Toulmin Model Argument About The Environment Essay Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Involvement of Christians in environmental conservation

Actions to be taken by Christians to conserve the environment



Introduction Environment refers to the totality of the surrounding conditions. The conditions of any surroundings directly affect its occupants and this being the case, it is essential for people to aspire to make their environment a safe place to live in. In the past, environment conscious individuals and organizations have played a major role in the conservation of our worthy environment. These efforts however have not been sufficient to combat the global environment crisis.

In any nation with conscience about the environment, all sectors should be involved its conservation or restoration. Among such sectors are the religious sector and more specifically, Christians. In the past, Christians have not put sufficient effort to conserve the environment. As a result, they need to come up with actions that are aimed at conserving the environment.

This essay covers Christian’s concept and attitude on nature and Christian involvement in environmental crisis; that is, efforts that Christians believe will enable them contribute positively in the conservation of the environment. It will be done in accordance with Toulmin model of argument.

Involvement of Christians in environmental conservation According to Christians, matters related to the environment emerge from state of tension between behaviour of individuals, which lead to diminishing environmental value, and role of the civil society to preserve the environment. In the past, however, Christians have not been in the forefront in averting environmental degradation.

From the story of creation in Genesis, the essential goodness of God came out when He created everything and made them perfect. Humans are required to emulate this goodness by taking care of His creations. Brandt asserts that since christians understand that after God was through with creation He gave man dominion over all his creation, which includes the environment, it is their duty to take care of this creation including the environment (2002, p. 134).

Since there is a large number of people who believe in and value principles of Christianity, Christians should emphasize part played by communication and propaganda, in convincing people that the environment constitutes not only the surroundings but also its inhabitants. Moreover, it is important that they develop altruistic attitudes towards the same. Having known this, Christians have now fully expressed their interest in solving all the matters related to the environment, which is of invaluable importance to its inhabitants.

Actions to be taken by Christians to conserve the environment In a bid to contribute positively towards the conservation of the environment, Christians need to primarily, develop self-conviction that conservation of the environment is their personal duty and a privilege from God. As such, they should show personal concern in matters related to care of the environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Burnie, in his guide about protecting the planet, argues that the condition of the environment is a function of the collective responsibilities of its inhabitants, aimed at increasing its suitability to habitation (2001, p. 64). Christian should therefore endeavor to make the planet a worthy place to live in. This is only possible if they do or encourage people to be conscious about environmental issues.

Secondly, Christians should change their lifestyle norms and adopt new environment sensitive ones. This may include advocating for environmental organizations, re- using waste, adopting means of transport friendly to the environment and avoidance of deforestation. The third action requires Christians, through written statements or sermons, to emphasize that God loves not only human beings, but also the non-human hence both need equal care.

Elsdon argues that by God creating humans, animals, and all non living things, all are of equal value before him, thus humans who God granted dominion over the other creation bear the responsibility of taking care of God’s creation(1992, p. 121). In other words, people are required to know and appreciate the existence of a relationship between theology and ecology. By doing this they will adopt lifestyles which value the need to care for their surrounding, the environment.

The fourth action that Christians need to take in order to conserve their environment is to issue statements through their churches, sensitizing the world about the environment and mobilizing them to develop conservation measures. Hill asserts that it is worthy to liken the environment to a human body.

The way a well-nurtured body overcomes diseases is the same way a well-maintained environment will overcome degradation (1998, p.146). Christians should therefore, take care of the environment the same way they would do to their bodies.

Christians should not allow the modern culture to soil their beliefs about the connection between God and the environment in which they thrive. They should shun modern cultural practices, which dedicate the ownership of all creation to human power instead of God.

Instead, they should embrace His creation and honour Him with praises for they are able to see how good a worker He is through nature that surrounds them. By doing this, they will be able to maintain the faith they have in God and their beliefs about nature, through which God reveals Himself to them.

We will write a custom Essay on Toulmin Model Argument about the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, Christians should incline their actions to responsible public policies, which value the biblical concept of creation. Northcott argues, “These public policies can guide people to be conscious about nature in all their actions” (1996, p.130). As a result, individuals, and organizations are able to make decisions, which not only helps them achieve their motives, but also recognize the importance of conserving the environment.

Conclusion The environment, described as the total conditions surrounding an individual, is a vital part of human existence. Many people are negligent of its value and the part it plays in human life. Although there are individuals and organizations that value the environment and make efforts that enhance its sustainability, it is important that people create a global awareness about conservation of the environment.

The Christian community should be at the forefront in sensitizing the society about the importance of environmental conservation to human life; hence, they should come up with actions geared towards conserving the environment.

References Brandt, D. (2002). God’s Stewards: the Role of Christians in Creation Care World Vision. California: World Vision International. Print.

Burnie, D. (2001). Earth watch: The young person’s guide to protecting the planet. United Kingdom: Penguin Books. Print.

Elsdon, R. (1992). Greenhouse Theology: Biblical Perspectives on Caring For Creation. Tunbridge Wells: Monarch. Print.

Hill, R. (1998). Christian Faith and the Environment: Making Vital Connections. New York: Orbis. Print.

Northcott, S. (1996). The Environment and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Toulmin Model Argument about the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Journal on Philosophers Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Augustine is concerned about the certainty in knowledge claims especially of knowledge in things that he has never seen or things that were enacted beforehand by predecessors. He confesses ignorance in terms of what can be asserted about the substance of God. However, he believes that God would not have given scripture if it were not to be believed in. To understand scripture or that which one has not seen by his own eyes, Augustine sees the need to withdraw into oneself. By so doing, the divine issues become clearer to the seeker of truth.

Augustine considers the world of senses a world of inferior things. He argues that persuaded by beauty, which surpasses what one may see with his senses, he contemplates the truthfulness that is God. Therefore, according to Augustine, the sense perceptions only serve as pointer to the more profound reality beyond.

Such profound reality is contemplated when one goes beyond just sensual perception and is intellectually or rationally engaged. Augustine rejoices because his understanding surpasses platonic formulation. Having come to this realization in the course of trying to understand the scriptures, Augustine asserts the place of God’s grace and Spirit as a helping hand or guide to understanding.

Thomas Aquinas affirms the nature of man as disposing humanity towards being led by things that are corporeal to things spiritual. Therefore, corporeal signs or things are very instrumental in knowing anything spiritual.

Consequently, man is generally drawn towards corporeal things and it is through daily interaction with corporeal things; in the course of bodily activities, that man learns or acquires knowledge. It is based on such an understanding that Aquinas asserts the place of priests as the corporeal route to heavenly things or heavenly reality.

Bacon criticizes the authoritarian mode of knowing i.e. that relying on authority for knowledge limits individuals’ capacity to attain knowledge or recognition for the same. Further, he asserts that custom, stereotypes or ‘popular prejudice’ and hiding of own ignorance through not sharing with others are key factors that hinder knowledge acquisition.

He further argues that although theology is supreme, its knowledge claims have to be informed by other sciences. Key in knowing anything according to Bacon is experience and thus empirical sciences have a critical role to play in advancing human understanding. Experience brings to life knowledge in a way that rationalization cannot.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knowledge from experience may be direct or by mediation. One can attest to knowledge gained through experience but, although problematic, narrations of experience also provide true knowledge claims. Knowledge from indirect experience is intimated by way of intuition or illumination.

Pseudo-Dionysius relates a mystic way of knowing that consists in one loosing oneself in order to experience or face the purest form of things. He argues that human understanding by itself is not sufficient towards understanding the mystic reality that is the transcendent one.

Moreover, that it is not possible to initiate those who believe in the power of human understanding into the mystic way of knowing that involves self-renunciation. Therefore, true knowing occurs when one transcends all that can be known by experience and rationalization and plunges into the darkness that is unknowing.

Dante is a lover of wisdom and relishes in the rationalism of the renaissance period. Talking of angels and heavenly bodies, Dante logically argues for the assertion that they are more than normally imagined. In his discourse, one discerns coherence and logic as measure of truthfulness. Based on the strength in Aristotle’s arguments, he also affirms the centrality of earth in the universe and immovability of earth.

Based on the mystery around the golden section, it is clear that one only understands that which he or she has interest in. In nature truthfulness is not self evident to all. This means that not all people are able to discern wisdom held by nature or in nature. The people who are able to learn of nature have a certain disposition.

Such a disposition is characterized by “openness, sensitivity, enthusiasm” and earnest desire or interest in understanding. There are many who go through life without noticing the marvels around them or the exquisite order of things. However, for those interested or keen on examining, there are enough clues in nature to guide towards understanding.


The Floating Threat: Somali Filibusters and the World Safety Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents The Curse of the Somali: What Makes a Pirate

Tracing the Course of Events: Living the Life of a Pirate

What the Higher Layers of Society Have to Do With This




Somali has recently become the world’s most well-known country of the so-called third world, due to the threat which it temporarily poses to the entire world.

Because of the country’s extreme poverty rates, the local dwellers are often engaged into piracy, which puts the life of millions of people who cross the Somali water areas. Since the reasons which make the Somalia people break the law can justify their actions to some extent, the events connected with the actions of the Somali pirates make one think of whose fault is that numerous victims have suffered.

The Curse of the Somali: What Makes a Pirate Beginning with the terrible poverty statistics and the hopeless state of affairs, the Somali population finally found the way to earn for a living. Choosing piracy as the means to make money, the Somalians now feel quite certain in the water area of their homeland, robbing the ships which pass by them. According to the recent news, the situation does not seem to change for the better; on the contrary, the pirates are seemingly enjoying the new way of solving their own economical problems[1].

It was clear from the very beginning that the Somali pirates have chosen their path to live the life of the rich. Because of the desperate state of affairs in their own country, they resorted to the easiest way of making money, that is, robbing.

As it has turned out, the problem did not vanish as the time passed. On the contrary, it was grasping even wider space, making people from the other countries fear the Somalia water areas. As Gettleman (2010) noticed, by 2010 the oirates had already established their personal “business” and were tracing the ocean seaway for the probable “crop” to pluck:

NAIROBI, Kenya — The monsoon season has ended. The Indian Ocean is calm again. For Somalia’s pirates, that means one thing: it is a busy time of year.[2]

As it could have been predicted, the pirates not only did not abandon the profitable business, but also expanded it to the range of a large-scale enterprise. Although this could seem shocking to the European people, the Somalia pirates considered this the only way to earn for a living.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Holding hostages and taking ransoms for the people which the pirates have captured appeared to be much easier than sharing the economical collapse with the rest of the countries with the same economical situation. According to Gettleman, these are the incredible for the Somali people amounts of money which makes them participate in the piracy. In spite of the seeming freedom in robbing and taking “free money”, it has turned out that the Somali pirates have a well-developed infrastructure in their business.

Thus, the people ranked higher than the ship crew receive the greatest amount of money, while the rest of the pirates are supposed to enjoy the remaining of the ransom money[3]. Such situation signifies that the Somali pirates have the system of ranking which is approximately close to the European idea of business enterprise; this could be called a mock-capitalistic relationships.

It must also be marked that the piracy was progressing rapidly during this period of time. The Somali pirates were taking hostages more often than at the beginning and seemed to know no boundaries for their riots.

Tracing the Course of Events: Living the Life of a Pirate As the problem of piracy has been detected in its early stage, there was the idea of conducting an international trial, yet the pirates managed to escape the latter. Since the sentence has been passed in the Malaysian court which was well-known for its corruptness, the pirates managed to get away lightly, and the problem remained unsolved.[4]

Knowing no fear, the Somali pirates are quickly learning the way to make easy money. Touching on the most important strings of people’s souls, the concerns for their own lives, the Somali pirates have “progressed” greatly, improving their system of tracing the ships and attacking them. Knowing no mercy, they do not fear to face the justice either, for they are already aware of the Malasian justice.[5]

According to Rice, it is the Navy “catch and release” policy which makes the pirates feel absolutely invulnerable. Causing certain disturbances and protests, the Malasian policy is still in motion, making the pirates feel that they could never be caught and punished appropriately.

Because of such debatable issue of the Malasian justice, the countries of Oceania cross the line once toed between them and the European countries, which results in numerous political discords. This must be the will to be economically independent in the modern world that makes Oceania act in this way; otherwise, they would have acted in accordance with the European system of justice.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Floating Threat: Somali Filibusters and the World Safety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it must be admitted that the modern world takes all the necessary measures to combat the Somali pirates. As the most recent news say, 12 Somali pirates have been recently arrested[6] and are supposed to be hung over to justice in the nearest future.

According to the evidence from Xinhua, the pirates caught have already gained a big death score, which means that they have to be judged as the murderers; however, taking into account that the case is going to be handed to the Malasian court of justice, it can be suggested that the investigation will lead to nowhere.

Giving a lot of food for thoughts, this event makes suggest if the on-coming trial will be a lesson taught to the Somali pirates in general. Their piracy being a protest against the hypocrisy of the European people, the Somali robbers will make sure once again that Europe is helpless to do anything to them:

The pirates will be charged in a Madagascan court given that they were arrested within Madagascan waters and that some of the hostages were Madagascan nationals. (Xinhua)

It seems that despite all the attempts of the piece-makers to calm the pirates down and start a conversation with them, the latter would not give up the easiest way of making money. Once learning the taste of richness, they will never be able to return to the previous lifestyle, accepting the poverty and the miseries which they had to survive. Despite the danger of being caught or killed, they resort to this very way of surviving in the ocean of capitalism, the system which they will never get used to.

It is obvious now that the actions of the Somali pirates have become more aggressive tan ever. Taking even families as hostages now, they show no mercy to both adults and children, as cruel as no human can be:

Most hostages captured in the waters off East Africa are professional sailors, not families. Pirates are not known to have captured children before.[7]

It seems that the ferocity of the Somali pirates has reached its peak, together with the unbearable impudence. Having no fear for justice, they commit the crimes which they would have been penalized long before in civilized countries. It is evident now that their isolation from the European world makes them feel absolutely free from any form of justice except their own one. In addition, it must be mentioned that Europe is no authority for them; on the contrary, they are trying to be as independent from Europe as possible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Floating Threat: Somali Filibusters and the World Safety by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What the Higher Layers of Society Have to Do With This It is quite obvious that the people who have been left with nothing else but earning for a living with piracy are highly dependent on the countries which make the world political elite.

Due to the specific relationships between the world countries, the idea of mutual help and cooperation has lost its sense, and the competitiveness of a capitalist society has taken its toll on the lies of millions of people. Those who were lucky enough to be born in the economically healthy countries have been separated from those who have sunken in poverty and misery.

Thus, the people who suffer the most unbearable economical conditions and do no have the access to more winning lifestyle resort to the only way out which seems most profitable to them. This is not an attempt to justify the actions of the Somali pirates, but an explanation of where the problem roots for. As Eichstaedt noticed,

Given the years of experience with the Somali pirates, does Mwangura think Somali privacy can be brought to an end? “you cannot fight poverty using the gun,” he says. You need to fight the root cause, then you ill find the solution to [piracy]” The situation in Somalia is hard to solve from the outside, which is why the international community has been reluctant, I say[8].

It is quite clear that the Somali piracy is not to be handled with the usual means of treating pirates. To take a look from the other angle, they are victims to the same extent as those suffering from their actions. It seems that the Somali piracy has much more than meets the eye about its roots and reasons:

The colonialist division of Somali lands had contributed to a national sense of resentment. The fragmentation of the Somalis was seen as a “wound” inflicted by Christian strangers which had “dismembered” the Somali islands.[9]

It seems that one of the core problems of the relationships between Europe or North America and Somali is that evaluating the culture and ethnicity of the Somali people, the former are trying to apply the same assessment tool as they use to evaluate themselves. Thus, considering the Somali people as savages with the culture which is not worth paying attention to, they force the Somali people fight for their place in the civilized world:

Western cultures and worldviews formed a yardstick for assessing or, as is often claimed, translating non-European cultures for the European and the dominant North American cultures.[10]

Conclusion In spite of the fact that the Somali pirates pose a dreadful threat to people, their identity problems must be taken into account. It cannot be argued that the situation with the sea piracy has worsened greatly. However, there are certain hopes that, once the European standards of judgement are applied to the apprehended pirates, it will be possible to put an end to the sea crimes.

Taking into consideration the peculiarities of the Somali culture, it will be possible. This is the “geography of difference”[11] which Willinsky was talking about, and this is something which people have to put up with.

Bibliography Daily Mail Reporter. Danish Family Captured in Indian Ocean Were ‘Experienced Sailors’. Mail Online, 2011. Web.

Eichstaedt, Peter. Pirate State: Inside Somalia’s Terrorism at Sea. Chicago, IL: Chicaho Review Press, 2010.

Fabian, Joseph. Time and other: How Anthropology Makes its Object. Columbai, OH: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Gettleman, Jeffrey. Money in Piracy Attracts More Somalis. The New York Times. 2010

Hunter, Robin. Somali Pirates Living the High Life. BBC News, 2008. Web.

Rice, Xan. Somali Piartes Should Face Special Courts, Says UN Envoy. Guardian, 2011. Web.

Vitzthum, Stella von. What Are Somalia’s Development Perspectives? Science between Resignation and Hope? Proceedings of the 6th SSIA Congress, Berlin 6-9 December 1996. Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2001.

Willinsky, J. Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empires End. University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

Xinhua. 12 Somali Pirates Arrested within Madagascan Waters. People’s Daily Online. 2011. Web.

Footnotes Hunter, Robin. Somali Pirates Living the High Life. BBC News, 2008

. Gettleman, Jeffrey. Money in Piracy Attracts More Somalis. The New York Times. 2010

. Gettleman, Jeffrey. Money in Piracy Attracts More Somalis. The New York Times. 2010

Rice, Xan. Somali Piartes Should Face Special Courts, Says UN Envoy. Guardian, 2011

Rice, Xan. Somali Piartes Should Face Special Courts, Says UN Envoy. Guardian, 2011

Xinhua. 12 Somali Pirates Arrested within Madagascan Waters. People’s Daily Online. 2011

Daily Mail Reporter. Danish Family Captured in Indian Ocean Were ‘Experienced Sailors’. Mail Online, 2011.

Eichstaedt, Peter. Pirate State: Inside Somalia’s Terrorism at Sea (Chicago, IL: Chicaho Review Press, 2010), 116.

Vitzthum, Stella von. What Are Somalia’s Development Perspectives? Science between Resignation and Hope? Proceedings of the 6th SSIA Congress, Berlin 6-9 December 1996 (Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2001), 16

Fabian, Joseph. Time and other: How Anthropology Makes its Object (Columbia, OH: Columbia University Press, 2002), 144

Willinsky, J. Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empires End. (University of Minnesota Press, 1998), 137


Are all instincts random and arbitrary? Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Human instincts are the innate characteristics that determine specific behaviors while instincts are innate abilities of human beings or animals, which enable them to adapt to diverse and changing environmental conditions for survival purposes. Human beings or animals respond to unique environments depending on the instincts that direct them.

For example, when a baby is born, the instinctive responses are crying and sucking, which enable the baby to attract attention of the mother and satisfy hunger respectively. In animals, young ones of birds display instinctive behavior of flying without prior experience. These instinctive behaviors emanate from innate characteristics. Since instincts are innate and specific to certain characteristic behaviors, not all of them are random and arbitrary.

Although environment modifies some instinctive behaviors, others emanate exclusively from the innate characteristics. According to nativists, “all aspects of human behavior are instinctive and humans have inbuilt instinctive behaviors that are genetically determined … we are born with certain core capabilities and knowledge that provide the basic the basic structure of learning” (Spink 2).

Genes are responsible for the specific instincts that are unique to human beings or animals. Within species, instincts are similar due to the similarity of genetic information.

On the other hand, species’ variability of instincts occurs due to the diversity of genetic information. Since instincts are innate and specific to certain characteristics, they can never be random and arbitrary because the genetic information dictates them. The genetic makeup defines specific instincts relative to their application in nature.

Human beings portray instinctive behaviors that are not arbitrary. For instance, all babies have instinctive behavior of suckling in order to satisfy their hunger. Spink argues that, “babies engage in sucking behavior that generally emerges unprompted, although some babies have problems with sucking, it is an innate or instinctive behavior” (1).

This shows that sucking is a natural instinct, not arbitrary, because all babies have the innate ability of doing it. If the ability of the babies to breastfeed were a random instinct, then, some babies would be unable to breastfeed while others would learn in order to breastfeed properly. Therefore, the ability of babies to breastfeed instinctively and in a uniform manner means that instincts are specific rather than random in controlling human behaviors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Language development in human beings is instinctive because children can develop it without learning. An information behavior is an instinctive process of language development.

According to Spink, “…it is a cognitive process that is not taught, but is innate to humans as people are able to consciously understand that they need to undertake behavior processes of information finding, organizing, and using to make sense of their environment (2). Therefore, language development can never be an arbitrary process since human beings use rational and logical minds to understand their environment and to generate information.

Animals also depict that, instincts link intricately with the innate characteristic behaviors. For example, all birds have instinctive ability to fly due to innate characteristics of their genes. A young bird begins to fly when wings’ muscles mature while the instincts drive the bird to fly. If the instincts were random and arbitrary, some birds would not be flying while others would have unique abilities such as walking instead of flying. Therefore, not all instincts are random and arbitrary because they are innate and specific in their functions.

Works Cited Spink, Amanda. “Instinct Versus Environment.” Springer Journal of information Behavior 11.85. (2010): 1-10.


Modern American History Expository Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The Dynamics of Capital Expansion

American Democratic Idealism and Imperialism

The Freedom of Speech during the World War


Works Cited

Introduction Two initial sentences in the introduction to the book Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq written by Stephen Kinzer state the problem and briefly consider it, “Why does a strong nation strike against a weaker one? Usually because it seeks to impose its ideology, increase its power, or gain control of valuable resources” (Kinzer 1).

The statement is true, but when it goes about the United States of America, it is a rule to talk about democracy and the necessity to help Americans and other nations understand what democracy is and to implement it by all means. The modern situation in the world and the latest events which made the USA interfere into the life of its country and other nations allows us to look at the issue critically and to point to the problem which exists in the contemporary world.

Paying attention to the modern American history, it is possible to consider a number of specific examples when the USA tried to impose its rules (and it is necessary to state that it was rather successful in its attempts) on other countries and limit the freedoms of its citizens claiming about the importance of democracy and helping the whole world become free in its actions.

Dwelling upon democracy and the desire to help Americans and other nations become free, the government of the United States of America have been providing constant interference to the private life of different nations, calling it democratic idealism, and making its citizens remain speechless contradicting to their first amendment right to free speech; the overthrow in Hawaii in 1893, the President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of war message to congress (April, 1917), and the Espionage Act of 1917 are brightest examples of the American imperialism in the whole world.

The Dynamics of Capital Expansion Considering the modern history of the USA and trying to remember the most striking events connected with the American interference into other countries, the invasion of Iraq in 2003 is remembered. However, being the most vivid case of American expansion, Iraq is not the only country where Americans tried to interfere. The USA constantly tries to implement its capital expansion on other nations. To make it clear, the main idea of capital expansion (read imperialism) should be described.

Deeping into the history, Parenti in The dynamic of capital expansion states that the expansion as form of ruling was popular, e.g. Persian, Mongol, Roman, etc. empires functioned on the principle of imperialism. The development of the financial relations made it possible for the more powerful countries to spread capital expansion as a form of imperialism.

Parenti declares that “a central imperative of capitalism is expansion” (3). The relations within the capitalist society are based on profit. To make more profit, companies should expand and increase its productivity. Having created the manufacturing in different countries, the companies have an opportunity to manage human resources in those countries and make the society act as they want.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, using different financial and economic leverage, a foreign country has an opportunity to interfere in the affairs of the society, even though that interference is indirect. Let us explore the situation which took place in Hawaii in 1893 with the information considered above in mind.

The central event which provoked Americans and made those implement active actions is considered to be the desire of Queen Liliuokalani to change the Constitution. The central change the queen wanted to apply was the change of vote procedure.

According to the new law, only native citizens of Hawaii might have an opportunity to vote. This change would have influenced the life of all islands which created a country. Having a queen and being a separate country, Hawaii was ruled by “a few dozen American and European families” (Kinzer 9). The elite were interested in this ruling, but the natives experienced pressure and inconvenience on their own lands.

The desire of the queen to change the political structure of Hawaii would mean nothing good for Americans and Europeans. But, being aware of the capital expansion as a form of imperialism, it is possible to state that Americans could not react somehow differently. America did not have the right to lose influence in Hawaii as it had already invested too much there. The USA had made too much to be defeated.

Performing the role of capital imperial country, the USA provided its expansion on Hawaii by means of investing in that country, dominating its economy, culture, politics, and “integrating its productive structures into an international system of capital accumulation” (Parenti 3). Having spent too much affords and time on implementing its domination over Hawaii, the change of constitution was not included in the US plans. This would mean that the USA did not have political influence on Hawaiian life.

The overthrowing of the queen with the help of American diplomat was the problem of one day. The USA, a country which cared about all peoples in the world, could not allow the nation to remain without a leader. Thus, Hawaii appeared under direct influence from the USA (Kinzer 32). The long history of these two counties was not over. Looking at Hawaii as one of the US states, it is possible to conclude that the providing capital expansion of a weaker nation, the dominant one will always win.

American Democratic Idealism and Imperialism Considering the examples of American imperialism in the overthrow of Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines, and Nicaragua in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it is possible to state that the democratic idealism the United States of America try to apply is nothing more than American imperialism in practice.

We will write a custom Essay on Modern American History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reading President Woodrow Wilson’s, war message to congress, it is accepted as the declaration of war to Germany. This document passionately discusses how German army wants to “sink very vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain and Ireland or western coasts of Europe or any of the coasts controlled by the enemies of Germany within the Mediterranean” (Woodrow n.p.).

The President of the USA dwelt much about the crime against all nations. The discussion was directed at the friendly relations between the USA and Germany, but the importance of their continuation due to the existing situation. It seems that the USA aims to protect all the nations from Imperial German Government. This is exactly what it does.

But! This message has a phrase which may explain the overthrow of such governments as Cuba, Philippines, and Nicaragua, “Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable where the peace of the world is involved and the freedom of its peoples, and the menace to that peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will, not by the will of their people” (Woodrow n.p.). This was one of the main reasons of American expansion to foreign countries.

Being covered by the Spanish war and the consequences of the Treaty of Paris, the USA has managed to gain control over Cuba and Philippines. Stating that this domination is only official and it is not going to interfere into its national affairs, the new Cuban Constitution created under the guidelines of a new President, made it possible for the USA to intervene into Cuban inner affairs. The amendments in this constitution gave the USA the power to rule the country.

The operations in Philippines, as well as in Cuba, were a “part of a larger war” (Kinzer 70). Isn’t it exactly what Woodrow told about neutrality and the desire to maintain peace? It is all about the USA.

Pointing to the peaceful operations, declaring about the highest purposes, it always persuaded its own interests. Political and economical influence, the domination in these questions on those territories is one of the main signs of imperialistic expansion. Dwelling upon democracy, the USA helped Cuba get rid of Spanish domination, but Cuba did not become free. The same had happened with Philippines and Nicaragua.

Stating that one of the main desires of the USA in the Spanish-American war was to create the conditions for implementing democracy in many the mentioned countries, the USA managed to release them, but their independence became possible only with the constitutional right of the USA to interfere into the countries’ inner affairs. So, what is it, the American democratic idealism or the practice of American imperialism? The first option is closer and is considered to be more correct.

The Freedom of Speech during the World War Trying to establish imaginary democracy in the whole world, the US government has realized that the democratic freedoms they have implemented in its own country should b limited. The cause of the limitation of the freedom of speech served Eugene Debs’ The Canton, Ohio Speech, Anti-War Speech which was declared on June 16, 1918. From the very beginning of the speech, it can be seen that the US government had what to worry about.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern American History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Debs said that, “it is extremely dangerous to exercise the constitutional right of free speech in a country fighting to make democracy safe in the world” (n.p.). The main idea of the article is declared. The further discussion turns to the representation of the examples of unfairness of the USA on the world arena.

The danger of this discussion for the USA is that its main reasons for implementation of the peace in the words are declared in the whole world. A person has appeared who dared to say it. Saying that it has become dangerous to express personal thoughts in the relation to some specific events and actions which happen in the world, Debs tries to attract social attention to the problem of what the USA tries to impose on human thinking and what it really does.

The focus of this speech was the exposure of the imaginable democracy American people lived. Trying to show examples, Debs asked about the jurisdiction and law system. Is there a simple worker who has ever appointed a judge to his/her position? Federal judges have never been named by the working class. This means that there is nothing to talk about the democracy in the country which does not allow people rule the country.

Americans are the nation which believes its president. If the president states that they live in the democratic society, all the actions the government implements are directed at the support of the regime. The same situation occurs in other countries of the world. One of the main dangers of this speech was the exposure of the real purposes the USA persuaded on the world arena and the creation of the Social Party which could become a problem to the implementation of the US expansion.

This speech is considered to be a reaction to the Espionage Act of 1917 which clearly limited the nation n third sire to express their thoughts. No one could speak about the US enemies and promote their success. The information devoted to false reports which could influence the US success on the international arena was also prohibited. People were deprived of their right to express personal opinion, one of the main characteristic features of the democratic society.

The desire to prevent people from the discussion of the international affairs during the war was caused by the government desire to eliminate any possibility of disclosure of main reasons of the “American democracy” in the world. Being afraid of expressing personal opinion in public, people became to remain silent even in the problems which do not seem prohibited under the Espionage Act of 1917.

Conclusion In conclusion, it should be mentioned that the desire of the United States of America to create the democratic regimes in all countries in the world is contradicted by the action the USA does. Trying to prove the whole world that the main purpose the USA persuades is the democracy, we can easily see that this is not true.

Having considered the examples of Cuba, Hawaii, Philippines, and Nicaragua, it is possible to state that the only thing which the USA desired was the capital expansion of those territories concealed under the mask of the implementation of the democratic society.

The change of the regimes in different countries under the declaration of their independence or in the frames of the long lasting wars, the USA managed to maintain its imperialism almost in the whole world. Picturesque examples are offered in the book Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq by Stephen Kinzer, where the author strictly provides the examples of the American “ideal democracy” in the world.

Looking at the contemporary world and the situation which has been established, it is possible to say that there are a lot of countries which function not under the American democratic rules and which the USA wants to control.

All the conflicts which happen in the world are based on the issues of power, control and influence. Those who manage to keep the economy and politics of different countries under total control always win. This is exactly what the USA wants to do, but considering the recent case of the invasion of Iraq and the inability of the USA implement its control in that country it may be stated that there is a chance to avoid American imperialistic influence.

Works Cited Debs, Eugene V. “The Canton, Ohio Speech, Anti-War Speech.” Internet Archive, 2001. Web.

Espionage Act of 1917. 1917. Web.

Kinzer, Stephen. Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. Times Books, 2007. Print.

Parenti, Michael. “The Dynamic of Capital Expansion.” Against empire. Ed. Michael Parenti. San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books, 1995. 3-5. Print.

Woodrow, Wilson. “War message to congress.” Joint Session of the Two Houses of Congress, 2 Apr. 1917. Web.


Africa: Coke’s Last Frontier Essay (Article) college application essay help

Article Summary This article gives an overview of Coke’s presence in Africa. The author begins by giving a case study of a shopkeeper in Kenya who sells Coke products in her retail store. In the case study, an estimate reveals that per capita consumption of Coke products is 39 servings in one year.

Stanford compares this consumption with Mexico, one of the biggest consumers of Coke, and mentions that it consumes 665 servings of Coke in the same duration (Stanford, para. 1). The author surveys various markets around the world, such as South Africa, China, India, Zambia, United States etc, and makes interesting observations.

He concludes that Africa seems to have a lot of potential as a marketing area for Coke. The CEO of Coke, Muhtar Kent, asserts that Coke seems to be potentially in danger of losing its market share. In 1989, Americans bought $2.6billion worth of Coke, yet over the next two decades, this figure rose only by $0.3billion. This seems to be the case for most developed countries, making continents like Africa a potential “savior” for this multi-million dollar company.

Implications for Professionals Involved in Coke’s Strategic Management The strategic management team must consider the above statistic in creating their strategic plan over the next decade. As it seems, developed countries like the USA do not promise a brighter future for the company. Nevertheless, the volume of money changing hands in developing countries like Kenya and South Africa implies that Coke has a better chance of scoring in third-world countries.

This means that the company should make more investments in these countries as they have the potential to generate the much needed 7-9% growth investors expect from Coke Corporation. This means that the management needs to boost its distribution team so that more supplies and more product varieties reach such shops, as those analyzed in the case study.

Some of the strategies that the managerial team needs to implement in these countries include making the products more affordable for the market, though one has to consider the budget that will make this to work out. The other strategy that Coca-Cola can employ is making sure that distribution channels are effective.

This way, the company can cut down on transportation and distribution costs thereby lowering operation costs and hence product prices. The product’s packaging should also be strong enough to withhold some of the harsh conditions in these war-torn countries. In other words, the maintenance costs of the products should be minimal. Finally, Coca-Cola should consider economics of scale, and sell the product more in mass numbers rather than on a retail basis in these developing countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The professionals in the managerial team may also have to look deeper into ways of combating their competitors all around the developed world. For example, China’s Coca-Cola Company is facing stiff competition from Wahaha, a beverage company owned by the richest man in China (Stanford, para. 5).

This means that their marketing team needs to come up with strategies of drawing more customers to their side. In countries like India, where Pepsi is the main competitor, the company needs to adopt newer ways to increase sales and improve profit margins (Stanford, para. 7).

Conclusion There is still a bright future for Coca-Cola, but there needs to be keenness in handling some of the managerial decisions in the executive team. Competition against Coca-Cola is intense, and it will take a bit more aggressive marketing techniques to win over more customers.

Work Cited Stanford, Duane. Africa: Coke’s Last Frontier. Bloomberg Businessweek. October 2010. Web.


Home Furniture Ltd. Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Understanding Culture

Hiring and Training

Develop a Training Program



The success of Home Furniture Ltd. (HF) is due to their commitment to provide affordable yet high-quality products. As a result the corporate leaders at HF went the extra mile in developing solutions to rising manufacturing costs as well as shipping costs. For them the best way to lower manufacturing cost is through innovation.

The company developed a system of manufacturing that enabled them to disassemble furniture, ship it to customers, and then re-assembled in the comfort of their own home. It was an overwhelming success. The company was established in Finland but today HF already has a global presence. However, with the global expansion comes the inevitable problems associated with it. The corporate leaders at HF came face-to-face with challenges related to culture and logistics.

Their difficulties were exacerbated by the fact that HF is no longer governed by a Finnish CEO but one who comes from the UK and together with his promotion to the top post, he brought with him a set of cultural beliefs and core values that came in conflict with teams working overseas. The new British CEO must learn how to do business in a global scale and it requires a clear understanding of cultural differences and its impact in developing teams.

Some of the most significant changes made by the new CEO was to adopt the English language as the official language of communication throughout the organisation. Thus, multicultural teams located as far as India and other Asian countries must comply with this new directive.

However, it did not take long for the CEO to realise that the communication strategy used to implement change revealed conflicts due to cultural differences. More importantly the CEO was made aware of the fact that there are serious lapses in human resource management especially when it comes to global operations. There is a need to formulate a strategy to solve these problems and the best way to start is to realise that culture is at the heart of the matter.

A. Provide the new Home Furniture CEO with advice on the policy he should adopt when operating in various countries and employing people from various countries. Refer to the various concepts and outcomes of research on management across cultures.

Understanding Culture The CEO must lead the way when it comes to understanding differences in culture and the need to effectively managed multicultural teams (Hogan, 2007, p.81). There must be a program that teaches top managers on how to deal with diversity within the organisation. The struggle in coping with the challenges of diversity is especially true for the expatriates that HF sent to handle their Asian and American business operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The said training program should be instilled into the hearts and minds of the top-level managers who will be sent as expatriates to foreign countries. They must learn to respect, appreciate and manage diversity.

They must come to realise that culture is: a) the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one human group from another; b) important sets of assumptions that are shared by members of a community; and c) a group’s characteristic way of perceiving the environment” (Earley


Visual Argument Essay writing essay help

As it has been revealed, images are more powerful in persuasion and information provision than mere words. This is due to their ability to reach a wider audience base, including those who are unable to read or write. Importantly, images are efficient in producing clear mental images about the information being conveyed.

On this basis, many advertisers have been finding it more effective and efficient to use visual objects and pictures in their advertisements, which are reinforced by some explanatory words. Since images are great influencers on thinking patterns, their massive use in various advertisements impact more to the target groups than just mere words.

It has been revealed that, images portray hidden values of culture and therefore more appealing on human beliefs and values. Considering the advertisement shown below, eye appeal has been greatly realized.

The use of color mix in this advertisement seems appealing. Having green color mixed with and blue in the container in which the drink is stored reflects massive power of the drink to meet the consumer’s needs. This is because; green and blue are considered as natural colors, implying that nothing exceeds nature.

As a result, this ad meets the requirements of the consumers in its color mix to assuring success to the drink takers in their racing tournaments. In fact, the use of colors in this advertisement has largely realized the ultimate goal of enticing the target group of the product

In the advertisement shown above, the advertisement seems highly appealing by presenting how the castrode drink gives individuals supernatural power to win in a very competitive racing tournament. More precisely, the advertiser presents the drink as enhancing individuals to reach high levels than expected.

For instance, the advertisement presents a motor-bike sporting activity, where the advertiser presents the contestant who drinks castrode drink as reaching the sky, and finally emerges as the winner. This is a very powerful eye appealing advertisement, capable of creating enthusiasm among the consumers to take the drink. The use of visuals to reflect naturality in an advertisement impacts more than just mere words to the target groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of shock appeal in this advertisement has largely made the message being conveyed sink deeper in the target group’s heart. Having a figurative contestant in a racing tournament who seems to be reaching the sky, reflects the powerful nature of the drink to make individuals reach far much higher than they expected.

If fact, the use of sky at the back ground of this visual advertisement shows how natural the drink is to enhance self actualization. Quite significantly, the images presented in this advertisement reflect a real life racing tournament where individuals who take the castrode drink always emerges as winners. The use of visuals to reflect real life situation in an advertisement as one of the most powerful strategies to facilitate consumer’s confidence in the product.

Conclusion As it has been revealed, high degree of accuracy in advertising is achieved through the use of pictures, other than using only mere words. With effective use of color mix, and presenting the pictures used to represent real life situation, the target group is greatly enticed to purchase the commodity. It has been revealed that, information presented by use of pictures impacts a lot on the mind, as precise and accurate information is relayed by use of images, rather than mere words.


Paul’s Case Theme Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Willa Cather’s story, Paul’s Case, revolves around the life of a young man named Paul. This story brings out the life of this young boy as one that is full of desires and dreams but he cannot work to fulfill them. The author has employed the use of character, action and imagery to bring out the three themes, viz. harm of relentlessness to achieving ones dreams, the danger of misunderstanding money and wealth, and the effect of materialism in one’s life.

The main character in the story is Paul. He comes from a poor background which moves him to have a desire for a more luxurious and wealthy living. In order for someone to acquire such a lifestyle, he/she should be industrious just as the saying goes, “nothing comes on a silver plate.” Paul only admires other peoples’ work but he does not want to do much to achieve the life he desires. He is obsessed with art, music and theatre; the main factors that enhance his passion as an usher in the Carnegie Hall in Pittsburgh.

At one point he decides to forego supper in order to arrive at the hall in time. When he finds that the hall is not opened he decides to go to the picture gallery where he spends a lot of time admiring the great works holed there. Despite his passion for arts, Paul does not do anything in the field of arts to improve his standards of living; on the contrary, he keeps admiring other people’s work.

Cather states that, “He had no desire to become an actor, any more than he had to become a musician. He felt no necessity to do any of these things; what he wanted was to see, to be in the atmosphere, float on the wave of it, to be carried out, blue league after blue league, away from everything” (32). This is evident that Paul did not want to work despite his desire to live a good life.

Misunderstanding money and wealth as the necessities to living a good life is an issue that the writer explores deeply. She brings out Paul as a character who holds that, in order to have a luxurious life one needs to have money.

However, Paul violates the very basic principle that, in order to get money one needs to work and work hard. In illustrating this, Cather brings out the life of a certain young man who has climbed up the ladder by embracing his work as a clerk. Lack of understanding makes Paul to live a miserable life since he cannot do anything substantial to enhance income generation.

For instance, Cather notes, “Paul bounded upstairs, scrubbed the greasy odor of the dishwater from his hands with the ill-smelling soap he hated” (27). What a disgusting situation! Paul looks down upon the people in his neighborhood including his own teachers. This is because he feels that he is the only one with the knowledge on how to build wealth. All along Paul knows that he needs money but he does not work at getting it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The writer says, “He had not a hundred dollars left; and he knew now, more than ever, that money was everything, the wall that stood between all he loathed and all he wanted” (16). It is thus evident that one has to put efforts to better his/her life rather than fantasizing about good lives that he/she might never achieve; if anything, Cather insinuates that, fantasy never mimic the reality.

Cather employs imagery to underscore the harm of relentlessness towards achieving one’s dream in what many would call the pursuit of the American dream. For instance, he uses Paul’s addiction to art as a form of hindrance to hard work. His obsession occupy much of his time that he does not even realize that it has become as a form of an addictive drug to him. He cannot see and exploit other ways, which he can utilize to yield a lot other than pleasure.

The author explores food as an imagery to bring out the distinctive gap between the rich and the poor. When Paul follows the soprano to the hotel, he begins to ponder about the good food that the soprano will enjoy. “ He reflected upon the mysterious dishes brought into the dining room, the green bottles in buckets of ice, as he had seen them in the supper party pictures of the Sunday World supplement ”(Cather 17).

This is the type of food that Paul desires but he cannot afford due to his poor standards of living. Just as a poor man’s food that is not appetizing to many, the Cather likens Paul’s life to such food referring to it as a flavorless, colorless mass of everyday existence (19). The terms that the writer uses to describe the food represents Paul’s tasteless and meaningless life.

Paul is poor thus his constant desire for wealth. The red carnations that Paul wears in his buttonhole represent Paul’s continued defiance to his teachers. Paul constantly goes against the teachers’ expectations. Later on in his life, Paul brings red carnations that are wilted as he walks to the train tracks.

The wilting of the red carnations helps him to realize that, it takes only a short time for the beauty of life to disappear. Paul buries one of the red carnations in the ice before leaping in front of a train. In this act, the writer brings out the eventual death and disappearance of Paul.

The writer’s use of action also helps in bringing out the theme of laziness in the story. In the beginning of the story, the writer tells us that the boy had gone to sleep on a certain warm afternoon. This shows that Paul is a lazy boy. His laziness is evident in the story because despite his ambition to obtain wealth, he is not involved in any activity to generate money. Paul goes to New York in search of a better way of living.

We will write a custom Essay on Paul’s Case Theme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, the writer employed character, imagery and action to pass her message to the readers. She puts it clear that people need to work towards their dreams instead of constantly fantasizing about them.

It is also important to note that, ‘Paul’s Case’ warn that people should have a clear understanding of the difference between money and wealth/ work. One has to work in order to get money hence wealth. The writer insinuates that materialism should not be our drive towards good life. This is because it can lead one to do things he/she did not intend to do.

Works Cited Willa, Cather. Paul’s Case: A Study in Temperament, 1906. Web.


St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The St. Peter’s Basilica is a catholic church which has been revived with the influence of classical models present between 14th and 16th centuries (McCurry, 58). Contrary to what many people believe, the church is not a cathedral. The basilica has been the recipient of many Christian worshipers from all over the world since 4th century.

Pilgrims have traveled from countries like Japan and Greenland to worship there (McCurry, 60). Others have just come to adore the architectural expertise evident from the building which has immense history. It is located right in the middle of the Vatican City in Italy. The Vatican City is the smallest country in the world and has been dedicated to catholic worship.

Its interior is larger than any other Christian church in the world, and most Catholics regard the church as the holiest place on earth. Others believe that the church is special in the eyes of God. Catholics view it as the supreme church or the father of all churches. According to history, the church was initially intended to be the burial site for saints with the name Peter.

Therefore, Peter (the Jesus’ disciple and the first pope) is believed to have been buried at a place which the basilica was built. It is believed that his burial place is just beneath the altar in the church although the exact location has never been proven yet. Afterwards, popes have been buried in this church since the era of pioneering Christians (McCurry, 80).

The church is an outstanding piece of architectural work and even some regard it as the greatest structure in the modern history. It has a dome centrally placed on top of it which forms a prominent part of the city’s skyline. The dome is one of the largest in the world and is placed at the center of the basilica; therefore, it occupies a lot of space.

The basilica is shaped in the form of a Latin cross which has one elongated side. The initial building was still in form of a cross but all the sides were equal. The interior is enormous decorated with limestone, thin covering of gold, sculptures and designs standing out from the wall surfaces. There are various tombs belonging to popes, but the major attraction is the ceremonial canopy over the altar which was designed by Michelangelo (McCurry, 81).

The initial St. Peter’s Basilica was built in the middle years of the 4th century by the Emperor Constantine; who was trying to convert the whole Roman Empire citizens to Christians. The church had a basic cross shape with a large semi-circular recess with a domed roof at the part near the altar reserved for the clergy. Its length was 341 feet and like many other churches at that time, the entrance was on the eastern side. Nowadays, that church is called Old St. Peter’s Basilica to differentiate it from the present one (McCurry, 84).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The church was in bad condition nearing the end of 15th century and needed major repairs. The first notable pope to make effort to repair it was Pope Nicholas the fifth. He gave special instructions to three architects to come up with a plan to repair or do an extreme makeover. However, he died before anything could have been done although the Colosseum had been demolished.

The building of the Basilica continued from the proceeding Pope Julius the 2nd to Pope Innocent the 10th. The building was mainly funded by fund-raisings in a very strange way. People were offered indulgence in return for their contributions. This method brought a lot of controversies that it formed the basis of the emergence of Protestants (McCurry, 85).

One of the designers of this basilica was Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini was among the top sculptors of his time; therefore, he was able to earn a commission in the designing of the church. He was the one who designed the Piazza San Pietro that is found at the front of the church. The Pizza San Pietro is one his groundbreaking piece of art work to this day. He was also responsible for designing the interior of the church giving it its smooth finish (Posner, 26).

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian who majored in sculptures and a great enthusiast of artistic expressions. Other than creating sculptors, he also painted and wrote stage plays while in Rome. Bernini had the talent of making limestone sculptors have a storyline with such great reality; that was a shock to many people.

With such talent, he was able to rise in the ranks of the greatest sculptors, even defeating Alessandro Algardi. In fact, he was able to produce artworks that combined various forms of art as demonstrated by the interior of the basilica. Bernini was a deeply religious person, and that is evident from his works. He was using light figuratively to give an insight on his thoughts regarding religion. He made sure that the hidden light brought out the theatrical moment of the sculpture’s storyline (Posner, 27).

Bernini was the son of Pietro and Angelica who lived in Naples until Bernini turned 7. When he was seven, he and his father re-located to Rome. His father was also a sculptor who was involved in the high profile projects in Italy. His talent was immediately recognized by Pope Paul the fifth and immediately, Pope’s nephew started sponsoring his projects. He received much of his inspiration from sculptures made by Hellenistic. Under the sponsorship of Cardinal Borghese, the Pope’s nephew, he was able to rise through the ranks.

Some of the works he did for the Cardinal was “The Goat Amalthea” and a couple of head, shoulder and chest sculptures like the “Damned Soul”. In his early twenties, he finished the Pope’s bust. Most of these works were secular and not religious at all. Being a high profile sculptor, Bernini was never short of funds. He was highly paid and his fame had spread even to France. In fact when he went to France, he was idolized by most of the French artists (Posner, 29).

We will write a custom Research Paper on St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After Maffeo Barberini was made Pope, he adopted the name Urban the eighth and he was very close to Bernini. He himself was an art lover and he had urged Bernini to concentrate on sculptures when he was young. Urban had great plans to do a complete make over of the Catholicism through arts. The most significant work that was done under the pope was the designing of Baldachin which was headed by Bernini. The baldachin was to be located on St. Peters grave (Posner, 33).

The initial plan required the angels, which are presently on the pillars, to clutch a trailing plant but, Bernini swiftly altered it so that the angels appeared as they do today. The building of the Baldacchino was such a daunting task; its 94 feet 3 inches tall and 94 tons. It had the expenses of approximately 10% of the Church’s earnings of 1624. During the construction, the major setback was that the bronze was not an adequate.

Pope Urban travelled to the ancient temple of traditional gods to take the bronze from the veranda. While there, he took more than enough such that the left over metal casted 81 canons. In molding the pillars, Bernini used the ‘Lost Wax Process’ which was clever, although, he got unfavorable opinions from some architects for combining art and simple replication (Posner, 40).

Even before the Baldacchino project was over, he was reassigned to design and oversee the renovation of St. Peters Basilica. The first thing he designed was a container for holding holy relics which was actually St. Peter’s Chair. The reliquary was later redesigned under the proceeding pope.

The new one depicts 8 saints gripping a bronze container that had a chair. The saint’s fingers hold the edges of the container to show how Christianity can be strong under the leadership of the pope. It means that the authority of pope is beyond other earthly spiritual beings, which was odd since the Popes only ruled a small part of Rome. Like in his previous project, Bernini’s message remains the same; the authenticity of the Pope leadership (Posner, 47).

Bernini’s concluding major contribution to St. Peter’s Basilica was requested by Pope Alexander; Pope Alexander’s grave. It would also the last major task done at St. Peter’s. Bernini was now 81, and he only engraved the hands and head of Alexander’s form, and he supervised the rest of the work to the end.

There was only one area left to construct the grave, and it was smaller than expected since there was a huge door at the center. Bernini cleverly included the door as a part of the grave. The door appeared as if it was a way to the life after. Alexander’s statue is decorated with a veil, and he appears to be kneeling praying that his spirit gains victory over death (Posner, 50).

In conclusion, all of the work that Bernini was involved in during the make over of St. Peter’s Basilica, bared a single theme; the confirmation of Pope’s power in the world and in heaven.

Not sure if you can write a paper on St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been known that Rome was a city of immense corruption, but that changed in the 17th century. Urban made a resolution to revive the profligacy of arts in religion. Pope Urban the eighth made use of the chance he got to use combined forms of art to depict the Papal authenticity. He was able to bring back the Papacy to a point of esteem status.

This is the very reason he selected an artist who was able to combine different forms of arts like painting and sculpture; Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini was able to bring out the political plan of the Papacy via the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica. Through the church, he was able to encourage the viewers to have more trust in the popes. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was indeed a skilled sculptor, since he was able to describe the creative styles of the ornate (Posner, 56).

Despite of the Basilica making quite a landmark, it did not in the people’s heart eventually. The Roman Catholic soon lost grip of the people due to the mixture of Roman ancient religion and Christianity. Thus, there was the emergence of the Protestants. Although the basilica has spiritual significant to staunch Catholics, the rest of the world views it as a great piece of architectural work (Posner, 56).

Works Cited McCurry, Steve. “St. Peter’s Basilica.” Christianity 12.5 (2002): 58-89. Print

Posner, Nick. “Gian Lorenzo Bernini.” Sixteenth Century Artist 34.7 (1997): 24-56. Print


The Cult Awareness Netwark Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Introduction In the modern world, freedom of worship is a word easily said, heard, and honored. This is evident in many countries where freedom of worship is passed as laws in the bill of rights, safeguarding the rights of every individual even if the individual worships idols.

This has led to an upsurge in advent of more and more cults being formed world over; however, the term cult is basically a religion or a religious group considered to be false, with its members living in an unconventional manner, under the guidance of an authoritarian charismatic leader (Behar).

In patronage of the leader, the cult is literally involved in the business of making money through criminal and illegal activities. On the other hand, the cult is usually seen to endeavor in its power and spiritual abuse.

Behar, the author of the thriving cult of greed and power explains in details how scientology is seemingly a religion but which he describes as a ‘ruthless global scam that leaves the lives of victims ruined” (Behar). He narrates how Noah Lottick, a young Russian scholar had jumped from the tenth floor of a building to his death because of cult related influence.

The story tells that police officers found Noah holding one hundred and seventy one US dollars, the only money he had not turned over to the church of scientology; the self help group he had joined a few months ago (Behar). This inspired the father to start an investigation into the scientology church that had caused his son’s death.

The findings of this investigation indicated that scientology was actually a cult that had brainwashed not only his son but other people as well; in conclusion Lottick stated that “I now believe it’s a school for psychopaths and they take the best and the brightest people to destroy them” (Behar).

The author goes on and explains how the church went on shielding itself behind the First amendment and by hiring the most competent lawyers and detectives to defend themselves in the ensuing cases in which it was eventually sued. In addition, the writer takes an informative stance by identifying L.Ron Hubbard as the founder of the church of scientology, who was a science-fiction writer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He however indicates that L.Ron’s original aim was to clear people of unhappiness; Behar explains that the church of scientology is a huge profitable racket that survives by intimidating members and its critics through mafia- like manners (Behar).

The writer explains that in their ruling the judge’s labeled the church as “schizophrenic and paranoid, corrupt, sinister and dangerous” (Behar). According to this article, the group’s followers have been accused of even committing financial scams. In addition, the writer references information from

The Cult Awareness Netwark, echoing words of Cynthia Kisser and Vicki Aznaran, who had expressed their views on cult. Kisser said “scientology is likely the most, ruthless, the most classically terroristic, the most litigious, and the most lucrative cult” (Behar). In addition, Aznaran says that Scientology is the most exploitative of all cults in the world.

However my critical point of concern evolves from Lottick’s choice of suing the church of scientology for being involved in the suicidal death of his son Noah. I believe some spiritual influence can lead to such tragic events such as one that Noah went through.

For example in the bible, Ananias died for grieving the spirit by failing to give all the money he had acquired from sales. I however concure that Lotticks did the right thing by suing the Leadership of the Church of scientology for perpetrating the death of Noah through influence of the spirit of greed and ruthlessness.

Works Cited Behar, R. “The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, 1991.” Web.


Abortion and the Aspects of Pro-abortion Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The whole topic of abortion is a very complex issue that has continued to attract a lot of attention in today’s modern society. This can be explained from both perspectives where there are certain people who are opposed to abortion while there are others who are pro-abortion. As a matter of fact, different societies have their own approach to the whole issue of abortion (McMahan 12).

This is because abortion relates to life and that is why different stakeholders have been dragged in this issue. In this case, we are supposed to evaluate and look at abortion critically for long term sustainability in our society. This paper will therefore try to analyze the whole aspect of pro-abortion.

In this case, there are people who are pro-abortion and they should be understood because they are right in their own making and understanding. As a matter of fact, abortion is prolife in a broad way and people should not demonize others because they are pro-abortion (Singer 32).

Abortion revolves around reproduction and this is a personal issue that should not be interfered with by anybody. We all agree that women have a choice as per to when they should have children and this means that we are supposed to respect this fact. There has been an argument that abortion is the same as murder but this has been done while ignoring other realities that we are supposed to understand.

It can not occur that every time a woman aborts we will always be saying that somebody has been killed. Abortion can help women and teenagers who might find themselves in very complex situations that they had not anticipated.

For instance, it is quite obvious that through abortion, a teenager can continue with her school without necessarily drooping out and this is a fact that we can all agree to (Kearns 45). There are occasions where somebody can have an untimely pregnancy that might end up enslaving her to the man and this can be sorted out through abortion

A foetus is not a baby and there is no reason as per to why we should say that abortion is murder. There are occasions where abortion occurs naturally and it is undeniable that others are induced. Women can not decide to have babies then all over a sudden say that they want to abort.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a decision that is made after other aspects have been considered. We should therefore respect such decisions because they are made after various considerations have been made. Abortion saves lives in cases where they are medically supervised (McMahan 73). This means that it is safer than having a baby. In cases where we have a safe abortion, the whole society benefits in a broad way.

Every girl or woman who makes a decision to go for a safe abortion in relation to an undesired pregnancy should be respected for making a bold move that others can not contemplate. We can not say that it is bad to abort a fetus because it is still dependent on the mother and is therefore not a separate entity.

In this case, it can not exist outside the womb and this therefore disputes the argument that life will be lost. Abortion is a personhood issue and we can not say that it revolves around human life (Boonin 31). For instance, in vitro fertilization, eggs that have not been fertilized are thrown away yet nobody says that this is abortion.

Different people have been saying that instead of abortion, we should advocate for adoption but this is not feasible. As a matter of fact, this is a woman’s choice and we can not say that they will be willing to give up their children for adoption. Instead of demonizing abortion, we should advocate for safe medical procedures (Singer 46).

This is because medical abortions do not have any complications that can end up affecting the mothers’ health. As a matter of fact, the mothers’ future ability to have a baby will not be affected in any way.

We live in a very dangerous society where there are many cases of incest and rape. These are occurrences that happen every now and then within our surroundings. In this case, a woman who has undergone such an act will be exposed to a lot of psychological problems if she is forced to keep the pregnancy.

A woman who has been raped did not make the decision to have the pregnancy. Therefore, it will be wise for such a woman to go for a medically safe abortion instead of keeping the baby. This is because the presence of the baby will occasionally remind her of the ordeal that she went through (Kearns 63). Women who find themselves in such situations are always afraid and they can not imagine of taking morning after pills and this complicates the whole issue.

We will write a custom Essay on Abortion and the Aspects of Pro-abortion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be known that abortion can not be used as contraception and that is why there are cases a woman can become pregnant even with proper use of contraceptives. In this case, such women should be allowed to have an abortion because they did not anticipate having a baby in the first place since this is a family matter that needs a lot of planning.

Governments have been stepping up efforts to ensure that women keep their pregnancies but this is infringing on their own rights (Boonin 56). This is a civil right that every woman needs because they are supposed to be free in either keeping or terminating the pregnancy.

This is a reproductive choice that can not be taken away from a human being and therefore women should be allowed to abort at their own pleasure instead of being demonized as murderers.

Instead of opposing abortion, governments should come up with good measures to make it safe. In this case, there is need to increase funding to various medical institutions so that they can be in a position to conduct safe and medically recognized abortions (Singer 87). The main reason as per to why we should be pro-abortion is because of various teenagers who become pregnant at an early age.

Such teenagers do not have the capacity to raise good children and they should therefore be allowed to abort. When they keep a pregnancy, it is quite obvious that they will drop out of school and this is not good as the baby might lack parental care. An under-age pregnancy can occur if the girl did not understand what she was doing.

This is a mistake that should not be used to derail the girls’ education and career opportunity. Prior to an abortion, every woman is exposed to a lot of stress and this means the situation can only be sorted out through a safe abortion (Kearns 83). In this case, there has been no proven evidence that abortion leads to stress. As a matter of fact, women should be allowed to make a choice about abortion because this is a personal decision that can not be infringed upon.

Abortion revolves around a woman’s body and she should therefore be allowed to make her own decision. It is undeniable that we have a lot of unwanted babies and this can be reflected from our overpopulation. In this case, it will be unwise for us to oppose abortion yet people should be allowed to do away with unwanted children.

There are occasion where we have poor families with many children. In this case, any other child will be a big burden and it is good for the woman to abort (McMahan 81). Abortion is not a big deal because we have cases of miscarriages and nobody has ever argued against such. As a matter of fact, abortion is moral in a broad way.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Abortion and the Aspects of Pro-abortion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some people have argued that abortion is very important for gender equality. This is based on the fact that it is a right that can not be denied. In this case, the right to abortion should be included in pregnancy rights for a woman to decide when she wants to terminate the pregnancy.

Women should be respected because they are human beings and we should not see them as a container for the fetus. This means that they should be given all their rights as far as pregnancy is concerned without any dictation (Boonin 74). As a matter of fact, they should be supported in all the decisions that they make instead of being seen as murderers when they decide to abort.

Works Cited Boonin, David. A Defense of Abortion. Boulder: University of Colorado, 2003. Print.

Kearns, Thomas. History, Memory, and the Law. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2002. Print.

McMahan, Jeff. The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

Singer, Peter. Writings on an Ethical Life. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. Print.


Moral Issues in the Abortion Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of the article

Rhetorical analysis


Works Cited

Introduction The issue abortion existed in the human race since time immemorial and it has gone on till today. Whether abortion is morally right or wrong largely depends on one’s own conviction about the issue. The moral authority termination of life lies in the hands of the mother despite the influence of the society about the issue. This paper looks at how the author supports the argument that it is a moral duty for the mother not to bring unwanted offspring into the world.

Summary of the article Sawyer, a mother of two kids has experienced what it takes to bring a child into this world. Her interpretation of her pregnancy depended on her current situation. She would term pregnancy as a baby when she was prepared and wanted to have a baby but also interpreted the same as a group of cells when she didn’t want anything to do with the baby.

She claimed to have a change of thought after having the two kids. She agreed to the fact that abortion is a terribly traumatic experience. She supports the fact that abortion is hardly supported by the society even in the cases that are supported by the law.

The society is said to brand the mother giver of life yet limits her right over the same. The mother is expected to carry to term every child conceived no matter the cost and that according to the society is the true motherhood.

Sawyer disagrees with the controversial argument on when life begins and instead prefers women to have the authority over life and not life argument instead. After having her two kids she understood what it meant to bring meaningful life to earth. She argued that a mother should be given the chance to bring only the wanted child onto the earth.

Rhetorical analysis Sawyer expresses how she previously strongly believed in pro choice feminist movement like dye in the wool. Those were the days that she believed that pregnancy meant life in her and she had duty to preserve it. She explained how by finding herself pregnant, and understanding what goes along with it her eyes seemed to open to a new thought about having the right to determine the fate of the fetus.

She makes us sympathize with women by the way she pictures the experience they usually go through during abortion “Of course, it’s terribly traumatic, no woman enters into this lightly” (Moran 1). This shows that women do not like it and that they only do it as a last resort.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To them it is not a very pleasant experience and as such we should understand their predicament when they choose to have an abortion. Her concerns about how the society doesn’t care about the predicament of the woman are felt in her view on the stand of the society which has zero tolerance to abortion even in the most liberated society.

The society is biased in its judgment about abortion as it does not look at the constructive side of abortion. Jokes about issues to do with abortion are rare and issues concerning abortion are hardly discussed as much as other less important issues. She makes us understand how biased the society treats abortion. According to her, no one encourages a woman to discuss the positive side of abortion.

The irony on the issue of abortion is clearly seen on her description of the woman as “Mother, gentle giver of life” according to the society and her role ends there. It is ironical that the gentle giver of life cannot make further decisions about the life that she has the authority to make in the first place.

According to her, the society has no feelings about what the women go through as a result of unwanted conceptions they are expected to carry on irrespective of “how disruptive or ruinous, because her love would be great enough for anything” (Moran 1) certainly this is not what anyone would want for a woman. At such conditions it would be wise to let women have abortion rather than let them go through a traumatic experience all in the name of love.

Sawyer gives a strong argument that anyone can arguably reckon with. The society has spent so much time and energy on the discussion about the inconclusive debate on when life begins. Without a clear definition on when life begins then the woman is always left with no moral choice. Instead she advocates for a totally different thought of letting the woman have the dominion over life and also the dominion over not-life.

This way she believes that the woman will never have to go through hell all in the name of womanhood but instead will have the option to terminate life if she feels that it absolutely justifiable to undertake the practice on moral grounds. She cannot simply understand how nature can be biased as to give the woman ability to make, host, shelter, nurture and protect life and yet not empower her to end it too especially when its existence will be catastrophic. However she is not advocating for unwarranted and unjustifiable abortions.

It may be argued that she went through a transformation time after she had her two children. Her ordeal through the hectic nine month period the labor pains, caring for the delicate new born, spending through sleepless nights and giving all the motherly support care and most important love to the baby who needed more than just love from a dedicated stable and a willing mother changed her perception and conviction about the issue of abortion.

We will write a custom Essay on Moral Issues in the Abortion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By understanding the requirements of being a reasonable mother she didn’t hesitate having an abortion after the conviction since she understood what another child would have meant for her.

She was in no way prepared for bringing yet another life in to the world and watch as her already happy family go through stressing moments and furthermore she was already tired of all the stress that goes with giving life and thus was justified to terminate the pregnancy.

By looking at the case like this it was easy for her to make the decision easily and without moral guilt. And still she didn’t want to take a gamble on such an important issue (Head 1; Summary 1).

The society as she puts it usually goes overboard when dealing with abortion. She argues that anti abortion campaigners base their arguments about the sanctity of life but she still can’t understand why the issue of sanctity only comes in when people are talking about abortion and never mentioned when other sanctity of life threatening cases such as Vladimir Putin. This may suggest that the issue of sanctity of life is not in good faith and is only used as a tool of oppression of women (Newman and Newman 2).

She needs us to clearly understand her conviction about abortion by arguing that the world would be a better place to live in if there were much less evil people in it. She feels that it may be far much justifiable to end an early pregnancy than bring forth an unwanted child who would be a problem to the already existing family or even the society.

It is still ironical that according to her the majority of mankind’s miseries is attributed to unhappy children who grew up to be angry adults. She argues that such occurrences are blamed on women and yet the society doesn’t give her the mandate to terminate the problem at its root. As she concludes she wants it to be clear that abortion should be taken as “intelligent, logical, humble, compassionate thing to do” (Moran 1) and ultimately as an act of good mothering.

Conclusion The issue of abortion demands a critical thought in all perspectives. The author has expressed her opinion concerning the issue of abortion. By giving her own encounter as a woman, she was able to capture the argument about why abortion is morally right by blending her personal ordeal and the realities of life.

The society was depicted as insensitive and ironic in that it gave some rights and took them with the other hand. Though she doesn’t advocate for unjustified abortions she strongly agrees that women should be left to use the mandate given to them by nature in a moral way.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Moral Issues in the Abortion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Head, Tom. Is abortion now legal in every state? Living Liberties, 2011. Web.

Moran, Caitlin. Abortion: why it’s the ultimate motherly act. The Sunday Times, 2007. Web.

Newman, B and Newman, Phillips. Development through Life: A Psychosocial. New York, NY. 2008. Print.

Summary. Summary of Abortion Laws around the World. Pregnant Pause, 2002. Web.


autonomous vehicles. Essay best essay help

The conversation you will be joining for this essay is autonomous vehicles. As with all of our Join the Conversation essays, this one can be no more than three (3) pages in length, must include at least one “They Say” from any of the sources on the Gale Global Issues in Context database, and follow MLA guidelines for formatting and documentation.


Emotions and reasoning Essay best essay help: best essay help

In 1889, Vincent Van Gogh once said, “Let’s not forget that the little emotions are the great captains of our lives and we obey them without realizing it (Carnegie 2003 p. 298). The stereotype assumption held for long by the rationalists was that reason and perception are the only reliable ways through which we acquire knowledge.

Emotion was thought to hamper decision making as it created confusion and hindered objectivity. Emotions were believed to be disorderly powers capable of interfering drastically with sensible thinking. Thus, it was believed that in order to arrive at lucid judgments, emotions should be completely separated from the process. Focus was more on cognition and logic (Bernstone et al. 1993).

This paper seeks to determine how emotions help influence the actions we make through analytical thinking. It seeks to assert that judgment does not abound in isolation. Rather that it is arrived at by people who not only reason but also feel. It seeks to highlight the role played by emotion in our day to day judgments and to ascertain the fact that our decision making processes are highly influenced by our emotional disposition. As Dale Carnegie sums it up, we are not creations of reason but of conscience (Carnegie 2003 p. 298).

Yet time after time, we encounter situations in which even the most rational beings make decisions whose nature defeats all logic. What makes people inexplicably fall in love with one person over another? How do we explain when a man of sound mind engages in sexual crimes like rape? While some may attribute this behavior insanity, personal preference, circumstances or provocation, the underlying fact remains that these two categories of people are never forced at gun point to do what they do or act as they do.

If it were all about reason, then the people have the mental capacity to stop themselves from falling in love or committing these crimes.

The belief by rationalists failed to hail the fact that we are humans, thus emotional in nature and even the most ‘rational’ of all beings can err. They failed to accommodate the fact that emotions do play a role in the decision making process.

Emotions are part of human nature as we all instinctively react to phenomena even without being conscious of the fact. That implies that, not all human actions are solely based on thinking and evaluating using our brains. Even without being conscious of it, our feelings do affect the way we perceive things around us (Ansoff, 1965).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As human beings, we experience sensations that vary in degree or perception. Nevertheless, we could be unaware of those feelings or how to interpret them. This is largely because some feelings are hard to observe and interpret. However, emotions affect the way we think much as they may not be perceived to directly influence behavior and the way we act towards others.

The word emotion refers to powerful or compelling sensation or attitude geared towards something or someone. It is commonly connected with mood, individuality, predispositions, temperament and provocation (Plutchik, 1980). came up with a classification of emotions which was made up of eight progressive emotions and their basic ones.

Among the major basic emotions according to him are happiness, confidence or trust, fear, wonder or astonishment, sadness, repugnance, ire and expectancy. These emotions coexist in opposites. Feelings like love, disappointment, aggressiveness, guilt, optimism, contempt, awe, remorse and their opposites arise from the basic emotions.

(Parrot 2001) further created a tree structured inventory of emotions in which primary emotions like love, joy and anger give rise to secondary emotions or feelings which ultimately give rise to tertiary feelings.

For instance love as a basic emotion gives rise to affection, lust or sexual desire, longing, cheerfulness, zest and contentment from which other feelings like attraction, adoration, passion, infatuation, jubilation, euphoria, excitement, and enthusiasm and pleasure spring. Anger may cause disgust, envy, torment, suffering, sadness and disappointment. These feelings may result in loathing, envy, torment, agony, despair, grief, disappointment, shame, remorse, loneliness and humiliation.

Emotions can therefore be classified into two; positive and negative emotions. Positive emotions attempt or intend to consider the whole in decision making to make things better while negative emotions tend to exclude, set aside and destroy. The feeling is enhanced more by fear. However, we experience fewer positive emotions compared to the negative ones. This is mostly due to the fact that most feelings are geared towards self preservation. They warn us and make us act by avoiding others, steering away and retaliating.

Damasio (1994) in Descartes Error establishes that feelings do enhance rational acts in instances where there is indecision. He illustrates that failure to make correct decisions in patients with brain problems was as a result of lack of emotions.

We will write a custom Essay on Emotions and reasoning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotions enable us desist from choices that may probably result in problems as we have a particular sensation that there is something about the option that does not sound right. In the absence of this feeling, one may not be aware that something is not right about the choice or may end up being vague or take a long time to come to a decision.

Emotions affect the way people perceive things and even enable them become better informed. Negative feelings prompt people to reconsider themselves and the poor choices they make and this helps them determine ways to avoid them in the future. For instance a teenager who follows her whims and ends up engaging in damaging behavior like drug abuse or early sex and suffers the consequences is in a better position to learn to contain her impulses and consequently avoid repeating the same.

Emotion assist individuals undertake counterfactual thinking. According to Roese (2000, p.62) wishful thinking, resulting from poor choices, enables individuals reflects on their choices and focus on the outcome of the decision they did not make. This process is crucial in reevaluating one’s mind and thus affects how they make their future judgments.

In addition, emotion can be an integral part of indispensable knowledge about the universe. According to the Affect-as-information hypothesis, Clore, Gasper and Garvin (2001), human beings decide whether a thing is right or wrong by contemplating how they feel about it.

Their final choice depends then on if they perceive the thing to be. For instance when confronted with a difficult situation like influence by peers to take drugs, an individual may ask himself or herself what they feel about the whole issue of substance abuse. If they feel it is wrong to do it, no matter the justifications to give in to the vice, the individual may choose not to do it and vice versa.

In earlier research by Niedenthal, Halberstadt and Innes-Ker, (1999) as cited in Barrett (2002, p.168) demonstrated that emotions change the way people process knowledge as emotional people tend to look at the world in an emotional way. If someone is happy, they perceive the world in a positive way and if unhappy or sad, everything around them looks gloomy.

Most of the times, people classify things by their feelings than by their implications. That may explain why people who are in love may not notice their partner’s faults or if they do, the fact becomes of little or no consequence.

Through emotions, individuals can know beforehand their reactions to future phenomena and this prepares them on the appropriate course of action. An action in the past influences future reactions. People begin to channel their actions depending on how they anticipate to feel. They naturally begin steering away from actions that will ultimately cause them to feel bad or guilty and instead focus on those that will reward them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Emotions and reasoning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, strong feelings can guide individuals to take part in risky or dangerous acts regardless of the consequences. Feelings such as sexual urges obstruct the ability to think straight. That explains why mentally stable men engage in sexual offenses like rape and incest (Barret, 2002).

In addition, antagonistic feelings like guilt or fear affect normal behavior, the cognitive process, understanding and the ability to keep information. For instance the feelings that accompany the sexual act like anxiety of getting pregnant or being infected with disease fear of the consequences and the guilt of having engaged in the act may affect the way people perceive family planning information and how they practice the concept. Depression can causes serious interference with the way people adapt to life after the feeling is through.

Emotions make thinking easier as they compose the whole mechanism that assist people in the interpretation of the universe and how they behave towards it.

Conclusion Emotion is complimentary to reasoning. They can enhance or undermine critical thinking as they play a big role in facilitating the way people think and ultimately make up their minds. Without emotions, people can still think and arrive at a decision but fail to decide the best decision.

This view is supported by Baumister and Bushman (2007 p.205). Therefore we can conclude that arriving at judgments requires both use of the brain (reasoning) and emotions. Rational thinking assist in bringing forth ideas while feelings enable us decide the ultimate best course of action to pursue.

Emotions help us differentiate between what is necessary and what is not. In cases when one does not have enough time to analyze the correct/rational thing to do, emotions swiftly give us the right course of action as they eliminate irrational ideas. Emotions ensure that we act in a manner that is consisted to reality and the consequences. Emotions help us think over our once ‘rational’ ideas by giving them more contemplation aside from the logical one.

However, there is need to exercise control in order to enhance our thinking. Emotions should not be left to completely rule our judgments. Situations require that we be sober minded and as much as we at times cannot stop the emotions from coming, we nevertheless have the ability to choose those that are most beneficial to our wellbeing. As Martensson clearly states, in (Siraj and Zaibun, 2008 p.54), “Feelings are much like waves, we can’t stop them from coming but we can choose which one to surf.”

List of References Ansoff, H.J., 1965. Corporate Strategy. New York: Harper


Organizational Behavior and Concepts Essay scholarship essay help

Organizational Culture and behavior Culture and behavior of an organization tend to have a similar meaning and are very important in determining the way the operations of an organization are carried out.

The concept is essentially concerned with the way employees of an organization think, hence become so crucial in understanding how their performance can be increased, make it cost effective, and ensure that their services are well utilized in the organization. For one to comprehend the meaning of the above statement, one should first of all have an understanding of what the term culture entail (Schermerhorn, Hunt,


Humanizing Globalization’ Professional Analysis of Speech Essay essay help free: essay help free

Professional Analysis of Speech World Trade Organization’s Director General Pascal Lamy delivered the speech titled ‘Humanizing Globalization’ the on January 30, 2006, in Santiago, Chile. Lamy’s use of language is exemplified hereunder.

Imagery and figures of speech– Lamy’s speech is rather limited. The only imagery and symbolism in the speech emerges when he appears to equate recent events on the global stage to military activity or even social upheaval. He talks of technological ‘revolution’, social and economical ‘forces’ and ‘a new territorial dimension.’ Apart from these few panoramic sweeps of the events shaping the world today, the rest of his speech remains literal.

Lamy’s speech is lacking in humour yet it is not dry. Humour breaks the walls between speaker and audience through shared laughter. This is important when the speaker is presenting an argument in which he hopes the audience will eventually see things from his or her point of view and act accordingly.

The battle is not just for the minds but also for the hearts of the audience. What Lamy’s speech lacks in humour he compensates for with kind words towards the host country. His warmth toward the host is further evident when he praises Chile’s commendable role in international trade. He also honours the capable authority of President Ricardo Lagos; a man he salutes with admiration and announces to that entire he takes pride in their friendship.

Irony– In his magnanimity with praise, Lamy gives us the impression that there are certain points in which he disagrees with either the policies of President Lagos or the theme of the seminar, namely ‘humanization of globalization’. This is ironic considering that he had just declared his admiration of Chile’s president and his policies.

Idioms– Lamy’s usage of idioms is evident in phrases like ‘more and more people’ ‘globalization on individuals,’ and ‘opening up’. Their use relevant and Lamy has succeeded in incorporating them in to the formal tone of his speech.

Imagery– The speech lacks in imagery, although Lamy’s response to the “humanizing of globalisation” is testament that he has been drawn into the imagery made up by the seminar organisers. Considering that globalisation is a concept that has no human characteristics, how then can it be humanised, one may ask. Lamy’s response seems lays bare his opinion that what the world needs is more consideration about what people may have to undergo in the globalised era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pronouns and alliterations– Lamy’s use of pronouns is balanced and relevant throughout the speech. He however avoids alliteration in his speech with the closest evidence being in the phrase “sometimes similar, sometimes very different from one place to another” (Lamy).

Length– Lamy’s speech is long on generalities and short on specifics. His statement that people need to seek global solutions to counter globalization’s negative effects, imply that he does not have a good idea what these solutions might be.

Lamy’s style of language is formal, yet personal. His use of language makes the easy to listen to, and an even better reading piece. His forthright language is expected considering the specialized audience he addresses.

Specifically, Lamy seems to be addressing government officials, bureaucrats, think tanks, leaders of other international organizations and delegations from other nations. His avoidance of alliterations, too many idioms, or metaphors appears a deliberate action on his (or his speechwriter’s) part, intended to make the speech easy to hear and comprehend.

Works Cited Lamy, Pascal DG. Humanizing Globalization. WTO News, 30 Jan. 2006. Web.


Violence in Sports: When Life Is Dangerously Threatened Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Because of the growing concern for the violence in sports, the problem is now widely discussed among modern psychologists. However, this issue has been examined for quite a number of times and roots back into the history of sports. Thus, it is important to consider the problem not only as the sore spot of the modern culture, but as something that is inherent in human being, perhaps, the spirit of competitiveness.

The Article in Details: All That You Wanted to Know Entitled “The Determinants and Control of Violence in Sports”, the article written by the talented professors of psychology, Peter C. Terry and John J. Jackson explored the shapes which violence in sports can take and suggests the ways to handle them in the field, as well as during the training. Published in the distant 1985 in the journal named Quest, it created quite a stir in the scientific circles.

Causing people to think about the roots of the sports violence and the ways to eliminate or minimize it. It is quite peculiar that even now, 20 years later, the pieces of advice given by the scientists remain topical and prove efficient despite their ripe age. It seems that the established system of psychological evaluations of the sportsmen’s behavior does not age.

Researching the Problem in Deep: The Concern for the Violence in Sports One of the most important features of the article is that it takes into consideration both the aggression as people’s primary instinct and as the trait of character acquired in the course of personal development, the specific social behavior which suggests a certain pattern for sportsmen to follow. Calculating the percentage of the cases of explicit aggression in the sports field, the authors come to the conclusion that aggression is determined both by the inherited instincts and the social role of the sportsmen.

What has been taken into the focus of the research is the conceptual model of aggression process (Terry 33) on which the assumptions of the aggressive behavior of sportsmen is based on. It is also important that the researches focus on the background of sportsmen to understand the roots of the antisocial behavior in the field.

Considering the problem, it is necessary to see what predetermines the sportsmen’s violence in the field psychologically. Both suggestions introduced in the article are plausible, yet it seems that with the mass media in the modern sport, the reasons for the sports violence can be different.

Another issue which can trigger the sportsmen’s violence is the wish to become even more famous. Relying on the halo effect which makes them invincible to any criticism in their fans’ eyes, sportsmen can resort to violence in sports as the means to gain more popularity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also seems that the Lombardi ethic has its effect on the sportsmen during the game. Under the spur of the win-or-lose ideas dragged into the mass media, fans may not notice the excessive violence in the field. Adding to the excitement of the spectators with the bright and witty comments, the mass media curtains the tragic consequences of the violence in the field. Such is the cost of introducing sports into the popular culture.

Conclusion In spite of the fact that there have been numerous attempts both to justify sports violence and to prohibit the outbursts of violence in the field, it is obvious that sports violence cannot be stopped at present. Inflamed by the mass media which makes the scandalous sportsmen even more popular, sports violence is still storming. Only introducing the new standards and ideas of sports, it will be possible to change the situation.

Works Cited Terry, Peter C and John J. Jackson. The Determinants and Control of

Violence in Sports. Quest, 1985: 37. Print.


Hyundai Eqqus’ Marketing Description Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Hyundai eqqus


Works Cited

Introduction There has been increased competition in the business world. This is attributed to existence of different manufacturers producing similar products. Technology has been advancing day in day out with the latest technology winning the market favour.

As any company aim is to maximize the returns and lower the cost of production while still providing efficient services to its customers, regular review of the company’s market strategy is very necessary. One of the key aspects to business growth is marketing. The information about the product to be sold must be presented well to the prospective customer.

The best way to approach it is to indentify the market needs and explain how the product is to fulfil the market demand. This paper seeks to lay a platform for making a platform for marketing plan for motor industry company specifically Hyundai. The paper will provide a marketing description of Hyundai eqqus, its primary benefits to the consumers, the relevant brand issues relating to the company as well as reasons as to why consumers would choose the product over those of other competitors in the motor industry.

Hyundai eqqus Most motor vehicle buyers buy their cars for different reasons, for example, sporting, commercial, business purposes as well as a sign of social class. The Hyundai show room is furnished with different models of car specifying specific needs as per the requirement.

The cars are categorised into three main categories which are passenger, recreational and commercial (Hyundai 1). Some of the important aspects considered are the suitability of the car for the purpose it was intended, the convenience of the car and the availability of the maintenance service to the customers.

Hyundai eqqus is manufactured in South Korea. The car history dates back from 1970 to date. The Hyundai car manufacturer falls under Hyundai group comprising of different institutions in almost all fields of the economy (Kanda 1).

Due to increased growth of the company since its establishment in the mid nineteenth century, there have been need to establish new branches in different parts of the world. Increased market demand for Hyundai automobiles has also necessitated it. This has had positive effects in that accessibility to any model has been brought closer to the customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There have been continuous motor industry improvements which have been used in various Hyundai motor vehicle models. These have been able to meet different customer’s requirement such as speed, fuel consumption and general outlook. The company also gives back to the community through aspects such as environmental conservation and World cup Sponsoring. The Hyundai eqqus has resulted from improved technology and a high class vehicle which is becoming preferred by the upper class.

According to the current world, safety has become a necessity. The Hyundai eqqus has incorporated the necessary security measures. The vehicle is equipped with airbags, safety belts, good suspension, good head lamps, reflectors and very good braking system. The seat belts are now a necessity in any car and must be equal to the number of seats in the car as a rule to the car manufacturers.

The belts help to maintain the person on board in his position in case of a crash thus minimising the extent of the injuries that might be suffered. The existence of well performing head lamps and well placed side mirrors assist the driver to view clearly the road so as to be able to react in time in case of an emergency. The suspensions are strong and made from good material whose research has shown promising results.

These suspensions are designed so as to favour different types of roads by being able to absorb the shock waves (Hyundai experience 1). The airbags ensure the persons on board do not get injuries from objects inside the car in case of an accident (Gilles 3). The steering wheel is hydraulic and is very good. It has good finishes which not only look attractive but also give the hands a firm grip while driving. The dash board is also covered to avoid minor injuries that might occur.

This car can also be armoured to avoid injuries and death when the passengers are attacked by armed gangs who shoot at them. Armoured vehicles have found their market among top executives such as presidents and they can withstand blasts (Living 4). Their numbers are increasing day in day out. This is due to increased criminal activities all around the world.

The physical outlook of any product is of much importance in the marketing of any product. Attractive products usually attract customer’s attention and are found to win in the market. Hyundai have put this into place by making perfect finishes on the Hyundai eqqus model. Despite Hyundai eqqus’ high standard manufacturing for its customers, its price is relatively low compared to that of its fellow competitors.

The main competitors are BMW, Mercedes and Toyota. The Hyundai vehicle allows less external noise into the vehicle and thus provides a conducive environment for working inside the vehicle. Hyundai eqqus is equipped with gadgets that are connected to the internet. These gargets are useful in terms of communication and access of data. This is one of the latest technologies in the motor industry thus pushing it a step ahead (Motor Authority 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Hyundai Eqqus’ Marketing Description specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the current world, there has been the problem of global warming. This has led to numerous researches on the best ways to minimize the negative impact. Global warming has been a consequence of air pollution. The main sources of this pollution are from the increased number of industries and motor vehicles.

This pollution interferes with the Ozone layer which plays a major role in protecting the earth from harmful radiations. The Hyundai Company has incorporated technology in its motor vehicle models such as Hyundai eqqus to increase efficiency which is inversely proportional to pollution. This is a great move that should be encouraged since it helps in the conservation of our environment.

Conclusion Considering the current increase in the number of car purchases around the globe, the customers are left with a decision to make as to which car fits them. Different manufacturers have put into place the technology available to them. In the case of Hyundai eqqus, the technology has been incorporated to bring forth the good features it pocesses so as to sail well in the modern market.

Another important thing in this car is its fair price compared to those of equivalent vehicles from competitors. The Hyundai eqqus car is also environmental friendly as the good mechanisms have been put in place to take care of the exhaust products. Thus taking into account all this factors make the Hyundai eqqus one of the best car available for purchase in the market.

Works Cited Gilles, Tom. Automotive service: inspection, maintenance, repair. California, CA: Cengage Learning, 2003. Print.

Hyundai, Experience. Hyundai Technology: Worldwide Hyundai. World Wide Hyundai, 2011. Web.

Hyundai, Showroom. Worldwide Hyundai. World Wide Hyundai, 2011. Web.

Kanda, Hall. Transforming Corporate Governance in East Asia. New York, NY: Taylor


History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Citizenship to Illegal Immigrants

Nature and Scope of Illegal Immigration

Effects of Immigrants

What Needs To Be Done


Works Cited

Introduction Illegal immigration into the U.S. has been on the rise in the last few years and this has sparked debate in the Congress and prompted many immigrant supporters to hold peaceful demonstrations in the streets.

This debate has led to many controversies which heated up when the former president of the United States (President Bush) addressed the nation through the television requesting for a wide-ranging approach to the immigration debate. According to his statement, he was going to send about six thousand National Guard troops to the Border States. These troops were going to provide intelligence and logistic support to the border patrol agents but were not to enforce law.

Apart from protecting the border, Bush noted that the House should pass legislation that allows all illegal immigrants who have lived and worked in the U.S. for a considerable period of time to be able to become citizens. The nature, scope, and effects of immigrants are addressed in this paper. It also proposes some policies to be implemented by the government in a bid to curtail the demerits of illegal immigrants

Citizenship to Illegal Immigrants When the house is granting citizenship to illegal immigrant, it should take note of the difference between an illegal immigrants who have moved into the U.S. in the recent past and an immigrant who has lived and worked for a long period of time, and has established himself, for instance, has a home, a family and a clean record.

The immigration debate puts at stake the lives of more than 12 million illegal immigrants who are working in the U.S., the companies where they are employed, rule of law, and job openings for low-skilled Americans citizens (Smith and Edmonston 66).

Questions raised in the debate include; do the illegal immigrants take away job openings from the Americans? Do they depress the wages paid to the American? Should the law compel illegal immigrants to go back to their country of origin? or should a legislation be passed that would allow illegal immigrants to continue working in the U.S. but pay some penalty?

Some of these questions have been addressed and others remain unsolved. If illegal immigrants are deported from the U.S., it is not only them who will suffer, but this may affect the economic position of the U.S. because these illegal immigrants are so many and they have taken up jobs in some of the high profile companies (Lynch and Woodyard 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nature and Scope of Illegal Immigration Pew Hispanic Center conducted a study in order to clearly understand the nature and scope of illegal immigration. In the study, the term “unauthorized migrant” was used to refer to a person residing in the United States, but not a citizen.

This is a person who has not been allowed to reside permanently in the U.S. and his temporary status does not allow him to work. According to the study, more than 12 million illegal immigrants resided in the U.S. as at March 2005 and this was a rapid increase from 8.4 million in 2000. Most of these unauthorized migrants are from Mexico and Latin America.

The study also revealed that illegal migrants account for about 5% of the total labor force which is equivalent to 7.2 million workers out of the total labor force of 148 million. They are employed in specific jobs, for instance, 19% work in construction jobs, 4% in farming and 15% in installation and repair (Jeffrey 2). Supporters of illegal workers point out that the economy of the United States require such laborers because they can work in certain types of jobs that can not be taken up by Americans.

However, Briggs refutes with this claim and calls it a complete myth. According to him, illegal workers are hired in large number to perform certain tasks, not because Americans are incapable of doing them or because they have refused to take up such jobs, but because the wages associated with these jobs are too low. Some of these jobs do not follow work rules and are in poor working conditions.

Most of the employers who employ illegal immigrants do so in order to cut on costs and to avoid investing in equipment or capital improvements. This has resulted in a decline in wages for low-skill American workers and it seems to be deteriorating daily. Briggs’ argument is that, illegal immigrants should be banned from working in these jobs so as the employers may improve the wages and working conditions for Americans.

Effects of Immigrants Some members of the house and the Senate are convinced that illegal workers suppress the wage rates and take up job opportunities that would otherwise be taken by the U.S. citizens. They create a negative impact on American citizens who are low-skilled making it almost impossible for them to secure jobs in their own country.

Vernon Briggs (a professor at Cornell University) believes that negative impact created by illegal workers on the American citizens and on the labor standards is so intense that the House should put tight measures on the companies that employ illegal workers as a way of discouraging illegal immigrants from taking up jobs in these companies. His conclusion is that illegal immigrants should not be tolerated in the U.S (Espenshade and Belanger 365).

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some members are in support of illegal workers continuing their stay in the U.S. Bernard Anderson (professor in Wharton’s management department), admits that illegal workers have some negative impact on wages and sometimes they take up job opportunities that should be taken by American workers (Espenshade and Belanger 367).

However, he notes that the impact is not as grave as asserted by Briggs. Moreover, Anderson notes that illegal immigrants are hard working and they receive only what they have earned. They are not interested in welfare and, therefore, they should be allowed to continue working in the United States after paying some type of penalty.

The effects of illegal workers (on salaries and job conditions) are not only felt in the U.S., but in also in other nations of the world (e.g. the Middle East). Employers all over the world have taken advantage of the fate of illegal workers and they are employing poor working conditions. Most of these people have run away from their country and would not mind working in such conditions as long as they are able to take care of themselves and their families.

Many people still wonder why and how illegal workers suppress wages. The answer to this lies on market forces of demand and supply. As the number of illegal workers increase, their demand goes down forcing down the wages. If these people are to be deported from the U.S. it does not mean that these companies would not get other people to work for them. The likely scenario is change of working environment by these firms. They would hire other people without interfering with their day to day operations.

It is not only illegal workers who suppress wages, but also low-skilled legal immigrants. In fact, there is no significant difference between the legal immigrants and the illegal ones. The immigration debate should not be focused on the illegal immigrants but low-skill workers who find their way into the U.S. whether illegally or through legal means. This is because if more unqualified workforce is allowed into the U.S., it will help in curtailing costs for employers. Wages will be pressed down making it hard for the Americans to do these jobs.

What Needs To Be Done If the government is to succeed in helping low-skill Americans, it has to reduce the immigration rates. It has to put strict measures on illegal workers before they end up harming the U.S. citizens. Illegitimate or undocumented recruits can dislodge low-skill Americans and other minorities seeking for job openings (or those with limited skills). In addition, even though these illegal workers earn minimum wages, they work in poor conditions which can be dangerous.

Nevertheless, they are not in a position to seek legal remedies because they are living and working illegally in the U.S. The best solution to this problem is to restrict illegal immigrants from entering into the U.S. Lack of illegal workers will force employers to improve the working conditions and also increase wages for the Americans (Edmonston and Smith 21). It will also result into increased job opportunities for the unskilled Americans and other minority groups.

Many of the illegal immigrants are working in horrendous conditions, some are exploited in terms of pay, and some are underage children working in jobs they are not supposed to be. Most of them are working in essence as slaves. Most of these immigrants are males aged between 18 and 30 years, very ambitious, and would take any job even if they are abused or exploited. Immigration is an issue that is discussed at length because of its crudeness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are always up to the challenge and can take virtually any kind of jobs as along as they are able to take care of themselves. This does not mean that the U.S. citizens have any problem or that they are not willing to take certain jobs, it means that there is dissimilarity between the immigrants’ native country and the U.S. It does not matter how bad the conditions of working are in the U.S. because it is always a better alternative for the illegal immigrants as compared to their country of origin (Lynch and Woodyard 4).

They would not mind crowing into apartments or working during odd hours, they would not even complain when they are sexually or racially discriminated because they can not seek legal remedies. That is why many employers prefer to employ illegal immigrants compared to the U.S. citizens.

Illegal immigrants are the most vulnerable members and if the government does not do anything, they will continue to suffer. Immigrations laws have to be enforced in order to protect both the U.S. citizens and the immigrants (Smith and Edmonston 67). One of way of curtailing illicit immigrants is to impose employer sanctions principally at the worksites.

Heavy penalties need to be imposed on employers who employ immigrants as a way of discouraging them on hiring illegal immigrants. It should be made clear to these employers that illegal immigrants are not supposed to be hired because they are not even allowed to live in the country. They have to make sure that all their employees are allowed by law to work.

This will dishearten illegal immigrants and won’t have an alternative than to go back to their country of origin. To ensure that this process is effective, every employer should ask for a job identification card before hiring an immigrant worker. Moreover, physical barriers such as electronic fences can be put in strategic positions to detect when people are crossing borders (Edmonston and Smith 21).

Conclusion It is clear that illegal immigration has resulted in depression of wages and displacement of some U.S. citizens from their jobs. However, it has not affected employment opportunities or earnings as many people tend to believe. Opponents of immigration hold that, illegal immigrants should be deported back to their countries because they have negatively impacted the working conditions and suppressed wages.

However, supporters claim the decline in wages or deterioration of the working conditions is caused by market forces. If the government wants to succeed in improving employment opportunities, it will first have to analyze the market before deciding what cause of action to take.

It is true that, illegal immigrants have had a downward pressure on the wages but this does not mean they are entirely to be blamed for it. It is the employers who hire these people who are answerable to the current problems experienced in employment. These employers take advantage of the plight of illegal workers and hire them to work in poor conditions where they only get the minimum wages.

The illegal workers would not mind working in such conditions because they do not have an alternative and no matter how bad things are in the U.S., they are better off than in their country of origin. The most effective way to deal with illegal immigrants is to enforce sanctions on workers who hire immigrants and discourage them from hiring illegal immigrants by putting penalties.

Works Cited Edmonston, Barry and Smith, James. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington: National Academy Press, 2007.

Espenshade, Thomas J. and Belanger, Maryann. “Immigration and Public Opinion.” In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press, 1998 pages 365-403.

Jeffrey S. Passel. “The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey,” Research Report .Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center, 2006.

Lynch, J. David and Woodyard, Chris (April 11, 2006). “Immigrants claim key role”. USA Today, April 11, 2006. Web.

Smith, James Patrick and Edmonston, Barry. The Immigration Debate: Studies On The Economic, Demographic, And Fiscal Effects Of Immigration. Washington: National Academics Press, 1998.


Death Penalty and Ethics Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Death penalty and Ethics

Arguments In Support Of Death Penalty

Arguments against Death Penalty

My Own Opinion


Reference List

Introduction Philosophy is a very wide discipline with numerous branches and sub disciplines. Some of the sub disciplines include epistemology, which is the study of knowledge for instance its nature, sources and limitation, ethics on the other hand studies morality for instance what is right or wrong or good or evil. Religion is also an essential aspect of philosophy and entails the beliefs that involve the cause, nature and purpose of the universe.

It relates humanity to truths and values. Death penalty can fall well under the ethics and religion branches of philosophy. It is a practice that has been present in many countries around the world although most of them only retain it but do not exercise it. This paper discusses death penalty in relation to ethics emphasizing on what is considered right or wrong based on the arguments supporting and those against it. My own point of view will also be highlighted.

Death penalty and Ethics Death penalty is also referred to as capital punishment. It is usually the sternest form of corporal punishment since it entails taking away the lives of the convicted offenders by the law enforcement officers.

It entails the compulsory execution of a criminal offender as a form of punishment for committing crimes that are considered to be serious by the law for instance murder and treason although in some instances, it could include adultery, rape and some form of fraud. It is an act that can only be ordered by the state. There are numerous arguments put forth both for and against the aspect of death penalty.

The issue of whether or not it is right to undertake capital punishment and the circumstances that should necessitate death penalty has brought about a lot of controversy and debates among various people, the ethical aspect being realized in deciding the moral behind capital punishment especially considering the right to deprive a human being of his or her life.

This is the basic dispute over death penalty. The morality behind death penalty is undermined by different views that are brought forward by different theories or schools of thought in the ethical disciplines.

For example, the aspect of killing is considered either right or wrong depending on the circumstances although in the overall view, killing is evil and unethical. Killing for defense purposes and for the overall good of the society for instance to avoid more harm to the innocent citizens is in most cases justified but malicious killing considered wrong (Cohen and Wellman, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguments In Support Of Death Penalty There are various factors attributed to general punishment for offenders for example deterrent and defense where the punishment is aimed at preventing the offenders from engaging in crime in the future, retribution where the punishment is considered as what the criminal offenders deserve and restoration where the punishment is aimed at restoring a good relationship between the offenders, the victims and the society at large.

The individuals and groups who support capital punishment mainly base their argument on retribution and deterrent and defense at the expense of ignoring restoration since it is not practical once execution is carried out. There are arguments that have been put forth in support for capital punishment. The issue, however, varies from country to country depending on the political grounds or foundation.

In the United States for example, a majority of people, adults, seem to support capital punishment although most of the youths and non governmental institutions are strongly not for it. The law is retained in most of the American states. However, the issue has gained a lot of support in some countries for example Taiwan and there seems to be very little campaign against its perpetration (White, 2011).

Some of the general arguments that are common among the supporters of death penalty include the following. The criminal offenders who have perpetrated criminal activities especially murder have violated the victim’s right to life and, therefore, they should also not be left to enjoy life but rather they should also be killed. This falls under the retribution principle.

This is, however, not ethical as two wrongs do not make a right and killing the criminal offender also entails depriving them of their life which is morally wrong. Another argument that supports capital punishment is that death penalty is a way of showing respect to the victims and the rest of the society.

This is because it is deemed to enhance the healing process of the victim and also it is viewed as a source of peace of mind for the victims and their relations. The belief and perception that there should be justice is also a basis for the support of capital punishment as people believe that equal justice should be maintained hence life should cost another life thus death for death.

The practice of death penalty is also taken as a step towards preventing other innocent individuals that could fall victims in future if other alternative punishments are given to the offenders since they would at one time be integrated with the society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Death Penalty and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is viewed as the most effective and appropriate way of ensuring the society is safe from further criminal acts of the particular offender. The supporters also argue that death penalty is also somehow advantageous to the criminal offenders as it is not as cruel as other sentences that are usually prolonged hence making them suffer for long periods of time.

The fact that it is present in law is also a strong view point for the supporters. Housing a prisoner for his entire life is also considered uneconomical as compared to an execution of the criminal offenders. The supporters also argue that some killing is justified in some instances for example when it is conducted for self defense. This is because some difference is usually attached in the circumstances that led to the killing.

When the killing is in defense, the person killed is not innocent as is the case when the murder is perpetrated by a criminal on an innocent individual. The supporters also argue that the killing of criminal offenders is like killing in self defense since the murderer is not innocent hence justifying capital punishment (Banks, 2004).

Arguments against Death Penalty There are various factors that the people and groups that oppose the issue of capital punishment base their arguments on. Most nations are against the practice of death penalty, for instance, in western Europe, capital punishment is viewed as old fashioned and an act of the past and hence it receives very little public support in regard to its reinstatement. The general arguments against the perpetration of death penalty include the following.

The major argument is that capital punishment entails depriving an individual’s right to life as it involves killing which has never been right as it entails violation of the human right to live. The suffering and pain the criminal offenders face in the event of being sentenced to capital punishment is also too much and considered wrong and unethical as it constitutes a lot of physical and more so emotional anguish which is not right irrespective of what the offenders have committed.

The irregularities and discrimination in the sentencing to death penalty is also a contributing factor towards the campaign against death penalty as the circumstances that lead to its perpetration differ. For instance, if the criminal offence was committed between people of different races or complete strangers, it is more likely to attract capital punishment as opposed to when the crime is committed to people of the same race or with some form of affiliations with the criminal offender.

This aspect brings in some aspects of injustice and unfairness which is wrong and unethical. The issue of death penalty also enhances the chances of police and other law enforcers’ misconduct as they are likely to use some innocent individuals as scapegoats hence face the execution instead of the responsible criminals just because they have some powers and influence in a way.

Statistics have also shown that death penalty is not a solution as the states that advocate and execute it have not shown any significant signs of reduction of violent criminal activities and hence it is more ethical to apply other forms of sentencing other than execution or death penalty as it will eliminate killing which is morally wrong.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Death Penalty and Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The practice of death penalty also shows some negative attributes of the society as it emphasizes on killing as a right act in some situations for instance when offended as is the case for the criminal offenders. The aspect of carrying out the execution is also not morally right or ethical to the executors or the individuals involved in carrying out the act as it affects them psychologically and in some instances, it may affect their perception on life issues as they may not value life as they should.

Death penalty is not only considered unethical by those opposing it but also uneconomical as the cost incurred in it usually exceeds that of trial and life imprisonment. Other forms of preventing criminal activities other than death penalty are also advocated for example education campaigns as they are more effective in preventing other people from indulging in the same as opposed to where the offenders are killed (Oderberg, 2000).

Some of the unique reasons for opposing death penalty include the absolutist view that states capital punishment violates the right to life. The life of a human being should always be preserved unless there is a very good and justifiable reason that dictates otherwise,

The risk of killing the innocent is also so high and the problem comes in since the act is not reversible and once a life is lost it is lost forever making capital punishment even more wrong and unethical.

The side of the death penalty better defended is that opposing the idea of capital punishment. However, there are more arguments that have been put forth in the support of death penalty although I consider them weak as compared to those put forward against death penalty.

For instance the argument that killing the criminal offenders as a way of ensuring justice and respect to the victims does not really work because two wrongs will never make a right. The fact that people consider murder an offence should always stand even in case of execution of the criminal offenders as in both cases, killing and taking of human life is unethical and immoral (Thomson, 1999).

My Own Opinion My own view in regard to death penalty is that it is unethical since no matter the circumstances or the factors that facilitates the offenders to be involved in the serious crimes especially murder, the fact remains that killing is wrong as it entails violation of the victim’s human right to live whether the person has committed crime or not.

The arguments for the capital punishment as explained earlier are also extremely weak and the practice of death penalty is morally wrong. Human life is valuable and even the criminal murderers deserve to live and their lives should not be deprived since their criminal acts do not make them less valuable.

The possibility and high chances of execution of innocent individuals also makes the issues seem very wrong as most people who have undergone execution after some investigations been found innocent. Killing is also negative as we cannot teach that the criminal offenders did some wrongs whereas we also kill them in the name of ensuring justice. Undertaking revenge by killing because the person was also involved in killing is also not justifiable.

There should, therefore, be formulation and implementation of laws and sentencing that should replace death penalty as it is not an absolute solution in the minimization of criminal offences especially those that entail murder.

This is evident since research shows that those states that use capital punishment as a way for dealing with murder cases have not shown any signs of reduction of the violent crimes as compared to the states that have abolished it since it does not play a significant part in educating or preventing others from indulging in the same offences.

Conclusion It is evident the issue of death penalty is associated with a lot of controversy as people differ in regard to whether it is right or wrong. The ethical and religious aspects usually differ with it in most cases as no matter the circumstances, depriving an individual’s right to life is considered evil or wrong. Although most nations retain the death penalty as a punishment for offences deemed to be serious, they do not practice it and there is increasing campaign for the abolition of capital punishment.

The issue of death penalty is, however, very controversial as the fundamental values that are used as the basis for the arguments for and against it are the same which entail the search for justice and respect for human life. Those supporting it argue there should be justice and respect for the victims while those that oppose it argue justice and respect should be shown to the offenders through provision of other sentences other than being involved in depriving the offenders their lives through death penalty.

Reference List Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. United Kingdom: SAGE.

Cohen, I. A. and Wellman, H.C. (2005). Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. USA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Oderberg, S. D. (2000). Applied Ethics: A Non-Consequentialist Approach. Oxford: WWiley-Blackwell.

Thomson, A. (1999).Critical reasoning In Ethics: A Practical Introduction. New York: Routledge.

White, D. (2011). Pros


Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia Term Paper essay help online

Aspects of Government As Personified Through the Ideology of One Man Zine el-Abidine Bin Ali took over leadership as the president of Tunisia in the year 1987 after “ousting his predecessor, the octogenarian Habib Bourguiba who ruled Tunisia since 1956” (Moore, 1988, Page 180). According to Hermassi (1995), this leader came in to power with two ideas on his mind for his reign; “democratization and national reconciliation” (Page 109). According to Sadiki [b] (2002), Tunisia as a country meets, to a large extend, with the Western approval for being “a post of moderation, stability and liberal politics” (page 497). But to a particular level, there exist a “myth” in regard to the “liberal politics” of the country (Anonymous: Zine of the times, 1991). During the Bourguiba regime, “mono-party” rule was “the order of the day” (Krichen, 1992, Page 32). When Bin Ali took over from Bourguiba, Tunisia turned out to have an “electoral democracy” under his reign (Murphy, 1999; Smith, 2011). But, as indicated by Sadiki [a] (2002), “the resulting electoral regime is one that has been carefully controlled by the state is largely constrictive, uncompetitive, and illiberal” (Page 497).

The Power Base of the Tunisian President as Undisputed Leader The “routinisation” and “consolidation” of the hold of Bin Ali on power has brought about much more stability as compared to the situation which was there during the final years of Bourguiba’s reign (Ware, 1986, Zubaida, S. (1989.). The stability came about at the cost of “political pluralism” (Chaabane, 1997). Tunisia tends to have set up credibility in the field of “economic management” (King, 1998, and Economist Intelligence Unit, 1997).

However, in carrying out a comparison between economic liberalization and political liberalization, it is established that economic liberalization has acquired more “momentum” (Sadiki, 2003). Bin Ali used to promise democratizing Tunisia but this was never actually fulfilled (Davis, 2011). According to Zisenwine (2004), Tunisia has stood above the neighboring countries such as Algeria and Libya with its “pro-western foreign policies and its progressive social and economic programs” (Par. 1).

The per capita income of this country is the highest in the region (North Africa- not including Libya), giving a reflection of investment in such key sectors as education. However, the political system of the country has been stagnant and remained at the same point for a long time, beginning from independence time (Zisenwine, 2009).

Standards of Living in Tunisia There exist unfavorable economic conditions in Tunisia. The unfavorable conditions, which include high levels of unemployment and lack of political freedom, is what pushed the unemployed graduate, just like many other youths, to the walls.

According to Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011,), the unemployment rate in Tunisia stands at 14 percent. But in considering the youths alone, the unemployment rate stands at 31 percent. Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011) points out that, “the income share of the top 10% is approximately 32 %, and the top 20% of the population controls 47% of Tunisia income” (Page 18932).

More so, according to Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011), the International Monetary Fund gives description of the Tunisian government management of the economy as well as the economic growth, which is not even; benefiting the northern towns as well as the coastal ones more than interior towns and other regions of the nation as; “prudent macroeconomic management”….”the country’s key challenge is to boost job-generating growth and lower unemployment rates” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18932)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is believed that the President and his family together with a few elite groups are the ones who control the main sectors of the economy to extreme levels (Daragahi, 2011). To emphasize on this point, Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011) points out that that the wikileaks cable from the US embassy in the country gave out a message that “the perception of increasing corruption and the persistent rumors of shady backroom dealings has a negative impact on the economy, regardless of the veracity” (Page 2).

Strength of economic and educational development Even if there are various problems in regard to Tunisia’s economy, not everything about the economy of Tunisia is unwelcoming. The national economy of this country, in relative terms, is wide and diverse, having such important sectors as mining, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.

Beginning from the middle of the 1980s, the Tunisian government has privatized, either in part or entirely, over 160 companies which were formerly owned by the state (Bibi and Chatti, 2005). The country also has good infrastructure including thirteen airports (McDonald-Gibson, 2011).

In the course of the last twenty years, Tunisia has had an average yearly GDP growth of 5 percent (in the course of Bin Ali’s rule) (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011).

According to the IMF report, the economic growth of the country could go even beyond an average of 5 percent over the period of the coming five years as long as “policies and reforms planned by the authorities are aimed at enhancing Tunisia’s competitiveness, developing new markets, and supporting new sources of growth in sectors, with high added value bear fruits” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18933). The education sector in the country is fairly developed but there is need to improve the system in order for it to meet the world standers; and especially the universities (Waltz, 1995).

The Relationships with Foreign Powers In the course of Bin Ali’s rule, the foreign policy consisted ensuring the maintenance of a “balance between close relationships with Western Europe and the U.S along with inter-Arab cooperation” (Anonymous: Tunisia foreign policy, 2011, Par. 1).. More so, support as well as trade partnerships were sought from the Asian nations. France has stayed to be a leading trade partner of Tunisia which is closely followed by Italy.

France had formerly colonized Tunisia but the two countries have still kept links with each other even after Tunisia becoming independent. The relationship established between these two countries has been there for a longer time and they understand each other better and they can deal in various trading activities. The country has also established positive relations with countries in Asia and they nave been engaging in trading activities (Samuel, 2011).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Laws and Civil Liberties in the Country According to Deeb (2002), even if it is clear that Tunisia as a nation has made great efforts in ensuring liberalization of the political system, and is seen as a country having a good track record in the Arab World regarding women’s rights, there still exist several problems to the country’s “genuine electoral choices”.

There exist a number of written restrictions as well as unwritten ones on their choices which makes it quite hard to have “free and fair” elections. More so, in Tunisia, there exist some restrictions that are put in to force, which hinder operations of human rights movements.

An example is given by Deeb (2002) of the “Tunisia Human Rights League” that had its vice president taken to jail in the year 1998. The restrictions are also imposed on NGOs like the “National Council for Liberties” whose registration was turned down. Following this, an environment dominated by fear to come up with political choices that may not get government approval has been set up.

Reasons for the Occurrence of Popular Discontent in Tunisia The Tunisian government was overthrown on 14th January 2011 and the president had to run away from the country to Saudi Arabia (Brom, 2011; Diaro, 2011, Cohen, 2011; “United Nations – Alliance of Civilizations”; 2011; Reuters, 2011).

Bin Ali’s government was overthrown because it failed to control “mass demonstrations” which commenced at the time a youth, who was not employed and was working as a peddler, set himself on fire after the police officers took away his cart which he was using to obtain his daily bread. (Brom, 2011, Amara, 2011, Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, “BBC Monitoring Middle East”, (c), 2010, Oluwafunminiyi, 2011).

This act lit up anger among people who went out to the streets, demonstrating in protest. The protests spread all over the country. These protests resulted from “pent up frustrations over unemployment, high prices and political repression” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18931).

The only thing the president had to say about this in his speech presented on 13 January 2011, was that he was sorry and promised to make things better but He was removed from power the following day (“BBC Monitoring Middle East”, 2011 (a); (“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [d]; Oluwafunminiyi, 2011). This implies that the president did not facilitate effective negation with the relevant parties to overcome the conflict that was there.

A good leader should be ready to negotiate with the parties with whom he is in conflict. It is pointed out by Hackman and Johnson (2008) “negotiation comes in when leaders must influence those who disagree with them…the goal is to reach a conclusion that is satisfying to both sides. Negotiation consists of back-and-forth communication aimed at reaching a joint decision when people are in disagreement” (Page 180).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Problems that need to be addressed in Tunisia There are several problems that need to be addressed in Tunisia. Among these problems, we have lack of employment and especially for the youths, unequal distribution of resources, and violation of people’s (mostly women’s) personal and political rights among others. The leadership in Tunisia has not been a fair one.

Resources have been concentrated in some parts in the country, leaving other parts without anything. Some few people in the country have been controlling the key sectors of the economy. The people who have been controlling these sectors are the president and his family, together with a few other wealthy individuals in the country. More so, in this country, the leadership has not been facilitating power sharing.

There has been no realization of the fact that, when people jointly try to find solutions to the problems facing the society, it is easier to find solutions. Lack of commitment to find solutions that face the citizens is actually what brought about discontent among people, resulting in the overthrow of the government.

The kind of Leader I would want to be I would want to be a democratic leader and this is the kind of leader Tunisia needs. “Democratic leaders engage in supportive communication that facilitates interaction between leaders and followers” (Hackman and Johnson, 2008 p.42).

By a leader adopting the democratic communication style, he or she would encourage follower involvement and participation in the determining of goals and procedures. He or she assumes that the followers are able to make informed decisions. He doesn’t have any feeling of intimidation when suggestions are presented to him by the follows but holds a belief that the contributions that are made by the followers improve the overall quality of decision making.

By Tunisia having a democratic leader, this will facilitate formation of a political party that has the potential as well as “intellectual resources”, as Bassma (2011) points out, “to evolve towards a model of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party, by softening its discourse and positions to adapt to the mainstream Tunisians who have a fairly clear consensus on the social model and the values they want” (Bassma, 2011, Page 3).

This leader will ensure the women’s legal status and their personal rights are protected. He will ensure there are equalities in work as well as representation in the government institutions.

He will also be able to carry out genuine reforms in regard to have democratic elections (Meyer-Resende and O’grandy, 2011). In general terms, in the case where we have a democratic leader, there will be formation of a government that will enable “participation of all forces and meet the objectives of the popular revolution” (Anonymous: Opposition party quits new Tunisia government, 2011, Page 1).

To ensure national unity, the politicians who are in the opposition parties if need be, as Anonymous (Tunisia pins hopes on new rulers, 2011) points out, have to join the government, “parties burned under president Bin Ali…have to be allowed to operate and the repressive laws of the past have to be swept away” (Page 22) and there should also be freedom of the media (“BBC Monitoring Middle East” (b), 2011). Having a democratic leader in power, this will be realized ion Tunisia.

How to Deploy Resources There is need to have equal distribution of resources among people and regions. This is a weakness that has been there in Tunisia causing some people to languish in poverty while others enjoy wealth. The Northern towns and the coastal ones have enjoyed more resources than other regions in the country during Bin Ali’s rule and this need to stop. The idea of a few wealthy elites having excessive control on the economy should cease.

The common trend that has been seen in Tunisia, while Bin Ali was in power, of the president together with his close family controlling the key sectors of the economy should cease if good leadership has to be realized. The specific needs of all the people in the country in all the regions should be identified.

This calls for a need to have a selfless leader who will put the needs of others ahead of his or her own. All the relevant information should be gathered about the needs of every region and various groups of people in the society. This will ensure there will be fair and equal distribution of resources in the country.

Assistance Needed from Foreign Powers The foreign countries need to give assistance to Tunisia in terms of investing in the country and providing foreign aid. The U.N needs to send advisors to the country to give the necessary assistance that may be needed by the government to break away from the unfavorable traditions of the last regime. More so, IMF and the World Bank and other “international lending agencies” are supposed to provide credit to the country to boost business activities, This will help in solving the problem of unemployment.

More so, Tunisia is supposed to be given foreign assistance so that the country can be able to upgrade their curricula in the education sector and this will play a major role in offering educational opportunities for the youth in the country. The local universities are supposed to receive funds from foreign countries and also partner with the foreign universities in order for them to improve the education system.

These attempts will play a major role in the provision of the crucial “economic and social underpinnings for the Tunisian economy” (Davis, 2011). Through this move, the country will also be able to send out a powerful signal or message to the rest of the “authoritarian states” in the Arab World that it is very possible to achieve democratic changes in this region, “an assertion that it suffers from a democracy deficit notwithstanding” (Davis, 2011, Par. 16).

Steps to be Taken by the Leader to Change Tunisia for Better As stated earlier, in order for Tunisia to realize positive change, it need to have a democratic leader. Such a leader will be ready and willing to deal with all the problems facing people in the country by taking necessary measures. A democratic leader does not have self-interest and puts the interests of his or her people before anything else.

He or she is ready to take other people’s suggestions. Following this, he will be able to ensure there is equal distribution of resources in the country without favoring particular regions or individuals. He or she will also put in place a proper democratic system where we have free and fair elections.

He will also be able to find out, from others, the best ways possible of creating job opportunities for his or her people in order to take the necessary measures. Where there is need, foreign assistance in all possible areas will be considered by the leader, especially in regard to foreign aid and investment in the country and improving the education sector.

The leader should facilitate power sharing. By a leader facilitating sharing of power, abuse of power is prevented. “The individuals who do not share power are free to project their insecurities, fears, hostility on others, and to further their interests at the expense of followers”( Hackman and Johnson, 2008, p.148).

The individuals who are powerful in most cases ignore the needs of other people. They pay less attention to identifying other people’s feelings. As a result, these people “are more likely to hold and act on harmful stereotypes and particularly to minority group members” (Hackman and Johnson, 2008, p.148). But on the contrary, the leaders who distribute power have a lower likelihood of abusing power, to take advantage of their followers, to overlook the needs of other people, or to stereotype.

List of References Amara, T. and Lowe C. (2011). Unity government bid to tackle Tunisian protests, The Herald, pp. 16

Anonymous. (1991). Zine of the times.The Economist, pp. 51.

Anonymous. (2011). Opposition party quits new Tunisia government., pp. 1 – 2.

Anonymous, (2011). Tunisia foreign policy. Web.

Anonymous. (2011). Tunisia pins hopes on new rulers: Coalition government pledges huge reforms in bid to halt violence. Belfast Telegraph, pp. 22.

Anonymous. (2011). Tunisia: President flees anger. African Research Bulletin, 47 (12), 18931 – 18966.

Bassma, K. (2011). Tunisia’s democratic revolution and its actors. NOREF Report, pp. 1 – 4.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [a]. (2011). Tunisian leader promises his people freedom, democracy. BBC Wide World Monitoring. PP. 1 – 3.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [b]. (2011). Tunisian’s react to new media options. BBC Wide World Monitoring, pp. 1 – 2.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [c].(2010). Tunisia TV airs reaction to president speech over protests. BBC Wide World Monitoring. pp. 1

“BBC Monitoring Middle East”[d]. (2011).Writer says Tunisian-style uprising in Egypt possible but would not last. BBC Wide World Monitoring, pp. 1

Bibi, S. and Chatti, R. (2005). Trade liberalization and dynamic of poverty in Tunisia: A layered CGE microsimulation analysis .MPIA Working Paper, 2006 -2007, 132, 24 – 54.

Brom, S. (2011). The toppling of the Tunisian regime: Ramifications for the Arab World. ISSN Insight No. 238.

Chaabane, S. (1997). Ben Ali on the road to pluralism in Tunisia. Washington DC: American Educational Trust.

Cohen, R. (2011). The West must stand up for Tunisian democracy – Islamists and all. The International Herald Tribune, pp. 818

Daragahi, B. (2011). Tunisia: Ex-ruler’s finance under investigation. Los Angels Times, pp. 3.

Davis, E. (2011). Beyond the secular-Islamist divide in the Middle East politics. Web.

Deeb, M. (2002). Tunisian elections and election laws. Arab Law Compedium. Web.

Diaro, D. T. (2011, January 16). Toppled president flees Tunisia. Sunday Age (Melbourne, Australia) pp. 16.

Economist Intelligence Unit, (1997). Tunisia: Country profile, 1997 – 1998. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.

Hackman, M. Z. and Johnson, C. (2008). E. Leadership: A communication perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hermassi, A. (1995). “The rise and fall of the Islamic movement”. In Tunisia in L. Guazzonne (ed.), The Islamist Dilemma: The political role of Islamist movements in the contemporary Arab World: Ithaca, pp. 105 – 127.

King, (1998). “The political logic of economic reform.” In A. Layachi (ed.), Economic crisis and political change in North Africa. Connecticut CT: pp. 107 – 128.

Krichen, A. (1992). Le Syndrome Bourguiba. Tunis: Ceres Productions.

McDonald-Gibson, C. (2011). Tunisia in Turmoil as president flees from the anger of the dispossessed. The independent (London), pp. 4

Meyer-Resende, M. and O’grandy, P. (2011). What’s next for Tunisia? The International Herald Tribune, pp. 9

Moore, C. H. (1988). Tunisia and Bourguibisme: twenty years of crisis. Third World Quarterly, 10, 176 – 190.

Murphy, E. (1999). Economic and political change in Tunisia: from Bourguiba to Ben Ali. London: Macmillan.

Oluwafunminiyi, R. (2011). Nigeria: A lesson we must learn from Tunisia. African News, pp. 1

Reuters,(2011). Street protests seen continuing. Dubai Business, pp. 2.

Sadiki, L. (2003). Political liberalization in Bin Ali’s Tunisia: Façade democracy. Democratization, 9 (4), 122 – 141.

Sadiki, L. [a] (2002). Bin Ali’s Tunisia: Democracy by non-democratic means. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 29 (1), 57 – 78.

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Samuel, H. (2011, February 28). Sarkozy sacks foreign minister after Tunisia row. The Daily Telegraph, pp. 16

Smith, M. (2011). Tunisia could trigger pro-democracy wave. The Scotsman, pp. 8

“United Nations – Alliance of Civilizations” (2011, Junuary 14). Tunisia’s president dissolves government. African News, pp. 1.

Ware, L. B. (1986). The role of the Tunisian military in the post-Bourguiba era. Middle East Journal, 39, 27 – 47.

Waltz, S. (1995). Human rights and reform: Changing the face of North Africa politics. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

Zisenwine, D. (2004). Tunisia’s elections: The long road to democracy. Tel Aviv Notes. No. 113. Web

Zisenwine, D. (2009). Tunisia’s elections: Marking time. Tel Aviv Notes. Web.

Zubaida, S. (1989). Islam, the people and the state: Essays on political ideas and movements in the Middle East. London: Routledge.


Racism in America after the Civil War up to 1900 Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The United States experienced a revolutionary time from the 1840s to 60s. During this time, Murrin et al assert, “that two of the main issues which remained prominent were slavery and women rights” (236). This paper highlights the abolitionist views on race and change since the civil war to the year 1900 and how they affected the American view on race.

Alcott as an author turned nurse serving in the civil war shows some mixed views on race in the extracts from one of her works at the hospital sketches. Alcott in her writing extracts in hospital sketches points out that despite the revolution, racial and sexist beliefs remained prevalent. The abolitionists of whom Alcott’s family was one were opposed to slavery. Alcott expresses the dilemma encountered by her. At the onset of the civil war, Alcott looks for employment as a nurse.

This is in breaking free from the traditional role defined by the sexist attitude at that time. Her family in the dialogue suggests to her a number of options. A suggestion by Tom to “go to nurse the soldiers” (Alcott Ch. 1) finally gets Alcott’s upbeat. There is an air of disillusion with a tone of racism even as Alcott considers this option where she resigns with the view that “the Periwinkles are a hopeful race” (Alcott Ch. 1).

The desire to offer her nursing results in an interview and a readiness to go to Washington at short notice. The response to Alcott’s application comes and it “brought a disappointment along with its good will and friendliness” (Alcott Ch. 1) informing her that her application in the Armory hospital was unsuccessful, but she has to fill “a much less desirable one at Hurly-burly house” (Alcott Ch. 1).

As the narrative builds up, Alcott portrays mixed views on the issue of race. Slavery as a product of racism was a major issue in the civil war, with the opponents of slavery as abolitionists. However, the tone in Alcott’s writing, including words like colored, Irishman, Englishman still indicates Alcott had mixed views on race. As an abolitionist, Alcott conflicts her view when she addresses some of her patients as “Irishman” (Alcott Ch. 3, par. 12).

The mixed views by Alcott concerning race also show up when she goes to the Senate chamber where she “found the speaker’s chair occupied by a colored gentleman” (Alcott Ch. 5, par. 14). At the nursing facility in Georgetown, Alcott while working becomes vocal about the deplorable conditions at the treatment facility. She is also aware of a part of the African American labor force at the facility that unfortunately has no option but to work under the deplorable conditions for long periods, which in itself is a form of slavery (Alcott Ch. 5).

Americans’ view on race from the time of the civil war to 1900 was most conspicuous during the ‘time of the reconstruction’ (Lecture notes- Reconstruction 1a). When the union forces finally won in the civil war, slavery as a product of race was unilaterally abolished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The southerners who were agriculturalist and heavily depended on slaves to work on their large farms suddenly found that there was no labor, since they could not retain slaves. So abstract was the idea of free labor that began in the north that when the federal government moved in during reconstruction after the war, the white southerners mooted racial based clandestine movements such as the Ku Klux Klan (Lecture notes-Reconstruction 6), which carried out violent attacks on black southerners.

The free blacks in these southern states had racial reactions against them and were not able to compete favorably for honorable jobs, eventually settling for menial ones with low wages that always tied them to a dependency arrangement with their masters or employers.

The American civil war was partly about the re-definition of the American constitution in line with every federal state’s policies. The eastern and northern states adopted certain inclinations that separated them from the southerners and westerners.

This re-definition also affected the labor market even as the executive arm of the union of federal states shifted towards the abolition of slavery as a product of race. Free labor became a political ideology for the northerners who now looked at the southerners who depended on slave labor as misplaced.

However, this ideology was carried on more as a political gain stay because there still existed racism in the northern states or well still the African American or colored to even up to 1900 and beyond. The notion of free labor from a northerner‘s perspective was therefore, more of a party ideology, the same one that saw the names of famous abolitionists like Lincoln assume presidential office.

Seemingly, the American view on race dramatically changed during this period of the civil war. It, nevertheless, assumed a different form after the civil war up to the year 1900 and beyond with aspects of racism remaining pronounced in attitudes. Today race remains a very sensitive issue in the American society being driven on one part by antagonist views and the protagonist ones on the other side.

Works Cited Alcott, Louise. Hospital sketches. 1863. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Racism in America after the Civil War up to 1900 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lecture notes (Feb. 14 to Feb. 25).

Murrin, John, Paul Johnson, James McPherson, Gary Gerstle, and Emily Rosenberg. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American people. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth publishing, 2003. Print.


The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh Critical Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of the movie; ‘Mr. Bones’




Works Cited

Introduction Historians and social scientists have presented various impacts of white colonization to different societies. In historical works, scholars present the British as the master and the owner of property within the colonized societies. Most scholars assert that all the colonizers were rich, powerful, and influential. This argument has become a truth in the current political and social societies, as evidenced by the unabated blame from the colonized to the colonizers.

However, the purpose of this essay is to present a contrasting scenario of the ‘whites’ in a colonial country based on the movie Mr. Bones by Anant Singh. The producer illustrates a story of a white man who embraced the African culture to an extent of becoming a magician of a fictional Kuvukiland. Particularly the essay describes the plot, analysis and undertakes a critical evaluation of the movie.

Description of the movie; ‘Mr. Bones’ A videovision Entertainment production and directed by Anant Singh, Mr. Bones is a fictional story in a traditional south African geography illustrated by Kuvukiland. Mr. Bones, the protagonist, is a white man and interestingly a magician. His role is to mediate between the people of Kuvukiland and their god, known as “the great one”.

The story begins with Mr. Bones presiding over the traditional marriage of the Kuvukiland king, King Ekule. Before Mr. Bones authenticates the marriage, he first performs the rituals using his ‘bones’. Controversy of the story occurs when an Indian man interrupts the marriage ceremony. The man offers a necklace to the king with a precious stone before he dies on the hands of the king. Suddenly, the stone starts to haunt the king; Ekule transforms into a violent Indian man.

As all the people in the ceremony run for their safety, Mr. Bones is busy pleading to the “mighty one” to take away the evil spirit from the society. Finally, the god responds and the king transforms back to Ekule. Because of the condition of the king, Mr. Bones seeks for a solution from the “mighty one”.

Through a series of magic and pleading, Mr. Bones establishes that the king should return the precious stone to its home to discard the haunting spirit. In their hunt for the home of the stone, Mr. Bones and his King, Ekule, end up in an Indian town but they do not know the exact geographical position of the town. When Mr. Bones performs his magic, “the mighty one” directs them to a woman in a red dress.

They finally land to Renshi, an Indian woman who develops interest with the stone since her fiancé, Kuyti, is a professor in gemstone and she promises to accommodate them in the city. Kuyti investigation establishes that the stone is precious and valuable, in fact, with a value of more than $ 6 million US dollars. Because Mr. Bones and his king are nescient and backward, Kuyti deceits them that the stone has no value- it is a glass.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite his lies, Mr. Bones maintains that he should have the custody of the stone and grabs it away from Kuyti. The story continues with a series of attempts by Kuyti to steal the stone from Mr. Bones but all end in vain. Finally, Mr. Bones, Renshi, and King Ekule emerge the victors after successfully returning the stone to its origin (Singh).

Although the story contains traditions, which are no more in practice, its intended audience includes the modern political and social societies, which the British colonized. It is a story, which demonstrates to the historical scholars that not all the British were colonizers; some were at the service of the society.

It also demonstrates to the social scientists the impact of the African culture to other societies such as Britain and Indian (Singh). This work is a form of entertainment to the children as it is rich in comical scenarios. Lessons learnt from this work touches societal levels ranging from children to adults, historians to social scientists and politicians.

Analysis Purposely, Anant Singh aims to change the perception of the society about the colonization of the world by the European superpowers. Scholars have explored the effects of the colonization particularly to the cultures of the societies colonized with a general assertion that colonizers degraded and imposed their culture to such societies.

By using the character of Mr. Bones, a white and indeed a colonizer, Singh demonstrates that there were those whites who assimilated, perhaps colonized by the cultures of the society. The producer uses geographical setting of South Africa; it is the longest colonized society in the world. This has a revelation that not all the whites were indeed colonizers; some loved the cultures of those societies and as illustrated by the character of Mr. Bones, came to integrate with the local people.

Singh brings the Indian character into the story to reveal their entrepreneurship efforts and love for money. Professor Kuyti is an outstanding character in this demonstration. Since the story dates back to 1880s, it is vivid that entrepreneurship is a hereditary skill among the Indians.

Although English is the main language in presentation of the story, the writer has used a variety of colloquialisms. The author uses the terms “great one” to describe the power and the might of the god of the Kuvukiland. In order to illustrate the backwardness of Mr. Bones and the people of Kuvukiland comically, the writer uses “dragon fly” or “flying monster” to describe an airplane and “hippo and cockroach” to describe a lorry.

We will write a custom Essay on The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to show the Indian perception over the other races, Kuyti refers to Mr. Bones and King Ekule as “the brothers to baboons”. It is worth noting that the colloquialisms used in this story are simple and direct for the audience to interpret. As mentioned earlier on, this story intends to entertain and educate children and impact on the perception of the scholars on colonization.

Critique The story represents the characters as strongly clinched to their traditions and customs. Mr. Bones and King Ekule represent a typical society under colonization while Renshi and Kuyti illustrate a typical Indian society. In fact, these characters conform to traditions of their societies and as a result, they offer several effects to the society of the 21st century.

The story reinforces the cultural expectations of an Indian society among the audiences. In contrast, it narrates a different story of colonization to the viewers; it illustrates how the whites were assimilated into the culture of a colonized society.

This will change the common knowledge that the white colonizers degraded the cultures of the societies they colonized. According to Schmidt, the public knowledge about issues in the society depends on the information broadcasted in the media (1). It is therefore justifiable that the audience’s perception on this matter of history will change and perhaps offer insight to elicit more studies into the history on the subject.

To the audience, the story aims to kindle some emotional responses. First, the audience should believe that the cultural degradation was not a result of colonization by the whites but due to cultural relationships, as represented by the character of Mr. Bones. Secondly, scholars and historians should further contest on their assertions on the effect of colonization to cultures in the colonized societies in order to offer conclusions that are more convincing.

The story, though indirectly, has political effects to most societies all over the world. Media plays a very crucial role in political decision-making (Brigg and Muller 132). Political blames by the once colonized societies to their former masters are likely to reduce. Since the story has revealed that colonization was a ‘two-way’ process, no party therefore, should blame the other for issues arising from colonial times. In a broader perspective, the political relationship among all the races of the world and hence international relations will improve.

Conclusion The character of the white magician, Mr. Bones, in a black society is a revelation to the modern society that the culture of the colonized society assimilated and colonized some colonial masters.

This is a fact, which most historical studies have never ventured to explore. Besides presenting this academic position, Singh illustrates the comedy of an uncivilized society through the characters of Mr. Bones and King Ekule. The story has great social, cultural, and political effects to the modern societies. Mr. Bones’ storyline is indeed a resolution to the conflicts of the 21st century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Brigg, Morgan and Muller, Kate. “Conceptualizing culture in Conflict Resolution.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 30.2 (2009): 121-140.

Schmidt, Diane. “Public opinions and media coverage.”Journal of Labor Research 14.2 (1993): 1-2.

Singh, Anant, dir. Mr. Bones. Videovision Entertainment, 2008. Film.


Communication Discussion Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction J.L. Austin, a language philosopher redefines the traditions involved in linguistics as a formal way of communication that fulfils different actions. He extensively discusses the performative utterances compared with other forms of utterances like the constative utterances. The application of performative statements leads to many failures especially in marriage, constitution, baptism, or during betting activities where it is common. However, redefinition of existing rules can make the performative utterances fit as conscious statements and actions thus making it true. On the other hand, constative utterances as a way of communication can cause one to judge an action as true or false.

Definition and distinction of performative and constative utterances Performative utterances are those sentences or expressions, which are neither true nor false but rather have effects of felicitousness. This happens because there is assumption that the expression of an action is in form of words that are in explicit manner. Unfortunately, one can decide to utter the words or say a statement without conscience hence not fulfilling the promise of purported act. When this happens, the result is unhappiness, which heralds failure.

The phenomenon of performative action comes into play during circumstances like when making marriage vows, when writing a will, naming of babies during baptism or in a betting game. Austin asserts that the purported action may be socially acceptable as true or false hence describing perfomative action as senseless. For instance, in American law evidence, an account made by another person automatically becomes a testimony and not hearsay (Austin 79).

On the contrary, constative statement has a clear difference between the false and the true; hence, one can make a judgment from them. On the other hand, the performative statement can be wrong in three different ways as opposed to the constative statement. For instance, the perfomative statement may be invalid if a person who is unauthorized by law performs it.

Secondly, the performative utterance may be unacceptable if the persons involved do not intend to fulfill the action. Thirdly, perfomative utterance may be performed without bearing in mind the commitments involved hence being null (Austin 80). These features distinguish perfomative and constative statements.

An example of Performative utterance using the 3-i model In the context of marriage as a social institution, the performative statement said to fulfill the action is “I do”, which fulfills the action of marrying (Austin 79). Analysis of this statement makes it as the real action of marriage. This clearly describes an agreement between all the participants to keep the promise. There is some element of subjectivity among the participants including the priest administering the marriage vows.

All of them have to undergo personal experience or emotional feeling during the process or citation of the statement. Suppose the performative statement “I do” is said incorrectly, or one is already married; in such situations, the marriage action is null. Additionally, if an illegal or unqualified person conducts the marriage, it is also subject to nullification. In summary, the 3-i model; that is, institution, interpretation and inter-subjectivity describes marriage vows as a performative utterance as shown above.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The perfomative utterance is distinct from constative utterance in that it is neither true nor false. Due to this feature of perfomative statements, they are subject to abuse hence not fulfilling the purported act. Despite the lack of truth that underlines perfomative statements, they occur in important life issues like in marriage and during presentation of evidence in courts.

Works Cited Austin, John. How to do things with words. Harvard: Harvard University press, 1975.


The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh Critical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of the movie; ‘Mr. Bones’




Works Cited

Introduction Historians and social scientists have presented various impacts of white colonization to different societies. In historical works, scholars present the British as the master and the owner of property within the colonized societies. Most scholars assert that all the colonizers were rich, powerful, and influential. This argument has become a truth in the current political and social societies, as evidenced by the unabated blame from the colonized to the colonizers.

However, the purpose of this essay is to present a contrasting scenario of the ‘whites’ in a colonial country based on the movie Mr. Bones by Anant Singh. The producer illustrates a story of a white man who embraced the African culture to an extent of becoming a magician of a fictional Kuvukiland. Particularly the essay describes the plot, analysis and undertakes a critical evaluation of the movie.

Description of the movie; ‘Mr. Bones’ A videovision Entertainment production and directed by Anant Singh, Mr. Bones is a fictional story in a traditional south African geography illustrated by Kuvukiland. Mr. Bones, the protagonist, is a white man and interestingly a magician. His role is to mediate between the people of Kuvukiland and their god, known as “the great one”.

The story begins with Mr. Bones presiding over the traditional marriage of the Kuvukiland king, King Ekule. Before Mr. Bones authenticates the marriage, he first performs the rituals using his ‘bones’. Controversy of the story occurs when an Indian man interrupts the marriage ceremony. The man offers a necklace to the king with a precious stone before he dies on the hands of the king. Suddenly, the stone starts to haunt the king; Ekule transforms into a violent Indian man.

As all the people in the ceremony run for their safety, Mr. Bones is busy pleading to the “mighty one” to take away the evil spirit from the society. Finally, the god responds and the king transforms back to Ekule. Because of the condition of the king, Mr. Bones seeks for a solution from the “mighty one”.

Through a series of magic and pleading, Mr. Bones establishes that the king should return the precious stone to its home to discard the haunting spirit. In their hunt for the home of the stone, Mr. Bones and his King, Ekule, end up in an Indian town but they do not know the exact geographical position of the town. When Mr. Bones performs his magic, “the mighty one” directs them to a woman in a red dress.

They finally land to Renshi, an Indian woman who develops interest with the stone since her fiancé, Kuyti, is a professor in gemstone and she promises to accommodate them in the city. Kuyti investigation establishes that the stone is precious and valuable, in fact, with a value of more than $ 6 million US dollars. Because Mr. Bones and his king are nescient and backward, Kuyti deceits them that the stone has no value- it is a glass.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite his lies, Mr. Bones maintains that he should have the custody of the stone and grabs it away from Kuyti. The story continues with a series of attempts by Kuyti to steal the stone from Mr. Bones but all end in vain. Finally, Mr. Bones, Renshi, and King Ekule emerge the victors after successfully returning the stone to its origin (Singh).

Although the story contains traditions, which are no more in practice, its intended audience includes the modern political and social societies, which the British colonized. It is a story, which demonstrates to the historical scholars that not all the British were colonizers; some were at the service of the society.

It also demonstrates to the social scientists the impact of the African culture to other societies such as Britain and Indian (Singh). This work is a form of entertainment to the children as it is rich in comical scenarios. Lessons learnt from this work touches societal levels ranging from children to adults, historians to social scientists and politicians.

Analysis Purposely, Anant Singh aims to change the perception of the society about the colonization of the world by the European superpowers. Scholars have explored the effects of the colonization particularly to the cultures of the societies colonized with a general assertion that colonizers degraded and imposed their culture to such societies.

By using the character of Mr. Bones, a white and indeed a colonizer, Singh demonstrates that there were those whites who assimilated, perhaps colonized by the cultures of the society. The producer uses geographical setting of South Africa; it is the longest colonized society in the world. This has a revelation that not all the whites were indeed colonizers; some loved the cultures of those societies and as illustrated by the character of Mr. Bones, came to integrate with the local people.

Singh brings the Indian character into the story to reveal their entrepreneurship efforts and love for money. Professor Kuyti is an outstanding character in this demonstration. Since the story dates back to 1880s, it is vivid that entrepreneurship is a hereditary skill among the Indians.

Although English is the main language in presentation of the story, the writer has used a variety of colloquialisms. The author uses the terms “great one” to describe the power and the might of the god of the Kuvukiland. In order to illustrate the backwardness of Mr. Bones and the people of Kuvukiland comically, the writer uses “dragon fly” or “flying monster” to describe an airplane and “hippo and cockroach” to describe a lorry.

We will write a custom Essay on The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to show the Indian perception over the other races, Kuyti refers to Mr. Bones and King Ekule as “the brothers to baboons”. It is worth noting that the colloquialisms used in this story are simple and direct for the audience to interpret. As mentioned earlier on, this story intends to entertain and educate children and impact on the perception of the scholars on colonization.

Critique The story represents the characters as strongly clinched to their traditions and customs. Mr. Bones and King Ekule represent a typical society under colonization while Renshi and Kuyti illustrate a typical Indian society. In fact, these characters conform to traditions of their societies and as a result, they offer several effects to the society of the 21st century.

The story reinforces the cultural expectations of an Indian society among the audiences. In contrast, it narrates a different story of colonization to the viewers; it illustrates how the whites were assimilated into the culture of a colonized society.

This will change the common knowledge that the white colonizers degraded the cultures of the societies they colonized. According to Schmidt, the public knowledge about issues in the society depends on the information broadcasted in the media (1). It is therefore justifiable that the audience’s perception on this matter of history will change and perhaps offer insight to elicit more studies into the history on the subject.

To the audience, the story aims to kindle some emotional responses. First, the audience should believe that the cultural degradation was not a result of colonization by the whites but due to cultural relationships, as represented by the character of Mr. Bones. Secondly, scholars and historians should further contest on their assertions on the effect of colonization to cultures in the colonized societies in order to offer conclusions that are more convincing.

The story, though indirectly, has political effects to most societies all over the world. Media plays a very crucial role in political decision-making (Brigg and Muller 132). Political blames by the once colonized societies to their former masters are likely to reduce. Since the story has revealed that colonization was a ‘two-way’ process, no party therefore, should blame the other for issues arising from colonial times. In a broader perspective, the political relationship among all the races of the world and hence international relations will improve.

Conclusion The character of the white magician, Mr. Bones, in a black society is a revelation to the modern society that the culture of the colonized society assimilated and colonized some colonial masters.

This is a fact, which most historical studies have never ventured to explore. Besides presenting this academic position, Singh illustrates the comedy of an uncivilized society through the characters of Mr. Bones and King Ekule. The story has great social, cultural, and political effects to the modern societies. Mr. Bones’ storyline is indeed a resolution to the conflicts of the 21st century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movie Mr. Bones Produced by Anant Singh by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Brigg, Morgan and Muller, Kate. “Conceptualizing culture in Conflict Resolution.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 30.2 (2009): 121-140.

Schmidt, Diane. “Public opinions and media coverage.”Journal of Labor Research 14.2 (1993): 1-2.

Singh, Anant, dir. Mr. Bones. Videovision Entertainment, 2008. Film.


Communication Discussion Essay college essay help

Introduction J.L. Austin, a language philosopher redefines the traditions involved in linguistics as a formal way of communication that fulfils different actions. He extensively discusses the performative utterances compared with other forms of utterances like the constative utterances. The application of performative statements leads to many failures especially in marriage, constitution, baptism, or during betting activities where it is common. However, redefinition of existing rules can make the performative utterances fit as conscious statements and actions thus making it true. On the other hand, constative utterances as a way of communication can cause one to judge an action as true or false.

Definition and distinction of performative and constative utterances Performative utterances are those sentences or expressions, which are neither true nor false but rather have effects of felicitousness. This happens because there is assumption that the expression of an action is in form of words that are in explicit manner. Unfortunately, one can decide to utter the words or say a statement without conscience hence not fulfilling the promise of purported act. When this happens, the result is unhappiness, which heralds failure.

The phenomenon of performative action comes into play during circumstances like when making marriage vows, when writing a will, naming of babies during baptism or in a betting game. Austin asserts that the purported action may be socially acceptable as true or false hence describing perfomative action as senseless. For instance, in American law evidence, an account made by another person automatically becomes a testimony and not hearsay (Austin 79).

On the contrary, constative statement has a clear difference between the false and the true; hence, one can make a judgment from them. On the other hand, the performative statement can be wrong in three different ways as opposed to the constative statement. For instance, the perfomative statement may be invalid if a person who is unauthorized by law performs it.

Secondly, the performative utterance may be unacceptable if the persons involved do not intend to fulfill the action. Thirdly, perfomative utterance may be performed without bearing in mind the commitments involved hence being null (Austin 80). These features distinguish perfomative and constative statements.

An example of Performative utterance using the 3-i model In the context of marriage as a social institution, the performative statement said to fulfill the action is “I do”, which fulfills the action of marrying (Austin 79). Analysis of this statement makes it as the real action of marriage. This clearly describes an agreement between all the participants to keep the promise. There is some element of subjectivity among the participants including the priest administering the marriage vows.

All of them have to undergo personal experience or emotional feeling during the process or citation of the statement. Suppose the performative statement “I do” is said incorrectly, or one is already married; in such situations, the marriage action is null. Additionally, if an illegal or unqualified person conducts the marriage, it is also subject to nullification. In summary, the 3-i model; that is, institution, interpretation and inter-subjectivity describes marriage vows as a performative utterance as shown above.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The perfomative utterance is distinct from constative utterance in that it is neither true nor false. Due to this feature of perfomative statements, they are subject to abuse hence not fulfilling the purported act. Despite the lack of truth that underlines perfomative statements, they occur in important life issues like in marriage and during presentation of evidence in courts.

Works Cited Austin, John. How to do things with words. Harvard: Harvard University press, 1975.


Globalization Argument of Anna Tsing Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Anna Tsing has defined globalization as a way of interaction among the people, organizations, as well as arms of different nations. The process of globalization is activated by commerce, various types of investments, and information technology among others.

On the other hand, the impacts of globalization are widely felt on the environment, cultural practices, political aspects, and in the advancements of the economies globally (Appadurai, 32). Moreover, the welfare of the human beings also depends greatly on the globalization. This essay will be focusing on the argument of Anna Tsing on globalization with regard to economic industry.

Globalization is believed to be in existence for thousands of years. People in the past were interacting in trade by buying and selling to each other at great distances. Later, the corporations as well started investing in different nations at different levels. The cross border interaction through trade and investments has resulted to policy and technological advancements in the past few years (Tsing 345). This type of advancement has enabled the world to enter into a new level of economic development.

The trade interaction among different nations has increased by 20 times since late 1950s to current times. The current globalization in the economy is positively defined as it is faster compared to the past, it has cheaper expenses, its effects are running deeper, and its going farther compared to the globalization of some decades ago.

Various flows of the current globalization have come up with strategies of operating economies both inside and outside the countries. This has been made possible through different governments exercising free market methods of economy. The free market economic system has resulted to increased productivity and the provision of new business opportunities where investments can be practiced.

The current globalization has created a path for governments to negotiate the changes of various barriers to commerce (Appadurai 89). Through these paths of negotiations, several international treaties have been made for advancing the commerce of goods and services, as well as different ways of doing investment.

Through the idea of creating opportunities in outside markets, several organizations have managed to establish foreign industries whereby both the production and trade of the final goods and services is managed by their foreign counterparts. The globalization definition by Anna Tsing of being plural is manifested by its diverse nature of encompassing various disciplines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The economy sector of any nation has so far made a great positive move through the advancements of the information and technology which is one of the major drivers of globalization.

The different arms of economy such as consumers of goods and services, different types of investors, and the traders have been empowered by the advanced information and technology to utilize the upcoming business opportunities (Tsing 333).

These economic actors are able to make more informed decisions concerning the prevailing trends of the economy globally, through the help of the advanced information and technology. The process of shifting assets is understood better by these actors better and is done faster through collaboration with the right partners.

The diversity of globalization has proofed to improve the standards of living of the underdeveloped countries together with their citizens economically (Appadurai 124). Though globalization is associated with both benefits and costs, analysis shows that the benefits are outweighing the costs and such it should be adopted by the majority as part of the developments.

The opponents of globalization try to claim that the issue of free market is of being of benefits to the western world at the expense of the underdeveloped and the developing worlds.

Works Cited Appadurai Arjun. Globalization. Minneapolis: University Press, 2001.

Tsing Anna. “Global Situation”. Cultural Anthropology volume 15, issue3, pages 327-360, August 2000.

We will write a custom Essay on Globalization Argument of Anna Tsing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Videocracy: A Double-Sided Sword for the Fame-Hungry Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Look Deeper into the Abyss – and Watch It Look into You

The Way the Movie Flows

Episodes Merging into a Story

Looking at a Different Angle

The Way People See It


Works Cited

Look Deeper into the Abyss – and Watch It Look into You Throughout the history of the world, there has always been the kind of power which could not be suppressed or overthrown. The people of the greatest influence, these beholders of the world’s power were merely the TV officials. Despite the fact that many people consider the TV as merely a means of entertainment, its role is of much more importance for the mankind. Seemingly only a means of entertainment, it shapes people’s ideas of the world and the politics even in a more impressive way tan any political campaign ever undertaken.

The Way the Movie Flows In accordance with its name, Videocracy is completely devoted to the role of the mass media in people’s lives. A snapshot of the life path of the great, the miserable plebs and the cunning in-between specific social layer, journalists, the movie director has managed to show the amazing fusion of tragedy and mockery of the Italian TV. However, was it only the Italian television that the film director depicted? Applied to any other country, this situation would look quite the same.

Disclosing the vices of the modern people, their striving not for prosperity, but for money overdose, Eric Gandini created an unforgettable masterpiece which mirrored the lowest of the low which is hidden within people’s souls. It was extremely wise of the film director to choose the shape of a documentary to create the vision of one’s life grasped in the camera focus. It is obvious that there was only one genre which could embrace all the issues which the topic of the movie touches upon.

Episodes Merging into a Story In spite of the fact that in the end, shown as a premiere, the movie looks like a complete, whole piece which cannot be separated and taken apart, it must be kept in mind that at the moment of creation the film was a sequence of short scenes and breakdowns. Thus, the original course of the operator’s thoughts can be traced even as the movie is shown to the public, eventually trimmed and with all the unnecessary elements cut. Thus, following the stream of ideas which the movie director sends the audience through, it can be observed that Videocracy has much more than the twists of the plot to expose to the loyal audience.

As W. W. Norton noticed,

A storyboard is a shot-by-shot (sometimes scene-by-scene) breakdown that combines sketches or photographs of how each shot is to look with written descriptions of the other elements that are to accompany each shot, including dialogue, sound, and music. (Norton 116)

Thus, it must be admitted that in Videocracy, the sequence of the breakdowns was linked into a fascinating cadence of the accidents and actions of the lead characters. Making a sequence of episodes, this chain of events was developed into an intrigue spinning around the issue which has always been and will always be on the agenda of the day – people’s concern for the life of celebrities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A deep and insightful movie offers much more than merely entertainment. Taking a look at the way in which the pieces of the film have been organized, it becomes obvious that there is much more than meets the eye in the movie plot.

Although the film cannot be considered what could be called a mocumentary, the author of the film approached the border between the tragic and the comic in Videocracy with help of the expressive and effective mise-en-scenes. Structuring the movie, Gandini enclosed the most significant scenes as the parts which must hook the audience’s attention and increase the excitement. As Norton explained,

The visual elements of mise-en-scene are all so crucial to shaping out sympathy for, and understanding of, the characters shaped by them. (156)

It is peculiar that the scenes of the movie create a specific rhythm which is nard to conceive from the very beginning nut which one can feel as the film goes on. It can be traced that some of the scenes float into each other smoothly and softly like a river, yet some of them are roughly interrupted to show the unceasing motion of live going on both in the big world of the great celebrities and the feeble lives of those who follow the track of the celebrities’ lives.

One of the most dramatic film episodes, the one in which the lead character watches the life of the celebrities on TV, is the key to the entire movie. It is quite peculiar that with a single scene the film director has managed to open the audience’s eyes on the idea of the movie and on what is concealed behind the film plot. Fixing the audience’s eyes on the ordinary people’s passion for the snatches of the celebrities’ lives, Gandini crates a perfect illusion of an ersatz life with all its sad consequences.

Looking at a Different Angle The complicacy of movie-making presupposes that the shits should be arranged into a composition which could draw people’s attention to what is happening on the screen in a blink of an eye. Putting people and events in their places is truly a great gift which is rather hard to acquire and completely impossible to master. With his wisdom and the feeling for the film rhythm, the movie director arranged the pieces of the story in a unique, the one and only correct way which made people gasp in awe. As Kawin said,

Film composition is dramatically affected by camera placement, not just in terms of camera-to-subject distance, but also in terms of angle. A horizontal line, seen from a certain angle, can become a diagonal or even a vertical. (171)

We will write a custom Essay on Videocracy: A Double-Sided Sword for the Fame-Hungry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, it is absolutely clear that with help of the camera placement the movie obtained the necessary depth and the specific accent on certain elements. Changing the angle of the camera shot, making the objects pop out into the focus of the camera, or, vice versa, hide in the dark of the perspective, the cameraman did an amazing job on the movie.

A perfect example of the way the shift of the camera focus made the audience pay specific attention on certain details were the episodes with the lead character watching the celebrities. Exposed to the audience’s gazes, the face of the lead showed the whole palette of the fan’s emotions, while the celebrities in the rear created an impression of pathetic nothingness.

Another piece to analyze is the sounding of the movie. Such is the nature of sound that it can either turn the movie into a complete masterpiece, or ruin it completely. In the case of Vidoecracy, the sounding was quite different from the ones in the range of other Italian movies.

One of the typical sore spots of the Italian movies, the lack of sound effects, was turned in a movie peculiarity of Videocracy. As LoBrutto marked, “Italian movies are very sparse. They have dialogue, then music, and then very few sound effects.” (258)

It is obvious that Videocracy is no exception; however, taking into consideration the specifics of the movie, one can understand that the abundance of sounds would have spoiled the film. For the movie to look like a snatch of the real life, the true vision of a fan’s existence, his/her thoughts and course of actions, it was absolutely necessary to employ the most precise system of sounding.

What must be especially marked about the movie sound system is the background for the dialogues of the lead characters. Considered as the accidental noises, the creak of a door, the water rustling in the bathroom or the sound of someone’s breath was designed to emphasize the atmosphere of the movie, so tense and thought-provoking, making the audience think what is going to happen in the next couple of minutes.

The Way People See It Although Videocracy was the only work of Eric Gandini which gained the worldwide recognition, the film director had a number of other works. However, taking a retrospective on Gandini’s works, it can be supposed that the previous films were the steps which slowly but surely led the film director to Videocracy. The peak of his creativity, Videocracy could be traced in every work of Gandini.

Although none of the previous works of Gandini touches upon the issue of political life, there is certain breeze of rebellion in the other works of his. For instance, in Sacrfiicio: Who Betrayed Che Guevara Eric Gandini also considers the issue of fame and notoriety, emphasizing that there is actually very little difference between the two.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Videocracy: A Double-Sided Sword for the Fame-Hungry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another Gandini’s work where the premises of Videocracy could be traced is Surplus: Terrorized into Being Consumers, is interconnected with Videocracy even more closely. Considering fanaticism and loyalty to certain famous personalities in Videocracy, Gandini actually develops the idea which he expressed in Surplus. Taking into consideration these movies, one must admit that the idea of Videocracy as the continuation of these topics and their further development into another set of ideas is quite plausible.

In spite of the fact that the depth of the movie allows several interpretations, it seems that there is the one which fits the movie best. Making people see the life of the famous personalities as it is, without the specks of glamour caught in the focus of the camera, Gandini makes it clear that the impact of the TV on people’s course of thoughts has become increasingly shocking and even frightening.

Helping the audience understand the absurdity of believing in what is pouring out of the TV-set right into people’s minds, Gandini suggests a “pill” which will heal the TV-addicts from their weird mania.

Conclusion With help of the specific means of sounding and arranging the scenes of the movie into a sequence which made a double sense and made the plot more complicated, Eric Gandini created a movie which explored the popular topic in an unorthodox method.

Although the topic which Gandini chose as the key idea of his movie was rather beaten track for the modern cinema, the way in which he mirrored the life of celebrities’ and their fans was more than merely creating another vision of the popular problem – it was in fact the revelation for the audience.

Employing special techniques of sounding system which added a specific air to the movie, Gandini made the movie stand out of the range of Italian movies. In spite of the fact that the means which the movie director used were rather conventional and time-tested, he broke a new ground in the movie-making with help of the original way in which he conveyed his ideas to the public. Considering the idea of TV-addiction and the plausibility of the information which TV suggests, Gandini raised quite a topical issue.

Works Cited Barsam, Richard. Looking at the Movies. W. W. Norton EBook Reader. N.D.

Kawin, Bruce F. How Movies Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: University of California Press, 1992. Print.

LOBrutto, Vincent. Sound-on-Film: Interviews with Creators of Film Sound. Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. Print.


A review of Sojourner Truth the Narrative Term Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Book summary

The indispensable place of the woman in the society


Reference List

Introduction Sojourner truth was born in 1800’s America, one of the darkest period in human history characterized by slave trade and gross mistreatment of the black race. She and her parents as well as the other slaves were subject of untold torture from their masters. She was the daughter of slaves owned by Colonel Ardinburgh, of Ulster County, New York.

The manner in which the slaves were treated can be told by the way she was sold together with a flock of sheep after the colonel died, to her new owner John Nealy, ruthless master. Truth would not stand his ruthlessness such that it is a relief when a fisherman buys her from Nealy and out of her misery.

Her new master eventually sold her to Scriver a master who he later claims in her work to be so human that she worked diligently for in appreciation. Towards the last year of her servitude at John Dumont she escapes to stay with Isaac van Wagenen after he refuses to sell release her. Eventually Van Wagenen pays off Dumont for Sojourner’s freedom. She thus becomes Isabella van Wagenen She goes to New York to work as a house servant after fighting successfully to have her son release from state slavery.

However she couldn’t stand the second Sodom (New York) and thus left on her pilgrimage to preach top the world about the existence of the spirit of Jesus Christ and espouse the virtues of truth integrity and honesty to any one who cared to listen. She eventually got her story after she joins Northampton Association, its proceeds from which she manages to buy her own house and live in comfortably until her demise (Hutchins, 2004).

Despite the fact that the reader initially sees the ugly hand of the slavery, Isabella lived and wrote her works when the civil rights and liberties movements had stated to take root in the American society. There were organized revolted by the slaves who objected to inhuman treatment by both their masters and the state.

They were treated as property and brutally punished for any perceived misdemeanor (Religious Tolerance, 2006). Eventually through the works of Isabella as well as other human rights activists, the slaves were guaranteed freedom and liberty.

Book summary One of the biggest talking points in this story is the power of faith and religion as the only source of solace to the oppressed. The slaves have gone through so much that Isabella concludes in her preaching’s that the tribulations she faced as a slave actually prepared her to face the hardships in this world that she compared to hell.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her mother’s enviable reverence to God reflected the faith and hope as the only thing that could emancipate them from the bondage of slavery. The story is also a reflection of one of the biggest denial of individual liberties and violations of not only human rights but physical bodies. Slaves were treated as property and would be sold off to willing buyers at a negotiated prices.

What is more appalling is the fact that the masters had the power to decide which slave married whom and even annul marriages by slaves. It is not the physical torture that inflicted pain but the moral and social mistreatment. The masters did not even deem it fit for slaves to receive religious instruction and to observe some religious practices. It is such mistreatment that leads Isabella to question whether God really exists and if He does hear the cry of the slaves.

However she is emancipated from this thought and converts to Christianity and becomes a renowned preacher and public speaker. This story is not all grim and sad but an inspiration a motivation towards emancipation of the individual from the shackles of historical injustices amidst the struggles. Truth is the reflection of this self-proclaimed freedom.

She has had gone through many trails and temptations but eventually triumphed. This journey though cannot be accomplished if a person is distant from God. Truth managed to make her sojourn because she was motivated from her from the spiritual enlightenment that she got from fasting, as taught by Mr. Pierson. Most importantly, the book emphasizes the power of the woman in the society.

A woman is the most significant of symbol of care and longevity of the family unit in the society. Isabella as well as her mother are two women in this story who model this. She fights for the release of her enslaved son while her mother always teaches her children the good virtues of worship, making them stronger even in the hardest of times. Thus, a woman even though rejected in many quotas including the church is the glue that holds the society together (Hutchins, 2004; Truth, 1850).

This essay thus purposes to highlight the experiences of the Africana woman as a nurturer, caregiver figure whose strength and determination is the basis of a sustainable society.

The indispensable place of the woman in the society The story is not merely a feminist work but a work that portrays the Africana Womanism concept. Africana Womanism is not a feminist theory but a consideration of the experiences of the Africana people as strugglers in this world. Africana Womanism does, unlike other feminism theories, embrace and recognize the place of a man in the society and equates man to woman. The two are codependent strugglers and workers who must coexist harmoniously.

We will write a custom Term Paper on A review of Sojourner Truth the Narrative specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women are the leaders in society and should lead the struggle to reconstruct and regain a society inflicted by so many evils (Reed, 2001). Thus, Africana Womanism is not centred on the woman interests but on the family and society, and portrays the woman as the glue that holds these together. She loves children, appreciates and respects men as copartners bringing up a healthy society.

Sojourner Truth is the reflection of this Africana woman whom never gives up even when it seems impossible to go on (Truth, 1850). According to Hudson-Weems (1998), the strength Africana woman is drawn from her abilities to give herself a defined identity. This is the realization of an inner emancipation and freedom.

When Isabella decides to make her pilgrimage, she realizes that she cannot do it unless she changes her name as well as her identify. Thus she drops the name Isabella van Wagenen and adapts to Sojourner Truth, an identify changes that has a spiritual inspiration as a woman who carries the truth. She thus journeys to the east devotes her life to preaching and inspiring the oppressed by urging them to turn to God an seek solace.

This self-identification is however not self centred but inspired by the multiple roles the woman plays in the society as a leader, nurturer, spiritual counselor and caregiver. Her new identity is not intended for her won personal gains but to benefit the society. It is not a feminist identify but an identify focused on the family and society. Her new name thus describes her intention to liberate the society from the social evils in it.

Thus, a redefined woman becomes a caregiver a mother and nurturer not only to her children but also to the whole society. She feeds it with food for the stomach as well for the soul and spirit. Her public meetings and forums are her ways to nurture the society in the right way by instilling in it the virtues of good while discouraging the bad.

Truth is not ignorant of the fact that the society also needs human care. In the course of her journey, she comes across a family that is in need of care. She offers her labor to the family but refuses monetary compensation. In this way, she shows her willingness not only to nature the society spiritually but also physically (Aldridge and Wheeler 2001; Hudson-Weems, 1998; Truth, 1850). Isabella’s description to Gilbert of the role she plays as a mother to her five children leaves the reader overawed.

She was a proud mother of five children whom she cared for with utmost love. So good was she a mother that the one of her masters would allow her time to tender her children. She espoused in her children the virtues of honesty, truthfulness and integrity and also never allowed any cheating or stealing and would rather her children go hungry than steal bread from her master to feed them (Truth, 1850).

As explained earlier, this story looks beyond the sexist feminist ideas propagated by other feminist theories. It is about women who stand for what is right and beneficial to the entire society and not just for themselves. It can be related to the film “Amazing Grace” a moving story about a selfless British anti slavery activist and reformer William Wilberforce who not only furiously fought for the rights of the British slaves but their emancipation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A review of Sojourner Truth the Narrative by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The movie, like the story of Sojourner Truth, is a depiction of people that are willing to sacrifice and stand up for what is right. Wilberforce like Isabella has a strong personality and oratory skills that he utilizes effectively to speak about the social injustices prevalent in the 18th century England (Dargis, 2007).

The two genres portray a society that is devoid of virtuous leadership in government and thus needs strong individuals who are flexible enough to offer their service to the societies as well as lead the search fro equality. Wilberforce does not get any support other than from his fiancé and later wife (Dargis, 2007). Isabella is alone in her journey and receives little help apart from a few lawyers who helped fight for her sons release.

Her story portrays a woman who is strong not only in physically but also inward. Truth makes her journey on foot with meager requirements and seeks refuge from the poor from whom she finds ready help (the rich always had an excuse despite being in a position to) (truth 1850). Her role as a care giver requires a lot of physical strength. She wouldn’t have afforded to strap her children and work in her masters plantations had she been a physically weak woman (Hudson-Weems 1998; truth 1850).

The Africana woman is a person full of virtuous character, drawn from her spiritual energy to nature the family and society. Thus, faith in God becomes paramount. Truth, is a religious figures and have an unshakeable faith in Jesus as the only savior; a character and notion she inherited from her mother (who mused to instill I them the virtues of diligence honesty and integrity) and reinforced by Mr. Peterson (Hudson-Weems, 1998).

She carries the same spirit and teaches her own children the same teachings she got from her mother. Her strengthen in character is also seen when she decides to flee from the ‘sodomy” of new York (Truth 1850). Through Isabella van Wagenen the reader sis thus able to see that for the Africana woman is not a sexist feminist but a person who carries the whole society on her back and would not rest until it is liberated.

Conclusion Many a reader would confuse the story as a feminist idea whose intention is to portray the strength of a woman and her efforts to dominate the man in the society. This is far from the truth as Hudson-Weems, (1998) explains, the story is a portrayal of the woman as a symbol of the society emancipation not only from slavitude but also other social injustices.

Africana Womanism celebrates the woman without intimidating the man like other feminist views. The woman is the principle caregiver and nurturer to the society and the family. She is the source of strength both physically and spiritually, and as such indispensable.

Reference List Aldridge, D.,


The Use of Ethos Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

An Apology for Poetry

The Marriage of Heaven and Hell

The souls of Black Folk


Works Cited

Introduction The task of writing is tough but the most demanding aspect of writing is connecting with the reader. Convincing or persuading the reader to believe what the author has written is always tough and this is due to the fact that different readers have different opinions and perspectives about life.

For many centuries now, the world has seen many great writers who were or are able to hold the reader spellbound persuasive writing. The ability of a writer to use moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular society to convince his/her reader is described as ethos. Ethos is generally used by authors to capture the attention of readers by writing reputable or credible essays, poems or articles.

This essay will consider specifically the use of ethos, or display of personal character in the rhetorical strategies and practices of Sidney, Blake and Dubois. William Blake was described as an author that was radically innovative and politically engaged while, Sir Philip Sidney was described as an author who wrote fully within the classical tradition.

W.E.B Du Bois on the other hand exemplified the humanistic liberal arts education and advocated for all who were able to engage in intellectual pursuits. The essay will show how these three writers also employed ethos and other forms of persuasion like; logos and pathos in their writings. However, persuasive forms like logos and pathos will be brought in only as far as they are relevant to clarifying how ethos is used by Sidney, Du Bois and Blake.

An Apology for Poetry “An apology for poetry” was written by Sir Philip Sidney in 1579 but it was published after Sidney’s death in 1595. Sidney was renowned for his defense of poetry and he did this by combining philosophy and history. He was also known to be a critic of bad poetry. In all his works, Sir Philip Sidney used ethos to gain a reputation for himself.

“An apology for poetry” analyses the reason for the existence of poetry, its essence and beauty are vividly explained. Sidney describes a poet as a creator then he highlights the beauty of poetry in his usual classical traditional manner. (Sidney, 211) The ability to capture the reader’s attention and earn a reputation due to an author character can be termed or described as ethos.

In the book “An apology for poetry” Sidney appeals to the reader’s conscience by critically analyzing the good and ugly sides of poetry. (Sidney, 266) Throughout the course of the work, Sidney communicates directly to the reader by explicitly explaining how poetry is an art and skill. He explains to the reader so that he/she can understand that, the poet is an original creator and is therefore not tied to any subjection. (Sidney, 514)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sir Sidney also employs other modes of persuasion like pathos and logos which enable him win the reader’s confidence and trust. The reader is at this point left with no choice but to fully comprehend Sidney point of view as the correct perspective about poetry. Usually, the public tend to respect and believe people whom have earned themselves an impressive reputation. (Sidney, 465) This is no different from Sir Sidney as his massive readers totally support his views about poetry.

In his book “an apology for poetry,” Sidney explains that a poets mind usually has concepts that are not limited to nature. (Sidney, 615) Literally, this means that, poetry creates or is capable of creating things better than they appear naturally. This is an example of the author persuading the reader by the use of logic reasoning and this can be described as logos. All through the book, Sir Sidney is able to capture the reader’s attention with different modes of persuasion which he employs.

The Marriage of Heaven and Hell William Blake is an English poet, play writer, essayist and an author who was able to build a reputation for himself through his outstanding works. Blake’s works or books always seem to have some religious convictions and his book “the marriage of heaven and hell” is no different. But the most unique character of Blake is his ability to persuade or convince his readers through different persuasion modes to understand and believe in his opinion about righteousness or religion. (Blake, 353)

“The marriage of heaven and hell” is a book about Blake’s view of hell. Contrary to the general perspective of hell as a place of punishment, Blake portrays hell as rather a source of energy and he explains this point using different modes of persuasion. (Blake, 614)

The book is widely believed to be his most influential work and he shows great character here by describing his visit to hell. While describing his visit to hell, Blake is able to persuade the reader by appealing to the reader’s emotion and urging such a reader to break free from religious oppression. (Blake, 815)

Due to Blake’s convincing character which impresses a reader because of his unique view of hell, he is able to convince the reader by use of ethos. His ability to show strong moral character makes him endearing to the reader. It is very unusual for a reader to write about hell in such positive light and people tend to appreciate the new twist.

The fact that he used himself as the visitor to hell makes William Blake absolutely outstanding and the manner which he describes his visit to hell is also impressive. It is worthy of note that, very few authors will have the courage to write about or even use themselves as the character that visited hell.

We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Ethos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People tend to shy away from things which they believe to be bad and hell has always been termed as a bad place for bad people. So, Blake willingness to be the character that visited hell earns him the respect of readers and they tend to appreciate his view. The book also, persuades the reader to break free from the bonds of oppression in any form be it political, or religious. (Blake, 453)

The souls of Black Folk “The souls of black folk” is written by William Edward Burghardt Du Bois. The book addresses the issue of racism in the twentieth century. Racism has been a global issue for many centuries but without using the right modes of persuasion to explain its magnitude, a reader will not fully comprehend the extent which racism has reached. (Du Bois, 622)

In Du Bois’ book “the souls of black folk,” he is able to explain and describe vividly how it felt like to be an African American 40 years after the civil war in the United States of America. (Du Bois, 414) Been African American or coming from any other race is a natural thing which no human being has control over but other people tend to think differently.

Oppressing and harassing somebody who has little or no control over his/her race is highly inhuman and totally unnecessary. Unfortunately, skin color was a serious issue in America after its civil war and the then American government showed laxity towards this issue. (Du Bois, 233)

By combining his personal experience with poetry, history and sociological data, Du Bois is able to convince the reader by appealing to the reader’s emotions, his/her sense of reasoning and Du Bois uses his personal character to make the reader understand the problem of racism. (Du Bois, 299)

By narrating his personal experience, particularly the loss of his first son, Du Bois convinces the reader through the use of ethos and by describing the ordeals or dilemmas of African Americans, he persuades the reader by simultaneously appealing to his/her sense of reasoning and emotions.

Conclusion Sir Philip Sidney, William Blake and W.E.B Du Bois are all great writers and all three writers have respectively used ethos at one point or the other to express their views to readers. For Sidney, he defends poetry and gives the highlights of how a poet is supposed to think and act. (Sidney, 415) While for William Blake, it is about convincing the reader that hell is rather energetic instead of the traditional believe that it is a place of punishment. (Blake, 330)

Lastly, Du Bois is able to show his readers the pain and sorrow that Africa Americans encountered in the 20th century 40 years after the US civil war. (Du Bois, 266) Using ethos and other modes of persuasion like pathos and logos, these three authors were able to establish their points effectively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Ethos by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Writing could be a tasking and demanding work particularly the aspect of convincing or persuading readers to understand the author’s point of view. To enable a writer effectively capture the attention of readers and to earn a reputation, it is advisable for a writer to employ any mode of persuasion to bridge the gap between the author’s work and the reader.

Works Cited Blake, William. The marriage of heaven and hell: Oxford: Oxford University press, 1975. Print

Du Bois, William. The souls of black folks: Chicago: McClurg, 1903, print

Sidney, Philip. An apology for poetry: A literary criticism. London: Westminster, 1579. Print


The American: Gender Theme Analytical Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theme of Gender in “the American”


Work Cited

Introduction Henry James (1943-1916) in his book “the American” exposes the various roles assumed by both men and women in the society. The novel takes a complex approach with the theme cutting across the lifestyles in America and Europe. In this novel, James portrays an in-depth greed and selfishness that compels characters to indulge in acts of hypocrisy and greed.

Some characters in the novel are readily willing to forego their dignity in the quest to achieve personal glory and attainment of the power, class and a good title. The role of women in the society seems to conflict with the common norm, as both men and women endeavor to fight for space in society, men’s dignity is infringed on and they are left without any other option but fight for their place. As the world changes from traditional to modern, the gender roles also transform.

Theme of Gender in “the American” Newman being a rich American visiting France is portrayed to be egoistic and had little respect for the European. Some European also perceived the American as inferior while others perceived him as superior. For instance Mademoiselle likens Newman way of talking to that of an angel (James10).

Although the lady is being hypocritical, her enticing complement attracts the Newman who feels at ease enough to learn more French. Just like in the rest of the novel, James has used conflicting personalities to portray women to be willing to pursue their dreams irrespective of whatsoever obstacle standing in their way. This determination meant that women were no longer to be confined to kitchen chores. Such an outgoing character makes women to disregard marriage as a necessity.

The novel depicts the females as more inclined towards upholding the true meaning of institution of marriage. Mr. Tristam suggests that European women take upon themselves to cater for the family as well as promote unity among members (James 14). This noble role has made the institution of marriage retain its meaning despite the several challenges emanating from trends in the modern world.

However, the role of women is also portrayed to change as modernization take place. Mrs. Tristram, though she performs her daily chores, does not see anything worth appreciating in her marriage (James 28). According to the ensuing plot, the transition of the world from the old to the new era has greatly affected the way women behave.

Unlike the old days, the modern women are striving to match men to an extent of abdicating their traditional responsibilities, roles and obligations. Some of the modern women are not ready to get married and they therefore believe that living independent life is better than staying under men’s bondage. The implication of this is that the importance of the institution of marriage is becoming increasing unpopular.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The genders issues are centre stage in the book “the American” given both men and women relentlessly push for their happiness. Mrs.Tristram does not give up in her pursuit to win the affection of Mr. Newman (James 28). According to her, being married meant nothing because she was not satisfied by it and she therefore tried to appeal for Newman’s attention. The topic generates a lot of debate as most women are reluctant to uphold their morals and instead they opt to use dubious ways coupled with hypocrisy to meet their goals.

The determination described make the women proactive in meeting their needs and life aspiration, no matter the challenges presented. However, in past women were less active and often they were perceived as naïve and lived under the shadow of their male counterparts. The desire to pursue personal satisfaction and goals has made ladies to be less submissive to their husbands. This attitude has contributed to most marriages crumbling or loosing harmony and cohesion.

Women characters in the novel are portrayed as hungry for fame and material possessions. It beats logic for a woman to agree to marry an old man in fact three times her age in order to acquire a good title. The motive that drives woman to do such things is described in the novel as an abnormal self gratification.

The attitude has left many families in tatters as marriage vows have been rendered insignificant and unbinding. This scenario has been presented by Claire de Cintr who is willing to marry Newman despite his old age just to acquire a noble title. Although Claire is deemed to be noble, her action and intention portrays a wayward person with selfish motives and personality. Her family is equally to blame as they strive to ensure she entices Newman to marry her to access his wealth.

Throughout the novel, some characters are fond of using threats to pursue their personal gains. Claire’s mother had killed her husband over unmentioned reason; though it is rumored that it was due to family squabbles and miss understandings. This portrays a conflict between genders where in this case the female character is the instigator. On the other hand Newman is also using this information to coerce Claire’s mother to give her consent to the daughter’s marriage.

This meant that the coward nature of women was replaced with aggression and determination to maneuver their ways. Although Newman was a wealthy person who wanted to achieve the best, he is not willing to let his money to buy joy but rather he resorts to using intimidation (James 23). Both men and women are resolved to using wit and other dubious means to achieve their satisfactions regardless of the effects their actions would have to others.

The novel, in many ways, portrayed women at equal footage with the male counterparts; with equal respect, dignity and ability. Valentin confronts Newman as being partial and he claims he is not worth marrying her sister. Valentin suggests that women should be accorded the respect and a fair treatment. The character of Valentin is that of promoting equality in the society and across the gender divide (James 171). This is a new societal development given women in old days were not entitled to self-expression (James 28).

We will write a custom Essay on The American: Gender Theme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the traditional world, women were not allowed to voice anything and mostly they kept much in themselves rather than airing their concerns. Just like men, the voices of women have been recognized and it has brought the desired gender equality and equity into the society. Even though Newman is disgusted by Valentin’s proposition, he has no option but to respect his idea

Initially, the role of women was that of following the men rather than taking the leadership position. However, this is not the case in the novel as women have joined hands with men to offer leadership. Most women are not shy of taking readership position be it in their homes or even in their places of work. As the world changes women are assuming more responsibilities and are equally competitive in their execution and dissemination of duties.

However, the women empowerment does not go well with majority of men who are not willing give the leadership mantle to the women. Mr. Tristram just like Newman is disgruntled by the new found duties of women. To them women ought remain silent and refrain from taking responsibilities in the leadership positions. Despite the much dissatisfaction the women in the novel have proved to be intelligent enough and competent enough to handle some readership positions expertly

Gender is rendered the custodian of the culture and the agent through which the norms are passed over to the other generations. Although, Marquise is eager to enjoy Newman’s dollars, she is torn apart by thought of compromising her customs by allowing her daughter to marry the aged American and holding fast her social class.

The European perceived the American to be of a lower class than them. However, the European’s greed for money makes them to compromise their stance simply because they could not instill the European culture to the proud American. The story exposes the reluctance of individuals to embrace changes as they world changes. The Americans are perceived as willing to change while the Europeans are adamant to stick to their old ways of life.

The struggle between embracing the culture and change has helped towards understanding of the hypocrisy. Despite their hatred for the Americans, the Europeans are in dire need of improving their welfare regardless of the means. To them the end justifies the means and that is why they are swift to compromise their personal principles.

Despite the strong love attraction towards the Newman, Claire proves to be an emblem of change and morally upright person. When her mother Marquise fails to sanction the marriage, she resolves to become a nun. Her stance angers Newman to the point of regretting having fallen in love with her.

Her courage to denounce her relationship with the rich American depicts her as a stand out among the greedy society. Despite the erroneous image that has been given by other image the novel reveals that some women are different and are willing to forego their personal joy to advocate for justice and to deny coercion.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The American: Gender Theme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The novel has also endeavored to illustrate the importance of the all members of the society. Mrs. Bread being a maid in an aloof family is regarded as custodian of vital information which proves importance to Newman’s quest to pursue his love. She reveals the Bellegarde’s family secret to Newman. Mrs. Bread has been used to voice the plight of the marginalized member of the society who when given the platform are willing to influence the proceedings of the society (178).

Although Newman’s effort to make good his threat proves futile as the letter containing the evidence is destroyed, the intervention of the maid is important in the development of the plot. Similar intervention has been made by Mrs. Tristram who helped Newman to meet the Claire. In spite of the fact both Mrs. Tristram and Newman were friends since meeting in London, her contribution in the story cannot go undermined.

The novel has been quick to illustrate Marquis as the agent of civilization. She is said to speak urbanite (James 59) and she is also said to have the best manners in the entire country (James 123). The family had taken upon themselves to carry out civilization, for instance the names of the family members were suggestive.

Valentin is a powerful name often associated love and romance. While Marquis is perceived to advocate for civilization her ego and proud self leaves many people without option but to detest her. This implies that some characters are not willing to allow civilization to takes its course but they are impatient to see it happen. Marquis behaviour generated a bad image to the society as Mrs. Tristram cautions Newman against the associating himself with Bellegardes family.

The aspect of individual taking time to reflect on their lives has also been portrayed to a great extent. Both men and women are sparing their precious time to spend alone to reflect on their lives. Since both parties are driven by the desire to the best in life they therefore take time before making any decisions.

Claire is resolves to terminate the engagement with Newman after analysis all many issues that were engulfing their relationship. On the other hand the character of Newman is founded on personal reflection and the determination to acquire the best in life.

Although the novel surrounds the transition from the traditional age to the post-modern world, the author depicts a strong deviation between the character of Newman and that of the European.

The proud American is so aloof and his pride makes him to disregard the European. He even thinks that his money was sufficient to acquire whatever he wanted in life. In the event that his money fails to provide he often resorted to intimidation and threats.

It is revealed that Newman’s had planed to revenge on New York business world for business losses that he incurred. On another hand Newman was determined to expose the Bellegardes treachery to his advantage. He represents the insensitive people who are willing to use everything at their disposal to attain their personal motives without considering the feelings of others.

In the novel the gender balance had been enhanced and both men and women are portrayed to be as significantly addressing social aspects of life. Apart from procreation purposes, Newman and Mrs. Tristram have revealed that romance is about having fun and is a basic requirement for healthy living.

Furthermore, Newman is also an acquitted with the Parisian Nioche. His desire for happiness makes him an unreliable man and an untrustworthy one. His character sharply contradicts that of Claire who proves faithful to him. It’s therefore imperative to deduce that the female gender is more resolved to uphold good morals compared to the male characters.

Conclusion The entire novel harbors numerous themes such as melodrama, romance and comedy. However, the theme of gender has also featured to a great extent. In the novel, the women characters led by Clair have been portrayed to advocate for good morals while her mother Marquis is represents women who are filled with greed and selfish motives. Both men and women are involved in witty games that are characterized by selfish motives.

The resolute nature of women in the novel has made the proud American to give up his pursuit for a wife; the women smartly thwart his threats and intimidation tactics. Finally, the movie portrays gender roles as changing. Women in the novel have championed for their rights and equality with men. They are eager to assume leadership positions and renounce their silence.

Work Cited James, Henry. The American. Teddington: Echo Library publishers, 2007


Impact of Trade Liberalization Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Trade liberalization is the opening of domestic market to the international world. It is the establishment of free market across the globe where by all players across the world are accorded the freedom to carry out business transaction in any country.

The trade liberalization is opposed to the concept where countries protect their domestic industries from international competition. The establishment of trade liberalization implies the abolition of regulations that can in one way or another limit any form international trade that is viewed to be legal under international law.

This paper seeks to explore the subject of trade liberalization. The paper will discuss impacts of trade liberalization with respect to poverty, agriculture and government subsidies. The paper will with specification discuss the relationship between trade liberalization and poverty in Argentina, the impacts of trade liberalization on agricultural activities of in Salvador and Costa Rica as examples of low income nations and finally, government support for industries under organization for economic co-operation and development.

Poverty effects from trade liberalization in Argentina The poor economic performance witnessed in Argentina in the late decades of the nineteenth century led to the idea of liberalizing the economy in an attempt to rescue the country’s economy. Argentina was under threat of adverse economic instability that was characterized by international debts, inflation as well as deficits in balance of payments among others.

One of the effects of the Argentine economic liberalization was the increased rate of unemployment that was witnessed in 1990s. The opening of the country to unrestricted international trade led to influx of importation of goods. The imported goods were relatively cheaper that the locally manufactured goods. This undermined the operations of the domestic factories costing locals their jobs as the domestic production was realized to be more expensive.

The reliance of imported commodities further undermined job creation thereby increasing cases of unemployment. The end result became evident as increased poverty level. The technique used by Barraud and Calfat to analyze this effect of trade liberalization in Argentina involves two steps. The first step is the establishment of the changes that occurred in commodities as well as their prices following the market liberalization.

The second step is the determination of the effects of liberalization on households following the analysis of their revenues and expenditures. The changes in commodity and prices were done on both traded and non traded goods.Measurement of household income was then done as at before and after the implementation of the trade liberalization. These analyses then yielded the measures of poverty and welfare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results indicated that there was significant effect of liberalization on the poor. The liberalization policy had effects on both traded and non traded goods. The research indicated that there was a negative effect of liberalization that needed to be addressed in order to solve the unemployment problem. There is however no concrete association between poverty level and the unemployment caused by liberalization (Barraud and Calfat 12).

Impacts of trade liberalization on agriculture in salvador and Costa Rica According to Gingrich and Garber, the effects of liberalization on the agricultural sector vary from one country to another. In Costa Rica, the liberalization policy was implemented in gradual steps over a decade. The implementation took a broader perspective to include exchange rates, financial policies and restrictions on quantity oftrade were reviewed.

The policy implementation was however rushed in Salvador.Notable differences were observed between the two countries as Costa Rica was identified to be more stable economically and politically. In research conducted by Gingrich and Garber, it was found that the nature of agricultural goods, tradability and intensity in labour, the liberalization policy in trade enhanced exportation of agricultural goods. Liberalization had different effects in the two countries under consideration.

While its effect was positive in CostaRica, Salvador experienced a decline in the agricultural trade balance. The method of analysis, week’s interpretation, is however criticized as wrong for including factors that are not related to trade liberalization (Gingrich and Garber 14).

Government support to industry in organization for economic co-operation and development Trade liberalization also led to governments’ support to industries. The issue of subsidies is a development whose primary goal was to aid the development of declining industries.

In exploring factors that influence government support to businesses through subsidies, Aydin notes that politics is one of the factors that affects the grants of subsidies as politicians seeks to gain influence. The capital capacity of an industry is also a factor as industries with high assets attracts more subsidies due to their ability to adjust to global competition.

Other factors affecting the allocation of subsidies include unemployment rate, political atmosphere, and exposure of the economy to the global market among others. Aydin however recommended improvement on future research to include relationship between level of subsidies and other expenditures of various governments (Ayidin13).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Trade Liberalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The exploration of impacts of trade liberalization is an important tool that helps in the identification of features of trade liberalization that needs to be considered by different governments. The investigations into the negative impacts of the policy are a tool that if considered and measures taken by the governments, then economies can be revived and improved.

The various research techniques that have so far been employed to investigate trade liberalization are however not credible enough as they either includes irrelevant factors or fail to explain some. Independent institutions should therefore be established and empowered to effectively look into the subject of trade liberalization.

Works Cited Aydin,Umut. Promoting industries in the global economy: subsidies in OECD countries. New York,NY:Rutledge, 2007. Print.

Barraud, Ariel


Civil disobedience Essay essay help online: essay help online

Civil Disobedience is a method of protest that is widely gaining universal support and recognition because of its peaceful and pure method. It is a movement that was originated by Mohandas Moramchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, an India icon of human rights activism.

He first moved to South African to protest the illegitimate apartheid rules and his methods of non violence have been greatly adopted in any meaningful protests all over the world. This mode of protest has been used successfully since then and it differs from ordinary protest in practice, belief and intention (Gandhi 137).

Ordinary protests are usually riddled with self-interest, violence towards people and property and sometimes in extreme cases there is blood shed and loss of lives. The intention of ordinary protests is sometimes evident through hooliganism, and can lead to destruction through arson and looting of public and private property (143). Thus, ordinary protest is for the intetrst of the organizer and has no respect to the implications of the actions on the wider society.

Gandhi explains the conditions necessary for a protest to be classified as civil disobedience and develops this idea, what he called ‘Satyagraha’ around non-violence and love for the oppressor and belief in universal truth (Gods law) and morality as the basis for the foundation of human rights (137). He also proposed that ‘Satyagraha ‘respects legitimate and moral law. As such, civil disobedience is protest within the wider law.

It does not object to the entire system of laws but particular statute that are deemed immoral, unjust and illegitimate, and whose resolution would lead to benefit not only of the resister but to the entire society. Civil disobedience is thus the resisting immoral and unjust law in a civil manner (140). This paper thus, endeavors to highlight the conditions necessary for an action of protest to be termed as civil disobedience and its effectiveness.

According to the originator of this idea, civil disobedience exists within certain parameters and as such, any form of protest does not qualify to be termed as ‘Satyagraha.’ The principle idea behind civil disobedience is the notion of non-violence protests. Gandhi claims that “‘Satyagraha’ is like a banyan tree and that ‘ahimsa’, (non violence) is one of its many branches” (138).

Thus, it is not a movement that will cause any form of chaos, riot or upheaval and that any Satyagrahi (follower) is bound by duty to ensure that no lawless behavior or action takes place during civil resistance (137). As such, the follower must respect not only the authorities but also other laws that are deemed moral enough.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A follower must be disciplined enough and not perform any immoral act of indiscipline against any individual as well as the government. Resistance is only for those laws that are immoral. Still concerning the conduct of a Satyagrahi, Gandhi explains that a Satyagrahi should not have any ill feelings such as anger or ill temper towards the oppressor. When subjected to violence, a Satyagrahi is bound by duty to put up with any form of assault but never retaliate (141).

In case the authorities that be need to arrest and subject the follower to any form of punishment the followers must to submit themselves willingly and happily take the punishment (Gandhi 142; King paras 1, 20, 44, 45). In case of danger from the oppressor Gandhi explains that followers must never run away from the oppressor even in the face of death and when death occurs in such circumstances the follower would “have performed his duty” (143).

King adds that the purpose of non-violent action is to lead to a non-violent tension that will force for negotiation (King para 11). However, non-violence, direct action as king calls it, is always the last option in any civil disobedience. It is preceded by gathering of facts to determine whether the issue in contest is illegitimate or not.

Once sufficient proof ahs been gathered, negotiation with the oppressor is sought. This is combined with self-purification (defending the case) and if the oppressor does not repeal the unjust law, non violence is the final act (para 6). King adds that civil disobedience seeks positive peace and purification of societies and therefore ‘”any means to that end must be as pure as the end it justifies to seek” (para 47).

However, a new group of contemporary civil disobedience activists has neglected the spirit of non-violence in mass protest. Most of the contemporary civil disobedience movement participants have violated Gandhi’s provisions for the conduct of a Satyagrahi and are sometimes violent and harbor a lot of anger toward the oppressor and seek self righteousness.

These groups mainly include “gay rights, Critical Mass (environmental activists) and the archconservative Catholic League” (Lopach and Luckowski Para 2). The problem arises from the education system and as Lopach and Luckowski explains the curriculum does not instruct students properly on the real meaning of civil disobedience (para 2). Thus civil disobedience becomes uncivil.

Direct action is the defense of just/moral laws while rejecting unjust/illegitimate law and the “insistent on truth” (Lopach and Luckowski para 3; King para 16; Gandhi 140, 141). Lopach and Luckowski adds that traditional Satyagraha had a deeply ingrained religious inspiration that was the basis of their definition of moral laws (para 3) and explains, “A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.

We will write a custom Essay on Civil disobedience specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law” (para 4). Thus king concludes that no violence action is a very effective way of creating positive peace and coexistence by forcing negotiation with the oppressor (para 24) while Gandhi explains that the respect for such universal and religiously inspired moral norms does not accommodate violence but love for one another including the oppressor (141).

Civil disobedience is a pure means for the search for universal and positive peace created by understanding and respecting each other’s rights. Its intention is the elimination of oppressive laws the isolate and discriminate certain sections of the society. It is usually the last action and the purpose of direct action is drawing the attention of authorities towards certain laws that are deemed to contravene universal rules and truths on morality.

Followers of this movement adherer to discipline and respect to other laws and do not seek revenge from the oppressor. Unlike other forms of violence where the participants exhibit negative feelings such as anger for the oppressor, civil resistance propagates love for all including the oppressor. As such it is an effective way of spreading love, peace and understanding amidst major differences and misunderstanding amongst certain parts of the society.

Works Cited Gandhi, Mohandas. On Satyagraha, Nonviolence, and Civil Disobedience. In Walsh, Sharon, and Asch, Evelyn. “Civil Disobedience: A Wadsworth Casebook in Argument, 1st Ed. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. Print

King, Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” MLK online, 1963. 10, Mar. 2011

Lopach, James, and Luckowski, Jean . “Uncivil Disobedience: Violating the Rules For Breaking the Law.” Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005, Education Next. 10, Mar. 2011


Implementing Strategy and Managing Change Report essay help

Introduction Any organization that operates in a real world is prone to changes, which may occur from time to time. Organizations must therefore be ready to tackle the changes, failure to which they may find it difficult to compete effectively. Generally, changes are strongly resisted by the members of the organizations; therefore, in implementing the changes, proper channels must be followed to avoid friction between the various stakeholders and for the changes to have the desired outcomes (Thomson


Concepts of Atheism Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Variation in Atheism

Critics of Atheism


Works Cited

Introduction Atheism entails the belief that there are no deities or supreme beings. It is the opposite of theism which is the belief in the existence of at least one Supreme Being or deity. In simple terms, it can be said to be the belief that there is no God or gods. Religion is a very broad and controversial aspect as it entails the inner belief in regard to the existence, nature and power of God.

Different people have different stands in relation to religion and what they believe in and hence the existence of a variety of religions all with different doctrines and beliefs. Christianity and Islam are the most common religions (Baggini 5). This paper discusses the various aspects associated with Atheism with much emphasis being on the negative side or why atheism is not right.

Variation in Atheism Atheism is not very common or well known and has some variations for instance the strong, positive, critical and explicit atheism which refers to the individuals who assert the non existence of God positively.

Weak, negative or implicit atheism on the other hand involves the individuals who lack a belief in God basing their argument that the existence of God has not been proven to them and meaning that in the event of being proven they would change their mind. Militant atheism also known as antitheism constitute of atheists who view the belief in God to be wrong and superstitious hence find ways of doing away with it.

Some of the basic principles underlying the belief of atheism include; that there is neither the existence of God nor that of the devil, there is no sin that can be accrued to the violation of God’s will and teachings, there exist no supernatural realm, that the universe is generally materialistic and measurable and so should God be, that evolution is entirely scientific with no any spiritual aspect, that man is material and also that the idea of ethics and morals is relative and therefore should not be adhered to strictly among other life perceptions (Slick 1).

Critics of Atheism Atheism is a concept that has received a lot of critics most of it being negative. People think that atheists not only believe in the absence of God but also that there is no morality; no meaning to life and also that there is no human goodness. This is however not true as some atheists only have a problem in the existence of God and other gods but are usually positive in regard to other aspects of life. Atheists’ belief of the nothingness of God is followed directly by the negative response of any transcendental (or supernatural) belief.

Some of the issues that the atheists differ with most of the other religions include, the belief in life after death, that there is no atonement, no resurrection, no deity, no virgin birth, no existence of miracles, the inexistence of immortal souls and supernatural powers, that man is not made in the image of God and ghosts among other aspects (Share faith 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are different arguments that have been put forth in support of Atheism and also against it. The arguments against atheism try to explain or bring to our understanding the existence of God. Here is the supporting evidence that God exist hence the disqualification of the atheists’ belief. God is thereby viewed as the maker and designer of all the things (visible and invisible).

The argument of causality also proves the existence of God as the happenings of everything has to have a cause which is God. The ontological argument has also been put forth and explains that there is the existence of God in every individual’s mind including that of the atheists.

This alone shows that there is a cause and explains that there is a wonderful mind that is inspirational to the world. Argument on morality also tries to show god’s existence. It is usually natural to tend to do well and avoid evil and that explains why there exist laws and rules. The atheist view of morality is therefore incompatible with moral obligation pertaining to an individual’s life and hence it is wrong since moral obligation can not originate from the mind of a lay human being but rather from a supernatural being who is God.

Atheists are usually attached to logic, philosophy and empiricism especially when it comes to arguments which are not adequate as the disciplines contain only a small percentage of reality. Spirituality for instance is a very strong basis of arguments in terms of reality and the atheists only object it with the reason that it is irrelevant (Markham 13).

I consider atheism to be infeasible and always a negative position no matter the arguments put forth in its support. There are also no significant and sufficient proof or evidence that God does not exist. Other religions specifically Christianity have got viable and adequate justifications that God surely does exist for instance some biblical prophecies that have already been fulfilled or experienced, the resurrection of Jesus Christ among other practical evidences.

The atheists’ argument that God does not possess the omniscient, omnibenevolent and omnipotent qualities is an irrelevant argument since even if this was true, the absence of the qualities does not mean that He does not exist. The argument that if God exist he should be more involved in the human activities especially physically is also not viable as some things just exist irrespective of their visibility.

Good examples to back up this statement is the fact that air which we all breath cannot be either physically felt, seen through the eyes, heard, or even tasted and yet we all believe that it exists. The force of gravity, values, beliefs and even emotions are also other aspects that cannot be experienced through our senses and yet we all know that they exist. This therefore does not justify the atheists’ argument that the impossibility of experiencing God through the five senses means that God does not exist.

We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Atheism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reality part of it is that God is non material and supernatural and can be seen indirectly for instance through nature or creation, morality and conscience which is the sense of what is right or wrong and responsible for the control of a person’s thoughts specifically directing him or her towards doing the right thing as opposed to evil among other manifestations (Solomon and Higgins 67).

There are various reasons and benefits that can be linked in believing in the existence of God or a supreme being. For instance it helps people live positively bearing in mind that there is some rewards that await them in terms of life after death once they conquer or live in accordance to God’s will.

The belief that there is a powerful being who is in control of our lives is also a motivational factor that help individuals to be hopeful and have confidence in their undertakings having the belief that they are being protected at all times and that since we are a creation from God, He cannot forsake us.

It is also the belief that God exist that help people have a purpose in life in that God created us for a reason and that we should live to fulfill God’s purpose in our lives. This help individuals live in peace with one another and try as much as possible to avoid evil and do good making the world a better place as opposed to where people would not care for one another or mind the consequences of their actions.

Conclusion Although every person has a right to believe in what he or she feels it is right, it is evident that the arguments given by the other religions, for example, the Christians in the support of the idea that God exists are far justifiable as compared to the arguments asserted by the atheists for their support of the idea that there is no existence of God or any other deity.

The Christian source of confidence, for instance, is the faith in God and the Holy bible with the combination of the practical things that happen and the manifestation of Jesus Christ and also the Holy Spirit.

Works Cited Baggini, Julian. Atheism. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009.

Markham S. Ian. Against Atheism: Why Dawkins, Hitchens, and Harris Are Fundamentally Wrong. USA: Wiley and Sons, 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Atheism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Share faith. “Christian Arguments against Atheism”. Faith clipart, 2011. Mar 9 201.

Slick, Matt. “What is atheism?” CARM. 2010. Mar 9 2011.

Solomon, Roberts and Higgins, Kathleen. The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy.8th Ed. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.


Advocating for Biracial Adoption Analytical Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Historical Injustices

Aesthetic and Moral Philosophy





Works Cited

Introduction Adoption of children who have biological parents that are of different races should be encouraged and advocated for. The American National census states that almost three percent of the US population states their race as bi-racial and almost two percent of marriages are bi-racial. Biracial children have suffered the identity crisis throughout history as they have traits from both sides of the mother and the father and hence torn between which of the two races should take preference.

Adoption of such a child by all races without discrimination psychologically gives the child an identity as first to consider he/she a human being and the rest later since she/he is welcome to live with any race. Adoption is an important activity in the society and it gives children in a family; helps people unable to raise their children hand them over to capable individuals and help those who cannot give birth to have adopted children.

Historical Injustices Biracial persons have always faced challenges throughout history. To oppress the black people during the slave era in America, and avoid the poor people of the Caucasoid race from cooperating with the oppressed blacks, the plantation owners developed the concept of the white people of which has no scientific backing.

For further deterrence of intermarriages, they stated that a white person is one who has no trace of another race especially the black race. This meant that all the biracial persons were automatically regarded as blacks. This has continued up to date. The president of US is biracial but he is generally regarded as a black president.

Biracial adoption improves the racial tension that has existed throughout history. Hegel a great philosopher and historian once claimed that Africa was filled with darkness and darkness is not a subject of history. Hegel and Immanuel Kant also referred Africans as incapable of thinking, stating that maybe it was because of the equatorial sun.

However, great philosophers like Aristotle are known to have studied in Africa, and even puzzled by the sophisticated civilization at that time. Adoption of biracial children helps nullify the biased views of people like Kant.

Aesthetic and Moral Philosophy In Aesthetic and moral philosophy, all human beings have the same universal qualities and resembling behavioral pattern. Adoption of biracial children firmly asserts that all human beings are authentic and aesthetically appealing. Before the Second World War, it was rare for white couples to adapt a child not of their race. This has been changing as people have come to realize that no race is superior to the other and the differences in the races are only complimentary and not superiority or inferiority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biracial adoption is a very noble course. It shows that the universal man is one. This is shown in the various adoptions from the world in various disciplines. For example, Africa is credited as the cradle of humanity and civilization, Europe with modern industrialization, Asia with medicine and America with computers. This shows how the various people from different races throughout history have contributed to the development of the world.

This has eventually led to globalization. Globalization brings all people of the world together without care of race. The biracial adoption is an initiative towards globalization. Biracial children by mere nature of their biological diversity in parenting can unify, and represent different continents for example Barrack Obama has both American and African ancestry. Biracial children could be taken as an entity of globalization instead of a confusion of identity.

Biology Biologically interracial marriages are encouraged. The children sired have a wide gene pool range and thus more resistant to gene inherited diseases like sickles cell anemia. It would thus be noble to encourage biracial adoption focusing on the positive aspects of the biracial children than their disadvantages.

Empiricist’s school of thought argues that the mind is empty at birth and knowledge is only possible through sense perception. Based on this argument then it can be argued that children have a universal trait in that they gain knowledge through experiencing. Therefore, there is no difference between biracial children and other children hence should be adopted like any other child without discrimination or bias (Simon


Effective Business Decisions Essay essay help

Organization structure levels usually refer to the stages of command that exists within a company. These are usually formed depending on the functional area. Common of these include: flat, product, functional and combination. A small company like Wait Till Monday Lodge can either be tall or even flat depending on the situation.

The main problem with a tall organization if Jose chose his to be, would be the difficulty in communication as the extras levels introduced results in more time being taken to implement the decisions. On the other hand, if Jose chose his organization it would mean the organization having fewer levels but wide spans of control. It is beneficial as explained below since it leads to wide spans of control but the advantage is it results in quick communication and overworked employees.

An organization structure for a company with few employees can use flat organizational structure because employees perform diverse functions. For example, one employee can work as an accountant, another one cleaning, and another one a waiter thus their functions are usually spread out laterally without multiplication. People who also begin their own companies employ executives laterally with everyone having to report to the owner or directly to the top management.

An advantage of using such a system is that decision making is easier and faster since they are very few required levels of authority and the costs of management involved are far much less. The main disadvantage is that decision making lies with one person and this can lead to lagging behind of some organization activities and this would suit Jose’s organization since it is small (Nickels, Cossa, McHugh


“Monster” by Patty Jenkins Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Examining the Movie Settings

Camera Angles

Color grading of the Film

Lack of Animation and Visual Effects

Introduction Based on the life of serial kill Aileen Wuornos, the movie “Monster” incorporates a self narrative by the main character to drive the story and create greater character depth. The method of filming is reminiscent to the style used by Ken Loach in which the films have an incredible amount of authenticity and feeling of realness to them.

This is not to be confused with styles of the Blair Witch, Cloverfield or reality based programming instead this type of style is defined by brightness of the entire scene wherein the director is not attempting artificially to tell the audience watching that a particular individual is the lead actor.

Rather the audience is given this feeling by the actor showing a sense of vulnerability in the scenes which brings the apparent “realness” to the forefront of the audience’s mind. It must be noted that the director of the film, Patty Jenkins, was also responsible for creating the popular HBO series Entourage, where the realism and vulnerability of the characters seen in the movie Monster is also incorporated into the characters of the Entourage series.

Examining the Movie Settings Before I go into detail about the setting used in the movie I would like to mention one strange aspect that I noticed, namely the director utilizing a strange bright light theme throughout the movie. For other people it may be an inconsequential detail but for me it was a curious oddity.

Throughout the various scenes in the film whether it was inside a bar, out at night or within a dark house the darkness never seemed to manifest itself. The inside of the bar was not dark, the night time scenes did not appear dark at all and various locations that should have been dark appeared to have some form of lighting involved.

A closer examination of the film editing process reveals that some scenes were artificially enhanced to show more light than others. This means that either a special lens was used on the camera to capture a greater lighting effect or a certain type of editing technique was used.

The reason this is noticeable is because movies with the same genre such as the Texas Chainsaw Massacre, Friday the 13th, Jason and various other movies based on serial killers used darkness as a way to emphasize the dark themes of the movie. In fact I can state with little doubt that it was darkness itself that was used as a means to add suspense to those movies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Here the darkness is not emphasized at all and even seems artificially subdued. It is unlikely that this is a mere coincidence as such it can be assumed that this was an intentional feature done by the director to differentiate the film from other serial killer movies. In a way what the director attempted to do was have the audience focus on the development of the characters in the story rather than attempt to frighten the audience.

The settings and locations of the movie are quite sparse, similar to scenes that you can see in various small towns dotted across the U.S. An examination of the budget for the film shows that a total of $8 million was used in filming Monster as such the sparseness may either be due to the limited budget or the intentions of the director to focus on the interaction of the characters amongst themselves.

Overall from start to finish the apparent sparseness of the setting did not matter in the least, in fact it contributed to helping the audience focus on the actions of the characters.

Camera Angles One popular camera angle used to display psychological uneasiness is the Dutch shot or tilted angle shot. It is actually widely used in various present day movies due its ability to show an apparent psychological unease on the part of a character due to the change in camera angle.

In the movie Monster this shot is rarely used, instead the film primarily focuses on either medium or close range shots. Shots such as high angle or low angle shots are also rare with most the film being shot in a linear fashion (though they are used in scenes depicting violence or murder).

Again similar to the issue with the lighting this is also an intentional part of the filming process. The reason behind this lies with the fact that short to medium range shots are the best at showing the facial expression and emotions of the characters and they are also effective in showing the body language of the actor as well.

It must be noted that the purpose of the director in the movie is to have the main character lead the scene rather than the scene leading the main actor. For those of you not familiar with this phrase, movies such as The Matrix series, Star Wars and the classic movie Jumanji are all examples of movies where the scenes move the character.

We will write a custom Essay on “Monster” by Patty Jenkins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In such movies actions revolve around an external factor being introduced into the scene whereupon the main character has to act on it. In movies such as Monster, Erin Brokovich and Castaway the scenes are led by the actions of the characters within it rather than an external force such as a sentinel attack in the Matrix, a sudden invasion by the Empire as seen in Star Wars or a sudden stampede coming through a wall in Jumanji.

Another interesting aspect to take note of is that the camera itself blurs extras in the backgrounds even during long range shots while intently focusing on the main characters in the film. While this is a widely used technique it must be noted that such a technique is usually used when the intent of the director is to focus on character development.

Color grading of the Film Directors these days tend to color grade their film to suit certain styles, for example the Matrix has a distinctly greenish color grading which conforms to theme of the green lighted text that represents digital code in the movie. Ocean’s 12 used a distinctly orange color grading scheme while the movie 300 used a faded reddish orange color grading scheme.

While certain color schemes do add a certain unique quality to films they tend to distract audiences away from the actions of the main characters and focus more on the background visuals. This is evident in the Matrix and 300 where the stunning backgrounds used in the films are enhanced by the color scheme used to have audiences focus on the backgrounds.

Unfortunately such a technique has been used so many times that it has lost much of each appeal. In the movie Monster instead of colors being enhanced they are actually subdued. For example every time the main character looks at the mirror the subdued colors of her hair strands and skin are immediately apparent. While most people might think that this could just be the work of effective hair dyes an examination of the rest of the film shows that all the scenes have a subdued color scheme.

In other words instead of an enhanced color scheme the director went in another direction and chose to subdue the colors instead. The reason behind this is once again connected to the theme of character development. The subdued colors and apparently sparse backdrops further showcase the actions of the main character with the audience focusing on the actions of Charlize Theron rather than what is going on in the background.

Lack of Animation and Visual Effects Despite being made in 2003 the movie lacks any animation or visual effect, on the other hand it could can be stated the movie itself just does not require them. Movies that focus on character development rarely have a visual effect and as such this movie is a clear cut example of a film that just does not require them despite the popularity of visual effects at the time.


Gender Equality in the United States, China and Egypt Research Paper scholarship essay help

Abstract This piece of work examines role that economic growth, education opportunity and cultural values can play in increasing gender equality. This paper shows that increased in educational level of women tend to boost gender equality in employment and politics. In addition, it depicts that education in the overall population is critical for increasing gender equality. the literature review provide a comparison between three countries signifying different levels of economical development, including agrarian, industrial and postindustrial societies.

Theses countries are Egypt, China and the United States respectively. The literature indicates that economic growth tends to produce expansion in gender equality and in the employment sector. Thus the role of education is to help boost gender equality in various aspect of the society, including employment sector, politics and contribution in economic development.

Research question There are various disparities in the gender equality concern across different communities of the world. This paper will compare different factors which affect gender equality in the United States, China and Egypt. First, we will determine whether gender roles were dictated by religion.

Second, the study will determine whether the trend in gender roles have been changing within the aforementioned countries through out time. Third, the research will establish whether there are differences in gender and equality in specific societies within the target groups. Fourth, we will determine whether geographical situation effect on gender and equality. Finally, this study will examine whether people in religiously conservative societies tend to have less equality between men and women.

Literature review Economic growth and gender equality

Egypt’s labor market is currently facing a difficult moment. Joblessness is increasing and women comprise a disproportionately tiny component of the labor force. The civic sector is as well undergoing considerable reforms, which present a specific risk for women, since they make up a comparatively high percentage of the workforce in the civic sector (Morsy 2).

On the other hand, in China, gender equality with respect to wage employment in critical for attaining growth with equality. Econometric evaluation china economic transition income disproportionately increased in both the gradualist stage and radical reform stage. In the gradualist stage state enterprises sustained job guarantor position and social service suppliers, this boosted the projection for wage employment in urban centers.

In the late 1990s reforms in the public sector emphasized effectiveness of productivity and overlooked women’s responsibility in reproduction. Such reforms intervention caused “a drastic increase in gender disparity in employment rates, which decreased the share of wives earnings dispersion of wives to husbands”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the United States there is inadequate proof attributing increased gender equality imposed by the legislation to a faster economic growth. Increase in gender equality in the United States has been accounted for by economic growth, concurrent increase in affluence and establishment of specialized market producing increased prospects benefits from human resource investment, makes limitations of women rights increasingly expensive (Morrison 33).

Impact of modernization on gender equality

A wide range of social, cultural, economic and political indicators associated with women’s lives, vary systematically within agrarian, industrial and post industrial nations globally. The transition from agrarian to industrial civilizations poses dramatic implications. This phase changes the traditional family, that is, the doubling in the proportion of marital women using contraception, as women take increased control over child-bearing as well as family proportion and the considerable decline in the dependency quotient.

Women have recorded gains in administrations and managerial positions, and in careers. This shift also affords women ability to participate in the economic market share by doubling literacy rates with an increase in enrollments of girls in schools (Inglehart and Norris 8). Considerable expansion in the UNDP Gender-related Development Index has been reported.

The shift from industrial to postindustrial stage, as is the case with US, favors increased gender equality in cultural outlook as women procure increased chances in tertiary education and climb the career ladder in management and the professions. Moreover, this phase perceives considerable gains towards bigger political influence among elected and selected bodies, for instance doubling the ratio of women in parliament and rapid expansions in the UNDP Gender Empowerment Measure.

Finally, cultural perceptions of gender roles react to, and interact with such social trends. The five-item gender equality index, such as items on job, family and the politics, indicate far more egalitarian outlook for residents in prosperous postindustrial, such in the US, relative to those communities in less affluent agrarian societies, such as in Egypt. However, the religiosity index indicates the reverse pattern, with exceedingly strongest faith is expressed among communities in the agrarian societies.

Survival/self expression

This concept comprises a broad scope of beliefs and standards. A core component concerns the divergence of materialist and post-materialist values. These standards reflect an intergenerational change from a focus on economic as well as physical protection, towards a growing importance on self-expression, personal well-being, and quality of life obligations (Morrison 4).

The current crisis in Egypt has its roots in food security, survival. Inflation in food prices has substantially affected food importing nations such as this. In this country majority of the population earn less than $4 per day, which make them insecure on basic concerns such as food (Pitch par. 2).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gender Equality in the United States, China and Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the side of china, half of its population is miserably poor. And the Chinese policy that prohibits rural-urban migration aggravates the situation because it ensures that the rewards of the countries economic growth further divides the country into two worlds of abundance and scarcity. Food insecurity can cause such societies to deteriorate socially and economically. Obvious unfairness and dismay for a better tomorrow spoils the bond between the rulers and the citizens (Pitch par. 6).

Similarly, although the United States does not suffer widespread poverty and hunger, many members of communities experience stagnated living standards, and the opportunity to cross over from poverty to affluence have decreased. Higher education is no longer a means to better living standards but rather has started to augment the gap between social classes (Pitch, par. 8).

Politics and gender equality

Although women in Egypt were given citizenship and complete political rights by the 1956 constitution, practice of these political rights have been undermined by the social and economic atmosphere in the country. Principles motivating the involvement of women in politics have coexisted with more diehard standards, and the clash between them has diversified with time.

In the past two decades this disagreement has increased, mainly because of the political and economic status of the country (Abu-zayd, par. 3). Similarly, women in China have equal rights with men particularly areas including politics, economy, family life, status in society, and culture (Li Xiaohua par. 4).

On the other hand, women in New Jersey started to exercise their right of voting since 1790 but later it was revoked in 1807. Nevertheless, 1920 all women were accorded the right to vote following the implementation of the 19th Amendment of the federal Constitution, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex,” (The National Archives 11-27).

Research design Study process will be in compliance with the ethical requirements of the answerable committee on human survey of the respective countries. We applied a standard questionnaire and observational methods to collect data on age, sex and ethnicity as well as the socioeconomic data including educational stage, annual household earning, information about the number of women employed in both informal and formal sectors and the man-to-women ratio in politics.

Hypothesis development There is substantial evidence supporting the hypothesis that gender equality in a certain society is dependent on the level of a countries development. Empowering women economically contributes significantly in increasing gender equality

Works Cited Abu-zayd, Gehan. Women in parliament: Beyond numbers. International Idea. 2010. March 10, 2011.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Equality in the United States, China and Egypt by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inglehart, Ronald and Norris, Pippa. Rising Tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. 2007. Web.

Li, Xiaohua. Gender in-equality. China through a lens. China Internet Information Center.

Morrison, Andrew. Gender equality, Poverty and economic growth. The World Bank Gender and Development Group Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network September 2007. WPS4349. Print.

Morsy, Maya. MDG-3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Pp. 1-2. Print.

Pitch, James., Egypt and its lessons to the world. The Washington Times, January 31, 2011. Web.

The National Archives. The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27. 2010. March 10, 2011.


Sensation and Perception Worksheet Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Sensation and perception of colors is the human ability to differentiate diverse spectral properties of lights or objects. The ability of the eyes to sense colors and the mental capacity to perceive certain colors depends on the brightness of the colors on objects. According to color vision theories, “…trichromacy, opponency adaptation, and color constancy are the elements that determine color sensation and perception in human vision system” (Brainard, 2001, p.3).

Trichromacy is spectral power distribution of the perceived lights, opponency is neuronal response, and adaptation is conditional variation of colors, while constancy is the subjectivity of color perception. With respect to these elements, experiment conducted shows that perception set affects the sensation and perception of colors.

In an experiment to illustrate perception set, three subjects observed a room and noted anything and everything that was brown. After a minute of observation, the subjects closed their eyes and named other colors that were in the room. The results of the experiment showed that the subjects mentioned dominant and bright colors that were in the room and others that were not in the room. The colors mentioned were red, green, yellow, orange, black, grey, white, pink, and blue.

What was amazing about the results is that, the subjects started by mentioning bright colors and background colors such as red, green, grey, and white. Although they had observed the room, they took time thinking about the colors before mentioning them. Furthermore, they even mentioned colors that were not in the room signifying that they imagined colors in a typical room. The discrepancy between observed colors and the mentioned colors is due to the psychological influence called perception set.

Sensory and perception of colors is a complex process that involves selections of colors by the eyes and interpretation of the observed colors by the brain. The photoreceptors in retina sense colors and relay the stimuli through optic nerves into the brain where perception takes place.

Perception involves processing of optic neural stimuli in terms of shape, color, location, movement, or spatial orientation. Brainard argues that, “…the perception of movement, depth, perspective, the relative size of objects, the relative movement of objects, shading, and gradations in textures all depend primarily on the contrasts in light intensity rather than on color” (2001, p. 16).

Thus, trichromacy as an element describing spectral power distribution of colors within visible spectrum determines the perception of colors. According to perception set theory, there is biasness and subjectivity in perception of colors due to the expectation of the observers and context of observation. In the experiment, the perception set occurred because the subjects had preference in noting bright colors while ignoring dull colors. Moreover, the psychological expectations made them to mention colors that were not in the room.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference Brainard, D. (2001). Sensation and Perception: Color Vision Theory. Journal of Psychology, 2, 1-32.


Efficiency in the Motor Vehicle Industry Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

In the past years, people have been using different means of transport. Initially the means of transport was walking. This was very tedious as people movement was limited to their physical fitness and strength. Animals were next then used for transport. The mostly used animals were donkeys and horses.

The animal assisted in transporting goods from one location to the other. All these traditional methods were relatively slow. They had a major advantage in that they did not pose any problem to environmental degradation. In the case of water transport, small manual boats were used.

Due to increased people mobility and transport of goods, there have been continuous needs to improve the transport and communication sectors. This has been accelerated in the continuous advancements in the technological department. The main common means of transport currently in use are air, marine, rail as well as road transport. These means have many advantages such as improved speed, increased luggage carrying capacity as well as improved communication. On the other hand they have some demerits.

These demerits include increased natural resources exploitation and environmental pollution. This has adversely affected our environment and has led to some aspects such as global warming. This paper tries to seek whether car efficiency should be improved with respect to the environmental effects associated with them.

Car transport forms one of the main means of transport on land. It is also easily available and accessible all around the globe. Due to it being deep rooted and having negative effects to the environment, means of minimizing negative environmental effects are constantly under review. The environment is one of the most beneficial assets available to all mankind. It is useful in all aspects of life from economic to social. This thus means that we should protect our environment.

In the previous years, some strategies have been put in place for environmental benefits. They included controlling the public sector which promotes it. This helped reducing the overall pollution by minimizing the use of personal cars.

Although this was successful, it had limitations in that the efficiency of the vehicles was not improved. Due to increased population and thus the need for more transport facilities, these policies were ineffective in the long run. Thus this brought the need for more research and improvement in the motor vehicle industry as well as policy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technological evolvement has really led to continuous advancements in the motor industry. This had led to improved efficiency. The main aspect of efficiency considered is fuel consumption. The more efficient fuel is consumed implies that more distance is covered with same quantity of fuel and less amount of exhaust gasses released to the atmosphere.

This is one of the main aspects of environmental conservation in the motor vehicle industry. Imposing of heavy taxation on old vehicles instead of on fuels could assist very much. It would promote the buying of new vehicles which are more efficient (Easton, 2008). Furthermore they would act as motivations to the car manufacturers to constinously improve their products as a result of increased profit margins.

There are many current technologies available for environmental conservation in the motor industry. If all of them were implemented then they would reduce the environmental impact by a significant margin. Use of alternative fuel technology would reduce dependence on one source of energy and thus reduce its exploitation (Spoolman


The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho Book Review [Essay] best essay help

Table of Contents Analysis of the Main Character

New Culture As a Significant Challenge

Coelho’s Attitude to the Main Theme


Works Cited

The book The Alchemist can be described as a metaphor for life. It is funny how dreams can mold a person’s life. It is a paradox such that people consider other lifestyles as better than theirs, thereby striving to get that life that belongs to different cultures, through that lives are transformed. The essay on The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho shall analyze the traits of the main characters and critical themes in the novel.

Analysis of the Main Character Dreams can be seen as the driving forces behind an individual’s life as they bring about desires that mold an individual’s destiny because through them, then fate ceases to be the determinant of happenings in an individual’s lifetime. Santiago, a young shepherd, the main character in the story The Alchemist, is portrayed by Paulo Coelho as a go-getter to some extent.

As is clear from the summary, he repeatedly gets a dream that haunts him and pushes him to follow it, and thus his expedition in the story; he wants to achieve that dream (Coelho 34). Santiago gets the simple lessons of life of believing in the signs that one gets in life, even if it is just through dreams and following them till he achieves them. The crossing of cultures leads him to following his goals, which he finally achieves.

The boy, Santiago, is driven to search for the hidden treasure in Egypt. The desire makes him cross many countries and even the vast Sahara desert, whereby he meets different characters, both deceitful and truthful, who shape his life. This is similar to the way the young Chinese man and other international students cross the borders to get to Melbourne to study, their treasure in this context, education.

When the young man shows up in the author’s office with scratchy English (Coelho 45), it is evident that there is a bit of transformation from his past self to his present self.

The young Chinese appreciated the author’s message that she had given him the first day he visited her office because she says so. In the same spirit of appreciation, the boy Santiago appreciated the advice given to him in the story, which leads him to acquire the treasure that he set out to look for.

For instance, he gives the older man a share of his sheep, that is, a tenth of his flock and promises to give a tenth of his treasure to the older woman. The Chinese student, on the other hand, brings the tutor a painting of a well embroidered Chinese woman (Coelho 61). This, therefore, gives the importance of appreciating those who help us in our endeavors to acquire our different treasures in life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the harsh experiences that he faces, the boy learns the value of being strong, patient, and persistent, and being a hard-working person. Regardless of the setbacks that he encounters along the way, he does not give up. Just like in Rachael, no potential was seen in her as a nurse. She was discouraged by her tutors that she could not make it as a children’s nurse, but her so many visits to the Occupational Health Department, which convinced the tutors that she was capable of becoming a nurse, saw her through (Coelho 25).

It took a year to convince them and about fifteen visits, and in the long run, she was allowed to take up the career path that she had dreamt of and desired to do. Her desire and persistence to follow her dream made her accomplish her heart desires. Following a dream can sometimes seem too hard and expensive, but the determination in it tells all about the conviction that one has.

The Alchemist book review essay shows that the boy in the story is portrayed by Coelho as humble and a brave character. The king tells him that when he wants something, the world will always conspire to help him achieve it, and now that he wants to get the treasure, then he is going to get it as long as he is ready to face the challenges (Coelho 24).

New Culture As a Significant Challenge The challenges he faces in foreign lands can be likened to the challenges faced by those living in the outer suburbs of Melbourne. We are told that the further one lives away from the city, the more harsh life is for them because life there is a bit depressing and that there are little or even no amenities at all. The public transport system is also weak. The kinds of houses that are there are in a sorry state, just like street lights are not in proper functioning conditions.

Fitting into a new culture can be demoralizing more especially after relocation to a new place, but regardless of this, accepting the prevailing conditions in order to achieve one’s heart desires is reason enough to go on, the international students face problems of housing but with perseverance they the can achieve their ultimate goals and desires.

The boy Santiago takes up every opportunity that comes his way, and he swallows through so many problems that he encounters along his path of getting to the treasure. He worked hard towards his destiny because no problem was too big for him to deal with.

We find that dreaming is one thing, and following that dream is another. Rachael had a dream of becoming a nurse, and she felt that she needed to give back to the community and serve the people who had made a significant difference in her life. That is why she really wanted to be a children’s nurse, she was laughed at told on several occasions that it was never going to happen because a nursing course was not suitable for her and that she was fit to a desk job (Coelho 25).

We will write a custom Essay on The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho Book Review [Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, as is evident from the assessment, her desire to follow her dream was the driving force that led her to achieving it in the long run. Had she given up along the way due to the words of discouragement from even her tutors, she could not have become a voice to reckon to the parents of the sick children that she attended to at the Children’s Out-patient Department (Coelho 25).

In the story, we are also brought to a level ground where freedom to choose what one wants to do should be embraced and given room to drive us. Freedom is the ability for one to do what he or she likes and that entails following one’s heart.

Through this, one is capable of exploiting his or her own potentialities and doing something that is self-fulfilling, if one is made to do something that dictates his or her destiny in a forceful way, then the end results will always be bitter. The boy chooses to travel the world because this is his inner calling other than studying theology and becoming a priest.

He enjoys the life of adventure and traveling to new places. On her part, Rachael could have been forced to do a desk job because of her health, something that she could have done regretfully, thereby ending up a slave in a career path that on the contrary, should have brought her inner peace and happiness. The boy was allowed to follow his heart, which led him later on to acquire his life experiences that are worthwhile, even more than he could have achieved material treasures.Thus, with the help of vast imagery, symbolism, and paradoxes in The Alchemist, the author shows us the full circle of the story.

Coelho’s Attitude to the Main Theme The challenges faced by adapting to a new culture can sometimes be too much to bear, but how ready is a person to bear with the challenges that come with it? At the same time, it can be hard to make a dream a reality, but how persistent that can one be to catch up with that dream (Coelho 89)? Both parties, therefore, should equip themselves with the communication gear, which most definitely is the vehicle that will enable one to get to his or her destiny.

The individual will get room to express him/herself, thereby appreciating each other as well as compromising with each other’s feelings where possible, that way the joy of learning will have come into play. Once a dream has been hatched, then the determination and persistence that will be employed in making it a reality is what will determine whether it is going to be the destiny of an individual, and that is what brings in the difference between destiny and fate.

Though not sure of his destiny, he strives to get it no matter the challenges, and his life experiences show that everyone needs to work hard to achieve success, one needs to strive for the good things in life. This simply inspires people to put effort in order to achieve our goals, for one to make his or her dreams become a reality, he or she is not just going to sit there and wait for dreams to fall into place, one needs to risk the good things in life in order to achieve better ones (Coelho 100).

Conclusion As is clear from the essay on The Alchemist, Coelho simply intends to bring to our attention that if one dreams and wishes for something then one should be persistent about it and be patient for long enough, one might lose an opportunity by getting tired at the last minute and give up so quickly, and see the fruits after somebody else has achieved the fruits of our long-suffering. Just like Santiago, one’s wishes can come in both material objects and life experiences, as for the case of Santiago, his journey to the Pyramids in Egypt, is his treasure.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho Book Review [Essay] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist. New York. Harpertorch. 1993. pp. 1 – 163.


Does the Universe Have A Direction? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Does the Universe Have A Direction?

In questioning the universe, we essentially question the purpose of our existence. This essay explains that the universe has a direction and goal only when we view it as the same entity in the past, now and in our future imagination. To answer the question of whether the universe has a direction, we shall rely on the metaphysics field of ontology (Solomon and Kathleen p.7).

There are two sides of explaining the nature of reality, that of realist and anti-realists. The former claim that reality is independent of us and the later disclaims this fact. Realists say that there is a planetary system and a force of gravity among other features that make up the universe.

Furthermore, they state that the existence of these systems and gravity does not cease after we stop noticing. Much of realists’ theories do not factor in our epistemology of the things and events they examine. Anti-realists on the other hand must attach meaning that can be confirmed to statements of reality.

Objects in reality possess attributes that we can use in define and describe them. For instance, if we propose that someone is ignorant, then we are using the attribute of ignorance to describe the person. However, when describe someone else as ignorant, then we are faced with the dilemma explaining how the two persons, which in our case are real objects, though having the same attribute of ignorance, are different people.

To solve this dilemma and effectively discern single objects we have to see further than their attributes. In doing so, we have to rely on Aristotelians who have demarcated kinds from properties. The Aristotelians hold it as a fact that kinds are what the particulars or attributes belong to. So in our example above, the individuals belong to the human family and ignorance is one of their properties. We are therefore able to understand that the individuals are two members of the human family who share the same property (Newall para14-30).

The universe is our reality and suggestions of a universal direction bring us to the question of time. The presentism theory holds the view that only the present exists.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The externalism theory on the contrary denies the presence of now, and further explains that now is a mere reference point to differentiate events as they happen, such that Plato and other people in our past exist, but their existence is within a separate context (Newall para. 30-35). The above theories of time do not offer us much explanation that we can use in our example of the individual being ignorant. We shall therefore use the time theories of endurantism and perdurantism.

Endurantists view that the individual in our above example is the same in the past as well as now. Since the same individual belonged to the humans family and continues to do so. This depicts a characteristic of endurance. In the perdurantist view, the individual is different and changes or moves to another stage depending on the perspective of the viewer.

Furthermore, endurantists believe that only the now exists and the past and future are only possibilities, while the perdurantists see no particular significance in time implying that the past, now and the future and our imaginations are all equally real (Newall para.37-42).

In the realists and perdurantists’ view and also as observed by Voltaire, the universe and its attributes are meaningless and only assume the meaning we give (Solomon


Death of a Salesman Relationships Analysis Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Willy’s Conflict

Biff’s Conflict


Works Cited

Death of a Salesman is a figurative play that uses death not only symbolically represent physical/mortal death but also to allude to the end of personal dreams, wishes, and aspirations. It is a satirical play that highlights the life of Willy Loman, the main character, a traveling salesman who has worked for Wagner Company for thirty-four years and ends up a failure because it is not his trade to be a salesman. Willy is a gifted carpenter. In this paper, Death of a Salesman relationships shall be analyzed.

Willy’s Conflict This play is a case of reality versus illusion. Willy is a delusional character whose search for higher ideals, far higher than he can attain, leads to his disillusionment. Willy spends his entire life trying to be a successful salesman, like his mentor Mr. Dave Singleman who was a successful and famous businessman. Thus Willy forms the opinion that to be successful, one has to be physically attractive and liked by many.

He tries to impose these ideals to his sons Willy and Happy to no avail. The result is that he ends up a failure and decides to kill himself, hoping the insurance premium will benefit his family. This play is, to some extent, a reflection of Arthur Miller’s life. Biff reflects Miller the real character: Miller was not much an academician and surprised his teachers when he wrote this play. The author was attracted to sports and physical activities rather than books. It was, therefore, a surprise that he would end up an author of a playwright.

Three characters in this play highlight Willy’s unique relationships with people. Biff, Willy’s eldest son, and the two enjoy love-hate. During his childhood, Biff adores his father but later comes to loathe him upon discovering that his father had led him to live a lie. It is through Biff that the reader sees Willy’s disillusionment.

Willy’s mistress is a secretary of one of his clients and represents Willy’s craving for love and affection rather than for pleasure. She makes Willy feel loved. Lastly, Willy’s brother, Ben, a successful businessman, is an illustration of Willy’s unwillingness to come to embrace reality; Ben only appears to Willy in daydreams.

Even though these three characters, as well as the other characters in the play, highlight Willy’s delusional self, it is Biff, the eldest son who illuminates Willy’s disconnect with reality. This paper endeavors to explain Willy Loman and Biff Loman’s relationships and how each is affected by this relationship.

Although Biff Loman is Willy’s and Linda’s eldest son and the personification of Willy’s wildest dreams and desires, father and son enjoy an emotional love-hate relationship throughout their lives. Biff represents everything Willy wanted in life: success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biff is the illumination of Willy’s notions of popularity and physical attractiveness rather than hard work honesty and integrity as the way to success. However, being popular does not help Biff to succeed. Willy had created a false impression (in Biff, as well as other family members) about his popularity and how it brought him much success (Miller 100).

Biffs’ search for success through popularity ends up in failure and he later notes that “(he has) always made a point of not wasting (his) life, and every time (he) comes back (he knew) that all (he will have) done is to waste (his) life” (11). Thus Willy’s delusional theory on happiness and success ends up having a very negative impact on the very son that he loved and wished to nurture to success.

Initially, there is so much love between father and son. Willy loves his son so much that during one of the football games that Biff is playing, Willy tells Linda that Biff is “(a) star… magnificent, (and) can never really fade away!” (51).

This love is informed by the unrealistic need to make him attractive and thus liked by many, which is to eventually lead Biff to succeed in life and also as a salesman. Willy encourages Biff to a positive image of himself through dress and not to talk too much less Biff makes a false impression, as the right personality would win him success (21, 48).

Biff’s Conflict Willy goes to great length to prove that popularity is the key to success and encourages Biff to fight with his uncle Ben, something that has an important meaning and infuriates Lindah so much.

However, Biff falls to his uncle Ben who advises Biff, “Never (to) fight fair with a stranger, boy. (or) You’ll never get out of the jungle that way” ( 34). Biff believed in his father so much that he did not put any diligent hard work in whatever he did. His adoration for his father stated to take a toll on his life because, as Willy commented that “his (Biff’s) life ended after that Ebbets Field game because from the age of seventeen, nothing good ever happened to him” (71).

Biff’s belief in the essence of popularity take s him to seek his father in Boston as he thought that Willy’s popularity would make Biff’s math teacher change his grade and allow Biff to graduate. However, their relationship takes a sudden change for the worst when Biff realizes that his father has been unfaithful to his mother, by keeping a mistress in his hotel room in Boston.

We will write a custom Essay on Death of a Salesman Relationships Analysis Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The changing nature of their relationships in Death of a Salesman is reflected through their dialogues and conversations, which expresses anguish, pain, and betrayal. Biff no longer trusts his father and realizes that Willy had led them all in living a lie and a pretentious life (104). Willy retaliates by telling Biff that he has been nothing but a failure (103). As such, Bill comments that:

“(he had been) trying to become what (he didn’t) want to be… (And asks Himself) What (he was) doing in an office, making a contemptuous, begging fool of (himself), when all (he) wanted (was) out there, waiting for the minute (he) say (that he) knew who (he) wanted to be! (105).

This is an emotional realization of the betrayal that Willy led him to believe was the truth. Their relationship was never the same again.

Willy’s greatest need was emotional and psychological. Willy needed to feel liked and loved not only by his family but also by his clients and friends. From his mentor Dave Singleman, Willy thought that success was brought by popularity and attractiveness, and these two ideals subordinated virtuous ideals such as honesty, integrity, and hard work.

Conclusion As the analysis essay on Death of a Salesman shows, this is delusional and far from reality. Willy strived to make his son Biff like him so much and instead of rewarded his mistakes instead of reprimanding. This ended up destroying not only Biff but also the relationship the two had, which displays the main theme and tragedy of the play. The play is also a reflection of how self-denial can lead to failure. Arthur miller encourages people to discover who they really are and not to be influenced by the successes of others as this is just an illusion.

Works Cited Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.


Language Barriers of the ELL in American Society Essay college essay help online

People who have learned English as a second language have had problems communicating in America for quite a long time. Communicating to various cultural groups for those speaking a second language can prove to be a challenge. As different cultures have grown in America, as Latin Americans, have had their own language, Spanish, merge with English, the so-called Spanglish, and Black English population has over the course of American history had their own dialect.

With the cross influence and interaction between these two cultures a merging or bridge should evolve to decrease the tensions that exist between the two, and for those speaking a different language. The misunderstanding has grown even more.

With mutual respect and acceptance of Black English and Spanglish, it would be possible to make that link grow and to bring these cultures to a peaceful coexistence for minorities and subcultures.

One of the most common concerns in the modern world is the issue of bilingual people, who, on the one hand, benefit from being immersed in these cultural variances, yet on the other hand, have to face sufficient challenges in navigating them. Another problem, which seems to have grown more significant at the current moment is the issue concerning the “correct” English language and its “incorrect” variation: standard American English and Black English.

Despite the evident fusion of cultures, people are still reluctant to accept everything that does not suit the “norm”, especially concerning the language issues – surprisingly, people are highly unwilling to realize that the English language can merge with the other ones.

In her astounding article, Ana C. Zentella dwells upon the problem of being bilingual. Thus, one of the most widespread issues is the problem of the language discrimination: “Speakers of non-defined mixture of Spanish and/or English are judged as “different”, or sloppy speakers of Spanish and/or English, and are often labeled verbally deprived, or deficient bilinguals because supposedly they do not have the ability to speak either English or Spanish well” (Zentella 215).

Compared to her, June Jordan, the author of a study on the Black English, dwells upon the problem of being different as well, considering the social inacceptance of the dialect and the Black subculture: “white standards control our official and popular judgments of verbal proficiency and correct, or incorrect, language skills, including speech” (Jordan 315).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jordan also marks that the speakers of Black English are often viewed as “different” as well: “Nevertheless, white standards persisit, supreme and unquestioned, in the United States” (315). It is obvious that Zentella is concerned with the social status that the language can give to a person.

Being bilingual provides certain advantages and often serves as a marker of a multilateral personal development, but it also proves that living in America, where English is the standard, cultures are isolated from each other, which can lead to misunderstandings of one another because of the language and culture barriers. This then leads to stereotypes and misjudgments, and the discrimination of the people speaking in the “low” dialect different from the “high” English.

Crossing with the topic raised by Zentella, the article written by Jordan reflects on the problems of understanding and accepting the U.S. dialects, especially the so-called Black English. Compared to the traditional or standard American English, this dialect is neglected and underestimated in the modern society, as Jordan claims.

“White English” in America, is “Standard English”(315). It is obvious that Jordan raises the issue of social conflict: “Our language devolves from a culture that abhors all abstraction, or anything tending to obscure or delete the fact of human being who is here and now/the truth of the person who is speaking or listening” (319), thus marking that the concern for the English language variations also concerns such aspect as the national culture.

Judging from the fact that both Black English and Spanglish cause problems when communicating between various language groups, particularly Standard English speakers, the issue of the languages coexistence seems to be a crucial one. Thus, for instance, Jordan drives an example from her own experience of teaching them Black English.

As Jordan gave students Alice Walker’s The Color Purple (Jordan 316), she realized that her students were concerned not with the idea underlying the story they studied, but the peculiar language which the characters spoke: “Just about unanimously their criticism targeted the language” (Jordan 316).

Comparing this situation to the conflict which Zentella speaks about, it becomes evident that the writer pursues the same object of narrowing the gap between the two cultures, trying to make people see that the “pidgin”, that is, the Black American, version of the language is as worth appreciation as the original one.

We will write a custom Essay on Language Barriers of the ELL in American Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another problem which is evident in Zentella’s article, and which can be traced if considering Jordan’s article as well, is the issue of code switching that enables us sometimes whenever there is an issue with finding the exact word to express the idea or feeling. Zentella explained “code switching is characteristic in many parts of the world where two or more speech communities live in close contact, but often it is misunderstood” (241).

Since the original language and the one generated from it are bound to have something in common, namely the verbiage and the sentence structure, the problem of code switching might seem exaggerated. Thus, for instance, the English word “respect” can be regognized in the Spanish word “respeto”.

However, it proves that the two languages presuppose different culture – often the acceptance depends on the language used: “Because of the selection of English for Don Diego would have constituted a clear lack of respeto (“respect”), children who were not confident of their Spanish ability avoided him” (Zentella 218).

Thus, Zentella shows that the knowledge of the language is often a measure of the social status in the given society. Thus, despite the common vocabulary and considerable similarities of the original language and the dialect, there is always the aspect of cultural and social difference when choosing one of the languages to use.

Another detail that makes the two texts closer to each other is the considerations of the state of such languages as Spanglish and Black English as well as their further development. Both authors argue that there is no use hindering the process

of the new dialects emerging and their further development into languages because they are proven to have their own structure, rules and vocabulary, as well as cultural peculiarities. Black English is a whole lot more than the four-letter words, Jordan explains (318).

No matter how weird and awkward the phrases constructed in the given language might sound, appreciating the pidgin, as well as the people using it, is absolutely necessary. It seems that the cultural gap between people is narrowing as the world languages gradually fuse into a single mass. Though the process has only begun, it is bound to embrace more and more languages, enriching them with the cultural peculiarities of the other countries and the other nations.

However, it must be admitted that such fusion will take certain amount of time to be accepted in the society, since at present the Native Americans are rather unwilling to accept the variations of their language, as both Zentella (215) and Jordan (315) explain. Jordan claims that the adults do not want that their children studied the culture of the “Roommates and family members ridiculed their studies, or remained incredulous, “You studying that shit? At school?” (319).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Language Barriers of the ELL in American Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jordan reveals the hard truth to people: “Nonetheless, white standards of English persist, supreme and unquestioned, in these United States” (315). Though Zentella claims that the fusion of Spanish and English has now become accepted and even appreciated, it is remarkable that the term “Spanglish”, which was supposed to sound diminishing for the people using it, is even now accepted to define this dialect:

Milan (1982: 202-203) urged that ‘both the researchers studying contemporary Puerto Rican speech in New York City and the practitioners striving for an equal educational opportunity for the city’s Puerto Rican population make a truly concerted effort to avoid using the term ‘Spanglish’.’ He favored “New York City Spanish” as less “misleading” and “more scientific” (215)

However, there are still a lot of issues to solve. As the authors of the articles have shown that, people need some time to adjust to changes and accept them, which means that the process of getting acquainted with the other cultures might take a number of decades, or even a couple of centuries.

In spite if the fact that language is constantly developing, enriched with new words each day, it might take years for people to recognize these changes and accept them. In addition, the fact that people subconsciously fear to trust foreigners might hinder the language development even more.

Thus, it is obvious that the core linguistic problem of the modern world is acceptance. Since denying certain languages’ existence will not make the problem vanish, it would be reasonable to reconsider the way in which the attitudes towards Spanglish and Black English are perceived.

Works Cited Jordan, Jude. “Nobody Mean More to Me Than You, and the Future Life of Willie Jordan.” What’s Language Got to Do with It? Ed. Keith Walters, Michal Brody. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. 2005 Print.

Zentella, Ana Celia. “The Hows and Whys of Spanglish.” What’s Language Got to Do with It? Ed. Keith Walters, Michal Brody. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. 2005 Print.


The Rich and the Rest Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The issue of poverty is a never ending topic of discussion all over the world. This is even true in a supposedly rich country like the United States of America. This is my observation as I scan the daily newspapers, watch the six o’clock news and listen to my neighbors when they have nothing else to do but talk about life and politics.

It is very important topic of discussion because poverty is something that many of us would not want to experience. At the same time when we talk about poverty we also talk about the other side of the coin, which is, riches and comfort.

People from all walks of life, from the high and mighty to the poorest of the poor are affected by impact of extravagant wealth and staggering poverty. Economists, politicians, diplomats, entrepreneurs, employees, speculators, scholars, and even blue collar workers never cease to talk about poverty. However, there is no agreement when it comes to the root cause of these problems. It must be pointed out that poverty is caused by inequality.

Poverty and inequality go hand-in-hand and in order to eradicate poverty then we need to deal with inequality. Now, here is the problem, I find it difficult to simplify inequality. For example a poor person in the United States is better-off if compared to someone who struggles in a Third-World country. Inequality on the other hand is the same tricky problem. Minorities are citizens of this country but sometimes they feel as if they are second-class citizens and unable to access to resources that are open most Americans.

In order to simplify the discussion I would like to focus on some of the aspects of inequality that is familiar to me. Therefore, I would like to focus on social mobility, access to health care, the right to education, and the right to eat nutritious food.

In my opinion it does not matter where you live in the world, whether you are a European living in the trendiest cities or a citizen of Third-World country living in squalor, if you do not have access to the things that I mentioned above then you have experienced inequality and if you look around you the presence of inequality in society is the root cause of poverty.

In the January 22nd issue of The Economist for 2011, there is an article entitled the Inequality: The Rich and the Rest and the author said that inequality exists because of the lack of social mobility (The Economist, 2011, p.1).This is true but there is a need to elaborate on the issue of social mobility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the lack of social mobility is the existence of social obstacles that prevent a person from getting the best job etc. I believe in this statement and I should say that the focus should be on quality education. In a progressive country like America the door swings wide open for college graduates. If the percentage of young men and women who can afford to go to college will significantly increase then there will be less inequality in this nation.

One of the main focuses of the Davos meeting is the growing gap between the rich and the poor. It insists that the widening gap is a global risk for the global economy (Koss


Conquest of Aztecs Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparison of Sources


Works Cited

Introduction Conquest in history. The conquest of Mexico can be considered one of the events in the world history that can be perceived in accordance with the literary sources available on the conquest. As such, two reputable sources Five Letters of Cortés to the Emperor: 1519-1526 by Hernan Cortés and The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico by Miguel Leyn-Portilla advocate different perspectives on this historic phenomenon with detailed descriptions and evidence.

However, to have a full picture of what has happened in Mexico in the era of the Aztec empire, it is necessary to take into account both perspectives and analyze views of both sides of the conflict.

Disparities in Amerindian and Spanish versions. The main portion of disparities in the versions reported by Spaniards and Amerindians concerns the role of both sides in the conflict and the position they advocate. Thus, Spaniards, whose version has been regarded as the only documentary source of the conquest, perceive this conflict as an ordinary thing when they told the inhabitants about their friendly intentions but razed the city to collect gold and other riches.

At the same time, Amerindians’ perspective reflects the culture of the Aztecs and lack of knowledge about the real plans of Spaniards. Though these two sources are completely different, they have a lot in common as they demonstrate the same events from different perspectives and seem t complement each other.

Comparison of Sources First reports about the contact of Spaniards and Aztecs, mission of Spaniards, and perception of Aztecs. The first encounters of Spaniards and Aztecs are perceived in different ways by the two authors. As such, Cortés claims that Spaniards were friendly to the natives and wanted to establish commercial relations with the representatives of the Aztec empire in order to trade with them while the natives welcomed them in a hostile manner and many Spaniards were killed or wounded:

Cortés, replying by means of the native interpreter whom he had with him, informed them he was going to do them no harm but admonish them and bring them to the knowledge of our Holy Catholic Faith, that they might become vassals of your Majesty and serve and obey him, as had the Indians and peoples of those parts which are already peopled with Spanish subjects of your Majesty (Cortés Five Letters 4).

At the same time, this event was described in a completely different way by Leyn-Portilla.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Aztecs were terrified when they came to know about the arrival of strangers but though them to be of divine origin. So, “Prince Ixtlilxochitl of Tezcoco … left his city with a group of followers to greet Cortés in peace” (Leyn-Portilla II-330).

This means that the Aztecs were ready to welcome the strangers and share everything they had with them because they believed Spaniards to be the gods that returned to their country to rule it. In other words, the perception of Aztecs was widely marked with their religious traditions and cultural peculiarities whereas the perception of Spaniards was marked only with a desire to serve the crown of his Majesty, spread Christianity at all costs, and enrich themselves and the Spanish rulers with the gold they noticed in the continent.

The difference occurs due to the varieties in the perception of the conquest as a concept by both sides as for one party this was a massacre and destruction of the empire while for another this became a source of wealth.

The image of Aztecs by Spaniards, and image of conquistadors by Aztecs. The image of each party differs greatly from another. This happens due to the disparities in their views, background knowledge of both sides, ability to infer from what they see, and use the information acquired for further development.

At the same time, both authors emphasize the divine origin of Spaniards as perceived by Aztecs. For instance, Amerindians thought Spaniard to be their gods and were ready to accept whatever they say due to their desire to be helpful for their gods.

The first contacts of Spaniards and Aztecs reflect the admiration of both parties, “the prince was astonished to see a man with such white skin and with a beard and with so much courage and majesty” (Leyn-Portilla II-331) as well as Cortés openly admired the people he saw. This means that friendly relationships could be the basis for future cooperation, commerce, and partnership.

The main reason for Spaniards to attack the Aztecs included their desire to serve the Spanish crown and “bring the natives of the land to the knowledge of our Catholic faith” (Cortés The Fifth Letter 4) and collect the riches of the land in order to bring those to the mainland for their rulers. As reported by Townsend, “The belief was part and parcel of their [Aztecs’] cosmology and does not by any means indicate that they were lacking in intelligence or that their culture was ‘less developed’” (para. 4).

We will write a custom Essay on Conquest of Aztecs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main reason for their differences was the way they wanted to cooperate because it was important for Aztecs to remain a state with its own ruler and culture whereas the Spaniards tried to spread their faith by any means and retrieve as much gold and other riches from this abundant land as they could using violence to persuade people take their side.

Tenochtitlan and Cortés razing the main city of Aztec empire. The aspect of cooperation is viewed differently by the two authors who provide evidence to support their perspectives. At the same time, this aspect appears to be decisive for both parties as they have different missions and have different means for their accomplishment.

As such, it is necessary to review the source by Chaliand who cites an excerpt from the book Letters from Mexico by Hernan Cortés where the captain Cortés reports the rulers of Spain about the victory over natives and the results of their campaign and the city they have captured. Moreover, the author enumerates the cities they have destroyed and other ‘successful outcomes’.

On the contrary, this situation with the main city of the Aztec empire called Tenochtitlan was perceived as the cruel and unfair action of Spaniards toward the native inhabitants of this land. Leyn-Portilla describes: “When the Spaniards entered the Royal House, they placed Motecuhzoma under guard and kept him under their vigilance” (II-334). This means that they pretended to be friendly only to reach the gold and were not interested in commerce with these people.

Spaniards used Aztecs to reach their goal and performed their tasks with special cruelty; they “gathered all the gold into a great mount and set fire to everything else, regardless of its value” (Leyn-Portilla II-334). This means that Spaniards did not care about the cultural heritage of the native people of Mexico because they wanted gold and they received gold – the goal was attained.

However, the razing of the city of Tenochtitlan is not described by Cortés as something inappropriate which should not have been done or special needs of soldiers or aggression from natives that could have caused such violent response. The more interesting is the question why the natives allowed Spaniards to capture their chief and burn their houses and deprive them of their riches and other valuable issues.

Warfare: Gap in technological issues. The gap in technology made the Aztecs unable to conquer the Spaniards and defend themselves and their princes. If

Cortés writes that the Aztecs “many enclosures, pits and ditches, and many kinds of weapons” (131); however, these weapons were mostly for fighting with other people from other settlings and for hunting. Such perspective helps to analyze the entire concepts of the conquest and its success for Spaniards because they could use their more advanced weapon to conquer these people with spending minimal human resources on this.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Conquest of Aztecs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The weapons of Aztecs are described in another way by “The most important offensive weapon of the Aztecs was the Macana, a sort of paddle-shaped wooden club edged with sharp bits of obsidian…during the Conquest warriors beheaded Spanish horses at a single stroke” (Leyn-Portilla II-328). Besides, the rituals were an integral part of the Aztec culture and they did not start a war without declaring it to the enemies.

In fact, the tradition to declare war explains everything as the Aztecs were not ready to fight because they welcomed Spaniards as their friends. At the same time, both perspectives include description of weapons and warfare skills of the Aztec warriors contrasted to the lack of knowledge about the territory possessed by the Spaniards. In other words, the main technological advantage of the Spaniards can be considered the way they started the war without declaring it and caught them unawares.

Though Spaniards had indigenous allies among natives, they suffered from endemic diseases which were one of the main drawbacks of their army whereas natives were less vulnerable in terms of their health and endemic diseases but truly believed in respect and other virtues typical of noble men (as you remember, they admired the courage and majesty of Cortés when they first saw him).

Conclusion The controversy that arises after reviewing the sources on the Mexican conquest can be directed into another way. After accurately analyzing the evidence provided by Hernan Cortés and Miguel Leyn-Portilla in their books suggesting quite opposing accounts of this historic event, it is possible to advocate the idea that these two sources complement each other because it is inappropriate to infer after regarding the perspective of only one party of the conflict.

This means that the differences in the description of first contacts, razing of Tenochtitlan, and analysis of warfare peculiarities can be smoothed with the help of dual perspective. In other words, the importance of objective idea about the main historic events is the key way to success and this approach should be used every time certain controversy over the issue arises.

Works Cited Chaliand, Gérard. The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994. Print.

Cortés, Hernán. The Fifth Letter of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor Charles V, Containing an Account of His Expedition to Honduras., 2001. Print.

Cortés, Hernándo. Five Letters of Cortés to the Emperor: 1519-1526. New York: W. W. Norton


Writer’s Choice Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

In the section on ‘Muslim Women’ in the primary source “Memoirs of Usamah Ibn Mundiqh,” why did Usamah and his sister thank their mother? What did the author say about the honor of women?

2. On p. 77 in Chapter 4 of your textbook the author says: “When they felt it to be necessary, however, the Latins did engage in major building works and these often demonstrate how their minds worked.” What kinds of building projects did they engage in, why were they ‘necessary,’ and how did they show how these crusaders minds worked?

3. At the top of p. 85 of your textbook, Riley-Smith states “…the future rulers of Antioch and Jerusalem were never to be regarded as the vassals of the popes or the patriarchs.” What does this mean and why is it true? (My Lecture/PowerPoint for this week can help you answer this one.)


The Impact of Advertising Media on Society Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Introduction Selection of appropriate medium to advertise a product is often based and measured on frequency and spread of the medium. Factors such as: product’s stage in life cycle; marketing/advertising objectives; budget constraints; message type; branding; social/industry trends; time and location considerations; product’s characteristics; audience reach and customer characteristics, are all put into consideration.

Media advertising options could consist of: mass media; television; radio; internet; newspapers; magazines; web advertising; print advertising (billboards, signage, posters, brochures and business cards, catalogues); magazines; and specialty advertising/branding on bits and pieces such as matchbooks, pencils, calendars, telephone pads, shopping bags and so forth (Donnelly,1996).

Suitable medium of advertisement: MASS MEDIA

Mass media in terms of this product which is a wine will be the most suitable medium of advertising for the company. This is so due to certain reasons which include: 1) its ability to reach a wider platform and make sense at the same time, while still being able to target a worldwide audience; 2) mass media is easily accessible; 3) certain types generate cultic followings and this will be advantageous to the company depending on the target audience it’s targeting; 4) in terms of technology, the internet offers diverse options for passing on of information to those clients that are techno savvy; 5) television, movies, the internet and the radio are some of the best forms of entertainment/mass mediums that the company can employ/consider; 6)it can also be used for educational purposes in an effective manner (Schultz


The History of the Ertan Dam and Its Use for Generating Electricity Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Water Dams

The Ertan Dam


Works Cited

Introduction Man has always invented ways of making his life comfortable. Availability of electrical power is one of the very basic needs for the modern civilization. One of the ways through which power can be obtained is through the construction of dams which are used for generation of hydroelectric power.

This paper examines one such dam located in China. This paper considers the history of the Ertan dam outlining its purpose, the environmental impacts, organizations involved and current issues about it.An example is the Ertan dam. This dam is located in china and is used for generating electricity.

Water Dams There are many small and large dams around the world. They are used to retain water for use in some later time. Dams are constructed from various materials and in various designs. They can be shallow or deep depending on geographical conditions among other factors. Dams are mostly constructed by cooperation between the society and the construction teams which mainly includes civil engineers.

They are very useful to the society at large as their impacts directly affect the society’s operations and way of life. Despite the advantages of dams, they usually pose a very big danger in case they fail. There are many causes of dam failures and they range from human failure to matters beyond human capability.

Some of the human failures include poor maintenance and mistakes in design and construction while factors beyond human capability include extreme rainfall and landslides among others (Hartford, Baecher


Impact of the Black Death Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Social impacts of the Black Death

Economic impacts of the Black Death

Political impacts of the Black Death


Reference List

Introduction The Black Death was, no doubt, the greatest population disaster that has ever occurred in the history of Europe. The name is given to the bubonic plaque that occurred in the fourteenth century in Europe killing millions of people. The plaque began in the year 1348, and by the year 1359, it had killed an approximate 1.5 million people, out of an estimated total population of about 4 million people.

So terrifying was the Black Death that peasants were blaming themselves for its occurrence, and thus some of them resulted to punishing themselves as a way of seeking God’s forgiveness. The bubonic plaque was caused by fleas that were hosted by rats, a common phenomenon in the cities and towns. The presence of rats in the cities and towns was due to the fact that the towns were littered, and they were poorly managed.

The worst part of it is the fact that the medieval peasants did not know that the plaque was caused by the pleas hosted by the rats. They actually believed that the plague was caused by the rats themselves. As more and more people died from the Black Death, the impacts of the plague became more profound.

The plague affected the demographic composition of the society, and thus it had far-reaching effects on the social, economic, political and even cultural realms of the medieval society. To this day, the Black Death is remembered as the worst demographic disaster to be ever experienced in European history (Robin, 2011). This paper is an in-depth analysis of the impacts of the Black Death.

Social impacts of the Black Death The Black Death had far reaching social impacts on the people who lived during the fourteenth century. An obvious social impact of the plague is the fact that the Black Death led to a significant reduction in the human population of the affected areas. This had extensive effects on all aspects of life, including the social and political structure of the affected areas.

Before the plague, feudalism, the European social structure in medieval times, had created a society in which inequality was rife, with many poor peasants, and rich lords. This fuelled overpopulation, which was a catalyst for the mortality of the plaque. After the plaque, a large number of the overpopulated peasants became victims of the plaque, and thus the lords lacked labourers in their farms. This also led to a significant reduction in the population (Bryrne, 2011).

The people who were spared by the plague lived full lives. They regarded themselves as the next victims of the bubonic plague. This led to immoral behaviour that saw societal codes like the sexual codes broken. People did not care about having virtues anymore because they knew that death was approaching fast. As people lost their partners to the plague, the marriage market grew, fuelling more sexual immorality (Carol, 1996).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also among the immediate social impacts is the fact that at one point, the number of people who were dying from the bubonic plague was seemingly more than the number of the living. This made it virtually impossible for the living to take care of the ailing, or even for the living to bury the deceased. This was a social crisis that has remained in the books of history as a remarkable impact of the bubonic plague.

Economic impacts of the Black Death Immediately after the occurrence of the Black Death, all economic activities were paralysed. The first economic activity to suffer substantially from the plaque was trade. Although people were not aware that it was the infectiousness of the plaque that was making it to kill more people, they were afraid to travel to plagued areas for fear of coming into contact with rats, which they believed was the source of the disease. This substantially affected trade ties between villages and communities in the medieval European society.

After the occurrence of the Black Death, other impacts of the plague started affecting the community. The population of the European parts affected by the plaque reduced drastically, leading to a severe shortage of labour for the farms. The demand of peasant farmers increased, with the lords competing for them by relocating them from their villages to the farms of the latter. This made the peasants have a competitive economic edge, as they were able to negotiate for better salaries.

As the Black Death claimed more lives, farms were left unattended because the peasants who were responsible for ploughing had fallen victims of the plague. Where the lords were lucky to have had some harvest, it was challenging to bring it home due to a serious shortage of manpower.

Some harvest got destroyed in the field as there were no men to bring it home. Some animals got lost because the people who used to look after them had also fallen victims of the plague. These problems led to a number of other impacts in the medieval society of the fourteenth century (Bridbury, 1973).

As farms went unploughed and some harvest remained in the fields, people in the villages starved for food. Cities and towns also faced severe shortages of food since the farming villages around the towns did not have sufficient foodstuffs. Lords had to strategize economically in order to survive, and thus most of them resulted to keeping sheep since it was easier without the manpower.

Economic activities that required the presence of large numbers of peasants like the farming of grains lost their popularity. This, in turn, led to serious shortage of basic commodities like bread. This, coupled with the fact that the production of all kinds of foodstuffs had decreases, led to inflationary prices on commodities (“The Black Death And Its Effects”, 1935). The poor were left thriving in an environment full of hardships as the prices of foods skyrocketed.

We will write a custom Essay on Impact of the Black Death specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political impacts of the Black Death The Black Death had a number of political impacts. First of all, the feudal social system of the fourteen-century European population demanded that peasants could not relocate from their villages at will. For a peasant to relocate from his/her village, he/she had to seek the permission of his/her lord.

After the Black Death, it became increasingly difficult for lords to get the number of peasants they required to provide them with the labour for their farms. This made lords to disregard the law, and relocate peasants to their villages so that they could work in their farms. Most of the times, the lords even declined to return the latter to their rightful villages in a bid to get maximum benefit from their labour.

Another political impact of the Black Death also stems from the reduced population of the affected areas. This is because after the number of peasants reduced, and they were able to negotiate salaries and even relocate from their villages, contrary to feudal law, the government imposed stricter rules to regulate the way peasants offer their manpower to the lords.

This was done by the introduction of the 1351 “statute for labourers” (Bridbury, 1973). The statute provided that payments to peasants were to be made with reference to the payments that were made in 1346. This meant that peasants would receive payments using the terms that were prevailing before the plague occurred.

The statute was structures such that both the lord and the peasant could be accused of breaking the law by either the peasant receiving a higher payment, or the lord giving the same. The effect of this statute was that a good number of peasants disobeyed it, leading to, arguably inhumane punishment. This fuelled revolt among the peasants who sought to fight for their rights in the 1381 Peasants Revolt (Bentley et al., 2008).

After oppressive statutes like the statute for labourers came into force, peasants started to be resistant. They therefore organized a number of revolts in a bid to attract the attention of legislators to their plea of fairness. The most serious of these revolts was the aforementioned 1381 peasant revolt. The peasants had gathered in huge numbers and marched to London. They killed senior officials of the King and took control over the tower of London.

Among their main grievances was the fact that, thirty-five years after the occurrence of the Black Death, the population had reasonably grown and the pre-existent demand for labour had substantially reduced. The lords were therefore threatening to withdraw the privileges they had given to peasants since their demand was no more. This led to the revolt as the peasants sought to fight for their privileges.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is evident that the Black Death had a lot of impacts on the European medieval society. It changed the demographic set-up of the community and thus it substantially affected the social activities of the peasants. This can be evidenced by the aforementioned increase in cases of sexual immorality as people had lost their partners in the plague.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the Black Death by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Black Death also had a number of economic impacts which resulted from the drastic decrease in the population of peasants. This can be evidenced by the aforementioned change by lords from grain farming to sheep farming. Lastly, the Black Death had a number of political impacts which can be exemplified by the development of the aforementioned statute for labourers.

Studies of the impacts of the bubonic plague are still ongoing. This is despite the fact that most of the impacts were realized immediately after the plague and their effects on the society analyzed. Political activists during the time, who were mostly lords, had observed the effects of the plague and made societal changes that were bound to benefit them.

However, scientists still believe that the European society still suffers significant effects of the bubonic plague. For instance, it has been established that England, where the greatest effects of the bubonic plague were perhaps felt, has significantly lower genetic diversity than it is suspected to have had in the eleventh century. Geneticists explain this by the argument that the deaths that resulted from the Black Deaths were the cause of the low genetic variation in Europe.

Reference List Bentley, Jerry H., Ziegler, Herbert F., Streets, Heather E. (2008) Traditions and

Encounters: A Brief Global History, ch9,15,19, McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Bridbury, A. (1973). The Black Death. The Economic History Review, 26: 577 – 592.

Bryrne, J. (2011). Black Death. World Book Advanced. Web.

Carol, B. (1996). Bubonic Plague in the nineteenth-century China.

Robin, N. (2011). Apocalypse Then: A History of Plague. Special Report. World Book Advanced. Web.

The Black Death And Its Effects. (1935). Readings in English History Drawn from the Original Sources: Intended to Illustrate a Short History of England. Boston: Ginn.


Retention Strategies Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction Retention of students in any institution of learning, irrespective of its level, is very essential as it contributes to the success of the students in terms of academic performance that in the long run affects the overall performance of the institution at large. This is so because the students are able to learn without disturbances which can be brought about by changes or transfers to other learning institutions where they have to adapt to the new environment and the learning strategies of the new school.

The practice of retaining the students is however not easy as it is faced with a lot of challenges which should be dealt with to ensure its success (Bean and Eaton, 2000).This piece of work discusses the retention of students in learning institutions much emphasis being given to the variables that affect student retention, the goals and strategies that can be applied to handle the variables, the enablers and constrainers involved and finally an assessment plan to measure the success and progress of the goals and strategies.

Variables That Affect Student Retention to Be Addressed In the Goals and Strategies There are numerous factors that are associated with the retention of students in learning institutions. The factors however depend on the type of school for instance elite institutions and community colleges with the former having high rates of retention as compared to the latter.

Some of the general variables that affect student retention include; the academic status of the institution in terms of the overall grades attained the satisfaction linked with social life or student peer group which may include classroom relations, games interactions and even roommates socialization among others. The student background for instance the support from the parents’ income; the student’s education goals and previous education performance also determine his or her retention (Wetzel, O’Toole and Peterson, 1999).

The organizational factors such as the orientation programs used in the institution, the rules and regulation governing the institution, the relationships between the staff and the students in the institution, the financial aid and housing policies also matter. The academic factors affecting retention of students include the resources available in the institution, the courses offered, the organization of faculties, and the learning programs among others.

The social factors on the other hand may include the peers, the social groupings and integration among others. Environmental factors also influence the retention of students in learning institutions. They may include the transfer opportunities available, marital status of the students, the financial resources, and family and job responsibilities among others.

The particular student also plays a role in determining his or her retention for instance his or her intentions and attitudes for example self motivation and development, the urge for performance and achievement, the value attached to education, satisfaction, the approach strategies and most importantly the student’s intention to stay enrolled in the institution (Lau, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Goals and Strategies to Address the Variables In setting the goals and strategies in a learning institution, it is essential to observe the retention indicators for instance the potential opportunities and challenges linked with the students. The important indicators could include course completion and course success rates among others.

The major retention goals could be to enhance persistence and progression which entails semester to semester enrollment and its success. The retention goals should cater for the variables mentioned above to ensure that they are solved in the most efficient, effective, and economic manner possible. There are various strategies that can be applied in the institution to ensure that students are not only enrolled but retained.

Some of the strategies to be applied in this particular institution include early interventions for example provision of outreach programs meant to develop students competencies while they are still in high school and also just after their entry into the higher institution of learning, there should also be administration of appropriate orientation strategies that may ease the transition process of the students to the high level education institution that clearly contain information about the institution and the academic procedures as well as social support necessary for staying in the institution.

Another strategy is the intensification and diversification of learning through development of appropriate standards and effective curriculums, employment of knowledgeable and well trained teaching staff and provision of appropriate learning experiences for instance where the students are told of the relevance and application of all the courses taken.

The parents are also an important constituent of the institution and programs should be developed that are aimed at making them understand the student life so that they can offer the necessary support and encourage them to remain in the school. Psychological counseling is also an important aspect as it helps solve most of the problems faced by the students that could in one way or the other affect the possibility of them being retained in the institution for instance stress.

Provision of basic skills for example proper time management may also help keep the student comfortable and satisfied hence reducing the chances of deferment or transfer. Encouragement of participation in extra curriculum activities like social functions also helps the students to feel at home and anticipate for certain activities hence avoiding chances of losing interest in the institution (Seidman, 2005).

Enablers and Constrainers Every process or activity is deemed to be having some enablers and constrainers or the factors that facilitate its success and those that derail its progress or success. The retention process in this institution can be enhanced by various factors for instance its high quality in terms of education standards and also the fact that the institution is well known, the availability of appropriate orientation programs, a pool of qualified and well trained personnel especially the teaching staff and a favorable institutional culture among others.

We will write a custom Essay on Retention Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Constrainers to the retention process in the institution are also present and they include the limitation of financial aid to support the less fortunate students, poor students’ background which makes education prosperity impossible, poor individual attitudes among students for instance lack of self motivation and development and the absence of the urge to achieve among others.

An assessment plan to measure the success and progress of the goals and strategies A process is never considered successful if the results of the set goals and the implemented strategies cannot be ascertained. A good retention plan should therefore include an assessment plan that can be used to gauge the rate of retention of the students as well as looking into the factors that affect the retention.

The assessment metrics to be observed in determining the progress and success of the retention process as set by the retention goals and strategies include looking at the students’ participation and satisfaction in major functions and activities of the institution, the grades attained by the students, the rates of absenteeism among other factors.

An effective assessment plan should involve the formation of specific questions, data planning and data collection in regard to the identified metrics and information utilization and communication to ensure that student retention is enhanced by dealing with the faults identified (Tinto, n.d).

Conclusion The retention of students in learning institutions is a very critical aspect that should never be underemphasized under all circumstances. The two major student related problems faced by the administration is the enrollment which entails the initial capture of the students to the institution and the retention of the students which entails keeping them enrolled.

Attrition is however less disturbing in institutions which attract a large number of applicants and have high rates of retention and vice versa. While there are variations of students in different institutions, there is a general pattern that can be retrieved from various researches carried out on the issue in which retention follows.

For instance it has been observed that the higher the level of education or degree offered in an institution, the higher the retention rates and vice versa. It is also true that older and well established learning institutions which in most cases have long traditions and bigger support have higher retention rates as compared to the emerging institutions which could be having shaky foundations.

The student retention rates are also higher in high quality institutions than it is in less prestigious learning institutions. The mode of learning also affects the retention rates for instance institutions that offer fulltime courses to the average aged students who reside in the school have high retention rates than those offering part time courses to the old people who are school non residents.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Retention Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Bean, J. P., and Eaton, S B. (2000). A Psychological Model of College Student Retention; In Rethinking the Departure Puzzle: New Theory and Research on College Student Retention, ed. John M. Braxton. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Lau, K.L. (2003). Institutional Factors Affecting Student Retention. Web.

Seidman, A. (2005). College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group

Tinto, V. (n.d). The Assessment of Student Retention Programs. Web.

Wetzel, N.J, O’Toole, D and Peterson, S. (1999). Factors Affecting Student Retention Probabilities: A Case Study. Journal of Economics and Finance. Volume 23. No. 1. 45-55. Spring.


Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement Research Paper college essay help online

Introduction The history of the movement meant to put an end to slavery dates back to the establishment of slavery in America. In the West, millions of African slaves were entrenched in to the American labor force from the beginning of the 16th century and were not freed until the last decade of the 19th century. Unlike the modern day slavery, America’s economy was dependent on the labor of slaves whose masters treated them unfairly.

During that time, very few people spoke against slavery since they were satisfied with the status quo. However, the Quakers from the very beginning came out strongly to criticize slavery, which they viewed as immoral.

Even though some members within the church were slaveholders, they soon banned the ownership of slaves among themselves in a move that they believed would set an example for others to follow. 1 Throughout the slavery period, Quakers distributed pamphlets and staged demonstrations that finally gave rise to the abolitionist movement.

History of the Quakers The Friends Church was begun over three centuries ago. The church was established by George Fox who was an Anglican before he began feeling that there was more to religion than what was being offered by the Anglican Church. When he was only 19 years old, George Fox moved across churches looking for an answer to his questions but he never got them. Apparently, the Church of England, which was the official religion at the time, was too sophisticated for the common person and many people felt that it did not address their needs. 2

This desire to find a connection and inner peace with God led George Fox to establish an association of “Friends” after the exhortation given by Jesus in John 15:15 where he called the believers his Friends.

However, there were people who opposed the changes that this “Friends” were bringing to the church and they branded them “Quakers” after the manner in which they trembled when speaking of their newfound faith. Instead of taking the name in a negative manner, the Friends felt that it complemented them and they decided to adopt the name as their official logo. 3

Since the foundation of the church in 1647, the Quakers focused on passing across the message that Jesus Christ was the answer to all problems. This saw many people who were tired of the formal religion coming forward to join the movement that was offering them something “real” as opposed to what the Church of England was offering. In reality, the one thing that was attracting people to the Friends was their doctrine.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Quakers viewed slavery as unjust and this compelled them to form an anti-slavery group, the first in history. Throughout the 18th century, the Quakers initiated a strong opposition against slavery. This fight by the Quakers saw the number of abolitionists go up and by 1830, the issue had already become a political matter in America. 4

To many people, the Quakers were perceived to be drastic people. The reason for this was their deep sated belief that before God, all people were equal, and every person had the privilege of receiving God’s salvation and wisdom. Additionally, this Society of Friends was against any form of cruelty and they lived simple lives, which differentiated them from the mainstream church.

This conviction led them to view slavery as morally wrong and they spent most of their time preaching against this vice. Just a few years after its establishment, the Quakers Society began opposing slavery and this marked the beginning of the Abolitionist Movement. In 1696, Quakers made a public declaration renouncing slavery and renewed their calls to fight the vice. 5

Before this declaration, the founder of the Quakers group had stated his detest for slavery but never took tangible steps to fight the vice. During that time, there were still leaders in the Quaker group who owned slaves thus making the issue divisive within the church.

Despite this being the case, some of the Quaker leaders such as Benjamin Lay continued to push for the abolition of slaveholding within the church. In one of his searing addresses, Lay termed the practice as “Hellish” and a “filthy sin…the greatest sin in the world, of the very nature of Hell itself, and is the Belly of Hell.” 6 This sharp criticism brought an awakening within the group and soon many members began questioning the morality of the leaders who owned slaves within the Friend Society.

This led to the replacement of leaders who owned slaves with others who abhorred the practice. Although this was a gradual process, it gave way to the enactment of the popular “Act for the Gradual Abolishment of Slaver” in Pennsylvania. By the time that this was happening, all the Quakers were against slavery and they had become members of the abolitionist movement. 7

Key Figures in the Movement

Upon coming to America, Quakers were viewed as dangerous heretics and they often underwent persecution by people who termed them as Witches. Since these Quakers were not welcome in most states, they found asylum in Rhode Island, which had tolerance towards minority groups. The first Quakers who came to America went on to become key figures both in the Friends Society and in the formation of the Abolition Movement. 8

We will write a custom Research Paper on Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More William Penn

William Penn who lived from 1644-1718 is believed to have been one of the most instrumental figures in the Quakers Society in America. With the help of his friends, Penn is said to have aided in the establishment of Pennsylvania colony, which later came to be the center for American Quakers and went ahead to be the first colony to abolish slavery. As the years progressed, Pennsylvania became the only state where people with divergent people would congregate without the fear for reprisals.

Under the group doctrines, Penn insisted that women needed to be accorded their due respect since this was in tandem with God’s view of equality. Being one of the founders of the Pennsylvania State, Penn helped the colony to come up with a constitution that was credited with placing power in the hands of citizens other than concentrating it on the government.

The constitution drafted by Penn also provided a humane Penal Code for offenders and ensured that the fundamental rights for everyone were respected. Under this constitution, many slaves took their masters to court protesting against the inhumane treatment they were receiving. The lenient terms outlined in this constitution enabled the Quaker group to blossom and provided them with a forum for their criticism of slavery. 9

George Keith

George Keith was an energetic Quaker who was mainly credited with producing numerous pamphlets that spoke against the enslavement of Africans. Even before Quakers began opposing slavery, Keith had already published a pamphlet titled “An exhortation and caution to Friends concerning the buying and selling of Negroes.” In the 1693 publication, Keith criticized the Quakers leadership for its failure to take a strong stand against slavery.

He termed the enslavement of Africans as human rights violation and claimed that those who were supporting slavery within the church were erring and called for their repentance. This statement put Keith on a collision path with the church leadership and led to his disownment two years later. Even after his exit, other members picked up Keith’s message and the leadership of the Quakers was forced to comply with their demands. This made George Keith an important figure in the Abolitionist Movement. 10

William Southeby

After fellow Friends disowned George Keith, things seemed to cool down a bit within the movement. However, another Quaker William Southeby who died in 1720 picked up from where Keith had left and continued making calls for the society to disown slavery.

What made Southeby’s calls weightier was because unlike the others before him he was a Native American. Like Keith before him, Southeby kept on publishing attacks on those who imported and held slaves. Encouraged by his courageousness, other Native American Quakers joined the abolition movement making it even stronger. 11

Benjamin Lay

The Quaker Benjamin Lay came in to the limelight in the 1730’s when he and other Quaker abolitionists led by John Woolman and Anthony Benezet came out in strong opposition to slavery. Before he began opposing slavery, Lay had been a renowned West Indian slaveholder and many slaveholders therefore heeded his calls.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of choosing the diplomatic way, Lay adopted a more confrontational method where he could kidnap the children of slaveholders apparently to acquaint the child with the grief of slaves. This antislavery tactics made him a key figure among abolitionists and even fellow Quakers. Lay also contributed to Woolman’s 1754 publication titled Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, which criticized the notion of valuing money over the lives of Negroes. 12

John Woolman

Quaker John Woolman was drawn in to the abolitionist movement from an early age. In fact, Woolman spent most of his life traversing the country to preach on the ills of slavery. When he was 20 years, Woolman shocked his friends when he began talking openly on the ills of slavery.

This was in response to a request by his boss to draft a bill of sale for a slave girl to which he complied but not before expressing his thoughts on the matter. Immediately after this incident, Woolman quit his job and traversed the country preaching the abolitionist gospel. 13

Anthony Benezet

Anthony Benezet was also another Quaker who worked closely with Lay and Woolman in their opposition to slavery. Throughout his life, Benezet dedicated his life to the course of abolishing slavery and he had a collection of nearly every publication on antislavery. As an ardent abolitionist, Benezet also corresponded with abolitionists living outside America and kept on updating them on how the situation was on the ground.

His love for slaves led him to establish a school for slave children in his home compound, which went on to become the first Negro school in the United States. Under his leadership, Quakers unanimously resolved to bar any slaveholder from the church in order to set an example to the rest of the world. 14

Levi Coffin

The Quakers sensitivity to the needs of freed slaves compelled them to devise a safe passage to ensure that the slaves were not recaptured until they got into the Northern states or other places where slavery was banned. To achieve this mission, the Quakers devised an “Underground Railroad” (UGRR), which was simply a means for slaves to move safely from one place to the other. By 1835, thousands of people majority of who were Quakers operated the UGRR.

One of the men credited with devising the UGRR was Levi Coffin. During his lifetime, Coffin who was a Quaker businessperson devoted most of his time to the UGRR a contribution that earned him the title of Presidency for the underground movement. Indeed, the Coffin’s are said to have hidden a group of escaped slaves for more than 21 years. Later, Coffin confessed to having aided close to 3,000 slaves using the UGRR. This made him a key figure in the abolitionist movement. 15

Lucretia Mott


The Reconstruction: Success and Failure Research Paper essay help: essay help

There can be many ways to interpret a historical event, yet the evaluation of the Reconstruction results will depend on four key factors, which are the unwillingness of the President to provide efficient reforms, the lack of funding for further development of the process, the resistance of the white population and the reluctance of the Supreme Court.

The Thirteen Amendment was a great innovation for the USA which meant that the new era of democracy is going to begin. Abolishing the slavery, Lincoln makes the first step towards the new state. Suggesting that the South must gain financial support for further development, Lincoln created the basis of the future reforms.[1]

As Lincoln provided his 10% Plan, it became obvious that serious changes are about to occur. Thus, the 10% Plan featured the following innovations. The South citizen could obtain a full pardon and have their property back with the guarantee to become absolutely free:

In December 1863 Abraham Lincoln offered a plan of “restoration” to the Southern people. The president’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction embodied what came to be known as Ten Percent Plan. After at least ten percent of a seceded state’s voters took an oath to support the Constitution and the Union, the state could legally establish a new government[2]

The Congress responded with the Wade-Davis Bill which was directed to provide the black people with more freedom. Its main concern was that only those taking the oath of loyalty before the new government could be considered the citizen of America. Congress also created the Freedmen’s Bureau.

Designed to assist the former slaves, it provided help for those who sought for employment. It seemed that the new policy would make the segregation of the black people completely forgotten, when Lincoln was killed. Because of losing the one and only man who could act effectively and create the plan to beat the economical depression, the democratic forces slackened the process of reconstruction.

As Johnson took the chair, the prognoses for the future were somewhat change. Because of his cautious and indecisive politics, Johnson was unable to conduct the Reconstruction process in a proper way, abolishing slavery as institution.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the Civil War ended with the victory of Grant, both the South and the North sustained great losses. Thus, they were both unable to develop further on and could not focus on the Reconstruction.

Although Johnson presented his own plan for reconstruction, it lacked certainty and the decisiveness of Lincoln’s suggestions. Among the issues which the plan covered, there were the pardons for all the people who would take the loyalty vow, no matter whether these would be the northern or the southern dwellers, except the high officials; the abolition of slavery; and the demand for eleven states to repeal their secession ordinance.

Since the president’s policy lacked the certainty about the reforms, the population began to express their concern with the new politics. Thus, the Reconstruction started regressing before it took the full swing. Electing Benjamin Butler for the position of the member of a radical Republican party to the Congress was another proof that the Reconstruction was going the wrong way.

Another effect of the Reconstruction was the Black Code which restricted the rights of the Black people to their limit. Composed of four parts, the new law made the black people dependent on the white population again. The Black Code consisted of four parts, each containing limitations for the black people.

The first part, the Apprentice Law, confirmed the dependence of the black employee on his/her employer completely, which meant turning back to the ideas of slavery. Another part of the Code, the Vagrancy Law, concerned all black homeless people, and meant fining people for vagrancy. As Berkin marked,

Pleased by Johnson’s conservative approach to black rights, southern legislators sought to restore the labor controls over their liberated work force by passing a series of laws collectively known as Black Codes[4]

Taking the advantage of the situation, the Code demanded that all the freedmen must do their military service; otherwise the penalty would be imposed. Since it would have taken much time for the freedmen to register for military service, they could be easily imprisoned according to the Black Code.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Reconstruction: Success and Failure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of the lenient reforms of Johnson, the Radical part of the Congress formed the so-called Joint Committee of Fifteen, which was supposed to conduct more efficient policy and supported rather the Congress policy than the one of the president.

Since not all of the South citizens were convinced that the policy of Lincoln and Congress had the point, the specific groups were formed to take revenge on the black population. Calling themselves Ku-Klux-Klan after the sound of a gun reloaded, they were a terrorist organization in Tennessee which committed manslaughters to revenge on democrats and the defeat of the South.

As the Ku-Klux-Klan was terrorizing the black population, the Congress provide the Civil Rights Act despite Johnson’s protests. The Civil Rights Act aimed at protecting the legal rights of the freedmen, among them the right to be heard in court, the right to sue and the right to hold property, as well as giving the black and the white population “equal civil, political and public rights”[5].

Further on, in 1866, the new amendments to the Act presupposed that the freedmen had the right to vote as well as the white people. Even though Johnson had imposed veto on the act before, the Radicals managed to put these ideas into practice.

One of the greatest events in the history of the Reconstruction was the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Approved by the Congress, it meant that every freedman had the right to be the subject of the States, which meant that the black population could be granted with the freedoms and rights of American citizens.

Another important addition which the Amendment made was the fact that none could be deprived of life, liberty or property from that time on. This ensured that the white people could not harm the newly-freed black people.

Finally, the amendment concerned the issue of the equality in the procession case. Thus, the Fourteenth Amendment attempted to put an end to racial segregation once and for all.

Such changes could not be left without a response from the opponents. In May, 1866 the Memphis rate riot erupted and took away the lives of 46 black people. Demonstrating the protest to share their rights with the freedmen, the white population of Memphis, Tennessee, committed a number of manslaughters. However, such actions gave vent to the sympathy towards the freedmen among the members of Congress.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Reconstruction: Success and Failure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Feeling sympathy for the black population which was suffering severe attacks, the Congress reinforced the powers and the responsibilities of Freedmen’s Bureau. Though the Congress had to act despite the veto of Johnson, the results were stunning, with more than 99,9% male freedmen employed in 1860.Thus, it can be considered that the actions of the Bureau had great effect on the state of the freedmen.

However, the situation was rather controversal, for the more liberty the freedmen were granted by the Congress with; the more severe were the responses from the white opponents. Thus, the reinforcement of the Bureau permissions resulted in another series of manslaughter called New Orleans Race Riot.

Flocking with the police of the New Orleans, the former Confederates attacked the white Republicans and the black freedmen. Unarmed and helpless, the attacked surrendered, but that was of no help – both the white and the black people taking part in the gathering were murdered cruelly. As it could have been predicted, the local police did nothing to investigate the crime and find the real culprits.

While Johnson remained calm and inactive, the Republican demanded that the Reconstruction Act should be provided. Consequently, in 1867 the first Reconstruction Act was introduced to the American society despite Johnson’s veto. According to the First Reconstruction Act, the South was supposed to be split into five military districts. This was what Norton called “social reform through military occupation.”[6]

Such innovation was followed by the announcement that the freedmen were allowed to take part in the elections, e.g. to vote for their candidates. The First Reconstruction Act also presupposed that the South gained readmission after they ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. However, “radical carpetbagger regime”[7] made the black population lose their faith in the reforms held by the white politicians.

The second Reconstruction Act passed shortly after the first one enabled the military forces to control the security of the freedmen in the States. Although Johnson attempted at vetoing this act, like the previous one, it was still put into practice owning to the quick reaction of the Congress.

Following the Second Reconstruction Act, there was the Second Reconstruction Act produced shortly. It stated that the southern territories were supposed to be under the surveillance of the military forces, thus putting the South under their control. The Congress also proclaimed in the Third Reconstruction Act that the Iron Clad Oath would be modified to become even more restricting.

As the Third Reconstruction Act was launched, the situation in the States changed dramatically. Thus, in 1868 the first black man was chosen to represent Louisiana as its lieutenant governor. Such changes indicated that America was ready to become the democratic country, yet some more efforts were needed to make the final step.

As soon as Grant became the president of the States, his administration did not prove as efficient as the Radicals thought it to be. Signifying that the period of Reconstruction was moving towards the end, the reformation process was slowly ceasing.

According to the Fifteenth Amendment which was accepted shortly after Grant became the president, all American citizen, regardless of their color of skin, had the right to vote in the elections period A major breakthrough, this was one more signal that the Reconstruction was breathing its last.

One of the most significant events of 1870 was the fact that a black man Joseph Rainley was accepted as a member of the House of Representatives in the US Congress. This meant that the final step towards the democracy was made and black people could not only vote free, but have the access to the governmental structure of the state. The event of crucial importance, this was the starting point for the new era in the history of the USA.

Considering that everything possible has been done, the government decided that the time had come to abolish the Freedmen Bureau. As the number of the black members in the House of the Representatives grew, the Reconstruction was slowly approaching its logical ending, partially because of the way it started acting: As Cimbala marked, “In the contest over the contours of the new labour system, Freedmen’s Bureau agents were neither passive spectators nor objective mediators This caused another surge of the anti-abolitionism reaction.”[8]

The famous Slaughter-House Cases when the court “upheld a Louisiana law mandating the centralization of slaughtering facilities in New Orleans”[9] as the white butchers complained that they could not pursue a trade anymore signified that the Supreme Court supported the position of the conservative wing of the Congress.

A perfect example of the policy of the judicial power is the one driven by Brandwein: “In the Civil Rights Cases, Justice Bradley cautioned against treating blacks as “the special favorite of the laws”[10]. Thus, local laws implied discrimination, which the white people did not fail to make use of.

Conclusion. In spite of the fact that the Reconstruction Period was started with certain goals to achieve, under the guidance of Johnson, who could not coordinate his politics with the one of the Supreme Court and the Congress, the Reconstruction process could not continue. Due to the arguments between the judicial, the executive and the legislative branches of power, the process of abolishing the racial segregation did not cease, but was only hindered.

Another reason for the Reconstruction to come to a dead end was the fact that the anti-racism policy demanded sufficient financial support which the government could not provide at that time. Deprived of the profit, the entire venture was ripped of its attraction for the people who started the Reconstruction.

In addition, The Supreme Court failed to support the amendments which have been suggested so that the black population could become citizen of the States with all the rights that a free person can have. Without the support of the Supreme Court, the black population could not do anything to become the members of the American society.

In addition, the white population finally began fearing that the black people could make use of their new privileges to take revenge on the white population, which led to the mass protests against giving full rights to the black people.

Thus, it can be considered that the Reconstruction period had both the positive and the negative impact on the society and the state of affairs of the black people. What must be admitted, however, is the fact that the humanist process was launched, and white people finally realized that the black population does not differ from them anyhow and must enjoy the same rights and privileges. It is doubtless that once the government were more persistent in its efforts to abolish racial segregation, the results would have occurred much sooner.

Reference List Berkin, Carol et al. Making America: A History of the United States: Since 1865. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Brandwein, Pamela. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Cimbala, Paul Alan, and Randall M. Niller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. New York, NY, 1999.

Griess, Thomas E. The American Civil War. New York, NU: Square One Publishers, Inc. 2002.

Hume, Richard L., and Jerry B. Gough. Blacks, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags: The Constitutional Conventions of Radical Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2008.

Lincove, David A. Reconstruction in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.

Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation: Since 1865. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2005.

Ruggiero, Adriane. Reconstruction. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2006.

Selcer, Richard F. Civil War America, 1850 to 1875. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2006.

Footnotes Thomas E Griess. The American Civil War. (New York, NU: Square One Publishers, Inc. 2002)

Adriane Ruggiero. Reconstruction. (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2006), 4

Richard F. Selcer, Civil War America, 1850 to 1875. (New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2006), 152

Carol Berkin et al. Making America: A History of the United States: Since 1865. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010), 357

Richard L. Hume and Jerry B. Gough. Blacks, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags: The Constitutional Conventions of Radical Reconstruction. (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2008), 156

Mary Beth Norton. A People and a Nation: Since 1865. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2005), 428

David A. Lincove Reconstruction in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. (Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000), 256

Paul Alan Cimbala, and Randall M. Niller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. (New York, NY, 1999), 194

Pamela Brandwein. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 55

Pamela Brandwein. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 60


Correlation between Multiple Pregnancies and Postpartum Depression/Psychosis Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Postpartum Depression

Risk factors for PPD


Works Cited

Introduction Currently, there is an ever increasing incidence of multiple births especially in the developed nations and this is mainly attributed to increase in assisted reproductive technologies. Such multiple pregnancies have well known risks on the infants as well as risks on the mother, more so related to premature births. Although there is a broad understanding of the risks that present with multiple births, there is paucity of knowledge on how multiple births are related to the well-being of the mother, particularly her mental wellbeing.

There is need to examine the mental well-being of mothers with multiple birth since such parents are exposed to various risks which exacerbate the likelihood of developing postpartum depression (PPD). Such risks include the stress of bearing and looking after multiple infants, the possibility of having high-risk pregnancy, social isolation, factors such as premature birth, cesarean delivery as well as risks related to assisted reproduction techniques.

It is for these reasons that this paper examines the available knowledge on possible association between multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression as well as postpartum psychosis. In recognition of the paucity of information on the relationship between multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression, the paper reviews the likely relationship by understanding the two variables, multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression, in terms of their characteristics.

Possible correlations are then suggested relating the adverse effects of multiple pregnancies and the possible links with various causes of postpartum depression. This paper therefore starts with defining postpartum depression, characteristic symptoms of the condition and the various possible causes which are then related with characteristics and circumstances surrounding multiple pregnancies.

Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a depression condition that is experienced by women within a month to a period of three months postpartum. It is therefore evident that postpartum depression differs from other forms of depression generally due to the time when the depression occurs.

Postpartum depression is usually misdiagnosed with other mental disorders such as peuperal psychosis as well as normal mental and behavioral changes that may occur after birth. Differential diagnosis for PPD should therefore include baby blues, bipolar disorder as well as postnatal psychosis. The main characteristics of PPD include lowered self confidence, increased fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, panic, alcohol abuse and anxiety among others (Blicksten and Keith, p. 740).

The likelihood of developing postpartum depression is higher in women who have had postpartum blues with the prevalence of postpartum depression standing at about 6 percent. The prevalence of PPD is reported to be between 10 and 15 percent in Western nations (Oppo et al, p. 239) with either major or minor depression within one year postpartum being between 6.5 and 12.9 percent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that postpartum depression mainly occurs one to three months postpartum and an individual with a history of depression is at even a higher risk of developing postpartum depression.

Some other risk factors that elevate the probability of getting PPD include deprived social support, failure to breastfeed, and previous pregnancy loss among others. Postpartum depression is mainly characterized by symptoms such as reduced sexual drive, lack of good sleep, feelings of guilt, and poor mother-child bond (Feldman


Summary Atlas Shrugged Part One and Two Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction “Atlas Shrugged” refers to a novel by Ayn Rand. In this novel Rand explores the United States where there is an outcry of renowned renovators against exploitation by the government. The government expresses its spirit of relentlessness in exploitation by maintaining control over the industry. As a result, the whole society collapses amid a mass exit by many citizens who were hitherto pillars of the economy.

The author focuses on the theme of the role of human brain in the ‘being’ of humans. Rand also successfully brings out the philosophy of objectivism by using a number of themes, which are philosophical in nature. Objectivism simply means the existence of truths independent of the mind or perception.

Rand suggests that man’s survival is dependent on how well he/she applies the rule of good deeds and bad deeds. She thus advocates virtues as honesty, integrity, independence, and confidence. Rand prefers realistic characters rather than symbolic ones and insists that they should rise above normal man.

Issuance of sanctions to victims is another theme that Rand clearly brings out. Victim sanctions imply the readiness of what is good to undergo suffering in presence of evil. As such, Rand asserts that evil can only exist if good condones it and that people should be rational in their discipline while pursuing personal interests.

In addition, the theme of property ownership and individualism brought out when Rands speaks against those interested in taking advantage of what belongs to others and labels them “looters”. In particular, she criticizes governments, which exploit their citizens.

In conclusion, through her novel, Rand seeks to educate individuals on matters concerning their rights as citizens, and their rights to own property without undue influence from the government. She also seeks to educate the societal leaders that in order to retain the pillars of their economies, they ought to respect their rights to ownership and give them the freedom to innovate freely.


Strategic Information Management and Customer Relations Management Argumentative Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Involving all stakeholders in IT decision making

Management of IT risks

Create Proper Awareness

Effective system monitoring and evaluation



Introduction Information Technology (IT) has gained enormous popularity in organizations and as such, management should develop appropriate strategies to reap its “fruits.” Integration of IT into organization’s operations poses significant security challenges both internally and externally.

IT is very dynamic; developments and changes occur so rapidly, making its management a very complicated task. IT plays a pivotal role in any organization’s development and communication and by the nature of its functions exposes the organization to great risks both from the inside and outside.

Poor management of Information system makes the organization vulnerable. Profane Individuals have managed, “to stage mega scandals based on weaknesses of information system operations” (Swanson, 2004). Strategic information management therefore seeks to develop policies and regulations to ensure successful and efficient business processes management (BPM). BPM is therefore no a fad but a literally meaningful change strategy.

Involving all stakeholders in IT decision making IT forms an integral part of the organization’s management; consequently, failing to involve the entire management participants in decision-making would inevitably lead to system failure and largely the business entity. Every stakeholder has an important role to play in the successful implementation and management of the information systems in the organization. When all players participate in formulating policies and guidelines, they would see the need to observe rules and guidelines to the letter.

In addition, the emergence of IT has significantly changed the business landscape, hence the players need to develop appropriate strategies to address these challenges and tap the opportunities as well. Most organizations make significant expenditures in IT and therefore the need for good IT management policies cannot be overstated. Ensuing are but a few reasons as to why it is appropriate to involve all players in IT and policy formulations.

As stated earlier, IT investment expenditures are significant and thus the need to give shareholders the value for their money. By involving the general management, it becomes easy to integrate IT strategies into the overall organizational policies and strategies.

Moreover, the management becomes more conscious of the technological environment to ensure that IT investment decisions made remain relevant into the future. Involving the general management would lead to gaining competitive advantage, management effectiveness and efficiency. IT enables competitive advantage through differentiation of the organization products and services from those of the competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differentiation by IT is realizable through enhanced product quality, shorter product development periods, creation of IT based products and services, and improved customer service delivery. To enhance effectiveness, IT provides decision support at all management levels as well it removing barriers for pursuit of opportunities (Lacity, 2005).

Efficiency by IT would be achieved through decreased internal costs because of automation, shared services, downsizing, communication, and task support. Lastly, BPM would greatly prevent business failure. Management ignorance of IT can lead to devastating effects in the management. Researches have show that, IT system developments fail to yield on target not because they do not meet the required specifications, but because of poor management.

Management of IT risks The risks of running business incorporated with IT are significant and require proper check mechanisms. Risk management involves the systematic analysis of the information system and its environment to determine the actual risks faced and then formulating appropriate policies to bring the risk levels down to desirable levels. To manage IT risks, the following principles are crucial. First, establish a central management unit to address IT system risks (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).

Members of this management group should possess technical expertise to analyze risk information properly on a continued basis. They should thereby inform and provide expertise and technical support to the general management on security issues. To enhance proper implementation of IT security policies, all persons involved should be equipped with technical IT skills through training. Training of the members would reduce resistance and increase their cooperation instead.

Create Proper Awareness The users of IT system should be equipped with the appropriate skill. Since technology is dynamic, management must ensure the users get timely updates on the IT field developments. This should be done by application of user-friendly strategies viz. notices, alerts, seminars, and presentations among others. The continued awareness on information systems by the members enhances their confidence and thereby enabling them to avoid making errors and mistakes.

Effective system monitoring and evaluation Monitoring encourages compliance by the users, holds the management of information system accountable for their responsibilities, and takes corrective measures. System evaluation would involve carrying out test controls and analyzing risk factors and indicators.

In addition, it is imperative to enroll the use of independent system auditors whose reports, findings, and recommendations should be acted upon promptly. Keep record of security incidences and the damages caused this would help in determination of the system weaknesses. The system monitoring and evaluation team should be keen to developments in technology so that the tools and technologies used in the monitoring and evaluations activities are relevant.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Information Management and Customer Relations Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The aforementioned facts form a strong conviction that BPM is a meaningful business strategy and not a management fad. PMP’s key functionality information system is effecting communication, both within the organization and without. Effective information system therefore, should relay relevant information to its users.

Customers are important for the survival of business entities. Consequently, companies should endeavor to attract and maintain a client base as large as they can. Technology has significantly changed the way business entities interact with their customers. With the emergence of online shopping (virtual markets), companies should position themselves strategically to benefit fully. This can effectively be done through BPM, which is not a fad but an imperative management change strategy.

References Lacity, M.C. (2005). Why General Managers Need to Understand Information Technology. Working Paper. Retrieved from

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (1998). Management of Risks in Information Systems: Practices of Successful Organizations. Web.

Swanson, M. (2004). Contingency Planning Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST. Web.


‘Keystone species’ in Information Ecologies Affecting Knowledge Management Process Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free

Meaning of ‘keystone species’ in Traditional Ecology In the field of ecology, key stone species refer to special species within an ecological system. This species are responsible for ecological balance within their ecology in such a way that their removal produces a “disproportionate effect” on the ecology not commensurate to their relative availability (Bond, 1994, p. 237). This concept led to the understanding of the relative importance of each species in an ecosystem. Conservationists now determine the impact of the loss of a single species from an ecosystem based on this concept.

The term has found wide usage in many fields, which exhibit ecological characteristics. This includes law, computer science, and library science. This means that disciplines with units that interact in such a way that they influence one another can use the term ecology. It is also possible to identify a ‘keystone species’ within such an ecological environment. In IT, the term refers to the interconnected nature of information sources describable as information ecology.

Generic ‘keystone species’ Equivalent in All Information Ecologies All natural ecologies have ‘keystone species’. The very comparison of the information management process to natural ecological systems presupposes the presence of ‘keystone species’ in information ecologies. Natural ecological balance does not rely on the influence of single species.

It is the result of a comprehensive balance of influence from all species present. This applies to information ecologies. The species in the information ecology live with significant tension in relation to each other (Hasenyager, 1996). As the system develops, there is no external influence to ensure balanced influence from each component of the ecology. Rather, there is a natural tension, where each species vies for and commands a certain degree of influence. This process of establishing a natural order ends up producing ‘keystone species’.

Application of the Concept in Relation to Particular Information Ecologies Nardi and O’Day (1999) identify five aspects of information ecology. They are the system, diversity, co-evolution, ‘keystone species’, and locality. This is a useful criterion for identifying information ecologies. To demonstrate this phenomenon, we will use the example of a supermarket. A supermarket as an information ecology provides a place where different actors meet to transact business.

Suppliers bring their products to the supermarket while consumers come to purchase them. The supermarket offers a dynamic environment for the exchange to take place.

They key identifier of a system are, “strong interrelationships and dependencies among different its parts” (Nardi


Teamwork as the Primary Determinant of Success Essay best essay help: best essay help

Regardless of the size of an entity or the nature of activity which a group of individuals are involved in, teamwork is one of the primary determinant s of a group’s level of success. Although sometimes the size of some responsibilities may force that only a single person works on them, because every individual need to be motivated and encouraged by others, teamwork is an essential concept in any working scenario.

The ability of a team to accomplish a task within the set time limit, utilizing the available resources primarily depend on the ability of such individuals to forego their differences and ego, and work in cohesion by proactively sharing responsibilities.

Hence, regardless of how much it may be hard to bring together individuals of different personalities, aspirations, and abilities, teamwork is the prerequisite of any successful endeavor. For teamwork to be effective in working towards achieving some common goal, it is important for the team players to have a set of skill some of which include listening, questioning, persuading, respecting, helping, sharing and participating.

Therefore, because teamwork is one of the primary determinants of whether an organization will achieve sustainable and good results, it is the duty of all individuals in team to ensure that they posses these qualities, because without them the likelihoods of a team succeeding are minimal.

To be a good team player one has to be ready to compromise, listen, share, question, persuade, share, and respect the opinion or views expressed by other individuals. It is very important for any member of a team to have a sharing heart.

Sharing is an important attribute in a teamwork environment, as it is one of the primary methods that individuals can use to know their limitations, fears, and assumptions. In addition, it is through sharing that a team can come up with new and innovative ideas that can help to improve the diversity, mission, vision, and goals of both an organization and individuals.

On the other hand, sharing is important in teamwork, because it can help a team to solve any underlying conflicts, as silence and avoidance may be a sign of some underlying problem (West 30-35).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another attribute that is important in teamwork is listening. Listening can help team members to comprehend what others are saying and it is an important tool of making others to feel appreciated. Good listening can also enable members of a team to discover the level of willingness in their teammates’ views and the rational content in the ideas shared by others.

In addition, just like sharing, listening is an important component of any conflict resolving initiative, because it offers teammates a chance of expressing their grievances and creating healthy relationships among members of a team (Victorian Government Department of Human Resources 1-3).

A third important attribute of teamwork is participation. Collaborative participation is one of the primary ways of gauging personal managerial and organizational ability with that of other teammates. In addition, active participation is important in a teamwork environment, because it allows the free flow of ideas in a process called organizational learning (Population Information Program: John Hopkins School of Public Health 1).

In addition to participating, sharing, and listening, questioning is also very important in any teamwork initiative. Questioning provides direction that a team should take, because it helps to determine the level of knowledge of a team; hence, an import management tool. Further, questioning is also important in teamwork, as it can help teammates to evaluate their learning hence, devise methods of filling their personal learning gaps.

Going hand in hand with questioning is persuading. Persuading is important more so when there is need for tasks to be completed within the set time limits. In addition, persuading is one of the primary methods that members of a team can use to convince their teammates to accept their ideas.

This can also be an important attribute to use to ensure new concepts are accepted among teammates, because likelihoods of some team members refusing some ideas are high, considering that team are made of individuals with different personalities, value, and aspirations (Oakley and Krug 1).

A second last attribute that is essential in any teamwork venture is having a helping spirit. Regardless of how much individuals may be experts in their fields of specialization, every person at one point must be in need of help.

We will write a custom Essay on Teamwork as the Primary Determinant of Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Helping and caring for other people should be part and parcel of every teamwork initiative, because every input from each member of a group counts very much. In addition, helping can help individuals to share ideas, learn from each, and create healthy relationships that are essential for the wellbeing of an entire team. The final attribute that is necessary for an effective team is respect.

Respect is the greatest of all these attributes, because without respect one cannot offer a helping hand, cannot share, participate freely, listen, and persuade individuals they are not ready to offer their respect. Respect is essential for effective teamwork, because it can motivate a team to assist each other, to develop their full potentials, and information (Savage 1).

Works Cited Oakley, Ed, and Krug, Doug. Questioning your way to better teamwork. 2009. Web.

Population Information Program: John Hopkins School of Public Health. Encourage staff Participation and teamwork. 2010. Web.

Savage, Rhonda. The secrets to successful teamwork: trust and accountability. Reliable Plant. 2010. Web.

Victorian Department of Human Resources. Listening and teamwork. The Victorian Government Department of Human Services. 2005. Web.

West, Michael. Effective teamwork: practical lessons from organizational research. Leicester: British psychological Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2004. Web.


Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Jim Crow Laws


Works Cited

Introduction Racism is a destructive form of discrimination. This is because is devalues other people’s identity and denies them their right to exercise power. It destroys the unity within a community and leads to social divisions. It violates the democratic right of equality and the fair treatment of all people.

One has to understand the nature and form of racism that exist if he has to succeed in countering it. It is a world wide phenomenon that has been experienced in many countries and it mainly results from economic, political, and social factors. This papers gives a brief overview of three forms of discrimination (Lynching, Segregation, and Jim Crow Laws) practiced against African American in the United States.

Lynching Lynching can be defined as the illegal killing of an individual by the mob. It is defined as “any act of violence inflicted by a mob upon the body of another person which results in the death of the person” (Barry 218).

A mob is defined as a group of two (or more populace) congregating as one without authorization of the relevant powers that be, for the premeditated intention and objective to commit an act of cruelty against another being. It is a practice that was common among the white and the African. The African were normally executed by the white simply because of the white superiority.

However, the whites who protested against this execution were at very high risks of being executed. Lynching is normally carried out by execution, setting a blaze or shooting the alleged individual in order to discipline, scare, or take control over a certain populace no matter its size. It is a means of social control practiced by the superior community against its minors (Niels 201).

The governing populace used to employ lynching, especially in times of fiscal pressure, as a means of tyrannizing those that opposed them. The vice was also a widespread norm in cooling (social) tensions.

For instance, in America, lynching was used against the African Americans after the American civil war when the Africans were given the right to participate in elections. In 1980s, violence was high especially after the southern Americans regained their political power. More then three thousand African Americans were lynched towards the end of the 19th century (Niels 202).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Towards the beginning of the 20th century, new constitutions were created in America with provisions that disenfranchised most of the African Americans. They were not permitted to vote or to serve on juries. They were also excluded from participating in political activities. However, the Africans resistance to lynching increased significantly with the intellectuals encouraging them to protest against mob lynching.

Various organizations and clubs were formed to raise funds that were used to protest against lynching. They were successful in their petitions, campaigns, and demonstrations since they helped in combating lynching. Today, lynching has been made illegal in many states including the United States. People who are found executing individuals through lynching are charged in a court of law.

Segregation Segregation can be defined as the separation of persons into racial groups. It may apply in various activities such as attending school, shopping in the departmental stores, taking meals from a restaurant, or in the purchase of a house.

Segregation is a practice that is forbidden but may be permitted by social norms. It is a kind of discrimination common in employment and in the purchase of houses. Certain races are discriminated against when purchasing a rental house or when seeking for employment. In America, legal segregation was permitted in many states especially in matters related to marriage.

The blacks or the minority races were not allowed to intermarry with the whites. The law also prohibited interracial marriages even among the minority groups (Fireside 47). However, with time, some of these activities have been permitted. For instance, close contact (such as allowing people from dissimilar races to work for each other) is tolerable.

Human classification into spatial segments is what is termed as segregation. In this arrangement there are those (educational) establishments as well as hospices that are for the whites and the African Americans should attend the same. Some races are allowed to use these institutions while blacks are discriminated against their use.

This extends even in the business operations where people perform businesses with people from their own race or the preferred race. Social norms prohibit people from interacting with other races and this normally results in racial discrimination (Massey 20).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This occurs in social or political institutions. This occurs when these institutions discriminate the Africans from exercising their rights. These people are expected to conform to certain cultural assumptions which are deemed to reflect the dominant group. This form of discrimination is normally difficult to identify and also to counter, especially when the perpetrators view themselves as non-racist.

The attitude, way of life, and behaviors of the white are extensively discussed over the media because they are seen as being reasonable and common although they do not exhibit the cultural diversity that is evident in America. Through the media, ideologies concerning racism are articulated and later armored through group relations thereby forming a popular culture.

As the government takes measures to address the discrimination imposed on the African American, racist beliefs are given first priority. The discrimination on the minority group (the African) is seen as being positive and confirmatory measures are seen as partisan treatment of one group by another rather than harassment by a popular group of people.

Jim Crow Laws These were state laws enacted (1876-1965) in the US. The phrase Jim Crow is derived from “Jump Jim Crow”, a song about the blacks that was performed by a white actor. Later this phrase was used to refer to the African Americans and that’s how laws pertaining to racial segregation were given the name Jim Crow laws (Barnes 7).

These laws allowed racial segregation in most of the public facilities. This resulted into inferior treatment of the African Americans by the whites. The white Americans received most of the public facilities in terms of education and access to social amenities.

Jim Crow Laws are based on differences that are quite evident in values, customs, color, religion, perception about the world, and how people live. It also extends to the use of language where a certain group of people have negative attitudes towards the language used by others.

Jim Crow Laws were applied in social or political institutions. This occurs when pubic institutions discriminate some groups of people from exercising their rights. These people are expected to conform to certain cultural assumptions which are deemed to reflect the dominant group.

These laws were not related to the Black codes (1800-1866) which inhibited communal rights and liberation of the blacks. In 1954, the Supreme Court declared segregation in pubic schools as unconstitutional and the remaining part of the Jim Crow Laws were rendered unconstitutional in 1964 by the Civil Rights Act (Harvey 50).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Although law recognizes the cultural rights of different races and gives them the right of speech, the media still recognizes the dominant group whose culture forms the norm to be emulated by other cultures. The government recognizes and appreciates the diverse cultures and allows them to enjoy their rights. However, it has not put strong measures to ensure that they are not discriminated against by the dominant group. These cultural rights are not included in the constitution making it hard for the blacks to fight for their rights.

Works Cited Barnes A. Catherine Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Barry A. Crouch “A Spirit of Lawlessness: White violence, Texas Blacks, 1865-1868,” Journal of Social History 18 (Winter 1984): 217–26.

Fireside, Harvey. Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism. New York: Carroll


Negotiations with International Organizations or Corporations Essay online essay help

In the current world people, organization, states and regions view various aspects differently. This is mainly based of their interests, religion or even culture. This usually results to diverse opinions. In case different groups are doing something that need the attention of all parties, then the presence of differing opinions usually slows down the implementation. For the smooth running of the operations of the process, negotiations are very essential. There are many issues that are of common interest to different organizations all over the world.

These issues may include subjects like pollution and global warming. Such issues usually affect the whole world and combined efforts are necessary to reduce their effect. This is usually not the case as division usually arises due to contrasting opinions. This paper addresses negotiations with respect to international organizations or corporation, international acquisition and government to government lending. The paper also analyses the implication of globalization and technology on negotiations.

Negotiation is mainly based enhancing understanding among parties with varying opinions about a certain subject. Because disagreements are bound to happen, then the parties should have good negotiation skills. A good negotiator usually takes time to understand and analyze the other party’s point of view before drawing a conclusion. In case of disagreements, a mediator may be needed.

In undertaking negotiations, the parties’ goals as well as the goal of the subject matter should be considered. The negotiations should not be based on emotions. To ensure effective implementation of the negotiation process, there must be a strategy. The strategy usually provides guidelines on how to handle the situation. Adequate preparation for a negotiation is necessary and all the ideas and views should be collected. The best negotiation should provide a long term solution to the problem rather than a short term solution.

The reconciling body should identify the objectives. These should include both short term and long term objectives. These objectives should be derived from all aspects such as political, economic and social among others. To come to a good conclusion there is need to strike a balance between all the objectives.

The most pressing ones should be prioritized and a consideration of the available resources taken into account to ensure smooth running of the process. The different needs should be considered whether they are realistic or not. The parties should be dynamic and not static to their point of view. This usually hastens the process and thus allows the consensus to be reached easily.

Throughout the negotiation process, there should be a consideration on the probable consequences of failing to come to a consensus. This thus brings the need for alternatives. From the many lists of alternatives available, then the most suitable alternative should be given priority. The alternatives should be set aside even before the negotiations starts to be conducted. Because the outcome of any negotiation is not usually certain but based on a mater of probability, the parties should have an open mind on whatever the outcome may be.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the predicted outcome may vary from the actual outcome. Setbacks can occur at any point of the negotiation. When they occur, it is usually good for the concerned parties to have prior information of such probability so that they are able to maintain their focus on the problem at hand.

Communication in negotiation is very crucial. It is thus very important to ensure that the information is presented in a way that it is understandable to all the participants. Incase a point is not clear to any of the members; it is good to rephrase it in a manner that everybody understands fully. In case of a large number of organizations or groups, each group can choose its spokesperson(s) that will air their views.

Some information is usually best revealed at specific points of negotiation. This usually helps to avoid unnecessary disagreements and arguments which may even paralyze the whole process. The presence of comments from outsiders is inevitable. These may include news agencies and their probable impacts should be taken into consideration. Thus it is important to be prepared in advance for anything that may happen during the negotiation process to ensure its smooth completion (BNET, 20101).

In the successful accomplishment of any negotiation, proper preparation is very necessary. This is because improper preparation could make the parties concerned to disagree completely which would lead to the termination of the negotiation and may cut short the probability of future negotiations.

Planning is usually facilitated by the use of negotiation plan. In designing the plan, various matters must be considered. These matters usually take into account the goals and various aspects to be encountered. In planning, the strategy to be followed should be well formulated and outlined to minimize the chances of any failure that may occur. The plan should be flexible and should take into account the factor of time.

It is usually good to understand the other parties in a negotiation. This should be on various aspects such as its objectives, goals and priorities among others. It is usually very wrong to make assumptions. In the case of using a mediator then he/she should not be inclined to any side.

It is also good to make the parties feel comfortable with the location of the negotiations. No party should feel disadvantaged about the location. The location should provide security and confidentiality to all. Every member involved should clearly identify their roles. The negotiation style adopted should be credible. Trust in the process is very important.

We will write a custom Essay on Negotiations with International Organizations or Corporations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globalization and technology play important role in negotiation. Globalization has resulted in various interactions between various organizations. This usually leads to conflicts of cultures or economic aspect but on the other hand provide a chance for mutual interaction.

Technology has improved communication and the means of tackling things. This has increased mutual interaction as well as helping overcome some minor wrangles that may have occurred. Technology and globalization have brought together different people who usually get to know about each other through social sites.

When conducting negotiation, in the presence of differences in language, an interpreter may be used. Some of the persuasion methods include communicating persuasively, self expression and storytelling. The negotiations are usually concluded with the summary of the agreements achieved which are written. After this the parties should complement each other for the various roles they have played (Baker


Lessons from Stand and Deliver Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Directed by Ramon Menendez, Stand and Deliver is a chef-d’oeuvre based on true story of Jaime Escalante. As the film opens, Jaime A. Escalante takes up a teaching job at Garfield High school. He leaves his regular, steady and peaceful job to teach mathematics in a rowdy school.

He dedicates his time and efforts to change rebellious and rude students to be achievers hence have a better tomorrow. On the other hand, teachers have already dismissed the students as failures. Will Escalate be able to compel his students to ‘stand and deliver’ as he is determined to?

Escalante is determined to change uncontrollable and disobedient students to work hard for brighter future. Although other teachers demoralize him, he does not give up. In addition, he receives threats and mockery from the students but he does not yield to their demands.

From the behavior of Escalate, I learn that to achieve any goal in life I have to be aggressive and overlook all obstacles that come my way. During his lessons, he is able to uncover the potential of his students and transform the troublemakers in class. From the students’ transformation, I learn that indiscipline heralds failure hence to pass any tests in life I have to uphold the virtue of discipline. I learn commitment is result oriented, as the students are able to discover their potential if only they remain focused in their studies.

When Escalante arrives as a new teacher, the students mistreat, disrespect and taunt him, a phenomenon that underscores the conflicting expectations of students who view him as an enemy. In addition, the teachers are more concerned with the discipline nature of the students rather than their academic performance which paints the integrity of the students as a being poor one.

There is strained relationship between teachers and students that always lead to conflicts. The social behavior of students both at home and at school is unbecoming hence leading to conflicts.

The film highlights several issues that could increase chances of students dropping out of school. Although the students fail due to indiscipline, the poor family backgrounds also contribute to their failure in life. There is racial discrimination in school, neighborhood, and work places.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ironically, the government participates in the racial discrimination by discouraging students to forge ahead in education, which leads to dropping out. Additionally, most of them are teen parents who are unable to balance between schoolwork and family duties hence dropping out of school. As aforementioned, most students come from poor background hence due to economic strains they work besides attending school hence eventually may drop out of school.

As the movies ends, Escalante’s slogan ‘stand and deliver’ is achieved when student pass the Education Testing Exams. This happens immediately after the students’ change their attitude towards Escalante and views him as a mentor. Some students even attend Calculus lessons during the holidays.

Unfortunately, their achievement receives criticism from education system because of their race and poor family backgrounds. Escalante also manage to uproot indiscipline from students to instill industry and courtesy in students and as result, all students, despite of indiscipline, race and economic status pass the exams. Therefore, his statement that students will reach the level of expectation finally comes true.

In a recap, Escalante’s determination to help the poor, undisciplined and hopeless students takes his career to a High school teacher. Although he receives disheartenments and ridicule from his fellow teachers and from the same students he wants to help, he does not give up.

The urge to achieve his goal changes students to good, hardworking and responsible people. He sidelines factors like economic status and racial discrimination to achieve his goal. In summary, he proves all other teachers and the entire education system wrong when his students pass excellently.


Energy Needs in the United States of America Essay online essay help

To Drill or Not to Drill? The current crisis in energy supply has raised a number of concerns in the United States of America. Different people have come up with opposing views over the best method through which the problem of energy shortages can be handled best in the country. Some people propose that the United States should search for oil in areas that oil has not yet been exploited. For instance at Gulf Coast, Alaska and other places which has not yet been exploited in the country.

On the other hand, some people propose that instead of drilling oils in other places, the United States should shift to other alternative sources of energy. These include wind, solar energy among others. However, this is opposed on the ground that adoption of a new source of energy will be expensive to the country.

Through critical observation of both arguments, the one on the need for the country to reduce its overdependence is the best alternative. The country should rather adopt other renewable sources of energy like wind and sun. Overdependence on the oil has reduced energy security in the country. It has also significantly affected the economy negatively.

Despite the fact that shifting to these new sources of energy is expensive, it is less expensive when viewed at the long run perspective. Once the country adopts these alternative methods, it will significantly supplement the oil sources of power. This will significantly help in reducing energy shortages.

Explanation of Key Habits That Hinders My Thinking When Looking At the Opposing View and When Defending My Own There are several habits that pose a major hindrance in my effort in looking at the opposing view and defending my own ideas. One of the habits is own biases. Biasedness is a major hindrance since it makes it difficult to come up with the best views. Biasedness tends to divert our thinking through the perception that our views are the best. It affects us while evaluating other people’s views.

This habit significantly affects our thinking while looking at the opposing view in relation to our own views. These habits can also be overcome through diversity thinking (Bacon 3). This ensures that the decision made is free from any kind of bias.

Lack of adequate confidence is another habit which hinders critical thinking while analyzing opposing sides. Confidence is significant in critical thinking as it assures a person of his or her reasoning abilities (Paul 2). This significantly affects individuals in decision making.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Things to Do To Overcome Those Habits That Are Hindering My Thinking There are several ways through which the habits that hinder critical thinking while looking for the opposing sides can be overcome. One of the ways through which these habits can be overcome is by being flexible while viewing both sides. Flexibility is important as it help a person to accommodate, adapt, change or modify ideas and thoughts (Paul 3).

These habits can also be overcome through reflective thinking. This is thoughtful observation and meditation of the subject at hand in order to have a deeper understanding of certain issues. In other words, there is need to make an effort to understand the opposing issues in order to come up with the best alternative.

Open-mindedness is also of great importance in overcoming these habits. According to Paul, one should be receptive to opposing views and ability to realize our own biases (par 7). By understanding our own biases, it will be easier to avoid such habits while making decisions.

In conclusion, this debate has clearly shown that there is a need for the United States to adopt other forms of energy in order to improve security in energy supply. This will also help the country to improve on its balance of payments.

Works Cited Bacon, Barbara. Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively. New York: Teachers College Press, 2000.

Paul W. Roberts. “Critical Thinking Habits of the Mind.” Foundation for Critical Thinking, 1992. 12 Mar 2011.


I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou Essay essay help online: essay help online

Maya Angelou’s novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings recounts the hardship and traumatic ordeals that she encountered growing up black, female and orphaned in the southern United States in the 1930s.

Though classified as an autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings stands rather as a historical record of American racial tyranny at a time when the Jim Crow segregation laws were in full effect. The novel harkens back to a time when the black community in the United States suffered brutal economic and social suppression, violence with no access to legal recourse, minimal access to basic education and human rights, and limited access to health care.

This essay highlights one event in the novel related to the struggles faced by Maya and her family in regards to health care, wherein the town dentist Dr. Lincoln refuses to treat Maya’s toothache on the basis of her skin color. Maya’s solution to the racist treatment she and her grandmother receive at the hands of Dr. Lincoln is to fabricate an imaginary revenge scenario in which the dentist comes under the power of the grandmother.

Maya’s understanding of the racist attitudes of the town dentist renders shock when she discovers that her grandmother intends to take her to him. Maya expresses surprise when she learns that her grandmother intends to take her to the white dentist for treatment, as evidenced by the following quote: “Momma said we’d go to Dr. Lincoln, right in Stamps, and he’s take care of me. She said he owed her a favor” (Angelou 186).

Maya’s sense of what medical care was available to her as a black child has already been ingrained in her – she expresses no surprise when her grandmother urges her to change into clean clothes to prepare for the visit. “I had never been to a doctor, so she told me that after the bath…I had to put on freshly starched and ironed underclothes from inside out” (Angelou 186).

Even though Maya knows that her grandmother regularly lends money to whites in the community, she still doesn’t expect to be seen by the dentist. “I knew that there were a number of whitefolks in town that owed her favors. Bailey and I had seen the books which showed how she lent money to Blacks and whites alike during the Depression, and most still owed her…but I [never] heard of a of a Negro’s going to him as a patient” (Angelou 186).

Maya’s solution to the challenge of the racist dentist’s harsh refusal to treat Maya is to create a revenge fantasy wherein her grandmother claims the position of power. When the dentist’s assistant closes the door in her grandmother’s face, Maya experiences a familiar sense of humiliation. “Momma knocked on the back door and a young white girl opened it to show surprise at seeing us there…Momma said she wanted to see Dentist Lincoln and to tell him Annie was there. The girl closed the door firmly” (Angelou 187).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To solve the problem of the racist dentist who rejects Maya with the cutting remark that he would rather put his hand in a dog’s mouth than in the mouth of a black child, Maya conjures a fantasy wherein the Momma and the Dentist exchange power roles and the dentist becomes obsequious.

“You knave, do you think you acted like a gentleman, speaking to me like that in front of my granddaughter? She didn’t shake him, although she had the power…No, ma’am Mrs. Henderson ” (Angelou 190).

Maya rationalizes her grandmother’s acceptance of the racist treatment with the following: “I didn’t ask you to apologize in front of Marguerite, because I don’t want her to know my power, but I order you, now and herewith.

Leave Stamps by sundown.” (Angelou 190). Finally, Maya invests her grandmother with an elevated command of language to show her dominance over the dentist. “Her tongue had thinned and the words rolled off well enunciated. Enunciated and sharp like little claps of thunder…She could afford to slip into the vernacular because she had such an eloquent command of English” (Angelou 190).

Maya’s comprehension of how her grandmother dealt with the situation in reality offers her less emotional satisfaction that the fantasy. Maya hears her grandmother explaining to Uncle Willie that what really happened with the dentist was simply that she called in her loan: “If you paid me my money I could afford to take her…Even though by rights he was paid up before, I figger, he gonna be that kind of nasty, he gonna have to pay for it… Momma and her son laughed over the white man evilness and he retributive sin. I preferred, much preferred, my version” (Angelou 193).

Maya’s solution to the racist treatment she and her grandmother receive at the hands of Stamps dentist Dr. Lincoln, a man indebted to her grandmother’s innate sense of Christian charity, is to manufacture an elaborate imaginary revenge scenario wherein the dentist comes under the thrall of the magical grandmother. However, in reality Maya is disappointed by the grandmother’s tactic, without realizing that the grandmother compromised her Christian principles in order to get proper health care for her charge.

Works Cited Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 1969. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Discipline or Formal Punishment of Juveniles Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts

Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources

Brutal and Strange Punishment

Lack of Due Process in Juvenile Courts

Alternatives to Formal Punishments


Reference List

Introduction The juvenile court was first implemented in 1899 based on the understanding that juveniles were different from adults and should be tried separately from adults. The juvenile court system has changed significantly since its original formation.

While court decisions have granted minors more rights, the proliferation of drugs and guns as well as other changing social conditions has created a rise in juvenile crime that has in turn led to tougher laws and increased the number of juvenile transfers to criminal courts. Both factors have caused the juvenile court system to behave more and more like criminal courts over the years and until now the system is almost indistinguishable from its adult counterpart.

Whether one favors emphasizing rehabilitation efforts for juvenile offenders or taking the route of punishing those who break the law, both sides have expressed the opinion that the current system need to be changed. This paper looks into the problems (social, economic, and financial) experienced by the juvenile courts that make them unsuitable for handling delinquent behaviors among juveniles. It also explains why discipline rather than formal punishment is the best way to deal with juveniles.

Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts Regardless of the small number of teenagers in the society, the fraction of young people processed through the juvenile court and the juvenile corrections system continue to rise. This rise is owed to more official and corrective juvenile justice policies that create more court transfers and extended use of confinement and juvenile imprisonment. Declining resources in the child welfare system have driven more upsetting adolescents to the juvenile justice system.

The demand for institutional beds and out-of-home residency is mounting. A case in point is the large proportions of youths held in custody in a number of large California counties pending the accessibility of foster or group home beds. Because many juvenile justice clients and their families also are served by child welfare agencies, the dwindling social service budgets lessen the juvenile court’s already scanty treatment resources (Hess, 2009).

These demographic, economical and fiscal forces mean that the juvenile justice system will handle many more intensely distressed adolescents in the next couple of years. The solution to this problem would be the introduction of discipline measures such as in-home supervision rather than confinement in prisons which often lead to congestion.

Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources The nation’s experience with prisons and jails demonstrates that exclusive dependence on building new beds hardly ever solves congestion. Above and beyond problems with overloaded and out of date buildings, the juvenile justice system faces the pressing need to employ and train new personnel. The juvenile justice system, like most corporations struggles for a declining pool of experienced workers in the subsequently two decades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Salaries in the juvenile justice system conventionally have been lesser than similar salaries in the adult justice system and well below salaries in the profit private sector. Training funds are very limited for juvenile justice personnel (Siegel


The Great San Francisco Earthquake Essay essay help

Introduction An earthquake is essentially a quiver which resulted by sudden energy release from the earth inner surface. The release of energy causes a ripple of seismic waves that are felt in the form of shaking. The damage caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and the length of such earthquake. (U.S. Geological Survey2008, April 22).

The length however depends on the size of the wave since the larger the wave the larger the area affected and consequently the longer the period of time taken. Each year the earth experiences up to half a million-earth quakes of which only 100, 000 can be truly felt. The probability of occurrence of an earthquake depends on the nature of the locality as well as its geology. South California alone experiences up to 10000 earthquakes a year.

History of earthquakes in San Francisco Earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 the worst of them all was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. There have been severel other smaller earth quakes that have hal minimal impact and even gone unnoticed. Others which have been of a greater impact

Situational analysis and probability of an earthquake in the near future Research has predicted that there exsists a 25% probability of an earth quake with a magnitude of up to 7.0 occuring within the next two decades in sanfrancisco. Based on the historical data as well as computer simulations it has been suggested that there is an even more greater chance that an earthquake of an even greatter magnitude will occur in the next 45 years.

The death toll is estimated at a shocking 5,800 deaths if the magnitude is at least 7.0. this means that the value could be higher if the ripple effect is of agreater magnitude(Abercrombie and Brune1994)

Sanfrancisco notably lies on the san andreas fault which is considered the most vulnerable to such earth quakes. The last time such an event occured in 1989 it left 66 dead and 3,757 injured. It only lasted fifteen seconds but the damage to property was indisputably large with the San Francisco Oklahoma Bridge collapsing. This damage went to the tune of 6 billion in property damage. The then United States president George bush issued a 3.45 billion package that was to act as relief for the affected.

The effect could have been even more grave had there been a tsunamic effect. This would have resulted in flooding of the coastal towns sweeping away their homes and destroying their productive farms. The earth quake would damage the regions leeves bearing an effect similar to that of harricane katrina.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The damage would even be worse after the earth quake as the flood water contaminates the fresh water supply that is mainly supplied though an over land aquaduct that would cost even more to repair. It is estimated that at least 24,000 homes were damaged and 100000 left homeless after the floods caused by snow melts hit sanfrancisco back in 1997. Up to 50 leeves were damaged (United States Geological Survey 1999, October 15)

Even more compelling scientists from the United States geological survey suggest that there is a 70 % chance that at least one or more earthquakes with intensity not less than 6.7 will in the next 30 or so years strike San Francisco bay. This is equated to one that occurred in 1994, which left 57 people dead, and others wounded and caused destruction to the tune of $ 20 billion. (Seismological Society of America, 2008, April 17)

General effects of an earthquake Earth quakes are categorized among the top ten most deadly natural disasters. They have the following effects

Shaking and ground rupture -This is the single most probable effect of an earth quake. The intensity of the shaking will depend heavily on the magnitude size as well as the distance from the epicenter. It will also depend on the geology of the area in question. Geological concerns go to the nature of the superficial soils in the subsurface of the earth.

Landslides and avalanches -Landslides also bring along volcanic eruptions which may cause serious storms and wild fires. Landslides are specifically dangerous to both the affected and those who make attempts at providing rescue services.

Fires – Shaking causes damage to power lines and gas pipe systems which are a remedy to massive fires. The effects of these fires were typically felt in the 1906 San Francisco earth quake. The destruction by fire or any other human motivatied factor such as stampedes accidents and collusions would participate heavily to the increased casualties. These however will depend on the level of awareness of the poplation as well as the preparedness.

Soil liquefaction – This is a situation where sand and other granular material owing to the saturation of water temporarily loose strength and dissolve into liquid making the foundations upon which buildings and other rigid structures stand on to become loose causing the building to collapse or tilt. In the Alaskan earth quake the effects of soil liquefaction were immensely felt. This would however e an unlikelyeffect on sanfrancisco due to its geology.

We will write a custom Essay on The Great San Francisco Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tsunami – Tsunamis are often mistaken for tidal waves that rock the seas due to oceanic currents. The mechanism behind tsunamis is much more different. A tsunami is essentially caused by unusual sudden movement of water volumes in the open sea. The sudden movements could be caused by an earth quake in the submarine soils as well as landslides

Floods -Earth quakes that occur in the open sea cause a tsunami effect that leads to seeping of water from the open sea and into the mainland causing floods. Sanfrancisco would be hardly hit by these floods due to its proximity to the sea.In the mainland they cause destruction of dams and water barriers leading to flooding.

Human impacts -Earth quakes have a toll on every aspect of human life. They bring along a death toll besides the destruction caused to the infrastructure. They also cause disease owing to lack of necessities. Financially they lead to high claims for compensation besides the relief costs occurred in resettlement (The Virtual Museum of San Francisco, 2011).

Emergency Planning Options. Citizen based approach

This a proactive and reactive approach which involves two basic components; Leadership which involves appointment is disaster management managers who will be vetted based on willingness aggression and objectivity and partnership which involves embracing an integrated vision and mission and letting the community be part of the campaign

The approach recommends the cooperation between government agencies and the people living in San Francisco. The government formulates a plan that requires the engagement of the people partially or as a whole. Government departments such as the police accept suggestions and receive volunteers who are trained and licensed as local disaster managers. The people are collectively involved in the

The strategic approach

The approach collects together all available resources and coordinates manages motivates the implementation of the awareness campaign. It encourages the building of an integrated programming system e.g., school based curriculum and emphasizes on capacity building and empowerment

Strategy Implications

The strategy adopted will among other things require the change of policy to accommodate the budgetary concerns of the implementation process. It will also require cooperation from all participants and interested parties including investors and development partners. The partnership will help diversify the information platform and increase the level of awareness. The integration of the measures into the various programs such as the school-based curriculum will require training for the implementers who include teachers and administrators. (Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC) 2008)

Way forward

With the objective of a better disaster management system the government should undertake in research to improve the understanding of the earthquake process its likelihood and impact. It should also develop cost efficient ways of combating the effects on individuals as well as improve the level of resilience in the population. There is a lot of information available in the various sources concerning the effects and consequences of an earthquake. Every citizen should develop a need to know to ensure that they make informed decisions in areas such as construction development and investment

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great San Francisco Earthquake by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Abercrombie, R.E., and J.N. Brune. (1994). Evidence for a constant b-value above magnitude 0 in the southern San Andreas, San Jacinto and San Miguel fault zones and at the Long Valley caldera. California. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21 (15), 1647-1650.

Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC).(2008). Strategic Planfor the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Fiscal Years 2009–2013. Web.

Seismological Society of America. (2008, April 17). New Hazard Estimates Could Downplay Earthquake Dangers. ScienceDaily. Web.

The Virtual Museum of San Francisco. (2011). San Francisco Earthquake History 1915-1989. Web.

U.S. Geological Survey (2008, April 15). California Has More Than 99% Chance Of A Big Earthquake WIthin 30 Years, Report Shows. ScienceDaily. Web.

U.S. Geological Survey. (2008, April 22). Earthquake Hazard Maps Show How U.S. Shakes With Quakes. ScienceDaily. Web.

United States Geological Survey. (1999, October 15). 70 Percent Chance That Large Earthquake Will Strike San Francisco By 2030. ScienceDaily. Web.


Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health (ASRH) is a very important subject that needs to be address differently from the normal Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). The main reason being that adolescent are exposed to greater risk that come with sex and the possible negatives consequences afterwards.

Even though most adolescents are now getting a lot of information concerning sex, how to protect themselves from the sexually transmitted diseases or unplanned for pregnancies, they do not adhere to this knowledge (Schutt-Aine


Bipolar Disorder Paper Research Paper cheap essay help

Bipolar disorder is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by changing moods and energy levels that affects the ability of the patients’ memory to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The effects on the brain depend on the periodic episodes of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) asserts that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002, p. 3). The disorder disrupts neuropsychological coordination resulting into cognitive impairment.

The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect neuropsychological functions in patients making them to have abnormal behavior. During depressive episode, the patient experiences low mood and loss of interests in the daily activities because of depression on cognitive abilities.

The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include depression, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, suicidal feeling, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier,


Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam Term Paper scholarship essay help

Democracy in Indonesia It wasn’t until the year 1998 that Indonesia saw actual democratic rule, even if it had attained independence years back. This country began experiencing the democratic rule after General Suhart stepped down following threats to overthrow his government. In a period starting from the year 1998 up to 2003, this country went through “the slow transition to democracy”.

However, as Ward notes, “contrary to countries where popular uprising has led to the natural formation of political parties and a ‘grassroots’ democracy taking shape, democracy in Indonesia was imposed from the top-down by its political elite” (Par. 5).

In the year 2004, the country’s first “direct presidential elections” enabled Susilo Bambang to take over leadership of the country. This leader was formerly an army general. From the time Susilo took over power, he has been seeking to make the democracy of the nation to be stronger. Following his popularity among the Indonesian people, he has been able to go for the second term, which started in the year 2009.

In considering the indicators of how strong the democracy of this country is, voter turnout can be one of these indicators. However, even if ‘voter turnout’ is indicative of a particular level of lack of interest in a nation’s “political system”, this indicator can not be considered as being one that can be relied upon for indicating the ‘democracy strength’ of Indonesia.

The Wolrd Bank makes use of a number of other indicators to measure the strengths of democracies in various countries all over the world. Basing on these indicators, beginning from the year 1998, the country has shown quite a number of improvements is such issues as “guarantee of personal freedoms….anti-corruption measures and the regime’s own accountability, but only because it began from such a low level …it still ranks below most of other East Asia democracies” (Ward, Par. 7).

In regard to the strength of the rule of law in Indonesia, Indonesia ranks lower than the rest of the Asian democracies.

However, Under the current president, Yudhoyono, this country has gone on to realize improvements on a gradual basis in, as Ward points out, “all aspects of the World Bank’s democratic indicator’s, and his second term will therefore be closely watched for indications that the fledging democracy is becoming more firmly entrenched in all levels of Indonesian society” (Ward, Par. 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general terms, Indonesia enjoys freedom of press, and there is guarantee of citizen’s civil rights among others.

Democracy in Thailand Considering the case in Thailand, the differences that exist among the “political ideologies” go on to have a destructive impact on the stability of the country.

Claims are presented by the “Red Shirts Movement” that it has been engaging in a fight to have “real democracy” and that Abhisit’s government should surrender power because this leader ascended to power just through “a backroom deal shaped by powerful military rather than a popular mandate” (Chachavalpongpun, Par.1). In response to this, Abhisit presents an argument that he has intentions to save the country’s democracy from “the irrational demonstrators”.

This leader directs accusations towards the “Red Shirts” of just being a replacement of the Prime Minister, Thaksin, who was earlier on in power but later overthrown. At the center of all these arguments creating a crisis lies, “the deep-seated conundrum in Thai politics: that is, the widening gap between the Thai poor in the remote regions represented by the Red Shirts and the Bangkok elites whose power position has been guarded by the current royalist government” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 2).

Democracy in Thailand, as it might be looked at from anywhere in the wolrd, still stands to be a concept that is manipulated. This democracy has turned out to be a “victim of elite interests”. For about fifty years, Thailand has gone through several kinds of tyrannical rule.

“The holy trinity of the established forces consisting of the monarchy, the military and the bureaucracy, has long called the shots….even under a civilian regime, the elite in Bangkok oversee every move in political life” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 5). While this has gone on, the poor people in Thailand have been neglected.

When Thaksin came in to power in the year 2001, he opened the political space in the country. He employed his “political skills” to take advantage of the gap that exists in the society in order to be backed up those living in poverty. He did this by “challenging the dominance of power by the established forces” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 12). He uplifted the living standards of the poor people. As a consequence, this leader became popular among the have-nots but a threat to the elites in Bangkok.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mean while, as Chachavalpongpun points out, “Thaksin’s tilt towards authoritarianism while serving in office and even becoming a despot before he was overthrown allow the Bangkok elite to claim some kind of justification for the 2006 coup and its continuing aftermath” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13).

The effort to adjust again the “political equation” has resulted in to the current clash between the two opposite forces in Thailand. The political leaders work tirelessly to make their regimes stronger and to protect their wealth but at the same time making claims that they are protecting democracy.

However, in the case of Thailand, the truth is that, democratization has not actually paid attention of the citizen’s real needs. The aspiration of the “Red Shirts” has been to “to reverse democratization so that it becomes a bottom-up process” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13). In Thailand, generally, there are no guarantees of the citizens’ civil rights, there is no enjoying of free press and also, there are no free and fair elections.

Democracy in Vietnam The present “socialist democratic regime” in Vietnam is “the first ever democratic regime in the country’s political history” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 1). The country’s very start of the first democratic regime was marked by the “Declaration of the Independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).

Earlier on, “the economic and socio-political life was controlled by such systems as the colonial system, feudal and semi-feudal systems” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).The well-known aspect associated with these systems was that the citizens did not possess any right to take part in whatever political life of the nation. This implies that, there existed a very minimal number or no mechanisms for setting up implementation of democracy. The rights and fate of an individual in the nation rested in the hands of the society or the crowd.

This country’s “first democratic regime” came in to existence in the course of the “national liberation revolution” and this regime resulted from “entire people’s struggle for liberation under the leadership of a communist party” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 7). The regime brought the basic rights to the people, including the right to life. Under this regime, the people acquired the right to be citizens of a liberated and self-governing nation and the right to take part in the “political life” of the nation, among other rights.

However, basing on the historical background where this country commenced on the journey of setting up and developing democracy, it can be realized that this country must continue working hard to completely understand “the nature of socialist democracy” so that it can be able to identify the incomplete features of the present democracy (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 9).

It is true that, “Vietnam has been undertaking the building of the socialist democratic regime in the context of a tiny, underdeveloped economy after enduing wars to defend national independence and reunification for dozens of years of dealing with several socio-economic structural upheavals” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 10).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under such conditions, it is quite obvious that this country has not yet set up a democracy that is perfect and therefore should consider taking appropriate measures to make the gap between the goals the country has set and realty to be narrower.

However, it can be clearly seen that, even if the socialist democratic regime in Vietnam is still undergoing construction, “this regime has brought in to full play its pre-eminent characteristics” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 12). The socialist democratic regime in Vietnam has moved along with the nation in the course of fighting for independence and freedom and has made a contribution, at a significant level, to “socio-economic development’.

The people of the “Socialist Republic of Vietnam” are assured of all “fundamental rights to freedom, including the rights to equality before the law, free and fair elections, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, complaints and denouncements”(“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 33).

Comparing and ranking the states of democracy in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam The Indonesia’s state of democracy is seen to be higher than that of the other two countries. This country is “stable and tolerant under a mature president, with better growth prospects in the region” (Hartcher, Par. 10). Hartcher further points out that the United States “think tank Freedom House” has described this country as “the only free and democratic country in South-Asia” (Par. 10).

According to Hartcher, this point is also emphasized by Andrew Maclntyre and Douglas Ramage where they give a description that “Indonesia in 2008 is stable, competitive electoral democracy, with a highly decentralized system of governance, achieving solid rates of economic growth, under competent national leadership, and playing a constructive role in the regional and broader international community” (Par. 11).

More so, Indonesia enjoys freedom of the media and a judicial system that is uneven, but currently undergoing improvements. Democracy in this country has turned out to be concretely legitimate, having “generals and mutifs” battling it out through the ballot box and not fighting in the streets.

This whole situation is contrary to what is happening in Thailand. In Thailand, the poor people have been neglected. There is a crisis in this state where we are having two opposing forces. The urban elites are against the protection of the poor in remote areas. “Thailand is now suffering a constitutional crisis, emergency rule and an investment strike”(Hartcher, Par. 9).

In essence, the basic difference between the two countries is that the “Indonesian power elites” have a universal respect for the “legitimizing power of democracy” while those elites in Thailand do not. More so, Thailand does not enjoy free media the way Indonesia do.

On the other hand, looking at Vietnam, this country is making the necessary efforts to perfect its democracy. Unlike in Thailand where we have a strong conflict between two forces, here every concerned party is determined to ensure people enjoy freedom in the country. However, Indonesia seems to be ahead of this country in regard to the state of democracy. Vietnam is in the process of improving its democracy after going through a long history.

Considering these three countries, according to my personal judgment, Indonesia stands in the first position, followed by Vietnam and Thailand comes last. Indonesia has done all its best to improve democracy in the country and it is even seen to stand above all the countries in the region.

Vietnam, despite the long journey it has travelled, will soon also realize great improvement in the state of democracy, especially when it will be offered adequate support from friends. On the other hand, the wrangles that are seen in Thailand where by some sections of the society are neglected makes it to be less democratic compared to the other two countries. This country has a long way to go and it has to learn from Indonesia in order for it to improve the state of its democracy.

Prospects for further democratization in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam In each of the three countries, there are prospects for further democratization. Starting with Thailand, in order for the state of democracy to be improved, there should be institutionalizing of the democratic structures and the democratic process in the country is supposed to be designed to be more relevant to the large majority of the people of Thailand.

“The legacy of past authoritarian regimes can only be overcome by greater popular participation and community mobilization” (Muntarbhorn and Taylor, Par. 2). It must be ensured that the state does not go beyond the boundaries of its powers.

It is the duty of such parties as the civil society and the NGOs to carry out this. A balance should not just be established between the state organs but also between the state and the “non-state actors”. The state organs refer to such organs as parliament, the executive, the military, and the judiciary. On the other hand, the non-state organs may include the NGOS, the business sector and the community as a whole. By taking these steps, Thailand will be able to take its state of democracy to a whole new level.

On the other hand, Vietnam is making an effort to improve its democracy state. This shows a move towards a positive direction. What this country needs is to obtain understanding and support from friends regionally and internationally in order for it to realize its goals. In the case of Indonesia, even if this country has a better state of democracy, it needs to carry out further improvements in such areas as the rule of law in order for it to climb to even a higher state.

Works Cited Chachavalpongpun, Pavin. Thailand’s manipulated democracy. Asia Sentinel, 2010. Web.

Hartcher, Peter. Thailand turns in to Indonesia – and vice versa. National Times, 2009. Web.

Muntarbhorn, Vitit, and Taylor, Charles. Roads to democracy: Human rights and democratic development in Thailand. 1994. Web.

“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”. Vietnews, 2010. Web.

Ward, Rich. The state of democracy in Indonesia. 2010. Web.


Religion: Islam Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Islam belief

Islamic banking system


Works Cited

Religion is defined as an institutional system of belief of superhuman power or powers; that are believed to have control over humanity: there are a number of religions existing in the world with Christianity and Muslims as the most dominant. This paper discusses the Islam religion.

Islam belief According to religion survey conducted in 2009, the religion has a total number of 1,571,198,000, people; this represented 22.9% of the world population.

In the last couple of years, Muslims have been associated with a number of negative perceptions; because of what some other Muslims have done, terror attacks in different parts of the world has been blamed on Islam religion in what is referred to as holy war; these terror attacks have made people hold different opinions towards the religion. For example in the story, The Alchemist , section one the writer says, “When Santiago first travels to Africa, and the reader sees his vaguely skeptical attitude toward the Muslims he meets.

While in the bar, he hears the call to prayer and watches the Muslims prostrate themselves on the ground” (Coelho 1), when they are praying they are facing Mecca where they believe their God stays. It is the fastest growing religion with and the second largest religion in the world. Muslims tried a lot to change the bad image of Islam, but with no benefit. Islam has many concepts and people have different thoughts about it.

Islam is Arabic word, which means “peace.” Muslims believe that Islam came from God and the prophet Mohammad is the last prophet; in the religion, there is a lot of emphasis on the meaning the religion, this portrays the religion as a religion that has its strong holds in peace development. Just like the religion of Christianity put more emphasis on love.

Prophet Muhammad, who is the main character in the religion in his works, put more emphasis on mercy. He was the last and greatest of God’s messengers, who were mandated to continue the works of Abraham, Jesus and Mosses. He preached to people to have mercy on each other. He did emphasize on the need of mercy to the less fortunate in the society. This goes in line with the strong holds of the religion, peace.

The religion call their God Allah, this means God, the true God. The character of the lord is that of peace and mercy. In the article by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names page two, the writer notes that “For Muslims, All¥h is the most inclusive of God’s names, embracing all his other names and attributes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In accordance with conventional Arabic usage, All¥h can be applied only to the Creator and cannot be assigned to any other being, angelic, human, animate or inanimate, real or imaginary” (Abd-Allah, 2), this implies that Allah is a holy name that need to be respected. The article recognizes Allah as the primary name of God. It tends to illustrate that the name of the lord illustrates who he is and defines the religion, he is seen as the peaceful one and one who is merciful. The name of God in either the Muslim or other religion is respected.

In the article, by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names, finds that the ideology that either Christianity or Muslim derived the name was the same or similar. This is in that the Biblical Elohîm (God) and h¥-Elôh (the true God) of Moses and the Hebrew prophets or the Aramaic Al¥h¥ (God, the true God) of Jesus and John the Baptist the recognition of the supremacy of the lord is recognized. From the spirit of the article then it can be derived that the God that either the Muslim or the Christianity worship is the same.

The article emphasis on living ethically like the life is of the early prophets of God. The word name is seen as the most beautiful name in the two articles. The prophet Mohammad was told the Quran by Gabriel. Quran is Islam holy book. Muslims follow what is written in the Quran and they believe in it. Four kinds of Muslims that are Sony, Shah, Sofuh and Whabies, All kind of Muslims are almost the same with no big different.

People have different thoughts about Islam. There are two kinds of thoughts about Islam. Firstly, the kind of people who have a background about Islam, and know the concepts of Islam; they understand that all Muslims are not the same. In addition, they know terrorists are not real Muslims and they do not follow the concepts of Islam.

Secondly, the kind of people who have negative ideas about Islam; those people think that Islam is the religion of terrorists. The problem is they do not know anything about Islam; they just believe what media will say. Because of the media, many people got negative thoughts about. I believe Islam is a religion of peace, justice and tolerance. Islam is the only religion that believes in other religions.

As God said in the holy Quran, Muslims should believe in other religions that came from God such as Judaism and Christianity. In addition, Muslims should believe in all other prophets who are sent by God like Abraham, Jesus, and Moses. Because of the order of God, Muslims cannot fight or kill other people even if they are not Muslims. God sent the prophet Mohammad with Islam to complete the monotheistic religions (Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq 1-10).

In the books, The Alchemist, the superiority of men over women as it is perceived in the Islam religion is shown when Santiago dreams, pursues Fatima, the religion has the belief that marriage should be respected and it is holly. The man is seen as the one who should initiate the relationship and the women follows.

We will write a custom Essay on Religion: Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A woman is not supposed to show directly that she is in love with a man. In section five, the writer says, “Fatima, Santiago’s love interest, tells him that she would rather him achieve his Personal Legend than stay by her side. Her reasoning is that she loves Santiago and therefore must love his dreams as well” (Coelho, 5). This shows how love is valued in the religion.

Islamic banking system Lately the world is experiencing a rapid growth of Islamic banking alongside with the conventional banking. This tread has made some countries to amend their banking to accommodate the increasing tread. Islamic banking operates slightly different from the conventional banking and an in-depth understanding of its operations is required. Islamic banking is a mode of banking like any other conventional banking systems however it activities are governed by Islamic laws.

The Islamic laws are called Shariah and the banking operates according to Islamic laws of transactions called Fiqh al-muamalat. Firstly, what the sharia provides is banking services without the payment or acceptance of interests from its customers or to the bank. The interest is referred to as Riba. Interest in conventional banking can be seen from two angles, one, the interest paid on savings by the bank to the customer and the interest paid by a customer when he has been financed by the bank.

The theory of the interest is that the customer has allowed the bank to use his money and thus need to be compensated, the rate is agreed on when the contract is made or the bank has a set rate that always is applicable. The banks provide the two services but does not charge or pay interest. The question is how does the bank make profits? How does it attract savings? In addition, how does the customer benefit? We will examine that later. Secondly, it prohibits any financing or even involving in any illegitimate business activities.

The holy book called Quran prohibits this. some businesses that are directly prohibited by the sheria laws not to be engaged in by one who practices the Muslim faith, a good example on this is selling of pork and its products the banking system cannot deal with a person who engages into the business. Another form is what is called games of chances, this include gambling and betting.

It does not finance. Lastly, the sheria prohibits financing of high risk businesses with high uncertainty. Another question that comes into our minds is whether the customers are only Muslims faith practitioner, that was the idea however since the business want to attract more resources in terms of saving and the benefits of lending. It opens its doors to other faith holders to have accounts with them on the condition that they will be fully compliant with the sheria laws governing banking.

For advises mostly on the following of the law there are numerous firms offering the service under Shariah advisory councils. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of Islamic banking starting with a brief history of it emergence, it will also expand on some of the products that are available in the system and in line with that it will be comparing it with the conventional banking system.

In conclusion, people have different believes and thoughts; some believe in God and some do not. The most important thing is ethics and the personalities of people. Many people are looking for peace like Muslims, but they do not know how. The world should try to accept Islam like any other religion.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion: Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On page seven, Abd-Allah notes that “Arabic prayer formulas and recitation of the Qur’an. For us, All¥h has a direct emotional and spiritual efficacy which no other word for God can replace”, this implies that the religion is a religion of peace (Munir 34-45).

Conclusion Different people hold varying perceptions and attitudes towards Islam religion: some believe that the religion is responsible for terrorism attacks experienced in the world while others believe it is a religion of peace. Prophet Mohammad is believed to be the founder of the religion: Muslims belief that Islam is a religion of mercy and love.

Works Cited Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq. One God, Many Names. 2011. Web.

Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist (Coelho) Summary and Analysis. 2011. Web.

Munir, Ahmed. Islamic Banking: A Success Story.” Economic Review 35.4 (2004) : 34-45. Web.


Integration of Nation States Essay essay help online free

There is an ongoing debate among political scientists about the current and future trends in international relations. The key question is whether the world of nation states becomes more centralized and interdependent or it grows more fragmented and nation states tend to be more separated from one another.

This paper will defend the argument that international politics is more inclined toward unity rather than fragmentation and that despite numerous conflicts and disagreements, nation states try to find some common denominators in their relations with one another.

To some extent this argument supports the theory of political liberalism which postulates that the policies of a state are inevitably affected by the interests of other players (Griffiths, O’Callaghan


Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Different religions are studied with a motive of understanding people from other parts of the world. Since some individuals are characterized by religious fanaticism, it is crucial to appreciate their beliefs in order to try to understand them.

Western religions are mostly monotheism and are separate from the western religions which are generally distinguished as polytheist. generally, western religions such as Christianity are based on the believe of a supreme being or one deity while western religious such as Hinduism common in India are animistic i.e. they belief that inanimate things such as nature, the universe and nonliving matter are conscious just like the belief of the Native Americans.

Western religions emanated from the western culture and reinforced through Christianity i.e. Roman Catholicism which was segregated by the Great schism into Protestants who formed a diversified into movements such as Neopaganism, evangelicalism and spiritism as compared to the western religion whose great influence was Hellenistic religion. This paper shall explore Christianity as a western religion in comparison with Hinduism which represent the Eastern religion.

Comparison of Hinduism and Christianity Differences

One of the most significant teachings of the Hinduism is reincarnation which elaborates on origin as well as fate of humankind. This concept awards meaning to .life since it explains that man has existed in other lives and on death, he or she will come back to live on earth as another being or a creature depending on his previous actions.

Reincarnation comforts those individuals whose lives arte dictated by their actions and assures them of yet another chance of living to become perfect (Jones 86). This contrasts with Christian teaching about the origin of man as creation and his fate as a judgment by the supreme deity who may condemn one to eternal death or eternal happiness in paradise.

Reincarnation elaborates on not only why people live but also on the reason for their distinction and diversity such as being impoverished, disabled, and wealthy. This is attributed to prior life which is dictated by Karma in the current existence. As a result, reincarnation establishes the meaning of reward or punishment in the present life as having dependent on previous deeds (Hufner 7).

There are vast differences between the two religions in that Hinduism is based on polytheism or plural gods in which there is are also goddesses within Brahman. This is unlike Christianity where there is a single higher being that created, maintains life and will ultimately judge man in accordance to his deeds. Moreover, Hinduism points out that whatever that contains life is a personification of Brahman hence, dictate the inner self (Jones 85).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, Christianity points out that God created all living creatures in heaven and on earth and awarded man with the gift op freewill. Thus man chooses his or her deeds and should be guided by the bible in appeasing God who cares and values man. Thus there is a distinction between man and the Supreme Almighty, the only one worth of worship through hymns and prayers because he provides life full of goodness (Beck 78).

According to Hinduism, when a man sins he owes it against his own self and not against god. Therefore man suffers for his deeds as he reincarnates until he is feed of Nirvana. This is opposed to Christianity where God has set rules which are meant to guide the ways of man who freely chooses to obey or disobey.

Sin offends God who punishes man through distancing himself from him or causing him a spiritual death. Additionally, in accordance to Hinduism, salvation is marked when one fails to undergo reincarnation meant to make individuals better through various successions, to achieve perfection and unite with Brahman (Hufner 8).

On the other hand, Christianity teaches that salvation is a free reward from God to be embraced and not earned and was marked by the death of Jesus Christ as a ransom for mankind’s sins. Finally, Hinduism recognizes and appreciates presence and importance of other religions such as Christianity which in contrast, emphasize that there is only one true religion and therefore nullifies or disregards the others.


Similarities that exist between Christianity and Hinduism includes presence of alter in places of worship, the concept of trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) which compares to Vedic trinity comprising Shiva (one who puts to destruction) , Vishnu (Who sustain life) and Brahma as the one who created with Lord Krishna being the most supreme. Like Christianity teaching on long suffering, Hinduism teaches of spiritual tolerance. Through ancient practices animal sacrifices were paramount for forgiveness of sins in both religions.

This reflects that Christianity and Hinduism advocate for righteousness whose failure to abide results to punishment or accountability (Hufner 2). The two religions also incorporate music in their practices. For instance, Christian hymns signify worship, a prophetic call for spiritual transformation as well as a personal or community’s creed of salvation and commitment to obeying God (Beck 79).

Hindu songs express strong emotions such as divine love and different melodies are used for meditation as individuals pursue self recognition (Beck I19). Besides, Hindus have scriptural writings recognized as revealed and others as remembered. The scriptures are keen on religious practices to be followed. The most supreme gods are Upanishads and Vedas. Similarly, Christians have the Bible which forms the scriptural base for most of their teachings.

We will write a custom Essay on Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion There are many differences than are the similarities between Hinduism and Christianity. It is surprising how individuals are willing to sacrifice their lives due to religious fanaticism defending believes which lead to many religious wars in the world such as the jihad. Therefore, it is essential to really understand other religions for the purpose of cultivating tolerance and esteem for all humanity.

Works Cited Beck, Gay. Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 2006. Print.

Hufner, Katharina. Hinduism from Within and Without. Germany: GRIN Verlag. 2010. Print.

Jones, John. India: Its Life and Thought. Middlesex: The Echo Library. 2009. Print.


Catherine the Great Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Sophia Augusta Fredericka also known as Catherine the great was a Russian empress who reigned in the period 1762-1796. She was born on 21st April, 1729 in Stettin, Prussia which is now known as Szczecin, Poland. Having been born of Prince Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst and princesses Johanna Elizabeth of Holstein- Gottorp, she was automatically a German princess.

It was after her conversion to orthodoxy that she adopted the name Catherine and was married to the heir to the Russian throne by the name the Grand Duke peter in 1745. The marriage was however not a happy one. The marriage problems nevertheless did not deter her intellectual and political interests and capabilities and Catherine made some efforts in the removal of her husband from the throne and she later took power as the queen hence the title Catherine II.

Catherine had always been ambitious and intelligent and had the desire to be the head of the Russian empire despite the fact that she was born in German. She used various tactics to gain the support of the Russian people for instance through her loyalty to Russia and the Russian orthodox (Streeter 4).

It was in the year 1761 25th December, when Empress Elizabeth died and peter became the emperor, Peter II, hence making Catherine the great to be the empress. Peter was faced with a lot of political, military and even church related problems.

There were even attempts to overthrow him and placing his son Paul on the thrown while at the same time having Catherine as the temporary ruler until the son reached the optimum age of being a ruler. This plan however did not consider the fact that Catherine had a very strong desire to be a ruler by herself and that she could not stand the position of being a background figure as she awaits her son Paul to be of age but rather she had to fight intelligently.

It was on the 28th day of June the year 1762 that Catherine combined efforts with her then lover, Gregory Orlov and brought together the troops of St. Petersburg to her aid and declared herself as the solitary ruler of the Russian empire hence the name Catherine II. Peter was arrested and after a short period of time he was killed and nothing could deter Catherine’s determination of ruling the Russian empire.

Although Catherine was very ambitious and had great plans in regard to improving the domestic and foreign matters of the country, she concentrated much on securing and laying a firm foundation of her position during her initial years of her reign.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because she was aware of the fact that a majority of people were not for her idea of being a ruler but rather considered her son, Paul, to be the appropriate person to take on the leadership position. She was also viewed by many as having seized her husband from power illegally. She therefore saw these people as a threat and had to do everything possible to gain their support and trust and make her stay as a ruler comfortable and appealing to many.

She was very keen not to cause any further disparities but rather to unite the people, for instance, she understood that the people needed to rebuild Russian peace before she could indulge on homeland affairs. A foreign policy was necessary and Catherine placed Count Nikita Panin in charge of foreign affairs to implement the policies and was successful.

It was two years later, 1964, that Catherine was now ready to perpetrate reforms as she now felt secure and had gained the trust of the majority through her loyalty.

The reform acts and agendas set by Catherine were driven by the enlightenment and education idea. Her first notable reform for instance was facilitated by the enlightenment spirit. She advocated for the change of the Russian legal system as she considered it ineffective based on the fact that the system relied on old code of laws which were long passed by time making them ineffective.

She aimed at bringing positive changes in the legal system for instance through enactment of laws and policies that ensures that there is equal protection for all individuals without any form of discrimination. She also advocated for the prevention of participation in criminal activities as opposed to the imposition of cruel and harsh punishment of the offenders as prevention is always better than cure and more so less costly for the particular country.

It was in June 1767 that Catherine the great established a legislative commission that was supposed to take part in the revision of the old laws and although she was very hopeful that the commission would do its best and achieve the expected results, there were very little positive achievements to an extent that Catherine suspended the activities of the commission toward the end of the year 1768.

Apart from being involved in domestic affairs, Catherine also dealt with the foreign affairs, for instance, she made it possible for Russia to access the black sea coast without restrictions (Henry 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Catherine the Great specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Catherine the great is a very significant figure in Russia as she is associated with the expansion of the Russian empire for instance to the central Europe and the black sea, the improvement in the administration and management practices and also her vigorous persuasion of the westernization and modernization policies.

It is under her rule that Russia was able to have strong foundations to an extent that it could now rival with Asia and Europe. Catherine dedicated her time and capabilities to issues associated with the domestic affairs specifically the functioning of the government.

Education and enlightenment was also a major aspect that Catherine the great promoted in Russia. She was actively involved in the expansion of the Russian education system for instance she established a plan that aimed at expanding and improving the education system in Russia in 1786.

Although she did not live to make the plan a complete success due to her death, she saw to it that there was an increase in the number of the educational institutions including elementary and secondary schools after which other aspects of the plan were carried on by his son.

She also advocated for improvement in arts for instance theatre, painting and music and also sciences in schools and the society at large as she saw this as a source of recognition and good reputation for the country hence a source of civilization. It was in 1796 that Catherine the great died and her throne was succeeded by her son by the name Paul (Lewis 1).

Works Cited Henry, Cavendish. “Catherine the Great Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011

Lewis J. Jone. “Catherine the Great.”, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011

Streeter, Michael. Catherine the Great. London: Haus Publishing, 2007.

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Automated Teller Machine’s Manual and Usage Essay college essay help near me

Introduction An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a computerized banking machine that allows clients to access basic banking operations such as deposits, withdrawals and balance checking among others functions. ATMs are very convenient since they allow the clients to access their accounts without the hustles involved in traditional banking processes (lining up and filling multiple forms). As such, they save the clients a lot of time and money.

In addition, they are efficient accurate and fast as compared to the banking tellers. However, in as much as ATMs have proven to be convenient in our lives, a number of risks have developed over their usage. The most prominent threat is that ATMs give criminals a chance to get to our money especially if ATM users do not take precautions while using the ATM machines.

Even though people can avoid such risks by using common sense, it is always a worthwhile endeavor to review some proven tactics periodically in a bid to avoid mishaps, all the while improving your chances of averting risky situations. Lannon and Gurak (2010) assert that manuals are among the best tools to ensure that clients use products and services conveniently and safely. In this regard, following these six steps will improve your chances against various risks associated with ATM usage.

ATM security

Ensure that you look around the ATM location before you decide to approach it. The purpose of this step is to ensure that there are no suspicious people larking around the ATM or standing too close to you while you transact your business. In addition, ensure that you use an ATM that you are familiar with. A trusted ATM is more secure than a ‘new’ one.

Be prepared

Ensure that you have all the requirements needed to use an ATM machine. Make sure you have your ATM card, you know your business in the ATM, and most important of all, you have memorized the correct PIN number (eHow, 2008). Covering such details ensures that you take the least time in the ATM thereby lessening the chances of experiencing further complications while at the machine.

Inspect the machine before Inserting Your Card

Incase you see something unfamiliar on the ATM machine; do not use it because it may be part of an elaborate scam. Any additional equipment may be used to compromise your bank account. Such add-ons include card readers and hidden cameras.

Card insertion and usage

After inserting your card into the ATM machine, use the interactive and simple instructions that will display on the ATM screen as your guide. If you have any concerns, ask the assigned ATM attendant for assistance. The attendants are thoroughly vetted and can be trusted to help you have an easy and secure ATM experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Get Cash Out of Sight

Whether it is little or a lot, cash can be tempting. As such, do not attempt to count your cash at the ATM; ensure that you get it out of sight. Pocket or fold it in your hand until you are in a safe location. This will lessen the chances of an abrupt attack from other people.

Automobile ATMs: security

You are a likely victim of a carjack when you have cash in hand and in a stopped car. Therefore, take a few seconds to lock your car and roll up your windows when using an automobile ATM. This will ensure that you are safe from such crooks.

Conclusion Even though ATMs have proven their worth in our livelihood, they are not perfectly safe. In this regard, ensure that the ATM you use is safe and you have all the requirements needed to use the ATM. In addition, follow the on-screen instructions at the ATM and ask for assistance where required.

After using the ATM, ensure that you hide your money. As precautionary measures: DO NOT share your Personal Identification Number (PIN) with anyone. In addition, do not write it down instead, ensure that you memorize it and change it regularly. Incase of any complications, ask the ATM attendant or contact your bank for assistance.

References eHow (2008). How to Use an ATM. Web.

Lannon, J.,


Global Warming: Causes and Effects Cause and Effect Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Global Warming

Effects of Global Warming


Works Cited

Introduction Global warming is one of the greatest problems facing the world today, because of its frightening effects that are evident in the present world. Global warming is the tremendous increase of the global temperatures, which results due to the trapping of heat in the atmosphere. Signs of global warming are evident all over the world with the increased temperatures, unpredictable climatic conditions, disappearing of some species of birds and animals, and an increase in the sea level.

Although people are not only aware but have also have tasted the impacts of these effects, very few individuals have taken the required action to save the earth from destruction, as most people still embrace practices that are the primary causes of global warming such as the use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the use of chemical fertilizers.

Therefore, although some natural factors have contribute to global warming, human actions are the primary causes of global warming and unless such practices are controlled, likelihoods of Saving the earth from effects of global warming, for example, drought, flooding, and extinctions of some species of flora and fauna are minimal.

Causes of Global Warming The primary causes of global warming are the most cherished human practices that have existed since time memorial. One of the primary causes of global warming is the increased amount of the carbon dioxide emissions in the environment.

With the ever-increasing use of electricity as one of the primary sources of energy in most sectors of the economy, there has been a continuous release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Electricity is primarily produced from burning of coal in power plants, and because it is very hard to survive without it, likelihoods of such gases filing the earth are high.

Carbon dioxide is one the gases that trap heat energy in the atmosphere, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures. Another cause of global warming is the ever-increasing emission of greenhouse gases from burning of gasoline. The modern car culture is one of the primary sources of green house gases, as most transportation and manufacturing industry rely on fossil fuels as its primary source of fuels.

Global warming is also a product of some agricultural practices such as planting of rice in paddies. Although agriculture is the backbone of most global economies, some agricultural practices are primary sources of some dangerous greenhouse gases such as methane, as a result of the breaking down of bacteria in areas with limited supply of oxygen (Essick 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to increased use of fossil fuels and some agricultural practices that release dangerous gases into the environment, other human practices such as deforestation have also contributed to global warming. Although nowadays most individuals use cooking and other environmentally friendly sources of energy in their homes, the use of forest for fuel is common, because of the numerous trees that are cut daily for charcoal and wood.

Further, the need for land to accommodate the ever-increasing population numbers has forced most societies to encroach into forested or protected land. Deforestation destroys trees that are the primary air purifiers, as they help to remove carbon dioxide from the environment. On the other hand, the use of chemical fertilizers that are rich in nitrogen have also contributed to global warming, as nitrogen compounds have one of the greatest heat-trapping capacity (Markham Para. 1-5).

Effects of Global Warming As a result of the numerous contributions of human actions to global warming, human beings must bear the brunt of their actions, which unless they accept to control, the wellbeing o future generations will be at stake. One evident effects of global warming is the rising level of the sea level, caused by the melting of the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. The effects of such increases are evident, as floods and massive storms have become one of the most prevalent calamities that face most societies year in, year out.

In addition, there has been an increase in other deadly calamities, such as droughts and tropical diseases that are connected to global warming; hence, the need for individuals to cooperate and save the world. Further, as research studies show some species of birds such as the Adélie penguins have drastically reduced in numbers, a case that is likely to become worse if people do not take responsibility for their actions, as most species of flora and fauna will find it very hard to adapt to new ecosystems (Jones 1).

Conclusion In conclusion, considering the deadly nature of the effects of global warming and because global warming is primarily a product of human activities, there is need for collective responsibility to save Mother Nature. Failure to do this can lead to numerous devastating calamities that will greatly jeopardize the wellbeing of both present and future generations.

Works Cited Essick, Peter. Causes of global warming. National Geographic society. 2011. Web.

Markham, Derek. Global warming effects and causes. Planet Save. 2009. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming: Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Jeremy. What are the effects of global warming on earth? 2010. Web.


Assessments for English Language Learners Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Assessing is an influential tool in determining the learning outcome in students. Therefore, it is the responsibility of teachers to utilize the various assessment ways in order to determine the progress of their students. This paper seeks to explain the value of diagnostic, formative and summative assessments for English Language Learners (ELL). It also goes further to summarize the five alternative assessment formats and the importance of each feature.

Diagnostic assessment involves evaluating the individual current knowledge and skills in order to distinguish the appropriate learning program for him. This is particularly important to the English Language Learners since it helps them in assessing of their own self. Another form of diagnostic assessment includes forward looking assessment which helps in assessment of the individual future events. It is worthy to mention that diagnostic assessment is a form of formative assessment.

Formative assessment is done throughout the learning process. Formative assessment involves the activities that are performed by the students and the teachers which results in information that is used as a feed back to improve the learning and teaching process.

This type of assessment is usually used by teachers to review their approaches in teaching and also determine the next step of the learner. Formative assessment does not necessarily involve grading of the students but its main aim is to help in learning of the subject (English) (Chappuis, 2005).

The formative assessment is characterized by; improved quality interactions in the classroom, students are involved in the learning process, feedback is issued between the students and teachers in order for them to improve on their work and sharing criteria between the students and the teachers.

Summative assessment involves analyzing the learning outcomes and consequently reporting the outcomes to the parties concerned (Chappuis, 2005). This is usually done at the end of the class, term, course, semester or the end of the year in order to summarize the achievements of the student. Students are normally graded according to their respective performance in the subject undertaken.

The most used English language proficiency (EPL) test in the school is ACCESS for ELLs (Stiggins, 2007). ACCESS test is used for assessing communication and understanding of English language among the people who use the language. It has an aim of developing the standards of English language through the test and instructions issued to the learner. The standard of this test is graded according to the performance indicator that has five clusters of grades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ACCESS tests have got advantages in that it is more secure as compared to other shelf tests, ACCESS tests are based on the standards of each country and ACCESS tests emphasizes on English as a social language.

However the main drawback of ACCESS tests is that it fails to recognize the knowledge of the student i.e. it fails to assess if the student has comprehended the use of English language.

Assessment in classroom can take various different forms (Stiggin