Total Quality Management (TQM) Report Essay Help Online

Introduction The global environment has presented numerous challenges to the firms in their quest to satisfy customer needs and expectations. In order to remain competitive therefore, most firms have launched Total quality Management (TQM) programs, both for the employee and processes.

These programs are considered an attempt by company management to continually improve the quality of products and processes. Principally, TQM considers the producers as well as the consumers to be responsible for the quality of products and processes offered by the organization. Thus, the contribution of the suppliers, management, employees and customers is significant in meeting and even exceeding customer quality expectations.

As such the term Total Quality Management means different things to different people; designers expect the product or service to conform to specifications; producer expects the product to perform or fit into intended use; consumers expect the product to be useful according to the price paid; users of products expect equally good support services after using the product; and the judgmental evaluation of the product or service constituents (Juran, 1988).

The meaning of quality Quality therefore means different things for both manufacturing and service organizations. While manufacturing organizations base their perception on the tangibility of their end-products, service organizations have to contend with their intangible products.

According to Ahire (1997, p. 91) manufacturing organizations often define quality on the basis of conformance, which determines how much of the preset standards that the product meets. Other dimensions of quality within the manufacturing organizations include reliability, whereby the product will be expected to perform fully; performance, increasing in functions; serviceability, the ease of being repaired; and durability, which refers to the additional features on the product.

The service organizations on the other hand perceive quality through customer-oriented dimensions. Due to the in-tangible nature of the products, the consumers cannot touch but instead experience the quality of the services. The definition of quality that is based on feelings and perceptions, mean that definition of quality is a demanding task.

Such perceptual factors infer to the responsiveness to the needs of the customers. Examples include friendliness and courtesy of the employees, prompt solution to complaints, minimal time spent by a customer waiting for a service to be delivered, and consistency of the service features over a period of time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More BR Engineering as a manufacturing organization intends to introduce formalized quality procedures and develop TQM environment in its quest to enter the aerospace and automotive industries. In the precision machining business and ‘general engineering’ applications that BP has specialized in, ‘traditional’ aspects of engineering might have fulfilled the quality targets of the organization.

However, the aerospace/automotive industry where 99-percent quality is considered not good enough, involves the risk of losing human lives if the systems do not comply with the required quality standard. Thus, the MDs fears concerning the cost effectiveness of the TQM strategy should be calmed because human life is more important to ever organization.

Similarly, cost has been associated with quality because most organizations have become aware and cautious of the high cost of poor quality. Such that if BP engineering prefers adopting the ‘traditional’ engineering in its venture into the aerospace/automotive industry, the long-run costs associated with poor quality will not match the cost that would have been injected in preventing the poor quality.

Hence quality primarily results in loss of business due to dissatisfied customers and increase in other costs. The costs associated with product quality are quality control costs and quality failure costs. While quality control costs are incurred while achieving high quality, quality failure costs result from poor quality. Further, the costs can fall into appraisal and prevention costs, and internal failure and external failure.

The prevention costs are costs incurred in an effort to prevent the occurrence of the two quality failure costs. Therefore, the cumulative value of the four poor quality costs, both before and after the manufacturing process, cannot be compared to the future immeasurable loss of business due and dissatisfied customers (Cua, McKone and Schroeder, 2001, p. 675-79).

Prior to the adoption of TQM by manufacturing and service organizations, the traditional standard of conformance to specification stipulated the target value for product quality, but allowed certain margins of error, such as 5.00 0.20. The losses in form of cost were reported when the product dimensions went beyond or fell lower than the control limit (Juran, 1988).

According to the theory by Dr. Taguchi, product that meets the target specifications is very different from one whose quality nears the control limit, for a designer. But for a customer, there is little difference between the two products. Thus his view that organizations should focus their efforts on quality at the design stage was considerably cheaper than during the production process.

We will write a custom Report on Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dr. Taguchi’s engineering approach to product design known as design of experiment aimed at developing a robust design. The design would generate products that could perform in a range of environments. This designer was motivated by the premise that it was easier to control the features of a product to fit into verity of environments than trying to change the prevailing environmental conditions.

Quality dimensions The specific dimensions of quality for manufacturing products include, performance, the basic operating features of a product; features, the “additional” items added to the product’s basic features of a product; serviceability, the ease, speed and possibility of getting repairs; durability, the product’s life span before repair; conformance, probability of the product meeting pre-designed standards; safety, assurance of not being harmed while using the product; esthetics, the sound, look, taste or feeling of a product; and reliability, that the product is guaranteed to work properly over an anticipated period of time.

Therefore, customer satisfaction begins when a customer has been allowed to pay according to the financial capability, as long as they are getting the value for their money (Cua, McKone and Schroeder, 2001, p. 681).

Customer satisfaction – Needs and Expectations The customer driven quality cycle requires that both the planning of the products and system should be geared at meeting the expectations and needs of the customer.

Initially, the customer’s expected needs and expectations are stipulated before the producer identifies these specifics. After identifying the needs and expectations, the producer ensures that the final product meets the customer’s expectations by providing the output that contains the design features.

Philosophy of TQM TQM is characterized by its focus on dealing with quality problems by indentifying their root causes and ensuring correction at the source, instead of identifying quality problems on the final product. The focus of TQM while ensuring the participation of everyone in the organizations ensures that the cumulative attention is directed to the customer.

Every member of the organization including the employees, customers, and suppliers are involved in the quality improvement process. The success of TQM depends on the adoption of the specifics aspects of the strategy (Goetsch and Stanley, 1995, p. 57).

Customer focus Fundamentally, TQM features as the company’s collaborative effort to attend to the customer’s quality needs. In order to meet and often times surpass the customer’s quality standards TQM acknowledges that a product that is not according to the customer’s specifications becomes of no value to the company. Although TQM is targeting the customer, knowing the exact quality that a customer needs is affected by their changing tastes and preferences with time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Total Quality Management (TQM) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Further, variation of customer demands from one customer to the other complicates the determination of exact customer expectations. In order for companies to match up with the continuous preference changes, say in the auto or the retail industry, constant market surveys, focus groups and interview of customers should be conducted to collect adequate information about the changing customer expectations.

According to Cua, McKone and Schroeder (2001, p. 684) the philosophy associates the success of the company with the satisfaction of the customer. In the case of BP Engineering, attention to the customer requirements means more than eradicating defects or errors, but also meeting customer specifications by mitigating customer complaints.

Total quality participation by the company as a whole means that at one time they operate as suppliers to other participants, and they operate as customers at other times. In the case of BP Engineering, supplies to the lower by the upper departments, such as the technical to the production will mean treating them with relatively equal attention as an external customer would be handled.

Continuous improvement Secondly, TQM focuses on continuous improvement; which is the philosophy of never-ending improvement. Previously, firms felt successful, and did not see the need to continue the improvement process once it had achieved a required level of quality. Figuratively, Rosenberg believes improvements are like plateaus that are achieved one after the other while reducing the number of defects to need a set level of requirements, especially if a given level of quality has been identified to highly satisfy a customer’s needs (1996, p. 59).

Managers in global companies each perceive such change in various ways; such the traditional view of American managers termed it as organizational restructuring; that the most lasting and perfect changes emanate from gradual improvement, which involve bit by bit uptake of doses than one large dose.

According to the Japanese, continuous improvement, or Kaizen, expects the company to continually target to become better through problem solving and learning.

Because perfection is a long-away target for most companies aiming to improve on quality, performance should on a timely basis be evaluated and measures taken to adopt improvements. In addition to product quality, that is associated with process quality, continuous improvement is also targeted toward the company process improvements (Zimmerman, Steinmann and Schueler, 1996, p. 22).

However, for manufacturing organizations such as BR Engineering the major components of continuous improvement include waste management; prevention of defects instead of detection; and emphasis of quality during the design of the product rather than after production.

Hall (1987) suggests that this customer-focused approach ensures that errors are mitigated to provide the customer with defect-free products. Problems likely to face the process of product development are discovered and taken care of before getting to the preceding internal customer. Companies can foster their continuous improvement (CI) through a number of approaches.

As the first approach to CI, the The plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle is a series of activities that necessary for an organization’s incorporation of CI. As a cycle, the continuous nature of PDSA cycle means that it is an ever-continuous process. The PDSA cycle is made up of the following steps:

Step one known as Plan, expects the analysis of commissioned and existing plans by the managers towards a solution. The improvement plan and appropriate measures of performance evaluation should be based on the information (Ahire 1997, p. 96).

The second step, Do, of the PDSA cycle refers to the implementation (doing) of the plan. In this stage, the managers will be expected to collect relevant data and document resulting changes to ease the evaluation process.

In the third stage of the PDSA cycle, study, involves evaluation of the data collected in the second stage. This is a check as to whether the initial plan is achieving the planned goals.

Lastly, the fourth stage of the PDSA cycle, Act, depends on the evaluation results of the preceding three stages. The implementation of the new procedure to test its success begins with the communication of the results to all the members of the company. Just as the name suggested, the cycle starts immediately after the action stage, and the evaluation of the process continues indefinitely (Cua, McKone and Schroeder, 2001, p. 688).

The Second approach towards the implementation of the CI is benchmarking, which involves analyzing business practices and operations of companies that are ranked “best in class,” with the intention of making comparisons.

For instance, BR Engineering would seek to analyze and learn from the operations of other automotive companies, though it does not necessarily need to be a similar industry company. The primary aspect being that the benchmark company is excelling in aspects of operations occurring in the company doing the benchmarking. Internationally, American Express has been widely used as a benchmark in conflict resolution issues (Ahire 1997, p. 95).

Continuous improvement (a process approach) According to Medori and Steeple (2000, p. 521), the process approach involves the application of a set of processes in addition to the identification, integrations and management of the same, to result in the desire outcome.

In conjunction with the quality management system, the process approach of continuous improvement ensures that the producer not only comprehends the quality requirements, but also purposes to meet them. Further, the approach ensures addition of value through the processes; ensures effective performance, and uses the measured objectives as a basis of the un-ending improvement process.

Continuous improvement of the quality management system

According to Deming’s philosophy, the continuous improvement would ensure the ultimate philosophy is achieved through a number of signposts, including;

Establishing a mainstream purpose to ensure long term organizational goals through product improvement

Instead of accommodating certain levels of poor quality products, the manufacturer should adopt and stick with a policy of preventing poor quality

Rely on statistical quality to improve product design and process, in turn eliminate the need for inspection to achieve desired quality

Resorting to working a few suppliers or vendors that have or will comply with TQM, rather than make decisions based on competitive prices

Regularly ensure improvement the production process through the system and employees, being the major sources of quality problems, hence reducing costs and increasing productivity

Introduce training of workers that aims at reducing quality problems through the adoption of statistical quality control techniques

Help workers improve their performance by instilling leadership among their supervisors

Encourage and motivate employee participation by cutting on the likelihood of reprisal for identifying quality problems or asking questions

Foster cooperation and the culture of working together by eliminating barriers across departments

Encouraging workers to achieve numerical targets and high performance by first orientating them on how to achieve the set targets

In order for workers to perform to their capabilities, improvement in the production and supervision process to enhance worker self esteem and pride

Throughout the organization from top management downwards, provide involving training and education on methods of quality improvement, to enhance continuous improvement

Ensure that the top management has made a commitment to implement the above thirteen points

Employee empowerment The third aspect of Total Quality Management philosophy, employee empowerment, exists in the premise that employees can be able to identify and solve problems if they are tasked with certain responsibilities. Traditional forms of quality approaches caused employees to shy away from pinpointing problems due to the consequences.

Instead, the problem of poor quality ended up being “someone else’s problem” because it was ignored and thus transferred to another department in the company. Under TQM problem identification is among the priorities of all the employees, and incentives are awarded for efficient problem identification and possible management.

Hence the company employees play significant role in quality production and process, with most TQM-compliant companies empowering their employees to make vital decisions during these processes. Their performance in the vital production processes backed by the constant and detailed training programs, because a well trained workforce provides a successful TQM environment (Medori and Steeple 2000, p. 523).

Furthermore, as the name suggests, buyers of company products are external customers. But internal customers are the workers who receive goods from the various departments along the production process. For instance the marketing department serves as an internal customer to the packaging department; and as much as a poorly packaged product should not be passed to the external customer, a defective product should not be passed to an internal customer (Cua, McKone and Schroeder 2001, p. 694).

A Quality circle is one of the common types of team involving a group of volunteer production employees coordinating with their supervisors to attend to quality problems. some features of the team include, eight to ten members; decision-making based on majority; meetings held weekly during work hours; and adhering to an agreed procedure while analysis and solving quality problems. During the meetings, criticisms are prohibited but open discussion is allowed, especially due to the casual and friendly but serious atmosphere.

Firms that have succeeded in the implementation of TQM acknowledge that the successful adoption of quality circles. However, the success of quality circles depends on the employees abilities to identify and correct problems. In order for workers to efficiently analyze, interpret and correct quality problems, adequate training in the various quality control tools is compulsory (Ahire 1997, p. 99).

The seven tools of quality control include cause-and-effect diagrams, flowcharts, checklist, control charts, scatter diagrams, Pareto analysis, and histograms.

Product design By ensuring that the product design meets, and some time surpasses customer expectation, is a crucial aspect of building quality into a product; possible through the concept of Quality function deployment (QFD). Practically the implementation of the procedures is an involving task, simply because the customer meaning of quality varies from one to the other.

Medori and Steeple conclude that it is vital that the customer’s everyday language for quality into comprehensible technical specifications, in order to produce a product that customers want. It is through the use of QFD that communication is enhanced between different company functions, such as engineering, operations and marketing (2000, p. 530).

Through QFD, variables involved in the product design exhibit relationships such as technical versus customer expectations. For instance, an automobile manufacturer’s analysis of how changes in materials would affect customer safety expectations will be vital in developing a product design that suits customer needs, while saving the technical department from unnecessary requirements.

Process management In order for quality to be reported in the final product, TQM stipulates that quality should prevail during the production process; through building quality into the process, instead of discarding defective items after the production process is complete, it is better and cost-effective at that, to uncover the quality problem source and correct it; this is possible through the concept of quality at the source.

No dealing with the source of the problem will cause the problem to persist and even lead to greater losses. Unlike the traditional approach to quality solutions, which proposed quality checks after a particular stage, quality at the source’s new approach prevents the quality problem from being transferred to the final consumer. Monitoring and management of process quality can be conducted using such quality tools as control charts (Medori and Steeple 2000, p. 533).

Managing supplier quality Traditionally the numerous suppliers to a company would be allowed to deliver their raw materials through a series of competitive price bidding. That the materials were later checked for quality after delivery, is according to TQM, a contributing factor to poor quality cost plus time wastage.

As such, TQM extends the requirements of quality vertically to the suppliers. Quality supply will therefore not be checked upon delivery, thus saving on time and costs. This they accomplish by having a company representative at the supplier’s location to elaborate the quality process, thus incorporating the supplier from the design stage to the final production (Zimmerman, Steinmann and Schueler 1996, p. 28).

Benefits of TQM Implementation of TQM will benefit BR engineering in various ways. Through the improved communication channels within and across functional areas, management and supervisors get wind and embark on solving employees’ problems. Employees benefits from job satisfaction increasing their loyalty to the company.

Further, the employee empowerment principle of TQM makes employees feel participatory and motivated in the company operations, thereby reducing turnover rates, costs and tardiness but instead increase efficiency and productivity. Establishment of teams and training programs provides opportunities for employee personal growth and development.

Improved coordination across company functions develops mutual respect between management, employees and customers. Successful implementation of TQM, improves company awareness and company solidarity; reduces the frequency of defect right from the supplier down to the consumer; thereby providing both internal and external customers with products that meet quality expectations (Rosenberg 1996, p.60).

However, the success of TQM and the recurring benefits above requires that BR engineering top and middle level management put their full support behind the initiative. The functional areas of the organizational should encourage communication with every department. Additionally, every stakeholder should commit to the suggested principle for the long-term, while the management measures guide programs and measure success on the basis of long-term profits.

Reference List Ahire, SL 1997, “Management Science- Total Quality Management interfaces: An integrative framework”, Interfaces, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 91-105.

Cua, KO, McKone, KE


In what way is The Catcher in the Rye an iconic work Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Analytical part



Thesis statement One of the most distinctive characteristics of Jerome Salinger’s novel The Catcher in the Rye, is the fact that, ever since being published for the first time in 1951, it had instantly won an immense popularity with readers.

According to Whitfield (1997): “Within two weeks (after the first publishing), it had been reprinted five times, the next month three more times… His (Salinger’s) book stayed on the bestseller list for thirty weeks” (567). The reason why it turned out to be the case has been discussed from a variety of different perspectives.

Nevertheless, even today, most critics do agree with the suggestion that the key to Salinger novel’s popularity is the fact that in it, author had gone about exploring a number of clearly controversial subject matters, such as the issue of adolescent sexuality, for example. As it was pointed out by Kaplan (1965): “Since its (novel’s) publication, a large mass of critical opinion has grown up around this controversial novel. Most of the criticism has resulted from Salinger’s use of profanity in the text” (6).

We, however, do not subscribe to such point of view, because there are good reasons to believe that the actual explanation as to this novel’s iconic status is the fact that in The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger had succeeded in revealing the set of psychological traits, the endowment with which causes a particular individual to emanate the aura of historicity.

In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of such our hypothesis by drawing parallels between the psychological makeup of novel’s main character Holden Caulfield and the psychological makeup of young Adolph Hitler, exposed in August Kubizek’s book The Young Hitler I Knew, as we believe that it is namely the behavioral sameness between the two, which intensified novel’s mystique more than anything else did.

Just as Volkswagen Beetle’s association with Hitler had helped this car to become a symbol of the whole generation of baby boomers, the fact that the character of Holden Caulfield can be best referred to as ‘Hitler-in-making’, had helped securing Salinger novel’s unwavering popularity with the readers, often despite their conscious will.

Analytical part The reading of even few initial chapters of The Catcher in the Rye, leaves no doubt as to the fact that Holden’s foremost psychological trait was his acute sense of existential idealism and his perceptional sensitivity. And, just as it is usually the case with just about all idealists, Holden appears being endowed with a number clearly perfectionist urges. This partially explains Holden’s almost pathological loathing of filth – throughout novel’s entirety, Holden never skips an opportunity to express his revulsion of uncleanliness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the beginning of Catcher in the Rye, there is a memorable scene in which Ackley tries to engage in conversation with the narrator, without realizing the fact that in Holden’s eyes, his ‘individuality’ was not reflected by his imaginary sex-escapades, but rather by his poorly kept fingernails: “He started cleaning his goddam fingernails with the end of a match.

He was always cleaning his fingernails… I guess he thought that made him a very neat guy” (12). Apparently, Holden’s filth-related subconscious anxieties represented an integral element of his existential mode – in narrator’s mind; people’s affiliation with filth reflected their lessened value as society’s members.

In his article, Rosen (1977) came up with essentially the same observation: “From the start, Holden’s mind has been filled with images of rot and decay…And it is this obsessive concern of Holden’s which accounts for the concentration of his narrative upon details of bodily functioning, dirt, and decay-filthy fingernails, mossy teeth, smelly socks…” (550).

The reading of Kubizek’s book, points out to the fact that, just as it was the case with Holden, young Hitler also strived avoiding being exposed to filth, as his life’s foremost priority: “Even more than from hunger, he (Hitler) suffered from the lack of cleanliness, as he was almost pathologically sensitive about anything concerning the body. At all costs, he would keep his linen and clothing clean” (81).

It is well worthy noticing that another person of great historical significance – Napoleon, also could not stand filth. In its turn, this strengthens the validity of paper’s initial hypothesis even further. Apparently, it was not simply by an accident that Salinger wanted to represent his main character as someone repulsed by uncleanness – given the fact the Holden also tended to think of a society as ‘phony’, it was only the matter of time before he would set himself onto the path of combating society’s ‘evils’, upon reaching an adulthood.

In its turn, this explains the essence of Holden’s academic failures – the actual reason why Holden decided to leave Pencey did not have as much to do with his inability to excel in studies, as it had to do with narrator’s tendency to view the purpose of these studies as being excessively pragmatic: “All you do is study so that you can learn enough to be smart enough to be able to buy a goddam Cadillac someday…” (70).

Just as it was the case with Hitler, who despite being a talented painter, had failed at entering the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts, Holden also had failed at securing an academic future for himself, despite being rather intellectually advanced individual for his years. In all probability, by exposing Holden as someone averted by studies, Salinger subtly implied that narrator’s destiny had little to do with the prospect of him attaining education-related conventional happiness, as it is the case with ordinary people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on In what way is The Catcher in the Rye an iconic work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In its turn, this would explain why novel’s ending leaves much uncertainty as to Holden’s future: “I’m supposed to go to next fall… But I don’t feel like it. I really don’t. That stuff doesn’t interest me too much right now” (114). As we are well aware of, Hitler never became an architect, as he originally intended.

Instead, he became someone who produced a deadly blow on Communism, from which this political ideology was never able to recover. And, despite the fact that The Catcher in the Rye does not provide us with much of an insight on what would happen to Holden in the future, we can deduce that he would never become a conformist. And, it is namely those with non-conformist socio-political attitudes, who have a chance of leaving mark in the history.

Thus, we do not quite agree with critics who imply that Holden’s rather non-conformist and utterly idealistic perception of love and sexuality should be thought of as the foremost indication of his immaturity.

Whatever the presumptuous it might sound – there are good reasons to think that narrator’s hypertrophied sense of sexuality-related idealism should be considered as an indication of him being a particularly valuable citizen, as it is specifically the sheer strength of people’s animalistic urges, extrapolated in their tendency to hump everything that moves, which reflects their lessened ability to function as productive members of society. One would only need to venture into just any ethnic ‘ghetto’ to realize the full validity of this statement.

Apparently, Holden’s perception of love and sex has never been affected by currently predominant ‘fashion’, in regards to these matters. As a sensitive and idealistically minded young man, Holden was subconsciously aware of the fact that sex is nothing but the instrument of love and that it is a mistake to imply both notions being essentially synonymous, as many of today’s ‘progressive’ teenagers do.

The soundness of this suggestion can be explored in regards to novel’s scene in which narrator expounds on how he felt while holding hands with Jane: “I held hands with her all the time, for instance. That doesn’t sound like much, I realize, but she was terrific to hold hands with… You never even worried, with Jane, whether your hand was sweaty or not. All you knew was, you were happy. You really were” (43).

In Holden’s mind, his love of Jane was just too pure and perfect to be tainted by the thoughts of sex. And, the reading of Kubizek’s book leaves very few doubts as to the fact that, just as it was the case with Holden, young Hitler also tended to think of his love of Stefanie in purely platonic terms, while considering the very idea of having sex with her as utterly offensive.

Stefanie’s mere smile would make him perfectly happy: “Stefanie had no idea how deeply Adolf was in love with her… When she responded with a smile to his inquiring glance, he was happy… When Stefanie, as happened just as often, coldly ignored his gaze, he was crushed and ready to destroy himself and the whole world” (32).

Not sure if you can write a paper on In what way is The Catcher in the Rye an iconic work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The scene, where Holden meets prostitute Sunny and ends up paying her for nothing, is being suggestive of the fact that it is specifically due to narrator’s moral repugnance towards the idea of women selling their bodies for sex, that he did not fool around with her: “The trouble was, I just didn’t want to do it. I felt more depressed than sexy, if you want to know the truth” (52).

The same can be said about young Hitler, who never ceased rejecting Kubizek’s insistence that he should have tried sex with a prostitute – apparently, Germany’s future dictator could never bring himself to even consider the possibility of having sex with a hooker, due to the sheer strength of his genuine repugnance, regarding the idea: “For this spreading of prostitution he (Hitler) blamed not only those actually practicing it, but those responsible for the prevailing social and economic conditions…

Ever and again he tackled the problem and searched for a solution whereby in the future any kind of ‘commercial love’ would be rendered impossible” (119). Just as Holden, Hitler thought of sex as the instrument of love, which is why he strongly opposed the idea of having sex for money.

The parallels between the character of Holden and young Hitler can also be outlined in how they both regarded the issue of homosexuality. Apparently, for both of them, the thought of having sex with a man was beyond understanding. In Salinger’s novel, the theme of Holden’s homophobia is being continuously referred to, throughout its entirety, as narrator never ceases to define homosexuals of ‘perverts’.

Holden’s poorly concealed homophobia reaches its climax in the scene where Mr. Antolini advances him in his sleep: “I woke up all of a sudden… I felt something on my head, some guy’s hand. Boy, it really scared hell out of me. What it was, it was Mr. Antolini’s hand” (103). After having realized what was the real motive behind such Antolini’s move, Holden simply ran away from his former teacher’s house, as if was trying to run away from hell.

Essentially the same situation is being described in Kubizek’s book, as well – after having realized that an older men, which he initially thought of as a friend, was in fact homosexual, seventeen years old Hitler became horrified to such an extent that he swore to his friend to never stop fighting this kind of sexual perversion with all his might: “Adolf explained this phenomenon (homosexuality) to me.

Naturally this, too, had long been one of his problems and, as an abnormal practice, he wished to see it fought against relentlessly…” (120). Without being able to win over Jane, and without being able to fall in love with any other girl, Holden did not have any other choice but to become a loner. Nevertheless, it is quite impossible to agree with critics who suggest that, as novel’s plot unraveled, it was becoming increasingly harder for Holden to deal with his loneliness.

As a true stoic, Holden had grown to derive pleasure out of savoring his own misery. While being a sensitive individual, narrator had made a point in denying his sensitivity to himself and others – hence, proving himself more of a man then novel’s superficially ‘manly’ characters, such as Maurice, because it is specifically men’s ability to keep emotions under control, which has traditionally been considered as the foremost proof of their manliness.

Apparently, Holden thought of himself in very high regard, which is why he never sunk quite as low as socializing with those whom he considered spiritually alien and intellectually primitive for too long. And, as history shows, those men who were able to singlehandedly affect its course, have always been ‘lone wolfs’. While explaining the essence of Hitler’s loneliness, during his years in Vienna, Kubizek states: “It was not arrogance that held him (Hitler) back.

It was rather his poverty, and the consequent sensitiveness, that caused him to live on his own… He had too high an opinion of himself for a superficial flirtation or for a merely physical relation with a girl” (120). And, what do idealistic men with a touch of genius do, once they find themselves in position of being powerless to ‘improve’ the surrounding reality? The answer is – they create their own ‘dream-world’, where they hide, while waiting for their time to come.

Throughout Salinger’s novel, Holden is being repeatedly exposed as someone who never held a grip on objective realities and someone who, instead of addressing life’s challenges practically, simply preferred fantasizing about how he should have proceeded with addressing these challenges.

For example, after having been punched in the stomach by Maurice, Holden imagined himself being some sort of a romantic hero, who was just about to pull out his gun at start shooting at the offender: “I pictured myself coming out of the goddam bathroom, dressed and all, with my automatic in my pocket… He’d (Maurice) see me with the automatic in my hand and he’d start screaming at me… Six shots right through his fat hairy belly” (56).

When Sally asked Holden about what would be his plans for the future, had she chosen to marry him, Holden came up with utterly unrealistic suggestion that they could run off to Massachusetts or Vermont and stay in the cabin, while living off the land: “We could drive up to Massachusetts and Vermont, and all around there, see… We’ll stay in these cabin camps and stuff like that till the dough runs out” (71).

Even later in the novel, Holden continues to refer to the idea of living off the land in the cabin as perfectly plausible: “I’d build me a little cabin somewhere with the dough I made and live there for the rest of my life” (107).

In a similar manner, young Hitler never ceased toying with utterly unrealistic ideas as to how he wanted to proceed with his life in the future. As it appears from Kubizek’s book, Hitler was absolutely serious in his hope of winning the lottery, which would provide him with enough money to build a cabin-like house in the countryside, where nothing would distract him from philosophizing and playing piano for the rest of his life: “There was a difference between the way Adolf bought a lottery ticket and the way other people did.

For other people only hope, or rather, dream of getting the first prize, but Adolf was sure he had won from the moment of buying the ticket and had only forgotten to collect the money” (48). Just as it was the case with Holden, Hitler preferred to live in the ‘alternative reality’; he created inside of his mind. And, the actual realities had very little effect on how he thought of the world and his place in it.

Moreover, it is not only that Holden and Hitler would never allow these realities to have an impact on their ideal of a perfect ‘dream-world’, but they actively strived to impose their vision of how world should have been onto just about anyone they would talk to. This was exactly the reason why they longed for the audience more than for anything else. “All I need’s an audience.

I’m an exhibitionist” says Holden at the beginning of the novel (16). Predictably enough, Holden’s longing for finding himself listeners, closely reminded that of Hitler’s: “He (Hitler) just had to talk and needed somebody who would listen to him. I was often startled when he would make a speech to me, accompanied by vivid gestures, for my benefit alone” (10).

It is being estimated that, during his rise to power and during his stay in German Chancellor’s office, Hitler had held at least a thousand of public speeches. And, it has also been noticed that, after the end of every speech, he would retreat into seclusion for a few days, in order to deal with his mental exhaustion, resulting from a speech. Throughout the course of his career, Hitler continued to insist that all he really wanted to was to be left alone, so that he would find himself at liberty to explore his passion for fine arts and architecture.

And, in The Catcher in the Rye Holden is also being represented as someone, who despite his taste for speaking out in public, thought that being a hermit suited him so much better then being an orator. While referring to the workings of Holden’s psyche, in his article Pattanaik (1998) states: “He (Holden) has vague ideas about his life from the monotony, cliché and ‘phoniness’ of society. But he is certain about shedding his egoistic self one day and regressing into silence” (118).

It is quite impossible to tell whether the knowledge of Hitler’s biography served Salinger as an inspiration for writing his novel – after all, in time of WW2 he fought against Nazis. Nevertheless, we can be certain as to the fact that Salinger was well aware of what accounts for particular individual’s ability to leave a mark in history.

In its turn, this would explain the iconic status of The Catcher in the Rye – apparently, the motifs explored in Salinger’s novel, do correlate with people’s subconscious anxieties to expand their individuality into posterity by the mean attaining a historical significance. In concluding part of this paper, we will expound on this suggestion at length.

Conclusion Nowadays, the majority of people in Western countries are being taught to believe that their likelihood of attaining happiness should be assessed through the lenses of how they take an advantage of various moneymaking opportunities. The more a particular individual is able to earn money, while applying the least of an effort, the better are the chances for him or her to be regarded as a happy person.

Nevertheless, while being genetically predisposed towards perceiving objective realities in highly idealistic manner, the majority of Westerners do not think of a pathway to happiness as something strictly concerned with their ability to satisfy their physiological urges. At the same time, given these people’s existential secularism, deriving out of their possession of a high IQ, they are not very likely to proceed with trying to attain happiness by the mean of dedicating their lives to some tribal Gods, as many people in Third World countries do.

In its turn, this causes idealistically minded and intellectually advanced Westerners to grow increasingly aware of the fact that, in order for them to be elevated above petty details of physiological existence, which in its turn would enable them to ensure semi-immortality of their individuality; they must become semi-Gods.

The earlier articulated suggestion provides us with the insight onto the true essence of Salinger’s novel popularity with readers, as it subtly promotes an idea that the key to one’s historically defined immortality is his or her existential unconventionality, sublimated in person’s willingness to sacrifice itself for the sake of a higher good.

This is exactly the reason why Christianity became essentially a white men’s religion. Apparently, the biography of Jesus concerned with the process of this semi-historical figure rising from obscurity to the position of ‘son of God’, simply appealed to highly idealistic workings of Western psyche. Even today, only few Westerners bother to seek the proofs of Jesus’ divinity in the Bible – all that makes him a divine figure in their eyes, is the fact that Jesus sacrificed himself to assure the triumph of a justice.

This also explains why nowadays, Hitler is being increasingly perceived as semi-religious, rather than strictly political figure – Hitler’s biography is essentially the retelling of Jesus’ story, adapted to the realities of modern living. According to Waite (1971): “He (Hitler) saw himself as a messiah who was establishing a new religion and leading a great crusade against the cosmic forces of evil…

It is not surprising, therefore, to find Hitler very seriously comparing himself to Jesus” (244). And, given the fact that we have established an undeniable similarity between Holden and Hitler’s existential stances, it comes as no particular surprise that, ever since its publishing in 1951, Salinger’s novel was able to achieve a cult status. Apparently, while reading the story of Holden, people gradually grow to think of this character as the ‘saint of modern times’.

As it was rightly pointed out by Pattanaik, in the article from which we already quoted, the structural subtleties of Holden’s story can even be conceptualized with the framework of a Buddhist religious doctrine: “Sexual abstinence (Brahmacharya) denial of material benefits (aparigraha) and elimination of individual identity (apaurusheya) are the different moral disciplines the seeker has to undertake in the course of his spiritual elevation” (120).

Therefore, even though the way in which Holden acted can be formally attributed to his immaturity, the apparent strangeness of his behavior is best assessed as something divinely rather then psychotically inspired. After all, he never went about gang-raping, looting stores or painting graffiti on the walls of governmental buildings, as many of today’s ‘ethnically unique’ adults do.

It is important to understand that, unlike what it is the case with people in Third World, which can now be referred to as representatives of a fully ‘specialized’ sub-specie, due to their inability to evolve intellectually and to maintain even moderately appropriate standards of living on their own, the history of Western civilization is essentially the history of ‘evolutionary jumps’, instigated by socio-political, cultural and scientific activities of a small number of truly extraordinary individuals.

For example, despite the fact that during their lifetime, such individuals as Galileo, Copernicus, and Einstein have been commonly regarded by contemporaries as ‘weirdos’, they nevertheless succeeded in providing a powerful boost to the course of Western civilization’s cultural and scientific progress.

This is why their names are now firmly embedded in our civilization’s historical matrix. The names of their critics, on the other hand, are now forgotten. Apparently, unlike what it is the case with ordinary people, geniuses can afford acting ‘weird’, because it is not the way of how they act that defines them as individuals, but the innovative ideas they promote to others.

Therefore, just as we have hypothesized in Introduction, the popularity of The Catcher in the Rye can be the least explained by clearly controversial sounding of themes and motifs, contained in the novel, but rather by the fact that, while being exposed to the character of Holden Caulfield, readers get to experience a sensation of ‘intellectual transcendence’, because they subconsciously perceive the ideas, promoted by novel’s main character, as absolutely truthful: sex is not synonymous of love, manliness is not synonymous of a raw physical strength, and intelligence is not synonymous of one’s ability to memorize large amounts of irrelevant information.

This is the actual explanation as to the clearly iconic status of Salinger’s novel – the reading of The Catcher in the Rye reveals a sheer fallaciousness of a variety of conventions, which today’s mass Media endorse as representing an undeniable truth-value.

References Kaplan, Robert. The Catcher in the Rye: Notes. Lincoln: Neb John Wiley


Decision Making; the case study of Toyota Motor Company college essay help: college essay help

Introduction With competition in the business world today, the quality of decision made by managers to a large extent determines the success their business attains. The major difference between effective and unreliable managers is on the quality and timelessness of their decision. Making a decision whether it’s a minor or major decision is a process that should be understood by management. There are different methods/approach of making decision; each situation and organization use a different method to get a solution to its needs.

Toyota is an international leading automotive company which has growth through thick and thin to assume the world largest automotive producer. It assumed this position in 2008 after it over took General motors. This tremendous growth is attributed to strategic decisions that the company management has made. In specific the company uses scientific method of decision making (Provis, 2010).

This paper analysis international market entry decisions made by the company and the process Toyota management used to come with the choice of country to invest in.

Brief history of Toyota Toyota was founded in the year 1937, by Kiichiro Toyoda. As per reports released in December 2009, the company had total 71,116 employees distributed in all its branches. Despite the world financial crisis, the company was able to record an increase in sales and made a profit of US$4.2 billion. The company has an effective supply chain management and embraces technology in all its processes. For example it has started making electric motor vehicles and bio-diesel motor vehicles (Toyota Motor Company Official website, 2010).

The problem of analysis International trade has been facilitated by globalization and companies are targeting markets away from their country of incorporation. However the decision to venture into one country and not in another determines the success of such a company in the new market.

The following is the process that Toyota Company uses to come up with the choice of country to invest in;

Problem analysis

The initial stage in making an international investment decision is to analyze the investment problem at hand. In this case, the company would like to diversify in other countries. It should evaluate how the current market is operating and come up with an effective foreign market entry strategy. The following are the things that Toyota Company considers before they choose a country A and not country B,

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is the market intended to meet?

Does the company have capacity to supply quality goods to the country?

What is the brand name that the company is having at the moment? Will the brand name favor the company in the foreign country?

Why does the company aim at diversifying its processes?

The initial stage is more on understanding the company’s strengths and weaknesses for better decision making (Ştefan, 2009).

Collecting data

In this stage the company management devices a team that is supposed to take data regarding the countries and products that it should invest in. This is to ensure that it comes up with alternative countries which have potential. The team may use data available in the company’s business intelligence systems or can borrow data from other sources like external data companies. The internet is crucial for this as it offers an overview of the market situation of the countries under consideration.

The teams come up with a number of countries that should be considered and an in depth analysis of the country follows. They may visit these countries and collect relevant data. The major thing that they focus in is to look at the special attribute that certain countries have that may be of benefit to the company. It may range from growing economy, high population growth rate with increased living conditions to the strong of Toyota’s brand name in the country.

Choosing the best alternative

After data has been collected, the next stage is to choose the best alternative for the venture. This takes a brain storming of the countries and weighing options. The kinds of leadership models and market entry strategies that will be required in the country are interpolated to ensure that the project will not be a failure. Cost benefit analysis, sales forecasts, operation costs forecasts are done on various countries (Higgs, Smith,


Quantitative Easing in US Economy Expository Essay college application essay help

The recent decision by the Federal Reserve to inject a massive $600 billion into the economy through the purchase of treasuries has attracted a great deal of debate. Both proponents and antagonists of this policy are yet to come to a consensus on the effectiveness of this measure. From an economic point of view, increasing government spending is a vital macroeconomic policy that rejuvenates a sluggish economy.

Such government injections aim at lowering interest rates, increasing borrowing and eventually enhancing investments. In other words, government injections stimulate the Aggregate Demand (AD), which in return ensures a vibrant production and overall economic growth. This essay focuses on the impacts of Quantitative Easing (QE2) on Inflation, employment, interest rates and general economic growth both in short run and in the medium term.

The Federal Reserve decision to the purchase the Treasuries injects money into the economy. This open market operation is one of the most successful macroeconomic policies commonly used to revive an economy. According to Arnold (2008, p.270), a successful open market operation stimulates Aggregate Demand which in turn boosts national production and government revenue.

It is in the same vein that the Federal Reserve opted to participate in open market operation. The effects of this macroeconomic feature are graphically illustrated below.

Real output Graph adapted from (Arnold, 2008, p.338)

From the graph, AD represents Aggregate Demand, P represents prices, Y represents the national income and AS represent Aggregate Supply. Before government injection, the aggregate demand was at AD1 while the equilibrium level of output is at point YE and prices are at P1.

The QE2 will stimulate Aggregate Demand forcing it to shift to the right to AD2 while national income will expands towards full employment at YF. A shift in aggregate demand pushes price up from P1 to P2. The resulting price increases stimulates firms and households to increases production in order to obtain higher revenues. Sustained high production rates shifts equilibrium from point E to point E*, which reflects a higher level of output and higher price.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arnold (2008, p.277) classifies government expenditure into three: Consumption expenditure, human capital expenditure and capital expenditure. He argues that capital expenditure and expenditure on human capital development have a greater future impact on the economy unlike consumption expenditure, which has high immediate impact and minimal future economic influence. With this in mind, Federal Reserve injections will have a positive impact to the US economy both in the short term and in the middle term.

As the AD increases, the firms will up their productions and the entire economic output will eventually increase. In addition, an increase in production will cause expansion of firms resulting to new employment opportunities. With increased employment, the public welfare improves resulting into a vibrant economy characterized by high demand and production capacities.

On the same note, high aggregate demand ensures stable government revenues in terms of taxes from the firms and the household levies. Thus, the Federal Reserve injections are well placed and are likely to rejuvenate the US economy.

Nonetheless, Arnold (2008, p.270) discourages excessive government expenditure since it may lead to crowding out of the private sector. It is worth noting that the private sector forms an integral part for any economy, and therefore government injections should not hamper with this sector. Critics of the Federal Reserve injections deem the government’s action as unnecessary and ineffective. Majority of them argue that Quantitative Easing (EQ2) will lead to price increases, which will eventually cause inflation.

Graph adapted from (Arnold, 2008, p.343)

From the graph above, equilibrium income is at YE while equilibrium price is at P2 before government injections. Assuming that that the economy currently operating at full employment, Federal Reserve injections will cause aggregated demand to shift from AD1 to AD2, and national income is supposed to shift from YE to where AD2 equal to AS.

However, this is not possible because the economy is producing at its maximum. Income Y1mpossible will be unattainable and instead prices will skyrocket to P1 causing inflation. Isadore (2010) points out that the US economy has reached inflationary trap where low interest rates have zero effects on borrowings. Hence, further easing will have no effects on stimulating AD but will increase inflation.

We will write a custom Essay on Quantitative Easing in US Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Isadore (2010) holds that even though QE2 will lead to low interest rates, little investments will be established because investors’ confidence is low, and therefore few investors will be motivated to secure bank loans. In addition, Isadore (2010) asserts that that the move will weaken the value of dollar, which will lead to new assets bubbles, leading to high inflation rates.

Al-Erian (2010) perceives Federal Reserve policy unnecessary and likely to backfire. According to him, the problem of the American economy can only be solved by incorporating multidimensional actions rather than a mere monetary approach. Consequently, Al-Erian (2010) recommends that some institutional reforms have to be done to allow other stakeholders to be actively in charting the way forward.

In conclusion, actions by Federal Reserve have instigated heated debate on whether QE2 will offer any solution for the poor US economy. Sharp divisions on the viability of EQ2 have not only torn apart the US economists but also the Federal Reserve policy makers. As the stalemate continues only time will tell whether quantitative easing will revive the US economy.

References Al-Erian, M. 2010, Blunt QE2 Instrument Likely To Backfire, Pimco Ltd. Web.

Arnold, A. R. 2008, Economics, Cengage Learning Press: Florence.

Isadore, C. 2010, Eyes on the Fed: Why the Fed’s Bold Move Won’t Work, CNN Money. Web.


Jaws – the shark cage scene Essay college essay help: college essay help

STORY: Three men alone on a sinking boat in the middle of the ocean attempt to neutralize the monster shark that has been terrorizing them for hours by using a submersible cage. Their goal is to get close enough to inject the shark with poison. The failure of their plan and its disastrous consequences underscore the characters’ woeful underestimation of the intelligence and aggression of the shark.

The scene begins with the Quint character assessing the damage to his boat. The camera lingers on the water slowly filling the hold. Quint steps down into the hold and the water immediately covers his foot. Splashing sound effects accompany each step. No words are spoken, and Quint is alone in the shot; however his performance, particularly the fear in his facial expression, the watery sound effects, and ominous music tell the viewer that he is scared, and that the situation is dire. The boat is sinking, and they need a plan fast.

The scene then shifts to the outside of the boat, where Quint joins the other two characters, Chief Brody and Matt Hooper. Quint’s action, significantly, is to throw each of them a lifejacket. Brody and Hooper react grimly.

The three men share a brief, tense moment of silence, each reflecting presumably on how screwed they are, before Quint picks up a spear gun and asks, “Hooper? What exactly can you do with these things of yours?” “Well, I think I can pump 20 ccs of strychnine nitrate into him,” Hooper replies, “If I can get close enough.” Hooper then approaches the shark cage.

Brody angrily rejects Hooper’s idea: ‘That shark’ll rip that cage to pieces!” Whereupon Hooper shouts, “You got any better suggestions?” The camera lingers a moment of Hooper’s face (Jaws).

The scene then jumps to Brody, assembling the cage with the other two characters. The most significant storytelling element here remains the shift in tone created by music. Hitherto in the film most of the music has been heavy and foreboding. Now, the music shifts to a lively, rousing, and hopeful tone that underscores the building of the cage.

The music solidifies the storytelling idea that if only the men can transcend their differences and work together, they can solve the dilemma of the shark. The filmmakers spend significant screen time on Hooper as he fills a giant syringe with poison, and attaches it to the spear gun.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once Hooper steps in to the cage, the music immediately shifts dramatically, back to the dark, threatening tone we’ve grown accustomed to in the film. Simultaneously, Hooper fidgets nervously in the cage, and remarks to Brody, “I got no spit.” His saliva has dried up, along with his resolve. “Try and keep him off of me until I’m lowered,” Hooper says. He and Brody share a long sad look, each understanding the danger this plan represents (Jaws).

The camera then slips underwater. The camera angle here bears scrutiny. Previously, the camera was above Hooper, looking down, consistent with Brody and Quint’s point of views. Now, it is underneath him. We have switched to the point of view of the shark.

Underwater, both sound and music are used to great effect to create suspense. Upon Hooper’s initial descent, we hear the underwater echo, the metallic clanging of the cage, muffled by the water, and the bubbling of Hooper’s air tank. At this juncture, there is no music. The camera’s point of view shifts to that of Hooper, staring out into the murky ocean through the bars of the cage, and he sees the shark, a ghostly flicker, far away, but approaching fast.

The famous Jaws theme begins at the same time. Together these two elements create terror. Hooper is in for it. Above the water, Quint and Brody see the flotation devices that they previously fired into the shark rush through the water. Below, the shark glides past Hooper in the cage, and dwarfs both. Hooper readies his spear gun. However, the shark is not close enough yet.

The shark then vanishes into the depths with a quiet swish of its tail. The music fades instantly. We are left watching Hooper, who grips his spear gun, and waits.

A very long screen moment transpires here. We wait, with Hooper. Periodically, the camera shifts back out to the water. But there is no sign of the shark. Also, the sound effects are muted, and for the most part, only silence reigns. Over 20 seconds pass, in relative quiet, and the sole action here happens when Hooper removes the spear gun cap.

The shark charges the cage from behind with the full force of its weight, and knocks the spear gun out of Hooper’s hands. This event represents the most vital storytelling element. We see, through the action of the shark, its predatory instinct in play. It has disarmed its enemy, Hooper, who can only watch helplessly as the spear gun drifts down toward the bottom of the ocean.

We will write a custom Essay on Jaws – the shark cage scene specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The shark immediately moves in and rams the cage. Hooper screams underwater. The camera pulls in tight on his terror-stricken face. The monster shark rams the cage over and over, warping the cage bars. Hooper has nowhere to go and no means to defend himself. The camera movement and editing cuts are extraordinarily swift, and the music pulses with fear.

The filmmakers employ multiple close ups of the shark’s massive teeth. Finally, the shark pushes its nose into the cage, and Hooper stabs it several times with his diving knife. As the shark retreats, Hooper scoots out of the demolished cage and flees for his life, straight down to the bottom of the ocean.

Meanwhile, in the boat, Brody and Quint struggle to pull the cage away from the shark. Intercut with this tug of war are flashes inside the boat, where the water level has risen, reminding us of their plan’s failure. The boat is still sinking. Finally, the winch snaps, and Quint and Brody bring the cage up by hand. The filmmakers linger here, on Brody and Quint and their reaction to the cage, now a twisted wreck, devoid of Hooper. Nothing is said. Their facial expressions read devastation. The shark is still in charge of their fate.

The scene ends with the famous moment when the shark flips itself onto the back of the boat, which sets up the major turning point that results in Quint’s death, leaving Brody alone to fend for himself in the foundering boat.

Works Cited Jaws. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Roy Schieder, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss. Universal, 1975.


The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino is located on the eastern side of Las Vegas. The hotel is one hundred and forty five meters tall with forty stories standing between The Palazzo and Harrah’s. The sumptuous hotel is the headquarters of the Las Vegas Sands company, which happens to own and manage the hotel.

Most of the Venice city landmarks have been reconstructed on the outdoors of the hotel. They include a section of St. Mark’s Square, the Campanile, a section of the Doge’s Palace and a canal. To match with the buildings in the Venice city, the stones used in construction, have a weathered look.

The guards of the hotel wear Venetian police force uniforms, while the statues in the resort are copies of the originals. Inside the resort, the Venice look continues, especially in the foyer and the entrance to the shops. The Venetian fine art is painted on the ceilings, and the lobby is decorated with plenty of marbles. The presence of high ceilings, archways and spectacular pillars has completed the Venice look. Navigating through the various sections of the resort is easy, since their entrances are located on the outside.

On the thanksgiving of 1996, the Sands hotel was brought down to create space for the building of the Venetian resort. The construction of the hotel and casino was estimated to cost 1.5 billion dollars. The construction began in 1997 after the management had secured a financial package worth1 billion dollars. After one year of construction, the casino and the hotel were open to the public in the summer of 1998. Later that year, the Venetian announced the employment benefits package and a powerful group-booking to the Wall Street.

In the month of May, the following year, the first phase of the Venetian hotel casino was open enabling it to offer a fully incorporated resort. Between 2001 and 2003 the Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, had an opening of four exhibitions. Each one of them had a different theme. The remarkable Venezia tower was officially open during the summer of 2003.

The hotel has been rated 5 diamonds by AAA, this means it is among the best 5 diamond resorts on the planet. It has also achieved a number of diversity and community awards, making it a terrefic place to work. The resort offers an excellent benefit package to their employees, including an option of customized benefit plan to suit the employee’s needs.

The hotel also has policies that offer equal opportunities in employment and frees employees from harassment and prejudice. Throughout the year, they offer awards appreciating outstanding employees and team work. The hotel is committed in offering the best service to both customers and employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees are given a superb benefit package which consists of medical treatment, free meals while on duty, public and personal holiday leave. The medical coverage package extends to laboratory tests and surgical fee. Included in the benefit package is the provident fund which is a sum of offerings made by the company and the employee.

As an employee of the Venetian hotel, one is permitted to have free meals at any time, as long as the employee is on duty. These meals are taken in a special dining area designated for employees only. An employee, who has been working for over one year, will have automatically qualified for partial sponsorship in education.

The working program of the staff is not stiff, making it easy for them to solve their personal problems. The staff members have a lounge where they can rest by browsing the Internet or reading journals. The fun amenities available for the workers include a swimming pool, fully equipped physical education building and a chess board. Currently various job opportunities ranging from marketing, engineering and law are available.


The Parallelism between the Principle Characters in the Zarzuela La Bruja and the Story Afra Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Resonances in plot and characterization

The peculiarities of setting

The characterization of the female characters

The characterization of the male characters

The narrative patterns used by the author

Structural framing technique


Works Cited

Introduction The interpretation of the work of literature always depends upon the peculiarities of the readers’ perception, their background knowledge, and the allusions which they can find in the text. The intertextual dialogue between the short story Afra by Emilia Pardo Bazan and the zarzuela La Bruja which is reflected in the parallelism of the principal characters, the similarities of setting and plot lines helps the feminist author to criticize the patriarchal norms of the nineteenth century’s society.

Pardo Bazan’s intention to criticize the existing social and inability to do it directly predetermines the choice of the techniques, including the use of traditional male narrative patterns and the structural framing techniques which require readers’ involvement into the literary world of the story and stimulate their critical thinking.

Resonances in plot and characterization The intertextual dialogue between the short story Afra by Emilia Pardo Bazan and the zarzuela La Bruja is reflected in the parallelism of the plot lines, similarities in setting and the manner of characterization of the principle personages. Though the zarzuela is only accidentally mentioned by the narrator at the beginning of the story, the link between the two works is much deeper than a mere allusion and can be seen in numerous instances of resonance between them.

The peculiarities of setting Intentionally mentioning the zarzuela before the beginning of the development of the events, the author aims at influencing the reader’s perception of the following text, implying that the plot of the story should be viewed in much wider context than the events of the short story only. The author’s attempt to make readers see between the lines and implement their background knowledge for processing and interpreting the information instead of understanding the words in their literal meaning only was crowned with success.

Reasonable readers would be able to draw a lot of parallels between the zarzuela and a short story by Pardo Bazan. The plot of both works depicts a woman who is accused of being a witch and directly or indirectly justified and unveiled by the authors. Both heroines are isolated in their community and have contacts with foreign cultures.

As an element of the development of the events, both women swim in sea or river. Along with the similarities in the plots, there are some mirror reflections between them which are rooted in the intertextual links between the literary works all the same, such as the juxtaposition of the titles, for example.

Besides, this list of the similarities and associations does not claim for comprehensiveness and can be expanded with a number of examples of parallelism between the plot lines and settings which either were intentionally incorporated into the literary world of the story or were eventually found by the reader in the process of independent interpretation of the intertextual dialogues and the links between the zarzuela and the short story Afra by Pardo Bazan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The characterization of the female characters The characterization models of the female characters as the main protagonists of the stories have much in common but differ in some points at the same time. Drawing the parallels between the common features of these women and the events in their lives, readers should pay attention to the process of their unmasking and the techniques which were implemented by the authors for achieving this end goal of unveiling the so-called witches and criticizing the misconceptions and the ignorance of the public opinion.

The unveiling of the zarzuela witch is much easier than the analysis of the personage which was created by Pardo Bazan and does not require any additional efforts of the audience because the author and the narrator do all the necessary work for them. The main protagonist of the zarzuela is a daughter of a nobleman who died fighting for his motherland. Leaving her parents’ house, the woman tries to win glory and honor for breaking the enchantment as she explains to Leonardo, the young man who is in love with her (Ashworth 109).

Though the superficial abilities of the main female character are obvious in the plot of the zarzuela, she is depicted as a kind witch who helps others and does not use her power for doing any harm. On the contrary, her charity and magic tricks help some inhabitants of the village. Crating the image of a good witch, the author criticizes the ignorance of Inquisition and the repressive atmosphere of Spain of the times in which the development of the events is set.

The characterization model which was used by Pardo Bazan in his short story Afra is much more complicated. Afra, as the main female protagonist of the story, is a rather enigmatic character which cannot be interpreted unequivocally.

The mystery and reality are tightly bound in the work, leaving much space for readers’ critical evaluation of the depicted events and drawing the line between the truth and fancy. For example, the episode in which Afra and Flora go for a swim and then the latter does not return and people find her body ashore with a head injury, it is up to the reader to believe the main protagonist or not while the situation is rather mysterious (Pardo Bazan “Afra”).

Readers are expected to involve their imagination and ability to decode the intertextual links and author’s indirect messages for understanding this episode and taking a particular position as to the correlation of truth and invention in the story and the patterns of binding them. The principle characters of the zarzuela and the short story can be defined as femme fatale. This enigmatic mysterious element is characteristic of Pardo Bazan’s works (Gines 133).

The characterization of the male characters The evidence of the intertextual dialogue between the zarzuela La Bruja and the story Afra by Pardo Bazan can be found in the characterization of the principle male characters of the two works.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Parallelism between the Principle Characters in the Zarzuela La Bruja and the Story Afra specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leonardo as the main male character of the zarzuela falls in love with the main female character after he sees her swimming in the river at night. He is ready for everything to win her reciprocity and deciding to join the army, he goes to fight in Italy. The military motive is romanticized as the symbol of dignity and heroism without getting deep into the details of some concrete historical events, the soldier’s role in them and the risk of being killed at war.

It is significant that the principle male character of the story Afra is a military man too. Using this feature for creating their personages, the author of the zarzuela and Pardo Bazan express their views of soldiers as noble men the military code in general which predetermines particular behavioral patterns of those who believe in it.

Along with the military background of both principle characters, the common motives of love at first sight, attempts to win the women’s reciprocity and readiness to oppose the whole community for the sake of their true feelings and happiness are common for the principle male characters of both works.

Though the characterization models of the principle female and male characters have much in common, including the binding of the realistic and imaginative components and the inner strength of the protagonists who opposed the whole society, Pardo Bazan’s model is much more sophisticated. As opposed to the zarzuela, the literary world of the short story Afra requires readers’ active participation in the process of interpretation and decoding the intertextual links and Pardo Bazan’s messages.

The narrative patterns used by the author The gendered patterns of narration are used in the story Afra because the author implies that the men’s and women’s perspectives on the same facts can differ significantly. Though the two narrators which were chosen by Pardo Bazan were men, the author with her recognized feministic views aimed at criticizing the male narrative tradition and leaves space for another reading of the story, according to which Afra is innocent.

The interpretation of the plot lines and Pardo Bazan’s message is impossible without taking into account the intertextual dialogue with the zarzuela La Bruja. Readers need to make a long way of creating the associations, decoding the symbols and messages and interpreting the instances of allusions and intertextual links for reading between the lines of the short story and understanding the true meaning of words.

Pardo Bazan distances herself from the two implicitly male narrators of the tale – the nameless narrator and his friend Castro who tells a part of the story. This technique is recognized as the author’s metafictional comment and criticism of the art of novel of the times when Afra was written (Ashworth 111).

Thus, following the narrative tradition which she inherited from her predecessors, Pardo Bazan manages to shed light upon an important social problem of the inequality of the sexes and the oppression of women in the nineteenth century. The male narration of the story and the author’s attempt to show her readers the bias of the story-tellers and the way for another reading of the text is aimed at demonstrating the difficulties which a female author experiences because of the limitations of the male narrative tradition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Parallelism between the Principle Characters in the Zarzuela La Bruja and the Story Afra by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The readers’ problems with decoding all the author’s symbols and interpreting the meaning of the intertextual dialogue with the zanzuela La Bruja are expected to shed light upon the sophistication of the methods which a woman writer has to use for delivering her messages to readers.

The first male narrator represents the masculine power and is put at the merge of the real world and the fictional world of the story. He emphasizes his military background and membership in the masculine fraternity in the past.

In this sense, the military motive can be interpreted as the symbol of power and violence, attempts to use the strength and to impose authority. On the other hand, this plot line can be regarded as the link of the narrator with the real world with its strict rules of the military code as opposed to the fictional world of Marineda to which he arrives.

Balancing between the fiction and reality, this narrator tries to represent a sensible view of the events and his perspective on reality, but the sophisticated plot lines and the literary world of the story become hurdles for drawing a line between the truth and myth. In this sense, the allusion of the zarzuela is a valuable element which contributes to the merge of reality and fiction worlds.

When this nameless narrator comes to the theatre at the beginning of the story, he comes to the world of art and fiction. Showing little interest in the zarzuela itself, the narrator pays much more attention to the audience and especially the pleasant looking women. In this sense, the manner of author’s narration depends upon his gender and corresponding views and position.

Thus, the narrator expresses his opinion of female beauty from the male point of view. He makes attempts to analyze particular psychological characteristics of the women he observes: “Debajo del elegante maniqui femenino, escondo el acerado resorte de un alma” (Pardo Bazan “Afra”).

Thus, he tries to get to the roots and see the inner self of women but his perspective is still limited and does not allow him doing it. The glasses which the narrator uses in the theatre can be interpreted as the symbol of the limitations in his views because through his glasses the story-teller can see only separate fragments while the whole picture remains unclear.

The main plot line starts after the narrator focuses his glasses on Afra. At this point readers need to bear in mind that the woman who can be seen through these glasses is only an object, and her image depends upon the narrator’s perspective and opinion. This technique distances the real author from the nameless narrator, pointing at possible biases in the male pattern of narration and allowing readers to accept the story-teller’s point of view or oppose it.

Along with other symbols and techniques which were used by Pardo Bazan for delivering her messages to readers, the intertextual dialogue between the zarzuela La Bruja and the short story Afra is significant for understanding her criticism of the male narrative tradition and the position of women in the nineteenth century society in general. The intertextual links between the zarzuela and the story are expected to influence readers’ understanding of the plot lines and help them in justifying Afra and concluding that she is innocent.

Structural framing technique The framing technique or the so-called story in a story is used by Pardo Bazan as one of the methods of criticizing the patriarchal social norms and the traditional novel aesthetics of the nineteenth century.

The story which is told by Castro, the second male narrator is aimed at increasing the distance between the author and the narrator because the readers are expected to be much more knowledgeable and perceptive than the listeners of Castro’s story due to their awareness of the intertextual links and the variety of associations and personal interpretations.

The opening and ending of Castro’s story are Pardo Bazan’s parody of the typical short stories of the late nineteenth century. As opposed to the rest of the straightforward story about Afra, this unexpected framing leaves the story open-ended without a logical conclusion.

By the way the opening and the ending Castro’s phrases alert readers about his bias as to the story and his unwillingness to take the responsibility for his words, thus, decreasing the trustworthiness of the whole narration in general. The closure of the story is a general phrase : “el corazon del hombre…selva obscura.

Figurate el de la mujer” (Pardo Bazan “Afra”). This statement makes the narrator’s intention uncertain and shows his own doubts as to Afra’s guilt. “He [Castro] avoids directly answering the question while pointing smurkingly to the unavoidable conclusion” (Ashworth 113). The open-ended story-within-a story provokes motivates readers to evaluate its content critically, not relying on the male narrator’s words blindly.

The structural framing technique aids the author in criticizing the existing social and literature standards and shows the insufficiency of understanding the text of the short story for decoding the author’s messages, emphasizing the importance of the intertextual dialogue with the zarzuela for understanding the true intention of the author who is distanced and in some episodes even opposed to the narrators. The shift from the analysis of the intertextual links with the zarzuela to the links with a detective story was offered by some critics for better understanding of the nineteenth century’s discourse and supporting Afra’s innocence (Gilfoil 7).

Intentionally presenting Afra’s story from the point of view of two different male narrators, Pardo Bazan implements a wide range of methods for producing the impression of bias in the story and stimulating readers to object to story-tellers. “Afra is here an absence, and what is offered as presence is a patriarchal pastiche made up of rumor, convention, innuendo, prejudices and fears” (Ashworth 114).

The framing technique and the two stories about Afra make readers compare the two versions and return to the beginning of the story, looking for the real life character that was seen through the first narrator’s glasses and contrasting it to the mystified witch of the second story. Mentally returning to the theatre where the zarzuela La Bruja is played, readers draw the parallels between the two stories and subconsciously trust the dramatic work even more than the opinion of the second narrator.

The use of the framing technique for exploring the issue of gender dynamics and criticizing the patriarchal social customs is characteristic of Pardo Bazan’s prose (Walter 11).

The story-within-a story technique in Afra by Pardo Bazan shows the inconsistency of the narrators’ opinion and the necessity to consider the historical and literature context as well as the intertextual dialogue with the zarzuela La Bruja and the parallelism of the principa characters in the two works for better understanding of the plot lines of the short story and receiving Pardo Bazan’s messages.

Conclusion The intertextual dialogue between the short story Afra by Emilia Pardo Bazan and the zarzuela La Bruja helps readers to interpret the plot lines of the story and understand the author’s main ideas.

The parodies on the use of the traditional male narrative patterns and the structural framing technique create the distance between the story-tellers and the true author, demonstrating the insufficiency of the bare text of the story for understanding all the meanings which were implied by Pardo Bazan. The parallelism of the principal characters and the plot lines of the short story and the zarzuela play an important role in delivering the author’s messages to her readers.

Works Cited Ashworth, Peter. “Of Spinning Wheels and Witches: Pardo Bazán’s Afra and La Bruja.” Letras Femeninas 18, 1-2,1992: 108-118. Print.

Gilfoil, Anne. The Science of Crime and the Crime of Science in Emilia Pardo Bazan’s “Afra”. Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, 2009. Print.

Gines, Isabel. “Los Secretos de las Damas Muertas: Dos Reelaboraciones de lo Fantastico en la Obra de Emilia Pardo Bazan”. Cuadernos de Investigacion Filologica, 26: 125-135, 2000. Print.

Pardo Bazan, Emilia. “Afra”. Albalearning Website. Web.

Walter, Susan. “The Use of Narrative Frames in Four Tales by Emilia Pardo Bazan”. Hispania 2007: 10-20. Print.


Juvenile Corrections System Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Juvenile Correction System

Reasons for Juvenile Correction System

Correctional Measures for Juveniles


Reference List

Introduction Juvenile correction system is under the juvenile justice system which is a network of organizations that handle young people whose behavior violates the law. The initial intent of the juvenile correction system was to correct a bad condition among young offenders and in so doing meet the community obligations towards the young people.

The system dictates that youths have a right to be treated fairly under the law, for instance, they should have the right to be notified of charges concerning them, the right to acquire legal guidance, and the right to get a record of the proceedings.

Background Information It was not until the 1880s that the juvenile corrections system came into existence. Juvenile offenders were earlier confined in adult prisons since there were no juvenile institutions. The cruel and harsh conditions in the adults’ prisons led to the idea of establishment of institutions and courts that would deal with young offenders.

The early institutions were industrial schools that aimed at protecting the young offenders from getting negative influences in the adult facilities that would worsen their conditions other than rectifying them. The schools worked on the basis of rehabilitating the offenders through hard work and instilling discipline. The first institution was the New York house of refuge founded in 1825 and others were established later in different countries.

The cottage system was later developed where juvenile offenders were housed in cottages and some parents were held responsible for running the cottages to create a home atmosphere so that the rehabilitation would take place in a more conducive environment. There were various reforms in the running of the institutions as years went by and the first juvenile court was set up in 1899. Today, most juveniles are housed in public institutions governed by state agencies (Siegel and Welsh, 2008).

Juvenile Correction System The main objective of the juvenile justice system is to promote a system that is competent in handling the problem of juvenile delinquency, protecting the society, enhancing accountability for infringement of law and providing juvenile offenders with competencies to live in a responsible and productive manner.

Juvenile correction system utilizes a case management system in the process of handling a youth offender, from the time the offender comes to the juvenile correction institute to correctional supervision which is usually the last stage. The system aims at rectifying a youth’s behavior so that he or she is acceptable to the society. It evaluates a person’s needs and problems and helps assist him or her come back to the acceptable practices of the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case management system works on the principle of individual case plan which constitutes the goals, the objectives to be met for attainment of the goals, and the tasks that an individual youth should be assigned, progress summary that shows the behavior, challenges and successes in correcting the youth and program activity documentation to be used to make changes in the establishment of the goals and objectives of the system in future.

Juvenile correction system aims at preventing juveniles from committing any legal crimes in future. Parents should help in bringing up responsible children to avoid or minimize cases of violation of law by the children.

They should, for instance, set good examples to the children and be keen in the growth and development of the children and identify, discuss and solve any problems that they may be facing, show love to the children to avoid cases of low self esteem, avoid any abuse, physical or emotional, to the children, maintain a good family environment free from violence, and encourage good behavior by rewarding them when they follow rules and punishing them for wrong doings (Siegel and Welsh, 2008).

Reasons for Juvenile Correction System The need for juvenile correction system is mainly because the juvenile offenders are different from the adult offenders. The juveniles, for instance, can easily change after undergoing treatment programs as compared to adults since they do not commit severe criminal activities and are not exposed to very bad peer pressure.

They also have lower rates of committing offences and in most cases they do not commit other crimes after the rehabilitation. The juveniles also need the presence of their family members such as parents to aid in their rehabilitation process as opposed to adults who are independent. It also avoids bad influence that could occur if they were placed together with adult offenders (Clear, Cole,


Power of Hobby vs. Necessity of Commitment in Nick Hornby’s High Fidelity Essay essay help online

Man’s life is full of captivating events, serious decisions, and challenges which have to be identified and overcome. Inabilities to control personal interests, poor self-identification, and problems with building relationships are considered to be the main challenges in the vast majority of men lives.

The point is that some men are not eager or just afraid to identify their weaknesses and do not want to change something in order to gain better understanding of the matter. This is why it is usually very hard for a man to identify personal weakness and take some steps to improve the situation. There are many interesting literary sources where the authors make attempts to share their own ideas of how men can evaluate their lives and realize what actually goes wrong.

Nick Hornby is the author whose recent attempt to describe the male life from inside seems to be rather attractive and educative. His High Fidelity is the story about a man, Rob Fleming, who hides behind his hobby that is music and suffers from the fear of commitment. The theme of personal alienation because of hobby, fears, and uncertainty deprives the main character of a chance to make commitments, become an integral part of society, and have support that is so crucial for people.

In a variety of messages sent by Nick Hornby in his High Fidelity, it is very important to identify the one about loneliness, abandonment, and fear that supports characters’ obsession about the world of music. The first line of the story may say a lot about the character, the story, and the emotions: “MY desert-island” (Hornby 3).

The idea to underline the desert and human connection to the island seems to be rather interesting and even provocative. A man is not afraid to admit the fact that his life is characterized by five memorable split-ups, still, he is too weak to understand how terrible this situation is. Another interesting aspect of this message is the way of how the character informs the reader about his past relations: the idea of top is similar to the one that is used in music charts.

The ideas of “top ten” and the “top five” are not usual for describing the relations between a man and a woman, still, they prove that the character has not traditional approaches, and his standpoints are predetermined by his passion to music and everything that is connected to this field.

Yes, Rob’s obsession about music affects his life and people around in a number of ways. He is so absorbed with music and it is hard for him to define where reality ends and music begins. Even during his serious speeches and suggestions, he takes a lot from the world of music and movies:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Women get it wrong when they complain about media images of women. Men understand that not everyone has Bardot’s breasts, or Jamie Lee Curtis’s neck, or Cindy Crawford’s bottom, and we don’t mind at all. Obviously we’d take Kim Basinger over Phyllis Diller, just as women would take Keanu Reeves over Sergeant Bilko, but it’s not the body that’s important, it’s the level of abasement.” (Hornby 274)

On the one hand, his ideas seem to be rather clear and properly developed. However, on the other hand, it is strange to hear from a man so many names from the world of show business in one sentence. “The protagonist’s obsession with pop alienating, and his attempt to use it to provide a motif around which to interpret his life” (Self 153) is a little bit irritating.

In the novel, the character’s passion is his hobby as he cannot imagine his life without music and songs’ texts which dictated the new rules to be followed. With the help of his songs, he can easily promote introspection that is usually based on retrospection because he admits that “I’m very good at the past.

It’s the present I can’t understand” (Hornby 84). The evaluation of the situation helps to comprehend how dependent on music and information it carries on Rob is. Together with his friends, Dick and Barry, Rob owns a shop where they sell records to the customers.

Still, their obsession influences the way of how they may treat the customers: they can easily send a person away in case they see how terrible this person’s music taste is. Unfortunately, while Rob’s hobby is progressive indeed, his relations with people are not as progressive as they could be. In spite of the fact that the characters truly believe that their passion to music fulfills their lives, they cannot notice how miserable they are in regard to fears and problems existed.

Fear of commitment seems to be the most challenging issue to deal with in the novel. In fact, commitment sure is not always easy. The characters of the novel do not pay much attention to the necessity of commitment in their lives but try to spend their time in order to explore themselves and follow personal interests and plans.

What goes wrong? When does something go wrong that 30-year old men are not able to understand the importance of commitment and responsibility? Even when Rob tries to understand the problems he faces in his life, his obsession is overwhelming. What he is going is comparing the issues: “what came first – the music or the misery? Did I listen to the music because I was miserable? Or was I miserable because I listened to the music?” (Hornby 25)

We will write a custom Essay on Power of Hobby vs. Necessity of Commitment in Nick Hornby’s High Fidelity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The necessity of commitment appears from time to time, still, Rob is not ready to understand that it is time to take some actions and to become responsible for something in his life. When Rob’s girlfriend grieves about her father’s death, Rob does not feel responsibility for his support, understanding, or communication. All he wants to do is to find out how miserable his girlfriend is and how happy he is under the same conditions.

His hobby is obsessive and controls his mind: “there aren’t really any pop songs about death – not good ones, anyway” (Hornby 233). Instead of being supportive and friendly, Rob hides behind the music and does not want to understand that it is necessary to grow up and to change the life.

High Fidelity is identified as the novel that “established a new genre of male relationship fiction… male obsession” (Knowles 66). This is why it is possible to observe some changes in Rob’s life as well as his intentions to influence his.

Making so many mistakes, having such false thoughts, identifying such miserable purposes – all these actions have a terrible impact on how a person may develop. After a thorough observation of personal life and relations with people around, Rob realizes that his behavior and his life are not as successful as they should be.

His attention to the details and to the relations he managed to develop help him identify the mistakes and realize how wrong all his actions and thoughts are. He has no other way but makes some serious changes in his life and apologizes before his memories: “I am sorry, I’ve let you down. I was the person who was supposed to look after you, but I blew it: I made wrong decision at bad times, and I turned you into me” (Hornby 205).

In my opinion, one of the most difficult and serious decision a person could make is to admit personal mistakes. Men are usually too proud to realize that their actions, thoughts, and ideas are not always correct. This is why the achievements demonstrated by the main character of the Hornby’s novel High Fidelity deserve attention and recognition. The reader gets a wonderful chance to learn from someone’s mistakes and understand how personal assurance may dazzle people.

The story under analysis is a good educative source for those who cannot admit that current life is not perfect, and some steps may be taken. Without any doubts, some changes in life are scary still inevitable, and the novel proves that it is obligatory to overcome personal fears like fear of commitment or fear to drop obsession in order to improve the life and make it more like an amazing album of the best songs ever instead of enjoy the same monotone hit day by day.

Works Cited Hornby, Nick. High Fidelity. New York: Penguin Group, 2005.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Power of Hobby vs. Necessity of Commitment in Nick Hornby’s High Fidelity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Knowles, Joanne. Nock Hornby’s High Fidelity: A Reader’s Guide. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002. Self. Will. Junk Mail. New York: Grove/Atlantic, Inc., 2006.


Why the Great Depression Occurred – a Public Budgeting Stand Point Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors That Led To the Great Depression


Reference List

Introduction As observed by Romer (2003), “the great depression took place in the late 1920s to the late 1930s and was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced in the industrialized Western world” (p 1). The world wide economic downturn that originated from the United States was characterized by massive decline in output, widespread unemployment, and acute deflation in most economies across the globe (Romer, 2003).

However, the timing and magnitude significantly varied in various regions across the world with some parts of the world such as United States being adversely affected while other regions were mildly hit. In the United States, the great depression set off in 1929 and continued until early 1933 where it was set on a road to recovery but these efforts unfortunately failed and the American economy was highly characterized by drastic falls in prices and real output (Romer, 2003).

In addition, the industrial production of the country’s economy fell by 47% while the real gross domestic product fell by 30% and the whole sale price declined by 33% resulting into deflation; further, the unemployment rate is believed to have exceeded 20% which negatively impacted on the purchasing power of the individuals consequently reducing aggregate demand (Romer, 2003).

Poverty and despair were the main features of the great depression in American region with most people being unable to access the basic needs of food, decent clothing and shelter and relying on aid from charity organizations (Burgan, 2001).

The depression was the worst to ever hit the nation and when president Franklin D. Roosevelt brought new policies and ideas to Washington, there was a link of optimism in the region but this was short lived since the depression worsened in 1938 and did not end until the country went into world war ll in 1941 (Burgan, 2001).

Factors That Led To the Great Depression The prevailing government policies at the time highly facilitated the occurrence of depression and the failure and derailment in recovery of major economies. From 1929-1933, the American economy experienced substantial reduction in money supply from the federal reserves (Edwards, 2005).

This, coupled with subsequent bank failures served to intensify monetary contraction in the economy and destabilize the economy which precipitated the occurrence of depression (Edwards, 2005). Scholars believe that substantial decline in money supply which was attributed to Federal Reserve decisions had severe contractionary effects on overall output in the economy as well aggregate demand (Romer, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may have significantly influenced people’s decisions to spend as there was widespread fear and uncertainties with consumers and business owners anticipating decreases in wages and prices in the future (Romer, 2003). To further worsen the situation, most states prohibited banks from diversifying their portfolios across jurisdictions which significantly promoted bank failures while in countries like Canada which allowed nationwide bank branching, incidences of bank failures during the period were not experienced (Edwards, 2005).

Bank failures led to widespread bank panics across the American economy whereby depositors lost confidence in the solvency of banks consequently withdrawing their deposits from banks (Romer, 2003). Increased withdrawals by depositors forced banks to liquidate loans in order to raise the required money which served to increase bank failure in United States (Romer, 2003).

The early 1920s was characterized by tax reductions which facilitated economic boom in the American economy during the period (Edwards, 2005). However, President Hoover signed a revenue act in 1932 which created a provision for significant tax increment in the region increasing the tax rate from 25% to 63% while President Roosevelt further increased individual and corporate taxes with the highest individual rate increasing to 79% (Edwards, 2005).

The tax increment killed the laborers’ incentives for work as well as investment and entrepreneurship consequently reducing the amount of spending which intensified the effects of depression and frustrated the efforts of recovery (Edwards, 2005). In addition, the Smoot-Hawley trade act which had been established to boost farm incomes by reducing foreign competition in agricultural production in America may have played a significant role in reducing world trade during the period of depression (Edwards, 2005).

The trade act had raised import tariffs to an average of 59% on more than twenty five thousand products which prompted other countries to retaliate by imposing increased restrictions on United States’ products consequently reducing trade such that by 1933 the overall international trade had reduced by two thirds of the level prevalent before the recession (Edwards, 2005).

However, some scholars believe that this policy had minimal significance in the occurrence of the depression but may have contributed to extreme decline in world price of raw materials which resulted in severe balance of payment problems for primary products exporting countries (Romer 2003).

Another damaging trend that may have facilitated the occurrence of the depression was the prevalent inequality in wealth distribution whereby in 1929, the richest 24000 families in the US owned 34% of all the monetary savings in the country while an approximate 21 million families lacked any savings (Burgan, 2001).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Why the Great Depression Occurred – a Public Budgeting Stand Point specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, only few Americans could afford to locally produce goods despite the fact that factories kept on producing goods which led to under consumption which further led to the weakening of the economy (Burgan, 2001).

Conclusion The great depression caused devastating effects to major economies of the world and adversely affected international trade. Numerous measures implemented by the government proved fruitless in containing the situation and the contemporary economies should learn from this occurrence in order to avoid incidences of depression in the current dynamic economy.

Reference List Burgan, M. (2001). The Great Depression. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books.

Edwards, C. (2005). The Government and the Great Depression. Retrieved from

Romer, D. C. (2003). Great Depression. Web.


The Homosexual Lifestyle Issues Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Civil Marriage Act

Marriage as an Institution


Works Cited

Introduction Many people oppose the issue of same sex marriage vehemently, some out of religious prejudice while others out of personal opinion and taste. Others believe it is a human right which should not be denied or attract any kind of discrimination and intimidation.

Same sex marriage is gaining acceptance in many countries and societies; however, it faces a lot of resistance especially in conservative and religious communities. Just like the racial discrimination of the 1960’s in the United States, proponents and opponents of equal marriages are involved in an ideological battle but the major victims remain to be those directly affected, homosexuals.

Marriage is an institution found in every society bearing similar responsibilities in each. Its significance has been appreciated with virtually all cultures in the having clear distinctions between responsibilities of each member. The accepted norm in almost all cultures is marriage between members of the opposite sex.

Heterosexual marriages have ensured survival and continuity of human beings for ages despite other species facing extinction. Whether or not the legalization of same-sex marriages will affect the role and effectiveness of this fundamental institution, is a mystery every side tries to unravel.

The Civil Marriage Act Bill C-38, the Civil Marriage Act, received a lot of support from Egale Canada and Canadians for Equal Marriage, arguing that the Charter should be free from any religious influence. The proponents argue that, any kind of restrictions on equal marriages, which do not apply for heterosexual marriages, are discriminatory because, “…excluding same-sex couples from civil marriage violates the Charter of Rights and Freedoms…” (Canadian for Equal Marriage Para. 7).

Marriage has undergone evolution, and according to them, sexual orientation in marriage is an issue that has to be incorporated in the same, just as voting rights for women was introduced in the last century.

Bill C-38 creates an equality platform in that, same sex couples would not have to fight for their rights through petitions unlike their heterosexual counterparts. The right of choice in marriage should supposedly be left to an individual. Proponents of equal marriages argue that imposing religious legislations on people not belonging to the respective religion amounts to abuse of human right. It is the right of every citizen to choose when, where and whom to marry as long as it does not infringe the rights of other people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bill C-38 ensures this by giving a homosexual protection and access to marriage privileges enjoyed by couples in heterosexual relationships. Bill C-38 protects officials willing to marry same sex couples and those against such marriage. Opponents of equal marriages have a right of choice based on their religious beliefs. Under the bill in section 2 (a), they will not be coerced by the government or any individual to rent their places of worship for equal marriages.

Marriage as an Institution Many organizations, like the Focus on the Family Canada, uphold high morals for the family and the institution of marriage. Marriage should be viewed as the foundation of a society and “as a unique relationship between a man and a woman” (Focus on the Family Canada Association Para. 1) which has remained for many centuries and civilizations. Deviation from such an institution forms something else rather than marriage.

If problems arise from the family, it reverberates to the entire society. Studies on the same-sex marriage are very few and distributed within an extremely short time, compared to heterosexual relationships, which have been there since history. Many researchers that claim same-sex marriage to be better than heterosexual marriage base their arguments on unrealistic reports that lack any credibility due to flaws in their methodology.

Every child needs a father and mother figure to grow perfectly. In a homosexual marriage, a child lacks either of the two, since men and women are unique naturally. A father plays a very significant role that a mother cannot play. Dire consequences are followed by absentee fatherhood in any family. For instance, “…children suffer when they are denied the nurturing influence of a mother and father” (Focus on the Family Canada Association Para. 9).

According to Arasteh (1988), boys who grow up without a father figure in their lives have a higher risk of engaging in antisocial behavior. Moreover, Children without a father figure in their lives experience drugs and sexual problems in their teenage years (49). When children grow around an effective father figure, they develop a sense of security and belonging. Many children blame themselves in case of an absent father, leading to low self-esteem and antisocial behaviors later in life.

Arasteh (1988) posits that, girls lacking a father figure turn to other men to compensate for that need, a situation that usually leads to their exploitation (68). Fatherhood is a pillar in the development of a healthy society due to its influence in a child’s development. A heterosexual relationship is the only one that can produce children, hence not unique but also natural.

Some argue that there is an increase in sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual marriages; nevertheless, that is not the root of the problem but sex out of marriage. Homosexual activists put their own interests first, negating the importance of the family unit that is fundamental for the existence of any society. They themselves exist because there was an incentive from both a male and female figure.

We will write a custom Essay on The Homosexual Lifestyle Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A child gets personal identification both socially and biologically from the family, which is responsible for building the child’s character and self-esteem. This is then reflected to the society if only the basic unit, the family, has played its part. The family is therefore a very sensitive institution meaning that any form of imbalance in its structure causes effects in the society.

It is now clear that marriage is an institution that should be guarded if the society is to remain intact. Moreover, from a medical point of view, people engaging in anal sex have a high risk of having anal fissures and hemorrhoids. The anus is home to many disease-causing organisms and sex opens the door for more infections. Anal sex is also painful to many, simply because the anus is not designed for that job.

Conclusion It is the supreme mandate of every nation to protect its citizens. The fact that gays and lesbians are citizens like any other, in spite of their sexual orientation, they have the right of protection against any form of discrimination. However, this should not be done in a manner to destroy the very foundations of society. The homosexual lifestyle is devastating to the individuals as depicted in the high prevalence of depression, substance abuse, and suicidal attempts. It is evident that before the collapse of major kingdoms, there was degrade in morals and especially in the institution of marriage. It is absurd to see pro same-sex marriage argue that, homosexuality was allowed in ancient societies, without realizing that aspect. The long term effects of legalizing same-sex marriages should be the focus of the debate on whether they should be allowed or not. It is the argument of many that gay marriage hurts no one, but the sad truth is that, it eats away the moral network of a society, weakening it. The basic human rights need to be re-defined. Same sex marriage will ultimately affect the institution of marriage. The lifestyle and nature of family may change with time, but the role it is supposed to play and contribute to the society will never change. Therefore, in the light of these observations, Focus on the Family Canada Association presented valid and stronger arguments by exploring the pertinent issues surrounding heterosexual marriages as opposed to same-sex marriages.

Works Cited Arasteh, Josephine. Impact of Divorce, Single Parenting and Step Parenting on Children. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.

“Canadians for Equal Marriage.” Egale / CEM to Appear before C-38 Committee at 3:30 Pm Today, 16 May 2005. Web.

“Focus on the Family Canada Association.” Redefinition of Marriage: A Focus on the Family Q


The Significance of Souls of Black Folks Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents One hundred years after

The value of factual information

Inner world of African Americans

The tragedy of African Americans

The significance of Souls of Black Folks

Works Cited

One hundred years after The beginning of the twentieth century was characterized by numerous changes taking place in every country of the world. The United Stated were also transforming into a new society. Americans tried to build a truly democratic country where all people of many nations and colors could be really equal. By all means, that was quite a difficult and very long process. In fact, it is hardly possible to state that the process has changed even one hundred years after. Of course, the life of African Americans has changed dramatically.

For instance, in 1900 the majority of African Americans (83%) were living in rural areas, whereas in 1994 the majority of African American population (86,3%) lives in urban areas (Steele 35). It goes without saying that this part of population has gained many freedoms and in the beginning of the twenty-first century African Americans play an important role in the society. Nevertheless, the issue of racial intolerance is still one of the most burning in the United States.

Many African Americans face many injustices and have to struggle trying to prove that they worth the freedoms gained. Thus, in such a world the book by W.E.B. Du Bois Souls of Black Folks can never become less important than I was 100 hundred years ago.

The book has two major values. First of all, it is a historical sketch of what was happening in the society. So, it is a great source of detailed and comprehensive information. On the other hand, this book can be a valuable didactic source. Apart from giving certain facts and figures, the book also portrays the inner world of African Americans who had to struggle for being equal to white people. Thus, while reading Souls of Black Folks many can find the solution for the long-lasting tension.

The value of factual information Despite the fact that Du Bois tried to outline “the spiritual world in which ten thousand Americans live and strive” he provided a lot of particular historical information (Du Bois 4). For instance, he mentions certain dates, figures and names which were significant for the life of African Americans.

Thus, in “Of the Dawn of Freedom” Du Bois traces the major stages of the slavery emancipation process. He does not merely depicts the fears and hopes of African Americans but precisely reveals the conditions which formed those feelings in that part of American society.

He comments on particular steps implemented by individuals or organizations to obtain equality. Notably, Du Bois provides quite unbiased analysis of those actions. He does not judge from the individual’s viewpoint, he sees the entire picture and articulates what was good or bad for the overall community of African Americans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Du Bois articulates that Washington’s program is erroneous in several crucial points. Byerman stresses that Du Bois “countered” one of the central Washington’s ideas of industrial education for African Americans (199). Du Bois, on the contrary, revealed that higher education is essential for African Americans since it is the key to obtaining true equality with white people (46).

Such attention to facts makes the book informative and realistic. Du Bois manages to explain what conditions evoked certain feelings in African Americans. This factual precision prevents readers from perceiving the book as a fictional contemplation about tragedy of African Americans. This academic approach enables readers to draw certain conclusions on the basis of truthful facts and personal point of view of an educated person.

Inner world of African Americans Du Bois denotes that the major of the book is to reveal the inner world of those who have to struggle for equality, those who pertain to particular culture but have to assimilate with other people who still regard themselves as masters.

Schaffer states that Du Bois portrays African Americans as people who are born with veil which is “a metaphor for the bifurcation which the black man must routinely deal with” (266). Schaffer articulates that African Americans not only have to live in a hostile world but often “finds that the beliefs which he himself holds dear are hostile to himself” (266).

Mocombe points out another definition to that peculiarity of African Americans’ inner world given by Du Bois, i.e. “double-consciousness” and “twoness” (1). Thus, Du Bois depicts his veil and his approach to the overall issue. Notably, he regards himself as a “problem”, he sees that there is a veil between him and the rest of the “pale” society (Du Bois 5). However, he also admits that he is not eager to tear the veil.

Du Bois does not mind living on that side of it, but he has his own vision of solving the problem: he will beat those who does not want to accept him in everything. Nevertheless, Du Bois depicts other viewpoints of those who live behind the veil: some of them shut down and reveal only hatred or hostility to all “white” and many simply “waste” their energy pitying themselves and cursing their fate of being strangers in their “own house” (5).

At this point it is necessary to note that Du Bois considers this duality of souls in terms of “the racial science and the ideology of biological determinism” (Mocombe 1). Thus, Du Bois admits that African Americans assimilate with the American society but at the same time have their own particular beliefs determined by their racial type.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Significance of Souls of Black Folks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to point out that Du Bois is quite emotional in expressing thoughts and dreams of African Americans. His essays are very catching since irrespective of race or nation the reader starts thinking of unfairness of the “problems”. This mixture of scientific (historical and sociological) approach and emotionality of a representative of the suppressed part of society reveals the tragedy of African Americans living in the beginning of the twentieth century.

The tragedy of African Americans Du Bois portrays many hardships of African Americans throughout his book: from the days of civil war up to the moment when democratic principles won (or at least they were thought to win) in the society. Du Bois reveals those harsh points which really need consideration.

For instance, he states that many people think they know a lot about the life of African Americans, but they do not try to know more (Du Bois 63). Moreover, those people are afraid of coming across some unpleasant facts which will explicitly show the real conditions where African Americans have to live.

Thus, Du Bois finds it natural to reveal some facts about African Americans’ lives: “their daily lives and longings”, “their homely joys and sorrows”, “their real shortcomings and the meaning of their crimes” (Du Bois 63). Again Du Bois provides many credible facts which enhance the impression provided by the book. While reading the book it is possible to see the real tragedy of African Americans. It is necessary to stress that Du Bois exploits quite fruitful technique combining bright literary language and scientific analysis.

The facts accompanied by bright metaphors bring into front the duality of American society where someone can enjoy the comfort of their lives and some should struggle for humane conditions of life. For instance, the story of Argonauts and the Golden Fleece is that background which underlines the inhumane conditions of African Americans’ lives (Du Bois 61-73). By all means, this approach serves the main purpose of the book – to make people know about the two sides of the coin, make them feel the necessity to find solutions.

The significance of Souls of Black Folks The significance of the book can hardly be overestimated since it has been a potent stimulus to solve difficult (or rather unpleasant) issues. For instance, Harris defines Du Bois as “the filtering agent through which whites could learn what it means to be black” (218). Admittedly, the understanding of the viewpoints of both communities can lead to fruitful collaboration. Souls of Black Folks is a guide which teaches what is really important for African Americans.

Harris claims that Du Bois “discusses issues to encourage sociobehavioral change within the African American community to develop European American empathy toward African Americans” (218). It is necessary to point out that the book reaches its aim since it has evoked long-lasting discourse. The book was one of those factors which initiated the dialogue which in its turn generated many effective solutions.

The great value of the book is that it portrays unfairness of many things accepted in the society and at the same time he suggests certain solutions. Du Bois mentions the struggles and ignorance of African Americans, articulates their longing and fears. At the same time it is possible to trace certain strategies provided by Du Bois. Notably, those strategies are useful for both, “white” and “black” camp.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Significance of Souls of Black Folks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, “whites” reading the book can see the real conditions where “blacks” have to live, and this knowledge inevitable evokes the desire to change at least some part of the unfairness of the world. On the other hand, “blacks” reading the book can see possible options which can help to become equal to the rest of the population of “democratic” society. For instance, Du Bois promulgates the exclusive power of higher education which is the key to certain success.

Of course, in the beginning of the twentieth century Du Bois could only dream about the veil removal. However, even in the twenty-first century some people create such artificial veil. The existence of those veils makes the book still up-to date. It goes without saying that nowadays Souls of Black Folks can be even more effective since many stereotypes and unfair rules are forgotten and condemned.

Thus, it can be helpful to resort to the book when some biased situations emerge. Irrespective of nation or race people can find many ideas which can prevent or resolve conflict situations. In conclusion, it is possible to point out that the major significance of the book is that it can serve as a source of reconciliation.

Works Cited Byerman, Keith Eldon. Seizing the Word: History, Art, and Self in the Work of W.E.B. Du Bois. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1994. Print.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. The Souls of Black Folk (an African American Heritage Book). Radford, VA: Wilder Publications, 2008. Print.

Harris, Shanette M. “Constructing a Psychological Perspective: The Observer and the Observed in The Souls of Black Folks.” The souls of Black folk: one hundred years later. Ed. Dolan Hubbard. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2003. 218-251. Print.

Mocombe, Paul. The Soul-Less Souls of Black Folk: A Sociological Reconsideration of Black Consciousness as Du Boisian Double Consciousness. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2009. Print.

Schaffer, Robert G. “W.E.B. Du Bois’ the Souls of Black Folk as an Example of the Tragic.” The Orchestration of the Arts: A Creative Symbiosis of Existential Powers : The Vibrating Interplay of Sound, Color, Image, Gesture, Movement, Rhythm, Fragrance, Word, Touch. Ed. Marlies Kronegger. Norwell, MA: Springer, 2000. 265-275. Print.

Steele, James Daniel. “The Soul of the “Black Belt” Revisited.” The souls of Black folk: one hundred years later. Ed. Dolan Hubbard. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2003. 34-49. Print.


Effective Business Messages Vs Effective Communication Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction People are always faced with situations that may require that they convey a message to other parties. This may be done through verbal, written, or other non-verbal means. Irrespective of the method one may choose to apply, the most essential aspect is to ensure that efficiency has been upheld especially in the process of delivering a certain message. In the business environment, the same case applies, with emphasis being laid on written types of communication.

The application of this is so diverse; for instance, potential employees may be required to apply for their interested positions in a given organization, where most managers demand that they must do it through written application letters comprising specific aspects that may play a bigger role in determining as to whether one may be considered for the applied position or not. A common qualification among them is normally excellent written and oral communication skills.

A business manager may also deem it fit to communicate to the employees through writing, to pass across some timely relevant information that may, for example, outline an employee’s new job description, appeal for change in behavior, information on promotion and dismissal among other reasons. There is always information flow in written form between an organization and its clients concerning its achievements, new products or services and other relevant updates.

Moreover, there is an often inter – business communication from among organizations that coordinate in a given way. For example, there could be interdependence among an organization that supplies, one that manufactures, and one that retails, which calls for effective written communication among all these organizations. Written communication also takes place among employees of a given organization.

This written communication is mainly currently conducted through wireless technology such as internet and email, cellular telephones, Global positioning System (GPS), personal digital assistants, among many others.

Regardless of the setting in which the communication is being effected, it is imperative to consider the purpose of the message and audience being targeted among other factors. This ensures effective communication as well as achievement of the intended purpose. Moreover, this calls for attention to details in the process of preparing any written message as discussed in this work.

Analyzing the Purpose The purpose dictates the interest level of the recipient. In case of messages whose key aim is to inform, the participation level of the audience is low. For messages that are meant to persuade, the interest (participation) level of the audience is equivalent to that of the sender. On the other hand, those messages whose purpose is to collaborate require a very high participation from the audience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Informational messages

Informational messages are meant to enlighten the audience on certain aspects within the organization. For instance, a manufacturing company may seek to inform a company that supplies it with raw materials that there is a change in date regarding when the raw materials are expected to be delivered. The management of a given organization may also deem it fit to use email communication in informing its customers about a change in the company’s physical address.

There could also be informational communication that is meant to notify employees concerning the arrival of new stock. Banks also use this information to inform their clients about the statements of their accounts. This purpose of communication does not require active involvement of the audience who receive it. However, it should be done in a clear manner and put in a lucid business language that will ensure every one receiving it has fully understood.

Persuasive messages

The aim of a persuasive message is to convince people into doing something new or rather attempting something different. An analysis of the audience is thus vital to ensure that the message conveyed will be framed in an argument that will inevitably convince them into believing that your proposal will not only fulfill their concerns, but will also bring them benefits as well.

Knowing what the specific needs of a given audience are can take a long time because needs vary from one individual to another, and the response to any given message varies among individuals. Having understood the needs of the audience, the persuasive message should therefore match their respective wishes and welfare. While preparing a persuasive message, it is prudent to maintain ones credibility by ensuring that message to be put across is has been backed with facts (tdaug Para 4).

Sources should also be mentioned. It is also important to have sufficient knowledge about the product or service being described. Since a persuasive message is meant to elicit a response from the audience, it is essential to ensure that there is sincerity and trust in the message.

This is because the expected response from the audience may be ongoing rather than a one-time aspect. Persuasive messages can be used in adverts to convince the existing clients concerning their need to start or to continue using a given product. People applying for jobs in organizations also need to use a language that is convincing enough to let the employers consider them.

After an argument in a persuasive message has been structured, one can then go ahead to support their ideas with statistical data, illustrations, tales, figures of speech and comparisons (Tdoug Para 5). This aspects help to paint a lasting picture in the minds of the audience and continuously provoke and convince them to take action, which may include for example, purchasing a given product from the supermarket or changing to a certain type of mobile phone network.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Effective Business Messages Vs Effective Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Collaborative Messages

Unlike the informational and persuasive messages, collaborative messages require very high degree of participation and involvement from the audience. This may involve for instance, a business appointment between a general manager and a staff member, a hiring manager and an employee or simply a collaborative interaction between two fellow staff members. It can also be applicable in an interview between a potential employee and a recruiting manager.

In a business setting, collaborative communication is important for large tasks, deliberations over agenda with short deadlines or team projects that require the proficiency or agreement of several individuals.

Businesspersons often collaborate on brief documents like memos, letters, circulars, procedures, and policies. On the other hand, groups will tend to collaborate more on detailed documents and presentations. Documents that have been worked on by groups are standard due to the numerous benefits that emanate from collaboration.

A product that has been produced as a result of collaboration is of quality, people working as a team are able to do a better task than an individual will do. Additionally, both members of the team and the general organization derive gains from team processes. Working as a team enhances socialization among the members.

They are able to get more information about the values and procedures of the organization. They have the ability of destroying functional hindrances and they add value to both formal and informal types of communication. Moreover, they buy into a project when they have played a significant role in coming up with it.

Members that form effective groups are keen to put their recommendations into practice. In getting ready for large projects, team members convene for purposes of coming up with ideas. They look at critical answers that answer questions about the intention, audience, main details, the business, and the format of their document or presentation. Before getting down to either writing as a team or making oral presentations, some preparations should be undertaken.

Preparations for working together

To begin with, a meeting leader should be appointed or elected to plan and run meetings. A secretary should also be appointed to maintain a record of the group discussion minutes and an evaluator to ascertain as to whether the team is on track and is working towards the attainment of its objectives (Guffey, Rogin, and Rhodes 2009 35).

Secondly, there should be a decision being made as to the kind of governance that will be exercised in the group. That is, whether it is majority rule, consensus or any other. Thirdly, there should be a close comparison of the team members programs to come up with a common suitable meeting time that will not inconvenience any one. In light of this, other duties that may cause disruption and distractions in the course of the meeting should be avoided.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effective Business Messages Vs Effective Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fourthly, the value of having a team conflict should be addressed. Members should be enlightened to understand that disagreements can enable the group to come up with new ideas apart from eliminating groupthink. The value of differences can be become more evident when group members are allowed to express their opinions openly. Lastly, an agreement should be reached at with regard to how uncooperative group members should be dealt with.

Planning the Article or Presentation

After establishing the foundational regulations, there is now ready room for the deliberation of the ultimate article or presentation. Therefore, a record of the some decisions made by the team should be kept. First, the key purpose for the document or presentation should be established. This can be well achieved by detecting the key issues included.

Second, a decision should be reached regarding the document or presentation’s design. For instance, a report may have an executive summary, main body, figures, and appendix. For a power point presentation, a decision should be made on the number of slides, length of presentation time, and graphics.

Third, the audience characteristics should be discussed including what specific aspects they would like the presentation or document to address.

Fourth, a work plan should be structured. Delegation of jobs and setting deadlines should be done. For oral presentations via power point, sufficient time should be created to allow for both content and innovative establishment and rehearsals.

Fifth, oral presentation may require that each group member be assigned a responsibility regarding looking for content, developing visuals, devising handout matter, creating transitions between slides and turning up for several rehearsals.

Sixth, for a written article, a decision should be made regarding the criteria that will be adopted in composing it. This may include ach member working on a specific part, one individual writing the first draft or the entire group working on the document together.

Gathering Information

Prior to making any form of collaborative communication by a team, there is need for collecting and generating vital information, which if not done, may cause otherwise good reports to fail. There are some guidelines that help a team collect information that will help it best accomplish its purposes. First, it is important to brainstorm for different ideas from each team member. To attain this, cluster programming may be suitable.

Secondly, topics should be distributed among team members to help ascertain specific people who will play each role, as far as gathering certain information is concerned. Thirdly, deadlines should be set for information collection. Depending on the length of the information, each member should be given a deadline that will enable him or her do extensive research before reporting what he or she has gathered. Fourthly, the criteria of verifying the accuracy of the information collected should be deliberated on.

Systemizing, Writing and Correcting

As the communication preparation process continues, the team may deem it fit adjusting some of its previous decisions. This can be effectively done by following a series of some steps. First, evaluate the suggested format of the final article or power point presentation and modify it if need be.

Secondly, the first draft of a document or presentation should be prepared. If different portions of the task are being worked on by different team members, then they should use a similar word processing format and same diagram presentation program for effective compiling of files. Thirdly, members should meet to both discuss and modify the drafts apart from conducting some rehearsals on the presentation.

Fourthly, if individuals are compiling different segments of the document, the best among them should be appointed to synchronize all the segments, while ensuring that there is unswerving style and layout. The final draft should be a product of uniformity. Fifth, when it comes to oral presentation, it is important to ensure that each team member creates a link to the next presenter’s topic and does so both logically and accurately (Guffey, Rogin, and Rhodes 36).

Editing, Rehearsing and Assessing

Prior to staging a discussion or presentation of any information resulting from teamwork, some important steps should be undertaken. First, for a written document, one individual can be assigned the role of correcting errors that have to do with grammar (Guffey 172). Secondly, for a report that was done by a team, it is crucial to meet as a group and evaluate it to find out whether it is in line with the purpose and the desires of the audience.

Successful group articles arise from in-depth groundwork, vivid description of the contributors’ responsibilities, devotion to a group endorsed plan, and readiness to be responsible for the end product. For power point presentation, an individual should be assigned to align together the various files, checking for spelling mistakes and assessing the entire work to ensure there is continuity in design, layout, and word usage.

Thirdly, a program allowing for at least five rehearsals should be put into place. One of the rehearsals should be video recorded to enable each of the presenters to analyze their own work and make necessary adjustments. Additionally, a dress rehearsal with the audience should be arranged for within a very short time just before the actual presentation. Fielding questions can then be employed at such a time (Guffey, Rogin, and Rhodes 37).

Generally, in assessing the purpose of any business communication, one ought to critically look at two aspects. One is there a reason for sending a certain message and a second one seeks to address what the sender of that information stands to gain from the same. These two aspects will determine how information should be organized and presented.

Analyzing the Audience The audience being targeted determines the content to be included in the communication and the channel to be adopted to reach out to them. When one is conversant with a given audience, it is very easy to anticipate the way in which they will respond. However, when it comes to dealing with a purely fresh audience, it becomes tricky to ascertain how they will respond to the message.

In such circumstances, it may there fore be essential for one to take time and learn the type of audience they are so as to help tailor one’s words to the readers or listeners while at the same time avoiding confusion and misunderstanding (Lowe and Plessis 53). To do this, several guidelines ought to be undertaken.

First, detect the primary audience. Being able to take notice of individuals who affect the main decision-making within the audience may indicate success of the communication process. This is because such people often play a vital role in inspiring the rest and may thus reinforce their understanding. Secondly, the audience size should be known before hand, as this will determine the means of communication to be used to reach out to them.

Thirdly, determining the composition of the audience is crucial in knowing their way of thinking, their learning styles, and their expectations. Fourthly, the level of understanding of the audience should be considered to help one use a language that will be easily understood, and hence to avoid use of irrelevant information or words that may impede effective communication. Fifthly, the expectations and first choice of the audience should be projected.

This addresses aspects such as whether the members of the audience will prefer information in complete details or in summary form and the kind of channel that can suit them. Sixth, gauge the probable action from the audience. If a positive response is anticipated, then one can begin by first highlighting the recommendations and conclusion before offering other information that supports it or vice versa.

Moreover, it may be important to consider the perspectives of the audience. This includes putting oneself in the position of the audience to find out how they be thinking or feeling. This will enhance accurate preparation of information that suits their needs. Apart from this, one may need to get extra information from the organization’s records.

Previous data from the Company’s files, memo, and reports may provide adequate information as pertains to the relevance and suitability of data that that may satisfy the expectations of the audience. It may also be useful to in providing a connection between various pieces of information that should be conveyed to the audience.

Besides this, more information about the audience can be gathered by informally soliciting some facts for instance, by chatting with some employees in an organization, holding interviews with some individuals, and making phone calls. Moreover, knowing more about the audience may require obtaining input from them. This works well incase of lack of information of what the audience expect from the message. Input can be obtained from them by via phone call, information survey, or questionnaires.

Selecting the best Channel

Apart from knowing the purpose of the message and understanding the audience to targeted, it is important to narrow down to a channel of communication that will enhance efficacy in message delivery. Some information can effectively be delivered orally, other messages are channeled through writing, and yet others are delivered by electronic means such as email, phone call, power point presentation, video showing, and internet’s wiki. The type of communication channel to be used in delivering a business message is based on several factors.

They include the significance of the message especially to audience the organization as a whole, the level and urgency of response expected, the need for keep the business message for future reference, the cost of using a given means to pass the information, and the level of formality needed. The table below shows some wireless channels of technology and when they are used in business communication.

Choosing the Idea

After having established the purpose of communication and analyzing the audience, the next step is choosing the relevant idea that should be channeled to the audience. By going through previous relevant documents such as letters, memos, files among many other sources of information, one should underline or highlight the main aspects that require clarity, or perhaps there could be a perceived misunderstanding.

Secondly, it is important to come up with ideas based on the available sources. As new ideas strike, it is important to pen them down so to avoid chances of forgetting. Thirdly, while putting down the points, it is crucial to bear in mind the significance of the information to its audience. Now, it is prudent to consider the variables of the audience, be it an individual, a nation, or an organization. This may include some cultural aspects that different groups of individuals may value (Bienvenu 228).

Knowing this will enable one to communicate in such a manner that the language and message put across will not violate the cultural beliefs of the audience. If such a violation occurred, then it will form a very big barrier to communication.

Fourthly, one should consider the specific information that may be required to be included in the message. For example, some statistical information comprising of specific figures may be very relevant in delivering the information. This is especially important when dealing with persuasive business communication.

Conclusion Effective communication is a requisite in any business setting. In preparing an effective business message, one ought to establish whether the purpose is informational, persuasive, or collaborative. This should be followed audience analysis to ensure that there is efficiency in communication and in response.

In addition, the choice of a wireless channel of communication is based on the importance of the information, feedback needed, need for future reference, the cost and the level of formality required. Finally, proper data can then be collected to enhance accuracy and efficacy in preparation and delivery of business messages.

Works Cited Bienvenu, S. The Presentation skills Workshop: Helping People Create and Deliver Great Presentations. New York: AMACOM. 2000. Web.

Guffey, Mary E. Business Communication: Process and Product. OH: Cengage Learning. 2008. Web.

Guffey, Mary E., Rogin, P. and Rhodes, K. Business Communication: Process and Product. OH: Cengage Learning. 2009. Web.

Lowe, N. and Plessis, N. Fresh Perspectives: Professional Communication for Business. Cape Town: Pam Sykes and Rolene Liebenberg. 2007. Web.

Tdoug. “How to Write a Persuasive Business Message.” 1999. Web.


Eastman Kodak Company’s Strategy Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary The purpose of this management report is to analyze the strategy used by Kodak otherwise known as Eastman Kodak Company. Kodak is the world’s leading company when it comes to imaging innovations and products. Kodak provides imaging technology as well as products and services to the image and photography industries around the world.

Some of the company’s products and service include retail printing kiosks, digital cameras, picture frames, online imaging services, image scanning equipment and photographic paper. The report will cover background information on the company by looking at the history of the company as well as the industry in which the company operates in.

The various environments in which the company operates in will also be assessed in this report by conducting an environmental assessment or a PEST analysis of the political, economic, social and technological environment for the company. The report will also focus on Henry Mintzberg’s 5P’s for business strategies which include pattern, position, perspective, plan and ploy.

Introduction Eastman Kodak Company is a US corporation that specializes in the production of photographic products and equipment. The company’s operations have been divided into four segments which include digital and film imaging, graphic communication, commercial imaging and health sector (Kodak Patents 2010).

The major Kodak products include Colorburst, Kodamatic, Kodak DCS 100 and DCS DSLR, digital picture frames such as the Kodak smart picture frame, image sensors in digital cameras such as the Leica M8 and the KAF-10500 image sensor, document imaging and scanners as well as movie pictures and TV production (Kodak 2010).

George Eastman, who was the founder of Kodak, introduced the first camera to the world in 1888 that allowed people to capture special moments in still formats. Since then, Kodak has been the main provider of imaging, photography products and services as well as photography equipment such as cameras and picture scanners (Murat 2008).

Kodak’s Strategy and Business Industry The company took aggressive steps in 2003 to re-invent itself to be a stronger and diversified company in the photo imaging industry by leveraging its operations to focus on the core businesses to ensure that its customer base had access to quality imaging and photography products/ services ( 2004). In 2008, the company experienced a significant growth as a result of a five year restructuring program that would see its business strategy changing to improve revenue and profit margins.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result of the restructuring exercise, revenues from the digital businesses grew by double digits for four consecutive quarters between 2007 and 2008. The decline in revenue for the traditional segment of the company’s business was seen to be in line with the restructuring program which was meant to shift the operations of the business from traditional to more innovative and modern digital businesses (Kodak 2010).

The restructuring exercise saw the company investing $4 billion dollars in research and development activities that would see an increase in its digital businesses. The $4 billion investment was also used in acquiring several small businesses that had been successful in the digital imaging industry to improve the company’s market share as well as improve its technological innovations and services.

The restructuring exercise saw Kodak developing new business strategies that included expanding the digital segment of the company in both retail and home locations. This would see the development of photo kiosks and mini photo labs as well as the development of printer docks that would ensure the easy transfer of images from digital cameras to printers without the use of a computer (Gia 2008).

The photographic equipment and supplies industry has changed in recent times to be known as the imaging industry. The current imaging industry defines companies according to whether they have innovative and novel technology instead of whether they have the best equipment or supplies in the photography industry.

The major association that manages the imaging and photographic industry is known as the International Imaging Industry Association (I3A). The purpose of the I3A is to enable the use of imaging activities to simplify and enrich the lives of ordinary people through the use of visual experiences (I3A 2010). The association brings together various members who have invested in the imaging and photography industry to ensure that the appropriate imaging standards have been met.

The International Imaging Industry Association is viewed as the global imaging ecosystem that is meant to make the creation and production of visual images easier and simple. Companies such as Kodak, Sony and HP have the power and authority to connect and collaborate with other leaders in the imaging industry to deal with any imaging challenges that might arise (Service Architecture 2010).

Internal Environmental Analysis SWOT Analysis

Like any other company, Kodak has strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The table below shows a SWOT analysis of Kodak Company (Gia 2008)

We will write a custom Report on Eastman Kodak Company’s Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strengths Major player in the imaging and photography industry as it is the top three provider of image and photography products and services.

Wide product portfolio that covers digital products and online photo galleries.

The company has a strong brand name and brand affinity.

Kodak has a core competency in both traditional and digital photography and imaging business.

The company has the financial capability to invest in research and development activities for new digital products.

Kodak has a multinational market presence in over 100 countries around the world. This has enhanced its global distribution capability.

Weaknesses Kodak lacks technological leadership as it mostly focuses on competitor innovations especially in the digital industry.

The company lacks detailed and clear strategies that can be used to convince stakeholders and investors to invest in Eastman Kodak.

The company has weak strategic alliances and partnerships that have not been successful in the past. For example the failed alliance between Hewlett Packard (HP) and Lexmark.

Kodak has weak innovation capabilities in its other business segments apart from its digital technology segment.

It has a lower financial power when compared to its competitors such as Sony and HP.

The company is behind technology wise when it comes to the quality of its digital printers and mini labs as well as its online photo imaging services

Opportunities There is an increasing demand for digital photography products and services.

There are new emerging markets and countries for Kodak’s business operations which include China, India and Russia.

Kodak has the opportunity to expand its product portfolio to meet its customer’s needs.

The company has expanded its digital camera and printer market to meet the increasing demand for digital technology.

It has also expanded its operations to include online sales as a result of an increased demand in photo online services.

Kodak has acquired smaller businesses to gain a market share in the image and photography industry.

The company has expanded its operations to cover the expensive digital market for cameras and photo imaging services.

Threats The increasing development of devices that incorporate digital camera features has threatened the company’s camera production segment.

The shifting tastes and preferences of consumers in today’s constantly changing market has made it difficult for the company to keep up with these trends.

The availability of substitute products from companies such as Sony, Fuji Film and HP has threatened the company’s products and services.

The digital photography industry has experienced a high growth rate but the profit margins are still very low.

The company faces the threat of new competitors from countries such as China and the Middle East.

The weak economy and the recent global recession affected the operations and business segments of the company

Kodak’s Financial Performance Kodak has been identified by financial analysts to be the second largest company after Canon that produces photographic products and services in the photographic equipment and supplies industry. The company has a market capitalization of $8.1 billion when compared to that of Canon which has been estimated to be $58.4 billion (Seed 2006).The financial performance of the company as at 2008 saw the company’s net sales decreasing by 9%.

This decrease was mostly attributed to the global economic recession whose effects were being felt as early as 2007. The fourth quarter of the company’s financial year of 2008 saw its revenues decreasing by 24 percent which was lower than that of the previous year. The impact of this downturn in its revenues was severe to the company’s financial performance as it usually experienced high sales returns during the last four months of its financial year.

The revenue downturn was mostly caused by the declining sales in Kodak’s Film Capture and traditional photofinishing products. This decline in sales was however offset by the company’s increasing sales volume in document imaging and consumer digital imaging products such as digital capture devices and consumer inkjet systems which experienced an increased growth in 2008.

The gross profit of the company declined in 2008 due to the decline in its sales volumes as well as the unfavourable price mix in its business segments. The tables below show the net sales, profit margins and income tax benefits of the company for the year ended December 2008 (Kodak Financials 2010).

Income Tax Benefit (dollars in millions)

For the Year Ended December 31,

Loss from continuing operations before income taxes Benefit for income taxes

Effective tax rate

2008 ($874)



2007 ($256)



For the Year Ended December 31 Change Vs. 2007 2008 Amount ($)

Change vs.2007 Volume Price/mix Foreign Exchange Manufacturing and other costs Total net sales 3,088 – 4.9% 8.6% – 14.6% 1.1% n/a Gross profit margin 19.2% -6.3 pp n/a -13.4pp 0.7pp 6.4pp (Source: Kodak Financial 2010)

GAP Analysis: Kodak’s Resources and Capabilities The company’s has a variety of resources and capabilities that have given its products and services a competitive advantage over its competitors. The table and graph below show the various resources and capabilities of Kodak.

Kodak’s Resources Kodak’s Capabilities Code Importance Strength Code Importance Strength Technology R1 8 8 Environmental management

C1 8 4 Brand Name R2 9 8 Government Relations C2 4 6 Distribution R3 10 10 Imaging Capabilities C3 8 10 Financial resources R4 7 10 Sales and Marketing C4 8 9 Image sensing R5 10 8 Research and Development C5 10 10 KODAK’S GAP ANALYSIS Technological development C6 7 9 Colour management C7 8 8 Market share C8 10 9 New product development C9 7 4 FAR Analysis When analysing the functional areas of Kodak, two main areas of interest are usually considered; product development and sales and marketing. In Kodak’s product development, the design team is usually focused on creating products that are innovative and more superior to those of the competitors in the imaging market.

Digital cameras which are a major innovation for the company have seen a lot of development where designers and developers of the product focus on creating cameras that are easy to use and compatible with other products such as computers and printers (Seed 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Eastman Kodak Company’s Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kodak has continued to add value to its products by continually investing in research and development activities that will see its innovations being superior and unique to those of its competitors. Kodak’s EasyShare camera line demonstrated the ability of the company to produce a camera that was simple and easy to use as well as of a high quality when compared to the other digital cameras in the market.

The EasyShare digital camera ensured that the company was able to achieve brand recognition and brand affinity within the imaging and photography industry. It enabled Kodak to move away from the traditional line of photography and equipment to a more modern and unique product line (Seed 2006).

Under the development segment of the company is production which deals with the actual development of the product designs and innovations. Kodak pursues a high cost strategy when it comes to its product innovations which are meant to ensure that the best materials and designs have been used in the development of high quality digital cameras. The second area of the company deals with sales and marketing where the company employs the use of various marketing tools and strategies to market its products.

The photo finishing kiosks are a major marketing tool for the company as they cater for photo editing of customers digital images and they also offer complementary products such as free memory cards for storing the digital images as well as free photo printing paper. The online photo sharing sites such as Ofoto are valuable marketing tools for the company as they allow customers to create and share their pictures with other users which increase the appeal for Kodak digital products (Seed 2006).

Another segment that works in conjunction with sales and marketing is distribution. As with any other company distribution plays an important role when it comes to making the products of a company available in the market. Kodak places a lot of emphasis of on-time deliveries, inventory management and good supplier relations. The company however pursues a low-cost efficiency strategy in its distribution activities as it has placed a lot of emphasis on product research and development.

The company utilises the strategy of placing value of the quality of the product rather than on its availability during its distribution activities (Seed 2006).The diagram below represents a FAR analysis of Kodak based on the two areas of focus which are development, sales and marketing

Mintzberg’s 5Ps for Strategy The varied definitions of strategy have made it difficult to pinpoint a specific definition that can be used to explain the concept of strategy. Because of this, Henry Mintzberg came up with the 5Ps that could be used in explicitly defining the term strategy. These 5Ps include plan, ploy, pattern, perspective and position (Frankenberger 2006: McCabe 2010: Davies and Ellison 1999).

Plan defines strategy as an intended course of action or guideline that is developed by an organization or company to deal with a given situation (Gane 2007). Plan describes strategies to be actions that are formulated purposefully and consciously in advance to deal with situations that are meant to happen or about to happen (Institute for Manufacturing 2010: Morden 2004).

Strategies that are defined by plans are intentionally organized to take place as they ensure that the progress of projects and activities has been predetermined and the expected outcomes have been projected (Tiwari 2009).

Strategies that include the use of plans involve developing schedules that can be used in product developments and launches, company acquisitions and mergers, investment activities and financial ventures, human resource training programs and downsizing in companies (Campbell et al 2002). Kodak has developed a planned strategy known as the content strategy that is used in its overall marketing strategy.

The content strategy is focused on two aspects one of which is creating content that showcases the products and services that the company uses in its business operations. The tips and projects centre has been identified as the perfect example of the content strategy as it involves the use of inspirational photo essays, imaging projects and photography tips in developing the company’s content for its new product innovations and services (Hoehn 2009).

The second aspect that is considered under the two pronged content strategy is the aspect of distribution which focuses on distributing the created content through the various channels of the company. The company has developed the Kodak distribution channel information portal to distribute the created content (Yunhao 2005).

The distribution channels used by Kodak include blogs, social networking sites, company websites and partnership sites The Company also has a distributed publishing model that involves various bloggers and the company’s employees posting their comments about the company’s new products and innovations in the publishing model.

Mintzberg and Ghoshal (2003) describe a ploy as a manoeuvre that is used to outwit a competitor, a rival or an opponent in a certain activity or industry. Ploy as a strategy is used as a short term goal for companies because a ploy usually tends to have limited objectives and goals.

Ploys are also subject to change within short notice given their short term nature and also given the varying reasons for using the ploy in the first place (Kew and Stredwick 2005). Ploy’s usually operate within the context of competition and competitive rivals within a specific industry where a company tries to eliminate its competition through the use of ploys such as a reduction in commodity prices and introduction of new products into the market (Chappelet and Bayle 2005: Gronfeldt and Strother 2006).

Kodak has used various ploys within the imaging and photography industry to try and gain a competitive edge over its rivals in the same industry as well as increase its market share.

Such ploys include the activation of numerous fronts during major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games and the World Cup, the use of blogs and social networking sites to market its activities, the promotion of the Kodak brand during the season finale of the Celebrity Apprentice show and the showcasing of the company’s presence in golf through the incorporation of the Kodak Challenge which is a fantasy game (Hoehn 2009).

Mintzberg et al (2005) describe pattern as behaviour of strategy that describes the level of progress that has been made after a particular course of action or form of behaviour has been adopted by an individual or a particular company. Strategies that are patterns have been viewed to just occur as a result of consistent and inconsistent behaviour (Bilton and Cummings 2010).

Pattern defines strategy as a stream of planned actions and behaviour that is consistent and intended. Strategy as a pattern is different from that of strategy as a plan because patterns are viewed to be strategies that have been achieved or realised while plans are strategies that have been identified and intended for action (Evans et al 2003: Wagner 2006). Patterned strategies are therefore those actions that have been developed without any intention or deliberation (Bilton 2007: Ehrnreich 2004: Tate 2009).

Pattern strategies are mostly common in small businesses such as scrap dealerships and scrap metal collection agencies. Such businesses operate on the premise of buying as much scrap metal and materials as they can meaning that they do not need any type of strategy or plan to purchase scrap metal (Simons 2005).

These businesses however cannot buy old and used plastics because these purchases will be outside their pattern of business behaviour. Such patterns are therefore deemed to be unconscious strategies because businesses do not realise that they are following any consistent pattern (Smith et al 1999).

The definition of strategy as a position is described as locating an organization in a particular environment. Strategy through the use of position describes the mediating forces that are used to match the functions of the organization within the industry or environment that it operates in (Marx 2004: Dinsmore and Brewin 2010).

Mintzberg views a position strategy to be appropriate when the most important aspect to an organization is how it relates to its competitors, investors, stakeholders and employees. An organization that incorporates the use of position strategy usually seeks to defend a particular position within a certain market segment and industry (Capon 2008: Morris and Pinto 2007).

Kodak has developed its position in the photography and imaging industry by being the first company to develop photographic equipment that incorporates the use of sensory technology (Northeast 2007). It has also established its position in the imaging industry by focusing its products and services on specific industries and companies. Kodak has developed products for educational institutions such as Kodak scanners and integrated imaging equipment that are used during course training and practical applications.

The company has also developed services for financial institutions that incorporate the use of digitized microfilms used to create, store and protect financial data that is irreplaceable in nature. Kodak has also developed products for health institutions and public hospitals that are mostly used in maintaining patient medical records and also for taking body X-rays (Kodak Graphics 2010).

The definition of perspective strategy is that it is a chosen position and a perceived notion that the company has of the general world. Mintzberg (2007) describes perspective as a view that an organization has of its internal and external environment. Perspective strategy is important as it enables a company to formulate objectives and goals that can be used to achieve business operations through the optimal use of company resources (Magalhães 2004: Carsrud et al 2007).

Perspective determines the patterns of behavior of the company as it outlines the intentions of the employees and the company as a whole. Perspective strategy involves the incorporation of employee’s ideas and intentions into strategic plans to achieve business goals and objectives (Lechner 2005: Clausen 2003: Buytendijk 2010).

Kodak practices strategies that are perspective in nature. It has developed distribution channels for its products and services that incorporate the ideas of its workers and employees.

These channels include the social networking sites as well as company blogs where employees are able to post their comments about particular products and services that the company wishes to introduce to the imaging market. These opinions and comments are usually published by the company in its distributed publishing channel after which these channels are used in the creation of content analysis for the company’s products (Phillips 2004).

PEST Analysis PEST analysis which is also known as environmental analysis is the assessment that a company performs on its external environment. A PEST analysis involves looking at the political, economic, social and technological environment in which a business operates in (Qin 2009: Tovstiga 2010).

Despite the fact that many organizations view environmental analysis as an important activity, such an analysis ends up making a minimal contribution to the overall operations of the business. This is mostly based on the fact that many organizations view the environments in which they operate in to be volatile and uncertain. This limits their ability to control the impact of the environment on the company’s operations (Bensoussan and Fleisher 2008).

These environments also have indirect effects on the operations of a company which leads to minimal outcomes of environmental analysis (Smith and Raspin 2008). Despite all of these aspects conducting a PEST analysis is an important activity for many companies as it ensures that the company has knowledge of its external environment (Gregory 2000).

A PEST analysis usually allows a company to conduct a SWOT analysis more easily because it assesses the external environment of a business. It is therefore important for a business to conduct a PEST analysis before it performs a SWOT analysis (Applegate and Johnsen 2007: Grant 2005).

Political Environment As the imaging industry continues to undergo new technological innovations and services, the company has been faced with the problem of patent infringement and patent law suits. This has been because the various imaging technology and equipment developed in the industry is similar for all companies which makes it difficult to establish the company that had the original patent (Mendes 2010).

Patent infringements are common in the imaging industry because of the similarity of products and services that are produced by each company. As a result of this Kodak was involved in a patent infringement with Sony because of the similarity of cameras and photographic equipment that were produced by both companies (Digital Photography 2004: Gustavson 2009).

Kodak launched a patent law suit against Sony for breaching 10 of its patent rights when it came to its digital cameras. The company alleged that Sony used technology invented by Eastman Kodak in developing its digital cameras that incorporated the use of image compression and digital storage hardware (BBC 2004).

Privacy is another political environment that has impacted on Kodak’s business operations. This has mostly been attributed to the fact that digital technology in the US has become smaller and more compatible with equipment that is used on a regular basis. Digital imaging equipment has been incorporated into equipment and technology that is commonly used by ordinary US citizens.

Such equipment includes mobile phones that now have camera features as well as photo editing and image viewer technology. These devices are easily available in the technology market and they have been used for activities that invade the privacy of other people (Seed 2006).

Economic Environment The economic environment of Kodak has shown that the company’s products are used by both individual and industrial consumers. Individual consumers have recorded a high purchase of pocket digital cameras developed by the company for their own personal use while the health sector has been identified as a major buyer of Kodak’s imaging and scanning equipment.

As much as many people own pocket cameras and photographic equipment, the high inflation and interest rates as well as the recent global recession have made most high end Kodak products to be considered a luxury item for most customers (Khosrowpour 2007). The increasing inflation rates which were as a result of the 2009 economic meltdown saw a decrease in the disposable income which forced many people in the United States and the rest of the world cutting down on their spending.

This meant that people only spent on what they could afford and what they considered to be important. This saw a curb in luxury spending which in turn affected digital camera sales in Kodak (OECD 2009). Such high inflation and interest rates will also affect the spending of industrial consumers such as health institutions and government offices that are the main consumers of the company’s imaging and scanning technology (Barnwell 2006).

Since companies make their capital expenditures on borrowed funds, they might have to postpone their borrowing because of the high inflation rates. This will mean that they will not have enough money to purchase any of the company’s products (Gwartney et al 2009).

The company will also be faced with other economic factors such as decreasing growth in film sales. As the world embraces digital technology, film photography is projected to be obsolete in the next ten years as more people switch towards digital photography and technology.

The company’s current strategy has been to invest the revenues it earns from film sales to be used in the development of digital products (Reliable Plant 2010). This strategy will however be difficult to achieve given the current slow film sales that are being experienced in the digital market. These sales have also been affected by its competitors who have developed far more superior products than the company (Barney and Hestelry 2006).

Technological environment The imaging and photography industry is one that experiences fast technological innovations and developments meaning that the company’s technological environment is one that is subject to a lot of changes (Kurtz et al 2010). Such a high degree of technological innovations has mostly been driven by a need to have imaging devices that incorporate the all-in-one features (Worthington and Britton 2006). Consumers in this environment have shown that they prefer equipment that incorporates all features into one device.

Consumers now prefer to have mobile phones that have camera and photo imaging features incorporated into them (Schweibenz and Cabral 2010). Many mobile phone makers around the world are developing products that have more advanced camera works into their mobile phones. For example Nokia’s smart phones have digital camera features that allow the users to take digital images as well as create, edit and view these images (Turner 2010).

Such technological innovations have therefore had an impact on Kodak’s operations given the high demand for all-in-one devices that mostly incorporate digital camera features (Fullen and Podmoroff 2006). The growth of integration and portability in the imaging market has increased the need to constantly replace technology with newer innovations.

Kodak has been faced with the technological challenge of constantly updating its products to ensure that they remain relevant within the imaging industry. While a 1.3 Mp camera might have experienced high sales five years ago, the same cannot be said for the camera now as higher mega pixel cameras are being introduced into the market (Kodak Store 2010).

Kodak’s processing kiosks have also experienced slow growth and film sales as a result of the digital printing of images where consumers load their images onto memory cards or mass storage devices for printing. The availability of color and image printers has made it easier for people to print their images at their convenience at cost.

This has led to a marked decrease in the number of people that visit the company’s image processing kiosks to have their pictures printed. The technological environment has therefore affected the growth of the company given the high rate of technological innovations in the market that make it easy to create, store and produce a digital image (Kodak Kiosk 2010)

Social Environment The social environment has impacted on the business operations of Kodak through the proliferation and increasing use of social networking sites. The world has experienced an increasing growth of Internet communities and networking sites where millions of people join to discuss and share their opinions about certain issues that might be affecting them (Quick MBA 2010).

These sites have affected the operations of Kodak because they incorporate features that allow users to edit and upload their photos to these sites. These sites also have photo sharing capabilities that allow users to share their images with other users. Such features limit the need for Kodak photo sharing and photo editing products (Zastrow and Ashman 2010: Thomases 2010).

The social environment has also affected the operations of the company because of the cultural diversity and beliefs that various countries hold around the world (Zastrow and Ashman 2010). While many countries have embraced technology such as digital cameras, others view these devices to be an invasion of their privacy especially in countries that limit the photographing of national symbols and statues.

This impedes the sale of the company’s products to these countries because of their view of imaging technology as an invasion of personal privacy (Osborne and Brown 2005: Anderson et al 1999).

Recommendation In order for Kodak to become the world leader in the production of digital imagery products and services the company should intensify its strategic alliances with other companies within the industry to ensure that it increases its market share. The company could also share its brand name and logo with other companies such as Sony, Canon or Fuji film especially in its low performing product lines such as the digital scanners.

The company should also consider expanding its operations in countries such as China and India as well as other eastern countries that have continued to experience rapid growth and developments especially in their technological industries. Kodak should also consider acquiring technology firms that have demonstrated an increased rate in the production of technological innovations to ensure that it has up to date digital products.

Conclusion The 5P’s for strategy have shown that the company has incorporated the use of various strategies to achieve its business goals and objectives. The PEST analysis has however shown that the company faces a tough external environment that might affect its business strategies and objectives.

The company therefore needs to reassess its business strategies and goals to deal with the external environmental factors that might affect its business operations to ensure that it remains relevant in the current competitive environment as well as survive the external pressures.

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Effects of domestic violence on children’s social and emotional development Essay a level english language essay help

Abstract Children between the ages of zero and six year are continuously learning and developing socially and emotionally. For an appropriate development, a child needs love and care from both parents. In the case of families experiencing domestic violence, the social and emotional development of children brought put in such families is affected negatively. Psychological wellness of the child is affected at early age and later in life.

Introduction Domestic violence has been an issue in many societies in the world but considered as a family matter, it’s only of late that legal proceedings can be taken on an offender. Since women movements in 1970s, domestic violence has become a legal matter calling for police, courts and judicial process intervention.

When one is talking of domestic violence, what comes in mind is wife or husband violence; in most case women are on the receiving end, they are subjected to physical, psychological and emotional violence. However the scope of domestic violence extend far beyond this believe to include child abuse and the effects that such abuse have on a child.

Family violence is a term that can be used to describe the various forms of violence that happen within a family set up. A family is a sociological unit which includes parents and children. The most common types of violence within the family are wife abuse and child abuse. Violence in this sense may include slaps, pushes, sexual abuse, battering, and use of abusive words. A research conducted by in United States of America, shown that each year over 3.3 children suffer from domestic violence.

The recognition of this is affected by lack of data that can be used for the analysis. The effect is mostly psychological, emotional and sometimes physical. The most noted one is physical and thus emotional and psychological remains not recorded (Shaffer, 2009). This paper discusses how children social and emotional development is affected by exposure to domestic violence. It will focus on children below the age of six years.

Child emotional and social development and domestic violence Between the ages of Zero years to six years, a child is constantly learning and developing emotional and social health/character. At this age, he has no much choice on what and who to believe. Parents have the burden of developing a healthy emotional and social need of the child. The environment that a child grows in affects his social and emotional development.

Socialisation factors dominate in his character building as well as personality. The family is the first socialisation stage that a child gets. What the child observes is registered in its mind and goes a long way in forming attitude, behaviours and feeling about a certain issues at hand. If the family is undergoing domestic violence, the child mind will be exposed to violence and will form perception and attitudes towards such.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example if a child is brought up in a family that the husband dominated and when he battles the wife it is generally accepted; a male child from such a home will develop a believe that women are inferior than men and thus they should be bitten. At this tender age a child is not able to differentiate what is good and what is wrong but learns from what surrounds him or her.

Impact of domestic volence on the emotional regulation of children Rigterink, Fainsilber , and Hessler in the Journal of interpersonal violence, observe that early exposure of children to domestic violence influences their emotion regulation abilities. To evaluate the effect, the trio used baseline vagal tone (VT) method as the measuring parameter/unit.

They observed that the effects have a long-lasting effect in a child’s life and affects its social and emotional health. The research by the trio went further and evaluated other effects that domestic violence has on trajectory of children’s physiological regulatory abilities; they observed that in preschool and lower classes, children who come from families experiencing domestic violence have low concentration in class and are more likely to be violent in class (Zerk, Mertin


Hydro Energy Advantages and Disadvantages Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Hydro energy is also referred to as water energy. This is production of electricity energy from water sources. To produce electricity from moving water, heavy electricity generators are used. It is the transfer of kinetic energy to electric energy (Efthymoglou, 1987). This paper looks into hydro energy; it will discuss how it is produced, its use, its disadvantages and advantages.

How hydro energy is produced There are different ways that electricity can be generated from water, they are; conventional, tides, pumped storage or run off rivers.


This involves the use of dams to tap potential energy from water in terms of water that accumulates in these dams. After accumulation, the water is left to run down a height referred to as head. As they run down, they get into contact with turbines which they rotate. The rotated turbines run electric generators and electricity is produced.


Tides move in waves. The up and down movement of tide has kinetic energy that is used to rotate turbines kept strategically for this purpose. The turbines generate electricity.

Pumped storage

Water is passed through different stepped elevetions. When water is changing from elevations, it has kinetic energy which rotates turbines for electricity generation.

Run off rivers

This is the use of water speed in running rivers which is used to rotate turbines for electricity generation (Efthymoglou, 1987).

Uses of electricity Electricity is used in industries and in homes for various purposes. It is a reliable source of energy for heating, lightening and running of machinery. In manufacturing of good, it is considered as on e of the input costs incurred. This is in terms of lightening the factory, running of manufacturing and administrative machines and heating.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In homes it is used for lightening, running of electrical equipments like television, electric fans and electric heaters among others. It assister sin making life better as people can connect to the outside world through various equipments like computers, phones, radio and telegrams which are run by electric power.

Of late, the energy has been tapped in transport industry where it is used in electric tramways, railways, and new development of electrically charged motor vehicles.

Advantages of hydro energy

Energy from water has been considered as one of the world cleanest source of energy. It does not produce green house gasses when it is being produced or when it is being used. Although there are minimal emissions when a plant is being set up, this is negligible and cannot count compared to the emission by electricity from fossil fuels.

The energy also does not have wastes that need to be disposed. In the ear that the world is suffering from global warming, hydro power is seen as one of the strategies that can assist in reducing green house emission. This makes the energy good for sustainable development.

When hydro energy is compared to nuclear energy, it maintains an upper hand since it does not produce nuclear reactants which are associated with nuclear energy. Nuclear reactants are dangerous to the health of human beings.

It is a renewable source of energy. Water used to run turbines is nit utilised in any way other than its energy and thus it can be reused more than once without reducing its capability. Adopting renewable technology assists the world to meet its current population energy demands without limiting the level at which future generations will meet their needs.

Initial cost of setting up of machinery and generators is huge, however the cost of running the plants is relatively low compared to other sources of energy. This makes the net cost lower. The cost of electricity from water is the cheapest in the world and thus companies and people can utilize the important product at an affordable cost (BRYAN


The Crusades That We Undertake: A Retrospective into the History Essay scholarship essay help

Whenever history is trying to conceal something from the mankind in the depth of its wisdom, there are always the people who dare to take a glimpse on the truths that are hidden from the rest of the world. These were called the crusaders, and the fame of theirs was spread all around the world, as they went on to face the future adventures and unravel the mysteries that the world was full of.

However, the merciless history tells us that thee events were far from being the truth. In fact, the Arab world is still a land uncharted to the Europeans, and the crusades that were undertaken to subdue the Arabs to the European culture were not what they are being told today. Maalouf shares the facts that speak what people have never heard of before.

The Europeans are used to take the crusades that they have been reading about in the books in history and have heard of as they listened to some historians – European historians, to be more precise – and, as a result, the opinions formed on the suggested topic do not delight with their diversity.

It seems more than clear to an average man – not the one who has been entangled into this history, whose roots are the roots of the Muslim people – that the crusaders had all the rights to invade the territory of Palestine and search for the people of different religious beliefs (Saracens, as they wee called, they were said to pose an immense threat to the rest of the world with their beliefs and their way of living a life, their customs and traditions, as well as their culture in general).

This was considered fair and just to the people of the Medieval Europe, and they supported the crusaders as far as they could – in fact, the former were heroes in the eyes of the Western savage world.

The mistakes of the history and the people who have made their tribute to its being written and read a complete lie, from the beginning till the end. The Muslim world that the crusaders have been chasing and trying to wipe from the face of the Erath once and for all was not the aggressor, as it was supposed before, but the victim, as it turned out not so long ago according to the studies held in this direction by a famous scientist Amin Maalouf. As the writer out it himself,

The basic idea of this book is simple: to tell the story of the Crusaders as they were seen, lived, and recorded on ‘the other side’ – in other words, in the Arab camp. Its context is based almost exclusively on the testimony of contemporary Arab historians and chroniclers. (Maalouf 11)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author has found the materials and data that can contradict the knowledge that the Europeans – and, in fact, the Asians as well – have got so far about the Medieval people of Palestine and their European neighbors that had been chasing them for the lands that they had and for the beliefs that contradicted what the official church established.

The huge amount of documents has been worked on to achieve the result that Maalouf has. The author has been digging through the numerous chronicles and historical pieces of evidence to attain the knowledge of the real state of affairs in the Medieval Palestine.

His efforts were finally crowned with success. As it turned out, the Palestinians were no more than victims of the harsh medieval times and the ideology that the Christina church was seeding in Europe, among the most influential politics.

This was something that the local dwellers, the Arabs, could not bear anymore. Of course, the invasion made them fight tooth and nail against the aggressors that were trying to behold the power over the state that did not belong to them and was completely foreign according to its beliefs and its ideas of what religion is supposed to be.

In fact, the people were merely trying to save the most precious thing that they had never had in their lives, since the Arabs are well known for their attitude towards God and everything that is connected with Him. Since the retreat was not the tactics of the brave people of Palestine, the warriors as they were, they decided to start y heated battle with those who dare to profane their dwelling and the temples that they have created to worship their God: “’Man’s meanest weapon, he shouted, ‘is to shed tears when rapiers stir the coals of war’.” (13)

This simple truth that Maalouf was trying to convey to the public was first greeted with an air of suspicion. That is something that can be easily explained and is rather predictable result, for people do not change their opinions so easily.

There were some more facts to prove, which Maalouf managed with utter success. He proved that the Asian people who were accused in the medieval times of numerous crimes and mischief were actually the victims of the prejudice that the European had against the Muslim world.

We will write a custom Essay on The Crusades That We Undertake: A Retrospective into the History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though it is arguable that the changes in the history are of great importance now and it is far from being credible that, once introduced to the wide public, these facts will be acknowledged by the people in the whole world, the author is still positive about the great impact that his work is going to have on the mankind and its attitude towards the Muslim world.

Beginning with the ideas of Ibn Al-Qualanisi, the great Asian philosopher and the author of the chronicles of the crusaders era, Maalouf continues telling the stories that have been carved into the ancient scripts and have not been talked about since the day when the battle between the two opponents was finished.

Making the example of the Frankish armies, the historian opens a large discussion that is rather polemic, yet clarifying several issues that have been the misconceptions that people have been adhering to for centuries. As Maalouf quoted the great Asian philosopher Saladin, “Behold with what obstinacy they fight for their religion, while we, the Muslims, show no enthusiasm for waging holy war.” (Maalouf 1).

With the explanations of this kind, and a new retrospective look into the Medieval epoch, one can find a plenty of subjects that even the modern historians have been mistaking about. These are all connected to the influence of the Saracens on the European countries and their bearing unfriendly plots of attack on the European armies and the people of the Christian beliefs.

Proving the above mentioned wrong, Maalouf makes a very important step towards the change of the perception of the Muslim world in the modern times. It is a well-known fact that the modern science is very reluctant to rewrite he history that concerns the conflicts between the Asians and the European world, since the subject has been politicized in the most harsh and uncompromising way.

That is what lies on the one hand, yet in the other justice demands that the history should be reviewed and that the common people could have the access to the facts that could change their attitude to the people of Asian origin once and or all. It is necessary that the tragic mistakes of the past should be corrected and the people should not suffer from the unfair treatment any longer.

However, Maalouf not only shows the grief and misery of the people whose domain has been invaded and was suffering from the violent actions of the aggressors, but also takes the reader to the wonderful world of the Asian culture, as rich with ancient tales as with the ancient treasures that delighted the travelers from al over the world and set the idea of the splendor and chic of the Muslim culture around the entire globe:

Alexuis was one of the most prestigious figures of the Orient at the time. Kilij Arslan was genuinely fascinated by his short-statures quinquagenarian, always decked in gold and in rich blue robes, with his carefully tended beard, elegant manners and eyes sparkling with malice. (Maalouf 4)

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Crusades That We Undertake: A Retrospective into the History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, the splendor of this world was something that the European culture could not achieve, and the posh and rich elements of décor of the European Medieval culture are no more than unsuccessful trying to snatch a piece of the magnificence of the Asian culture and the Asian traditions. That seems more than weird, and it could be practically called a duplicity. In spite of the fact that the Europeans had a stronger army, they were hardly as powerful and strong as the Saracens

The author also emphasizes that delicacy was not the prior asset of the Medieval Europeans as it came to choosing the means to struggle the Palestinians. It is well worth mentioning that the troops that the European army was formed of consisted of numerous people of Asian origin, who were made to take the crusade against the Palestinians:

The Byzantines had been suspicious of the Franj ever since, but the imperial armies, short of experienced soldiers, had no choice but to recruit mercenaries, and not only Franj: many Turkish warriors also fought under the banners of the Christian empire. (Maalouf 5)

Although the above mentioned cannot serve as an excuse for the Asians to serve in the armies that were going to kill the Asian people, this does not speak in favor of the European leaders either, with their hatred towards the Asians, for they should have been sticking to their positions to the end and not to take any help from the people whom they considered their enemies.

With stronger beliefs and with the feeling that they are fighting for the right thing, they had all the chances to win. Finally, they managed to show to the whole Europe that they are more than a bunch of outcasts.

One could argue that the events that occurred long before the modern world was born have no impact on the reality of these days, yet it is only half of the truth. As the recent research has shown, most of the scientists who teach the history of the Medieval Asia in the universities in the West are Europeans, though logically these are the Arabs who should possess the most impressive knowledge on the subject.

With all the respect to the studies tat have been conveyed so far by the European scientists, they all were mistaken to have presumed the point of view that was implemented by the materials and chronicles written by the European scientists and researchers, not taking into consideration the ones that were suggested by the Muslim world.

This was the major misconception that led top the mistakes in the reconstruction of the historical events. Meanwhile, Maalouf, in spite of the multiple obstacles that emerged on his way to the truth hidden behind the crusades, has managed to reveal to the world the secrets that were thought to have been lost long before the modern world was born.

With the new knowledge attained from the book by the talented writer, it is possible to suggest that the history will be viewed from the point of view of the Asian people as well, and the tragic mistakes that the Europeans made during the cruel Medieval era would be remembered as one of the most unfortunate attempts of those beholding the power to conceal the truth from the ordinary people.

And it is even more important that these prejudice should not interfere the modern relationships between the Arabs and the European countries and their people. Since the story told by Maalouf is something that each of us should know, the book of his is one more tribute to the treasure trove of the world historical heritage. Keeping in mind the knowledge that they have received, people will never repeat the mistakes that they have done once.

Works Cited Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1984. Print.


Company Analysis: Unilever Company Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Company Background

Financial Analysis

Internal and External Environments Analysis

The Four Alternative Strategies

Competitive Analysis Using Porter Model

Strategies for Unilever Group’s Success and Growth

Works Cited

Company Background Unilever is among the leading home care, personal care, as well as food product producing and supplying firms in the world today. It has two parent firms; Unilever PLC and NV. Unilever NV is a Dutch registered company whilst Unilever PLC is registered in Wales and England. Along with their relevant group firms, both Unilever PLC and Unilever NV run effectively as a sole fiscal entity (Global Data 1).

The products of Unilever group are currently offered in more than 170 nations of the world. What’s more, the firm takes pleasure in leading international positions in 7 dissimilar categories. Unilever runs in 4 different business segments, which are dressings and spreads, personal care, home care and beverages and ice cream plus others.

The firm as well encompasses sturdy concentration on research and development which assists it introduces new products to the market, thereby safeguarding its leadership position.

In addition, products emanating from Unilever Group are supplied via distribution centers, satellite warehouses, storage depots, co-operatives, wholesalers, group-operated facilities, independent grocery stores, including a number of food service suppliers (Global Data 3). This paper discusses the financial and TOWS matrix analyses of Unilever Group. Also, it sheds light of the competitive and generic strategies employed by this global leading firm in home care, personal care and other products.

Financial Analysis Financial strength of any enterprise strongly depends on a number of metrics including sales revenue, profits, stock market share price and other key variable like financial ratios. Unilever PLC is a multinational company with operations across the globe. With this wide operational network, it is expected that the company has capacity to develop huge financial resources, competences and operational leverage.

Fig. 1.1 Unilever PLC three year Annual Revenue and Profit

Unilever PLC has financially performed considerably well over the years. However the profits have slightly declined over the last three years, majorly due to the global economic recession. The company reported annual revenue of USD 54,472 millions in the year 2007, USD53, 594 in 2008 and USD 52, 668 in 2009.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand company net earnings increased from USD 5470 million in 2007 to USD 6989 million in the year2008. In 2009, the profits declined to USD 4839 million (Unilever 1). However, despite the slight decline which has been as a result of worldwide economic shocks, it can be said that Unilever PLC has maintained a strong financial performance over the years. The levels of sales revenue and net income over the last three years are shown in the diagram above.

Fig. 1.2 Trend Unilever PLC’s Market Value for Share

The market share of a company’s stocks indicates investors’ confidence in the company’s ability to generate future earnings and therefore a vote of confidence in its financial position. Unliver PLC’s market price has grown steadly since 2008 to the average price eleven months in 2010.

The share price grew from an average USD26.46 in 2008 to USD26.85 in 2009 and then shot up to an average USD28.92 for eleven months in 2010. This represents an overall growth of 9.3% in three years time. The trend in the market price of Unilever PLC share indicate that investors (the market) has confidence in the companies futures financial soundess (Proctor 126).

Internal and External Environments Analysis According to Bohm, when a firm is in a particular perhaps crucial market scenario, it requires strategic tools to evaluate its present circumstance and ascertain the pertinent strategy for triumphant development (9). An analysis of internal and external factors is an imperative part of a company’s overall growth strategic plan.

This is exactly where the TOWS matrix comes in. As opposed to the SWOT analysis, which is static and rarely leads to the development of specific alternative strategies, the TOWS matrix has a wider scope and has led to the development of four specific sets of alternatives that are strategic.

This is a conceptual structure that is intended to analytically analyze through a facilitated matching of the exterior pressure and opportunities with the interior weaknesses and strengths of a specified firm. Moreover, the TOWS matrix has been introduced to identify strategic choices.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Company Analysis: Unilever Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More T stands for threats, O for opportunities, W for weaknesses and finally S for strengths. It is noteworthy that this model starts with threats because most organizations will pursue strategic planning out of a perceived crisis or threat (Koontz and Weihrich 107).

The Four Alternative Strategies Unilever Group employs the four alternative strategies of the TOWS matrix. One is the WT strategy that aims to minimize both weaknesses and threats. This may require a given company like Unilever to form a joint venture, retrench or worse still liquidate.

Unilever Group is a joint venture between two public limited companies, Unilever N.V. (NV), located in the Netherlands, and Unilever PLC (PLC), located in England and Wales. Out of this shared business enterprise, the two mother companies together with their group companies function as one financial entity, that is, the Unilever Group, which is also referred to as Unilever or the assemblage (The Unilever Group 1).

The second one is the WO alternative strategy. This one tries as much as possible to reduce the weaknesses and maximize the opportunities available. This may involve a given company developing the area of weakness within the enterprise or get the required expertise or competencies such as technology or people who can offer the much needed expertise.

Unilever has invested in technology and Research and Development (R


Politics of Immigration Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The issue of immigration has been very crucial in the United States. Immigration in United States has got both the advantages and disadvantages. This research paper will closely compare the “city on the edge” and “friends or strangers” books concerning the immigration.

There are two major types of immigrants in the United States; the first set of people is of those who earn less amount of money than those who are already in America. The second sets of people are immigrants whose earnings are higher than those already in America. These are the people with high skills with high level of education than an average American. The analysis of the available policies in the United States government would also be discussed.

Background Information Cuban immigrants are among the discussed group in the city on the edge book. This group has its effect in the economy, socially and politically. Cuba was first discovered in the United States in early 1880s. Its economic activity that made them outstand was production of cigars.

Up to date Cubans are recognized as a minority group of people in US, as most of them entered in this nation between 1959 and 1962. This group consisted of educated and people with professions as they were trying much to break the chains of oppression by Fidel Castro (Portes


The Religious Imagery Francis Ford Coppola uses During the Baptism scene at the end of The Godfather Essay college admission essay help

The Godfather is a remarkable film which is placed among the most celebrated and famous films of all times. As Louis Giannetti mentions in his book Understanding Movies, (2010) “The Copolla’s Godfather is a virtual recapitulation of the history of the genre, spanning three generations of characters”.

The first part of the movie was met with a tremendous commercial success, as well as with wonderful critique. A young Italian director, Francis Ford Coppola, managed to create a great movie starring such actors as Marlon Brando and Al Pacino. The film is famous for its numerous bright and thought provoking scenes. One of the greatest scenes is the Baptism scene which, “opened new ground in technique, dramatic subject or the social aspect of their subjects” (Giannetti, 2010).

The scene is not only the most remarkable for its effective use of new film techniques, but for its deep psychological, social and religious context. The scene of baptism is based on oppositions and comparisons of the universe themes, such as love and hate, desire and duty. It is introduced into the movie in order to emphasize the most important moments, describe the character of Michael and show a juxtaposition of two worlds: the world of family (shots in the Church) and world of mafia.

The story of the film develops in the 1940s. It depicts the rise, life and laws of the Italian mafia in America. The techniques created by Coppola became the icons of the film making and these methods were adopted by other directors in order to produce scenes in films of different genres. In the scene of baptism, the director depicts moral of the society. It is a socially specific for its historic context and a moral drama at the same time.

The scene of baptism captures the audience’s attention at once. Only a five minutes sequence produces the deeper effect on public than the rest scenes of the film. The action takes place in several places at the same time, however, the main venue is the Church where the baptism is performed. The scene shows several parallel episodes: the baptism, scene at the barber’s and in the hotel.

First, all these episodes seem to be not related to each other, actions are different and every person lives with one’s own life. However, as the priest begins to pronounce the prayer and a holy ritual is performed, a number of cruel killings are happening in the town: the men of Don Corleone kill the heads of other New York criminal organizations. The audience does not understand what is happening from the very beginning and who kills all those people.

But, when we see that those murders are accompanied with the shots with Michael, we understand that all the scenes with violence are not accidental and when Michael exit the Church, he will become a new head of the Italian mafia. According to the book by John Lyden, (2003) “the irony of this scene and the vows to “renounce Satan and all his works”, even as we see the violence he (Michael) has ordered, brings us to the point where we are asked if we can go all the way with Michael in his protection of the family.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First of all, many film critiques call this scene a masterpiece and one of the greatest and skillful works of the directors of all times. The combination of numerous artistic elements in it creates a new vision of the main characters and main idea of the film. One of the newest techniques used by the director is the cross-cutting between the scenes of the murder and the church service. Exactly this method produces the effect of suspense and tension.

This montage editing is used in order to unite and, at the same time, separate the baptism, which is symbolic, and the acts of murder. As we know, becoming a godfather is a holy action, thus, the director plays on contrast of the holiness of becoming a godfather for a child and head of the mafia. The director used this scene in order to show that kindness and evil can be equally united in one person. Thus, the sequence of cut-shots shows the complexity and contradictoriness of Michael’s character as well.

Furthermore, during the cuts, the camera is stationary and it is used in order to produce the emphasis. The priest pronounces the prayer in Latin and sometimes in English when he talks to a “new godfather”. The answers of Michael are crossed with the shots of the murders and it seems that he gives his approval for this killings.

We almost cannot see the real killers with the guns, but we all hear the Michael’s voice. This technique has a deep context. Answering to a priest, Michael agrees that he will be loyal to God and that he will serve to Church, now he should protect his nephew from all ills of the world, and at the same time, he swears to the world of mafia to be honest on his new position. The cry of a child accentuates the act of killing. It seems as if the baby felt that something evil happens behind the door.

In addition, apart from the work of camera, the tension of the scene is supported with music and language. The Latin language creates the atmosphere of holiness, but, paradoxically, it creates the feeling of horror because we feel that something should happen. In addition, the director used Bach music which also supports the atmosphere of tension.

The music begins with low and tranquil melody, but as the action develops and tension rises, the music becomes louder and more energetic (which is a characteristic feature of Bach’s music). It creates a powerful artistic effect. The scene attains its climax when Michael reinforces the Satan. At this very moment, the music also riches its climax and the sequence of murders begins. It is a very powerful mixture of vision with words and music.

Finally, one more important juxtaposition is used in the scene is the juxtaposition of a purity of a baby and cruel reality of the world in which the baby will enter after the baptism. The director gives a hope that God will protect this innocent child against cruelness which it will meet in future.

We will write a custom Essay on The Religious Imagery Francis Ford Coppola uses During the Baptism scene at the end of The Godfather specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, summarizing all mentioned above, we can say for sure that The Godfather is one of the best films of all times. It is full of great scenes that evoke our emotions and feelings. One of the most impressive scenes of the film is the scene of baptism at the end of it.

The director used new techniques of camerawork and cross-cutting in order to emphasize a juxtaposition between two situations: murders and baptism, Christianity and sin. Coppola used this method in order to create a different presentation of the theme and message of the film. With these juxtapositions, he plays with the audience’s emotions and thoughts. Thus, one cannot deny that this film put the filmmaking on a new step of its development. He invented new techniques of film making in order to show a hidden context of themes and motifs.

References List Giannetti, L. (2010). Understanding movies. 12th ed. New York: Allyn


Climate Change: Impact of Carbon Emissions to the Atmosphere Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Extreme use of natural resources has had adverse effect on human development and the world as a whole. This has led to global warming and the effects felt in various sectors of development within different economies including biodiversity. Countries have come together to create common environmental policies that aim at controlling the increased level of green house gas emissions. Grazing land is one of the major contributors of carbon to the atmosphere hence requires improvement through good management systems.

Explanation of the current general situation regarding climate change

Lots of green house gas emissions from Beef industry come direct from operational activities, these contributes some percentage to global warming. Several countries and regions have initiated emissions trading schemes as a policy to help limit the level of emissions of greenhouse gases.

The Australian government uses the Carbon Pollution Reduction scheme policy to help control greenhouse gas emissions. The per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Australia is high and still rising, this is expected to have adverse effect on ecosystem and biodiversity. Failure by the world to mitigate these emissions will lead to reduction in Gross domestic product of major countries (MLA, 2009).

The rate at which the world climate is changing may be a big threat to global businesses and companies. It is believed that companies including Beef industry will be affected by weather impacts and the policies on climate that are geared towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

In order to cater for the costs on carbon emissions, meat industry may try to project the impact on costs to consumers by charging higher prices on their services. The restrictions imposed by some countries leads to the loss of market share the beef industry because of being considered as large emitters of carbon gases (MLA, 2009).

Briefly describe the industry context to climate change

Meat industry forms part of the agricultural sector from which biological production system occurs resulting in greenhouse gas emissions. The beef industry is one of the largest agricultural industries in Australia making it contribute high percentage of greenhouse gas emissions because of ruminant emissions.

These emissions are attributed to fermentation in cattle, clearing of vegetation through burning and use of fuel energy within the beef farm premises. There is significant percentage of methane emissions from the beef cattle within the ranches, the percentage emitted depends on several factors such as the quality and availability of vegetation grazed upon. Bigger percentage of the country’s land is taken for cattle rearing since it is not suitable to support crop farming (Bray and Willcocks, 2009, p1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How the Industry could use bottom line reporting to report on how it addresses climate change Corporate Governance

The beef industry presents its bottom line on corporate and governance by checking at the legislative controls that helps in lowering carbon position within the industry. The management is concerned with the processes to be implemented that ensure land productivity and environmental gains. The management requires experienced and skilled staff in the middle and senior levels of management who are capable of managing risks associated with considerable changes within the industry (Charmley, Stephens and Kennedy, 2008).


Due to concern, awareness on climate change and focus on the rate of reduction on vegetation clearing, the beef industry has put in place some environmental responsibilities and initiatives that caters for the impact of its operations on biodiversity.

The company determines its environmental bottom line by checking on the number of animals within a specific ranch land and the vegetation clearing rate. There is also the production of biodiesel from tallow that ensures minimization of green house gas emissions (Charmley, Stephens and Kennedy, 2008).


The overall net carbon position of beef industry provides crucial information that is used in both national and international policy making. The industry contributes to economic stability by controlling tree clearing practices. This reduces the government spending on environmental conservation activities hence enough cash towards improvement of agricultural sector (Charmley, Stephens and Kennedy, 2008).

Clearly define the problems that the industry faces in relation to climate change

The industry faces the problem of choosing on the grazing system that would not interfere with soil carbon. There is also the problem on the management of operations that would ensure minimization of green house gas emissions to the atmosphere. The beef industry uses scientific approach to assess on the carbon emission, this makes it difficult for the industry to comply with government standards since the approach do not cater for international policies on regulations.

The variation in climatic conditions causes great changes on the amount of litter biomass. This is dependent on the amount of vegetation cover which is affected by the amount of available rainfall. In drought seasons the industry experiences high amount of litter relative to forage biomass. The clearing of vegetation to create avenue for ranch lands provides potential source of carbon emissions, this is since the vegetation is either burnt or left to decompose.

The industry faces the problem of variation in carbon stock which depends on the condition of climatic changes and the management of grazing fields and use of fire. Climatic changes makes difficult for re-growth to be experienced in cleared woodlands, this affects the feeding habits of the animals since forage is unavailable. The carbon in all the vegetation cleared is ultimately emitted to the atmosphere and presents potential source of greenhouse gases (Bray and Willcocks, 2009, p 24).

We will write a custom Essay on Climate Change: Impact of Carbon Emissions to the Atmosphere specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More KT Problem Analysis Situation appraisal

The beef industry is faced with the issue of managing the soil carbon stocks within its grazing ranch lands. The main contributor to soil carbon is considered to be the condition of the land based on soil properties and climatic factors. The industry currently operates large ranch lands to help cater for the demand of beef meat within the meat industry (Fogler and LeBlanc 2008).

Problem analysis

The several activities taking place within the ranch lands contributes to fairly large percentage of green house gas emissions. The processes of clearing off vegetation through burning contribute to the emission of green house gases.

On the other hand Australian government has the target of cutting down huge percentage of greenhouse gases and this makes it to charge higher percentage rates on companies. Beef industry has to strategise on how to develop energy efficient low carbon fuels and also reduce the rate of vegetation clearing in order to concur with the governments carbon Pollution Reduction scheme (CPRS).

Decision analysis

The beef industry may try to research on alternative means of grazing that could lower the percentage of soil carbon. Less grazing activities can be practiced through the application of zero grazing.

This will make the beef industry to easily avoid the restrictions imposed by the emissions trading scheme policy, hence operate its businesses freely. The other alternative that the industry can utilize is to cut down on the level of vegetation clearing activities and the use of fuel energy within the ranch lands (Charmley, Stephens and Kennedy, 2008).

Potential problem analysis

Implementation of these strategies may lead to some impact on the Beef industry operational activities. First reducing the rate of woodland clearing may result in reduced rearing of beef cattle hence low sales experienced in beef industry (Bray and Willcocks, 2009, p17).

Conclusion There is need for deep understanding concerning the impact of carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Meat industry should improve their means of managing feed stock in order to minimise emissions, the Ranch land management should also have the capability of protecting vegetation growth and the rate of decomposition of cleared vegetation. The carbon budget requires frequent assessment in order to ascertain on rate of green house gas emissions of every sector.

Reference List Bray, S.


Personal Freedom in A Doll’s House, A Room of One’s Own, and Diary of a Madman Term Paper essay help: essay help

In the literary works A Room of One’s Own by Virginia Woolf, A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen, and Diary of a Madman by Lu Xun, each protagonist struggles to achieve personal freedom from a confining and oppressive situation. Two of the protagonists represent females who attempt to realize their dreams, ambitions, and sense of self direction during the heavily sexist social mores and parochial way of life that dominated much of the late 19th and early 20th century.

The third protagonist is a revolutionary minded male, living in China during the revolutionary period of the early 20th century. All three works exude the pristine quality of a historical document in which no detail has been expunged, manipulated, or updated. All three are very much documents of their time, and as such, give readers magnificent insight into long dead social and political eras, and how they affected the human beings on the ground that lived through them.

In Chapter Three of Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own, the protagonist attempts to make sense of the nonsensical elements of female history, namely, how it could be that “in Athena’s city, where women were kept in almost Oriental suppression as odalisques or drudges, the stage should yet have produced figures like Clytemnestra and Cassandra Atossa and Antigone, Phedre and Medea, and all the other heroines who dominate play after play of the “misogynist” Euripides…where in real life a respectable woman could hardly show her face alone in the street, and yet on the stage woman equals or surpasses man” (Woolf 20).

Woolf’s protagonist is a wildly intelligent and scholarly woman cursed with indefatigable powers of logic. The absence of women from the history books coupled with their paradoxical treatment at the hands of artists and scholars throughout the ages drives her almost to distraction. “A very queer, composite being thus emerges.

Imaginatively she is of the highest importance; practically she is completely insignificant…Some of the most inspired words, some of the most profound thoughts in literature fall from her lips; in real life she could hardly read, could scarcely spell, and was the property of her husband” (Woolf 20).

For thinking women, personal freedom took on a different meaning in a time when women were not expected to possess the same brain power as their male counterparts. In essence, the protagonist of A Room of One’s Own seeks personal freedom not only from the gender politics indicative of her age, but also from her own obsessive need to understand them.

“It was disappointing not to have brought back in the evening some important statement, some authentic fact. Women are poorer than men because – this or that. Perhaps now it would be better to give up seeking for the truth” (Woolf 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Henrik’s Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, the main character, Nora, differs from the protagonist of A Room of One’s Own significantly. Nora is not an intellectual, and spends no time scouring books or libraries or trying to make sense of her situation. She does however feel the double standard that exists between herself and Helmer, as evidenced herein:

HELMER: I would gladly work night and day for you, Nora – bear sorrow and want for your sake. But no man would sacrifice his honour for the one he loves.

NORA: It is a thing hundreds of women have done.

HELMER: Oh, you think and talk like a heedless child.

NORA: Maybe. But you neither think nor talk like the man I could bind myself to. As soon as your fear was over – and it was not fear for what threatened me, but for what might happen to you – when the whole thing was past, as far as you were concerned it was exactly as if nothing at all had happened…I was your little skylark, your doll…so…fragile. Torvald – it was then it dawned upon me that for eight years I had been living here with a strange man, and had borne him three children – Oh! I can’t bear to think of it! I could tear myself into little bits! (Ibsen 112).

Nora’s disillusionment resembles the “waking up” moment for women in similar oppressive situations, those of Nora’s time who realized they were locked in a role, locked in a doll’s house, with each move they made scripted by custom, sexism, and the implicit entitlement of a traditional marriage. At the end of the play when Nora leaves, she takes a revolutionary step forward for all the women of her time.

In Diary of a Madman by Lu Xun, the main character becomes obsessed with the notion that his neighbors and members of his family have set about to eat him. Cannibalism, in Diary of a Madman, largely symbolizes the repressive quality characteristic of Chinese Confucianism in the days before the revolution in China.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Personal Freedom in A Doll’s House, A Room of One’s Own, and Diary of a Madman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Diary of a Madman, the religious culture as exemplified by the main character’s neighbors resembles a “man-eating” civilization, wherein the dominant members of the community prey on its weaker elements.

Since the main character lives in a disordered state as a result of his mental illness, he feels decidedly vulnerable. “In ancient times, as I recollect, people often ate human beings, but I am rather hazy about it. I tried to look this up, but my history has no chronology, and scrawled all over each page are the words: “Virtue and Morality.” Since I could not sleep anyway, I read intently half the night, until I began to see words between the lines, the whole book being filled with the two words—”Eat people.” (Lu Xun 4).

Diary of a Madman reflects the spirit of revolution from the perspective of a revolutionary. The main character’s drive to save himself from his neighbors, while still simultaneously setting himself apart from them, echoes the progressive atmosphere indicative of any era of great reform, at the political, personal and social levels.

The story resembles an ironic tale, given that the main character seeks personal freedom from his illness itself, since it has given him insight into his oppression which may not have been available, had he been in his right mind.

The three pieces detailed in this essay, A Doll’s House, A Room of One’s Own, and Diary of a Madman, represent classic works that reflected the honest experience of protagonists caught in oppressive social systems or political regimes. Each protagonist’s struggle for personal freedom is different; yet, their defiance toward and ultimate rejection of the roles assigned to them by their society remains the same.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Rockville, Maryland: Serenity Publishers LLC, 2009. Print.

Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One’s Own. Susan Gubar, ed. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, 2005. Print.

Xun, Lu. “Diary of a Madman.” Selected Stories of Lu Hsun. Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1960. Print.

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Concept of the Term “Feasibility” in Organizations System Essay writing essay help

Feasibility involves checking the various elements that indicate the success of a system. It is important to carry out feasibility before rolling out a system because it helps to identify the problems that lie ahead and hence prepare solutions before hand. It is important to observe the environment where the system is to be introduced and verify whether new system is needed. Systems are usually introduced as solutions to a problem thus there should be diversity in the system, that is, there should be optional systems.

The choice of a system is determined by its appropriateness and convenience. Operational feasibility gauges the suitability of a system towards its intended purpose. It’s important to check whether the system fully addresses the needs of its users. This involves checking its accuracy and making changes where necessary. The operational study should describe how the system will be run and the expected results and explain how the system will benefit the organization (Berrie 1).

Technical feasibility addresses the way the system will be operated such as what will be computed and the sequence of tasks that will be handled by the system. It considers the potential of the organization in embracing the system. This is because an organization may be willing to roll out a new system but because it does not have the appropriate mechanisms and expertise.

What matters most is the availability of materials that are necessary in developing the system because if they are inadequate the system will halt before it’s completed.

There should be professionals who are solely designated to developing the system but then they should posses the relevant skills in system design because they need to be sure of what they are doing. These are the people who should be called upon incase the system does not perform as expected. They may be people who are team members in an organization or simply people from outside the organization.

Bentley and Whitten argue that the system should have a communication channel that is friendly to the users but it can have a separate inter-phase for professionals who designed it which can be used to troubleshoot problems whenever they occur (417). In most systems the user can not encode the system because they don’t know how it was developed hence the expert who develops a system in any organization should be accessible.

It is also important to establish the maximum capacity of a system. This is because if the system is forced to perform tasks beyond its maximum capacity it may crush and the consequences may be fatal. Thus the system developer should include other systems that can be used just incase the main system fails.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance if elevators are out of service, people can use the stairs. If there are no other options incase the system fails, then the risks are too much because the activities of that organization will be brought to a standstill which will lead to decline in productivity. Nowadays organizations consider the effects of a system to the environment hence the developer should consider using materials that does not interfere with the environment.

According to Georgakellos and Maros economical feasibility involves checking the cost of developing a system and if the organization is able to fund its development without pressure (232). This study entails calculating the money needed for developing the system and also the expenses that will be incurred in its operation.

This may include the cost of training staff on how to effectively use the system. This is because when there are any faults during operation the maintenance experts will be called to rectify it and of course they will do this at a fee. It is also good to consider the worthiness of a system in future. It should be designed in such a way that it’s possible to upgrade it without developing a new system from the scratch.

Schedule feasibility analyzes the time line taken before a system is completed. A good system should be completed within the time frame that the organization wishes to use the system the most (Bentley


Discussion of the Managers in Australia Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction It is impossible to imagine the modern world without economical relations. The whole world is involved into global economy system and Australia is not an exception. Still, there are a lot of different models and practices in the economical relations. Various countries apply the economic and management systems which may be focused on contradictory issues.

Thus, it is obvious that human resources play crucial role in running business. But, there are companies which pay less attention to human resources thinking that economy results are more important. On the contrary, there are companies where human resources are valued greatly and the company is eager to lose some money but will keep a valuable employee.

Getting down to discussing Australia and the management in that country, it is crucial to point to the fact that there is an idea that Australian managers have a tendency to focus on economic results at the expense of more important things, such as downsizing, workplace diversity, restructuring, globalisation and quality. This paper is going to focus on this problem with the purpose either to support this idea or contradict it.

According to the findings presented by Australian Management Practices and Productivity global benchmarking project, Australia is the country where operation management is developed more than people management (Australian Government 21). Therefore, the economic results are really important for the Australian managers rather than other issues, which are also core for business and economy in the whole.

Organisational Culture and Its Effectiveness Australia is the country where business is subordinate to the government. Australian managers value the policies implemented by the government greatly. This also relates to the organisational culture. The research shows that “Organisational vision and mission statements from the public providers demonstrated the close alignment between government policies and the stated goals for each of the registered training organisations” (Clayton, Fisher, Harris, Bateman, and Brown 16).

The same research shows that when the government considered some specific financial loss, the organisational changes were applied by means of the agenda created by the Council of Australian Governments (Clayton, Fisher, Harris, Bateman, and Brown 16). Thus, it may be concluded it is Australian significance to regulate the business organisational culture by means of the government policies.

To check whether this organizational culture is effective or not, it is important to follow the changes in the employment for the recent several years. It is natural that when the Australian budget experienced deficit, the measures were directed at the employment sector. To balance the situation, the government have decided to reduce the working time and keep all employees at work. These actions led to the situation that “Falls in full-time employment have been more than offset by higher part-time employment (“Economic policy” 13)”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the working efficiency had reduced and the workers did not want to work better. The change of the situation is observed for now as people become full-time employed that appeared to be possible after the elimination of Australian budget deficit by means of higher tax payment from the companies which was not expected (“Economic policy” 12).

Management’s Role in Managing Organisational Culture Having considered the role of government in organizational culture and the factors which influence business and economic decisions, it is high time to talk about the role of managers in making decisions and where these decisions are mostly directed at, economic results, quality, globalization, etc.

The organisational culture is influenced by the national culture. Due to the specifics in the political and social relations, the organizational culture in Australia is democratic and bureaucratic. The control is decentralized and in most cases it is aimed at giving tasks, coordinating activities, and providing purposes.

Considering the results of the comparative research conducted by Peter Lok and John Crawford, it is possible conclude that Australian management value equalitarianism and participation, “authority is legitimised more on performance and merit” (Lok and Crawford 324). The information from this research helps us make some important conclusions.

Firstly, managers play important role only on the level of giving tasks and checking the results. The Australian managers got used to the fact that their demands are followed and the work is completed as the employees in the country always follow the instructions they are given.

The employees work on the result and sometimes do not notice that the work could have been done more effective and with greater efficiency in the future if some changes in the task were implemented. This is the first confirmation of the fact that Australian managers are focused on economic results. The work must be done in time. This is the central condition for business in Australia. The quality and other important issues are sometimes ignored.

Secondly, giving some freedom for employees in the relation to the task performing, the managers as if relieve them of responsibility for the methods used by the employees. It may be concluded that downsizing and workplace diversity are not their problem if the task is not ready in time. This is one more supportive argument in the relation to the thesis statement of this paper.

We will write a custom Essay on Discussion of the Managers in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Focus on Economic Results with the Increase of Management Participation To understand whether the economic results from such strategy and organizational culture are high, it is important to consider the factors in management performance and relate to its effectiveness.

Analysing the results of the research conducted by the Australian Government, it is possible to states that due to the fact that operational management is more developed in the country, the managers usually “lag in their deployment of advanced people management practices” (Australian Government 7). The main reason for this is the misunderstanding of company success.

The main purpose of the report is to show that in case if the company pays more attention to the workplace diversity, training and management performance, the economic results are going to increase greatly. It is obvious that to reach the highest results in business, the companies should not only direct all their attention to the economic results, but also introduce “more flexibility in their management styles, decentralising decision-making processes and fostering self-managing work environments” (Australian Government 7).

The research has been provided to understand what is more effective, either the capital investment or the management practice. The increase of management practice on one point in both capital and labour sectors led to the following results, the capital increased on 44% while the labour presentation increased on 56%.

This proves that management empowerment is really important for the whole working process. If the employees are managed by some specific facilities, their economical performance is going to increase (Australian Government 14).

The same source shows that most of the Australian companies work on reaching the results rather than on the strategic improves of the company functioning. The information that operational management is more developed in the country along with human recourse management is supported with the exploration in different areas of the country. The average score of the operational management in the country is 3.22 of 3.5.

Other activities are rather lower, performance management score is 2.96 and human resource score is 2.71 (Australian Government 22). Thus, it can be easily concluded that the companies in Australia direct all their working force on economic results paying fewer attention to the human resource management product quality, globalization, etc.

It has already been mentioned that the implementation of the human resource management along with the focus on the economical results may give good profit.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Discussion of the Managers in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jones, Jimmieson, and Griffiths have conducted research to show that “employees who perceive a human relations cultural environment within their division would report higher levels of user satisfaction and system usage” along with higher economic results (396). The research showed that the companies should care not only about economic results but also about the quality of the product as the dissatisfied customers are not going to return to the company one more time.

Furthermore, the universal globalization of the economy is also important and if the companies in the country do not pay necessary attention to the problems of workplace diversity and environment, downsizing, structure of the workers and product quality it will have to lag behind in a couple of years when other countries will go ahead.

Conclusion Thu, it may be concluded that the hypothesis that the Australian managers pay more attention to the economic results rather than to the downsizing, workplace diversity, restructuring, globalisation and quality. Moreover, this high attention to the result in the economic relation is usually paid at the expense of those important facilities.

The information is considered via numerous research which shows that operational management is highly developed in the country apart from performance and operational ones. The companies in the country got used to the fact that they follow the instructions and polices provided by the government, and the government usually directs it attention of gaining more profit.

Moreover, the organizational culture in the companies of Australia follows the same principle, the employees perform their tasks directly, they are aimed at reaching the final result, economic profit rather than being inspired by the healthy and supportive environment at the workplace or high quality of the products.

Using this method for running business, the companies in Australia should remember that the whole world has changed the strategy and pay much more attention to the human resources. The government should create a policy which points at the importance of human resources and their role in gaining profit. The companies should pay more attention to training their employees as this is aimed at increasing the working performance and increasing the profit.

Works Cited Australian Government. “Management Matters in Australia: Just how productive are we?” Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and research November, 2008. Print.

Clayton, Berwyn, Fisher, Thea, Harris, Roger, Bateman, Andrea, and Mike Brown. “A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report.” National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 2008. Print.

“Economic policy.” Country Report. Australia (2009): 12-13. Print,

Jones, Renae A., Jimmieson, Nerina L., and Andrew Griffiths. “The Impact of Organizational Culture and Reshaping Capabilities on Change Implementation Success: The Mediating Role of Readiness for Change.” Journal of Management Studies 42.2 (2005): 361-386. Print.

Lok, Peter and John Crawford. “The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison.” The Journal of Management Development 23.3/4 (2004): 321. Print.


Measuring Performance Essay online essay help

Introduction The purpose of this essay is to assess whether measuring an employee’s performance is an essential tool for managers within organizations. Most managers and human resource directors view performance management and measurement to be a time wasting activity given the belief that they have hired skilled and experienced workers to perform organizational activities.

These managers fail to understand the fact that recruitment, selection and development of employees are important activities that lay the foundation for performance management and measurement. Performance measurement is defined as the sampling of an employee’s current work performance after which the sampled information is measured against a desired result to determine whether the employee is achieving the set out objectives and goals of the company (Carlaw et al 2003).

Performance measurement is also the management of work outcomes to reduce any variations that might exist in the work performance process.

Performance management is seen to be an important activity for many organizations and managers as it allows them to determine whether the employees are achieving the goals, objectives and mission of the organization. Performance measurement provides a sense of direction to employees by showing them what progress they have made in terms of personal goals as well as organizational goals.

It provides employees with a gauge of how they have been performing their duties and what they need to do to make their performance better. Performance measurement ensures that employees are motivated to perform their work because of the reward programs that exist for employees who have performed their duties in the appropriate way (Carlaw et al 2003).

Performance measurement is the process where an organization sets out the measurements that need to be analysed against the desired results.

The main reasons for conducting performance measurement include evaluating how well a company is performing, controlling the performance of employees within the organization by providing managers with the authority to ensure their subordinates are performing their work activities in the right way and also improve the performance of the organization to achieve the organizations goals and objectives (Howell 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Process of Performance measurement Performance measurement is an important activity for organizations since all managers want their employees to perform their jobs well. Measuring job performance ensures that the organization’s resources have been optimally utilised. It also reduces any expenses that might arise due to poor job performance and employee underperformance of work activities.

Measuring performance identifies, communicates and rewards the employees who have met the desired organizational results. Performance measurement programs usually originate from the needs and expectations of an organization. Every employee within an organization has a specific need that they should meet to ensure that the organization’s objectives have been met (Mathis and Jackson 2008).

The first step in the performance measurement exercise is to identify the expected performance levels that every employee is expected to achieve in their work activities. This will involve conducting a joint discussion between the employees and managers to determine what needs to measured.

There are many business processes that require performance measurement and the most important processes are deemed to be those that are important to the organization and its customers. In determining which work activities need to measured managers and employees should ask questions such as what goals and objectives need to be achieved within the organization, what business processes is the organization involved in and what operations are needed to conduct these processes (Platts and Sobotka 2010)

After identifying the organization’s business activities, the next step will be to identify the critical activities that need to be measured. This will involve examining the critical activities that are involved in each of the business processes. Critical activities are described as those that have a major impact on the organization’s overall process efficiency, effectiveness, quality and productivity.

To determine the critical activities, the organization has determined whether these activities have a direct or indirect relation to the customer’s satisfaction and whether the employees and management view the activity to be critical to the organization. Once the critical activities have been identified, the next step will involve establishing the performance goals or standards that will be used in the measuring exercise (Hatry 2006)

Performance goals and standards are deemed to important in the measurement exercise as they help in determining the desired result of the performance measurement exercise. Goals are usually determined by managers or by customers through their feedback, inquiries or complaints. This will require the organization to know its customers in order to identify their needs and expectations.

We will write a custom Essay on Measuring Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For every critical activity that has been chosen for measurement, a goal or standard has to be established to measure this activity. The performance measurement goals should be designed in a way that they can easily be attainable and applicable in the existing environmental conditions of the business. The goals should also be legitimate, measurable and easy to understand (Hatry 2006).

One the performance goals have been established the next step will involve establishing performance measurements. Performance measurements are usually defined units of measure that are composed of numbers and units of measures. These numbers and units are usually represented by multidimensional units such as work hours, dollars, and number of errors, meters, and number of projects completed in a given time.

To develop appropriate performance measures, managers need to identify raw data that can be used to generate performance measures as well as identify what tools and approaches will be used in implementing these performance measures. This stage involves using what the manager wants to measure by using the critical activity to derive a performance measure.

Critical activities that have quantifiable goals can be used to easily derive the performance measures for the exercise. If the critical activities lack quantifiable goals, the performance goals can be derived from raw data needed for the performance measurement program. Raw data could be in the form of customer orders, customer complaints or the number of sales that an employee has made (Hatry 2006).

Once the performance measures have been identified the next stage will involve identifying the employees to be measured and the people to conduct the performance measurement activities. Appropriate people need to be chosen to conduct data collection as well as analyse employee performance by comparing the collected information to the desired performance.

The person required to conduct the performance measurement activity should also be capable of determining whether any corrective action is necessary to improve performance within the organization. The people or person to conduct this process should know what the goals of the exercise are as well as know what the actual performance of an employee is. They should also have the authority to implement necessary changes after the exercise has been completed (Hatry 2006).

After the people to measure and be measured have been chosen and identified, the next step will involve collecting the actual employee performance data. The person conducting the performance exercise will have to look at both descriptive and quantitative data related to the performance of the employee. This will include number of sales that the employee has made, number of errors they have made while performing their jobs and the number of hours they have worked.

Once this data has been collected, the next step will involve analysis and evaluation. Data analysis and evaluation determines whether the results of the measurement compare to those of the actual performance or standard. If there are inconsistencies, then the people responsible need to determine whether any corrective action needs to be undertaken to improve performance (Hatry 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Measuring Performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importance and Role of Performance Measurement Approaches for Companies While many personnel and human resource specialists concur that performance measurement is an important activity for an organization, some people hold a different opinion on the importance of performance measurement. The generalist view of performance measurements is that they are the tools that managers use to evaluate the performance of an organization and its employees so as to gain understanding of what has been achieved and what needs to be achieved.

Performance measures are important for managers as they help them know how the organization is doing, whether the employees are meeting the organization’s goals, whether the company’s customers are satisfied with the products and services or whether any improvements are necessary for the company’s business operations (Mathis and Jackson 2008).

Platts and Sobotka (2010) hold a different view of the importance and role of performance measurement to an organization. The two based their views on a study they conducted on a German gas and electricity company, the results of which revealed that the managers did not use any performance measures on their employees.

The results showed that the company used operational excellence instead of performance measurements where the operational excellence depended on organizational mechanisms such as trust and employee responsibilities. The company also used incentives, rewards and inspiration to motivate employees to perform their work effectively (Platts and Sobotka 2010).

Conventional research has shown that performance measurement activities within organizations are important activities that help an organization to determine whether it has achieved its goals and objectives and what changes have to be implemented to ensure that the organization achieves its goals and objectives.

The traditional roles of performance measurement have been divided into three roles which are inspiration, incentives and accountability where accountability involves the monitoring and reporting of an employee’s performance against the previously determined performance goals (Platts and Sobotka 2010).

According to their research, the authors found that an alternative view existed on accountability in performance measurement where the employees in the German company had to prove themselves to be compliant to the principles and guidelines that underlined the operations of the company. They determined from their research that organizations that had a flat structure did not require any performance measurement metric to drive the performance measurement process.

With regards to incentives, the authors observed that the employees working in the German gas and electricity company viewed their clean and healthy working environment as an incentive and motivation for them to perform their work and achieve the set out goals of the company. They also viewed the public recognition of the work efforts to be a more important incentive than monetary rewards (Platts and Sobotka 2010).

When it came to inspiration, the authors noted that it came from a desire that the employees had to achieve the stated performance measures. This desire also came from an awareness of the employee’s efforts that contributed to the overall achievement of the organization’s objectives and mission.

The alternative view of inspiration that the authors derived from their assessment was employees who identified with the company were motivated to perform well in their work because they had a sense of belonging. Inspiration within the company was instilled by charismatic leaders and the practice of management allocating more responsibilities to employees (Platts and Sobotka 2010).

Platts and Sobotka’s (2010) research noted that the German company practiced alternative means of achieving high employee performance which were through offering inspirational leadership, providing a positive working environment for the employees and encouraging employees to provide their suggestions and opinions on how the company can improve its performance.

The authors concluded their research by stating that formalized employee performance measurements were not required in achieving high performance standards within an organization (Platts and Sobotka 2010).

Platts and Sobotka’s analysis of the German company showed that performance measurement was not a fundamentally important activity in organizations. A case study of Lloyds TSB Bank showed that the company practised the traditional approach of performance measurement for its employees since it was involved in a company merger with TSB Group in 1995.

The performance measurement program used by the bank was mostly a checklist that assessed the performance of employees within the bank after a given period of time. Performance measurement in the bank was not directed towards the achievement of the company’s goals but it was directed towards the completion of tasks by the bank’s employees.

This demonstrated that performance measurement within the bank was more of a bureaucratic process instead of a performance enhancing activity (Houldsworth and Jirasinghe 2006). This reinforced Platts and Sobotka’s view that performance measurement was not an important activity for organizations.

The Lloyds TSB Bank incorporated the use of the balanced scorecard in its performance measurement activities where the approach was used to balance the bank’s strategic priorities to its business processes, finances and its customers. The balanced scorecard did not however measure the performance of employees within the bank effectively because the objectives of the individual scorecards were viewed to be no more than the banks repackaged objectives and goals.

There was also a general lack of understanding on how the balanced scorecards worked when it came to measuring employee’s performance within the organization. Such challenges presented an opportunity for the bank’s management to seek new ways of enhancing performance amongst the bank’s employees. These saw the incorporation of five new areas which included franchise growth, contribution, customer satisfaction, risk and people (Houldsworth and Jirasinghe 2006).

While the above case studies showed that performance measurement was not an important activity for organizations, the general conception that exists about the activity is that it is important for organizations and managers. Performance measurement is viewed to be an important key in the success of a business because it communicates the established goals of the organization to the employees.

It outlines the activities that need to be achieved by an organization’s employees and it also provides a sense of direction for organizations. Without conducting performance measurement a company cannot be able to determine where it’s going. It also cannot determine whether the set out goals and objectives have been achieved. Performance management therefore becomes an important activity and tool for managers who are determined to achieve the goals and objectives the company (Howell 2006).

Conclusion The essay has focused on the aspect of whether measuring employees performance is an important activity for managers. The assessment of the performance measurement process has revealed that the activity is in important in terms of providing a sense of direction to the organization as well as determining what objectives and goals have been achieved by the organization’s employees.

The essay also revealed the varied opinions that existed on whether performance measurement was an important activity for an organization. A review of various case studies showed that the activity did not in any way improve the performance of a company meaning that it was just another human resource program that did not add any value to the organization.

The case studies revealed that the company’s management practised other activities that were meant to improve the performance of employees within the organization such as using inspirational and charismatic leaders, encouraging employees to take up more responsibilities and encouraging employee loyalty to the organization.

While these activities worked for these organizations, the same cannot be applied for other organizations. Despite these variations in opinion, the general consensus was that performance measurement was an important activity for most organizations.

References Carlaw, M., Carlaw, P., Deming, V.K., and Friedmann, K., (2003) Managing and motivating contact centre employees. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hatry, H.P., (2006) Performance measurement: getting results. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press

Houldsworth, E., and Jirasinghe, D., (2006) Managing and measuring employee performance. London, UK: Kogan Page

Howell, M.T., (2006) Actionable performance measurement: a key to success. Milwaukee, US: American Society for Quality (ASQ) Quality Press

Mathis, R.L., and Jackson, J.H., (2008) Human resource management. Ohio, US: Thomson higher education

Platts, K., and Sobotka, M., (2010) When the uncountable counts: an alternative to monitoring employee performance. Business Horizons, Vol.53, No.4, pp 349-357


Physical Appearance and Securing Employment Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online

Table of Contents Outline



Gender Appearance

Sexual Capital



Outline Thesis statement: Physical appearance has been proved to influence an individual’s chances of being employed in the organization. This article reviews journal articles that talk about the relationship between physical appearance and securing employment.

Introduction Both previous and recent studies confirm that there is a relationship between physical appearance, such as dressing and body physique, and chances of being employed in a company or in the organization. Employers associate certain individuals with particular features such as fat individuals are linked to laziness. Labeling therefore becomes a problem in seeking employment. In the United States for instance, laws have been crafted that eliminate discrimination against physical appearance.

Literature shows that the most beautiful women and handsome men have a better chance of landing a job as opposed to individuals without admirable qualities. It then follows that employment is an independent variable whereas physical traits such as body size, color, height and shape are dependent variables. Without employment as a variable, physical traits could not be relevant within the context of work.

Other factors influence an individual’s chances of being employed in the organization but this paper will specifically focus on physical traits. The paper uses some journal articles to evaluate what other scholars have done in relation to the topic. Dressing code that is identified with particular cultures or religion affects an individual’s chances of being employed. Due to subjective reasons, employers may have a dislike to a potential employee because of appearance and presentation.

Religion Yaghoob Foroutan examined the relationship between culture and the chances of employment for women in organizations. He set out his research because there was a growing debate over gender and cultural disparity in society. Female Job seekers from Muslim culture had problems securing employment in Australia and other parts of the world as well. The scholar explored the differences between Muslim women and females from other cultures. He found out that Islamic dressing code discriminated women from society.

Few Islam women were employed because employers were uncertain about their demands and desires (Foroutan, 2008). The researcher compared employment rates of female Muslims in Australia and those employed in other parts of the world. He established that there was no difference since other cultures all over the world had problems with Islamic dressing codes.

The researcher employed quantitative research methods in his study. He distributed questionnaires to both employers and Muslim women. The findings were analyzed using regression method in order to substantiate the findings. The findings suggest that dressing code is directly related to chances of securing employment in the organization. Managers and employers in general are reluctant to employ people whom they do not share a culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gender Appearance Trautner Mary and Kwan Samantha conducted an extensive research pertaining to attractiveness of both men and women. They noted that beauty affects several stages of employment such as appointing, salary, performance assessment and promotion.

Employers expect individuals to be dressed decently during recruitment exercises. Furthermore, only certain air styles attract employers, implying that those with unwanted air styles cannot land jobs. From time to time, employers encourage their employees to maintain certain body figures.

Furthermore, employers regulate the dressing code of employees by insisting on official attires. Those seeking employment must conform to prescribed attires and uniforms. The scholars sought to know why some employers were firing their staff due to increased body sizes. The researchers analyzed some of the cases deliberated by the American law courts relating to employee appearance (Trautner,


Gun Control Importance Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Gun Control

Refutations to counter arguments

Works Cited

Introduction Over the past years, the United States Congress has been engaged in protracted debates on the efficacy and constitutionality of federal regulation of firearms and ammunition. A number of federal laws have been enacted since 1934 to bolster such regulations. The issue of gun control has been a matter of discussion since time immemorial with gun control advocates advancing that such measures enhance the government’s efforts to ensure that juveniles, criminal gangs, and other high risk groups do not get access to guns.

These advocates charge that the only practical way through which availability of guns can be reduced is by enforcing federal regulations. They have even suggested that stricter policies such as near-prohibition of gun ownership by non-security personnel be enforced and that all persons who own guns should be registered. These advocates posit that such measures have several significant benefits on society.

The issue of federal gun control has also received a fair share of opposition. Opponents hold that legislation of federal policies cannot in any way help in keeping guns out of reach of high-risk persons but rather adds an unnecessary burden on law abiding citizens and security personnel. Moreover, they argue that such controls deny the citizenry the privileges of the Second Amendment. To them, widespread gun ownership only serves to decrease crime levels and tyranny by criminal gangs and government.

They further argue that state police powers should be strenghtened as opposed to enhancing federal policies. Some of the most noteworthy national statutes enacted to help in controlling firearms within the citizenry were passed in 1934 and 1968. The 1934 Act envisaged strict registration requirements and a transfer tax on machine guns and short-barreled long guns.

The 1968 Act not only made it illegal to purchase guns through mail, but also forbade interstate trade in firearms, their transfer to underage persons, and access to other dangerous weapons (Gun Control, para. 2). The Act also stipulated penalties and licensing requisites for manufacturers, importers, and dealers. Crime and mortality statistics have prominently featured in the gun control debate (US Constitution, 2011).

Statistics indicate that the number of homicides that have been committed annually with a firearm by persons falling in the age bracket of 14-24 years between 1985 and 1993 increased by 173%. Between 1993 and 1999, a decrease of 47% was realized. Fatalities attributed to firearms from all causes and for all age groups decreased by 22%. For minors, especially juveniles, a decrease of 40% was realized between 1993 and 1998 (Gun Control, para. 1).

This argumentative essay on gun control will endeavor to support its thesis with reasons and concrete evidence. The argumentative essay will use pathos-a form of emotional appeal to its audience sympathies and imagination. This will make the audience easily identify with the writer’s point of view. The essay will include at least 3 arguments and two refutations to counter these arguments. The essay will try to validate the arguments by engaging in both inductive and deductive reasoning.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gun Control Gun control is an emotive debate that has to be treated with a lot of caution lest people begin arguing with emotions that can be counterproductive. I have been somewhat ambivalent with regard to the issue of federal gun control. Many questions have always been asked pertaining to federal gun control. These questions include: does an individual have a right to own a gun? Does stringent gun control decrease violence and crime?, and, is self-defense a good reason for gun ownership?

With regard to whether an individual should have the right to own a gun, it is imperative that one knows that the right to bear arms is an individual and not a collective right. In the Heller v District of Columbia case (US Constitution, 2011), the court ruled that the right to bear arms has always been in existent and that the court only serves to affirm that right.

The court reiterated that the right to bear arms is not dependent on military service (Endersby, para. 1). The court ruled that the six plaintiffs in the court case were free to legally own the guns they were previously forbidden from holding. This ruling should be extended to the rest of the population and hence nobody should be barred from owning guns.

While it is true that stringent gun control laws can decrease violence and crime, the move can flop and can instead increase the black market trade in guns and other dangerous weapons. Increased sales therefore imply the black market for guns will become profitable to criminals and this will intensify criminal activities and dealings motivated by the drive to increase profits margins.

One point that should be made clear is that it is individuals who kill their fellows, not the guns (Malcolm, para. 3). Therefore, it should be noted that gun violence is instigated by sociological factors as opposed to the availability of guns.

When citizens are allowed to own guns, the activities of criminals will be deterred. A right thinking criminal would be very cautious when planning to steal from people they openly know are in possession of guns. Indeed, with or without guns, criminal activities will always be prevalent because guns are not the only avenue for committing crimes. Criminals who are determined enough will always find ways of doing what they intend to do.

Therefore, enforcing gun control policies cannot have a significant effect on crime and violence. Actually, low homicide and crime rates are not a direct cause of low gun ownership. Law enforcing officers have established that guns used in committing murders are not registered, therefore, enhancing gun protection through legal means cannot bear much fruit. In addition, guns used in committing crimes are not stolen from registered owners, therefore, there is a possibility that these guns are smuggled from other nations.

We will write a custom Essay on Gun Control Importance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, gun control policies can therefore do very little in limiting the use of these illicitly acquired and owned guns. Gun controls also infringe on individual citizens right to defend themselves when they are attacked. These same laws are not making any effort in trying to restrict criminal gangs from getting firearms from the black market. This leaves law-abiding citizens defenseless.

With respect to whether self-defense is a good reason for gun ownership, it is imperative to note that citizens have an inalienable right to use guns for self-defense when they are attacked by gun wielding criminals. Since the government seems ill prepared to protect its citizens from crime and criminals, the only option should be to allow citizens to protect themselves.

Therefore, individuals should not be deprived of the ability to come up with ways of protecting themselves. Denying defenseless citizens the freedom to carry guns to protect themselves against lawless criminals only leaves them at the mercy of criminals.

Indeed, in the Warren v District of Columbia case, the court ruled that there is no right to police protection as there is no contract between the local police and an individual. The implied meaning of the court ruling was that each and every person should be responsible for their own security hence the need to own a gun.

Refutations to counter arguments As refutations to counter the arguments that have been outlined above, it is not enough for people to push for the ownership of lethal weapons just because they want to protect their property. The fact that a person has a right to protect his or her property is not in dispute, but yearning to own a gun to enhance protection of this property by killing one who intends to steal it is not the best way to guarantee this right.

The argument that citizens should be allowed to own guns to deter would-be criminals can only hold if the citizens do not have intention to take away life that is very sacrosanct. It is also improper to threaten somebody else just because one is protecting his or her property.

In light of whether a person should have a right to own gun, an individual should be allowed to bear arms because this helps protect against domestic tyranny (Kates, para 1). In fact, gun ownership by individuals helps in checking government and police excesses. Police are most likely to be irresponsible and brutal if individual gun ownership is restricted by federal gun control policies.

Allowing individuals to own guns may make police weary with regard to infringing individuals’ liberties and abuse of law. Hence, gun control laws should be done away with, however, persons who own guns must be registered or licensed to reduce instances of gun misuse.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gun Control Importance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Endersby, Alastair. Gun control. 2000. Web.

Gun Control. Almanac of policy issues. 2011. Web.

Kates, Don. Why a Civil Libertarian Opposes Gun Control. The civil liberties Review. 3(2), 24. 1976. Print.

Malcolm, Joyce. Guns and violence: the English experience. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2002. Print.

US Constitution. The United States Constitution. 2011. Web.


Management Information Systems Courses and Careers Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents MIS Students

MIS Major Courses

Employment Outlook

Recruitment Opportunities

List of Potential jobs for MIS major

Salaries for MIS

Benefits of MIS

The Difference between MIS and Other Computer Majors

Works Cited

Utilization of computers has permeated every region of culture from health sciences, food manufacture, machinery, industries and governments. How information is obtained and processed, is of considerable significance in these areas.

Public and private institutions produce large quantities of data like staff and supply records. So as, to be victorious, these institutions ought to find a means to control their information. Hence, Management information systems majors examine the structure, performance, and protection of computer systems.

Knowledge on Management information systems is vital to institutions on a management height, where it is employed to preserve and build up new techniques for organizing vast amounts of information and helping managers in the decision-making process (Effy 264).

Management information systems specialists are chiefly interested in making use of computers tackle business issues. They offer high-technology resolutions for matters that require to be dealt with, matters such as optimizing creation, sales projections, exploring trends, fitting suitable technology, and exhibiting data in a manner that executives can easily visualize. Mostly, the management information systems course is presented in business administration institutions.

Hence, Management Information Systems (MIS) can be described as the study of technology, institutions and community (Marien 154). A course in management information systems is required by learners who desire to concentrate on business- related data analysis and processing. MIS curriculum offers a wide outline of information systems that are computer based, with stress on administrative control and business appliances.

A range of areas linked to the Management Information Systems course is accessible to universities and colleges. Some of these areas related to this Major include Computer Systems Analysis, Computer Programming, Information Technology and Data Processing.

They engross relating quantitative methods, computer knowledge and managerial expertise to the information processing necessities of institutions. MIS merges computer expertise with executive decision-making techniques to devise, examine, apply, and control information systems that are computerized in an institutional set up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most students who specialize in information technology, information systems, computer engineering, and computer science studies first take careers in software engineering, developing, or in mechanical fields such as system maintenance. Conversely, as their vocations expand, they get themselves constantly faced with business and administration issues which, in spite of their technical expertise and knowledge, they are not able to handle.

Lessons in management information systems are aimed at sealing this space through presenting a practical foundation in critical features of Information system management/Information Communication Technology, in concert with an appreciation of modern thinking on ICT organization and control.

MIS Students So as, to do well in MIS, learners are supposed to be attracted to institutions, how they operate, and computing. Learners as well require a strong clasp of written and verbal skills of communication. Functioning with computers normally necessitates learners to have an aptitude in handling disappointments, concentration power and self motivation skills.

MIS Major Courses MIS syllabus encompasses a balanced combination of theory and application. A vital feature of this course is the ongoing, close attachment with manufacturing, trade and the public segment. Various institutions have different requirements on optional courses that one takes for Management Information Systems majors.

Some courses that could be offered in these institutions include Information Technology, Data Base Fundamentals, Calculus, Computer Programming, Decision Support Systems, Computer Systems, Desktop Publishing, Networking, Program Design, Statistics and Software Engineering (The University of Arizona 1).

Employment Outlook Specialists in Information Systems are, amid the most desired talent in the career market at present. Firms seek applicants with excellent verbal and writing skills, since presentations to customers and operating with marketing and sales group are an ingredient of the regular job necessities.

Enrollment bonuses are widespread, increasing, regular, plus transfer packages are wide and openhanded. Professionals who are experienced in business solutions are on high demand. Although work experience is normally demanded in recruitments, it is not compulsory to have it so as to obtain a well paying job. All main consulting companies are rivaling for aptitude in systems analysis.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Management Information Systems Courses and Careers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Institutions, which provide financial services, are in search of information technology experts who are capable of devising electronic bank networks. Opportunities for Java and network programmers with excellent team and communication capacities are plentiful.

Recruitment Opportunities Learners who graduate with Management Information Systems obtain jobs via diverse ways, resulting to posts with an extensive range of companies and institutions. Among the enrollment, openings are the spring Career Showcase synchronized by Delta Sigma Pi and Eller Student Council and the annual Career Days, which is normally supported by UA Career Services.

List of Potential jobs for MIS major The following careers and certified institutions demonstrate some positions that one may consider taking or working for following completion of the course. They include Computer Analyst, Database Specialist, Systems Development Manager, Internet Specialist, Technology Representative, Project Leader, Systems Specialist, Communication Specialist, Computer Programmer, Information Systems Manager, Networking Specialist, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer and Technology Instructor (U.S. Dept of Labor 15).

However, some majors are more likely to result to direct employment than others. One is supposed to reflect on the possibility of employment following graduation cautiously, lest one has plans to continue with graduate work in an area.

Conversely, regardless of the conclusion of graduate work in a number of areas, employment could be hard. Hence, one must establish the prospects for any major, prior to taking it. The likelihood of employment is normally boosted by the conscription in second minor or opts for radical employment-associated courses.

Salaries for MIS The U.S. Median Salary for MIS Starters is 49,400 while for those who have remained in the job for some time is $87,200 (The University of Arizona 1). Nevertheless, these figures are public medians, implying that one can make extra or fewer than these sums. The anticipated salaries also differ with the selected vocation path, knowledge, as well as the geographic locality.

Benefits of MIS MIS has the potential to bring lots of benefits to activities in all industries. Peer reviewed periodicals, for instance, MIS Quarterly and professional institutions, for instance, the Institute of MIS persist to discover and describe new methods in which enterprises can utilize MIS in order to realize their goals.

An enterprise becomes better positioned to drive out ahead of others through developing an outstanding management information system. Each market top enterprise will include no less than one core competency, to be precise, a task they execute better than their rivals. MIS structures give the tools required to obtain a better perception of the market, plus a better perception of the business itself.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Information Systems Courses and Careers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An enhanced knowledge on the production procedure augments the capacity to develop the administration of the supply chain, with everything from the supply of equipment to the production and circulation of the refined produce. Hence, enhanced reporting of industry procedures leads to a smooth production procedure.

Improved supply chain management also leads to an enhanced capacity to respond to market modifications. Healthy MIS systems allow a venture to respond swiftly to their surroundings, facilitating them to drive out ahead of the rivalry, and offer superior services.

The Difference between MIS and Other Computer Majors First, a degree in computer engineering course centers on crafting and structuring hardware for computers. Second, a degree in computer science course centers on programming and software organization. Conversely, expertise in MIS involves understanding of person and managerial issues engrossing computer utilization.

An example of this is devising computer structures for utmost human efficiency, usability as well as to meet precise managerial and human wants. They also devise systems for maintaining records, performing and following industry dealings, and interacting with workers and staff. They as well develop systems for aiding managerial decisions and promoting teamwork. Hence, MIS is more diversified than other majors in computers.

In conclusion, Management Information Systems (MIS) can be described as the study of technology, institutions and community. A course in management information systems is required by learners who desire to concentrate on business- related data analysis and processing. MIS curriculum offers a wide outline of information systems that are computer based, with stress on administrative control and business appliances.

Most students who specialize in information technology, information systems, computer engineering, and computer science studies first take careers in software engineering, developing, or in mechanical fields such as system maintenance. MIS syllabus encompasses a balanced combination of theory and application. Various institutions have different requirements on optional courses that one takes for Management Information Systems majors.

Some courses that are likely to be encountered in these institutions include Information Technology, Data Base Fundamentals, Calculus, Computer Programming, Decision Support Systems, Computer Systems, Desktop Publishing, Networking, Program Design, Statistics and Software Engineering. Learners who graduate with Management Information Systems obtain jobs via diverse ways, resulting to posts with an extensive range of companies and institutions.

Specialists in Information Systems are, amid the most desired talent in the career market at present (McLeod 183). Firms seek applicants with excellent verbal and writing skills, since presentations to customers and operating with marketing and sales group are an ingredient of the regular job necessities.

Enrollment bonuses are widespread, increasing, regular, plus transfer packages are wide and openhanded. Professionals who are experienced in business solutions are on high demand. Although work experience is normally demanded in recruitments, it is not compulsory to have it so as to obtain a well paying job. All main consulting companies are rivaling for aptitude in systems analysis.

The following careers and certified institutions demonstrate some positions that one may consider taking or working for following completion of the course. They include Computer Analyst, Database Specialist, Systems Development Manager, Internet Specialist, Technology Representative, Project Leader, Systems Specialist, Communication Specialist, Computer Programmer, Information Systems Manager, Networking Specialist, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer and Technology Instructor.

So as, to do well in MIS, learners are supposed to be attracted to institutions, how they operate, and computing. Learners as well require a strong clasp of written and verbal skills of communication. Functioning with computers normally necessitates learners to have an aptitude in handling disappointments, concentration power and self motivation skills.

Works Cited Effy, Oz. Management Information Systems. Boston, Mass: Thomson/Course Technology, 2009.

Marien, Michael .Future Survey Annual 1990. S.l: Transaction Publishers, 2006.

McLeod, Raymond. Management Information Systems. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007.

The University of Arizona. Management Information Systems: Career Briefs. Web.

U.S. Dept of Labor. Career Guide to America’s Top Industries: Essential Data on Job Opportunities in Over 40 Industries. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Pub, 2004.


Marketing Philosophy of Business Operating Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Marketing involves the whole philosophy of operating a business after developing a clear understanding of what the customers’ needs are. According to Stephen (2007), marketing is the whole process of management which begins with identifying the requirement of the customers, after which the business plans on how to meet these requirements for the benefit of both the customer and the business in terms of profit generated.

This means that marketing in the context of a business needs to be dynamic in order to effectively meet the needs of the customers as they are always changing.

Marketing is also viewed as a management process that has set its main objectives of developing a lasting relationship with the business’ customers and thus benefiting from this relationship in other ways like profit making. According to Peter (2008), this process can only be achieved through researching on what the customers require after which the strategies of establishing this relationship are implanted.

Since the main goal of marketing is to increase the business returns, the worth of marketing in this process is based on the ability of the marketers to pick the appropriate customers whom the business establishes a relationship with as it makes differential advantage.

Marketing is also defined as the process that involves the business management utilizing the business resources in an efficient way in order to fulfill the needs of their customers after establishing what they require. Ray (1999) argues that since the market situation keeps on changing and thus affecting the attitudes of the customers towards a product, the business needs to consistently keep informed on any of these changes in order to ensure that they remain competitive.

Laundry detergent manufacturing company Unilever is one of the most successful laundry detergent manufacturing companies on the globe. Besides cleaning products, the company also produces other products like foods and personal care items. Cleaning products is therefore, one of its major sectors where these products contribute to the company’s 22 percent of its turnover. Some of the cleaning products that the company produces include; all laundry detergents, final touch fabric softeners and sunlight dish detergents among others (Pederson, 2000).

The company takes its marketing tasks with the seriousness that this responsibility deserves. After a long duration in this area the company has come up with its own unique marketing code that makes it very successful in this field. The company has invested a lot of its resources in their continued understanding of the needs of their customers. This has enabled the company to develop products that are purely consumer brands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main objective of this is to come up with products that will make their customers look and feel good about their homes and personal care (Unilever, 2007). The company does this not necessary by telling them how their products will change their lives but through building and establishing a strong relationship with them in order to get their views on what their need. The result is that the products the company comes up with promote their customers’ confidence and makes their lives more meaningful.

Through the good relationship that the company has established with its customers worldwide, they have been viewed as one of the most creative companies in the world. Basically, their expert knowledge is derived from their understanding of the needs and preferences of their customers.

Due to the company’s vigorous marketing activities, it has managed to grow from a local company at the time of its commencement to become a global company. The strategy of the company to concentrate its marketing plan after understanding their customers’ needs qualifies it to be among the companies with the most successful marketing strategy.

References Pederson, J. P. (2000). International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 32. Farmington Hills, MI: Cengage Gale.

Peter, D. (2008). Value-based marketing: marketing strategies for corporate growth and shareholder value. UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Ray, W. (1999). Marketing: origins, concepts, environment. London: Business Press.

Stephen, S. (2007). Airline marketing and management. England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Philosophy of Business Operating specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unilever. (2007). Unilever marketing. Retrieved from


B2B and B2C technologies, application and advantages Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Abstract

B2B and B2C Technologies, Application and Advantages

Buy-side B2B applications

Trading Partner b2b Applications

B2C Technologies

Shopping Cart System

Business Application; Used Book, Gaming, or Music Store

Reference List

Abstract The main purpose of any e-business is to make maximum utilization of the available technology in order to promote effective communication hence realizing high profits within an organization.

Through adoption of the appropriate technologies, an organization is able to promote effectiveness of its business to business communication hence promoting efficiency in the company’s supply chain. Technology enables an organization to promote efficiency in business to customer communication hence making it easy for the company to make transitions with its customers.

B2B and B2C Technologies, Application and Advantages In the contemporary world, online business has become one of the most common strategies that have been adopted by many organizations across the world to promote sales. Online business is a kind of business whereby customers make orders for the products and services through the internet. This kind of business is characterized by low operational costs hence maximizing profits.

In order for an online business to be successful, an organization must be able to apply appropriate technologies that will promote effective coordination of the activities between the business and customers as well as between the business and the suppliers in its supply chain operations.

Buy-side B2B applications This is a kind of application where the business logic is stored on the side of the procuring company. Through the buy side b2b applications, the company is allowed to access only the approved company’s e- catalogs. Therefore, there will be very low chances for an organization to make inappropriate purchases.

Several companies have applied this method in their operations. One of the companies that have incorporated buy-side B2B technology is the Procter and Gamble. This involves provision of products supplies in various kinds of business. These include coffee, laundry, tea, and snacks products.

Application of this technology has helped the business in many ways. There are a number of advantages associated with these b2b and b2c technologies and applications. By applying buy side b2b applications, an organization is able to reduce the chances of buying incompatible products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because an organization can only access the predetermined catalogs. This plays a significant role in reducing inefficiencies within an organization. Through buy side application, the price is usually predetermined. This implies that there is no wastage of time by making negotiations.

Trading Partner b2b Applications This application helps organizations to reduce the manual processing of business transactions. In some cases, processes like booking, inventory management and logistics management may be very demanding. In this case, an organization can significantly benefit from automated negotiation and purchasing processes.

Toyota is one of the companies that has benefited from this technology. Through the trading partner b2b application, the company has managed to improve its sales significantly. Toyota has a store pass word which is used to access the catalogues where it makes orders of the required products. This has significantly helped the organization in promoting the level of efficiency in its supply chain. The company makes its orders directly from its suppliers. This has reduced the level of inefficiency in the organization.

Through trading partner business applications, an organization can significantly improve on its efficiency. For instance, an organization will reduce the time wasted queuing in making orders and making other transitions. An organization will be able to eliminate paper work in its operation, which is one of the main sources of inefficiencies in the contemporary business world. By automating its processes, an organization manages to streamline all its business processes. This contributes in promoting the level of efficiency within an organization.

B2C Technologies The b2c technologies play a significant role in promoting efficiency in the processes involving communication between the organization and the customers. By applying this method, an organization manages to eliminate paperwork in its operations.

One of the main developments in b2c interaction is the online shopping. Through the internet, customers are able to do their shopping online. One of the major technologies that have allowed customers to make shopping online is the shopping cart system.

Shopping Cart System Application of this technology provides the seller with a single point customer. Therefore, an organization is able to provide effective customer support hence maximizing the level of consumer satisfaction. This enables customers to access the products, search for the products they want to buy online without necessarily going physically to the stores. In this case, customers are able to view various aspects of a certain product.

We will write a custom Essay on B2B and B2C technologies, application and advantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The shopping cart system technology has been applied by many companies in promoting business to customer communication (May, 2001). One of the companies that have intensively used this system is the Nintendo video games.

Nintendo is an international company that is involved in manufacturing and sale of video gamers. Since the company has customers from all over the world, customers use shopping cart system to shop and make orders for the games they want. After making an order, customers are expected to make payment after which their product is delivered.

There are several advantages associated with online cart system in an organization. One of the main advantages is that it promotes efficiency in organization’s operations. This method has also helped many organizations reach a larger number of customers. By application of this method, an organization is able to improve on its convenience. Online stores are available throughout and therefore customers can make shopping at any time they wish.

Another way through which organizations has maintained contact with customers is through social networks. Many organizations in the contemporary world are using social networks to reach and communicate with their customers (ANZMAC, 2009). Many organizations have also managed to reduce their operational costs.

Business Application; Used Book, Gaming, or Music Store In a music store, the above discussed b2b and b3c technologies can be very important in promoting efficiency. A music store can significantly improve its efficiency in the supply management by adopting b2b technologies.

Through the trading partner business application, a music store can be able to improve the process of communication with the trading partners. For instance, the supplier of the material that is used in the store can easily contact the customers.

By adapting trading partner application, the organization will be in a position to reduce the paper work in its operations (Khosrowpour, 2006). Most of the operations will be done online. Orders will be made online as well as the bargaining process. In this case, the bargaining process is easier because the process is usually automated.

In other words, a music shop will be able to reduce the overall operational expenses. Consequently, the store will be able to increase its profit margins significantly. This method can also be very useful in a used book store and gaming. A used book store can apply this method in ordering books from its supplier. The store will be able make transactions online hence reducing expenses significantly.

Not sure if you can write a paper on B2B and B2C technologies, application and advantages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buy-side b2b application will also be useful in a music store. Such applications will help the company to reduce the operations expenses significantly. It will also contribute in improving the level of convenience in the organization. This will help in increasing the company’s profit margins.

For instance, a company will be able to access specific e-catalogues of the organizations supplying empty CDs that are very important to the store. The music store will be able to get access to a particular site where they can access CDs with particular specifications. This will help the organization to avoid any inefficiency that may be caused by selecting products with undesired specifications.

By adapting buy-side b2b application, a music store will also be able to improve on its accounting procedures. This is because the figures on transactions will be available in soft copies. This will be easier for the organization to use compared with other methods.

Buy-side b2b application can also be very useful to gaming business and used book business in various ways. For instance, the business will be able make orders online without incurring the transport costs of moving to the suppliers to make orders. The book store will then be supplied with the ordered books. This implies that the organization will be able to maximize its profits because the expenses that are associated with paperwork are significantly reduced. This will also help the company to save time resources.

B2c technology is also vital to an online business. The main aim for every business is to maximize the level of sales. The overall performance of any business is significantly determined by the level of sales it is able to make (Khosrowpour, 2007). However, the level of profit is determined by the total level of sales an organization is able to make. In order for an organization to increase its sales well as maintain high level of sales, it must be able to attract a large number of people and communicate effectively with its customers.

For the music store, b2c technology has a pivotal role in promoting the success of an organization. By integrating b2c technology in its operations, the organization will be able to promote efficiency while interacting with its customers. As a result, the business will be able to meet its sales targets.

One of the main technologies that can be very helpful to a music store is the shopping cart system. This is a type of technology that allows customer to make online shopping without having to move physically to the store (Rose India, 2011). Through shopping cart system, the music store will be able to improve the convenience in its operations.

Customers will be able to make orders without necessarily having to move to the stores to make orders. The business will also be able to maximize the level of customer satisfaction since it can attend a large number of customers at a time. This will consequently lead to increase in the level of profits.

The shopping cart will also be useful for a used book store. A book store can adopt this technology where the customers will be able to view the books available in the store online. This will also enable the customers to make orders online. Again, this will significantly reduce operational costs. Online shopping cart system will also help the company to reach a large number of customers in large geographical areas.

Reference List ANZMAC. (2009). Business and Consumer Communication Via Online Social Networks: A Preliminary Investigation. Web.

Khosrowpour, M. (2006). Cases on Electronic Commerce Technologies and Applications. U.S.A: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Khosrowpour, M. (2007). Utilizing and Managing Commerce and Services Online. London: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

May, P. (2001). Mobile Commerce: Opportunities, Applications, and Technologies of Wireless Business. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rose India. (2011). B2B Application Development, B2B Web Applications, B2B Application Development Companies. Web.


Software Solutions in Web Design Essay cheap essay help

In web design, there are numerous solutions, both open source and proprietary, developed for use by the designers. This has seen the quick evolution in design technologies and elegance. According to Jacobson (2007), among the available solutions is Joomla, which is an open source, content management system. Joomla is a powerful tool that enables web designers to build powerful online applications and websites. Joomla is reportedly among the most popular tools in web design and is based on the PHP and MySQL technologies.

The advantage of using Joomla includes the fact that the software is open source, therefore, free. Joomla is also a fully fledged content management system with many plug-in such as chats, communities, forums and events. Moreover, it offers a deep level navigation with sections and categories. The disadvantage is the use of large learning curve and slow loading time. In case the layout changes; development becomes clumsy (Jacobson, 2007).

XDev development software is a proprietary web development solution. It uses a combination of web development solutions such as, XML, Microsoft IIS, MySQL among others. The advantage of using XDev is its flexibility, which enables the development of custom websites.

The main disadvantage lies in the cost and the large learning curve associated with its use (Greenberg, 2008). Finally, WordPress is an open source software solution for web development. This software is lightweight with articles sorted by date. However, the database queries are heavy, and have limited administration possibilities in some of the sections (Greeberg, 2008). I would prefer Joomla as a web development tool due to the large online development community and the availability of online tutorials.

In the development of shopping cart programs, a number of solutions are available. Interspire is a proprietary shopping cart development solution that is rich in many of the shopping cart features. The software is browser based with different design possibilities and drag-drop features. Interspire’s features allow for mobile commerce and shopping comparison. It uses novel technologies, that the developer may need a considerable amount of learning time (Kahn, 2002).

X-Cart is an open source, and shopping cart software. It has features that are easy to use with advanced features that improve user experience. However, the software is cumbersome and may require advanced knowledge for the developer. In choosing suitable shopping cart software, I would prefer X-Cart since it has many advanced features. Moreover, X-Cart has online resources that would make learning, development and maintenance easy (Kahn, 2002).

Just like many other categories of software solutions, payment software solutions are numerous. Auric system is a software solution for implementation of payment processing systems. The product is easy to install, maintain and use. It also offers a high level of security and is compatible with other payment systems. The software is compliant with the best practices as stipulated by Visa USA. However, it needs considerable programming knowledge to implement (Kriegler, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another software solution for online payment systems is the ACI payment system developed for building and supporting payment systems. It provides many compatible services and security features and is easy to use. It also requires a considerable level of technical knowledge for successful implementation. In implementing a payment system, I would prefer to use the Auric system due to the compatibility features and its flexibility.

It is essential to underscore the fact that there are multiple software solutions for each problem and the most suitable one depends on prior experience, popularity and compatibility with other software systems.

References Agostinho, H. (2009). The new era of payment software with ACI. Sao Paulo: ACI Payment Systems

Greenber, H. (2008). Web development software solutions for enterprise needs. Boston: Global Enterprise software

Jacobson, H. G. (2007). Building web application using Joomla. Melbourne: University of Melbourne

Kahn, R. (2002). Evolution of shopping cart technologies. New York: State University of New York

Kriegler, M. A. (2006). The Auric payment processing systems: product description. New York: Auric Systems International

We will write a custom Essay on Software Solutions in Web Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Tribal Cultures, Colonialism essay help: essay help

The role of tradition and culture in contemporary society has been the subject of extensive academic scrutiny. Scholars have consistently emphasized cultural importance as a pervasive theme of modern life. There have been controversies and debates over “Asian values” concerning the region’s political discourse.

This was after the Senior Minister of Singapore Lee Yuan Yew opposed the stand of the Eurocentric universalistic. It had demonstrated that the democratic undertakings in the Western version are ideal and practical to the rest of the world. However, probably no absolute Asian can represent the cultural values of all Asians. Although Asian intellectuals may perceive it as awkward and barbaric, preservation of ethnic cultural traditions will be beneficial to the ethnic groups in the long term.

Culture preservation enhances mental strength and Asians will find joy in life in familiar landscapes. Asians should recognize the value of the culture to their future generation. Indeed, the cultural values of Asians poise a sense of identity. The community will gain personality and character of its own.

As culture is shared among the inhabitants of the region, preserving it will involve passing it to the new generation. Effective transfer of culture involves the use of symbols when translating. The common symbols used in Asia include art, religion, and language.

Culture bonds individuals in the society. Preservation of the culture will enhance unification in Asian traditions. The traditions and customs of the Asian community include celebration of annual festivals, designing a unique clothing, eating food, and the imminent cultural values.

These cultural practices have unified the community, and they have experienced a peaceful co-existence in the region. In addition, preservation of Asian culture will impose a sense of social control in which the Asians will be able to shape their behavior and standards. These cultural values are the base for an individual principle in life.

In the ancient times, orientalism was used to describe the attitudes of Europeans toward Asian societies. However, orientalism can also be seen on the way Asians view themselves. This accounts for tendencies to self-orientalization that would become an integral part of the history of orientalism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This phenomenon is still a factor in the current society. Ideally, ‘Orientalising’ of Asian cultures closely reflects the broader paradigm that is characterized by seductiveness, immorality, and immaturity among others. In essence, orientalism has demonized the Asian culture by depicting it as primitive, immature, irrational, subjective, and backward. On the other hand, it portrays Western laws as modern and advanced, developed, rational, and objective. This is the ideal situation in the current society.

Orientalism affects an individual travel fantasies and the preservation of ethnic culture amongst the Asians. The need to be civilized and modernized in the society will mean that the ethnic culture of the Asians become extinct as it is replaced with the westernized culture. Tourists’ travels to Asia learn about their cultures. In addition, where they would have resort to westernization cultures, the tourist’s travel fantasies would have been impeded.

As such, it will cause a negative impact on the economy of Asia. Though not much success was achieved in spreading the colonial socio-culture, education policies that were accompanied by the westernized culture opened the minds of the youth to political ideas in the West. Indeed, preservation of the community’s culture will enhance tourism, and provide uniqueness in the societal activities. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve it.


Socialization in a Multicultural Framework Essay essay help

Introduction Such concept as multiculturalism is nowadays often used by educators and policy-makers. Although in popular opinion, it is usually associated with tolerance, yet John Friesen defines it as the acceptance and respect for people of different cultures, linguistic backgrounds, and racial origins (Friesen 1995, p 177).

Currently, there is a debate about the necessity to include multiculturalism in school and how it can be done (Friesen 1995 p. 173). These questions are particularly important for Canadian society which is extremely diverse in terms of culture, race, and language.

This paper will examine the connections between the process of socialization and multiculturalism. In particular, it is necessary to explain the roles played by school and families in the upbringing of a child, especially if we are speaking about appreciation of other traditions, values, worldviews, and so forth. Secondly, this essay will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of school-based socialization. This discussion will identify the challenges that teachers and parents should expect.

The responsibility for fostering understanding of cultural diversity The first aspect that should be analyzed is the necessity to foster understanding of racial and cultural diversity. This task is closely related with the process of socialization or the formation of a person’s identity, value system, beliefs, attitudes, and behavior norms. At this point, policy-makers and educators attempt to determine whether parents or schools should be responsible for promoting multicultural values. It seems that this task requires joint collaboration of these players.

Previously, the socialization of a child was primarily parents’ responsibility; yet, as it is argued by John Friesen this process has “moved into the public sector” (1995, p. 174). On the whole, Canadian society has long realized the necessity for multiculturalism.

The existing legal, political, and educational frameworks are aimed at performing the following functions: 1) to raise children’s awareness about cultural differences; 2) to promote cross-cultural respect; and 3) to eliminate prejudice, intolerance, or racism (Friesen 1995, p. 176).

These objectives can hardly be attained without active participation of teachers and parents. One should bear in mind that families and schools are the main agents of socialization. They shape the behavior of children or adolescents, form their values or attitudes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Provided that they do not take part in the process, children will be left to their own devices. Their perceptions of race, culture, or ethnicity will be shaped by mass media and peers. The influence of these socialization agents is not always beneficial. The cooperation of educators and parents can produce much better results. This is why one should view them as partners, rather than some separate entities.

To some degree, this promotion of cultural or racial respect can be similar to deliberate indoctrination. However, it has several distinct features. The term indoctrination is usually interpreted as unquestioning acceptance of a certain ideology or worldview (Magnell 1998, p. 59). The crucial distinction is that educators must prompt children to certain views about racial differences, cultures, religions, and so forth; yet, the teachers must not force students to certain conclusions.

Such strategy can only lead to an opposite reaction. This issue must not be overlooked by educators or parents. It is quite possible to argue that proper socialization of a child has to be persuasion rather than compulsion. If parents or teachers try to foster acceptance of multicultural diversity by means of indoctrination, they will not attain good results. Therefore, they should not rely too much on this method.

Multiculturalism and the design of school curriculum The necessity to promote multicultural acceptance and racial tolerance can involve some changes in school curriculum. The teachers must show that every member of the class, irrespective of his/her cultural origin, has some distinct talents and gifts (Friesen 1995, p. 178).

Such a scholar as John Friesen suggests several ways of including multiculturalism in the curriculum. First of all, students should learn about the history and culture of ethnic or racial communities living in the district, city, or even country (Friesen 1995, p. 178). Such an exercise can be incorporated into history classes.

At this point, we can refer to the ideas of such scholars as Johnson and Cremo who believe that contemporary educator must have in-depth knowledge about the learning styles adopted in various cultures and worldviews (1995, p. 169). This approach will ensure that the children representing minority groups do not alienated from the rest of the class. The students must see that every culture or ethnicity has its distinct place in the country.

Furthermore, many scholars advocate the adoption of bilingual education as a means of promoting cultural diversity (Hitlen 2010). They should be allowed to speak their language in school. These children should be allowed to learn their own language along with English or French. Multilingualism is particularly important for Canadian society.

We will write a custom Essay on Socialization in a Multicultural Framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By proving children with opportunity to speak two languages in school, the educators will achieve two goals. First, they will help them retain their cultural and linguistic heritage. Apart from that, the knowledge of the English language is also vital for them, especially if we speak about higher education and employment.

As it has been said before, the efforts of educators should be also aimed at combating racism, bigotry, and prejudice. In part, this objective can be attained by examining the questions of race, culture, or ethnicity in history or literature classes. The students must be able to see the cruelty, absurdity, and danger of racial, ethnic, or cultural discrimination.

These are some of the strategies which can assist educators in fostering multiculturalism. The main peculiarity of this approach is that multiculturalism will be incorporated into existing subjects. The critical task of teachers is to convince students that respect to other races or ethnicities is a valid social norm. Nonetheless, they should avoid indoctrination because the students may not accept such form of education.

The drawbacks and benefits of school socialization Currently, many researchers attempt to determine the extent to which schools should act as agents of socialization. It seems that such practice can have several advantages and disadvantages. Teachers can better raise children’s awareness about society, culture, race, and politics.

Educational institutions can shape student’s behavior styles, moral values, and perceptions of culture. The main advantage of such socialization is that it normally takes place in a controlled environment, and a teacher will be able to intervene if he/she sees that a student behaves in a deviant way.

The educator can act as a guide who modifies and correct the values and views of a person (Friesen, 1995, p 175). The second benefit is that this socialization will be carried out by professionals who want to act in the best interest of a child. The same thing cannot be said about other agents of socializations, especially mass media. These are the positive aspects of school-based socialization.

Yet, at the same time, such practice can have several drawbacks. First, as John Friesen argues, school agenda can become “overburdened” with various extras such as sex education, global concerns, peace education, and so forth (Friesen 1995, p. 178).

By overemphasizing the importance of socialization, schools can fail to perform their main function, which is to give students knowledge and skills necessary for professional life and career. Besides, one should not forget that educational policies are based on the culture of the majority or the dominant group. In his book, Pedro Portes points out that minorities are very often subjected the so-called “dominant group culturing” (2005, p. 118).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Socialization in a Multicultural Framework by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are forced to assimilate into the majority and even abandon their cultural heritage. School administrators must be aware of these risks when they try to influence the socialization of children or adolescents. These professionals must also find ways of balancing socialization practices and academic instructions. The teachers must ensure that socialization is not carried out at the expense of academic instruction.

School-based socialization and the historical treatment of First Nations families In the previous section, we have already touched upon some dangers of school-based socialization, namely the forced assimilation of a minority group. The treatment of Native Nation families can eloquently illustrate this threat. As Johnson and Cremo (1995) argue in many cases, schools forced children to reject their cultural heritage. They were forbidden to use their language and practice their traditions (Johnson and Cremo 1995, p. 166).

Furthermore, administrators of many schools perpetuated the stereotype according to which Native Canadians were savages whose culture did not deserve any respect (Johnson and Cremo 1995, p. 166). Such socialization can only lead to inferiority complex and deviant behavior. One should also take into consideration that these children were separated from their parents. Such separation only intensified their psychological trauma (Johnson and Cremo 1995).

The main purpose of this policy was to convince Natives that they can either adopt British culture or perish. Thus, one can say that school-based socialization can put a person’s identity and cultural heritage at risk (Johnson and Cremo 1995, p 170). Surely, such situation is not likely to occur in a modern classroom, but one cannot disregard these risks.

Certainly, modern Canadian education adopts a different attitude toward Natives and their culture. Contemporary educational policies are no longer premised on the idea of white superiority. Nonetheless, Canadian educators have to learn more about the worldviews of Native Canadians, in particular about the worldview of the Native Canadians, language, perceptions of family and community, and value system. Without this knowledge multicultural education is hardly possible.

Conclusion This discussion shows that the adoption of multiculturalism into school can raise professional standards for educators. Their knowledge of different cultures has to be profound. Admittedly, schools can really foster respect and acceptance of other religions, customs, or races, but they can do it only if they are closely allied with parents who are more important agents of socialization.

This essay has also identified some of the risks which are related to school-based socialization. Increased emphasis on socialization practices can divert teachers from other duties, such as academic instruction, and this is not acceptable. Finally, promotion of racial or ethnic diversity must reflect the needs and problems faced by minority groups.

Reference List Friesen, J. (1995). Multicultural Education as a Component of Formal Socialization. In K. Covell (Ed.), Readings in Child Development : a Canadian Perspective (pp. 172-184). Torono: Nelson Thomson Learning.

Hitlen, S. (2010). Handbook of the Sociology of Morality. NY: Springer.

Johnson, N.,


President and congress Report (Assessment) college admission essay help

The past years has seen a gradual increase in presidential powers leading to an imperial presidency. This increase can be attributed to a number of historical events in the country. During national crises like Civil War and the Great Depression it is important that the president show good leadership; a leadership that keeps the country united despite the crisis while at the same time ensuring that the crisis is successfully resolved.

If the president succeeds in dealing with the crisis effectively, he will command a great respect among the citizens hence increasing his presidential powers. Secondly, many people would respect leaders who initiate sound policies. During tenure as the occupant of the House on the Hill, President Franklin Roosevelt commanded a great respect among the Americans when he showed leadership in legislation as the New Deal policy originated from the executive branch under his direction.

This was also the case in the presidency of Johnson who initiated the Great Society policy. Such show of leadership in formulation of major legislation led to the increase in the presidential powers. One of the reasons why President Clinton was powerful presidents is because of the many executive orders he issued during his reign. Such executive order as the Emancipation Proclamation was popular with the people thereby increasing the president’s powers.

The ability of the president to run a country with sound trade policies that ensure economic growth is a major factor in boosting the image of the president. Good public image comes with increased powers thus the conclusion of such trade agreements as the Reciprocal Trade Agreements and reduction of tariff on foreign goods saw an upsurge in presidential powers.

This led to creation of an imperial president. Moreover, being the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the president must show good leadership especially during war. Successful execution of this duty will without doubt lead to an increase of powers of the president. Many presidents of the United States of America earned local and international respect and thus an increase in their powers by their activism both at the local and international stage.

Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt saw an upsurge in their presidential powers due to their presidential activism in national and world affairs. Presidents who are seen by the public as strong and able usually command a popular admiration and consequently increased powers. This was the case for presidents such as Clinton and Franklin Roosevelt who became powerful due to popular admiration for being strong and able.

Many presidents also saw their powers as president increase due to their strong and popular foreign policies. This is because these foreign policies affect the lives of the American people both directly and indirectly. Thus the successful of such policies would lead to admiration both locally and internationally. The resulting good reputation leads to presidential powers increase.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The budget of any country is a very sensitive issue since it has a direct bearing on the living standards of the citizens. Thus any president who sets the right agenda as the budget maker would definitely command great respect and as such, become very powerful (Dye 96).

These factors may lead to an imperial president however there are checks and balances that ensure the president only enjoy the constitutional powers only. Such checks and balances exercised by the Judiciary, the Congress, media and public, friends and family and self control. The Congress being the predominant branch of the government always reasserts its powers over the president ensuring that imperialism does not set in due to the increasing presidential powers.

Through congressional hearings, the Congress is able to increase public awareness and opposition to various national and international issues. This may force the president to review its policies and stand concerning such issues as seen during the congressional hearings on the Vietnam War which put pressure on President Johnson and Nixon to withdraw from the war through negotiations. As the Congress reasserts its powers, imperialism in the presidency is checked.

This it does by conducting investigations such as the Watergate investigation against President Nixon, the Iran-Contra investigation against President Reagan and the White Water investigation against President Clinton (Smith, Jason and Ryan 50 – 111). Moreover, it also reasserts its powers by making their stand known to the president on any matter through Congressional debates. The Congress may also propose constitutional amendments and thus redefine presidential powers such as limiting the terms of office of the president.

The Congress can also limit the presidential powers by passing a resolution not to commit American troops into combat abroad. In addition, the Congress may also declare war thereby allowing the president to exercise emergency powers such as prohibiting strikes and lockouts. The Congress has the power to tax and to spend and thus controls the president spending too (Dye 97 – 98).

The Congress also accompanies the president and participates in international conferences as American delegates thereby shaping the outcomes of such conferences. Moreover the Congress also, by repassing the bill in the same session by a two-thirds majority vote in each house, override presidential veto. The presidential powers are also limited by the Congress since it must approve all the judicial appointments as the president must consult the Congress.

The Congress also has the power to impeach the president as seen in the case of presidents Nixon and Clinton (Smith, Jason and Ryan 120 – 191). The media and public opinion also prevent imperialism. The president should also have control and also listen to the counsel of family and friends. If these groups fail in any case, the Judiciary then takes up the matter and limit presidential powers to prevent imperialism.

We will write a custom Assessment on President and congress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Dye, Thomas. Politics In America, (8th ed.). New York: Pearson/Ph, 2009.

Smith, Steven, Jason, Roberts and Ryan, Vander Wielen. The American Congress (5th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.


Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction An earthquake is a dangerous tremor that is caused by sudden release of energy in the crust of the earth leading to seismic waves that cause movements of the ground thus causing deaths and damages. These movements only last for a few minutes during which many deaths and a lot of damage is caused. This damaging process begins with violent shaking of the earth after which the ground ruptures leading to permanent displacement along the earth’s fault lines.

Earthquakes have also been known to cause landslides and even damaging volcanic activity. While earthquakes can come as naturally occurring events, they are also triggered by man’s activities. Some of the human activities that can cause earthquakes include mine blasts and nuclear tests. The naturally occurring earthquakes are the most common (US Geological Survey para 2). Seismometers are the instruments used for measuring earthquakes.

Earthquakes are measured using a local magnitude scale called the Richter scale or the moment magnitude where the latter is more common in reporting earthquakes that measure higher than 5 in magnitude. The earthquakes that are below magnitude 4.5 are considered as minor earthquakes.

Those that fall below the magnitude of 3 do not cause much damage and may even not be suspected in some areas. However, those that measure magnitude 7 and above have been known to be catastrophic depending on their depth. The recent largest earthquake in the world is the one that occurred in Japan on March 2011. This particular earthquake measured magnitude 9.0.

The effect an earthquake has depends on the location where it occurs and its strength and the shallow it gets. The earthquakes that are known to be shallower lead to more damage as they destroy even the structures that are designed to handle such catastrophes.

On the other hand, an earthquake of a certain magnitude will have less impact on an area where the ground that underlies it is a solid rock than if the same earthquake occurred in an area with sediment as the underlying ground. However, the surface waves which are both shallow and of high magnitude cause great damage irrespective of where they occur. This is because they cause the ground to shake in the region that they occur and any rapid ground shaking leads to damaging of structures and buildings.

The shakes caused by these waves often buckle roads and even rail tracks (Scientific American 230). Basically, ground shaking is often viewed as the major and most common earthquake damage where it results to deaths and a lot of damage. The other damages that an earthquake can cause but not always are landslides and avalanches. These too can be equally damaging, like the one that occurred in Peru in 1970 killing about 80,000 people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brief history of earthquakes Earthquakes are not new phenomena since both high rated in magnitude and those that have not made huge impacts after they have occurred have been experienced on the globe.

In the last few decades, seismologists have been keen where they have noted an increase in number of earthquakes that are of high-magnitude and those that have had great impacts. Some theorists have proposed that the energy that these earthquakes have released on a global scale in the last decade alone measures more than that which have been released in the last two or three decades before.

However, the earthquakes that occurred between 1952 and 1965 had a lot of energy just like the ones being experienced in this decade. During the period before 1950s, there was no accurate seismological equipment that would have been used to record the earthquakes that occurred during this period.

There have been large magnitude earthquakes in the world’s history ranging from 8.5 to 9.5 and causing different damages depending on where they have occurred.

For instance, in May 1960, an earthquake occurred in Valdivia, Chile killing 1665 people and injuring about 3000 others while those that were displaced amounted to more than 2 million people. This earthquake has been the highest recorded in magnitude in the world history since it was rated magnitude 9.5. The damage was so great to this nation that it caused the country around US$550 million.

The earthquake also caused a tsunami that caused deaths in Hawaii, Japan and even the Philippines with a rupture zone of more than 1000km. The earthquake also led to a volcanic eruption in Puyehue that caused steam to spread to a region of about 6km from where the eruption took place. There have been other more damaging earthquakes though rated lower than this in magnitude. The level of damage an earthquake causes depends on the location and its magnitude.

Types of earthquakes Since earthquakes are viewed as the ground shaking, the different classifications of earthquakes depend on what causes the shaking. Basically, there are four common types of earthquakes. To begin with is a type that is known as tectonic earthquakes. The crust of the earth is composed of broken fragments of land normally referred to as tectonic plates (U.S. Department of the Interior para 4-6).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tectonic plates loose, thus can move towards each other sometimes bumping into each other or even slide past each other (Kious and Tilling 44). A tectonic earthquake, therefore, occurs when the tectonic plates slide over each other causing great earth tremor. They are the most common types of earthquakes ranging from low to high level magnitude. Tectonic earthquakes also cause the most dangerous tremors which cause massive damage within a very short time.

Volcanic earthquakes are another type though less common than tectonic earthquakes. They are known to occur prior to or after a volcanic eruption. When classifying volcanic earthquakes by type, the first type is known as “volcanic tectonic earthquakes” while the second one is known as “long period volcanic” earthquakes.

The volcanic tectonic earthquakes usually occur after a volcanic activity where the magma that erupts leaves a space. As a result, the rocks move to cover the space causing an earthquake. In most cases the lava that an eruption causes falls on its vent thus causing blockage in pressure release. Since the blocked pressure cannot be contained for long, it erupts with a great explosion.

As a result an earthquake that occurs more often than not is of great magnitude (Simkin et al 14). The long period volcanic earthquakes occur before a volcanic eruption where the change in heat of magma below the surface of the earth forms seismic waves just before the eruption. This leads to an earthquake that may either be of high or low magnitude.

Collapse earthquakes are another type and are also referred to as mine bursts. Normally, these earthquakes are of small magnitude and often occur around underground mines. They are usually caused by the pressure that is found within the rocks leading to the collapse of the mine roof. This collapse leads to earth tremors that may cause damage in the nearby areas.

The other types of earthquakes are known as explosion earthquakes. They normally result from nuclear explosions. They are an example of earthquakes caused by human activity especially the numerous modern nuclear activities. The earthquakes of this type that have occurred in the past have been caused by testing of nuclear substances, causing tremors in the region where these activities are carried out. These tremors often cause great damage to land and the people of these regions are often affected.

General effects of earthquakes Earthquakes do not occur in all areas but are concentrated on specific areas where tectonic plates which make up the earth’s surface meet. The people who are located in these areas are the ones who are at the greatest risk of deaths and even other effects that an earthquake causes.

These are areas which lie along the Pacific Rim, island chains and even those that are along continents’ boundaries. Some of the nations that lie on these regions include Japan and Aleutians among others. It is estimated that more than 500,000 earthquakes are reported every year where those that are of too small magnitude to cause any damage form the majority.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Earthquakes: Definition, Prevalence of Occurrence, Damage, and Possibility of Prediction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Of those that are susceptible by humans and are about 3000, seven to eleven of them cause destruction and loss of lives. Earthquakes cause various problems in various regions in the world. The most common problem that earthquakes are associated with is urban fires. These fires are normally caused by the ground shaking that occurs during this time (Seligson and Shoaf 903). This shaking and displacement of the ground leads to destruction of electrical and gas lines.

As a result, fire break ups are common during earthquakes. Handling this effect may be a problem as the means to respond to it like water may also be affected by the water pipes rupturing. Normally, the highest damage even to the buildings is caused by theses fires which are hard to deal with during the time of this crisis. In regions that are mountainous, earthquakes often cause landslides. These landslides are equally damaging.

Earthquakes have always been known to cause a lot of damage and destruction. Depending on where the earthquake occurs, it may cause destruction by damaging structures and buildings, fires, generation of tsunamis and even lead to loss of lives. The level of damage that an earthquake causes depends on several factors.

The region that it occurs There are earthquakes that occur in remote regions of a country where there are few structures and are sparsely populated. The effects of such earthquakes are less damaging than those that occur in densely populated and more developed areas.

This is because in remote regions fewer lives are lost and fewer structures damaged. In addition, the time of the day when an earthquake occurs can determine the number of lives lost in an earthquake occurrence. This is where earthquakes that are known to cause the highest number of loss of lives or those that occur during weekdays especially between office hours which are 9.00 in the morning to 4.00 in the evening.

This is because during this time there are many people in large buildings in their offices and others in schools. Earthquakes have more effect on large structures and buildings than small homes which have no storey. The construction type also determines the damage caused. The modern buildings are designed to be less susceptible to the damage caused by earthquakes. Buildings that are well built can easily withstand ground shocks, thus limiting the damage caused.

Prediction Another factor is earthquake prediction. This is where a prior warning is given of a potential earthquake. When a warning is given early enough, the right measures to respond to it are put in place enabling less damage to occur and fewer lives to be lost. Prediction is done by estimating that an earthquake will happen in a region during a specific year.

Scientists who possess wide knowledge on earthquakes are made to determine the location that an earthquake will occur and the magnitude that it has. This is because earthquakes mainly occur in specific geographic zones where they may even recur along a specific fault line at different times. Using this awareness, prediction can be made thus creating the appropriate awareness.

Earthquake in Japan Japan is situated on the eastern edge of the Eurasian Plate. On Friday, March in 2011, a catastrophic earthquake hit Japan. This earthquake occurred near the Pacific coast of Japan which is about 400 km away from Tokyo. The US Geological Survey rated the earthquake to be of a magnitude of 8.9 while the USGS Japan Meteorological Agency (para 5) later updated it to magnitude 9.0 and a depth of 20 miles.

This, therefore, made this particular earthquake the fourth largest in the world history and the largest in Japan as the last one that had occurred with such a high magnitude in this nation was of 8.3 magnitude. The earthquake began near Sendai, in the north east of Japan.

Due to the risky region of Japan location, the Pacific oceanic plate sunk under the Eurasian continental plate (U.S. Department of the Interior para 7). This led to a type of plate margin that is known to be very destructive. This is because during the process of sinking friction caused the Pacific Plate to stick thus building up pressure.

During the release of this pressure, an earthquake occurred due to the massive pressure that had already accumulated. The result was that the earthquake. Though the earthquake was at a shallow depth of 20 miles under the Pacific Ocean surface, it combined with the high magnitude to lead to a tsunami. This caused a dangerous tsunami at the northeastern coast of Honshu.

The earthquake triggered aftershocks and a tsunami that measured 23-feet. Besides huge loss of lives amounting to more than 10,000 people, the economic impacts were huge especially considering that the crisis also caused the shutting down of the nuclear reactors which provided power to many industries.

Effects of the earthquake on Japan The Japan earthquake had both short-term and long-term impacts; the immediate impacts being on how the nation was going to provide humanitarian aid to those who had been affected and do it in time to prevent increase in the number of fatalities.

The earthquake caused a lot of damage that caused billions of dollars wastage with a death toll of more than 10,000 people. The National Police Agency confirmed more than 15,000 deaths and more than 6,000 injured individuals. Among those who died, 92.5 percent died from drowning where the aged who were 60 years and above composed the largest number.

This is where they rated 65.2 percent of all the deaths with 24 percent of them being those who were 70 years and above. The earthquake hit during a weekday making it even worse especially to the school going children. About 100,000 children were displaced from their homes especially those who were away attending school. The earthquake also orphaned about 300 children and killed 378 school going children.

The earthquake caused a lot of damage too besides the high numbers of casualties. Most of the damage that occurred was caused by the tsunami. Though Japan had constructed a seawall that was 39 ft high along 40 percent of the country’s coastline to prevent the effect of a tsunami, this particular one was so strong that it went past the seawall and even washed away some parts of it.

Reports given by the police indicated that while 144,330 structures were destroyed due to the tsunami, a significant 45,700 resulted from the earthquake. Among the buildings that were damaged by this crisis included 44,000 prefectures and three hundred hospitals, some of which were destroyed completely.

The earthquake had long-term impacts on the nation of Japan. Being an industrial nation, this crisis caused massive effects especially due to its destruction of the nation’s main power supplies to these industries.

This forced some industries to slow down their production processes or close temporally in order to enable the restoration of essential economy. For instance, Japan being the largest China’s customer for earth metals and alloys, the industries that deal with the processing of these products had to reduce their imports or reduce their processing capacity.

Earthquakes in China China has been a victim of several catastrophic earthquakes in the recent history; the most recent being the one that occurred in Sichuan on May 2008 with a 7.9 magnitude and killing about 70,000 people and leaving 18,000 others missing (The New York Times para 2).

There have been others that have been equally devastating in the history of this nation. A particular one is the one that occurred in Tangshan in 1976 killing more than 240,000 people after which China acquired a new policy that required structures to build with an ability to withstand strong earthquakes.

The central point where the earthquake began is said to be the county of Wenchuan, making the earthquake be labeled as the Sichuan earthquake. The earthquake had a depth of 19 kilometers making it endanger as far as Beijing and Shaghai which are 1500 and 1700 kilometers away respectively. The earthquake became the worst to hit China since the Tangshan one. Approximately 15 million individuals were victims of the earthquake in one way or the other.

The earthquake triggered very strong aftershocks which were above magnitude 6 and these aftershocks progressed one month after the main earthquake leading to more deaths and damage. It is reported that a movement in the northeast with an impact on Sichuan Basin which is located in the northwestern region occurred. Tectonic pressure that accumulated during these events culminated into the earthquake.

Effects of the Earthquake on China The Sichuan earthquake caused a lot of damage due to both the high number of casualties and the damage of property and other structures. The number of those who died was about 70,000 people while those who were injured were about 375,000.

Other damages included destruction of buildings including schools, hospitals and factories among others. Since this earthquake occurred in an area that had not developed like the other urban centers, the damage was even more massive on its structures due to poor constructions that had not followed the policy placed for the strength to withstand earthquakes.

Most of these buildings were old and were built without being passed by the appropriate earthquake and seismic regulations bodies. As a result, the collapse of schools alone killed around 5,500 students while around 600 were left disabled. The parents who lost their only children in this earthquake had to reverse their sterilization with the assistance from the government medical teams who advised them and gave them fertility medication in order to get more children.

The earthquake also damaged a lot of property where it left more than 5 million individuals without housing. In addition, massive agricultural products and livestock were destroyed leading to more losses. The total economic loss that the earthquake caused was estimated to be more than US$75 billion dollars. This meant that this was the most costly earthquake that the country experienced in its history.

Earthquake in US The United States has not been spared by the phenomenon of earthquakes either. A particular one is the one that occurred in San Francisco on April 18, 1906. The earthquake was estimated to have measured magnitude 7.9 but others have given a value of magnitude 8.25. The earthquake caused a rupture of 477 kilometers of the San Andreas Fault which stretched from northwest of San Juan Bautista to Cape Mendocino.

A strong aftershock which was so strong that it was felt in the whole of San Francisco Bay occurred after which the earthquake with an epicenter near San Francisco hit. Violent shocks and very strong ground shakings that lasted a minute or less were felt. One unique feature of this earthquake is the numerous fires that it triggered making it one of the worst natural disasters in the country’s history. The total death toll that the earthquake caused was about 3,000 people in addition to the huge economic impact it had on this nation.

Effects of the Earthquake on US The earthquake caused deaths that were estimated to be 3,000 people though the government only reported a few deaths of about 400 people with an aim of preventing negative impacts on the rebuilding efforts. Most deaths were experienced in San Francisco but deaths also occurred in other neighboring cities like Santa Rosa (US Geological Survey, para 4-7).

The earthquake also left about 300,000 people homeless since at the time of its occurrence, San Francisco was the largest city on the West Coast. The effect was so massive that it destroyed 80 percent of this city where most of the damage was caused by the fires.

his is because more than 30 fires from ruptured gas mains led to destruction of more than 25,000 buildings and around 500 city blocks where they burned four days continuously. About USD 9.5 billion was the cost incurred as damage. San Francisco lost some important treasures like the Palace hotel which was the city’s landmark. In addition, scientific libraries and their rich discoveries were also destroyed by the fire. The monumental “Bear Flag Revolt” was also destroyed thus denying California its original flag.

Earthquakes prediction There has been need for the prediction of earthquakes in the recent past due to the damaging effect that this phenomenon has been causing. Although studies have indicated the areas that are at risk, predicting the specific time that any earthquake may occur is still a challenge. However, using past statistics, geologists have been able to identify that most large earthquakes normally occur on far stretching fault zones especially around Pacific Ocean margin.

This has been caused by the consistent enlargement of the Indian Ocean while on the other hand the Pacific Ocean is shrinking. This shrinking effect pushes the ocean floor under the Pacific Rim making it vulnerable to earthquakes. In addition, the Pacific is characterized by long fault zones that cause geologic irregularities that lead to minor fault segments that crack separately (Ludwin para 2).

During such situations, the magnitude and timing of the earthquake is determined by the size of this fault, the stress that has accumulated below the surface and the type of rock of underneath. In the areas where the fault line and the movement of the earth plate have been established, there is a high possibility of an earthquake occurrence. This is particularly if these areas have had a history of breaking in history. However, this can only be possible when the fault zone is well established.

Earthquake prevention There are various ways that earthquakes can be prevented in order to prevent their damaging effects. This is possible especially with those that are caused by human activities. Scientists have been trying to come up with ways of reducing the friction that is caused by colliding plates during the occurrence of an earthquake. This is through pouring water on areas where the two plates glide acting as a lubricant to the fault.

This releases one plate making it reduce the effect caused by the earthquake. The other solution that has been suggested is preventing the tidal waves. This is where sea tides are discontinued by obstructing the sea passage that is around the South Pole. This can be done in the area that borders Antarctica and South America. Matter can be brought closer to the earth using material from Andes Mountains thus help to come up with a long term solution to the problem of earthquakes (Earthquakes para 1-3).

Conclusion Earthquakes are phenomena that will continue having their impacts on the human population especially having in mind that each earthquake is unique. This is besides there being new technological innovations which enable individuals to come up with new building designs and other structures that are complex in nature.

Since most earthquakes are a natural phenomenon, there is therefore the need for individual nations to come up with methods that are efficient to enable the processes of prevention and handling of these crises possible (Winchester 126). This will require the field of epidemiology to invent new methods of doing this. This will enable the nations to be better prepared when earthquakes happen in order to reduce the damage that they cause and reduce the deaths that these catastrophic events cause.

In order to effectively reduce this loss, there also need to be an increased efficiency in the way information is collected and distributed across agencies both in the local and international levels. This is where epidemiologists, seismologists and even designs engineers need to diversify their information sharing through linking their information databases with an aim of reducing the impacts of these crises.

This is because the information from these fields will provide timely details concerning the occurrence of an earthquake, thus enabling people and the whole nation to remain alert and well prepared. In addition, the population will be enlightened on the measures to take to prevent greater impacts through improving their construction methods and also remain informed on how to react when such a crisis occurs.

Disaster managers will also need to have easy access to important information after the research methods are improved in order to come up with better prevention methods and also better ways of handling the occurrence of an earthquake.

Through comparisons of various earthquakes that have occurred and their impacts on the human population, important lessons can be learnt where the nations will avoid repeating mistakes that were done in the past. In addition, new methods of carrying out the rescue processes can be invented. This is through coming up with better methods of delivering medical services and evacuating the individuals who are injured during such occurrences.

Works Cited Earthquakes: Earthquakes prevention. Web.

Kious, W. Jacquelyne and Tilling, Robert I. This dynamic earth: the story of plate tectonics. Denver, CO: Geological Survey, 1996. Web.

Ludwin, Ruth. Earthquake prediction. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. 2004. Web.

Scientific American. Continents adrift and continents aground – Reading from Scientific American. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1976. Print.

Seligson, Hope A and Shoaf, Kimberley I. “Human impacts of earthquakes”, Chapter. 28. In Chen WF, Scawthorn C, eds. Earthquake engineering handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 2003. Print.

Simkin, Tom, Unger John D. and Tilling Robert I. et al. The dynamic planet: world map of volcanoes, earthquakes, impact craters, and plate tectonics. Denver, CO: US Geological Survey. Web.

The New York Times. “Sichuan earthquake.” 2009. The New York Times, Web.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Earthquakes and plate tectonics. 2009. Web.

US Geological Survey. Preferred magnitudes of selected significant earthquakes. 2011. Web.

US Geological Survey. The great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. 2011. Web.

USGS, Japan Meteorological Agency. Earthquakes: the 10 biggest in history. 2011. Web.

Winchester, Simon. A crack in the edge of the world: America and the Great California earthquake of 1906. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005. Print.


«Things Fall Apart» by Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe Essay essay help

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart is an enthralling must-read chef-d’oeuvre starring Okonkwo, the protagonist who, despite his hatred towards his father, ends up taking after him. From the first line, the author begins by presenting Okonkwo as a well-known man even beyond the nine neighboring villages.

The tall, muscular, and fearful character that had unkempt eyebrows and broad nose resented his father for being lazy and irresponsible. Okonkwo is hard working and successful because he tries hard not to be like his father. However, as the paper unveils, Okonkwo’s life is full of contentious situations ranging from failing his people, being a dependant rather than a provider, and being hopeless amongst others, that perhaps make him resemble his father whom he never wanted to emulate.

Okonkwo resented his father’s failure even when he was merely a boy. Even at the helm of his success, he still remembered how he suffered when his playmate said his father was an agbala. From that moment, he learnt that Agbala, not only meant a woman, but also a name for any man with no title, like his father (Achebe 9).

In some sense, these titles did not mean anything to foreigners. Therefore, by the time Okonkwo came to die, he was more or less like his father. He had titles that could not help him, as there was a new system of law. He had titles, which were useless just like those of his father. When Okonkwo and other people of Umuofia decide to take a substantive measure of burning the church, the District commissioner invites them to his office for what he calls palavers. The six leaders agree to attend because meetings like that were normal.

The court messenger even mocks them because of their titles. ”Who is chief among you?’…These anklets are worn even by any pauper now; does it even cost ten cowries?” (Achebe 152). At this point, Okonkwo who was extremely scared of failure, had failed to defend his honor. He slept in the cells and he could do nothing about it. He feared feeling weak as his father. However, at this time, he was literally weak. The new system did not recognize titles and many titled men were through to prisons despite their social statuses.

Unlike Unoka, Okonkwo wanted to feel powerful in the community. He hence worked tremendously hard to exceed the worthless status of his father. In this endeavor, he hurt people close to him. They eventually resented him just as he had resented his father. It is hence sensible to say that, in the end, Okonkwo failed the people who depended on him, who trusted him and those who wanted to follow his example.

The saddest episode was the Killing of Ikemefuna. The council of elders entrusted this ill-feted boy to Okonkwo. He was one of the two people Umuofia got from Mbaino clan in exchange for their daughter who had died. Mbaino compensated Umuofia giving them a virgin girl and a boy, Ikemefuna (Achebe 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was to stay at Okonkwo’s place for only a little while as the community decided what to do with him. He ended up living there for three years (Achebe 40). He became a mentor to Nwoye, Okonkwo’s eldest son. Ikemefuna, in fact, became like family and called Okonkwo father. Nwoye became more responsible with Ikemefuna around. Nwoye felt like a grown-up (Achebe 40). Something that excited his father clandestinely and he knew it was because of Ikemefuna.

The Oracle of fate finally decided that the boy worth sacrificing to Agbala. Okonkwo and other villagers under the pretext of returning him back home took the boy to the forest to kill him. “While in the forest, a man cleared his throat, this scared Ikemefuna who turned back, the man growled to let him keep moving” (Achebe 47). The boy trembled. His body began to shake. The ma drew his machete, as he raised it Okonkwo looked away but he heard the blow.

The pot the boy was carrying fell and broke. The Boy screamed to Okonkwo, “My father, they have killed me! While running towards him. Because of fear of being thought weak, Okonkwo drew his machete and slew the boy down” (Achebe 47). This was despite his peers warning him of having a hand in the boy’s death. At this moment, Okonkwo was more like his father because the boy depended on him for protection and love. However, he could not provide for him. He was so concerned about his reputation.

He overlooked the sanctity of the life of an innocent boy who, in fact, called him ‘father’. Unoka failed to provide food for his family, which starved, he never paid his debtors and he was a failure for failing to be responsible for his family, his children. Okonkwo did not protect Ikemefuna, under his custody, a boy who looked up to him as a father figure, a boy who wanted emulate him. Nwoye is scared of him. He, in fact, sneaks out of the hut as soon as Okonkwo dozes off.

Okonkwo was strong, hardworking, determined and ambitious, Contrary to his father who was hopeless, lazy and desperate. Okonkwo was a brave worrier while his father Unoka feared bloodshed and a coward who was only happy when he played his flute.

Whenever he would get a little money, he would call his neighbors to celebrate and make merry, drinking palm wine (Achebe 4). Although, he was a man who worked as if possessed, “Okonkwo worked from cock crow until dusk when chicken went to roost” (Achebe 9). With these contrasts, Okonkwo ended up like his father – hopeless.

Okonkwo obeyed the Umuofia norms at the expense of his family. Just like his father who only thought about his happiness, playing the flute and celebrating with palm wine whenever he earned little money. Okonkwo on his part was obsessed about obtaining tittles and growing his social status. In this course, he made silly sacrifices like slaying a boy who called him father.

We will write a custom Essay on «Things Fall Apart» by Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even his friend Obierika criticizes him. “If the oracle pronounces death sentence to my son, I would not be the one to kill him” (Achebe 52). That statement disturbed Okonkwo who defended himself that the earth would not punish him for obeying the oracle. However, that was brutal, barbaric and supremely primitive.

During Ezeudu’s funeral, something unexpected happened. Okonkwo accidently blew-up his gun whose bullet inadvertently killed a sixteen-year-old boy, Ezeudu’s son. He quickly flew away. However, as the community laws dictated, he had to atone for his sins by shedding the blood of a clansman. The villagers are aggrieved.

They set fire on his houses, destroying his red walls, killing the animals, and demolishing his barn. The earth goddess wanted this justice upon Okonkwo as it were. The villagers were merely messengers. They did not hate Okonkwo. Even his greatest friend, Obierika was among the destroyers. Their duty was simply to cleanse the land, already contaminated by Okonkwo: killing a fallow clansman (Achebe 125).

He was to live in exile for seven years. At this moment, Okonkwo has nothing. The whole fortune he had accumulated and worked hard for is nowhere following the destruction. He was as poor as his father was. The man who thought on issues, Obierika was thinking more that ever (Achebe 125), but he did not find answers. Obierika only remembers that, sometimes in life, a man needs to reevaluate his relationship with the society, and God (Achebe 125).

This introspection was a sign that the society in which Okonkwo lived was ready to make changes. It was as if a curse was following Okonkwo. His father once went to an agbala to consult why his farming was not delightful. The priestess of the Agbala answered Unoka that he had nobody to blame but himself – for his laziness. In the same fashion, Okonkwo could only blame himself.

After his exile, many things in the clan had changed. There were no more rituals, no more titles, and no more tribal land traditions. The Ugwugwu had been unmasked. The oracle was no more but a modern court of law for justice. He just realized he lost all things he grew up knowing that they defined a man. He could not go up against the system. He was weak and a terrible failure, as he could not save his clan. He ended up emulating his father.

Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday. 1959. Print.


Analysis of Miss Representation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Miss Representation is an inspirational documentary that offers an inventive and fresh standpoint on the subject of sexism. The documentary also demonstrates the manner in which gender parity can be realized to enable more women assume leadership roles in the society.

It also depicts how the United State’s mainstream media undermine the representation of women in influential positions. Jennifer S. Newsom is the producer of the documentary Miss Representation. The film criticizes the media’s role in creating a negative impression about women in the society (Walsh 1).

The documentary features provocative dialogues with members of the press, politicians, activists, scholars and artists. They include Lisa Ling, Condoleezza Rice, Rosario Dawson, Nancy Pelosi, Gloria Steinem, Paul Haggis and Katie Couric. The film provides astounding statistics and facts that leave viewers stunned and armed with a new perception.

The screening of the film was launched at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival (a documentary competition event). Miss Representation was also featured at the 2011 AAUW National Convention where it was eulogized for its dynamic tone and constructive message.

The documentary offered AAUW convention a chance to mingle with community members as well as convey an empowering message. There is no doubt that the media’s representations of women (in magazines, television programs, internet or billboards) are discouraging. The manner in which women are depicted by the media stands out as one of the causes of gender disparity in the society.

This is the main thesis of the documentary Miss Representation. Jennifer Newsom (a wife and actress) was inspired to produce this documentary on the basis of her earlier struggles in life. Her inspiration to undertake this project also stemmed partly from her concern about the nature of the society her little girl was expected to live in (Walsh 3).

The central theme of Miss Representation is based on the fact that the sexual portrayal of women by the media results to disempowerment and trivialization of women in the political and cultural engagements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film depicts footages of Britney Spears, Paris Hilton and Heidi Montag along pictures of notable women in history such as Hillary Clinton, Rosa Parks, Nancy Simpson and Eleanor Roosevelt. The entire thesis of the documentary is communicated by footage of Sandra O’Connor (wearing judges’ robes) which is placed next to an image of Jessica Simpson in Daisy Dukes.

The rest of the documentary is composed of several professionals who lay out awe-inspiring information concerning the roles of women and the manner in which the media depict them in the political, economical and cultural settings. The central thesis of the documentary is also enhanced by animated statistics that glide on the screen to illustrate the prevalence of gender disparity in the United States (Walsh 5).

The documentary provides important lessons to us in terms of the need to promote media literacy in our society (particularly now) given that we are regularly barraged with onscreen advertisings and images everywhere we go. There is an urgent need to understand the role of media in the society.

On one hand, media serves as a mirror of the society. On the other hand, it is subject to manipulations by powerful individuals in the society who may dictate what should be displayed. Miss Representation provides an entry point through which the society can address the glaring gender disparities and the misrepresentation of women in the media (Walsh 6).

Works Cited Walsh, Kathleen. Review: Miss Representation Exposes An Ugly Truth That Needs To Be Seen. Oct 18, 2011. Web.


Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? Research Paper essay help: essay help

Issues regarding nuclear energy production have been intensively debated since the inception of nuclear power. People who support the production of nuclear energy feel that it is a more efficient, safe and cheap method of producing power for use. However, in reality there is more to worry about production of nuclear energy through its dangers in the event of an accident.

Also, nuclear power production is expensive contrary to what the people who are in support of the technology portray. Some believe the use of nuclear power technology should be stopped because of the high costs and risks that the technology poses. Therefore, should the production of nuclear energy be stopped?

Firstly, one of the disadvantages of nuclear power production is that it is very costly to produce. Nuclear power is derived from uranium which is a natural ore. Uranium ore is currently depleting therefore this tends to raise the prices of electricity up in the world. Considering that it is non renewable, the ore will be worn out with time.

The utilities used to construct a nuclear reactor are very expensive. “The price tag for creating a large nuclear plant was between six billion and eight billion US dollars in 2010” (Beaver 399). Clearly, it is very expensive to put up a nuclear plant and maintain it too. Large tracks of land are required to build a reactor and a large proximity is required to where people live.

Secondly, nuclear power plants pose great risk on the environment. Nuclear powered plants emit thermal energy to the environment; this thermal energy contributes to the current predicament of global warming. Power plants normally dispose heated water to the rivers or other water bodies hence causing devastating effects to aquatic life and subsequently cause climatic changes.

“There are fears from the community that the disposal of hot water that might be contaminated to rivers may also pose a risk to human beings since most of their water comes from rivers and lakes” (William 161). Accidents can be catastrophic if radiation material is emitted to the environment. Although people who sympathize with nuclear power production argue that accidents are very rare, any accident that occurs causes extensive disastrous effects.

A good example of a disaster caused by nuclear power accident is the accident in Chernobyl in April 1986, the accident was the worst in history and it led to mass displacement of people and long-term deaths in the hundred of thousands according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Victims of Chernobyl disaster experienced illnesses such as cancer, stress and depression. “To date people in Ukraine cannot drink water or locally produced foods” (Miller and Spoolman 313).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another example is Three Mile Island in March 1987 which had also emitted radioactive materials due to an accident caused by human error and component failure. Recently in Fukushima in Japan in March 2011, a massive tsunami overwhelmed the plant that caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine. “Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima” (Coren, YouTube).

A few weeks later tiny amounts of iodine were discovered in countries as far as Iceland as well as the United States. These radiations pose a great public health risk and on the environment in general.

Natural disasters such as floods, tsunamis and earthquakes normally trigger the release of radioactive material from the reactors. Even with initiatives for safety by nuclear energy plants, these natural disasters are unavoidable. Despite the safety measures used by the plant, Fukushima failed to prevent emission of radioactive materials. Therefore, an increase in the number of nuclear plants increases the probability for the plants’ exposure to natural catastrophes.

Thirdly, materials used in the production of nuclear energy produce waste materials which are still radioactive and takes more than a thousand years for the waste to be decomposed. This leads to more costs in disposal of the waste materials from the plants. Wastes are normally disposed deep in the ground and this does not prevent it from being exposed to the environment due to natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes.

Controversies revolving around how radioactive waste can be disposed in a safe way still stand out. In France recycling of radioactive material is done, but there is only a small amount of material that will be reused; in fact recycling of these materials to produce other fuel energy is more expensive.

Lastly, nuclear plants provide a platform for terrorists attack. Terrorists might easily get access to nuclear waste materials and are likely to expose them to the environment. Imagining a situation where terrorists attack a nuclear plant, it will expose the world to immense radiation levels. Despite security beef up, we can never be too sure of terrorist attacks not occurring. Radioactive wastes also provide materials for nuclear bomb creation by terrorists and some governments.

Nuclear energy has great advantages too despite its demerits. Nuclear power is not dependent on fossil fuels such as natural gas or coal which emit a lot of carbon dioxide in the environment. Nuclear power emits a lot lesser carbon dioxide gas to the environment, hence less pollution to the environment. A group of thinkers argue that nuclear power has less responsibility for global warming than fossil fuels. Statistics also show that many deaths in the United States are attributed to illnesses caused by burning coal.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is also argued that nuclear energy production costs are almost the same as coal, therefore it is better to use nuclear power and reduce emission of carbon dioxide and consequently the number of deaths related to illnesses caused by coal burning. Fossils fuels are expensive raw materials than uranium, hence leads to lower electricity costs for consumers.

Another advantage of nuclear power is that it produces a lot of power; this enhances efficiency in power production. Huge amounts of nuclear energy are produced using small amounts of fuel compared to other methods of energy production. In terms of reliability, nuclear power is the most efficient and reliable type of energy production.

“Currently in the world, nuclear energy caters for eleven percent of the total population’s energy needs” (Energy Resources para 3). In the United States of America twenty percent of the energy is produced from nuclear energy and currently the government is planning on putting up more plants to meet the rising needs of electricity.

Nuclear power also provides competition which drives the costs of electricity low to the consumer. The ready availability of uranium ore also reduces the cost of transporting fuel from distant places where they are found. With depletion of fossil fuels, nuclear energy will be the most appropriate method of avoiding shortages in the future-“due to nuclear energy reliability” (Energy Resources para 3).

Currently nuclear reactors are built with precision and are computerized; computerization has enhanced fewer accidents due to human error and component failure. Supporters of nuclear energy production argue that today’s technology guarantees safety through computers that automatically shuts down the reactor in cases of faults.

Therefore, the production of nuclear power should be stopped. In spite of nuclear energy being very attractive, it has more disadvantages than advantages therefore there is more reasons to abolish the nuclear energy production.

The disasters evident from the nuclear reactors have led to increased levels of radiation and even deaths-in Germany studies have shown that many people living near nuclear power plants are likely to be suffering from leukemia. Nuclear power might be seen as a solution for electricity shortage today and in the future by some people but their effects are more disastrous and could lead to human extinction in our planet.

The claims of recycling nuclear wastes to new fuel elements accounts for a very small percentage energy capability which is not worth justifying the use of nuclear energy. The threat of terrorist attacks can be avoided through abolishing nuclear related practices, meaning there would be less probability of nuclear attacks, a few countries which are not politically stable bear great risk of terrorists acquiring weapons grade plutonium.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should Production of Nuclear Power be stopped? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the existence of other energy options which are safer such as hydro electric energy, solar energy and wind energy. These energies are safe and environmental friendly than nuclear energy. Harnessing these energies can supplement the use of nuclear energy considering that they are cheap and renewable.

Annotated Bibliography Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.

The book discusses about the history of nuclear power plants accidents such as the Chernobyl and the Three Mile Island accident. It describes the causes of the accident and how human error and component failure were the major reasons for the accident. It also gives evidence on the health implications of the radiations victims in the USSR. It also gives the statistics on the deaths and displacement of victims and long-term effects of nuclear emissions.

William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.

In William’s book, he argues on the effects of radiation on the environment as a result of nuclear plants. He discusses on issues of thermal release by nuclear plants through rivers and lakes and how it affects the communities using the water. He also argues on the effect of emissions to the environment in general and the concerns of the communities living around nuclear power plants

Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3 ;( 2011): 399-441.

In this journal article, the author discusses issues regarding the construction of the reactor and how it is expensive to put up a nuclear power plant. He further gives an estimate of the amount of money required to put up a plant by the year 2010. He also discusses on the difficulties experienced in putting up a nuclear power plant. He also talks about the failure by the government to meet its vision of the nuclear technology.

Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.

In this website, there is a comparison of the different energy resources. It also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of power production. It further talks about the non renewable nature of Uranium and the facts about nuclear power production.

Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.

In the video, a Tsunami that caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine in Japan occurred due to an earthquake. Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima.

Works Cited Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3 (2011): 399-441.

Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.

Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.

Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.

William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York, NY: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.

Beaver, William. “The failed promise of nuclear power.” Independent Review 15.3; (2011): 399-441.


“Farrow stated that the White House announced plans to triple the amount currently allocated for loan guarantees available to utilities for construction of new reactors. Indeed, loan guarantees are seen as crucial, considering that the current price tag for a large nuclear plant is estimated to be between $6 billion and $8 billion” (Beaver 399).

“The 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, which resulted in a partial meltdown of the reactor’s core, certainly comes to mind. In addition, the government’s failure to open a long-promised nuclear waste repository in Nevada for which the utilities have contributed billions of dollars certainly did nothing to restore interest in the technology” (Beaver 400).

Coren, Anna. “Japan-radiation found in food as workers scramble to curb nuclear crisis.” CNN. YouTube. Web.14th November, 2011.


“A Tsunami caused a reactor meltdown creating a leakage of radiation and iodine in Japan occurred due to an earthquake” (Coren YouTube).

“Radiations were later found in milk and spinach thousands of kilometers away from Fukushima” (Coren YouTube).

Energy Resources. Nuclear power. 26 August, 2011. Web.


With reactors in the UK, the computers will shut the reactor down automatically if things get out of hand (unless engineers intervene within a set time). At Chernobyl, in Ukraine, they did not have such a sophisticated system, indeed they over-rode the automatic systems they did have.

When they got it wrong, the reactor overheated, melted and the excessive pressure blew out the containment system before they could stop it. Then, with the coolant gone, there was a serious fire. Many people lost their lives trying to sort out the mess. A quick web search will tell you more about this, including companies who operate tours of the site (Energy Resources para 3).

“Although not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. For all that time it must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult” (Energy Resources para 3).

William, Thomas K. Politics, technology, and the environment: technology assessment and nuclear. New York, NY: Arno Press Inc., 1979. Print.


“Routine discharge of radiation discharge from nuclear reactors has become an issue of considerable concern and debate. The possibility that, with the growing proliferation of such reactors, radiation will have a substantial, and substantially adverse, impacts on human health of present and future generations” (William 161).

“Since many, if not most of these lakes and streams act as a source of community drinking water; many have become aroused by the possibility of radioactive contamination” (William 161).

Miller, Tyler G., and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: Principles, connections, and solutions. Canada: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.


“The Chernobyl in April 1986, the accident was the worst in history and it led to mass displacement of people and long-term deaths in the hundreds of thousands according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Victims of Chernobyl disaster experienced illnesses such as cancer, stress, and depression” (Miller and Spoolman 313).

“In Ukraine water or locally produced foods are not consumed because they are contaminated due to previous radiations in Chernobyl in 1986” (Miller and Spoolman 313).


Global Consumer Economy Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Similarities between Potter’s concept and Sheehan ideas


Extent of compatibility



Introduction Potter (1954) asserts that America, being a nation of abundance, has institutionalised the culture of advertisement. This is true for many other developed and developing countries where a plethora of billboards, posters, TV commercials, radio ads and print ads are a common feature of people’s lives. It came in the wake of industrial revolution that paved the way for modernisation, which in turn led to mass production of goods and services.

Therefore, sellers have to find a way of persuading people to buy their products; hence, the inevitable need for advertisement. Potter is able to draw a relationship between economic abundance and the national character of the Americans. He posits that the economic abundance in America has resulted into a materialistic lifestyle for the citizens. He attributes this fact to the effect of advertisements, which mostly glorify material wealth.

On the other hand, there is the institution of marketing as developed by Sheehan (2010). In the institution of marketing, it is generally accepted that people must be persuaded to buy products. It is also characterised by flexibility, variety, originality and competitive rivalry. Its base objective is to churn out commercial messages meant to persuade people to buy by spending more in terms of value and volume.

With that brief introduction, this paper draws comparison and contrast between the two critical business institutions. It will also highlight the extent of the compatibility that exists between the institution of advertising and the institution of marketing. This paper will focus mainly on the works of Potter (1954) and Sheehan (2010).

Similarities between Potter’s concept and Sheehan ideas Potter and Sheehan seem to converge on the understanding that the institutions of advertising and marketing are the focal point in business operations especially in the societies of abundance. According to Potter (1954), the language of commerce has been elevated to the status enjoyed only by religion.

This view is shared by Sheehan who states that people have to learn the language of advertisements. This indicates that the two institutions play a key role in modern economics. Indeed, a lot of resources today are channelled into advertisement and marketing. People all over the world are constantly being inundated by a myriad adverts and marketing fads.

The two institutions are aimed at increasing people’s spending. The purpose of advertising is to create awareness about the existence of a given product or service and with the view of encouraging customers to buy them. Marketing, on its part, persuades buyers to purchase goods and services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, both institutions cultivate the culture of spending among the population experiencing abundance since such populations have sufficient purchasing power. In many countries today, advertising and marketing are almost synonymous, or rather, they go hand in hand. Business enterprises take the extra mile to market their products and mostly this is achieved through extensive advertising.

Advertising and marketing have shaped the national character of some countries, particularly in the developed world. Needless to say, people’s lifestyles are being influenced by various specifically designed adverts and marketing activities. The countries of sufficiency and abundance are experiencing this uniquely interesting phenomenon.

A good illustration can be found in the area of alcohol. Today, many alcoholics are people who have been drawn into drinking through certain adverts and elaborate marketing activities. When a new alcoholic drink is manufactured, it is introduced to the market with a lot of pomp and fanfare.

This is accomplished through exciting road shows, adverts that depict sophistication as related to drinking and in some cases bombarding the public with leaflets and brochures that extol the supposedly superior qualities of the new drink. In some cases, individuals considered as celebrities are used to lure the unsuspecting members of the public, particularly the youth.

Another point of convergence between the institution of advertising and the institution of marketing is the exploitation of culture in an attempt to convince people to buy given products. The two scholars agree on the fact that many companies, particularly multinationals, devise and format their adverts and marketing strategies around the target people’s cultural background. This may include use of some terms in the local languages or depicting members of the local communities in the adverts.

In some cases, companies may introduce some products by sneaking them into people’s culture. For example, in order to create market for diamond, jewellery companies cleverly presented diamond as a symbol of love. Thus, today, the most precious wedding rings or gifts of love are those made from diamond. This drove the demand for diamond through the roof even though it is less worthy compared to gold.

The two institutions also share a common axiom; they encourage consumption. Increased consumption reflects on increased demand for a given product and hence will drive up sales. This is especially the case in states of abundance where people are endowed with sufficient wherewithal.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Consumer Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Sheehan (2010), this can be accomplished through the creation of a managed market-place. A managed market-place is designed to launch powerful commercial messages that strongly appeal to the potential and existing consumers in order to increase their volume of consumption spending (Sheehan, 2010).

The two institutions also share a common media. Advertising is done through TV, radio, newspapers, the internet among others. The same applies to the institution of marketing. They both need instruments of mass communication to pass their messages across to mass audience and ultimately, their intended target groups.

Advertising and marketing are also key indicators of the growth of the economy. A heightened activity in these two areas indicates that there is increased production of goods and services and which need to be consumed. They may make the economy to grow too fast, in which case the government might need to take measures to normalise it since it is likely to lead to inflation.

On the other hand, reduced activity in the two institutions is a sure warning sign that the country’s economy is on the decline. This will call for concerted effort by the government and other stakeholders to take appropriate measures in order to remedy the situation.

Contrast Despite the many similarities, the two institutions diverge at various points. First, whereas advertising deals with creation of awareness about the existence of a given product or a service, marketing aims at brand-making. In advertising, awareness is created about the availability of a given product on the market through various means such as the print and electronic media.

Marketing involves the modelling and presentation of the commodity to customers in a manner that would persuade them to acquire it. One illustration to this concerns the Coca cola Company. It advertises Coke as a soft drink that should be had “always”. As for the marketing, the drink is packaged in bottles of certain shapes that appeal to people’s fantasies.

Second, while the process of advertising may require just an individual to design a moving advert, marketing needs a collective effort. According to Sheehan (2010), marketing requires teamwork to manage and coordinate different corporate functions and priorities. This is because the institution of marketing is multi-disciplinary. This is known as brand management. Advertisement, on the other hand, may not require teamwork since it is not multi-disciplinary. A company may even hire or contract advertising agencies to do the job for them. This is mostly an expensive affair.

Third, marketing is usually conducted at the point of sale while advertisement may not. This implies that marketing encourages direct consumption of a given good or a service. It may require the customer to make instant decision, which may make them buy the product immediately rather than put it into consideration.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Consumer Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advertisement, on the other hand, may be done away from the point of sale. In this case, the advertiser hopes to imprint the commercial message into the psyche of the potential customer so that they may buy the commodity later. Advertisement may employ slogans that impede themselves into the subconscious of an individual, and sometime even without the knowledge of the said individual.

Extent of compatibility It is also important to establish if the two institutions are compatible with each other. In this regard, it is crucial to note that the two enjoy a symbiotic relationship with each other. Advertising alerts the populace about the existence of a good or service with a view to encouraging them to buy. The institution of marketing brands the advertised commodity and makes it more appealing to consumers. Thus, the two critical institutions combine forces to persuade and convince people to buy given products.

There is no clear-cut line between advertising and marketing. It can be argued that advertising is part of marketing or even vice versa. This is because the two may share the same resources in the course of their implementation. TVs, radios, the internet, magazines and journals are some of the media shared by the two institutions. Consequently, they can be said to complement each other.

Marketing creates the phenomenon known as the consumer culture (Sheehan, 2010). Sustaining the consumer culture requires constant transformation of the shared ways of thinking and acting in the arena of consumption. The culture can only be maintained through constant advertisement.

In particular, goods and services experiencing low demand have to be remodelled and repackaged in order to preserve their appeal to consumers. The institution of advertisement keeps the consumers posted on the existence of the brand created by marketers. This ensures a constant consumption of goods and services.

In order to ensure continued spending on a given commodity or service, the institution of marketing usually creates fashions. The same product is repackaged as a new fashion in the hope of persuading those who already have it to get another one. This is especially the case in the clothing and jewellery industry.

The fashions are released at intervals; thus ensuring that people keep spending on them in the name of keeping up with the current fashion. Mostly, it is the younger members of the community that are usually sucked into this trend. For this strategy to be successful there is need for constant advertising. The masses have to be informed on the latest releases in fashion through the mass media. The adverts are usually designed to make consumers believe that there is something new or special in the new repackaged commodity.

Conclusion The institutions of advertising and marketing are very important in the corporate world today. This is particularly the case in developed economies where people are experiencing abundance as Potter (1954) puts it. These economies are characterised by people who have great purchasing power and consequently can engage in free spending.

Marketing and advertising strategies are effectives in such states because people have the necessary resources to even afford to be extravagant. However, this may not be applicable to poor economies of the third world countries, which are characterised by widespread poverty and unemployment. Sheehan (2010) refers to them as the economic systems of scarcity characterized by low purchasing power.

It has also been noted by Potter and Sheehan that the two institutions may have some negative influence on the population. Potter draws attention to the fact that due to advertisements, the American society could have become materialistic as people of plenty are induced to keep spending in order to keep the economy healthy. Other challenges faced include irresponsible alcoholism and smoking which is usually glorified in most advertisements and marketing ventures.

It is important that appropriate checks and balances be instituted to guard against moral erosion that may be brought about by incessant advertising and marketing of critical products such as drugs and alcohol.

References Potter, D.M., 1954. People of plenty: Economic abundance and the American character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sheehan, B., 2010. The Economics of abundance: Affluent consumption and the global economy. Northampton, MA: Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.


Do horror movies make people aggressive? Term Paper essay help free: essay help free

Movies influence people differently. This varies with their age, sex and cultural background, among others. Exposure to horrific movies has raised concern over its influence on behavior. Some theorists suggest such exposures induce aggression on people although this is still arguable.

Clearly, children should react more to violence and aggression in horror movies than adults. Research conducted by psychologists suggests that violent music in horror movies may affect neurological and emotional stability of human brain. However, it has also been established that people have the capability of controlling their emotions.

Aggression comes in various forms namely, mental, physical or verbal. Horror movies present situations that induce or aggravate violence in people. Nonetheless, it is important to not that humans have the capacity to adapt to such situations. In fact, it enables them to understand violence. In essence, horror movies do not make people aggressive (Crawford 1).

Causes of aggression in people have had its debate over the years with some researchers pointing to external factors, while others pointing to internal causes. Moreover, others attribute it to both set of factors. Horror movies contain scenes that scare people. In fact, it has been suggested that violent music along with other scary scenes like extreme killings induces aggression in people, especially teenagers.

For instance, a section of theorists argue that boys who identify with violent heroes tend to experience aggression in their attempts to fulfill aggressive fantasies. In addition, they postulate that continued exposure to horrific scenes induces fear in people. In the process, they are said to develop adaptive symptoms, which may result in aggression.

However, the cases under this are quite few. In fact, research conducted in schools show that very few students imitate characters in movies. Moreover, this practice deteriorates as one grows. It is also important to note that people who come from violent families tend to be aggressive when they watch movies that relate to their respective lives. In this regard, the real cause of aggression becomes experience at home and not movies (Crawford 1).

Horror movies do not make people aggressive. This is mainly because aggression is caused in many ways namely intrinsic and or extrinsic factors. For instance, aggression can be caused by fatigue, anger, attitude and environmental factors like frequent experience of violence at home or in the neighborhood.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, people have capabilities of controlling aggression even after watching scary movies. Moreover, one’s ability to be affected by movies depends on mental involvement. Consequently, they are less involved mentally in such movies. This results in ability to control emotions (Vidican 1).

Adolescents who are usually in high or middle schools have greater abstract reasoning than younger ones. This makes them less vulnerable to imitating particular scenes of crime, violence or obscene behaviors in horror movies. Moreover, as children grow, they uncover the truths about horror movies, which are merely fiction.

Finally, horror movies do not make people aggressive because they know and realize that such actions are unrealistic and extreme. In fact, very little, has been recorded as real events of horror in humankind. (Grant 1).

Entertainment offers a variety of content to its audience. This ranges from music to movies, among others. Movies and music are seen to have direct or indirect influence on people. This is mainly because they contain scenes that affect them physically, verbally or emotionally. For instance, horror movies captivate audience with thrilling and especially scary activities.

However, should not overcome their emotions because they know it is merely fiction, which is designed for entertainment. Moreover, events in horror movies are so extreme that it scares children, who are the only category of people that can be influenced. In essence, horror movies do not make people aggressive (Josephson 1).

Works Cited Crawford, Tom. “Halloween Horror Movies May Cause Emotional Problems in Young Children”. New York-Presbyterian, 2006. Web.

Grant, Barry. “Critical Debates: Horror Films”. Film Reference, 2011. Web.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Do horror movies make people aggressive? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Josephson, Wendy. “Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different ages”. Media Awareness, 2011. Web.

Vidican, Sergiu. “Why do we like horror movies?” Metrolic, 2010. Web.


The Role of Social Media in Recruitment Report college essay help

Introduction Human resource management is the practice within organizations that deals with people, that is, the work force within an organization. It is responsible for such tasks involving recruitment of employees, ensuring employee welfare, promotion criteria, employee sanctioning and rewarding, communication among employees, among other functions that revolve around employees.

All these functions are geared towards providing a conducive environment for maximum employee performance. The human resource department policies, if well and effectively applied, will lead to effective and productive contribution of the employees to the overall mandate and goals of the organization.

Social Networking This is an online site, whose primary purpose is to build social relationships and networks of people from all walks of life. Some are general sites where people can express varied opinions over varied issues like politics, finance, social life, over about anything. Some are more specific and cover narrower topics like issues to do with love and romance. Most of these sites are web-based and the users need the access of theinternet in order to access them. Users are able to share ideas, activities and interests within their networks.

Examples of social networks include: Facebook, twitter, Google , badoo, blogster, buzznet, cafemom,, diaspora*, Flickr, Friendster, hi5, to name just a few.

The Dilemma of Social Networks in the Work Place The 21st century has seen an aggressive use of the internet, with the streaming line of social networks. Face book for instance boasts over 400 million users in the world and twitter over 60 million. These networks can be quite interesting and entertaining to many users as they allow one to make friends, view their profiles, establish relationships and above all, share gossip.

This rise in the popularity of social networks has jeopardized the human resource department in most organizations, with the managers caught between punishing the employees who use office resources for these networks, and the danger of interfering with employee privacy motivation.

Huczynski and Buchanan (2010) say that another dilemma that the managers face is employee motivation. Studies have shown that when employees are left to work freely with minimum supervision, given the freedom to vent their inner emotions and feelings, their morale is boosted and productivity is raised. Such networks are seen to be points of releasing this tension among the employees and breaking monotony in the work place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If they get sanctioned therefore, for accessing these networks, there is high probability that they will harbor resentment towards theirsupervisors and the management in general, and are likely to engage in more anti-social activities as a way of breaking boredom, and this may negatively affect the operation of the organization.

At the same time, these networks are addictive. Some people cannot just get out once they are in, most cannot concentrate on other issues, and they waste resources. How for instance can an accountant concentrate on doing the math if his mind is on more interesting gossip, or a customer care worker handle clients when his mind is elsewhere.

Following these, it is therefore necessary that organizations develop sound and practical policies regarding the use of social networks among employees, which balance these two extremes to ensure that the organization productivity improves, at the same time that employees are well motivated to do their work.

The Role of Social Media in Recruitment More and more employers log in to social networks in an effort to secretly study the personality and lifestyle of potential employees. This information isused by the employers to analyze the potential employer, and deduce how the potential candidate can impact on the organization, positively or negatively.

Some employers deny the candidate work if they feel that his profile individual is wanting, for instance if he posts derogatory comments orobscene pictures.Some go to the extent of discriminating against religion and marital status.

Questions on whether this isethically correct or not, are neutralized by the fact that the users create profiles that are free for anyone to view, so the managers argue that they are not actually breaking any privacy law, as access is not denied or restricted anyway.

The disclaimer however, is that employers should bear in mind that most stories on these sites are not entirely true. Most people take advantage of the cover of anonymity to make create a personality that is not necessarily reflective of their true identity.Therefore, they should not entirely rely on these profiles forassessment of the employee. However, they can help give a limelight of the employee’s personality.

We will write a custom Report on The Role of Social Media in Recruitment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advantages of Using Social Networks at the Work Place Social networks such as Facebook and LinkedIn can be used professionally, like to connect with others in your field of work and share experience or solve a problem related to work. Employees in the same industry could be friends or former classmates, and through these sites, they could share a lot including encouraging each other to further their studies.

At the same time, these sites contain news on various industries that once you “like” the page, you can receive recent news and updates on the goings-on in the industry. This way, the employee is able to follow on relevant news of what is going on in line with his work. Employers should take note of these positive effects and put measures in place that can tolerate the employee access to this information

These sites can be used to polish one’s image.For instance, if one posts positive and constructive comments, he/she is able to gain respect from among the network. If the comments are work related, they can also polish the company’s image as well. This way, the employee sells the company name to the public, and his polished image boosts his business transactions, as many from the network will be willing to listen to his advice, for instance, on product and services as a marketing strategy.This can help one advance his career.

If one can strictly monitor oneself on the amount of time spent on these sites in line with the company policy, it can only work to enhance their performance by acting as a morale booster. Positive comments from friends in these networks can lighten up damp moods, consolation as well over some loss or disappointment, birth day wishes and even simple greetings or a “like” on your comment can go a long way to put a smile on your face. This can push one through the pressure at work, so long as work does not get compromised.

It is a natural desire for one to want to know what is happening around them, in one’s town, country and even the world at large. This can inform an employee’s decisions, and give them something to think or talk about apart from work.

Social networks can provide this necessary information, instead of one having to tune on the radio or TV at the end of the day to get updated.This way, theemployee stays connected with the rest of the world, and understands his environment more and is informed of any precautionary measures he may need to take, to make him feel secure and relaxed to work

Tyson (2006) says that the fact that your employer trusts you as the employee with the freedom to access the social sites at any time at the same time trusting that you will do and accomplish your work effectively goes a long way to boost the employee’s confidence in the employer, and leaves you with the responsibility of not failing this trust and wanting to make the employer trust you more.

It creates a more cordial relationship between the two, a key ingredient in employer-employee cooperation leading to better performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Social Media in Recruitment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through these sites, companies can chat with their customers and clients. This can improve the relationships between the two, bringing it down from an overly casual attitude to a more friendly and flexible relationship.They can discuss about their products and services and positive feedback will help the companies improve. The customers also become freer with the companies, encouraging business transactions. This can therefore be a good medium for marketing and building Public Relations.

Disadvantages of Using Social Networks in the Work Place Chatting, especially, on personal non-work related issues only serves to waste the employee’s work time. Studies show that average users of sites like face book spend up to 56 minutes of their work time on social sites, and this number can go up for users using mobile internet like mobile phones. This therefore wastes time as a resource for the company.

Employees accessing these sites during work time are often stealing the time; therefore, their attention is divided between chatting and work. This is a big risk as they are likely to make errors and mistakes that can cost them or the company a great deal. This compromises the productivity of the employee and the company’s goals are not met.

Sinrod (2007) says that another problem of using these networks in the work place in the risk that the company software is exposed to. The company software gets exposed to viruses and spyware, this can lead to loss or corruption of important data, and recovery can be an unnecessary added cost. Productivity levels go down.

The Impact of Negative Comments Kiser (2011) says that employee posts can negatively impact on the image of the company. Such comments as badmouthing the supervisors, fellow employees, commenting negatively on the company products, will reduce consumer confidence towards the company, loss of clients and scare away potential clients.

Comments that reveal the company’s secrets to the public can make the company lose on competition with other companies as they are able to sabotage this information and use it to their advantage. If for instance an employee reveals who their major clients are, other competing companies can use incentives to lure these clients to their companies. The same with a company’s plans like expansion, new products and enumeration. If this information falls on the hands of competing companies, they are likely to use it to their advantage.

Some comments posted on these sites can pose legal risks and can destroy the reputation of a company, however jokingly the intention might have been.For instance a post that the employees have gone two months without pay can raise legal questions, industrial actions. The company may be regarded as insensitive to its employees, and many might not want to work in the company.

Dealing With Negative Comments In dealing with the problem of negative comment and its impact in employees, most companies are coming up with policies to curb this. This is one of the best ways for a company to protect itself from the effects of social network; having a clearly defined online social media policy.

The policy should give clear specifications on who is allowed to speak for the company, so that any other employee who comments anything about the company is outlawed and does it illegally and is subject to sanctions. This will also safeguard confidential information from leaking to undesirable environment.

Depending on specific policies in various companies regarding the use of social networks, some employers fire the offending employees while some take upon them disciplinary actions, like paying damages to the company, demotion or suspension.

The policies can outline which social sites employees can access, probably those with the least potential harm to the company like LinkedIn than Facebook. This way, they give the employees access to the sites but in a controlled way, to limit potential harm.

The policies should be clearly communicated to the employees, make them understand what is and is not permitted regarding the access of the sites, and explain your reasons for the restrictions and spell out the penalties in cases of breach.

Conclusion The issue of social networks in the work place is a complicated one that needs careful address by both the human resource managers and the employees. Neither party can solely tackle the issue; it needs the effort of the two parties.

The managers need to come up with policies that offer a balanced approach, one that will ensure that the workers enjoy their privacy and some form of out-of-work attention/recreation, at the same time, ensuring that work gets done, and done efficiently.

The employee on the other hand is tasked with the responsibility of living up to the company goals and objectives, and should ensure that his personal needs are well regulated so as not to interfere with his work.

Whichever policy chosen, the management should as much as possible avoid coercive measures. These kill employee morale, and sneaking on the manager to steal time for chatting will increase, worsening employee-employer relationship and productivity.

Reference List Huczynski, A and Buchanan, D., 2010. Organizational Behavior. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd, FT Prentice Hall.

Kiser, P., 2011. 5 Reasons Why Ignoring Negative Social Media is a Career Ender: Social Media Today. Web.

Sinrod, E.J., 2007. Can Social Networking Co-exist With the Work Place? CNET NEWS Corporate and Legal. Web.

Tyson, S., 2006. Essentials of Human Resource Management. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann.


Problem Solving Process and Methods Report custom essay help

Problem solving

Problem solving is a process that is mentally inclined and forms part of a bigger problem solving process that incorporates finding the problem and shaping it to required solutions. Problem solving methods are techniques or skills used to solve life problems. They refer to an individual’s ability to reason both inductively and deductively, as well as be able to apply logic, which can help that individual to infer the problems, analyze and think critically, among others.

Methods used

The problem is an analysis of the operations of a small sporting goods retail shop. Several approaches we used in problem solving include use of interviews, SWOT analysis and PEST analysis, brainstorming, research in books and journals and review of industry publications.


In solving the problem, we used interviews as one method. This involved engaging several store managers in a conversation, which involved asking them questions concerning the types of sporting products they stock. The outcome of the interviews were able to give us data about each store’s product price range, products they carry, services and their targeting customers, their positioning tactics and how they differentiate themselves among others.

SWOT analysis

Using this method, we were able to evaluate the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in sporting goods retail shop. SWOT analysis lays emphasis on the business entity as a single unit. The data from interviews were used in summarizing similarities and or differences, advantages and or disadvantages among the stores and competitiveness over one another.

PEST analysis

Using this analysis, we were able to analyze the macro-environmental framework of the sporting retail shop. PEST analysis measures the business market potential in line with external factors. This was possible since this analysis bases its focus on political, economic, social and technical views of the analysis. We used the internet for identifying external environment such as local trends, social, economic, political; technological that may affect the small sporting retail store.


The other method we used in problem solving is observation. Using this method, we did a study on several sporting retail shops regarding their web appearance, designs and did comparison among the stores. This method enabled us to identify missing contents or links that would further enhance the business’s visibility and its competitive nature.


This process involves the input of a group’s creativity whereby the group tries to find solutions to problems by getting idea from each member of the group. Through this process, we were able to engage the input of the instructor when we encountered problems. Through this process, we were able to create a range of new ideas and easily solve the problems and it helped in motivating the group members since everyone had his/her input taken into consideration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research in books and journals

Using this method of problem solving, we were able to learn how the industry’s financial statement looks like, such as, revenue, profit margin, return on asset, inventory turnover, and asset turn over, advantage and Interest burden. This we did by using library database, which includes books and journals. When analyzing the financial statement of the sporting goods retail shop, we used marketing, accounting and finance books.

Review of industry publications

Using this method in problem solving, we were able to gather information of the sporting retail shop concerning its market share. Particularly, we used the publication of national sporting business for collecting the general data and overview of the sporting retail shop industry in the market.


Iran and Nuclear Weapon Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Many people have claimed that the most destructive war in the history of mankind is almost ready (Macdonald 1). Further, it is claimed that the war will not be confined to one region or small sets of countries, but rather, it will have an effect on all everyone. There several events happening today that point towards this direction and the power that is behind them is vastly gaining nuclear weapons. This power is none other than Iran, which has declared its ambition to wipe the Israel nation out of the world map.

In one of his many meetings on the Middle East peace process, the former United States President George Bush is quoted as saying that Iran was a threat, and there was, therefore, a need for the international community to act swiftly, and prevent the country from developing the abilities to build a nuclear weapon.

5 years down the line, the international community, seems to have a lacklustre approach when dealing with Iran. However, whether world leaders take action or not, Iran is about to get the nukes, and the first target will be Israel followed by American and the rest of the world.

In the recent past, Iran has shown that it can start and sustain a war. Iran is the world’s leading sponsor of terrorism. Indeed, it is clear that both the U.S. and Israel are at war with Iran at the moment. This is something that most people do not see. Iran is the sponsor of terrorist activities across the world, while America and Israel lead in the fight against terrorism. The only way that the country can be stopped is through confrontation and not by negotiations.

In spite of condemnation by world leaders, the nuclear program of Iran continues without much opposition. In October 2010, Iran revealed that already had the capability to produce between 100 and 200 kilograms of enriched uranium, which is enough to build three to five nuclear war heads. Yet, the U.S has not taken any decisive action to tame Iran’s nuclear ambitions (Macdonald 2).

This is exactly the same situation that confronted world leaders prior to the Second World War. Hitler and his battalion of religious cronies rose to pre-eminence under the watchful eye of powerful leaders who took no notice of his ambitions in the early 1930s.

Hitler told everyone what he was going to do in Mein Kampf; however, only Winston Churchill believed him. Winston Churchill saw the impending danger and sounded an alarm for years. Many called Hitler a warmonger, while others did not take him seriously. They said that it was not Hitler till Churchill’s prophecy came to pass and there was the Second World War started by Hitler (Macdonald 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Iran has enormous resources especially from oil, and the leaders believe that they can accelerate the return of the 12th Imam by bringing chaos on the world.

The twelfth Imam, Mohammad al Mahdi, disappeared at the age of five and is expected to return supernaturally before the Day of Judgement according to a section of Muslims who subscribe to Shiite interpretation of the Holy Koran. However, it is believed that, for him to come back on the Earth, the world must be in chaotic conditions. The leaders in Iran aim at creating chaos so that their own version of Messiah could return and bring in eternal peace.

This is the illusion that is guiding Iranian leaders. To them, nukes are the only way to bring chaos and achieve their aims. To stop Iran from bringing catastrophe America and Israel must target and destroy Iranian nuclear sites. In addition, the UN Security council should impose an embargo on countries that sell technology to Iran. If these actions are not taken, their nuclear disaster is inevitable.

Work Cited Macdonald, Brad. Iran’s Nuclear Ambition. 11.Dec. 2004. Web.


Should Animals be Used in Research Essay college application essay help

All over the world, animal activists and institutions have argued whether or not research should be used on animals or should be outlawed. Philosophers believe that experiments on animals are not morally justified because they cause pain or harm the animals. A group of these philosophers believe that other alternatives are available, thus they claim that because we have other alternatives, the use of animals in research should be outlawed.

The reasons why animals should not be used in research In my opinion, I support the line of argument that animals should not be used in research. Since the discovery of knowing through science (research), the use of animals in research has elicited mixed reactions among different scholars. Philosophers are against the idea citing the availability of other options for toxicological tests on animals and the harsh treatments the scientists have accorded these animals in the medical tests. Unless scientists discover other ways of testing medicines, I think tests on animals are unethical.

Scientists use these creatures to validate a theory and then revise or change their theories depending on the new facts or information gained from every test performed. Animal rights lobby groups believe that animals are used for no reasons in these experiments as the animals endure pain inflicted on them during these tests (Singer 2). They tend to overlook the fact that animals have moral existence, social and religious values. Thousands of animals on this planet contribute largely to the aesthetic appeal of the land.

On the other hand, scientists only see the positive contributions of animal tests to the medical field and ignore the side effects of the tests on the animals’ lives. They overlook the idea that animals are hurt and thus suffer tremendously.

To them the impact of the research on the lives of their families and friends by coming up with vaccines and drugs is the inspiration. Research on animals should be banned because it inflicts pain, harms the culprits and morally it is unjustified. Has man ever wondered whether or not animals feel similar pain that humans feel? (Singer 2).

Human beings know very well that they themselves feel pain. For example, you will know that a metal rod is hot by touching it with bare hands. It is believed that pain is mental; in other words it cannot be seen. We feel pain and we realize that other creatures also feel pain from observations like jerking away from an event or even yelling.

Since the reactions are the same as those of man, philosophers say that animals feel similar pain just like humans. Animal activists reaffirm that the major undoing of tests involving animals is the manner in which the animals are treated arguing that anesthesia for suppressing the pain is never used.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion However, as many people are opposed to the use of animals in research, many lives have been saved every year due to their death. I think that instead of refuting that taking away the life of a rat is unethical, harms the animal; I believe it is a bold step in improving the welfare of millions of people for thousands of years to come. Tests on animals are the most common toxicological tests used by scientists; the findings help to better lives for hundreds of people across the universe (Fox 12).

Works Cited Fox, Michael A. The Case for Animal Experimentation. California: University of California Press, 1986.

Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. New York: Random House, 1975.


Strategic Management is a Science Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help

In analyzing strategic management, a number of issues confront us about whether it is a science or not. We could consider strategic management as an art but to do this would be to ignore the fact that scientific methods and technologies are essential in strategic management. Therefore, this paper begins by ascertaining that strategic management is a science. A strong debate, discussion and support then pursue and finally, conclusion and recommendations are stated.

The issue of whether strategic management is a science is controversial. On the one hand, Mulcaster (2010) considers it as an art because managers use their own abilities to determine what action to take. On the other hand, Katsioloudes (2010) believes that it is a science because people are required to think rationally before coming up with the way forward.

For instance, logic reasoning is imperative in determining the course of action to take to achieve objectives (Hambric, 2009). However, in the final analysis, I believe that strategic management is a science because it is objective like logic and it pursues predestined course of action in order to achieve results.

Mulcuster (2010) defines strategic management as an ongoing process that involves strategy analysis, strategy formulation and strategy implementation. Accordingly, it involves monitoring and evaluation of the internal strength and weakness in the presence of the external threats and opportunities (Derek, 2011).

Blumentritt (2009) argues compellingly that strategic management try to align the activities of the organization with external environment through extensive research of both environments. Additionally, strategic planning is the core of this management process that entail decisions and actions that an organization require to earn a great share of the market (Barnat, 2011).

Ryszard (2009) states that market assessment is vital in strategic management. Therefore, managers need to research on the market situation by collecting information and critically analyzing it (Mulcaster, 2010). Moreover, Katsioloudes (2010) emphasizes that strategic management requires a rational approach through environmental analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation.

On the other hand, Hambric (2009) argues that the triumph of an organization requires moves that strengthen its competitive position. While this is undoubtedly true, Hambric (2009) gives the impression that managers need to manipulate the external environment, an impression that suggests that strategic management should be flexible and deliver standard services to the customers. At this point, the stress is that an organization success depends on the management type and leadership style (Derek, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Blumentritt (2009) explains that the success of an organization depends on its ability to fit in the competitive environment and in this case, the organization should vibrantly interact with the environment through logic and scientifically planned actions. Therefore, the organization need to research about its information in the market place and in this situation, the manager together with the employees formulate strategies scientifically by analyzing data and information relevant to the organization (Barnat, 2011).

Moreover, Hambric (2009) states that strategies concern the future and it requires that the organization make definite assumption about the upcoming market, technological inventions and the future trends. In this case, the assumption needs testing and validation and in the event that the employees confirm its validity, strategy formulation becomes a scientific process (Derek, 2011). On the contrary, strategy formulation can also be an art if the employees do not validate the assumption because it will have no essence.

Research reveals that strategic management requires rational thinking so that managers choose actions directed towards the fulfillment of the organization mission (Ryszard, 2009). Nevertheless, people should remember that according to Mulcuster (2010), strategic management is a work in progress.

This means that it depends on the managers trait because each manager has his own way of carrying out plans and they have the flexibility of choosing whatever action provided the organization objectives get accomplished (Mulcuster, 2010). Although strategy implementation involves art, it is vivid that the implemented action needs scientific analysis to determine whether it will achieve the organization vision (Hambric, 2009).

Therefore, strategic management is more of a science because managers need to analyze the organization objectives in order to determine if the organization is on the right track. Additionally, it may involve researches on the best execution practices. For instance, the manager needs to examine qualitative and quantitative data about external and internal environment before making a decision on which action to take (Derek, 2011).

Based on the above discussion of literature, strategic management is both an art and a science. It is an art during the action phase because this phase depends on the management style and leadership traits.

On the other hand, strategic management is a science because it involves rational thinking, planning and systematic evaluation of the action to be implemented. As a result, I am in favor of the statement that strategic management is a science because during the formulation phase, environment examination requires extensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data (Katsioloudes, 2010).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Strategic Management is a Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the organization formulate assumptions and test them and the vital thing is that the organization requires scientific method to study the data before deciding on the best strategy to undertake given the assumption formulated ( Blummentritt, 2009). Finally, in order for the organization to succeed, it needs to understand the market and this understanding expects it to have accurate information and analyze it scientifically.

Despite the fact that research is expensive, time consuming and multifaceted, it does not mean that organization should keep away from it. I recommend that the organizations use simple approaches to obtain data and information required for effective strategic management.

References Barnat, A. (2011). The Art and Science of Strategic Management. Journal of Management , 46 (7), 37-56.

Blumentritt, D. (2009). Strategic Management as an Applied Science but not as we (Academics) Know It. Journal of Business Strategy , 154 (2), 291-356.

Derek, S. (2011). Is Business Strategy a Mixture of Luck and Judgement, Opportunities and Design, or More of an Art than a Science? Journal of Marketing , 42 (9), 21-37.

Hambric, L. (2009). What is Strategic Management, Really? Inductive Derivation of a Consensus definition of the field. Strategic Management Journal , 45 (21), 1000-1023.

Katsioloudes, C. (2010). Strategic Management: Global Cultural Perspective for Profit and Non-Profit Organisations. Journal of Management , 563 (49), 78-95.

Mulcaster, P. (2010). Strategic Management: Three Strategic Frameworks. Business Strategy Series , 10 (1), 43-49.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management is a Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ryszard, F. (2009). The Strategy Field From the Perspective of Management Science: Divergent Strands and Possible Intergration. Journal of Business Strategies , 28 (9), 32-47.


Roles of Property Tax Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Roles assigned to property taxes

Features of economic system to be implemented



Introduction Property tax, an annual tax on the real property, has been in existence for more than three millennia. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. Its base may be the land and buildings or just the land only. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate (Hoff, 1991).

This paper therefore seek to explain how the rate of savings in a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It will also highlight the roles that can be attributed to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Additionally, the paper will recommend other features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.

Roles assigned to property taxes As an economic advisor, I would recommend a property tax that is administratively and technically easy to maintain and implement in all the circumstances. The property tax should be able to aim a cost yield ratio of 2% or even less making it cheap to administer. The property tax implemented should be secure in that it’s almost impossible to evade, the collection success rates should be at a minimum of 95% which is easily attainable. The transparency of the tax system should be evident in the property tax to ensure its affectivity (Hoff, 1991).

The property tax should be in such away that the public understands it since understanding the market value concept is easy whether it is a rental value or capital value making its basis of assessment more appreciated. The property tax should ensure that there is a better correlation between the ability to pay and the assessed value.

The tax should also be marginally progressive and therefore need to be designed correctly. The property taxes should be well suited like a source to the revenue of the local governments generated locally; nevertheless it should be buoyant and predictable (Bahl, 1992).

Economically, I’ll assign some other major roles to the property taxes. These include: acting as a major source of local revenues; the property taxes should be employed as the main source of revenues generated locally since it is geographically defined.

It may be possible to use local sales taxes and local income taxes in generating the revenue for the local government but the two have administrative difficulties. Other sources may be rents from the properties owned by the government. However, property taxes still remain the major source of revenue in such areas since it is easier for the government to modify than it is to adjust the rates of income taxes (Hyman, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a primary source of revenue; property tax should be able to play a vital role in the autonomy and decentralization of the local government.

Where there is full local government decentralization, the power to independently raise revenue is incorporated which allows the government to use such funds as they deem fit: as a support for other functions; the property tax should be able to be used by other bodies and agencies in assessing the value lists attached to properties. Some bodies that may find it relevant include drainage boards, water bodies and electricity which assess the charges imposed on such commodities (Bahl, 1992).

Features of economic system to be implemented A developing nation willing to increase the savings of its citizens and the investments by the foreign investors ought to implement favorable economic systems that suit its objectives. In this case, some of the features of the economic system that I as an economic advisor would recommend for implementation include:

An economic system that facilitates decentralization and gives a basis for local autonomy

A system that ensures an economic use of the available land

An economic system that provides the base of revenue for a particular function authorities

A system that reduces property and land prices hence facilitating land access by the public

An economic system that can be applied to industrial, commercial and residential properties as well as buildings and agricultural land located in the rural areas (Hoff, 1991).

Conclusion In summary, Property tax is an annual tax on the real property. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. The land and buildings or just the land only are its major bases. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate. This paper has highlighted major roles of property tax as; the major source of local revenue, primary source, contributing to functions of other bodies and as a valuation list.

The paper has therefore described how the rate of saving of a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It has also highlighted the roles assigned to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Eventually, the paper has recommended the features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.

References Bahl, R. (1992). Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hoff, K. (1991). Introduction: Agricultural Taxation and Land Rights Systems. The World Bank Economic Review, 5(1): 85-91.

We will write a custom Essay on Roles of Property Tax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hyman, D. N. (2008). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (9th ed.). Mason OH: South-Western Publishing, Cengage


Review of Revenue Estimates in Federal, State, Agency and Local Budgets Essay custom essay help

Introduction Public budgeting can be defined as “the critical exercise of allocating revenues and borrowed funds so as to attain the economic and social goals of a given country” such as the United States (Chantrill, 2011). It also includes the management of public expenditures in a way that the most effective economic impact will be realized from the production and delivery of goods and services (Huddleston, 2005).

The budgeting process is vital in the sense that it allows governments, states and agencies to implement proper planning and management of financial resources. The prevailing economic condition often acts as a guide to help governments to prioritize and implement programs and policies that will work best for them.

The budgeting process entails four different stages or phases: budget preparation, budget authorization, budget execution and accountability. The United States and many other countries have an annual budgeting process.

Revenue estimation is an important component of the budgeting process for every government, state, local governments and agencies. This is important for ensuring that strategic planning is done to correctly pinpoint how much money should allocated to different programs. It’s also important in determining whether taxes are to be increased or decreased.

This paper seeks to review the revenue estimates in Federal, State and local Budgets. The review will include: Basic description of each budget- federal, state and local budgets; Identification of the differences and similarities between the budgets; identification of the areas that account for the most of the revenue in the different categories; determination of how the budget fits with the mission of each domain; and finally, recommendation of how the budget can be improved and revenue estimation be accurately accessed at each level.

Description of the different budget estimates Local government budget estimates

There are many local governments across the United States. These governments usually fall under the category of general purpose governments that offer several different public goods and services or special purpose governments that provide a specific good or service (Huddleston, 2005).

There are governments for cities, others for rural areas and some representing both cities and rural areas. In some states, municipal governments provide public education while in others pubic education is catered for by special purpose governments (Huddleston, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This diversity in local governments is also reflected in the public budgets as well. However, the underlying factor in all these budgets is raising and spending of public money (Chantrill, 2011).

Budgets of general purpose local governments are usually composed of three distinct parts that operate together: annual operating budget; capital budget; and the enterprise or utilities budget (The PEW Center of the States, 2011).

The annual operating budget outlines the anticipated spending that will be carried out by all agencies under the municipality in the coming year. For instance, this may include expenditure for public safety, planning and development, and social services among others (Huddleston, 2005). The annual operating budget also includes the revenues that the local government expects to receive in the course of the year, particularly the estimated amount of property tax revenue that will be levied in the course of the upcoming financial year.

The capital budget includes the forecasted expenditure on the required infrastructure projects that will be useful for a long time to come (Huddleston, 2005). Capital budgets are formulated following extensive planning process that indicates the precise spending that will be accrued on capital items in the coming year.

General purpose local governments usually identify public services whose beneficiaries can be established. Different local government enterprises finance themselves in the sense that annual revenues cover for the annual costs accrued (Huddleston, 2005).

State budgets estimates

Different states in the United States budget differently. The different budgeting systems reflect differences in the preferences and traditions that have been developed for more than 200 years (Chantrill, 2011).

There are differences in the authority wielded by the governor and the legislature, states relations to local governments, traditions of borrowing and many other aspects of the budgeting process (McNichol, Oliff,


Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Research Design In undertaking this research work, a descriptive research design will be implemented to provide explanation to the criminal trend observed among the young people. In this case, the research will aspire to provide answers to the questions arising from the observed trend in which young people are getting involved in criminal activities. In this regard, the research will try to give reasons to why young people engage in criminal activities.

To realize the intended objectives, the research design will employ various data collection methods which will enable the collection of reliable information for analysis. The descriptive research design will rely on interviews, questionnaire administration and surveys in getting information that is useful for the study (De Vaus, 2001).

Interviews will be conducted in the crime prone areas which will be identified after an analysis of data from criminal agencies in the United States. This will ensure that relevant information is easily gathered from the people who are most affected by the incidences of crime from the young members of the society.

Apart from the interviews, questionnaires will be distributed to a sample population to enable the gathering of more information related to crime committed by the young people. In addition, surveys will be conducted to shed more light on the aspect of crime among the young people. Therefore, this research will have to employ various tools of data collection including interviews, questionnaire and survey (De Vaus, 2001).

Data Analysis Procedures This study will rely on qualitative data analysis in synthesizing the findings of the study. It is worth noting that qualitative data analysis is critical when aspiring to answer the how and why questions (Nolan, 1994). This analysis does not involve statistics which is the case in quantitative analysis.

It has been established that qualitative research is used to study individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, value systems and aspirations among other social aspects (Lewis-Beck, 1995; Nolan, 1994). Since the focus of this study is to elaborate on the aspect of juvenile criminality, qualitative analysis can be identified as the most appropriate method to analyze the collected data in this study.

After data has been collected from the interviews, questionnaires and surveys, analysis of the data will begin. First of all, the data that will have been collected will be sorted out before being made available for analysis. The sorting will ensure that irrelevant data that may have been collected is eliminated in the course of analysis. This also enables the research to achieve its intended objectives (Hardy and Bryman, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results Descriptive Results

After a critical analysis of the data that was collected, it was found out that criminal behavior among the young people was affected by various aspects. First of all, it was revealed that high school dropout rate was closely related to criminal behavior among young people. In this case, most of the young people who did not complete high school education often engage in criminal activities to fend for themselves.

These individuals are not capable of securing decent employment as they do not have the necessary skills required for them to secure good employment. Given that these young people are locked out of the lucrative job market, they easily join the criminal gangs to make their ends meet. Such young people easily fall victims to peer pressure whereby they are attracted to the short-term benefits that accrue from criminal behavior (Rouček, 1970).

Peer pressure has been identified as one of the elements that lures the youths into committing crime. It has been established that delinquent behavior is prone to happen in a social setting. In such social settings social norms that enhance responsible behavior are usually broken.

In this case, most of the rules and regulations preventing individuals from engaging in criminal behavior lose significance. Members of the gangs often engage in criminal activities as a response to the traumatizing and destructive changes that are taking place in the society (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).

Poverty has also emerged as one of the main causes of criminal behavior among the youths. The gap between the haves and have-nots has continued to widen leading to what has been referred to as ‘the unwanted others.’

There has been the emergence of welfare systems to cater for the poor in the society, but this has not addressed the problem related to humble socio-economic status in the society and the ever-rising dependence of the low income earners on social security arrangements. This has led to the emergence of a ‘new poor’ class (Rouček, 1970).

It has reported that in neighborhoods which are home to moderate and low income earners, they are highly associated with criminal behavior. Here, the young people engage in criminal activity due to poor conditions in which they live.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can be argued that the main reason for taking part in criminal activities is to enable the young criminals to have something to eat since their economic condition is regarded to be pathetic. Engaging in criminal activities is seen as the easy way out for these young offenders in making ends meet (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011). As much as this can be despicable, it is the explanation that can be given to the findings of this undertaking.

Another aspect that was revealed is that child neglect and abuse can have an impact on the criminality of young people. From the statistics that were gathered from the criminal justice departments, it was revealed that most of the youths who engaged in criminal activities had a troubled past.

They were subjected to neglect and abuse by their families and care givers, and this pushed them into criminal activities. It is true that when children are growing, they need to be taken care of and nurtured to embrace the established societal norms (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).

Conclusion From the data and analysis provided, it can be established that juvenile delinquency and engagement in criminal activities is determined by various factors. The factors identified as key to the engagement of young people in criminal activities include high school dropout rate; poverty; and child abuse and neglect.

These aspects contribute to increased incidences of violent crimes among young people. Therefore, it can be asserted that addressing elements which have been associated with criminal activities among young people will play a vital role in curbing juvenile delinquency.

It is important to curb the rate of high school dropout to enable the young people gain necessary skills needed in the job market. Also, it is important to ensure that the issue of poverty should be addressed so as to accord the young people at least an average lifestyle. Lastly, the families and caregivers need to be taught about the importance of providing the young people with an appropriate environment for their growth. Child neglect and abuse should be avoided to enable the young people grow in a righteous manner.

References Burfeind, J. W. and Bartusch, D. J, 2011, Juvenile delinquency: an integrated approach, Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

De Vaus, D A, 2001, Research design in social research, London [u.a.]: SAGE.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hardy, M A and Bryman, A, 2009, Handbook of data analysis, London: SAGE.

Lewis-Beck, M S, 1995, Data analysis: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Nolan, B, 1994, Data analysis: an introduction, Cambridge; Oxford; Cambridge (MA): Polity Press.

Rouček, J. S, 1970, Juvenile delinquency, Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press.


Border Security of the United States Annotated Bibliography essay help site:edu

Definition The paper is about border security of the United States. The major concern is whether to have a secure border or to allow free movement of people, goods or services across the border of the United States. This border had been known as the longest undefended border in the world, but after the events of September 11, 2001, things changed.

The U.S government had to review its border laws and restrictions, which led to strict rules on its border. There has been increased time for security checks of shipment, thus increasing shipment costs for Canadian exporters. In addition to this, the US deadline for secure identity cards has affected trade and tourism.

The research shall be based on information from already documented information on U.S security. This includes books, journal articles, primary sources and online sources found in the World Wide Web.

This will provide information that other people have been able to gather about border security, which includes the actual figures of cost implications of border restrictions. The predetermined data of people movement across the border before and after border restrictions together with figures of economic implications shall be very important information for making conclusions.


The main objective is to determine whether the United States should allow a secure or free border to exist with the outside world for movement of goods, people and services, based on the events that took place in September 11, 2001 that killed many people.


Free border may lead to increased economic and social relationship between the United States, Canada and the rest of the hemisphere through unrestricted movement of goods, people and services across its boundaries. This will ultimately improve trade between United States and the rest of the world.


In 1990s, the Canadian- U.S border was known to be the longest secure border that existed until the terrorist attacks in September 11, 2001, due to good policies that existed between the two nations. After the terrorism attacks, the US customs and migration agencies increased security on trade and migration of people across their border.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The costs that come along with these restrictions have been known to have a great impact on both the US and the Canadian economy. This is in the form of taxes that amount to hundreds of millions of dollars that the citizens pay to put adequate security in the borders. US border scrutiny has discouraged potential investors and exports to the US due to time wastage that amounts to a loss of millions of dollars.

Another problem is the increase in shipment costs associated with the security provided during scrutiny. This is due to longer times that are taken during the process and security has to be provided. In 2004, 6.9 million trucks cross the US border from Canada with reported time delays of 32 minutes per shipment costing Canadian exporters an estimated $290 million. To avoid time wastage at borders, exporters have to be accredited in the US risk management programs which is expensive.

The other problem of the introduction of border scrutiny is imposition of passports or some other type of safe travel document. This is with the intent of identification of potential terrorists, but it has negative impacts. This passport is hard to obtain and also expensive, thus, hindering the movement of the people and trade between the US and other parts of the world.

Bibliography Books

Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.

Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.

The book talks about a wide range of problems facing U.S border security that arose after the September, 11 attacks. According to Warner, the large area that needs to be protected comprises “19,841 miles of land and water boundaries and 95,000 miles of shoreline and air of U.S” – Mexico border.

The number of migrants wanting to reach the U.S, a land of big opportunities, has been increasing with time and has resulted in large number of deaths. Between the years 1995-2008, the number of migrants reported to have died are 5,000 and an estimated number of 9,635 in 2009. Many Mexicans were killed in drug related violence.

We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Border Security of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book also focuses on border security before and after September 11, attacks. The security is said to have been intensified along the U.S. border after then to date. Warner also looks at “illegal migrations, counterterrorism, drug and weapon trafficking, human smuggling, the impact of border security on movement of people and goods and the effect of war on people and goods, and the effect of war on terrorism on civil and human rights”.

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Journal articles Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.

Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.

Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.

This article by Boswell argues that political debate and practices in Europe have remained unaffected by the threat of terrorism, which was particularly high after the events of 9/11. The argument is raised to contradict the belief that the events of 9/11 led to increased security of migration control via the implementation of harsh migration policies.

The article expounds on the contents of the migration policies, indicating the various methods of keeping irregular immigrants via restrictions, deportation, detention and border control. The author also compares the security of the US border to that in Europe, and the tactics used to prevent terrorism.

Primary sources GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Border Security of the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.

GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.

Works Cited Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.

Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.

Crawley, Phillip. Legacy of 9/11: the world’s longest undefended border is now defended. 11 September 2011. Web.

GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.

GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.

GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.

Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.

Jo Cureton, Emily. A mission on the border ten years after 9/11. 8 September 2011. Web.

Kephart, Janice. Border Watchlisting a Decade After 9/11. 1 September 2011. Web. .

Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.

Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.


The Design and Limits of Company Website Report college essay help

Introduction Background of the study

Often, emerging businesses demands information flow and dimensional communication systems modeled in websites. Websites are an essential tool for marketing, purchase, recruitment, customer services, and communication.

Across the globe, small, median and large business organizations have embraced the essence of owning a website from which all its activities are centralized. From a website, depending on its design, it is possible for a potential customer, employee, and the general public to have a quick access of services offered by a company and even trade or purchase goods online without necessarily having to appear physically.

Purpose of the study

The design and limits of accompany website depend mainly on the cost of maintenance and design, relevance, and sustainability (Chaffey, 2009). In relation to this, analysis of websites will include tools laid down for support, governance, and paradigm shift as communication technology experience metamorphosis.

Website use depends on the magnitude of information processing, decision faculty, and collocation efficiency, especially in marketing, identity, recruitment, and departmental control (Chaffey, 2009). In retrospect, it is necessary to address interacting facets of information marketing management and efficiency in communication via use of a customized website.

This research treatise examines the various uses and design of company websites for orders, information, storefront, communication, job recruitment, and marketing. Besides, quantifiable website progress and interpretation for successful, efficient, and modern communication system management are addressed as constituents of organization management framework. In addition, the treatise aims at reviewing an efficient, successful, cost-effective and secure website system to ensure competitive service provision.

Problem statement

Overtime, companies are faced with the need to develop an all-round and comprehensive websites which are secure, reliable and relevant to their line of operation. In the process, there is need to align management goals vertically on the operating processors affordable in the value market chain.

Unfortunately, sometimes this is not the case, especially when vertical arrangement is erased by coalitions of competence and structural operations. To achieve the desired outcomes such as comprehensive information efficiency, security, and optimal information presentation, there is an immediate need to establish the most reliable website design for appropriate system administration and functionality within optimal Pareto efficiency.

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Often connected to a network system, examples of websites include simple and complex models depending on the quantity of information available in it. Thus, the hypothesis if this research study is to review design and appropriate use of business websites as a form of information sharing within business environment in the twenty-first century.

Literature Review Theoretical frameworks

According to Swart and Kinnie (2003), websites are essential in processing, retrieving, storing and distribution information about a company’s products, services, human resource, management systems and marketing for competitive existence and relevance (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). The main components of a business website include the company profile, announcements, online trade, blackboard, and information update buttons.

These buttons are designed in a way that can monitor and detect alterations. From a software control system, websites have security systems, operation programs, utility support, and management systems (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). Websites can be customized to perform information processing requirements within a security monitoring range. Website system facilitates information sharing and marketing.

Methodology Data Collection

Business managers often have sole responsibility of managing information systems and marketing. Every year, the management set goals and flexible development plans aimed at facilitating growth in formation sharing and advertising products offered in the company website. For efficient information sharing, it must be viable and fall within the brackets of Pareto efficiency bundles.

Website design is the focal point of its operation and inclusivity. By employing open-ended questionnaires in direct interviews, the research targets information managers of medium business companies. Due to the small sample size, this method suits the goal of this research.

The questions to ask revolves around information, communication, recruitment, advertisement, and storefront management as part of information available in a website. In addition, issues on reliability, efficiency, and security of this form of information sharing system are also asked.

After data collection, simple swot analysis inclusive of quantitative correlation analysis of responses given is included on the inference. The findings revealed that company websites are essential in sharing information, management, and advertisement as a mean for maintaining a competitive edge and relevancy in service provision.

We will write a custom Report on The Design and Limits of Company Website specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion and Analysis Explanations on relevance and use of company websites in information sharing clearly indicate a complete paradigm shift in marketing and information management. Websites have enabled customers to do their shopping online from order, request for delivery, to making payments. In the websites, recruitment has been made easier as potential employees can apply for vacant positions online. Moreover, customers are given an opportunity to air their compliment and complaints for services offered to them.

Besides, dissatisfied customer may type suggestions for future improvement in service provision. As companies make alterations t factor in the comments provided, differentiation and brand growth is likely to improve as communication enhances. As an advertising tool, websites offer opportunity to customers to purchase goods from the comfort of their homes and make the company have a competitive edge above other players

Conclusion and Recommendation As the social media grows, companies have embraced online marketing methodology in the form of social media websites where they can interact with clients and potential customers. Social medias are marketing tools that when well used can give a company a competitive advantage over its competitors.

References Chaffey, A. (2009) “Business Information Management”. Web.

Swart, J.


Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Abstract The core objective of this research paper is to examine water scarcity and its effects to the environment. This research paper will lean towards a descriptive approach. Several causes of water scarcity will be reviewed in this research and subsequently suggest solutions to the problems will be discussed.

In conclusion, this research paper will make a number of recommendations to ensure significant strides are achieved in curbing water scarcity. Besides, after reviewing the recommendations applied, this paper will determine ways in which the research results can be dispersed. Introduction

Introduction This report will assess the increased demand for water resources as a result of its unavailability. Besides, the paper will also consider the solutions and recommendations for supplying water to all. Water is a valuable resource to humans and the world as a whole.

If water resources continue to diminish, the environment will continue to experience the struggle of surviving since the environment, and forests particularly depend on water resources. Huge industrial demand for water, increased populations and agricultural demands for water increase the scarcity of water. Australia, for instance, is estimated to maintain its domestic water needs rise to 70 percent in the near future. Water Scarcity

Water scarcity is a problem that is experienced all over the world. It is estimated that over a billion people are annually hit by water scarcity. The U.S. department of state puts a figure of 1.1 billion people who lack safe drinking water while 2.4 billion cannot access basic sanitation. Interestingly, “water scarcity also occurs in regions that contain freshwater and sufficient amounts rainfall” (Postel 85).

This is because sufficiency of water supply depends on water conservation methods, distribution channels available in the community and the quality of water as stated by Postel (192). Besides, meeting the demand for household water use, farms, industry and the environment requires substantial conservation methods and timely distribution methods. It is estimated that one out of every three people on each continent of the globe is affected by water scarcity.

As the world population grows the need for more water also increases. Besides, more urban cities are coming up, and urbanization increases the household and industrial consumption. 1.2 billion people across the globe live in areas where water is not present or is physically not available. This is a fifth of the world’s population.

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Fig. 1.2 (BBC NEWS)

As shown by the above figure, water scarcity is fast becoming a major challenge in developing countries where a quarter of the world population lives. This is due to “lack of proper technique of supplying water from sources such as rivers and aquifers to where it is needed most” (Berk 190). In places where water shortage is experienced, communities are forced to use unsafe drinking water for drinking and washing their clothes.

Unsafe drinking water increases the chances of water borne diseases such as dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever being transmitted to humans. Furthermore, “water scarcity can lead to other diseases including trachoma, which is an eye infection that leads to blindness, plague and typhus” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). When people are faced with water scarcity, they institute measures to store water in their home. These measures can include using water tanks or sinking wells.

This method leads to a breeding ground for mosquitoes – which are known carriers of malaria and dengue fever among others. In the face of all this problems associated with water scarcity, there arises a need to address the issue of water scarcity before it gets out of hand. Better water management policies ensure safety of the communities relying on the water as breeding grounds for insects are eliminated, hence a reduction in water borne diseases like the schistosomiasis which is a devastating illness.

According to Sherbinin (26) the shortage of water and agricultural production in poor urban settings utilizes waste water. More than 10% of the world’s population consumes foods that have been grown using waste water.

These irrigated foods can contain harmful chemicals or disease-causing organisms. It may almost seem ironical to note that the world has enough water for everyone. However, the problem that leads to water shortage is poor distribution. “Water scarcity is a natural occurrence in some areas. However, in others areas it is a man-made phenomenon” (Sherbinin 26).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the world is endowed with sufficient water resource to cater for approximately 6 billion people. According to Pereira and Lacovidae 302) scarcity has contributed to uneven distribution channels, wastage. This is because of poor harvest and utilization strategies. Poor methods of handling the water resource have led to water Pollution. Hence, this has created a big challenge that threatening the ecosystem and human population.

Types of Water Scarcity Physical Scarcity

Physical scarcity of water is prevalent across the world. As the name suggests, access to water sources is physically limited. This happens when the demand for water surpasses the land’s capacity to provide the much-needed water. This form of deficiency is primarily associated with the dry parts of the world, including arid regions of the globe as clearly illustrated by the figure below.

The northern part of Africa and some parts in Asia and Australia are the worst hit by this physical scarcity. However, we have some regions in the world which do not fall in the dry land category but have man-made physical scarcity. For instance, the Colorado River basin has been “over used causing physical water scarcity downstream” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). Thus, scarcity can also be attributed to over management of the river resources.

Below is Figure 1.3 showing water scarcity distribution around the globe (BBC NEWS)

Economic Scarcity

The most problematic type of water scarcity is economic water scarcity. This happens when no concrete measures are taken to ensure water availability. This situation persists largely due to lack of good governance, and lack of good will to change the situation. Therefore, economic scarcity is demonstrating the lack of resources in terms of funds or monetary benefit to utilize available sources of water.

The sub-Saharan Africa falls under this model of economic water scarcity. Unequal water resource distribution is generally experienced in the Sub-Saharan due to several reasons. These reasons are tied to political and ethnic conflicts, which are a common occurrence in this part of the world.

As shown in Fig 1.2 much of sub-Saharan Africa falls under economic water scarcity. However, Odgaard explains that in the presence of good governance mechanisms, this situation is manageable (140). In most cases, access to clean and safe water can be as simple as constructing small dams for communities to harvest rain water. Besides, the principal objective should be to provide relief for the already suffering communities.

To ensure clean water is available to world population, water harvesting techniques should be developed. These need not be complicated as it may mean rain water collection from roof tops and construction of water storage tanks. Without question, this situation can be tackled with the construction effort from the local community, availability of funds and engineering.

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As highlighted earlier in this research paper, water shortage is a global concern that is affecting communities and the environment and threatens to affect many others if substantial measures are not taken to tackle the scarcity.

However, it is difficult to compare the struggle of an African woman walking long distances in search of fresh water with water scarcity as experienced in the United States. The Colorado River is beginning to run dry in some places; this sounds almost impossible considering the size of the river. Huge water bodies like Lake Mead found in Arizona may become obsolete.

These are some of the dramatic changes that are facing the United States with regard to water scarcity. With this realization, more and more people are starting to connect with situations in dry regions of the globe. More so, the effects of water mismanagement are starting to be felt. Research indicates that Lake Mead may run dry by the year 2012. This is a serious issue considering the lake currently supplies up to 22 million people with water.

Figure 1.4 shows Lake Mead’s receding water levels (KTAR).

This is proof enough that water scarcity is not just a problem of people who never had water but rather a problem for all. Demand for more water and problems associated with pollution is contributing factor to water shortages. The daily demand for water means that the availability of the same will be affected in the future. Many people may thirst in the future if the current trend of wasteful toilet flushes and showerheads are not minimized.

Key Causes of Water Scarcity

Water scarcity has been caused by increased demand. These demands can be categorized into five major contributors to water shortage. Firstly, industrial water consumption enhances their production has created a strain on water resources. Most industries require having sufficient water supplies in order to perform optimally and produce goods or services.

Besides, most mining and oil industries use water in their operations. Thus, water scarcity makes these industries to be more susceptible to water shortages. Secondly, agricultural water needs for farms where there is unreliable rainfall create a huge demand for water, thus exerting more pressure on the already strained water resources.

Fig. 1.5 (Links between population and fresh water)

As the world population grows, more demand for water is experienced as illustrated by fig 1.4. The world population recently hit 7 billion, and the figure could only mean that pressure to supply water for all is expected to rise. Consumer demand is closely linked to population growth as more and more households require water to maintain their households.

Economic growth is a positive step towards improving the lives of people in a given community, but calls for the need to supply resources to fuel it. One of it is water; hence as more economic growth is experienced more demand for water is created.

Suggested Solutions to Water Scarcity

Environmentalists maintain that immediate solutions have to be devised. Low cost solutions come in handy. In China for instance, farmers are already making use of these inexpensive water conservation methods with great results (FFTC). However, “low cost solutions, for example, creating still water conservation may harm the population downstream” (Berk 190). Therefore, it is important for the conservation efforts to involve everyone to provide an amicable solution for all.

Fig. 1.6 showing the global water usage (Umwelt Bundes Amt)

Conclusion In order to ensure water scarcity is effectively tackled, total commitment to set targets and solutions is required. Figure 1.5 clearly indicates that the demand for water is rising, and as a matter of urgency, conservation efforts will bear fruit if every one of us realizes that they have a role to play.

Constant assessment of the strategies governing water bodies and their utilization will ensure that positive progress is achieved. Though much effort has been focused on water conservation, its use and proper management should be emphasized as it will ensure clean water service delivery for us and generations to come. Moreover, focus on climate changes and environmental degradation should also be improved, and a positive environmental culture encouraged.

Works Cited BBC NEWS. Map Details, Global Water Stress. 2006. Web.

Berk, Richard. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought. Halifax: Abt Books, 1981. Print.

FFTC. Irrigation Management in Rice-Based Cropping Systems: Issues and Challenges in Southeast Asia.” 1998. Web.

KTAR. As Lake Meads Drops, Water Concerns Rise. 2010. Web.

Links between Population and Fresh Water. Population Growth and Water. 1996. Web.

Odgaard, Rie. Conflicts over land


Super Stamps and Products Inc. Case Study custom essay help

Cause and effect In the assessment of quality, there are various aspects that stand out. The management of quality has become a fundamental part of management. Through the assessment made on quality, mangers and leaders are able to deal effectively plan and strategize on the way forward. Some of the important names in the study of cause and effect and the assessment of quality include Dr. Walter Shewart and Dr. Edwards Deming.

These two names feature in the history of management and the early ways of conducting analysis. In regards to studying cause and effect, these names feature in a lot of references. Dr. Walter Shewart inspired Dr. Edwards in the analysis of quality and other aspects of business, and the two came up with some of the concepts that are applied to management today.

One of the aspects that stand out in the analysis of cause and effect is teamwork. It is one of the important elements in business that define the success. In the analysis, team work is assessed in regards to how the several parts of an organization function. Teamwork is concerned with the ways through which different people in an organization work together to ensure that the processes involved in production are conducted in an effective manner.

Another important aspect that is analyzed is the customer approval of the different manufacturing procedures. For instance, customer approval can be assessed through looking at the processes in production and the resultant outcome in regards to customer preference. The way through which the different departments come together to work on satisfying a customers request is one of the ways through which cause and effect is analyzed.

The supply chain management is important heading in regards to the analysis of cause and effect. Quality control management also posses as one of the important areas through which the cause and effect concept in business is analyzed.

In the analysis of quality control management and the supply chain, it is important to look employ cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, histograms, Pareto diagrams, scatter diagrams, run charts, and control charts. Cause and effect diagrams are important as they enable a tam to focus on the content of a problem as opposed to its history. Through this, team members are also able to evaluate their person interests from those of the team as a unit.

Through cause and effect diagrams, a team is able to use the collective knowledge for the betterment of the team and in achieving a common goal. A team applies this will always focus on the causes as opposed to the symptoms. A check sheet is important in understanding data. Through a check sheet, it becomes east to understand the data being presented in specific contexts. Different events and conditions that are of interest are made to come into agreement with the goals of a team or institution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, a check sheet helps in the formation of patterns through which assessment can be conducted. Histograms are important as they help in the interpretation of data that would have otherwise been hard to understand in tabular form. They also bring in variations, shapes and central data points during the course of analysis. This information is important in business as it is employed in the prediction of future events.


US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Human Rights

State Sovereignty


Works Cited

Introduction In the modern world, the US has the capability of utilizing electromagnetic (EMF) devices to harass, terrorize and execute human life. There is an ongoing government funded research to strength the use of such weapons, which raises concerns of human rights and freedom. The project was set up in 1950s by the CIA to influence human cognition, feeling and conduct.

By applying psychological understanding of individuals as social animal, the government of US has been funding studies aiming at controlling human behavior in the best ways possible. Human behavior can be maneuvered through segregation, drugs and hypnosis. The government has been funding researches such as application of wireless controlled electromagnetic energy. Such strategies are termed as information fighting and Non-lethal armaments.

The new technology aims at manipulating human feelings, interrupting thought and presenting agonizing twinge using magnetic fields. The government therefore has at its disposal some of the dangerous weapons that have already been used in suppressing human life. The weapons are usually used in quelling violence that could cause mass destruction, as well as lose life and property.

The issue of human rights is an all-inclusive concept that every person in society must be granted. The use of such weapons violates the rights of some individuals because other means of solving conflicts in society exist. By signing the Military Commission Act of 2006, the US government through the congress aimed at denying people their rights and freedoms.

The 2006 Act elucidates that the state has the authority and power to utilize electromagnetic weapons in torturing an individual perceived by the president to be a terrorist or associated with terrorism. The provision actually violates the constitutional right of an individual provided in the independence constitution. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the policy by looking at its strengths and weaknesses. The paper finally evaluates the rationale behind the use of the new technology in the US.

Human Rights Individual rights are usually incompatible with state sovereignty but the constitution at independence identified that some rights are innate in an individual and that they could not be separated from an individual. Such rights include the right to liberty, life and the right to pursue pleasure.

The state should therefore strive to offer these rights without compromise. In 1948, the United Nations declared the universal rights contained in chapter ten and five. The US government endorsed the rights and further incorporated them into the national laws. The charter provides that human beings have inherent rights that should always be given without concession. Such rights include various fundamental freedoms, justice and worldwide tranquility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws have been in operation for over six decades meaning that the US should respect them or consider them whenever designing national laws. Article ten of the UN constitution on human rights asserts that each individual is entitled to full egalitarianism and reasonable public trial by a sovereign and unbiased court in the deliberation of his/her rights and duties (Ignatieff 34).

Furthermore, article five proscribes torment or unkind, brutal or humiliating treatment or castigation. The 2006 Military Commissions Act goes against all these provisions. The US government allowed the passage of the bill meaning that individual liberty and freedoms are no longer recognized in the state.

On the other hand, the Universal Declaration of Human rights continue to assert that each individual has the right to freedom of thinking and freedom of expression, as well as attitude. This implies that each person has the right of giving his or her views voluntarily that is, without intimidation or being forced.

The introduction and application of EMF weapons endangers this fundamental right. Freedom of thinking or cognitive independence is the natural right of each individual. This implies that an individual should perceive the world in his/her best understanding that is, without external interruption or influence. Each person has his/her own way of reasoning. We all have different orientations and perceptions to the world. The use of EMF weapons is a threat to human life and freedoms according to human rights groups.

Use of EMF in extracting information from an individual is egregious human rights felony. Forceful extraction of information is illegal and in most cases inaccurate. An individual may be forced to give false information just because he/she is in pain. Such information is not useful at all because it does not have any theoretical grounding. Voluntary data is usually accurate and more applicable because it is usually ordered in a logical way.

Human rights activists argue that EMF weapons are not used to fulfill the interests of Americans. Military elites set out to dominate the world after the Second World War without considering the interests and wishes of the majority in the state. The new technology is used to safeguard the interests of the ruling elites in many ways.

Demonstrating workers and other aggrieved parties in the labor market are usually subjected to unnecessary torture only to satisfy the bourgeoisie (Landman 89). Those suspected to have engaged in property crime are also taken through pain in order to make them agree with the rules and regulations set by the ruling class. Furthermore, the activists continue to observe that victims of torture are people from particular races and social classes.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bill serves to deny some people their right to equality. Individuals from the Middle East have no peace in the US because their movements are trailed always. They are usually suspected to be having hidden agendas, which exposes them to torture and unfair treatment. The state must come up with a different way or technique of identifying criminals instead of relying on cultural background of individuals.

State Sovereignty As noted earlier, state sovereignty is incompatible with individual sovereignty. The interests of the state are superior to the desires and wishes of an individual because the state aims at fulfilling the public good. In this way, use of EMF weapons is justified and allowed because of state security and the nature of the international system.

Terrorism and the rise of fundamentalism call for extra ordinary measures in case the state is to maintain its sovereignty (Paleri 115). The existence of the law frustrates the activities of extremist groups because relevant information is easily obtained through torture. All through history, there are times that the only language a man understands is violence. The use of brutal techniques in solving conflicts is valid due to the intrinsic nature of a human being. Man is inherently brutal, anarchic and self-centered.

The existence of the central authority serves to control the individual self-interests. Such interests are always controversial and may pose a threat to life. As noted by early scholars, the society was on fire implying that life was short lived and indecent before the invention of the state. This forced individuals to sign a contract that would guarantee peace and harmony. The contract gave powers to one central authority, referred to as the state.

The central authority or Leviathan as Hobbes could document, would have powers to exercise authority over individuals. Individuals on their part surrendered power to the Leviathan mainly to achieve greatness (Haftendorn 519). The state has a prime role of protecting the interests of the society because it is the custodian of the public welfare.

Therefore, the state is authorized to use techniques such as trickery, negotiation, murder and any other available method, whether good or bad to maintain peace. It is not surprising for the state to use EMF weapons to execute its duties. In other words, it means that the Leviathan cannot share its powers with any other entity in society. Furthermore, it has powers granted to it by the majority to control life and property

Conclusion The use of EMF weapons is justifiable and the state should come up with ways of strengthening its application. The existing international system is anarchic and tension full implying that the state must explore all possibilities and arrive at the best solution.

This would require neglecting individual sovereignty because it is incompatible with state sovereignty in real practice. It is also established that man is intrinsically brutal and full of conflicts hence application of one technique in extracting important information from him would not function.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The state would lose its hegemonic powers in the international system in case human rights considerations are taken seriously. Treating criminals or suspects softly would comprise state security meaning that force is the only viable technique. Strategists in the military borrow from psychology the idea that pain forces the brain to expose everything in it. Overall, much needs to be done to improve the use of EMF weapons in maintaining state security.

Works Cited Haftendorn, Helga. “The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security”. International Studies Quarterly, 35.1, 1991.

Ignatieff, Michael. Human rights as politics and idolatry. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Landman, Todd. Studying Human Rights. London: Routledge, 2006.

Paleri, Prabhakaran. National Security: Imperatives and Challenges. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.


The Importance of Human Skills Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The examples illustrating the significance of human skills

Theoretical aspects of human skills


Reference List


Introduction Human or interpersonal skills are believed to be essential for every effective manager or leader. This component has been discussed by many scholars and researchers. This paper will illustrate the importance of human skills by discussing the examples of successful leaders and managers such as Charlie Bell. In part, this discussion will be based on the ideas of Robert Katz (1955) who identified and examined the attributes of good administrator and executives.

It is also necessary to compare his views with more modern theories of leadership and management. This analysis will enable us to better see the role of human skills in everyday management. Moreover, this discussion will also identify some of important and unresolved questions related to the development of interpersonal competencies of those people who want to make a managerial career.

The examples illustrating the significance of human skills There are several cases which can demonstrate the significance of interpersonal skills. One of such examples is Charlie Bell, the former CEO of McDonald’s Corporation. He began to work in this company at the age of 15 as a regular employee.

In later years, he made a brilliant career in this organization ultimately becoming the chief executive officer of this international corporation. In part, his successes can be explained by the fact that he always worked on his managerial skills. For example, his attentiveness toward employees and excellent memory for faces earned him support of many people in McDonald’s (Robbins et al 2009, p. 16).

It should be borne in mind that in the course of his career Charlie Bell worked in a variety of different teams and he always managed to cooperate effectively with every member of the staff (Boje 2008, p. 136). These qualities enabled him to revitalize this corporation and increase its market share. On the whole, Charlie Bell’s successes can attributed to perseverance, willingness to work in a team, and ability to pass his enthusiasm on other people. His example substantiates many theories of leadership and management.

For instance, one remember Katz’s model[1] of managerial qualities, and particularly his idea that human skills are vital for business administrators.

The case of Charlie Bell is worth attention because it shows that human skills are important for people who work at different levels of managerial hierarchy. He began to work in McDonalds as a crew member and he occupied virtually every position that exists in this corporation (Boje 2008, p. 136). During every stage of his career he was known as a reliable team player, excellent communicator, and motivator.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is possible to cite other cases which prove that excellent human skills are among the attributes of a highly effective manager. Once can certainly mention Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric. Despite the fact that he has often been criticized for his brutality and extremely high performance standards standards, Jack Welch is more famous for his openness to the employees, ability to motivate every member of the staff, and attentiveness to the opinions of his colleagues (Rowe


Nigeria’s Economic Crisis Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction Nigeria has a dual economy and, its population relies on earnings from the energy sector followed by the agricultural sector. In 1960, agriculture became the country’s main source of revenue accounting for nearly half of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

The emergence of oil and other petroleum products has increased the country’s foreign exchange earnings hence the increased revenues. Nigeria is endowed with large quantities of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable. For instance, it is endowed with oil and natural gas reserves with crude oil being estimated at around 35 billion barrels. The country, however, cannot meet the needs of its large population and this is an extraordinary macro-economic phenomenon.

The country’s economic growth is unpredictable and it now depends on imported food though it was once a net exporter. This is quite surprising keeping in mind that Nigeria is rich in natural resources especially energy and is the sixth largest producer of crude oil internationally (Ekpo, 2008). This paper will discuss the causes of Nigeria’s economic crisis, its effects and finally, how the phenomenon can be changed.

Discussion Causes of Nigeria’s Economic Crisis

Consumers, producers, and efficiency of the market

The decline in Nigeria’s economic growth can be attributed to market shortages of its petroleum products especially Kerosene and diesel. The weak political demands exerted by the poor kerosene and diesel customers and the limitations on public financing of imports is what has led to the market shortages. The country has five government owned oil refineries, which are capable of producing about 500 barrels of oil every day. The high oil production capacity with no adequate markets has made the country’s government to get involved in importing large volumes of food to remedy the shortages involved.

Supply and Demand

Nigeria’s economic crisis can be attributed to the interaction of demand and supply in the market. The citizens are over reliant on self-generated electrical energy despite the fact that the nation is rich in energy resources. The country’s electricity market, which on the supply side is controlled by National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), is incapable of providing acceptable electricity standards, which are both reliable and accessible. The poor record in electricity supply has led to high losses hence the nation’s economic crisis.

Price fluctuations in the global oil industry and poor macro- economic organization especially the country’s failure to expand its economy are other key contributors to its economic problems.

The diversity of economic and non-economic goals without proper recognition of tradeoffs has also resulted to the crisis. This is seen in its pricing strategies in the global market. Institutional and administrative failures, which have led to production inefficiencies and increased operating costs, have led to the extraordinary macroeconomic phenomena in Nigeria (Oluyemisi, 2010).

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The constant disequilibrium in the country’s market for petroleum products has negatively affected the living standards of the citizens. Poverty levels have increased with majority of people in the country living on not more than $2 in a day.

Nigeria’s economic crisis has greatly deteriorated its industrialization process and this has significantly decreased its effort to achieve a stabilized economy. Competitiveness of the countries local industries in both regional and international markets has been reduced and many citizens are now unemployed (Iyoha


Statistical Finding on Movie Theater ads Effectiveness Report essay help free: essay help free

Being the owner of a small business, it is important to make a wise and an informed decision on the way to advertise your business. A decision has to be made regarding promoting the business through Movie Theater. To arrive at a rational decision, research has to be conducted on how effective ads using Movie Theater are, in reaching the potential customers.

Research shows that cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 3D technology has created awareness on movie going audiences from the young to the old, owing to its flexibility. Many have been overwhelmed by the technology and get information on new products through advertisements in the movies. 3D commercials have also promoted advertising. Avatar and Monsters vs. Aliens have really transformed the advertising company.

They have been known to promote Samsung’s 3D television sets. “The young man is shown taking a 3D experience home by cutting a cube of action through a screen thus, replicating the experience of her family’s home television” (Knight 1). This has promoted Samsung televisions on many people are purchasing it.

Cinema advertising recorded a growth of 5.8% in 2007, from $539.9 million to $571.4 million. “In 2008 a lot of money, over 90% was spent on on-screen advertising than anywhere else in the theater” (Knight 1). This escalation was attained due to improved technology, which allowed the advertisers to effortlessly update creativity digitally. This made digital advertising very suitable for marketing national brands.

Consumers, who are definitely the buyers of advertised products, like movies and go to cinemas in large numbers because going to cinema is a popular trend. This is a perfect moment to introduce various brands of goods in the market to consumers. The study based on about 2600 consumers showed that moviegoers remembered 60% or more of the cinema ads after leaving, with increased desire to buy; as much as 20% or more (Knight 1).

The young like movie ads compared to television ads. This is supported by the fact that the number one leisure activity for the youths is movies. 62% of those in the age bracket of 18 to 24 years, 58% of those in 25-34 years and 39% of those in 45-54 years preferred cinema ads (Knight 1). Many like movie theater ads compared to internet ads. Sixty-six percent of those interviewed preferred cinema ads compared to 49 percent who were okay with online ads were acceptable.

In media, movies have higher emotional rating (41.5%) than watching other major television programs such as the “Super Bowl (39.7%), Summer Olympics (26.3%), World Series (22.8%) and Oscars (16.1%)” (Fuchs 1). Surveys show that consumers who are emotionally fond of specific brands had similar feelings regarding the experience they get from watching movies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “About 45% of the customers who buy health and beauty products and 44% of those who buy packaged goods are emotionally attached to movies as compared with 30% and 29% for television, 21.1% and 21.1% for radio, and 21.2% and 18.9% for magazines” (Fuchs 1).

This shows the strength and impact of Movie Theater advertising Cinema advertising has also gained public interest owing to its improved quality. The public have been captured by the movie theaters because of good quality of movies, as well as their wide range. When a great creative product is being launched, it is done in cinema. About 70% of ads today are new creative that are used far from us.

Multiplexes increase people turn out in the movie theaters. Bars and restaurants in places where multiplexes are have made movies a place to get entertained in the evening. People therefore, get movie ads that have been considered more memorable than television advertisements. People get to remember the movie ads the same way they remember certain scenes of the movie (Fuchs 1).

Works Cited Fuchs, Andreas. Stronger attachments: Cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 12 May 2010. Web.

Knight, Kristina. Big-Screen ads engage consumer emotions. 22 April 2010. Web. .


Classic Studies in Psychology Case Study college essay help online

Introduction Stanley Milgram has developed a historic psychological study method to analyze human behavior under authority in a systematic and sequential manner. This piece of work has followed a scientific analysis to develop an acceptable and useful classical work. He has adopted well-devised data collection methods, analytical methods and presentation modes. The technique has enabled his work to remain memorable since its application continues in various fields of human life.

Key Terms Destructive Obedience

This is the process of ordering a naive to administer an increasingly more severe punishment to a victim in the context of learning experiment (Milgram 373). Milgram uses “a shock generator, thirty graded switches ranging from slight shock to a more dangerous one” (Milgram 373). Behavioral study of obedience is one that experiments a person’s yield to power beyond his/her capacity, especially, on the authority.

Personnel and Locale

The experiment was conducted at Yale University in an elegant interaction laboratory (Milgram 375). This study was carried out at this location. On this study, the situation was in the Yale university elegant laboratory. It is vital for researchers to give details of their experiments, such as places and time of the experiment. This is important for the analysis and evaluation of the experiment results (Milgram 375).

Dependent Measures

The primary dependent measure for any subject is the maximum shock one administers before he/she refuses to go any further (Milgram 375). In principle, “this may vary from zero to thirty, that is, for a subject who refuses to administer any shock and, for a subject who administers the highest shock in generator” (Milgram 375).

Dependent measures are the extremes, which are achieved from any subject of the experiment. This varies from one individual to another since some can tolerate the minimum quantity while others take the highest quantities.

Experimental Feedback

At various points of the experiment, the subject may turn to the experimenter for advice on whether he/she should continue to administer the shocks, or he/she may indicate that he/she might not whish to continue (Milgram 372). Notably, feed back is the position or view on the subject and the administration of the experiment.

Signs of Extreme Tension 97

Often, the subjects show “some signs of nervousness during the experiments, especially when administering very powerful shocks” (Milgram 377). In any form of experiment, the subjects might be in situations beyond their control. For the experimenter to note this, there are some specific signs, which they observe before responding appropriately.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the experimenter must be able to identify these signs using the physical changes which take place on the subject. They need to carry out a quick response to manage the situation. The signs might include drowsiness, unconsciousness and withdrawal signs. These are referred to as the signs of extreme tensions in the experiment.


Milgram’s experiment shows the influence of social factors on an individual and generally the people in the society. From his experiment, the influence of social links and pressures on one’s behavior can be clearly drawn. Factors such revelation of true characters, frankness and openness of an individual are some of the most affected by these links. Milgram’s work tries to explain the impact of rule and power in any given society. In addition, this can applied in governance (Milgram 377).

He uses procedural scientific methods of collecting data, tabulating, synthesis and evaluation to come up with the results. The mode applied by Milgram gives classical analysis and ability to create understanding among people. The method taken by Milgram is easy to understand and integrate in learning process (Milgram 374).

The article is a procedural mode of carrying out destructive obedience by Stanley Milgram in a laboratory. Milgram took S naïve as the administrator of this experiment. He carried out his experiment with a shock generator for the study purpose.

The generator was structured with thirty controllable switches, ranging from the lowest with zero voltage to the highest at thirty voltages. He chose the experimental victim, referred to as E confidante. Milgram came up with both the dependent and independent variables for the quantitative analysis of his work (Milgram 372).

He applied observation as well as feed back methods to check on the response of the subject, at varying degree of voltage. He noted the subject’s behaviour from the time of strapping to the time of release. The aim was to see the effect of power on an individual’s psychology.

This happened because subject was helpless, after he got strapped. Milgram intended to bring out vulnerability state, when one is overpowered. He wanted to bring out the effect of conformity as well as obedient in civilization. The relationship between them could then be seen to vary at a close range (Milgram 376).

We will write a custom Case Study on Classic Studies in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relevancy of the Article

Milgram’s article relates to the class studies since it employs several psychological concepts to come up with the findings. Milgram develops a social cognitive by studying his subject’s behaviour in different situations. He applies a research that analyses every aspect of the behavior.

Precisely, he developed quantitative measurement criteria after collecting his data. He came up with a score table for each measurement taken. This is to reduce the chances of observation biasness. Finally, Milgram notes all the possible assumptions in his methodologies and the corrective measures (Milgram 378).

Milgram’s Merits

The work of milligram has historically drawn attention in various fields of government. It also captures personal identity under social pressures. This study can be used to evaluate why people in a society behave in a given manner towards the authorities. In addition, Milgram’s work psychologically brings out the concepts of civilization and democracy in a society. This work has been applied by various researchers in studying human behaviours in different settings to the authority (Milgram 375).

It is through this experiment that many researchers have drawn conclusion on the psychology of inmates as well as students and strict rules. The study and its evaluation measures have become vital in some governments, especially, to draw expected outcomes in political environments. Explanations on riots and civil wars have been drawn from Milgram’s experiment. His work has also been used to show the impact of freedom to people in various social life situations.

Education, scientific and innovation fields have benefited a lot from this study since it is used in creating an enabling environment for these aspects to develop fully. In fact, many managers and business proprietors owe a lot of their success to Milgram’s work. However, Milgram’s work is not free from critics since some researchers claim that people react differently according to several underlying factors. Thus, varied results are expected from different people (Milgram 378).

Conclusion Psychology has contributed greatly to the development of many societies. The success in various fields is mainly attributed to great researchers who conduct most of their studies to improve human lifestyle. Among the contributors is Stanley Milgram who has devised a cognitive behaviour study of people under the influence of power. The researcher uses critical analytical aspects to draw his conclusions that has found wide acceptance despite some critics.

Work Cited Milgram, Stanley. “Behavioral Study of Obedience.” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 67.4 (1963): 371-378. Print.


Similarities and Differences between Democracy and Dictatorship Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of democracy and dictatorship

Similarities between democracy and dictatorship

Differences between democracy and dictatorship


Works Cited

Introduction The world is home to diverse systems of governance. Different countries are governed differently due to a variety of reasons, mostly depending on their geographical location, political affiliations, and religious background to a lesser extent. Democracy is the most favored system of governance while dictatorship is loathed by many. This paper seeks to compare and contrast democracy and dictatorship as systems of governance.

Description of democracy and dictatorship Democracy is often described as a form of “governance in which all the adult citizens of a given country have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives” (Diamond and Marc 168). This implies that the citizens have a way of participating in the formation of the rules and laws by which they are governed.

Democratic principles may encompass cultural, economic and other social practices that encourage free and fair competition, particularly in the political arena (Diamond and Marc 168). On the other hand, dictatorship can be defined as a form of government that is controlled by an individual or a small collection of individuals. Power is concentrated around the individual or the small group of people and is often obtained through force or inheritance (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 15).

Similarities between democracy and dictatorship There are very few similarities between democracy and dictatorship. Both can be identified as forms of governance. Democratic and dictatorial regimes both vest their authority in one person or a few individuals. Both types of government can be effective or infective depending on several factors that may involve the particular individual holding the executive authority. A dictatorship is generally a poor form or governance.

However, democracy can also be weak if it’s often locked in disagreements. It’s usually believed that there are no true democracies as most of them typically carry some aspects of dictatorship. Both systems are designed to effectively control the people only that in democracies people think that the ruling elite has their consent to rule (Diamond and Marc 168).

Differences between democracy and dictatorship Democracy and dictatorship differ in many ways. The differences mainly pertain to the concept of governance and the methodology applied (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 132). A dictator exercises absolute power and often formulates laws that are meant to suppress competition. On the other hand, the choice to create the rules of governance and other regulations is usually made by the people.

In democracies, people are given a chance to choose what works best for them. Decisions are arrived at through a consultative process where everyone is allowed to provide his/her views. In a dictatorship, an individual or a small group of influential persons make choices on behalf of the people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws that govern the rights of people and the economy are framed for the people in a dictatorship (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 57). On the hand, democracies give people the power to make laws.

The freedoms and rights of citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are often curtailed in dictatorial systems of governance. People are often not allowed to say what they think is right for them. In democracies, citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are usually free to initiate any meaningful change.

Conclusion This paper sought to identify the similarities and differences between democracy and dictatorship. Both have been identified as systems of governance which have very few similarities unless the principles of democracy are compromised to bring in some elements of dictatorship. However, the two are different in several ways that mainly relate to the rights and freedoms of citizens and the concentration of power.

Works Cited Bueno, Mesquita, Smith Alastair and James Morrow. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.

Diamond, Larry and Plattner Marc. Electoral Systems and Democracy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006.


Rootlessness in the American Society Essay online essay help: online essay help

Several factors explain the movement of the American society away from the quintessential nature. Such factors as industrialization, changing views of the family and technology have influenced the changes (Kilborn 1). Thus, the American culture, as reflected in the middle class is taking a negative direction.

The spread of global industry has played a significant role in altering the family set-up. Industry has different aspects. Traffic, an industry aspect, contributes to the inability of people to move around. Ms. Link who claims that choking in traffic does not ease things regarding movement reflects this in the assertion.

Job requirements have forced people to adjust their lives. The rookie “relo” asserts that she moved to Alpharetta in order to help her husband get his career on track. Jobs force people to move from one place to another. Consequently, buying permanent homes is unnecessary.

This contributes to rootlessness as people do not find the need to establish close ties with their neighbors. Moving around leaves one vulnerable in regards to the lifestyle. This view holds since one needs to adjust his/her lifestyle in order to fit in the place he/she moves to when transferring from one workstation to another. As the article establishes, people from the upper middle class are trooping across the country away from the working class. Ms. Link and her husband, Jim, belong to this category (Kilborn 1-7).

The “relos” enjoy economic freedom, as their midcareer salaries are reasonably high. As such, most of these people find the jobs rewarding although they complain about anomie and stress.

This emerges based on the idea that they trade homes for jobs anywhere. In addition, “relo” families face various anxieties such as unknown future movements as they cannot establish any meaningful ties with their neighbors. This is contrasting to traditional societies where family relations were held highly. In this case, the place of roots seems to be at cross roads.

The worst thing that relates to work, as the family of Jim reflects, lies in the absence of family members from home. The young ones go to school while parents go to work. Running such a difficult itinerary implies that there is inadequate time to socialize and establish close family ties (Kilborn 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry has also led to the segregation of the society. This is achieved through the grouping of workers based on salaries earned. The high-income and low-income earners belong to different classes. The fact that only the upper class lives the normal American life leads to a disturbing realization that the American dream is dead.

The view held by Mr. Martineau reflects how industry forces the society to discard societal values. Mr. Martineau seems content that he owns property and a luxurious car. Apparently, the car and other property are status symbols. Classes have two main elements, inclusiveness and exclusiveness.

While the latter is a positive attribute, it is evident that exclusivity is undesirable as it alienates some people. Finally, the idea of demolishing village cobblestone streets and erecting sterile superblocks shows how the American society denies the poor people the opportunity to lead normal family lives (Powell 1).

Based on this essay, it is clear that the American society is drifting away from the elements of a quintessential society. Although various factors account for this occurrence, it is discernable that the American society is headed in the wrong direction. This view is held in regards to the statement that the emerging nature of society does not allow for family closeness.

Works Cited Kilborn, Peter T. ”The Five Bedroom, Six Figure Rootless Life”. The New York Times, 13 Sept. 2005. Web.

Powell, Michael. ”A Contrarian’s Lament in a Blitz of Gentrification”. The New York Times, 20 May 2010. Web.


Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo Term Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men

Role of Women in the Igbo society

Works Cited

Introduction In Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo is a wrestling champion who also acts as a leader in Umuofia, a village occupied by the Igbo ethnic entity. He is portrayed as a servant of the tribal dictates who is ready to do everything, even to kill, for the sake of his tribe, its laws, customs and traditions. The book focuses on how Okonkwo treats his children and three wives and how the Christian missionaries impact on the Igbo ethnic community in the late 19th century.

Okonkwo is not a reckless man who cannot show any weakness or reveal his true feelings. He is revered in the entire village for his courage and power. This prompts the village elders to put Ikemefuna, a boy taken as a prisoner for purposes of peace settlement, into his custody. Ikemefuna’s father, who hails from another village, has killed an Umuofian, that is why Ikemefuna is to be given away to the people of Umuofia to make peace between the two tribes.

Ikemefuna grows in Okonkwo’s household, and Okonkwo becomes very fond of him (Achebe, pp. 28). However, when the oracle instructs that Ikemefuna is to be killed, Okonkwo severs his head with a machete even despite the fact that he is warned by the elder that he did not need to deal with this case, the murder of the boy, because it could be hard for him as he should consider Ikemefuna as his son.

Okonkwo does not pay attention to this permission because he thinks that it could make him feminine and weak. Things begin to ‘fall apart’ for Okonkwo after the murder of Ikemefuna when he is exiled for seven years for accidental killing of a man when his gun explodes.

While Okonkwo is in exile, European colonizers come to Umuofia and try to convert the villagers to Christianity. Soon, a new government is introduced. Achebe’s literary work espouses many cultural issues about Igbo’s way of life that are raised in the late 19th century. This essay seeks to highlight the cultural peculiarities that Achebe exhibits carefully in the book.

A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men Many pundits consider the Igbo a patriarchal society because men literally dominate every aspect of the tribal life. Achebe particularly wrote Things Fall Apart to counter Joyce Carry’s Mister Johnson that tried to portray the Africans as people without motives, forethought, and knowledge on other issues apart from environments where they live.

The colonialists have a perception that the African population are uncontrollable, chaotic, unattainable, and evil. Achebe wants to prove the incorrectness of such an image by portraying the Igbo as an ethnic group with definitive and intricate social systems, values, and traditions (Carry, pp. 1). Achebe depicts the Igbo, or better to say, the Umuofians, as an ancient civilization when he reveals some forms of governance and law that exist in that society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okonkwo is shown as a traditional hero who would do anything to achieve his goals. He contributes to his own downfall, thus the white men cannot be blamed. While he is in exile, the Whites’ religion and rule are introduced.

This literary piece is written in English, the language of the white men who came to colonize Umuofia. However, this does not deter Achebe’s work from being authentically African. Achebe expresses his African experience in English while still preserving African authenticity. The actions of the characters in the book represent a culture that undergoes a slow transition.

Cultural practices that can be only perceived to be awful to the foreigners are ordinarily accepted within. This is exemplified when members of the Igbo community, especially women, seek for refuge in a Christian church for being accused in having multiple births and giving birth to albinos. In the Igbo cultural setting, those females are to be punished. Fearing for harsh consequences, they hide within the Christian church premises (Obiechina, pp. 57).

Role of Women in the Igbo society Ekwefi, Okonkwo’s second wife, is a character used by Achebe to portray the role of women in the society where this novel is set. Through her, it is shown that women should be only child bearers and helpmates for their husbands. Women are to produce many male children.

In fact, Ekwefi is considered to be cursed because out of the ten births she gave, only one daughter managed to survive. Ekwefi is a very bitter woman because of the loss many children. As a result, she has hard feelings that oppress her because being Okonkwo’s first wife, she cannot bear a male child.

This implies that Ekwefi cannot be a part of the Okonkwo family lineage because she has not given birth to male children. Menfolk are the reference point of this culture while the womenfolk’s role is reduced to ensuring the survival of tradition. Because Okonkwo is afraid of the survival of his family tree when Ekwefi loses her second child, he takes it upon himself to go and consult Dibia, Dibia is believed to have powers to tell the source about Ekwefi’s misfortunes.

When Ekwefi loses her third child, Okonkwo decides to consult another Dibia because of the frustrations arising from the fact that there will be no one to be the head of the family after his demise (Palmer, pp. 40). He blames Ekwefi for this because it is the women who are supposed to provide their husbands with male progenies too carry on the family name, and specifically the father’s name.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ekwefi has to endure the pain of losing her child as well as watch helplessly as the Dibia mutilates her child, drags him through the streets by his ankles, and finally buries him in the evil forest where obanje children and other outcasts are laid to rest (Palmer, pp. 41). No one bothers to console Ekwefi after all this traumatizing ordeals. Because of cultural intuition, Okonkwo believes that Dibias have the solutions to all the problems that he has.

The Igbo have a tradition of wife beating exemplified by the suffering of Ekwefi who has to endure Okonkwo’s manhandling. When a banana tree is killed, Okonkwo beats his wife, and she makes no complaints regarding this treatment. Later, the attention of the reader is drawn to an instance when Okonkwo threatens his wife with a gun after hearing her murmur under her breath.

Everybody else is quiet about this heinous act (Culler, pp. 45). This is a culture where women are supposed to be submissive and do not show any sign of rebellion. Indeed, Ekwefi has an undying love for Okonkwo because she even left her former husband to be with him. However, the reward she receives for her loyalty to her husband is regular beatings.

The fact that Okonkwo believes that wives are to be beaten is not limited to Ekwefi. This also applies to his youngest wife, Ojiugo, whom he constantly flogs. There is a public outcry not because of what Okonkwo does to her, but because he breaches the dictates of The Week for Peace, which is considered a great evil according to the Igbo.

The Igbo men are portrayed to be only concerned with preserving the patriarchy as opposed to protecting the physical safety of the women. Elders are not particularly concerned about Ojiugo’s woes and are assertive that this is her own fault. The other wives cannot condemn Okonkwo for the flogging that Ojiugo goes through. Ekwefi is beaten one week after the Week of Peace, and this does not raise any concern because to them, this is normal.

The women, especially Ekwefi, is disturbed about the fate that belies the woman who decides that the winner of the next wrestling duel will be her man (Palmer, pp. 42). Okonkwo’s inhuman treatment of his wives, especially Ojiugo, does not even bother the gods of the tribe who only reprimand him to pay a compensation for breaching the requirements of the Week of Peace by battering his wife Ojiugo.

Okonkwo loves his daughter Enzinma, but he is saddened by the fact that she is just a girl. Okonkwo reckons that he would be happier if Enzinma were a boy. This treatment points out a low position held by females extending to the rest of the womenfolk in Umuofia.

Okonkwo’s treatment of his wives and male children are a representation of how the Umuofians treat their female children. However, all this must be stressed that such a treatment of females forms a part of the culture of the Igbo since everyone, including the females themselves, rarely complains for the current way of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor, 1994. Print.

Carry, Joyce. Mister Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989. Print.

Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Print.

Obiechina, Emmanuel N. Language and Theme: Essays on African Literature. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 1990. Print.

Palmer, Eustace. African Literature Today. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983. Print.


The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Overview

HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda

HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda

Works Cited

Overview Uganda has made tremendous improvements in terms of declining the number of people living with HIV/AIDS. This trend is traceable to the early 1990s when the government launched an initiative campaign aimed at eradicating the scourge. According to the survey conducted by UNICEF, the number of children up to the age of 15 years living with HIV/AIDs dropped to a record 1.1 million.

The report by the Ugandan Ministry of Health, to mother-child infection accounted for about 90% of children living with HIV/AIDS. The increase in the HIV/AIDS infection has been challenging in respect of the inability to track their demographics (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda A survey conducted in Uganda suggests that sex education in Ugandan schools and through the media has prevailed in encouraging teenagers to engage in protected sex or have delayed the age at which they participate in premarital sex. Since the campaign initiative of the early 1990s, a USAID-sponsored scheme to encourage the use of condoms through community and school education has improved condom use from about 7% to a whopping 50% in the Ugandan rural areas while the urban areas have managed over 85%.

Increased use of condoms among teenagers aged between 13-19 years saw a reduced the rate of infection by about 60%. Additionally, sex education among children organized to salvage the children have recorded an increased number of children who have never engaged in early sex from 20% to about 65% between 1989 and 2005 (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 128).

Although it is arguable that the HIV/AIDS prevalence among children is heavily due to mother-child transmission, studies reveal that the prevalence among them has also been due to unprotected early sex. Generally, the reduced rate of children living with IADS has been mainly because of reduced prevalence among women aged between the ages of 15-24 years. Research suggests that there is a strict correlation between child education and HIV/AIDS prevalence (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

In a study conducted in Uganda in the early 1990s, results indicated that young men and women who completed secondary education were seven times less likely to contract the disease than those with little or no education (UNFPA, 2011). Women studies confirm that post-primary education among the girl-child provides the greatest pay-off for their empowerment. Additionally, higher education offers more specific knowledge and life skills required to make informed decisions during their later age.

HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda Researches conducted by numerous scholars have suggested that there exist a positive relationship between education and HIV prevalence among children. Studies show that in the absence of awareness about HIV/AIDS, individuals tend to have several sex partners, hence increasing their risk of infection. According to Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008), an increased sex education through prevention messages remains a protective element against the infection of HIV/AIDS.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increasingly, research demonstrates that increased educational campaign among children has been used as a tool in fighting against the pandemic. Reduced education enrollment among children in rural areas has increased the rate of HIV/AIDS infection among children in Uganda (Kalipeni 174). Studies suggest that people with low understanding of the effects of HIV/AIDS are risky compared to children with higher levels of education.

According to a study conducted by Jukes, Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008) on Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA) found that HIV/IADS specific education a positive contribution toward reduced prevalence among children in the Sub-Saharan Africa.

Although the educational efforts to reduce the HIV/AIDS infection has had a far-reaching impact on the reduced levels of prevalence among Ugandan children, declined campaigns in the rural Uganda accounts for the low improvements in HIV/AIDS prevalence among rural children. These results suggest that children who underwent through education stood a better chance of avoiding unprotected and early sex compared to those who had little or no education (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

Gender studies conducted demonstrate that girls with less than 7 years of study exhibited a higher likelihood of getting married before the age of18, and early marriages have a statistical link to high risks of infection (UNFPA, 2011). Schools provide a mechanism of sourcing for information about the prevention of HIV. Recent studies and analysis by Global campaign for Education (GCE) indicate that if children attained a complete primary education, it can reduce the impact of HIV by about 700, 000 cases among young adults.

Works Cited Dube, Lilian, Tabona Shoko, and Stephen Hayes. African Initiatives in Healing Ministry. University of South Africa: UNISA Press.

Jukes, Matthew, Stephanie Simmons, Mary Fawzi and Donald Bundy. “Educational access and HIV prevention: Making the case for education as a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa.” Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS. (2008): 1-33.

Kalipeni, Ezekiel. HIV and AIDS in Africa: beyond epidemiology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNFPA. Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis. Web.


Southwest Airlines Company Organizational Culture Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions that describes the common interests, beliefs and attitude of an organization that guides it through defining appropriate behavior and values. Defining of organizational culture involves three levels, which include behavior pattern, shared values, and the basic beliefs and assumptions of members. The idea behind organizational culture always revolves around the realization by the employees about the collective responsibility toward the larger good of the company.

Consequently, it is an expectation from the employees that behavior is in a common way hence each employee knows the work output required from him or her. The advantage of organizational culture is that it helps in establishing the required guidelines, output capacity of the organization and organization rules that will help catapult the company toward achieving its goals (Jex


Do we Have Meaning? Essay scholarship essay help

Most people never acquire meaning from the daily tasks of their lives resulting to disappointment, despair as well as aggressiveness at the instance of the slightest adversity. Others are coerced to bear enormous problems that make existence seem agonizing. Yet in the nastiest situations, identifying meaning and significance in one’s affliction gives an individual the might to persevere and track a fulfilling status of existence. That is to say, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life.

Frankl supposed that existing with meaning is vital for physical and psychological health (Break Through Writer n. p.). Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps, and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas, and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences. As a result of his insistence, we are endowed with a chance to gain knowledge from his victory and appreciate that there’s at all times meaning and significance to the existence in spite of how awful it might appear.

The possibility of existing in a Nazi was 3percent. Individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide.

The inmates were famished, misused, whipped, left out to freezing environment for extended durations devoid of appropriate attires, compelled to live in overcrowded houses that were grimy with excretions, and experienced the menace of death daily. Regardless of all of this, the inmates were required to be active and proficient in their work, lest they would be chosen for the gas chamber.

In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments (Break Through Writer n. p.). Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, as well as awful living surroundings.

Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everybody to conquer troubles of the everyday life.

Frankl describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people (Break Through Writer n. p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Addiction, hostility and depression are all likely to follow. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.

The course of fighting and endeavoring for a meaningful goal makes us to long for life and offers us achievement after the goal is realized. This realization makes valuable memories an earlier phase that can in no way be stolen or withdrawn, and consecutively, these reminiscences, get rid of lament and cultivate the audacity to lack an extreme and detrimental fright of death.

According to Frankl, three elements are responsible for the true meaning. First is the behavior and inventive actions, for instance, coming up with a product, working out a problem or creating an invention. Second is to have something or somebody stimulating, for instance, the affection for a partner or relative, attractiveness of the natural world, or, the significance of a friend. Third is to appreciate the meaning in an inevitable distress.

Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space amid what we anticipate attaining and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.

In order to understand the pleasure that comes from achievement, distress must be evaded when feasible (Break Through Writer n. p.). Nevertheless, when the distress is inevitable, it is essential to understand that it is at all times doable to discover advantage and significance in it and exist with meaning. Frankl accomplished this through valuing his encounters in the camps as a chance to subsist by his viewpoints regarding the meaning and realization instead of merely writing with reference to them.

In conformity with the viewpoints of Frankl, an investigation prepared by Yale University demonstrated that lots of inmates of warfare from the Vietnam combat deemed the torturous states they underwent to be a valuable incident that motivated individual development. Given that inmates of Vietman war and Nazi camps established value in the countenance of torment, hunger, illness and bereavement, then everybody can derive meaning from his/her worst situations.

Most individuals think of the meaning of existence as if it were identical for each one. Such a case would imply that we have slight power over fate and eccentricity, and in logic, would contrast the function of existing with significance. Acquiring achievement from existing for a similar predestined reason as everybody else would be rather hard.

We will write a custom Essay on Do we Have Meaning? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.

Compound meanings in being are easy to recognize, although, these they can vary in due course. Frankl explains that a great deal of meaning that motivates us to subsist is founded on the determination and efforts implicated with realizing an end. After the end is realized, a fresh one is required to maintain the course. Although a number of people will recognize a novel end that is merely an expansion of the preceding one, others may possibly swing ways totally.

Therefore, it can at times be counterproductive to look for significance that will identify the existence as one piece and endure until demise. Although it might not be broadly established, there exists lots of scientific proof demonstrating that sentiments have a significant effect on physical wellbeing. Similarly, positive sentiments are as well linked to the flow of physical materials inside the body and are alleged to uphold superior physical condition.

Existing while short of meaning encourages boredom and hopelessness, as Frankl puts forward. These sentiments can directly or indirectly impact an individual’s wellbeing harmfully, through control ling the existence choices that he/she creates. An individual who is bored or dejected is not expected to formulate the exertion to lead a healthy way of life.

Although incarcerated, Frankl and his colleague inmates constantly observed that the moment an inmate renounced hope and felt like they lacked a motive to exist, they rapidly grew ill and passed on soon after. Conversely, those who adhered powerfully to their intention for existing survived grave sickness. Frankl endured a stern case of typhus, which was a leading source of bereavement in the camp.

In conclusion, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life. Each one has the liberty to revolutionize and too the autonomy to prefer his/her reaction to any circumstance. This liberty can on no account be removed, although its advantage is reliant on an individual’s duty to utilize it prudently.

Regardless of how pathetic existence might appear, Frankl assures to us that there is, at all times significance, to be derived from it, plus there is at all times the likelihood that the prospect will be better than ever anticipated. Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences.

The possibility of existing in a Nazi was only 3percent, since individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide. In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments. Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, and awful living surroundings.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Do we Have Meaning? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Frankl also describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.

Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space between what we expect to achieve and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.

Hence, one deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.

Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everyone to conquer troubles of the everyday life.

Works Cited Break Through Writer. Man’s Search for Meaning Lessons .1. Nov. 2011.Web.13.Nov.2011


Critique of Crucibles of Leadership Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Biography

Critique and summary



Biography Warren Bennis is a renowned author and reputable professor of business administration at the University of South California, Los Angeles. He is the founder and chairman of the Leadership Institute at the same university. His counterpart, Robert J. Thomas is also an author and a senior fellow at the Accenture Institute of Strategic Change. The two have co-authored several books and articles and are working on a book, Crucibles for Leaders to be published soon (Bennis


Coretta Scott King Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Early Age and Education

Family Life

Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality



Works Cited

Introduction Coretta Scott was born on April 1927 in Perry County, Alabama. Her parents were Obadiah Scott and Bernice McMurry Scott. The family owned a small farm from where they earned their livelihood. Unfortunately, the family was not among the wealthiest families in the region (Academy of Achievement par 1). However, Coretta managed to acquire education up to the university level.

Throughout her life, Coretta had a great thirst for education and music. The development of these interests can be attributed to her mother who played a significant role in her life.

For instance, she learned to play musical instruments at a very young age. She learned how to play music instruments like the trumpet while she was still at school where she sang as a soloist. Coretta’s sister was the first black student to study in Antioch College, Ohio. Coretta met her husband Martin Luther King Jr at Boston University after which they married after sixteen months.

During her lifetime, Coretta spent most of her time fighting and advocating for equality and promotion of un-discriminatory policies across the world. During the Civil Movements of the 1950s and 1960s, Coretta Scott King was among the people who played a pivotal role. During this period, she made a great contribution by encouraging Martin to realize his goals.

She played an important role in consoling and giving advice on the best course of actions. Her encouragement forced Martin to remain focused on his goals. The major contributions made by King’s wife can be clearly seen after the assassination of her husband. This was the time when she took a tough stand in fighting for racial equality and actively being involved in Women’s Movement (Academy of Achievement par 3).

In 1955, Coretta Scott King played a very important role in Montgomery Bus Boycott (McPherson 100). In connection to this, Coretta actively advocated for the civil rights legislation.

In 1962, Coretta made a very important contribution in disbarment efforts when she served as women strike for the peace delegates to the seventeen nations Disbarment Conference held in Geneva. Soon after her husband’s death, Coretta rose to perpetuate the pending work he had already started. She fully devoted her life to King’s work where she continued to help many people until her her death in 2006.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early Age and Education Coretta was born in a family of four siblings where she was a third born. She was born together with her two elder sisters Edith and Eunice and a younger brother Obadiah who was born in 1930 (McPherson 69). As already noted, her family had a small farm but they were not among the wealthy people in the community. During her childhood, Coretta Scott King assisted her parents to pick cotton from their small farm.

Although her parents did not go to school, they were totally determined to ensure that their children received the required level of education. In connection to this, they took Coretta to an elementary school that was located far a way from their home. Later, she joined Lincoln Normal school. The school was located very far from their residence. However, Coretta did not have any alternative because it was the only black school in the region.

Coretta was exposed to the social injustices when she was a very young girl where she was forced to face the wrath of a segregated society, that is, the society where the native and the African Americans were treated as two different entities. The society was characterized by a lot of discrimination ranging from education to economic opportunities.

For instance, she was to walk for a long distance to reach the nearest black school while her fellow white students were riding in buses to schools nearby (Gelfand 87). This was one of the factors that triggered Coretta’s urge to fight for the civil rights later in her life. She was determined to dissolve the existing arrangements.

While in college, Coretta studied music; the field in which she was very interested. She was assisted by Walter Anderson, who was the first African to head a department in the institution.

While at school, Coretta was angered by the racial discrimination that was practiced by the school management. Consequently, she was actively involved in civic rights movements. For instance, she was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as well as the Race Relations and Civil liberties Committees (Academy of Achievement par 5).

As it was required by the curriculum, students were usually supposed to perform their second year teaching practice as a partial fulfillment for the award of a certificate. However, Coretta was denied a chance to teach in Yellow Springs Public schools (McPherson 12). Coretta attempted to convince the college administration but in vain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Coretta Scott King specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some years later, Coretta was forced to move out of Antioch after winning a scholarship award at New England Conservatory Music that was located in Boston. This presented a very good opportunity for her to exploit her talent in singing and playing musical instruments.

Meanwhile, she met Martin Luther King, Jr who was later to become her husband. Martin Luther King Jr was a theology student in the college. During the time, Coretta had become famous in singing because she was already actively involved in civil rights movements. She took advantage of her talent and integrated her singing with civil rights activities. She used it as a tool to meet her goals to fight for equality for both black and white Americans.

Family Life After meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr, their relationship strengthened and they supported each other in their activities. They shared one interest since they were both interested in civil rights. Both were determined to fight for equality and for the rights of all citizens despite of their color.

In June 1953, Coretta and Martin were married. Their marriage ceremony was led by Martin’s father and it took place at Coretta’s family compound (Academy of Achievement par 4). However, Coretta called for elimination of the vow that required her to promise that she will obey husband. This was a courageous step that was not common by then.

By 1954, Corretta was through with her degree after which together with her husband moved to Alabama (Montgomery). This was where Martin Luther King was going to become a pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Academy of Achievement par 8). Soon after landing there, Coretta and her husband joined the Montgomery bus boycott. Meanwhile, Martin was elected as a leader of the movement. This was a major step in their struggle for the civil rights.

Their activity in the modern civil right movements came soon after the event where one of the passengers in a city bus refused to give a seat to a white passenger. According to the city orders, all the white people were to be given priority in the public conveyances. Therefore, this event led to Rosa’s arrest for going against the city orders. Soon after the arrest, the black Americans led by Martin Luther, Jr rose in defense of the lady.

This led to boycotting of the city buses in the regions. This was one of the major steps that Martin and Coretta took in fighting against the social injustices. This particular event attracted the attention of many people across the world on the issue of racial discrimination that was taking place in United States of America. The pressure from the movement led by Martin forced the court to scrap off all the local orders that drew boundaries between the white and the blacks in the public transport.

Coretta was particularly determined to fight for the civil rights. She was ready to commit her whole life for the society. She was determined to fight for the liberty of the oppressed and the marginalized section of the society. This movement had world wide implications and was not only interested in meeting liberation for the local community. It had significant global implication.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coretta Scott King by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After their marriage, Coretta and Martin had four children. These include Martin Luther III, Albertine, Scott, and Denise. However, both Coretta and Martin were engaged in a continued conflict because Martin wanted Coretta to refrain from public involvement with the movement whereas Coretta was more determined to take a public leadership role. This was contrary to Martin’s view who wanted Coretta to spend more time taking care of their four children.

However, they both managed the situation and Coretta continued to pursue her goals to realize equality among the people. Coretta was forced to withdraw from music in order to take care of their children. However, she managed to use poetry and perform in freedom concerts where she used her talent to pass the message and the call for equality. She also used music to tell about the Civil Rights Movements. She performed in many concerts that helped in raising funds for the movement which her husband was leading.

Later in April 1968, Martin King Luther, Jr. was assassinated. This was a major strike for the Human Rights Movements since he was like the pillar. However, Coretta was determined to perpetuate the work that her husband had already started. In connection to this, she built The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in memory of her husband and his work.

It represented his dream and life in the struggle for the human rights. After her husbands’ death, Coretta was not intimidated to continue with her struggle through the Human Rights Movements. In fact, she was directly involved in the causes that her husband had started.

Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality From 1960 to 1950s, Coretta made a very significant contribution in the civil rights movements of the time. In fact, Martin Luther King admitted that were it not for the support of her wife, he would not have managed to fulfill his goals in fighting for the liberty of the oppressed fraction of the society.

Corretta was involved in non violent matches and led marches to the city together with her husband. By then, her husband had already become famous in civil rights movement and, therefore, was called to lead marches in different cities (Lohr par 4). In these marches, Coretta played a pivotal role in encouraging both the white and the black to reject the orders that encouraged segregation.

This was not, however, welcomed by the proponents of racism in America. They faced stiff opposition from the leaders who were encouraging racism in the country. As a result, their home was bombed by the white supremacists in 1956 (Academy of Achievement par 9). Coretta and her child narrowly managed to escape from the attack.

Later, Coretta’s fame spread all over the world as the leader of international struggle to break the chains of racial discrimination and other social injustices that takes place in the society. Her contribution had a significant implication throughout the world as a call for human liberation from all forms of oppression including colonialism.

For instance, they travelled to Ghana in 1957 to celebrate the country’s independence (Stanley and Henderson 56). The couple also went to India in honor of Mahatma Gandhi who is widely known for his philosophy of peace. This implies that their interest was not in the national level but across the world. Martin Luther King Jr was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace where he was accompanied by his wife Coretta to receive it. In other words, Coretta played a pivotal role in supporting her husband.

With time, Coretta’s demand as a public speaker increased significantly. She became the first woman to deliver the Class day add tress at Hazard (Academy of Achievement par 10). She was also the first woman to preach at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. She also played a pivotal role in promoting economic equity in America. She was determined in fighting for economic justice in the society. For instance, she formed the Full Employment Action Council whose main agenda was to push for equal economic opportunities.

This council was composed of religious, businesses, labor women and civil rights movements that were committed in promoting equal opportunities and full employment. By then, the white were given privilege in employment opportunities. Some positions were reserved only for the white. For instance, the blacks were not allowed to access top positions even if they had qualified. Coretta used this movement to fight against such discrimination in the society.

During her mission to serve the global human rights, she travelled across different countries including Africa and Latin America. In 1983, she led one of the greatest marches in Washington that included more than 800 human rights organizations (Academy of Achievement par 9). This was the largest demonstration that took place in the city during the time.

Coretta was also actively involved in the campaigns which demanded the establishment of Kings’ birthday as a national holiday. Her campaigns yielded positive results when the January 15 was made a public holiday through the Act of Congress (Academy of Achievement par 6). Since 1986, King’s birthday has been marked as an annual celebration in more than 100 countries.

In 1995, Coretta handed over the leadership of The King Center to her son. However, she remained devoted in the causes of economic and racial justice. She also devoted some effort in AIDS education and preaching against the gun violence.

Coretta also made some significant contribution in promoting LGBT equality. She emphasized that homophobia is like racism and other antisocial forms of discrimination. Her support for gay people was received with a lot of opposition from most of the African-American pastors who were opposed to homosexuality. She argued that such people were not informed and that it was the will of Martin Luther King to promote a world of inclusion and equality.

Coretta’s battle against apartheid intensified in 1980s when she led a series of protests in Washington DC. These efforts were directed against South African racial policies, which were oppressive to the black.

Death At the age of 77, Coretta began to experience health complications. This led her to being hospitalized in 2005 after deterioration in her condition. Medical results revealed that she had a heart condition. She later suffered frequent strokes and minor heart attack. Consequently, Coretta was forced to cancel a number of her travels. She continued undergoing physiotherapy from home.

Coretta Scott died in January, 2006 from cervical cancer and stroke in Oasis Hospital. She died while undergoing a therapy for his ovarian cancer that was already in its advanced stage by then. Soon after her death, the clinic was shut after being discovered that it was not allowed to perform most of the procedures they were taking by then. Her death is attributed to the respiratory failure that came as a result of cancer.

More than 14, 000 people attended her funeral to pay their last tribute to Coretta. Her funeral ceremony took place at New Birth Missionary Baptist Church. This is where her daughter Bernice is a minister. Many former U.S. presidents attended the function including the then President George Bush.

After her death, Coretta was honored as a champion of human rights for dedicating her life to peace and justice (Lohr par 9). Her contribution was recognized since she had opened the way for many. By then, Coretta had managed to dissolve racial discrimination to a greater extent in the United States. Even after her death, Coretta has remained inspirational to many people from all parts of the world.

Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that Coretta was among the people who played a major role in fighting for equality across the world. She was exposed to a humiliating form of racial discrimination at a very young age where she suffered from racial segregation. Throughout her life, Coretta was actively involved in Civil Rights’ Movements.

Since her undergraduate studies, Coretta demonstrated concern with the existing arrangements where there was much racial discrimination and other forms of oppression in the society. She was actively involved in marches where she convinced both white and black to defy against all the laws that encouraged segregation in the society. She used her music career in concerts where she narrated about the story of Civil Human Rights Movement.

She also used poetry to pass her message about the need for equality. Before her death in 2006, Coretta had managed to successfully push for significant changes in the United States where the difference between the whites and blacks has significantly decreased. For instance, both the white and the black students can now attend the same schools. People are more differentiated in terms of income rather than their races.

Works Cited Academy of Achievement. “Coretta Scott King Biography. “, 2010. Web.

Gelfand, Dale. Coretta Scott King: Civil Rights Activist. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2006. Print

Lohr, Kathy. “Coretta Scott King Honored As Civil Rights Champion.” Npr, 2006. Web.

McPherson, Stephanie. Coretta Scott King. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2007. Print

Stanley, George, and Henderson Meryl. Coretta Scott King: First Lady of Civil Rights. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008. Print