged engines It is worth mentioning at this point that a turbo charged engine may be damaged under extreme cases of air flow. At high loads and engine speeds, and excessive difference between intake manifold pressures and the exhaust is created [14].

This in turn increases the amount of intake manifold pressure leading to engine damage. In order to avoid such damages and other related negative consequences, a turbo charged engine must be deigned to contain a wastegate [9]. The latter is normally opened when an engine is at high speed. Its opening is vital in the sense that it allows a bypass of exhaust gas in the turbine.

A wastegate is important because it aids in controlling an engine’s boost pressure. internal and external use by some diesel and gasoline applications provide a bypass to engine exhaust flow. This is a process that occurs at the turbine wheel and matches the power driving the turbine to the given boost level.

According to the boost control theory, wastegates reduce the exhaust flow, a ,similar function conducted by the BOV which makes use of the spring force and boost pressure to regulate the exhaust flow bypassing the turbine.

Figure 2: A diagram showing a wastegate

Figure 3: A diagram showing a wastegate

Internal wastegate

An internal wastegate is an important component built and located on a turbo. It has an actuator with a diaphragm which controls the gate leading to the turbine wheel. The location of an internal wastegate as the name suggests is within the turbine housing [4].

The waste gate is made up of a pneumatic actuator, a rope end, a crank arm and a valve. Some of the main advantages of the wastegate are the fact that it does not require an intake manifold and that it is very compact. Even so, many analysts are of the view that just as it has its pros, its cons can cause damages to an engine.

One such limitation is the notion that it is made to fit within the turbine housing, a consideration that denies it the ability to allow maximum flow of exhaust CFM. Besides, the location inside the turbine causes turbulence and limits turbo performance.

Figure 4: A diagram showing an interal wastegate

External wastegate

An external wastegate is a component made on the header or exhaust manifold. This unlike the internal manifold is not made inside the housing of a turbine. As such, its performance is enhanced. The external wastegate allows the re-introduction of the by-passed flow into the exhaust and turbine streams.

Another approach against damages is the use of a variable geometric charger (VGT). This component grants more flexibility, limits the use of wastegate, shapes engine torque response, reduces emissions and improves fuel economy. The variable geometry turbocharger has a turbine stator which has pivoted guide vanes [1].

Figure 5: A figure showing the components of a turbocharger

Basic operating principle An engine with a turbo charger has improved engine volumetric efficiency which comes from the density of the air taken into it. The ambient air is drawn into the compressor with each intake stroke drawing a mass of air. Kinetic energy needed to spin centrifugal compressor comes from the engines exhaust gases.

In order to increase power, a turbo charged engine recovers waste energy and re-takes back into the engine. It is worth noting that during combustion of fuel; a lot of energy is emitted. This increases the temperature leading to Carnot efficiency.

Conclusions To sum up, a turbo charged engine exhibits more power and increased fuel efficiency of an engine. As noted in the paper, advancements in the creation of vehicle with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role in the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines adhering to drivability, improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations. Turbochargers are aided by components such as ball bearings, turbine blades and wastegates.

References List Baratta, M., Spessa, E., and Mairone, P., “Numerical investigation of turbolag reduction in HD CNG engines by means of exhaust valve variable actuation and spark timing control,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 11(3): 289-306, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s12239-010-0037-x

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Capus, J.M., “SAE World Congress 2002: better times ahead?” Powder Metallurgy, 45(2): 110-111, 2002.

Eroglu, M. and Onalp, S., “Tungsten inert gas surface modification of SAE 4140 steel”, Materials Science and Technology, 18(12): 1544-1550, 2002.

Galindo, J., Climent, H., Guardiola, C., and Doménech., “Strategies for improving the mode transition in a sequential parallel turbocharged automotive diesel engine,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 10(2): 141-149, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12239-009-0017-1.

Hunziker, R., H-P Dickmann and Emmrich., “Numerical and experimental investigation of a centrifugal compressor with an inducer casing bleed system,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 215(6): 783-783, 2001.

Ilardo, R. and Williams, C.B., “Design and manufacture of a Formula SAE intake system using fused deposition modeling and fiber-reinforced composite materials”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(3): 174-179, 2010.

Kim, H.G. and Jeon, S.I., “Effect on friction of engine oil seal with engine oil viscosity”, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(5): 601-606 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0071-0.

Kim, J. N., Kim, H. Y., Yoon, S. S., and Sa, S. D., “Effect of intake valve swirl on fuel-gas mixing and subsequent combustion in a CAI engine,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(6): 649-657, 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0077-7.

Kirk, R. G., Alsaeed, A. A., and Gunter, E. J., “Stability analysis of a high-speed automotive turbocharger,” Tribology Transactions, 50(3): 427-434, 2007.

Rakopoulos, C. D. and Giakoumis, E. G. Review of thermodynamic diesel engine simulations under transient operating conditions. SAE paper 2006-01-0884. Also Trans. SAE, J. Engines, 2006, 115, 467-504.

Rakopoulos, C. D., Giakoumis, E. G., Hountalas, D. T., and Rakopoulos, D. C. The effect of various dynamic, thermodynamic and design parameters on the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions. SAE paper 2004-01-0926, 2004.

Serrano, J. R., Arnau, F. J., Dolz, V., Tiseira, A., Lejeune, M., and Auffret, N., “Analysis of the capabilities of a two-stage turbocharging system to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution directive for heavy duty diesel engines,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(3): 277-288, 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0034-5.

Taraza, D., Henein, N., and Bryzik, W. Friction losses in multi-cylinder diesel engines. SAE paper 2000-01-0921, 2000.

Turner, J. W. G., Pearson, R. J., and Bassett, M. D. ‘Performance and fuel economy enhancement of pressure charged SI engines through turboexpansion – an initial study’. SAE paper 2003-01-0401, 2003.


Media futures and new technologies Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help

Researchers have been discussing distinctions between new and old media for two decades. Many researchers note that the term ‘new media’ is quite irrelevant as the Internet and related products were used as far back as the late 1970s (Stafford 2005).

Some claim that there is no competition at all and all types of media develop in their own ways and there is no or little distinction between the two types of media (Bunz 2010). However, the distinctions are apparent and quite numerous.

These distinctions affect politics, business and, of course, people’s everyday life. It is possible to take a closer look at two types of media (newspapers and social networks like Facebook) to see the difference and particular influences of these types of media.

In the first place, it is important to note that both types of media (newspapers and Facebook) are regarded as major sources of information spread.

A decade ago the major distinction between the two sources of information was the format. Newspapers represented print sources and Facebook is only associated with digit. However, the things have changed within ten years and now newspapers can be found in a digital format.

Thus, another important distinction comes into play. The primary source of information is the distinction that remains. Facebook often operates opinions and rumours. Facebook users also discuss news provided in newspapers.

On the contrary, newspapers (reputable newspapers are taken into account) use checked information only. They extract information from primary sources. Therefore, newspapers can be regarded as the sources of reliable information which is backed up by facts and checked data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of course, it is possible to consider times when newspapers were the only way to spread news. However, the present paper will not focus on the distant 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers were also the major way to obtain news in the twentieth century (Hendricks 2010).

The twenty-first century is characterised by a certain shift. Now people share news via such social networks as Facebook. However, people often cast doubt on the news provided in Facebook. Moreover, Bunz (2010) mentions that 83% of stories are repetitive these days. Thus, Facebook users extract information from the so-called conventional sources, usually newspapers.

On the other hand, the case with the so-called Arab Spring and revolutions in countries of the Middle East and Africa show that Facebook sometimes becomes the only reliable source of information. When there is evident lack of free media in a country, the Internet provides vast opportunities and such social networks as Facebook are becoming potent tools to share news (Sreberny 2012).

People shared their experiences and people could find out about the real situation in their country reading Facebook posts (and other Internet posts). The newspapers available provided information which was dictated by the forces in power.

Ironically, Facebook (as well as some other Internet resources) was the only source of reliable information. People could know what was really happening with the help of Facebook. At this point, it is necessary to note that, the cases of revolutions and oppressive regimes are quite exceptional, but they still contribute to the overall picture.

As far as the countries with free media are concerned, the situation with trust to Facebook and newspapers has not changed dramatically. People still trust conventional media more (Stafford 2005). Even in people’s everyday life this is apparent.

Thus, when speaking of news provided as Facebook posts, people can be impressed and start discussion, but they will still look for some evidence in newspapers (Fenton 2009). Therefore, newspapers are still considered to be primary sources of information.

We will write a custom Essay on Media futures and new technologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some researchers note that now there is decline in readership (Fenton 2009). Fenton (2009, p. 37) notes that “local newspaper circulation declined from nearly 48 million in 1989 to 41 million in 2004” and there was “a fall of 15 per cent”.

Some claim that this decline is the result of increasing popularity of emerging Internet resources. However, Fenton (2009) also adds that there were a number of declines throughout the second part of the twentieth century. For instance, from 1960 to 1995, there was a significant drop in the USA (31% decline), 38% decline in the UK, 48% drop in Australia (Fenton, 2009, p. 189).

At that, Fenton (2009) notes that there was an increase of newspaper circulation in such countries as Finland (52% increase) and Japan (45% increase) in the same period. Obviously, decline or increase of newspaper circulation has little to do with development of new technology.

Nevertheless, newspaper owners have been trying to address the problem of decline and came to quite a similar decision. Now newspapers have acquired digital format to become more up-to-date. Researchers state that now the two types of media merge (Rogers 2005).

French (2011, p. 17) notes that newspapers have “toyed with experiments including advertising price increases, paid subscriptions to their websites, and even developing iPad-only magazines”. Pfeiffer and Zinnbauer (2010) also note that major newspapers are now available online, which makes them available 24 hours a day.

Now they can provide news 24 hours a day, which makes these sources almost equal to Facebook. Newspapers are almost equal in terms of the load of information as they still have comparatively scarce resources.

Facebook posts can be created by any user of Facebook who witnessed something (or decided to share his/her opinion). At the same time, qualified reporters (the number of these professionals is almost insignificant compared to the number of Facebook users) generate news which appear in newspapers.

It is necessary to note that these differences affect politics, business and people’s everyday life. For instance, politics used to rely on newspapers and television in the twentieth century. The politics of the twenty-first century resort to new media. Thus, US President Obama resorted to Facebook and YouTube during his election campaign, which proved to be successful.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Media futures and new technologies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As for business, in the twentieth century, business sent their releases to newspapers to spread news about their companies (Rogers 2005). Now there is no need in such precision as any company has its own website where news concerning the company can be posted.

Companies also resort to Facebook quite often. Nonetheless, companies still rely on conventional resources especially when it is important to cover a large audience and spread some important news.

The differences between the two sources are quite evident in the field of advertisement. Thus, Facebook as any other Internet resource is very attractive for advertisers due to quite vast opportunities. Pop-ups and a variety of other types of advertisement can be available online.

However, the policy of this resource is to have small amount of advertisement. At the same time, print newspapers do not have so many opportunities due to quite restricted space.

Nonetheless, online newspapers are not inferior to Facebook and any other online resource. More so, newspapers do not have such restrictions as Facebook, which makes the former more attractive for advertisers.

As has been mentioned above, the distinctions between Facebook and newspapers can be traced in people’s everyday life. Though there is certain decline of readership, people still read newspapers (print as well as digital). Of course, young people tend to spend more time socialising in Facebook. Older people tend to read newspapers more, whereas young people read Facebook posts.

Notably, one of the major distinctions between the two sources, i.e. the primary source of news, has led to certain change in people’s life and their aspirations. Thus, to become a newsmaker, one should have become a famous person, a person who stood out against the crowd.

To provide news to public, people also had to study and become professional journalists. However, now Facebook provides a lot of opportunities to all people who have access to the Internet. Thus, Facebook users reveal their opinions or share their routine and are already regarded as newsmakers.

As for professional journalists, Facebook does not need such professionals. Any Facebook user can write about an event which took place in his/her community. Again, a Facebook user can provide his/her opinion on some news, events or even opinion provided by another Facebook user. All these people feel they are journalists who contribute to spread of important or meaningful information.

On balance, it is possible to note that newspapers and Facebook are regarded as some of the major resources of information spread. The two major distinctions between the two sources are the format and the primary sources used.

Thus, newspapers (both print and digit) are still regarded as reputable sources which provide reliable information whereas Facebook is not seen as a reliable source of information and Facebook users often refer to newspapers.

However, it is important to note that in some countries under specific circumstances Facebook have been the only source of reliable information.

All these peculiarities of the two sources have affected people lives in many ways. Of course, one of the most meaningful changes is that people are now becoming active agents in the process of information sharing which is important in the contemporary globalized world.

Reference List Bunz, M 2010, ‘Old media or new media – who breaks the news today?‘, Guardian. Web.

Fenton, N 2009, New media, old news: journalism and democracy in the digital age, SAGE Publications Ltd., London.

French, K 2011, ‘Emerging convergence’, The HUB. Web.

Hendricks, JA 2010, The twenty-first-century media industry: economic and managerial implications in the age of new media, Lexington Books, Plymouth.

Pfeiffer, M


Demographic Changes in Organizations Report essay help: essay help

Introduction There are significant “demographic changes taking place in organizations today and such changes will persist into the future” (Lerman and Schmidt 1). The emerging trends are due to changes in the population growth and globalization. The workforce will continue to change as workers from other parts of the world account for “a sizable population of the workforce in an organization” (Lerman and Schmidt 1).

Recent changes in the labor market have also affected the workplace environment. Employers recruit a diverse workforce in terms of ethnicity or race, gender, skills, age and other emerging members of the society, such as gays, lesbians, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) groups (IBM 2010).

Such diversities require broad assessments in terms of their effects on organizations. Most employers strive to implement policies that can assist in sustaining such diversities among workers. At the same time, organizations also strive to create understanding among employees with regard to such changes in demographic trends.

This essays looks at effects of demographic changes in organizations and how organizations can cope with such trends. Thus, we look at age, gender, ethnicity, and GBLT with specific cases from some organizations.

Current studies According to Lerman and Schmidt, notable demographic changes shall occur in the labor market over the next 10 to 15 years (Lerman and Schmidt 3). These scholars note that such changes occur due to growth in populations and immigration people from other countries.

In her study, Helene David identified four main demographic trends in the workforce. These included the educated young workforce, the aging workforce, changing roles of female and narrowing age gap among employees. She concluded that these were changes affecting all organizations across the globe (David 22).

The emergence of the ageing workforce now affects both developed and developing countries. The number of older workforce is growing steadily. Changes in the population growth affect this trend. The post-war baby boomers of 1960s have aged. The new generation Y has emerged to take their places.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, such changes have impacted the labor market and organizations have turned to young employees to replace baby boomers. David notes that the ageing workforce has also affected social issues in organizations through rising costs of welfare programs. Though some these employees have retired, a substantial number continues to work with young employees. This has created a generational mix in organizations.

The generational mix between the aged and young employees occurs due to participation of different age groups in organizations. Policies and some government directives influence organizational decisions on hiring. As a result, most organizations have both generations as workforce. The retirement age differs across countries. This affects the proportion of the older generation in organizations.

On the other hand, organizations also have low rates of hiring young workers. Consequently, the generational mix persists in organizations. As a result, most organizations have both generations as workforce.

The introduction of retirement age differs across countries. This affects the proportion of the older generation in organizations. On the other hand, organizations also have low rates of hiring young workers. Consequently, the generational mix persists in organizations.

Young employees have higher levels of education than their older counterparts. The younger workforce takes time pursuing education in specialized areas. This tendency has created the idea of knowledge workers that organizations strive to keep and maintain. The trend has become significant in the new information economy due to rapid technological developments.

Helene argues that education, training, and knowledge levels of workers influence characteristic of today’s workforce, particularly the younger generation (David 24). Organizations have turned for flexibility and qualification when recruiting workers. At the same time, they also need higher levels of experience among aged employees. This condition has created conflict, inter-generation tension, and exclusion in organizations.

Activity rates of female workers in organizations have changed significantly. Sexual division that characterized the past workforce in organizations is on the decline as women continue to play key management roles that require high standards of competence. Organizations such as IBM, HP, Kraft Foods, and Xerox among others have women as senior executives.

We will write a custom Report on Demographic Changes in Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This shows how such organizations value diversity in the workforce and changing roles of women in the knowledge economy. Organizations also try to accommodate diverse needs of women through balancing work and family life. As a result, some women have flexible work schedules than their male counterparts.

Globalization has also created movements among people. Therefore, workforce no longer consists of a single race, but rather a mixture of races. This has led to cases of racial tensions. On the same note, there are also cases of GLBT among employees. This is an emerging trend across the globe and organizations must find ways of handling such diversities.

Effects of Demographic changes in organizations (IBM and Google) Race and Ethnicity

Organizational management policies must account for diverse ethnic and racial differences that dominate today’s workforce. This is necessary for long-term benefits and exploitation of human resources. For instance, IBM and Google have to handle cases of racial tensions that exist among employees from diverse ethnic backgrounds. These are also companies with globe presence.

Consequently, these organizations can post some of their employees to their subsidiaries across the globe. These organizations have enacted policies that promote equal opportunities and fair participation for all their employees.

Google and IBM have business activities that enhance multiracial interaction. These organizations have included training as the key to successful management of racial tensions among their employees (Google 2012; IBM 2010).

Training programs have been effective in promoting interaction among workers from different ethnic backgrounds. This approach reduces tension, promotes cultural exchanges, and frequent interactions among employees for benefits of their organizations. As a result, we can notice benefits of a diverse workforce in Google and IBM.

These organizations view changing trends in demographic compositions of their workforce as opportunities that can propel their globe strategies. This explains why IBM and Google strive for inclusion policies and equal opportunities for all. Inclusion of demographic differences aid organizations in conflict resolution. This is how IBM and Google manage their employees that consist of different races from all over the world.

Generational Differences

This is a major source of conflicts among employees in every organization. For instance, in Google and IBM, most of their old workers grew in these companies and accumulated vast experience.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Demographic Changes in Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this category of workforce worries about job security and replacement by young and dynamic workforce. Conversely, young workers main concerns are vast and range from hefty rewards, changes of status quo to the desire to rise to executive levels.

The problem also arises from executing orders from their superiors. This workforce also has vast knowledge in technology. The knowledge gap, age gap, and differences in experience may result into tension among these categories of workers.

Organizational policies should harmonize such diversity for strategic benefits of employees and organizations. Google and IBM have been able to exploit both experience of old workers and technology knowledge of young workers.

IBM and Google encourage their management teams to identify potential opportunities and challenges that may result from differences in age among their employees. IBM and Google have established policies that promote effectiveness management across departments so that all employees actively contribute for success.

These companies create teamwork and encourage multigenerational employees to work together for knowledge exchange and experience gains. Therefore, teamwork and involvement are better approaches that can reduce multigenerational differences in an organization.

Gender differences

Most organizations experience gender-related issues across the globe, such as pay, working hours, family issues and roles among others. However, IBM and Google have created opportunities for women employees to pursue their careers through leadership programs. In addition, these companies also encourage women to apply for available job openings.

The past trends whereby roles of women, pay, and career growths were narrow have changed as organizations become flexible. Consequently, the number of female workers has increased alongside their pay and activities.

Despite such developments in working environments, women still face challenges related to their family responsibilities. In fact, there are cases where women have agreed to pay cuts so as to spend much time with their families. The old workforce also faces challenges of health, disabilities and other conditions. These conditions affect their outputs.

Organizational strategies of managing demographic changes and their effects These strategies involve effective approaches that aim at building and maintaining diverse, productive, and high quality employees that deliver organizational objectives. Such strategies aim at attracting, recruiting, hiring, developing, managing, rewarding, and retaining diverse and a high quality workforce (IBM 1).

IBM and Google have global diversity strategies that manage their diverse workforce and encourage inclusions. As such, they focus on cultural differences and formulation of inclusion programs that can attract, recruit, and retain skillful employees.

Google and IBM rely on diversity as a means of promoting cultures of creativity and innovation in organizations. These organizations believe that diversity programs should not only account for the normal spheres of sexual, gender, race, age, and religion, but also include differences across the globe.

These organizations look at diversity in terms of global strategies that can promote business growth. Consequently, these companies can appeal to their diverse workforce and markets they serve.

IBM and Google have also enacted an approach of Equal Opportunity Policy. This policy promotes equal opportunities among all employees. IBM and Google do not hire workers based on their color, race or creed. This enhances reputations of these organizations across the globe.

Both companies have realized the value of equal opportunities for all and its effects in terms of building a high quality workforce. Equal opportunity policy also ensures that only best candidates get jobs irrespective of their diverse backgrounds or disabilities.

IBM and Google also use inclusion programs worldwide in recruiting and hiring employees. These organizations rely on their executives for supporting implementation of workforce diversity in their subsidiaries worldwide. This also applies to employees who receive trainings on the concept of an inclusive working environment in an organization.

IBM and Google have recognized demographic changes in the labor market. As a result, these organizations strive to change their human resource policies to reflect such changes in the labor market.

IBM and Google have realized the relevance of effective diversity programs in recruiting employees from a diverse and competitive labor market. Google and IBM have used diversity programs as a strategy in the global labor to attract and retain talented employees.

As leaders in workforce diversity, Google and IBM have several programs that focus on recognizing demographic changes in the labor market. These companies aim at instilling changes among their employees and markets they serve.

IBM and Google have noticed important roles women play in modern organizations. Consequently, these organizations encourage women to take leadership positions. This is a shift from the past where leadership opportunities were mainly available to male workers. These companies have also been hiring female workers in specialized areas of their operation such as IT.

Consequently, such approaches have increased populations of female workers in corporate fields. IBM has a program known as Women in Technology specifically for female in IT. This program aims to support the “growth, achievement, advancement, recognition and promotion women in the organization” (IBM 2010).

IBM and Google aims at representing people with disabilities at every department of their operation. These organizations have ongoing commitments to support employees with disabilities through relying on strategies that ensure inclusion of such workers. These companies also create a friendly environment for workforce with disabilities to ensure that they work in supportive environments.

IBM and Google have opportunities that encourage interactions among different age groups in their workforce. Thus, these organizations strive to create flexible and dynamic workplaces that can meet diverse needs of today’s workforce.

As a result, employees can work without age-related barriers, tight working hours. In addition, they also a variety of work style options, lifestyle choices, continued learning and job satisfaction, and an ongoing connection to their communities through Meet the Googlers and IBM’s Global Diversity Workforce program among others (Google 2012).

Google and IBM also account for their controversial employees that consist of GLBT. At the same time, these companies must also comply with regulations of various countries regarding GLBT.

Google and IBM have created working environments where GLBT can experience positive working environments. This creates opportunities where GLBT can make positive contributions in terms of skills, experiences, and outputs for their organizations (Thomas 98).

Conclusion As employers of workers with diverse demographic characteristics, Google and IBM have made significant steps for fair treatment and inclusion of all workers. However, these companies still need to enhance their efforts. Google and IBM have best chances of demonstrating their commitment to promote diverse demographic characteristics in organizations and still maintain high quality workforce.

These companies demonstrate some of the best strategies which other organizations can apply to manage demographic changes among the workforce. These are innovative strategies that can build and maintain a high quality workforce that is capable of positive results.

This is true in cases of IBM and Google business performances. Thus, it is necessary that organizations conduct demographic audit and provide solutions that ensure equal opportunities, participation, and inclusion of all employees for positive results.

Therefore, other organizations can learn from Google and IBM, and share their experiences in order to build and maintain a positive working environment amidst changing demographic trends in their workforce.

In fact, IBM and Google programs on minorities and GLBT are formal mentorship programs that can enhance inclusions across the globe. These companies have also noticed that their competitive strategies depend on their diversity agendas in approaching new markets and making substantial business returns.

Works Cited David, Helene. Recent Changes in the World of Work. Quebec: University of Montreal, 2001. Print.

Google. Diversity in our workforce. 2012. Web. .

IBM. “Global Workforce Diversity.” Executive Corner 3 (2010): 1-7. Print.

Lerman, Robert and Stefanie Schmidt. Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century: An overview of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor market. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1999. Print.

Thomas, David. “Diversity as strategy.” Harvard Business Review 82.9 (2004): 98–108. Print.


Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Change management in an organization depends on what people think and how they think about the change to be implemented. Implementing change in an organization is a difficult task. This makes many organizations to refrain from implementing change especially if they are forced into it. In order for an organization to implement change successfully, it must be prepared for it.

People’s beliefs about change are mostly influenced by their underlying capacities and psychological aspects which determine if they are ready for the change that is to be implemented in an organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 12). This paper will therefore address the concept of change management and determine its effectiveness within an organization.

Level of readiness for Company X to go through the journey for change Acceptance to change

For any organization to emerge successful while deciding on whether to implement change, it is important for it to accept that it needs the change. In this perspective, an organization may look at its production processes and decide that it needs to adopt modern equipment in order for it to improve its efficiency.

In the case of Company X, it is evident that the company lays more emphasis on the aspect of change acceptance. This aspect has a score of 3.34, which is the highest score compared to all the other aspects. This is an indication that in order for a change initiative to be successful, it is vital for employees to accept that the change is needed within the organization.

Change initiatives

In order for a change process to be successful in an organization, it is ideal for employees to work together to ensure that the process becomes successful. It is necessary for employees to play their part and ensure that they complete the assignments that are assigned to them successfully (McMillan 5).

In the case of Company X, the score for change initiative is 3.26. This ranks as the second aspect that the company lays emphasis on. This is an indication that in order for the change process to be successful, the employees within the organization must demonstrate their willingness to work hard.

Managing change

Managing change within an organization is an essential requirement for any organization that needs to succeed in implementing change. In this perspective, the management within the organization should ensure that all new equipment that is brought to the organization is managed properly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the management of the organization should ensure that any new equipment that the organization acquires is allocated to the qualified employees (Cameron and Quinn 13). In the case of Company X, the average score for this aspect is 3.24.

This is an indication that in order for the change practice to be successfully implemented, it is vital for the organization to ensure that the employees are allocated their rightful duties as well as ensure that they have sufficient information to enable them cope with the changes that take place within the organization.

Managing change applies when the administration of an organization is able to confirm that all the equipment within the organization is operating according to the expectations of the managers.

Management support for change

It is not possible for an organization to implement change without the support of the senior people within the organization. It is therefore the role of senior managers to ensure that they provide all the resources necessary to enable them provide suitable working conditions for the employees.

When managers support the initiative, it becomes easy for employees to adapt to the changes within the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 5). The various forms of support that managers can provide include effective allocation of finances as well as providing training to employees about the new tools that are implemented within the organization.

Perceptions towards change

The attitude of employees is crucial with respect to enabling an organization to implement changes. Therefore, it is the role of managers to ensure that the working conditions of employees are pleasant so as to ensure that they make employees to develop a positive attitude while working in the organization.

This would have the effect of enabling employees to embrace changes that the management wishes to implement in the organization. This is the reason as to why the rating for the perceptions towards change for Company X has received a score of 2.84

We will write a custom Case Study on Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mutual trust, respect and willingness to work together

In order for changes that an organization wishes to implement in an organization to be successful, it is important for employees and managers to work together so as to make lasting decisions for the organization. This would play a crucial role in terms of enabling the managers to make reasonable changes that can transform the overall performance of the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 13).

Mutual trust and respect is manifested within an organization when managers and employees have respect for each other. As a result of having mutual respect for each other, Company X has been able to attain a score of 2.82.

Understanding the vision for the change

In order for the future of a company to be successful, it is essential for it to have a vision. The vision should allow the organization to choose strategies that can enable it to implement effective change strategies.

Since the prospect of change in Company X is well communicated, the company has been able to achieve a score of 2.46 thereby indicating that it understands the vision of the changes that it wishes to implement.

Aspects of Change within an organization

In order for an organization to implement changes effectively, there are certain aspects that it needs to analyze effectively. An organization should ensure that it involves the people who are affected by the change.

For example, the members of an organization such as employees should be involved in change planning because they can manage to anticipate the problems that the organization is likely to face more effectively. The senior management of an organization should also ensure that it gives a valid reason for the change.

This is because the busy people within the organization are likely reject the change that they think is irrelevant to be implemented in the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 22). Therefore, the management should have a compelling reason for making the change.

The management of an organization should assign a talented person to implement changes. For example, the senior executive of a business is not necessarily the champion of every change that needs to be implemented within an organization. Therefore, it is essential for senior managers to look for a person who can communicate effectively with the employees. The organization should also create a transition management team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because there is no person within an organization who is talented enough to implement effective changes. For example, if an organization is exceptionally large, it should designate different duties to different departments depending on the expertise of the personnel (McMillan 45).

This way, the departments would be able to work as a community thereby providing employees with brilliant ideas and emotional support. Reward systems are useful in terms of facilitating change within an organization.

This means that in order for employees within an organization to appreciate the changes that take place, it is necessary for the senior managers to show that they appreciate the contribution that the employees make towards implementing the change by adopting a reward system. This can serve as a motivation tool for employees to work hard so that their efforts can be appreciated.

Trust is an essential element that makes it possible for an organization to implement change. In this perspective, the senior managers should demonstrate that they trust their employees by allowing them to participate in the decision making process. This would make employees to trust in the decisions that the senior managers implement in an organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 53).

The perception of employees regarding the changes that an organization wishes to implement is critical in an organization. Therefore, before implementing any changes in any organization, the senior managers should test the perceived level of commitment of the employees in the organization in order to ensure that the commitment of the employees towards the change is communicated effectively.

This analysis has therefore demonstrated that change management is an essential tool for any organization to adopt in order for it to succeed in its production processes.

Works Cited Cameron, Kim and Robert Quinn. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. New York: John Wiley


Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change Case Study college admission essay help

The company is well prepared to establish, ratify, and embrace change. Besides, a considerable percentage of employees have already accepted the need for change. This is a critical step when scrutinized critically. It is important to adopt viable change mechanisms to ensure that an organization meets it periodic goals.

For a company to achieve positive changes, acceptance is the first provision demanded in the change ratification processes. Every stakeholder must accept the need for change as demonstrated in the case. This is a crucial provision when considered comprehensively.

Those who are against the current situation (acceptance) hardly succeed in their fight for change. This occurs due to inadequate dynamism, readiness, and well-orchestrated change provisions. It is important to establish credible dreams for the desired change. Many challenges are faced by those who are trying to bring change in an organization.

Through the mentioned change acceptance, the studied company will open up by experiencing the need for some credible changes. Consequently, the company will continue to expand in the realms of operations and other considerable developmental provisions.

Agreeably, employees of the concerned company have proved that they have some considerable approaches towards change. That is why many have embraced it. Statistics also indicate that many employees in the organization have made the first move towards change. From the graph, there is high level of production. The company has managed this through cutting costs.

This was achieved by getting rid of some unessential activities. Additionally, they have also managed to do away with some operational costs. However, the change in the company is impressive because there is improved rate of processing and increased reliability.

In the nonproduction part (human side), there is high business standards as well as excellent management-employee relationship. Conversely, they have been able to achieve this since employees themselves feel motivated to establish, ratify, and embrace change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the company is adequately prepared to go through the process of change. They have a considerable support from the management crew, employees, and other stakeholders. Consequently, the company has come up with a management strategy by developing tactics, taking actions and carrying out implementation.

Although many employees have recommendable attitude towards change, some of them, still have not given it a second thought. As a result, there is low percentage towards the perception on change. But those with positive attitude are just enough to help the company achieve its goal (preparing for change).

Mutual trust and respect is also prevailing in the company and this is a fantastic sign indicating the level of preparation and readiness. However, most people still do not understand the aspects of change simply because there is little communication.

Although, Production and non-production phases have low understanding, this manufacturing company is still prepared enough given that many employees have accepted the change. This is a vital consideration in the context of change.

Aspects of Change Readiness Evidently, the seven aspects of change are applicable in this context. Perception towards change is the attitude of employees towards the recommended transformation. With reference to an individual’s refusal to change processes, some failures might be realized. This is avoidable by convincing employees to accept the need for proposed changes.

For example, employees will be able to eliminate the probable barriers to change. Concurrently, employees’ participation in change management is fully dependent on the attitude of the managers towards change. Agreeably, it is possible for managers to create change initiatives and influence employees to embrace them.

Conversely, individual’s cognitive processes are some of the influential factors in the development of organizational change. When members of a given organization resist change, the agenda of transformation in that organization will definitely not succeed.

We will write a custom Case Study on Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organization trying to push for a huge change must embrace some mutual trust and esteem. This will eventually reduce a company’s internal marketing. Internal marketing comprises of conflicts between employees and the company, politics and inadequate communication within the organization.

Consequently, instead getting rid of this competition, employees spend a lot of energy fighting each other. To actively achieve this goal of attaining mutual trust, conservation must be carried out. For example, the company should not employ people and consequently expel them on baseless grounds.

Accordingly, through mutual trust and change initiative, the organization will automatically retain its employees thus avoiding destruction of the company. Creating an environment with excellent friendship between the public and private sectors is always necessary.

However, to build up this relationship and the general trust, the company’s centre of attention should be on transformation. Older principles should be avoided and sovereignty encouraged.

Vision for change and managing the proposed change are important provisions in this context. It is evident that they will demonstrate the real picture of an organization. Although both the change and corporate vision are important, organizations interested in achieving this goal must recognize their difference.

For example, these change visions are easily understood by the employees and the organization. This occurs because they can be written without trouble and easily communicated. This is far much different from corporate vision because it is not only for a single organizational change but also about future changes.

Additionally, it is about endless principles and behaviors (accepting and implementing change) necessary for the prosperity of an organization. The company will definitely manage this change process by employing people with excellent principles and behaviors.

Efforts towards managing organizational change are majorly laborious and emotional. It usually delays the commencement of this transform and the final result of an organization. This change is always necessary to ensure that a company’s involvement is appropriate. To successfully achieve this, the company must consider achieving something better and exemplary.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, it should construct problem and opportunity structure. Changes always begin with an opportunity to be utilized and a problem which needs a solution. For example, organizations are trying to find solutions for inadequate growth and poor organization of the expenses. However, they are also trying to acquire new technologies as well as fighting globalization.

It is important to attain the management’s support for change. Employees should also realize the need for the concerned changes. Consequently, the organization will manage the process of transformation only when the teams involved are successful.

Change management involves both the perception of an organization and that of an individual. However, individual change management requires some knowledge on how to successfully acquire the concerned change. Additionally, as an organization continuously transforms, its success entirely relies on employees.

Organizations manage the changes by actively communicating and facilitating the training of employees. Additionally, employees have also realized that to manage this, they must be informed about the need for change and have that desire to take part in the process.

However, they have some knowledge on how manage change and are able to put into practice the necessary skills and behaviors. For example, organizations have realized that change can not be achieved without the support of the employees and have taken that initiative of supporting them.

Conversely, they have not only put in place some programs to manage change but also corrective measures like taking care of the managers and supervisors. However, there is an excellent connection in change management between individuals and organizations.

Some aspects regarding the place of work should be considered for viable change ratification. There must be positive perceptions towards change efforts. Communication is essential when unveiling changes, every employee should be aware of what occurs in the organization and how these will have an impact on them.

Individuals who understand change are more open-minded than those who do not. Additionally, the organization should demonstrate the advantages of the transformations to the employees.

By making employees to be part of the company and its objectives, they will easily recognize the importance of making changes and eventually help it move forward. Managing transformations in organization is achieved when there is considerable planning and implementation strategies. For example, people affected should also be consulted and incorporated in the changes.

Organizations trying to bring changes through force always have troubles with employees. However, change should be practical, measurable, and easy to attain. These characteristics are usually necessary when working on personal change.

Organizations must first know their goal with regard to the changes, individuals affected, and their responses. The above changes are greatly connected to individual management and organizational change. Besides, people should be aware of the existence of change and management.


Colour and Design Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Colour Notation

Perceptual Effect

Gestalt Laws

Role of Contrast



Introduction Colour is important in any image since it conveys different meanings when different combinations of it are used. Image texture, colour intensity, proximity of different hues, and the shape of the parts that contain certain colours govern the way the image is perceived by the observer.

Different parts of the image convey different pieces of information, which result in one comprehensive and meaningful message when put together (Feisner, 2000).

The image displayed is a multicolour image seemingly painted with many colours carefully applied to evoke a certain cognitive reaction of the observer. Moreover, the image is interesting since it encompasses several laws and theories of psychology in its appearance.

It is evident that the gestalt laws of colour and perception are applied in the analysis of the image by any image and/or colour specialist. This particular image portrays a sparsely cloudy sunset near the shore of a lake. This is the overall perception of the observer.

Colour Notation The orange colour of the sun is created using the basic RGB colour notation as it is not one of the primary colours, and it is generated using the RGB system (Kopacz, 2006).

The same system is used to paint the sky on the upper far left corner of the image where yellow hue, generated by adding green colour to red hue, is dominant.

Green hue is evident in the foreground of the image. This hue is a result of using the primary colour system. White shades are created using a combination of red, green, and blue colours. Various mild effects are achieved with the help of this technique.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perceptual Effect The image is painted in a rough texture, and several vague aspects can be perceived in it. However, gestalt law of pragnanz is applied to the image where any average human being can identify familiar objects (O’connor, 2010). For example, the sun, trees, boats, and the men in the lake are noticeable after a close examination of the image. The highlighted objects make sense to an individual through past human experience (Green, 2005).

Gestalt Laws Gestalt law of proximity is exemplified by the trees in the image. The trees can actually be identified as several individual trees. However, the human cognitive reaction groups the trees. If the trees were to be described, one would identify them as a cluster rather than go into the depth of identifying individual trees.

In addition, one can identify several people in the vessels in the water. The immediate reaction of one’s mind is to identify the occupants of the boats as a group since they are huddled close together.

In addition to proximity, the trees and the people in the boats are a symbol of similarity. It would be impossible to classify people and the trees as groups if they were objects of different physical orientation. This obeys the gestalt law of similarity were human visual perception tends to automatically classify physically similar objects into one or several homogenous clusters (Hartmann, 2008).

Strokes of orange can be seen in the background of the image. These strokes succeed in creating an impression of the sky covered by light clouds and illuminated by the setting sun. The continuity of the streaks of orange implies that the gestalt law of continuity was applied when creating the image.

Moreover, continuous white streaks succeed in creating an impression of water body in the foreground. There are several smudges of grey in the foreground.

Gestalt law of common fate is implied by these grey smudges since they are stretched in the same direction (O’connor, 2010). Their shape, colour, and the manner in which they are placed imply that they are similar objects with a likelihood of sharing a destiny (Hartmann, 2008).

We will write a custom Report on Colour and Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Role of Contrast Contrast plays a great role in conveying the information in the image. This phenomenon occurs due to a slightly noticeable difference in hues (Maund, 2006). An impression of the sun has been created in the background of the picture against a dull cloud. The fact that shades of grey and blue surround the orange hue makes the intensity of the sun stand out.

Reduced contrast between the impression of the illumination of the sky and the surrounding mixture of colours is the cause of this effect (O’connor, 2010). In addition, the use of orange in parts of the painting other than the sun creates an impression of vibrancy due to the effect of complimentary colours (Kuehni, 2007).

A silhouette of the water vessels and the people in them succeeds in creating an image that can be perceived by the human eye. Moreover, the sharp contrast in the image helps create a definite outline of the figures. The hue created by cyan and grey in the background results in warm and cold contrast with the intense orange colour of the sun.

Conclusion Through the use of colours and a coarse painting technique, a multifaceted impression is made by the image. The creator of the image has also perfected the art of prioritisation of colours in their suitable context. For example, orange, a radiant colour, has been used when putting the sun against cyan and grey which are cool and dull hues respectively.

References Feisner, E. (2000). Colour: how to use colour in art and design. London: Laurence King.

Green, P. (2005). The Value of Knowledge for Color Design. Perth: Curtin University.

Hartmann, G. (2008). Gestalt psychology: a survey of facts and principles. Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger Pub..

Kopacz, J. (2006). Color in three-dimensional design. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Colour and Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kuehni, R. (2007). Development of the Idea of the Idea of simple colors in the 16th and Early 17th centuries. Oxford: Wiley.

Maund, B. (2006). The Illusory of Colours. Washington: Universty of Washington press.

O’connor, Z. (2010). Colour Harmony Revisited. Colour Research and Application, 35(4), 267-273.


Marketing of McDonald’s products and services Case Study scholarship essay help

Abstract For organisations to market their products and services, they need to adopt appropriate marketing strategies that are consistent with the dynamics of the industry in which they are established.

The goal here is to reduce the negative impacts that the weaknesses and threats surrounding an organisation may have on the success of the organisation.

Any marketing strategy that helps in the realisation of these concerns needs to lay out conspicuously an organisation’s market segments, target markets, target strategy and even the positioning strategy as in the case of McDonald.

Introduction Marketing involves one of the noble activities an organisation does to create awareness of the value for its products and services.

In a broader perspective, marketing entails market research, market segmentation, setting of marketing strategies, evaluation of the marketing environment through SWOT analysis, and even positioning of marketing strategies among others (Kotler et al, 2009, p.56).

In an effort to set out a clear understanding of each of these elements constituting the marketing function, the case of McDonald is analysed in this paper.

Essentially, it is argued that a proper design of all these elements amounts to an incredible success of the placement of McDonald’s products and services: something that has made the organisation realise a global presence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry Background McDonald operates in an industry of fast foods. In this industry, the major target market includes all people whom the industry believes lack time to prepare food and hence opt for ready-to-eat foods. Such people include young people and working class persons (Surtherland


Public Opinion on Immigration and Ethnic Relations in the US Essay college admission essay help

Public opinion on the topic of immigration and ethnic relations is many sided. This is because the public hold divergent opinion on the topic. A section of the public supports immigration while another section does not support the idea.

Further studies reveal that people tend to support past immigration and their imminent support to the growth of the economy than current and future migrations. This implies that public opinion towards immigration has been changing over time that is, from a more receptive attitude to a more concerned attitude.

To some extent, the impact of immigration on the society as a whole causes the change in attitude. This has led to changes in laws which target immigration issues.

A number of research studies have been carried out to establish factors that influence peoples’ attitude towards immigration and ethnic relations in the United States. This paper aims to discuss public opinion on immigration and ethnic relations.

The rise in immigrant population disturbs most people in America. Immigration into America can either be legal or illegal. The public is concerned about illegal immigration.

This is because the state does not have statistics of the illegal immigrants. This hinders planning. From the various studies carried out, the public view immigration in three perspectives.

First, they believe that illegal immigration is on the rise and is causing a serious problem on the social and economic growth of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the public is also for the idea of a strong but not penal approach to enforcement of immigration laws. Finally, the public supports liberal immigration reform provision to deal with illegal immigrants.

On particular immigrant group, the public is more positive to some immigrant groups than others. For instance, over 50% of Americans are positive about immigrants from Asia, Latin America and Mexico coming to live and work in America. In terms of race, the White Americans do not welcome immigrants.

They base their arguments on increased crime, moral decay, social values and tax evasion. Black Americans negatively associate immigrants with scramble for job opportunities and slow growth of the economy. Public opinion on immigration can also be divided on a political line.

The republicans and democrats hold different views on immigrants. Democrats are more receptive to issues relating to immigrants than republicans. In addition, public opinion also depends on age group.

Youths tend to be against the immigrants since they subject them to compete for the scarce resources available as such public amenities. They also compete for the available job opportunities.

In summary, it can be deduced that the public concerns on immigration and ethnic relations are increasing over the years. In general, the public is more concerned with illegal immigrants than legal immigrants.

What is evident from these studies and finding is that there are more negative impacts of immigration in the domicile country than positive impacts. Besides, the public hold diverse opinion on immigrants. The public give these opinions based on the race, political affiliations and age group among others.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Opinion on Immigration and Ethnic Relations in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public opinion on immigration has been changing since the ancient times and so are the laws on immigration. Besides, these opinions have been instrumental in policy formulation.

They have also assisted in defining the collective vision of national identity. Finally, they have affected the daily behavior of nationals. These behaviors define the overall social climate of a nation.


Eating disorder prevention programs Essay essay help online: essay help online

Eating Disorder Prevention Programs is an article written by Eric Stice and Heather Shaw. Through the article, Stice and Shaw evaluated the current information on eating disorders based on risks and maintenance aspects rather than on a particular analysis.

Based on the available data, Stice suggested that risks and maintenance factors could not be distinguished from diagnosis consequences without adequate information (Stice


Organizational and Corporate Culture Term Paper best essay help

Defining Corporate/Organizational Culture Every organization, whether small or big, has an organizational culture. This culture can be defined variously. It involves a collection of common values, practices, symbols, assumptions (Bryson 34), and beliefs that influence members of an organization.

Organizational culture is a company’s practices and beliefs that determine how the entity is ran and operate on a daily basis. Employees of an organization share common beliefs and practices, values, norms, systems, symbols, and working language.

New employees and other entrants into the organization are socialized into these collective behaviors, attitudes, and assumptions that form part of the entity’s cultural framework.

Organizational culture is what shapes the organization’s history, current assumptions, experiences, and key viewpoints that hold it together. Culture is a way of thinking. It is the unwritten or unspoken ways of working together in an organization.

Corporate culture shapes the organization’s key strategies and their implementation. As such, it plays a major role in influencing the success of an organization (Zabid, Murali and Johari 711).

Importance of Corporate Culture Organizational culture provides a shared platform that ensures that members of an organization are operating from the same page. It provides a basis for integration and coordination of operations in an organization thus guiding behavior and change.

Organizational culture helps employees have a common goal and stay united thus providing an organization with a well-networked work setting that is vital for the communication, understanding, and implementation of key organizational strategies (Bryson 752).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corporate culture influences the behavior and social interactions among employees. It establishes or sets standards of acceptable behavior in an organization.

Culture links organizational strategies and policies to everyday’s organization activities. This equips the organization with a competitive advantage, thus helping it to achieve its goals and objectives (Zabid et al. 712).

Organizational culture reflects and contributes to the brand image of the organization. It shapes how the outside world will view the organization.

An organization with a good company image is likely to be viewed by external stakeholders as a better and strong business entity. It makes them view the organization as one that has the capacity to deliver quality goods or services.

This enhances the relationship between the external stakeholders and the organization. It boosts efficiency, effectiveness, profitability, and overall performance of the organization (Bryson 751).

It promotes efficiency in an organization. Corporate culture influences the standard of behaviors and the kind of goals that members should pursue.

This affects change of behavior and attitudes among employees thus aligning them with organizational goals and objectives.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Organizational and Corporate Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the activities and attitudes of employees and members of the organization are well aligned with the organizational goals and objectives, they can deliver much more and more efficiently.

This translates to overall improvement of organizational efficiency and performance (Bryson 750, 756).

Organizational culture focuses more on human resource in the entity. It helps build lasting cordial relationships among employees. This relationship of mutual respect and understanding helps members of an organization to bring about needed changes in the firm.

Since organization culture changes over time, new ways of doing things are adopted. This supports creativity and innovation in an organization which are vital components of success in today’s competitive global market.

Organizational culture is the glue that holds the entity together. It helps the internal mechanisms and practices remain intact and effective. Culture binds members of an organization to certain expectations and approved patterns of behavior.

This enables the organization to effectively maintain its internal positive working practices and internally handle employees’ grievances (Zabid et al. 711).

Organizational culture is vital to the improved performance of both the employees and the organization. It helps increase efficiency among employees which in turn increases performance of the organization. It helps members of the organization to understand key organizational objectives, processes, and events.

This enables the members of the organization to understand their role in these processes, thereby increasing their knowledge and performance as well as that of the organization (Zabid et al. 712, 713).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational and Corporate Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Corporate culture is a key influence of decision-making processes among employees in an organization. Good corporate culture enables members of the organization to make informed and guided decisions that inform the direction taken by the organization.

Effective decisions and decision- making mechanisms are key components of success in an organization. They facilitate efficiency and effectiveness among employees at the workplace, thus leading to enhanced organizational performance.

Strong organizational culture enhances commitment and self- confidence among employees. It facilitates and promotes ethical behaviors among members of the organization.

When employees and members of an entity are committed to the organization’s activities, they become motivated and this increases their productivity (Zabid et al. 720, 721).

Determinants of Corporate Culture There are several factors that determine organizational or corporate culture. These are analyzed below:


These are the actions and attitudes of individuals and groups towards one another and towards the organization as a whole. It determines organizational culture.

Behavior that reflects the values of the organizations is often rewarded and becomes the general, acceptable, and dominant behavior. On the other hand, behavior that does not reflect the organization’s values is not rewarded; it is punished.

Behavior plays a vital role in influencing the organizational culture. It includes the way individuals respond to certain conditions. It forms a major component of culture since the latter is the overall set of behavior standards expected of individuals or group of individuals.

Culture cannot exist without behavior; it determines the kind of culture an organization has at a particular period (Zabid et al. 720).


These are developed among the employees and the organization over time. It encompasses mutual understanding among individuals or members of an organization.

Interaction among employees determines the acceptable and unacceptable norms, behaviors, and assumptions that shape organizational culture.

An organization with poor relationship among its members cannot sustain a healthy organizational culture. Corporate culture is dependent on the interrelationships among employees in the organization.

Communication and social interaction forms the basis of analyzing acceptable and unacceptable norms and behavior patterns. Therefore, corporate culture is more or less determined by relationships (Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman 529).


Individual attitudes influence behavior patterns of these individuals, thus influencing the culture of an organization. The attitude of employees determines the kind of corporate culture that exists in an organization (Balthazard, Cooke and Potter 715, 727).


The value system among individuals or employees in an organization is paramount to the behavior patterns of these employees. They may be different due to upbringing, religion, and educational levels.

However, the organization adapts these many and different value systems to come up with acceptable organizational values that shape the culture of the organization.

A change of values by employees leads to a change in the values of the organization, leading to change in organizational culture in extension (Balthazard et al. 715, 727).


This is another important aspect when it comes to organization culture. Internal and external factors of a business entity may affect its culture variously. External factors such as political, social, economic and physical environmental may influence the operations of the organization.

Organizational structure is a factor within the business entity that informs its cultural framework. When the structure fails to support transparency, this may lead to poor communication, relationships and culture in the organization (Balthazard et al. 710, 714).

Organizational culture is expressed through the external and internal practices of the entity. It is seen in the degree of freedom given to employees in decision-making, contributing to new ideas, innovativeness, creativity and personal expression. It is reflected in how well an organization treats its employees and customers as well as the community.

Organizational Structure

Organizational culture is also influenced by the organization’s structure. This is how an organization distributes power and information throughout its various levels. Employees’ commitment and dedication to the job and goals of the company is also a key indicator of the culture of an organization.

When employees are more committed and dedicated to the organizational activities, they provide a corporate image that defines the kind of culture an organization has at a particular period (Zabid et al. 721).

Healthy Organizational Culture: Characteristics A healthy organizational culture is characterized by the following key aspects:

Organizational Pride

Employees of an organization that has a healthy organizational culture take pride in their work. They feel as part of the organization. This makes them feel more obligated to their work.

It also motivates them to work more effectively and efficiently. Organizational pride among members of an organization also boosts the image of the entity to its external stakeholders (Balthazard 716).

Effective Teamwork, Communication, and Employee Relationships

A healthy and strong organizational culture is highly characterized by the presence of highly effective teams. The flow of information and the understanding of this information within an organization is an indication that a healthy corporate culture is present.

This allows for effective exchange of information, behavior patterns, norms, and attitudes in an organization (Rothman 220).

Quality Leadership

Organizations with healthy corporate culture have an effective leadership structure that influences the organizational culture and change.

Quality leadership is vital for every organization’s success. It plays a major role in the implementation of key strategies in the achievement of organizational objectives (Balthazard 715).

Positive Client-Customer Relations

Strong and positive relationship between employees, employees and managers and employees and customers exists in a company with a healthy corporate culture.

Innovativeness and Creativity

A healthy corporate culture stimulates innovativeness and creativity at the work place. Employees are accorded the right training and suitable working environment to effectively come up with better products and services.

This cutting-edge thinking in an organization stimulates the growth of employees as well as that of the organization.

Types of Corporate Culture Every organization has a type of organizational culture that is different from that of another organization. However, there are similarities and indicators of corporate culture that can be used to classify different organizational cultures. The following are some of the dimensions applied in defining different organizational cultures:

Deal and Kennedy’s Model of Defining Corporate Culture

This classification of organizational culture was developed by researchers Deal and Kennedy. They first identified the subcultures, strong cultures, and weak cultures in an organization.

Sub Culture

A subculture exists where differences in departmental goals within an organization exists. It is the segments or sections of the main organizational culture that show different individual values, norms, behaviour and beliefs different from the main culture.

It may arise due to difference in job requirements, different departmental goals and geographical area within the organization (Terrence and Deal 34). It can be within the organization or formed for social interactions outside the organization by members of the entity.

Strong Culture

Strong corporate culture is highly characterized by employees’ common aspect and sharing of beliefs, norms, behaviours, and values in the organization.

An organization with a strong corporate culture is characterized by recognition, respect and strong social relationship among its employees and managers.

It makes them feel more proud to be associated with the organization. Employees deliver quality services and goods under a strong organizational culture that recognises them and rewards them accordingly (Terrence and Deal 15).

Weak Culture

A weak organizational culture is not strongly knit within the organization. It does not fully affect change of behaviour, norms, and work patterns among members of an organization.

Communication and implementation of key organizational strategies is not well understood and executed in the organization due to its loose nature. This creates diversity of expected behaviour patterns.

Lack of congruence in these organizations is highly associated with the influence of individual’s objectives and culture on the organization (Terrence and Deal 15).

Dean and Kennedy came up with the following four types of corporate cultures:

Tough Guy Culture

According to Terrence and Deal (15), a tough guy culture exists in an organization that has effective feedback mechanisms and which is characterized by high risk. It is more prevalent among large financial service sectors where quick responses are barely a luxury but a necessity.

In a tough guy organizational culture, the long term aspects are not considered as much as the short term or present aspects due to the high risk of the organizational activities.

This is for example in the police force, sports and emergency response surgeons (Terrence and Deal 111).

“Work Hard, Play Hard”

Work hard, play hard culture is characterized by rapid feedback and rapid reward as well as low risks. Organizations with a work hard play hard culture are involved in taking few risks and receiving fast feedback. Most software companies are characterized by this work hard, play hard culture (Terrence and Deal 113).

Bet-the-Company Culture

This is another form of cultural framework found in various organizations. It is characterized by significant decisions touching on high stake undertakings.

It is more common in companies performing experimental projects and research such as oil exploration companies (Terrence and Deal 117).

Process Culture

Process culture is often found in organizations that have slow or no feedback mechanisms. This culture is characterized by procedures that are overly cautious in following the laws, rules and regulations.

Consistency of results of the process culture makes it good for public service, insurance companies and the banking sector (Terrence and Deal 119).

Market Oriented Cultures

There are four types of market oriented organizational/corporate cultures. These are:

Entrepreneurial corporate culture

Competitive corporate culture

Consensual corporate culture, and

Bureaucratic corporate culture

Entrepreneurial Corporate Culture

In entrepreneurial corporate culture, issues of profitability, market superiority, competitive advantage, and profits are more emphasized. In this type of organizational culture, the entity supports values, attributes, and behavior patterns of the employees that lead to profitability.

The presence of certain characteristics that supports and enhances the organization’s capability to achieve market superiority that leads to competitive advantage and profitability are key indicators of entrepreneurial corporate culture.

In entrepreneurial corporate culture, less emphasis and attention is given to other factors such as predictability and employees’ wellbeing. More emphasis is placed on profitability of the organization (Zabid et al. 715).

Competitive Corporate Culture

The competitive corporate culture emphasizes on risk taking, high levels of dynamism, creativity, and innovation. In a competitive corporate culture, some aspects of an organization are given priority over others.

Issues of competitiveness in an organization or industry are paramount and more important than any other aspect of the organization (Balthazard et al. 719). This corporate culture supports creativity and innovativeness among members of an organization.

This is encouraged in order to facilitate a working environment that is conducive for the breeding of competition-oriented employees that are able to produce more competitive products for the market (Zabid et al. 715).

Consensual Corporate Culture

The consensual corporate culture lays more emphasis on loyalty, tradition, self-management, personal commitment, teamwork, and social influence.

It is more evident in family- owned businesses where loyalty, tradition, personal commitment, and social influence play a vital role in the success of the organization in the society. It is not however limited to family businesses.

Other organizational structures that support and encourage personal commitment, teamwork, and social influence are characterized by this consensual corporate culture.

Members of an organization with a consensual corporate culture feel as part of the organization and are more motivated to bring their share of experiences and skills to the workplace (Zabid et al. 715).

Bureaucratic Corporate Culture

The bureaucratic corporate culture focuses more on predictability, stability, and efficiency. Bureaucratic culture does not promote creativity and innovations among employees.

The employees in such organizations are often subjected to certain set standards and predictable ways of doing things in the organization. This limits adoption of changes in an organization.

Procedures, work, and behavior patterns are aligned to be predictable, efficient and stable. Organizations with bureaucratic corporate cultures are more concerned with the effectiveness and predictability of results rather than the profitability and competitiveness of their products (Zabid et al. 715).

Case Studies Best Buy Co. Inc. is a US electronic retailer giant. Best Buy has increased its presence in many countries due to its strong organizational culture. This is a customer focused and employees’ wellbeing culture.

Best Buy responds quickly to customer needs through its efficient customer service. As one of the leading electronics’ retailer in the world, it strives to deliver the best electronic gadgets and equipments to its dozens of stores across national borders.

With a competitive culture that encourages results oriented work environment among its employees, Best Buy has continued to perform better in the electronics industry.

The company is also much involved in building long lasting and beneficial customer relationships. For example, there are some stores with shopping assistants to help customers in their shopping as well as take them on a shopping trip.

This customer- oriented and competitive culture is good for the company since it is involved in a fast changing electronic market.

Founded in 1962 by Sam Walton, Wal-Mart is an American multinational retailer. It has stores in 27 countries, 2.2 million employees worldwide and with expected approximate sales of $444 billion in 2012.Wal-Mart has a strong organizational culture.

It has a ‘cult-like’ strong culture. Employees of Wal-Mart exhibit organizational pride; they are very proud to be associated with Wal-Mart. They take pride in their work. They are commonly referred to as ‘Walmartians’ or associates.

This is a sign of quality leadership in the organization. Employees and managers are motivated to work better and most of them have high ambitions. Wal-Mart has dedicated team players at all levels as a result of an effective communication system and mechanism.

This strong culture has helped Wal-Mart sustain an entrepreneurial spirit throughout. It has made the company to be more innovative, profitable and continue to grow expansively.

For example, Wal-Mart is one of the leading private employers and among the few existing trillion dollar companies.

Toyota Motor Company which was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda and headquartered in Toyota, Japan, is a multinational automobile car manufacturer.

Toyota’s growth as one of the leading and most profitable companies in the world is based on its strong entrepreneurial and competitive corporate culture. Its culture focuses more on quality product development and strong, mutually beneficial customer relationship.

Toyota is also strongly engaged in the use of innovative technological and advanced mechanisms in its production of automobiles. The much visible efficient customer and employees’ relationship in Toyota has also helped the company to come up with highly competitive products.

IKEA which was founded in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad is Swedish international furniture and home products retail company. IKEA is widely associated with product development and lower prices.

It portrays a customer oriented corporate culture that focuses more on the customers and product competitiveness.

Apple Inc. which was founded in 1976 is an American consumer electronics and computer software manufacturer and retailer giant.

The company is strongly based on a flat organizational structure that encourages mutual customer and employee relationships that also encourage an open entrepreneurial corporate culture to thrive in the company.

The entrepreneurial culture enables the company to strategically align employees to their areas of expertise. This helps the company in the development of its innovative and highly creative and successful products in the market.

Conclusion Corporate culture is an important aspect of every organization. It influences the standard of behaviors and the kind of goals that members should pursue. This affects change of behavior and attitudes among employees in the organization, thus aligning them with organizational goals and objectives.

When members of the organization are aligned with organizational goals and objectives, they perform better. This leads to the overall improvement of organizational performance. Organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation influences success in an organization.

It increases organizational performance. There is therefore the need for organizations to embrace a favorable organizational culture that motivates the employees.

Works Cited Balthazard, Pierre, Robert, Cooke, and Richard, Potter. ‘Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the Behavioral Norms that Form Organizational Culture and Drive Performance.’ Journal of Managerial Psychology 21.7 (2006): 43-59. Print.

Bryson, Jane. ‘Dominant, Emergent, and Residual Culture: The Dynamics of Organizational Change.’ Journal of Organizational Change Management 21.2 (2008): 23-39. Print.

Hellriegel, Don, John, Slocum, and Richard, Woodman. Organizational Behavior. New York: Southwestern College, 2001. Print.

Rothman, Juliet. Cultural Competence in Process and Practice: Building Bridges. Indiana: Indiana University, 2007. Print.

Terrence, Eric, and Allan, Deal. Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. New York: Wesley Publishers, 1982. Print.

Zabid, Abdul, Sambasivan, Murali, and Juliana, Johari. ‘The Influence of Corporate Culture and Organizational Commitment on Performance.’ Journal of Management Development 22.3 (2003): 67-69. Print.


Starbucks Coffee Essay essay help: essay help

The Market for Starbucks Coffee Starbucks coffee is a world’s leading beverage. The Starbuck coffee has a relatively expansive market size. Most of its potential consumers have varied characteristics and consumption behavior. The coffee covers an approximate of 33% of the total market share in the United States. Notably, Starbucks Coffee sells at very high rates.1

It is critical to analyze the market structure and composition for the Starbucks Coffee. The product has a very expansive market share. There are several reasons attributed to this noble achievement.

Potential Suppliers and Demanders There are several consumers of Starbucks Coffee in different countries. However, it is vital to note that a huge proportion of these consumers are city and upscale suburban dwellers. The product enjoys very wide market coverage.2

This is despite widespread rumours about the high prices. Consequently, there are many distributors and suppliers of the product within the U.S. Observably, the hard financial conditions have led to significant cuts in the demand. The overall pattern is a reduced level of demand and an increased substitution with other alternatives. These include the McDonald’s McCafe. The company’s elementary target comprise of the males and females.

The age bracket of these target groups is between 25 and 40.3 Analytically, this category of demanders constitutes approximately half of the overall business. Most of the demanders are urbanites. Apart from this, they depict considerably high levels of household and individual income.

They are mostly professional and career persons who like enjoying their social life and welfare. This category of demanders expands at an annual rate of 3%. Young adults are also key demanders of the product. They represent an average of 40% of the total sales for the product. In this category, the major audience include the college students.

Starbucks Coffee has managed to attract a huge percentage of the demanders. This is because of unique and impressive advertising, promotion and celebrity engagement. The company continually applies robust and transformative technology in its promotion and production practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This initiative is aimed at fostering a significant impact and increase in the number of its demanders. Particularly, this applies to the young adults and other similar consumers. Social networking has played a critical role in enhancing the capacity of the Starbucks. They have been able to attract and retain more consumers.

As realized by the company and different suppliers, it is important to portray and maintain the “cool image.” This helps to sustain the high number of consumers. According to the market statistics in the U.S, this market category expands by approximately 4.6% annually.4

The kids and teens form the last category of the notable demanders. They constitute for around 2% of the Starbucks coffee consumers in the U.S. However, these consumers access these products through their parents and guardians. There are different suppliers of Starbucks Coffee in the U.S. 5 Starbucks Company is one of the potential suppliers in the US market.

Nonetheless, there are other different middle level distributors and suppliers created by the company. Majorly, these refer to those formed to supply these products within the overseas markets.

Factors Determining the Ability and Willingness to Supply And Demand the Good Different factors play significant roles in influencing the supply and demand of Starbucks Coffee. The advertisement and promotion strategies launched by different suppliers are important. They dictate the level and nature of demand for the Starbucks Coffee. The complimentary products also have a crucial role in the determination of supply and demand. There has been a recent outcry of increased competition from cheaper complimentary products in the major markets.6

Increased competition is, therefore, another significant factor in the demand and supply of the product. The taxation policies within different markets have played a crucial role in the analysis of supply and demand patterns. This is because high taxes increase the prices of the products, thereby lowering the demand from consumers. Alternatively, these elevated taxes may also reduce the supply levels within different markets.

Several factors affect the demand and supply patterns. Some of these include weather changes. In fact, most marketers have noted fluctuations in the supply and demand of the product during winters and summers. The price of raw materials dictates the quantities supplied within most markets. It is also vital to note that high production costs during the initial stages limit the number of suppliers and consumers.7

We will write a custom Essay on Starbucks Coffee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ideally, this is due to high product prices realized or recorded at the delivery and consumption point within the society. The supply and demand patterns always respond to remarkable fluctuations. These may include the fluctuations caused by bad harvests. There are also transformations in the tastes and preferences of consumers. The changes pose greater effects on prices and available quantities.

Factors Determining the Quantity Sold Annually and the Consequent Prices Different factors within perfect markets play critical roles. Specifically, this relates to the manipulation of product market prices and quantity of sales.8 The increased level of rivalry and competition within the coffee market manipulates the quantities supplied as well as their prices.

Additionally, major economic setbacks such as the recent recession have potential impacts. These are observed on the supply and pricing mechanisms for Starbucks Coffee. Most suppliers are presently grappling with mechanisms to elevate their annual sales. This pattern is observable even within different destinations, including the global markets.

Generally, the severe economic recession has played a remarkable role in minimizing the sales capacity of the product.9 Price adjustments within competitive markets have considerably influenced sales and quantities supplied. In addition, revenue and foreign investment policies within different markets also play a significant role. It is important to examine the demand and supply curves for the product. The approximate plots of the demand and supply curves for Starbucks Coffee are indicated below.10

Footnotes Bryant Simon, Everything but the coffee: learning about America from Starbucks (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009)

Del Hawknis, Mothersbaugh David and Mookerjee Amit, Consumer behavior: building marketing strategy (New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2011)

Khanh Pham-Gia, Marketing strategy of ‘Starbucks Coffe’ (München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Starbucks Coffee by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marie Bussing-Burks, Starbucks (Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press, 2009)

Suman Majumdar


Psychological Properties of Colors Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Expertise of the author

Viewpoint of Author/Organization Intended Audience


When published

Reference List

Introduction Many books and articles have been aimed at examining the psychology of color, but not all of them are of high quality. This paper will review the article Psychological Properties of Colors written by Angela Wright (2011). Overall, it is hardly appropriate for students or scholars, because the author does not provide any evidence to support her claims. Moreover, many of the writer’s statements are not even testable.

Relevance The information presented by the author cannot be of any use to a person who studies psychology. The author uses concepts and makes statements that cannot be considered scientific or even testable.

For instance, the writer says, “Blue is the colour of the mind and is essentially soothing; it affects us mentally, rather than the physical reaction we have to red” (Wright, 2011, unpaged). The article is full of such sentences, and one cannot say that they are psychological statements that identify relationships between causes and effects. Thus, they are not relevant to any particular field.

Expertise of the author The article does not provide information about the educational background of Angela Wright. In contrast, peer-reviewed studies usually tell the readers much more about the authors (Martinez


Feasibility Study vs. Business Plan Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purpose of Feasibility Study and Business Plan

Structure of Feasibility Study and Business Plan

Identification of Feasibility Study and Business plan

Business Plan Identification


Introduction Some essential practices are carried out before starting a new business to establish if the business idea is sensible and to evaluate the required capital needed to start the business. It also helps identify the length in which the business will begin to show profit.

Bringing together in-depth business plan needs a significant investment of time, so it is very important to investigate the feasibility of business idea and to establish if it has a value. Feasibility study is the initial stage a person pursues before producing a complete business plan (Reuvid, 201, p. 135).

A feasibility study is applied to analyze the probability of the business idea being effective and the business plan uses the data received in the feasibility study to demonstrate the way the business will function, market, develop, and create income.

The business plan must come after the feasibility study and if the projected business idea is not feasible, a person must progress the business plan until he or she revises the business idea. The business plan is often used as a tool to portray completely the business and its fiscal projections.

Purpose of Feasibility Study and Business Plan A feasibility study offers an impression of the major factors of the business idea to investigate if it is appropriate and practical, and to establish any issues that may build or damage the undertaking. This study examines the market area, the prospective business form, the provision of products, and advanced financial features such as the accessibility of capital and prospective proceeds on venture (Reuvid, 201, p. 135).

The feasibility analysis addresses different settings for the function of the business and provides all the benefits and drawbacks to establish the effective and reliable options. For instance, if a person arranges to commence a business that offers the products related to clothing, the study establishes if the products will sell better online or in a local store setting.

After the feasibility analysis is performed and the projected idea is feasible, the person should apply this information to gather his or her complete business plan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This report or plan offers an efficient direction or path for establishing the venture and contains a description of the situation that has been chosen from those enclosed and described in the feasibility study. It describes issues like the potential business model, projected possession, and legal structure, and the idea for execution (Gartner and Bellamy, 2008, p. 242).

Structure of Feasibility Study and Business Plan A feasibility plan has a structure that contains aspects of the product or service and the rationale that offers how person anticipate customers to buy this product or service. It examines the materials applied to produce the item or the procedure by which the person obtains the product or service for sale.

A feasibility study determines the mass and features of the projected market, the key players and all present blockages to operating in the market. It investigates the environmental factors that might influence the effectiveness of the venture, such as advance technology expenses, government policies, and waste disposal matters.

The business plan contains in-depth picture of the functions, the products to be offered, capital expenses, marketing strategies, and accessibility of budget. The plan encloses the potential time limit for starting the projected business and the main individuals required within this period.

The business plan lists the potential strategies of the venture in the market and determines evidently the part of the market intended to purchase the products of the business.

It also provides the descriptions of the pricing strategies of the venture and evaluation of the immediate competitors of the business and their pricing (Gartner and Bellamy, 2008, p. 242). The business plan contains descriptions on the way the person proposes to finance his or her introduction expenses and early inventory purchases.

Identification of Feasibility Study and Business plan While it is carried out before the person begins to plan the product, proceed on the business, and market the products, the feasibility study joins the analysis regarding the industry, product or service growth, production, cost factors, pricing, and functions.

We will write a custom Essay on Feasibility Study vs. Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is intended to determines that there are demands of the customers for the product offered by the business and if it is possible to create a profit and meet the available demands. The business plan also offers practical ideas and information the business may apply in planning and initiating the business (Allen, 2011, p. 25).

Business Plan Identification Taken from the reality discovered by the feasibility study of the business, a person may plan the way he or she will provide the product at a cost that permits the new business to attain the end users’ price demands and again receive projected profit.

Feasibility study also describes the business’s projected customer and helps in making a marketing strategy part of the business to draw more customers to make a profit.

When creating a business plan, it is necessary to go on to apply the feasibility study that produces important information for the business form, intended customer, marketing strategy, revenue form, industry information, investigation of competitors, and emergency strategy (Allen, 2011, p. 25).

A business is likely to be unsuccessful if its feasibility study is carried our inadequately in the beginning. Nevertheless, business plan passes through several iterations and are intended to develop to explain a continuing business.

References Allen, K. (2011). Entrepreneurship For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley


Martha Stewart Case Study Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Ethical behaviour is crucial in any business industry. Activities such as insider trading significantly jeopardize ethical values, which are of significant importance to industries such as the financial sector.

Essvale Corporation Limited (2008, p.11) defines insider trading as the act of trading shares or other securities held in a company by individuals, with the potential of gaining access to information on the company, which is not accessible to the public. Insider trading is an offence punishable by law in the US. This paper seeks to examine the Martha Stewart insider trading case.

Martha Stewart Case; Her Image’s Contribution; Her Conviction’s Implication for Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc. and Modern Day Business Environment

It is believed that Martha Stewart’s association with ImClone System was the origin of her role in the insider trading scandal. Martha Stewart held 3,929 shares in ImClone System, which was a biopharmaceuticals company.

Martha Stewart being a highly profiled business and corporate personality, her image had significant influence on potential investors in both Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia and ImClone System (Pride


Skinner B. F. Article Review essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract

Skinner, B.F. Summary

B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Summary

Meaning in Behavior Analysis. Summary Review

Reference List

Abstract Psychology and mainly behavioral psychology is one area that has attracted great interest from many scholars. Skinner B.F. is a renowned psychologist who has contributed greatly tom in the development of behavioral psychology. The first article gives a brief background of Skinner, B.F. education background, as well as his great contribution to behavioral psychology.

The summary of the article highlights how Skinner B.F. used his genius to invent a chamber for studying the behavior of rats and pigeons. Similarly, the review indicates the controversy surrounding Skinner B.F. view that animals behavior depends on hereditary heritage, past experiences and surrounding environment.

The second article comprises of a review of how cognitive psychology has changed within the last five decades. The article is essential in informing the readers about the blindness created in the younger psychologist and psychobiologists about important aspects in the history of psychology. The review also gives an account on Skinner B.F. engagement into radical behaviorism.

It is important in informing the reader about the scholars that prompted him to venture into radical behaviorism psychology. Lastly, is the review of an important article referred as Meaning in Behavior Analysis the article extends the works of Skinner B.F. by expounding on his perspective of meaning by explaining important terms such as mands, tact, as well as operant behavior.

The discussion is essential in informing the reader about how verbal response becomes meaningful in day-to-day interactions (Boeree, 1990).similarly, the articles are important in shedding light about the great psychology work accomplished by Skinner B.F. Moreover, the articles showed how Skinner B.F great contribution plays a fundamental role in behavioral science and revolution of cognitive psychology.

Skinner, B.F. Summary Skinner B.F. was born in 20 March 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He studied literature and received a B.A. from Hamilton College in New York. After unsuccessful years as a writer, he went back to study psychology after been inspired by the works of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and John B. Watson. Skinner B.F. earned his Ph.D. in 1931 and remained in Harvard until he received his first faculty appointment in 1936 at University of Minnesota.

In 1945, he became professor and chair of the department of psychology at Indiana University before going back to Harvard in 1948. He retired as a professor 1974. Even after retiring, he remained very active and instrumental in psychology. As a psychologist, Skinner B.F. is renowned for his great accomplishment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His contribution in the technical of behavior management through changing aspects of the environment has proved very powerful and effective for many species and situations. Skinner founded and specialized in two areas, which are the experimental analysis of behavior that investigated basics principals of behavior and applied behavior analysis that seeks solutions to specific problems.

During his era, he wrote many books and scientific journals about behaviorism science and Human Behavior. Skinner B.F. invented Skinner’s box, which is an apparatus used for experimental analysis of animal behavior, mainly important for classical and instrumental conditioning.

Skinner’s science of behavior was controversial and rarely understood. He claimed that behavior of animals including people depended on three fundamental factors: genetic heritage, past experience and current circumstances. He advocated on the study of behaviors based on directly observation aspect of the environment (Amsel, 1992).

B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Summary The perspective of psychology has really changed within the past five decades bringing in new and interesting insight into cognitive research. Nonetheless, some scholars blame the revolution for blinding younger psychologist and psychobiologists about important part of their history through the rejection of behaviorism and neo-behaviorism.

The caricature of behaviorism originated from competing theoretical movements of Watson and Skinner. Skinner was engaged in several experimental and theoretical papers from 1930 t0 1937. Most of his research pertained investigating types of condition reflexes, as well as researching on the concept of drive.

In 1941, Skinner and Estes published a paper referred as conditioned emotional response that was similar to a paper published by Watson and Rayner in 1920 named conditioned emotional reaction respectively.

Skinner’s movement from moderate to extreme radical behaviorism continued to influence psychology. A decade later, Skinner changed his approach to psychology after publishing a famous paper that provoked the importance of learning theories.

We will write a custom Report on Skinner B. F. Article Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This juncture marked a change of Skinners meta-theoretical position toward the radical behaviorism of post-1925 Watson. The cognitive revolution is associated with Skinner’s radical theoretical, as well as his great influential position. The cognitive revolution expanded further after Skinner published a book referred as verbal Behavior, which was Chomsky reviewed.

Skinner argued that learning of verbal behavior was incremental just as any shaping of any other operant through reinforcement. However, Chomsky criticized Skinner’s argument of language acquisition. He argued that language acquisition mainly genetically based. He argued that a child’s preexisting inherited disposition that he termed as linguistic competence played a significant role in language acquisition than nature.

Meaning in Behavior Analysis. Summary Review Meaning is one of the most commonly used terms in day-to-day endeavors. Different scholars have differing definitions for the meaning. Skinner’s definition of meaning has an association between the causal relationship between verbal responses and their controlling variables that include motivational states and environmental events.

Meaning is a product of a stable affiliation between precise oral responses, their regulating variables and the results that accompany the behaviors. Verbal responses are significant in instances where steady fundamental relations among the member of the verbal population who play as the audience. When meaning exist between verbal behaviors, consequences and antecedes it is regarded as is abstract.

Mand is a term used by B.F. Skinner to describe to a verbal operant where the response gets its strength from a characteristic consequence. Thus, it is under the functional control of important conditions of deprivation or aversion stimulation. Identifying and controlling essential variables is necessary to determine whether a response is a mand.

A mand is unique from other verbal operant as it benefits the speaker, whereas other verbal operant benefits the listener. Understanding the meaning and agreeing are two different concepts. Listeners may comprehend the meaning, but not concur with the orator. In behavioral analysis, two people disagree when they do not share the contingencies that produce a statement.

Behavioral investigation of meaning is momentous in exposition essential provisions related with meaning such as ambiguity, synonyms, paraphrase and anomaly. Another important aspect is the tact, which is considered as the behavior under regulation of generalized support.

Sometimes it takes a form of a label for something. Whereas, the tact maybe subjected to judgment, the meaning of mands is not a subject of judgment of truth or falsehood (Hegde, 1980).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Skinner B. F. Article Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Amsel, A. (1992). B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Journal of Psychology. 23, 2, pp. 67- 70.

Boeree, G. (1990). About Skinner B.F. Journal of Psychology. 43, 6, pp. 123-145.

Hegde, M.N. (1980). Meaning in Behavioral Analysis. Journal of Psychiatric, 23, 3, pp.5