Have you ever wondered what could happen, if countries around the world had no institutions that oversee the state of their security? What if a person considers taking the laws in his or her hands? Could there be peace which is an essential aspect in business today? The idea of subjecting an individual to natural rights within his or her environs is what defines the term libertarianism.
These natural rights include property rights, an individual’s self rule and making use of neglected resources. There are two versions of libertarianism which include:
Individuals, especially those involved in businesses should be permitted to do their tasks freely for their businesses to expand beyond borders. By this, the version emphasizes the idea that the government should consider coming up with rules and regulations that protect the right of an individual‘s set of properties.
This means that it should not meddle with any individual’s modes of trade, thus an indication that one can opt to dominate in the market since he or she is protected by laws that do not permit other individuals from interfering with his or her properties.
Total libertarianism ensures that a force from any existing government institution, theft, and fraud do not exist in the world of business. The strongest part of this version is that it allows an individual to exploit his or her potentials, therefore, enabling the business to grow. The worst part of this version is that it does not give an individual a chance to share ideas with other institutions because of the liberty subjected to him or her.
Having some set of rules and regulations that protect a business from free market is an important aspect because it encourages the process of sharing business ideas with business oriented people. It is also a reasonable version since it ensures that there is equal and free market competition among different countries that share trading ground. This ensures equal distribution of resources because goods and services will be flowing from one country to another.
Moderate libertarianism is also important because it encourages the development of various places where the trading activity takes place. The problem with this version is that free market will encourage production of counterfeit goods and services which are harmful to a consumer. Another problem with this version is that the rates of taxation will increase no matter how hard the prices of various commodities are reduced since the government depends on its own economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moderate libertarianism is a free market philosophy which should be considered because it encourages the involvement of government in the line of trade between different countries. A government that protects its business institutions by creating rules and regulations ensures that the business is smoothly run, thus it advocates for
No monopolizations in free market, and
No oligopolies between businesses in the market
This means that the rules put in place will ensure that free competition is well protected as per the government’s limits. This can be done on matters such as the central banking which will ensure that the economy of a state is properly taken care off.
Others include construction of roads which will oversee the process of transportation and importation of goods and services that take a shorter period of time. The issue of unequal distribution of resource can be eradicated if this version is considered by individuals from all over the world since the rate of currency circulation will not be limited to one country.
Change/innovation of Facebook Problem Solution Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction to Change/innovation of Facebook
Introduction to Change/innovation of Facebook Facebook should devise new strategies to meet the changing demands among the clients. Innovation is a fundamental process because it enhances profitability within online corporations. Over the years, the company has been relying solely on revenues from basic advertisements and campaigns that promote different organizational processes.
This signifies that the Facebook is popular among populations that do not contribute to its financial growth. Furthermore, the corporations’ administrators have limited revenue because majority of their clients lack resources (Baloun, 2007). The company can reinstate its position in the market through invention and innovation. These changes will aid the company capitalize on profitability. Consequently, it is necessary to highlight the changes that will increase the profitability of facebook.
Change/innovation strategies Facebook should introduce new features that will enable the site to maximize profitability (Vander, 2008). It is important for the company to rebrand to tap on the unexploited potential of the market. For instance, the organization should ensure that Facebook’s “time-line” meets the needs of users without compromising their privacy. This is critical for the success of the company. Additionally, facebook should introduce fees to people who intend to use the social networking site in streaming videos online.
The administrators of facebook should capitalize on technological innovations such as streaming music online. This can be a source of revenue for the site. The administrators should introduce features that will allow customers to customize their sites on facebook (Carter
Gene Discovery: Ischaemic Stroke and Genetic Variations Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Aim
Disease and significance as a public health issue
Ability to link a medical condition to a specific gene allows for mitigation of treatment measures targeting that gene. Successful mapping brings raises chances of eliminating a condition or paves way for development of treatment. Researchers have become more eager in identifying underlying factors for chronic illnesses and diseases.
For some conditions, treatment focuses on alleviation of pain or prolonging life. Conditions such as stoke kill about six million people annually. In developed countries, stroke is the second top cause of demise. This necessitates research approaches to find ways of reducing mortality. Treatments for many conditions are developed when a link through their genetic sequence is established (Mutation, 2012).
Aim A team of researchers from various institutes carried out a study whose aim was to identify genetic variations common in people suffering from Ischaemic stroke. The scientists from the University of Oxford and other United Kingdom based research institutes sought to isolate a genetic variant to link to the disease to pave the way for development of suitable treatment (Mutation, 2012).
Methodology The researchers selected a sample consisting of 3,548 patients of Ischaemic stroke, and a healthy group of 5,972 to act as a control sample. DNA samples were extracted from both groups and compared to identify genetic variants common to the stroke victims.
DNA samples from the participants were extracted using a standard technique. Total cellular RNA was extracted from the samples, quantified and cDNA synthesis performed using High Capacity Kit developed by Applied Biosystems. ABI 7500 PCR system was used to measure the level of HDAC 9 and amplified using Taqman probe Hs00402870_A1 for all isoforms, and using Hs00206843_A1 for 1, 4 and 5 isoforms. Control samples were run simultaneously in order to verify the efficacy of amplification.
Human GUSB gene was used to normalize the level of HDAC gene. Relative expression of HDAC and GUSB genes was calculated using the 2-∆∆CT method. Duplicate PCR was conducted and results accepted for samples with a standard deviation below 0.5 (Tollefsbol, 2010).
The scientists observed genetic variants on three separate localities, which other researchers in the past had associated with varying grades of Ischaemic stroke. The variations occurred at PITX2, short arm of chromosome nine and on ZFHX3 genes. The researchers also observed a unique genetic variant on HDAC 9 gene.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The variant, which occurred at a new position on the gene, is suspected to cause large vessel stroke. The variant is abundant among patients in the United Kingdom, occurring in about 10% of stroke cases. Through calculations, researchers concluded that each variant increased the chances of having a large vessel stroke by 42% (Tollefsbol, 2010).
During the study, the researchers assumed that genetic variations common among stroke patients potentially made them susceptible to stroke. Use of a control group comprised of healthy individuals provided a basis for comparing gene patterns during the study (Mutation, 2012).
The study, however, could not conclude whether HDAC 9 was responsible for stroke. However, the gene was shown to contribute to the condition almost doubling the chances of occurrence. Such a study can only point out to the possibility of such variants promoting the disease or unmask other related components that have the same effect (Mutation, 2012).
Disease and significance as a public health issue Stroke ranks amongst the top three causes of death to the elderly population. If not death, it causes paralysis or chronic disability. In particular, Ischaemic stroke occurs when a major artery is blocked reducing oxygen supply to the brain. Narrowed blood vessels impede supply of oxygen to the brain, rapidly destroying large portions of the brain, resulting in paralysis or death. Ischaemic stroke occurs as a result of blockage on carotid or large cerebral arteries (Mutation, 2012).
Though genetics of a person may predispose towards stroke, habits such as smoking, environment and other lifestyle factors increase the chances of suffering the condition. Stroke is, therefore, not limited to people whose genes point out to predisposing (Mutation, 2012).
Stroke raises public health concern due to several reasons. Firstly, it causes paralysis. The state renders a person inactive and, therefore, unable to participate in economic and social activities. In addition, it increases the level of dependency. Paralyzed people have to depend on others, usually immediate family, since they have to be fed for or moved around.
This, therefore, means additional burden to family members. Secondly, care given to stroke victims is expensive. Equipment for supporting stroke victims are expensive and maybe unaffordable to some households. In an effort to cope up, the family subjects itself to financial constraints that may affect the overall wellbeing of the rest of the family.
We will write a custom Essay on Gene Discovery: Ischaemic Stroke and Genetic Variations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, inability to provide care may cause psychological trauma amongst family members. Thirdly, Stroke may cause death. Though this mostly occurs to the elderly population, it robs families of societal icons. Deceased people go through bereavement, which causes mental disturbance. The disease, therefore, is of public health concern as it lowers the quality of life to either the affected person, or immediate family.
References Mutation linked to 42% rise in stroke risk. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/news/genetics-and-stem-cells/mutation-linked-to-42-rise-in-stroke-risk/
Tollefsbol, T. O. (2010). Handbook of epigenetics: The new molecular and medical genetics. London: Academic.
The Clifford And James Philosophies On Beliefs Analytical Essay college application essay help
Introduction The Clifford and James philosophies on beliefs have various elements attached to their assertions. The most notable aspect of the ideology is the fact that beliefs exist when there is evidence. The theory emphasizes on the need for justification to support every belief. Numerous words have been used to describe the assertions. The most notable aspect is evidentialism. According to Clifford, a belief that is without evidence is immoral. In addition, Clifford indicated that when a belief lacks evidence it becomes irrational.
Clifford’s and William’s Arguments There are different arguments that dispute and contradict Clifford’s theory. William James contends that a belief should not be based on evidence alone. James has acknowledged the criticism leveled against Clifford. However, the theories from the two individuals are closely related.
For James, the aspect of believing in truth is a fact of his theory. In assessing the theory of Clifford, it is clear that Clifford has his theory based on the fear of error. I strongly believe that the theory, which is based on having sufficient evidence to support a belief, is not practical.
Thus, there are situations in which the belief does not require evidence. The Clifford theory seems to have generalized the belief. According to Clifford, beliefs dictate the individual’s behaviors in day-to-day activities. The beliefs of individuals are intertwined with the individual’s actions. From this notion, it is obvious that human beings may not do things depending on their beliefs. In some circumstances, room for doubt dictates that individuals should choose their actions depending on their doubts.
In situations whereby the belief conflicts with a doubt, doubt takes precedence over belief. According to Clifford, a single belief is linked to numerous beliefs. I think that the notion is overstretched and cannot be confirmed. In this case, significance of evidence in supporting a belief is required every time.
There are beliefs that have stood independently. The theory that a belief can be attached to those people who follow it is untrue. People can be living together or socially interacting but have different beliefs. The belief of a person may not affect the character of other people. I maintain that the argument asserting that a belief is held by a person in trust for the public is highly questionable because the public does not have beliefs. There are numerous misconceptions about beliefs as stated by Clifford.
On the other hand, in his literature to support the will to believe, William James noted that living is an option whereby one chooses, and the belief is guided by the option that one takes. He also maintained that there are situations that do not require choice, and a person is forced to make the choices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I agree with William James’ concept regarding belief. However, there are claims that the person in question has extraordinary positive way of handling life rather than being forced to make decisions. The components he uses to support his ideology can be put together to come up with a clear position.
Conclusion The notion on the belief by Clifford and James is not based on true evidence. There are types of beliefs that do not require any evidence. The notion that beliefs are interlinked is also not true because there are beliefs that stand independently. Therefore, there is a need to have common beliefs to avoid confusion. Therefore a room should be created to amend beliefs in order to match the prevailing conditions.
The Political Economy of Housing, and Community Development Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Housing and Community Development
Introduction The concepts of housing and community development deal with the various processes and activities affecting the development of land (Adorno 2005, 41). Shelter is a physiological human need, making the issue of housing a matter of concern to many fields in the society today.
Such fields, which are concerned with the issues of housing and shelter, include, among others, politics and the economy. Community development is related to housing. It involves efforts to improve the various aspects of the environment within which communities exist. It aims at helping members of the community by offering them skills needed to change their localities. Such skills are achieved as a result of the people’s desire to improve their living conditions.
In this paper, I am going to explore various aspects of the housing industry in the United States of America. In addition, I will address the contribution made by the United States of America government to the Federal Housing Administration. The latter is charged with the responsibility of financing single- families wishing to own homes in various parts of the country. I will analyze how this initiative has helped in promoting social equality in the United States of America (Burawoy 2009, 4).
Moreover, I addressed the issue of housing policies and their effects on the lives of people in the United States of America in the paper. Other issues I focused on include the role of housing in community development the role played by housing agencies in a capitalist economy. I fully understand that ours is a capitalist economy, and that is one of the reasons why I sought to analyze how the two concepts of housing and community development interact with the economy.
Housing and Community Development As I explained earlier, the two concepts refer to the various processes that influence land development. The processes are characterized by the activities of members of the society as they strive to improve their living conditions (Creswell 2009, 64).
I believe that housing and community development initiatives should enhance the quality of sustainable shelters in the society. In addition, such initiatives should enhance equality in the society. The success of the initiatives is determined by how well they achieve the outlined objectives. The housing and community development trend has gained momentum over the years, especially in urban settings.
I regard David Harvey as one of the most popular social theorists in the world. He has made attempts to explore political and economic factors surrounding the issue of housing. One of his greatest contributions to this end is in the field of urban political economy. While addressing the issue of urban political economy, David Harvey is particularly vocal on the issue of neoliberalism (Fernand 1995, 93).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He views a neoliberalized political economy as an oppressive capitalist system that benefits a few individuals at the expense of the majority. The oppression brings about the issue of inequality, which is associated with the emergence of socio-economic classes in the society. I agree with Harvey given that these concepts have a bearing on housing in the society. For example, individuals within the same socio-economic class are likely to seek housing within the same neighborhood as a result of homogenous financial status.
The Federal Housing Administration is the body charged with the responsibility of providing safe, small, self-contained, and low-cost housing facilities to Americans in suburban settings (Althusser
Business Memo of the Credit Scores Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Importance of Credit Scores
Measures for Raising the Credit Scores
Introduction Most banks have very explicit credit score policies. Presently, most employees including interns, struggle with high financial debts. This situation affects their likelihood of acquiring employment within most institutions (Mays 11). There is a clear indication that certain category of employees that lacks adequate knowledge about the concept of credit scores.
Employees within the human resources department have critical responsibilities. Some of these include creating a comprehensive awareness on issues about credit scores. This business memo targets the student interns within a local bank. The memo contains general information about the credit scores. Apart from this, it also explains the importance of credit scores. Lastly, it outlines the various measures required to increase the points for the credit scores.
Credit Scores A special number is normally attached to an individual’s credit score. The number is generated from an algorithm system. The data obtained from a person’s credit report is very critical. It is applicable in the mathematical computation of the credit score. There are several considerations in the development and setting of the credit score.
For instance, it has an important ability to predict risks. The risk approximation period usually extends to about two years (Weston 20). The system is designed to help in the prediction of an individual’s likelihood to become severely delinquent. Principally, the system is applied in the scrutiny of a person’s credit obligations within a specified time interval. Several models are applicable in the credit-scoring process. However, competitive models such as the “FICO credit score” model are widely applicable.
The system dominates the domestic and global environments. The US is one of the leading nations in which the FICO scoring model is in current use. All employees must be aware of the modes of operation and impacts of the credit score (Fair Isaac Corporation 2012). Most organizations have different policies and operational frameworks regarding the credit score.
According to the “FICO scores,” there are various ranges provided in the system. The ranges vary from three-hundred to 850. Therefore, it is upon the individuals to be aware of the most suitable credit score. Nonetheless, most systems indicate that the higher numbers depict very low risks. Most individuals have three of the FICO scores.
These scores are provided by three different agencies. These include the “Equifax, Experian and TransUnion” (Mays 36). It is important to note that most individuals may only access the scores generated from “Equifax and TransUnion FICO.” This follows the exclusion of the third firm from the credit-scoring scheme by myFICO.com.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The exclusion of Experian occurred in 2009. The creditors apply this concept in the determination of an individual’s level of creditworthiness. On the other hand, there are different institutions and employment agencies that apply the credit scoring method within their recruitment processes (Fair Isaac Corporation 2012).
The system contains all relevant financial information concerning an individual. These might include an individual’s record of paying bills. In addition, the system portrays all the types of accounts managed by persons. Other valuable information available in the system includes the debts, age of the accounts, and the debt clearance system. All this critical information is found within the credit report.
The creditors apply empirical processes in the comparison of basic information. This concerns information pertinent to the credit history of an individual. Statistical programs are used in these initiatives.
The scoring system is critical in the prediction of the capacity of people to submit their debts (Weston 34). Different agencies use the credit system in achieving various goals. Some of these include the insurance companies. The information is applicable in the determination of the possibility of providing certain insurance cover. The pie chart below indicates some elements in the credit score:
The Importance of Credit Scores The credit scores have great significance to individuals and institutions. However, these vary within different environments. Specifically, in the US all persons must have the credit score. However, this is only applicable to persons of a particular age. There is a special security number assigned to all persons under this age category (Weston 61).
This number is connected with an individual’s history of credit. The number is very crucial. For example, the relevant agencies seek the security number in the process of assessing the person’s credit worthiness. The name of the person is also important in the process. All these are significant during the identification of the various credit scores.
We will write a custom Essay on Business Memo of the Credit Scores specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most banks use the credit scores in defaulter tracing processes. These initiatives occur within the loan departments. They are also important in security systems. Specifically, these relate to the major economic crimes. It is also a process of monitoring and evaluating the historical financial undertakings of individuals.
The process helps recruitment operations of the company. The credit scores may also be applicable in the validation of a person’s level of integrity. It is also applicable in assessing the financial responsibility of different personalities. The credit score provides crucial information whether certain individuals deserve credit cards (Weston 76). Presently, most employers inquire about the credit score of all their prospective employees.
The trend is observable within jobs that involve handling large sums of money. These might include banks and other institutions dealing in finances. In such cases, the hiring certain employees usually depends on the level of their credit score. Those with high credit scores are more likely to access employment (Mays 91). Property owners have also applied the credit score system to assess the credit worthiness of their potential tenants. This process gauges the competency of various prospective tenants in meeting the monthly costs such as rent.
Measures for Raising the Credit Scores There are diverse strategies for increasing the credit scores. Foremost, it is advisable for individuals to settle down their bills promptly because the delinquent payments may cause a detrimental effect on the average score (Weston 88). The process leads to a consequent rise in the level of credit score.
The balance in the credit cards must also be kept at very low levels. Generally, a high level of debt balances may have negative impacts on the credit score. Individuals must also restrain from opening many unnecessary credit cards. Additionally, there is need for responsible management of all the credit cards. Most people operate without credit cards. This is dangerous for the effective operation of the credit score.
However, an adequate financial management system is necessary (Weston 94). This explains why individuals require proper fiscal training. It is upon the employers to launch effective capacity building initiatives based on the credit system. In general, personal financial responsibility is a key factor. It helps in the development of an efficient credit score.
Works Cited Fair Isaac Corporation. Credit scores. 2012. Web. Web.
Mays, Elizabeth. Handbook of Credit Scoring. S.l: Publishers Group UK, 2005. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Memo of the Credit Scores by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weston, Liz P. Your Credit Score: How to Improve the 3-Digit Number That Shapes Your Financial Future. Upper Saddle River, N.J: FT Press, 2012. Print.
The Egyptian Revolution Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Before the Revolution
After the Revolution
Introduction For 30 years, Egypt enjoyed a despicable stability under Hosni Mubarak until February 11, 2011 who, after eighteen days of mass street protests, was forced to step down unconditionally. The revolution that began on January 25th until 11th of February the same year unearthed the political and economic disparity that existed and ensured the continuity of his rule (Abu Hatab 14).
Seemingly, the revolution was a success as far as removing Mubarak from power is concerned. However, few literatures exist on the issues that led to the revolution in the first place. The research paper highlights the economic reasons such as unemployment that led to the fall of the Mubarak regime. Further, it reveals the future challenges that the current authority faces in establishing trust by the people in matters of economy.
Before the Revolution After Anwar Sadat’s assassination, Hosni Mubarak came into power in Egypt with everyone in the country expressing optimism and trust in the new administration. In the first years of his rule, Mubarak expressed tolerance, but this was short-lived, as it culminated to an authoritarian rule. Civil rights were restricted, political rights were thrown out of the window, and there was a unilateral amendment of the party law with the repression of any vocal political opponents.
There were reports that the elections in 1990 and 1995 (Abdelhamid, and el-Baradei 37), as well as those in 2000 were altered to allow the National Democratic Party (NDP), the ruling party at the time, a simple majority in parliament. The party laws only favoured a candidate in the ruling party from running for the presidency. A state of emergency had been in existence since 1981. It prohibited strikes, mass unions, and riots in the name of national security.
Despite these restrictive regulations, Egypt experienced considerable riots and strikes in the years 2004. This was a manifest of the growing social discontent in the country (Beinin 56). The series of labour strikes continued after this period. They had a mass effect on the government, as they seemed more effective in driving a point than the calls by the opposition leaders.
The financial crisis that occurred led to mass labour unrests in the year 2010 particularly in the private sector, which had been profoundly affected. In these protests, a large number of people came out to demand their rights. This surpassed those who had assembled in the previous political protests. This signifies that the problems they had were not political but socio-economic.
When the first regime came to power after independence, it formulated strategies such as agricultural projects to improve yields and infrastructural development, as well as economic sustainability (O’Brien 14). However, successive regimes have lived short of the public expectations with revolts marking the history of the nation since independence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professor Kandeel, an economist and development advisor at Georgetown University, states that there was a financial and economic mismanagement of the country by the government with accumulation of the public debts and a struggling economy (1). The international community was lenient on the country with the IMF forgiving the debt owed the government in the late 1990s with the American government doing the same.
After the intervention, Egypt’s economy grew steadily between 1990 and 2009 at an average rate of 4.5% annually. Despite this growth, Kandeel claims that the beneficiaries were the wealthy people and those in power with development being unbalanced and marginal (1). He states that, before the 1990s, the nation was marked by poverty especially in the 83 million residents, and that poverty doubled since 1982.
In 2009, for example, the poverty level stood at 18 million people, which was a fifth of the population, below the poverty line with the middle class also having to struggle because of unemployment. On the other end of the line were the rich regime leaders, their associates, and rich businesspersons who constituted only a small fraction of the population, but with the most say in the government of the day (Kandeel 5).
The social problems did not develop only in the period of Mubarak’s reign, but were also evident in times of Anwar Al-Sadat and the first leader Gamel Abdel Nasser. These parties have a substantial share of blame behind the poor performance of the world’s economy and the rising standards of living. In the period of 1990 and 2009, the rate of unemployment was about 11% throughout the country. This was much higher than the reported. In the late 2010, it stood at 2.3 million people (Kandeel 6).
The returning expatriates from other Arab states, such as Tunisia, experiencing political upheavals also aggravated the riots. Kandeel goes ahead to emphasize that, since these people returning mainly from Libya could not make a living, and there was no economic activity immediately available to them, the unemployment rate was set to raise causing further upheavals in the already polarised nation (7).
In his report, Shmuel, the director of studies at the institute for policy and strategy in Herzliya, Israel, claims that deep economic unease accompanied by social discomfort led to the revolts that spread across the Arabic world including Egypt (1). He goes ahead to explain that the leadership was ailing with the withdrawal of the traditional support that the west has always provided following previous revolutions (Shmuel 8).
In the last decade, leading up to the revolution, the purchasing power of the ordinary Egyptians had been declining. The consumer peak index (CPI) rocketed and peaked in late 2008 hitting 23.6% in August of that year. The driving force included the high food prices observed (Jones et al 12). The wages and salaries of the workers however remained constant with some in the private and public sector declining and retrenchment taking place.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Egyptian Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rising cost of living meant that the Egyptians were not able to afford the rising cost of food. The inflation led to volatile environments with people expressing discontent at the management of the crisis by the government. The middle class slipped into low class status with those in the least class having to deal with the worst economic times of their time.
It is reported that the prevalence of absolute poverty was at 23.4% in 2008/2009 period, which was an increase from the 16.7% incidence observed in 2001/2001 (World Bank 54). This is a reversal of the gain made in the late 1990s.
The government tried to reduce the burden on the people by continually financing the food subsidy system in place already despite its being expensive. By raising the salaries of civil servants, the measures were not enough to roll back the negative effects. They served to worsen further the inflation rather than improving the purchasing power. The revolt therefore was continually gaining momentum. It only needed an incident to trigger it. This opportunity was provided in the form of the popular Arab revolt.
After the Revolution After the president stepped down, the military (the supreme council of the armed forces) took control of the government and provided transitional rule to this Arab state with Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi taking charge. Tantawi was the defence minister whose role was to rule the country until parliamentary elections were held with the election of Egypt’s newest president.
The aims of the military council to facilitate parliamentary elections did not mention any economic reforms. It mainly consisted of people appointed by the former president. This raises the question of commitment on the part of this authority in the betterment of the living standards of the ordinary people in terms of securing employment.
The indication that the constitution was to be amended with little, if any, public or political involvement is one such factor of credibility for this authority. This is true considering that there was little room for women in the constitutional reform and the rush in which the referendum followed the proposed change thus giving little time for a consultation and public debate.
The council seemed to ignore the public, as it did not honor the protesters’ demands for the release of political prisoners or the end of the long lasting emergency law. Other issues not addressed included the lack of investigations into the murder of protesters and the amnesty demanded.
Despite the change in regime labor unrest continued with the council approving a law on the 24th of March that banned any unrest besides punishing anyone participating in them. This dimmed the gains that had seemingly been made by the revolution. There was also a growing concern on how the money allocated for transition would be used (Cassarino, and Tocci 3).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Egyptian Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In June 2012, a candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammed Morsi won the presidential elections beginning the struggle for power with the ruling military council. Both exhibited a power struggle with the parliament coming in the way. In August the same year, the defence minister who briefly acted as the president was forced into retirement.
This was a positive indicator for the people. The president also chose to visit China first to cement the trade collaboration to the surprise of the West. The Obama administration had previously counselled a debt of one billion dollars owed by the republic of Egypt. The cost of living is still high with an employment rate remaining high. However, people are trying to adjust in the new leadership.
Conclusion In conclusion, the history of the popular Egypt revolt is critical to master in understanding the future for this country. Dissatisfied with existing political, social, and economic injustices in the country, and following the popular Arabic revolt, the Egyptians took to the streets demanding their rights. They inspired to make political and social changes. Their drive included the raised cost of living, the continuing political intolerance, and the feeling of betrayal by the high social class that had governed them for 30 years.
Change was achieved, but this seemed like a mirage since the resulting authority did not seem to make any favourable change. Oppression continued under this new rule with most of the promises made going unfulfilled. After the elections, the Muslim Brotherhood winner, Morsi, is yet to be tested. The economy is yet to recover with signs of rough times ahead.
Works Cited Abdelhamid, Daisy, and Laila el-Baradei. “Reforming the Pay System for Government Employees in Egypt.” ERF Working Paper 151.149(2009): 1-41. Print.
Abdulbaki, Lisbon. “Democracy and the re- consolidation of authoritarian rule in Egypt.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 1.3(2008): 445-463. Print.
Abu Hatab, Assem “Egypt within the Framework of the Global Financial Crisis: Impact, Response and Way Forward.” IJMES 2.1(2009): 8-25. Print.
Beinin, Joel. Neo-liberal Structural Adjustment, Political Demobilization, and Neoauthoritarianism in Egypt, The Arab State and Neo-Liberal Globalization, The Restructuring of State Power in the Middle East. Ithaca: Ithaca Press, 2009. Print.
Cassarino, John, and Nicole Tocci. Rethinking the EU’s Mediterranean Policies Post-1/11, IAI Working Papers, 1106, 2011. Web.
Jones, Nemron et al. Impact of the Economic Crisis and Food and Fuel Price Volatility on Children and Women in the MENA Region. Working Paper No. 310, ODI and UNICEF, 2009. Web.
Kandeel, Amal. “Egypt at a Crossroads.” Middle East Policy 18.2(2011): 5-7. Print.
O’Brien, Perez. “An Economic Appraisal of the Egyptian Revolution.” The Journal of Development Studies 1.1(2002):14-46. Print.
Shmuel, Bar. “America’s Fading Middle East Influence.” Policy Review 1.1(2011): 23-56. Print.
World Bank. Arab Republic of Egypt Poverty Assessment Update, 2009. Web.
Cornell note taking system Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The Cornell note taking system is a model of taking notes that was developed at the Cornell University by Walter Pauk. Pauk was an education professor at the university.
This model of taking notes was developed in the year 1954. The model was meant to aid students in the University by simplifying the study process. Pauk published this model of study in his famous book titled, “How to Study in College”. The Cornell note taking model of study seeks to ease studying by setting specifications to guide students in taking notes while studying (Sylvia, 27).
How the Cornell note taking system works This model of learning gives a systematized way in which students can summarize and organize notes. An explanation is given on how the paper used in note taking by students ought to be structured to get maximum utility from study sessions. This is a major distinguishing factor between this model of study and other models. According to this model, the study or note taking paper can be structured as indicated below.
Source: “The Cornell System for Note-Taking”, p. 1
The three parts labeled in the diagram above are critical while studying. The note taking area is used in recording lectures. This has to be done using telegraphic sentences. After a class or learning session, students should formulate questions basing on the notes recorded in the note taking column.
Questions are important because they aid in making clarification to students concerning the meaning and relations of meanings in the notes. Questions also aid in broadening and strengthening memory of students. During the study for exams, these questions simplify revision work. The cue column is critical in recitation of the notes. During recitation, students are required to cover the note taking area fully. Students are required to recite the answers to the questions by looking at the questions in the question column.
This has to be said loudly depending on the level of understanding of the student. This leads to the reflection of the learning material, which is another important step in learning. This is achieved through a re-look at the facts that are raised through answers to the questions found in the study text (Sylvia, 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Questions asked during reflection include those on the relevance of the facts in the notes, principles informing the facts, the applicability of the facts, and their relationship with what the learner already knows. The question about what goes beyond the facts is of great relevance in reflection because they are brought out during learning.
Students are also required to keep reviewing previous notes. This has to be done for at least ten minutes each week. This keeps the facts in the notes fresh in the mind of students. The summary section is used at the end of the learning session. The notes on each page are summed in this section (Sylvia, 27).
This model of learning has been found to be very effective in different learning sessions. It is best suited in learning session that deal with broad theoretical concepts with numerous notes and information. Thus, it best suits my economics classes. The system is very effective because it focuses on the critical steps in learning like recording, recitation, reflection, and reviewing. However, the system is very comprehensive and can hardly be followed by students. It is quite tiring for anybody who chooses to follow it fully.
Works Cited Sylvia, Behrmann. Practical Study Methods. New York: Gardners Books, 2007. Print.
The Cornell System for Note-Taking. 2010. Web. Web.
Duty to Accommodate Expository Essay custom essay help
Introduction The Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission created a code designed to protect employees from discrimination at the workplace. According to this legislation, employers have a duty to accommodate, where accommodation refers to reassignment of a worker or modification of his or her duties. The duty to accommodate as well as the return to work policy affects all categories of employees defined as protected; these include persons with disabilities, people with divergent religions, ancestry and family obligations.
Details of the legislative requirements The Saskatchewan Labour Standards Act, section 44 states that employers have a duty to accommodate workers in order to eliminate discrimination unless undue financial, safety, health and hardship costs will stem from the accommodation (Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission, 2012).
In order to show that a company has followed these regulations, it needs to document the process of considering the accommodation request as well as the actions taken. In this legislation, accommodation should not revolve around employee preferences; instead, it should be done in order to eliminate unreasonable barriers at work.
When considering accommodation, an employer needs to keep in mind certain triggers that could necessitate it. If an employee experiences something that changes his or her ability to carry out his duties, then the duty applies.
For instance, the person may be a new mother or may have changed religions and these alterations may affect the person’s ability to work conventionally. Alternatively, a company may introduce new workplace policies that affect the person’s ability to get work done at certain times.
The Saskatchewan Code requires managers to accommodate if the return to work policy has led to discrimination against employees from any of the prohibited groups. In other scenarios, it could be that the individual has developed a medical condition that requires changes in the way the person works. Management should consider such possibilities prior to accommodation.
Employers may also consider performance issues before accommodating. This means that they do not have to wait for requests from employees to do the same. For instance, they may get feedback from other workers that a colleague is having difficulties with work. If an employee’s performance levels drop or the person behaves erratically, then an employer has the obligation to accommodate him or her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers ought to approach such individuals about the need for accommodation. If the person refuses to pursue the matter, then a business person must document all the steps he or she took into order to abide by the Saskatchewan Labour Act. Therefore, management has the responsibility for identifying barriers and looking for options to eliminate them. Additionally, management should respect the right to privacy or confidentiality.
It is not necessary for management to know all about all the details of an employee’s medical problem. All that counts is information about how one’s health condition will affect work. Furthermore, information such as employees’ family situations should not be disclosed.
In essence, an accommodation request may not necessarily be written down, but it can be communicated to management clearly. Additionally, managers must familiarise themselves with the needs of employees if accommodation is necessary. Thereafter, management should organise resources and plan for ways in which accommodation can be facilitated.
During this process, management will need to buy adaptive equipment or make other adjustments. It is imperative to have a plan if the accommodation will be long term. In such a scenario, parties involved should communicate frequently. Further, management should stay updated on the health status of the employee involved.
Employees must play their part in this arrangement. They are expected to formally request for accommodation when something happens to affect their work, or if they become a member of one of the protected groups. They are also expected to work hand in hand with their employers and realise that they may not always get what they demand.
Cooperation may be in development of a work plan or in proposing possible solutions for accommodation. Additionally, workers’ unions are obligated to cooperate with employers in the process of accommodation.
Employers are must make all the arrangements necessary in order to facilitate a return to work plan. If a worker is to be reasonably accommodated prior to his or her return to work, then an employer can offer him the same job with certain modifications, such as the schedule or duties involved. Alternatively, return to work can come about by offering an employee a different job. Finally, this policy can occur by giving the worker a different job in a modified form (Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada, 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Duty to Accommodate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This legislation has its limits regardless of all the things a manager can do. Employees who have been continuously absent from work, and are unlikely to return are not covered in the Code. In this regard, an employer should apply a reasonableness test. The legislation does not apply when management must experience undue hardship in order to accommodate.
If accommodation will result in considerable financial costs, then an employer may forfeit this duty. Additionally, if appreciable interruptions to business will occur, then the duty becomes non obligatory. Furthermore, an employer should not accommodate one worker at the expense of infringing on other employees’ rights.
If the accommodation will undermine the safety of the concerned worker or others, then it should not be implemented. In the event that an employee claims discrimination due to the failure to accommodate, companies can be exempted if they use the bona fide occupational requirement argument. Certain professions require employees to possess particular health conditions before they can be fit enough to engage in it.
For instance, drivers with a poor vision cannot perform well. Therefore, if an employer can prove that the employee lacked the bona fide occupational requirement, then the court will excuse him or her from discrimination. For this defence to apply, a manager must show that the standard (rule) was related to the concerned function, that it was done in good faith, and that lack of the standard would cause undue hardship (MacDonald, 2009).
Impact of the legislation on accommodation and on return to work
Since the Code recognises ill or injured employees as one of the categories that are entitled to these modifications, employers have had to do as much as they can to accommodate workers. They have given employees leave of absence when illnesses or accidents occur, regardless of where the accidents took place.
Additionally, when an employee recovers from an illness, an employer must leave room for a gradual return. This has changed the way things get done at the workplace because now companies must take time to allow a transition back to work. They must also dedicate resources for this process.
If an employee has not fully recovered, his manager ought to change work shifts or rearrange job duties for the same to occur. Therefore, this legislation has affected the workplace by encouraging greater flexibility during company time. In certain scenarios, a person may have a permanent physical disability because of their illness. Therefore, a place of work needs to change work conditions so as to integrate injured workers. These requirements have altered what managers need to do in order to stay ahead.
Pregnant workers or individuals with family obligations are also entitled to some alterations in work. Employers have brought together work bundles that are in line with the employee’s needs. Sometimes, it may be necessary to transfer the employee to a new position or alter conditions of work. For example, a pregnant worker should not do a lot of manual work or heavy lifting; an employer may have to give her a seat even when similar workers do their job while standing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Duty to Accommodate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, management needs to lighten their duties at this time. When delivery time approaches they should get maternal leave; fathers should also get paternal leave. If someone has children, he or she must be granted days off to meet those obligations. A child could be graduating, sick or changing schools.
Persons with divergent religious backgrounds are also included in the legislation. Companies can give allowances for special festivities or rituals. For instance, a devout Muslim may need time off from work to do his daily prayers. Alternatively, the person could have a religious holiday that he needs to celebrate.
Employers ought to make these considerations before making deadlines or assigning work. Numerous possibilities exist for alternation of work policies, duties, and arrangements. Managers ought to make these decisions in order to ensure that all employees are fully accommodated.
When people with a genuine need for accommodation are denied this opportunity, then a unionised worker has the right to file a grievance to the Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission through a collective agreement. Employees without unions may still file grievance through the Saskatchewan Labour Standards Act.
This means that organisations can face huge financial losses if fines are imposed. Alternatively, their company image would be tarnished and this could ruin business. If companies want no business interruptions, then they should meet these obligations.
Accommodation and return to work as related to an organisation’s Integrated Disability Management Program
The Saskatchewan Labour Standard Act on the duty accommodate places upon managers a responsibility to have an effective disability management program in which they offer supportive workplace policies. They should also encourage the worker, his or her union, and healthcare professionals to cooperate with management.
A conducive disability management program should consist of an element of evaluation. Managers must be educated about their duties and responsibilities in the disability management program (Brooker et al., 2000).
The first step in the creation of an integrated disability management program that complies with the return to work law is development of an accommodation and return to work policy. Employers need to cover all the issues that affect an injured or protected worker in a return to work policy.
Some of the elements of the policy may include budgetary issues, salary replacement, transitional employment as well as accommodation. These policies will assist in getting commitment from top management as well as involvement from employees who need accommodation.
A proper disability management program needs to have an offer of modified work. Here, a company should reduce work hours, alter a worker’s original job, transfer the worker, or minimise work load if an employee is injured. Permanent job modifications are sometimes imperative for an employee to return to work fully.
This measure will reduce recurrent absenteeism from employees and will also minimise the need for high amounts of benefits. It should be noted that a company has the obligation to alter both physical and psychosocial factors in their disability management program. The latter refers to aspects such a workplace intensity or control at work while physical factors include seating positions or forceful movements.
Supervisors and management who are responsible for implementation of the system ought to be educated on the program. Training should involve telling managers and supervisors about the disability or condition. This will empower them to handle the condition or disability more effectively and assist in gaining empathy from them.
Lastly, the disability management program should have an evaluation phase. Here, the effectiveness of the program should be assessed on the basis of its outcomes. One parameter would be the number of workers who returned to work. Cases of workers whose conditions worsened or improved after returning to work should be noted. Even aspects such as severity of pain can also be measured.
Conclusion Companies must make reasonable adjustments for employees from protected groups, injured, or ill workers. This ensures that employees are not discriminated against and that companies do not place health risks on workers. Employers have the duty to accommodate by making psychosocial and physical changes to work.
This can be done by personal observation or by requests from employees. Workers and unions must also cooperate with employees in order to make it work. A supporting workplace environment ensures that employees stay employed or they can return to work and engage in productive work.
References Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada (2011). Rehabilitation and return to work. Web.
Brooker, A., Sinclair, S., Clarke, J., Pennick, V.
Effects of Technology Cause and Effect Essay best college essay help
At present, people do not even try to prove that technology has changed their lives significantly as this is obvious. It is possible to think of a variety of effects of technology. These effects can be divided into two major groups: positive and negative changes in people’s lives and in the life of the planet. It is possible to single out major positive and negative effects which can help define one major effect in the long run.
In the first place, it is possible to focus on positive effects of technology. Undoubtedly, technological advances have enabled people to improve people’s quality of life.
Now machines complete a lot of hard work and people can focus on other tasks (e.g. further development of technology, development of humanity). People have also managed to develop numerous tools to overcome diseases. Medical advances have contributed to the increase of people’s lifespan. Apart from this, development of technology led to various advances in the agricultural sector.
Now people can grow more food to feed more people. Availability of food also adds to the increase of people’s lifespan. Finally, development of technology has made the world shrink. Now people can ignore lots of boundaries. Thus, distances cannot be a problem now as people can interact irrespective of distances. Such availability of human resources contributes to cooperation, which, in its turn, leads to further development.
Nonetheless, all these benefits have quite a high price. One of the major negative effects of technology is the impact it has on the planet. The Industrial Revolution and further technological development have led to a variety of environmental issues. Now people face such problems as air and water pollution, shortage of resources (water, farming land, fossil fuels, etc.). Notably, people’s activity also contributes to global climate change.
All these environmental issues have impact on people’s health. It is necessary to note that lots of serious diseases appear and people have to work out more sophisticated tools to overcome these diseases. Furthermore, globalization, which can be regarded as one of the products of technological development, often leads to a rapid spread of viruses and pandemics can become frequent. Finally, people try to solve these problems with the help of technology, which leads to even more serious issues.
However, it is necessary to mention another effect technology has. Thus, people heavily rely on technology these days. People are alienated from the nature. Decades ago, people could create lots of things, but now machines do it, and people are becoming more and more helpless.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This trend can be traced in different spheres of people’s life (science, medicine, education and even everyday life). Contemporary children rarely use imagination as they have computers and TV. This can have a variety of negative effects in the long run. For instance, people can be absolutely hopeless in case of certain machines’ failure.
On balance, it is possible to state that technology has a number of positive and negative effects. On one hand, it improves people’s quality of life. On the other hand, it leads to numerous issues associated with a variety of hazards. However, it is possible to note that these effects are somewhat secondary compared to the existing trend. Now people start relying on machines, which can lead to different changes. For instance, people can lose any connection with nature, which will be disastrous for the future of humanity.
Current Directions in Life-Span Development Essay essay help: essay help
Modern psychology can offer different explanations of such a process as the life-span development of a person. This paper is aimed at discussing such approaches as behaviorism, psychoanalytic model, and cognitive theory. In particular, it is necessary to show how they describe the psychological development of an individual. Moreover, one of the tasks is to examine current applications of these theories. On the whole, these models are still important for understanding the current trends in developmental psychology.
The first approach that is going to be discussed is behaviorism that was advocated by John Watson, Burrhus Skinner, and other scholars. It is based on the premise that the development of a person is a response to external stimuli.
The supporters of this model do not distinguish specific stages of the life-span, because people are continuously influenced by external factors, and it is difficult to predict their impact. A certain type of conduct can be adopted provided that it is rewarded or when it yields good results; yet, the same type of conduct can be rejected when it results in negative consequences such as punishment.
This theory still attracts the attention of psychologists; for instance, in their article, Joseph Burke et al (2009) discuss social context as one of external stimuli that shapes the behavior of a person. In particular, they discuss legal, historical, and political structures that influence the beliefs and attitudes of an individual (Burke et al, 2009, p. 56).
These authors speak about people’s attitude toward their health (Burke et al, 2009, p. 56). It should be noted that many organizations adopt the principles of behaviorism in order to modify the behavior of employees. For instance, such as an organization as Management for All (2012) provides guidelines for motivating workers and promote their professional growth.
Their website explains how behaviorism can assist business administrators (Management for All, 2012, unpaged). Certainly, behavioral theory cannot explain every aspect of life-span development, but it can throw light on the formation of values and principles. Moreover, it is important for understanding for motivation of a person. This is why this model is still of great interest to psychologists.
The second model that should be discussed is psychoanalytic theory that still remains popular among many therapists. Unlike behaviorism, psychoanalysis does not attach much importance to the external factors; instead it focuses on the sexuality of an individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the supporters of psychoanalysis single out the distinct stages of the life-span, namely oral, anal and phallic or genital stage (Löffler-Stastka
Egypt’s Economic Structure Essay best college essay help
Abstract This memo explores the economic structure of Egypt and its composition. It also highlights the major economic sectors and their contribution to the Gross Domestic Product. Over and above, the memo gives figures of the macro-economic indicators in the recent years. Finally, the memo touches on the composition of Egypt’s imports and its trading volumes with the United States.
Egypt is a Muslim country found in the Horn of Africa. It is largely a semi-arid country though it is endowed with some very precious natural resources including oil and gold. Over the past few years, Egypt has been enjoying relatively stable economy with economic growth rate ranging between 4% and 5%.
Despite the recent political upheavals, Egypt’s economic structure remained relatively unshaken. Due to the strong manufacturing and service sector coupled with good government policies, Egypt’s economy is among the best performing in Africa and the Middle East. Egypt is a mixed economy with both the private and public sectors playing significant roles in the development of the economy.
Initially, agriculture constituted the largest sector in the economy of Egypt. Almost 90% of the country’s labor force was working in the agricultural sector until late 1960s.
However, in the 1970s the significance of agricultural sector in the economy of Egypt decreased drastically despite efforts that were directed at reviving the sector. In the year 2010 agricultural sector contributed a mere 13.1% to the Gross domestic product (GDP) compared to 87% in the 1960s (Sriramesh
Short Analysis of Chevely, or Man of Honor Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The paper is an analysis of the symbolism of Rosina Lytton’s work which shows the gender disparities that existed in the Victorian Era exploring the theme of women and specifically wives whose husbands are public figures, and the pain such women had to undergo.
The Analysis In the opening scene Mowbray beats his wife Julia. However, to conceal the acts of domestic violence her husband makes everyone believe that she has slipped on the floor and that it was an accident. Although the doctor has reservation about the accident, Julia concurs with her husband lies to the doctor about her cause of injury (Lytton 2). One of the symbols used in this book is a mask. At the beginning of the book, Julia has a mask which she wore.
The mask represents the fact that the reality can be concealed so that it will not be seen as it is supposed to be. There are instances where Julia pretended that her marriage was happy even though it was not the case. For instance, when she learnt that her husband was having relationship with other women she pretended that it was not true (Lytton 10). In addition, she masks herself when she has been mistreated and physically injured by concealing that everything happened was an accident though it was not.
Mowbray pretends that she loves Julia although it is not the case as his actions tell otherwise. He is aware that his marriage has problems but wants his way to stay with him and pretends that it is working so that he can gain political favors as a morally upright and family person (Lytton 18).
The author’s symbolic use of mask at the beginning is seen later where the other author shows instances of what the wife is expected to do. The book details how Julia is forced to pretend that everything is well in her family even when she is mistreated. When her husband has other mistresses she is insulted verbally and physically (Lytton 7).
The theme of this book is about women as well as how they were expected to play a secondary role to their husbands no matter their attitude towards their wives. They were expected to remain in their marriages with god-like patience even though it was hurting (Lytton 22). Men unlike women did not follow the same code of behavior and expectations by the society. Mowbray accuses her wife of ill temper as well as separation when his wife violently responds to him after finding him with a mistress (Lytton 27).
Men expect their wives to be patient and silent when they mistreat them yet they tell everyone when they feel that their wives have wronged them as Mowbray did to Julia. Julia goes to the extent of giving her husband money to fund his extravagant lifestyle thinking that it would make him love her more but it results into more problems (Lytton 30).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The book has used irony as a key feature. The character presented in this book deserves an honor. The author has used the title as a symbolism to show that what people see may not always be real. She exposes the life of wives of public figures along with the pain they have to experience as well as betrayal they undergo in order for them to remain married. Rosina’s book serves as a good study of gender disparities that existed in the Victorian Era and provokes one’s mind to think whether there are places where such gender disparities exist.
Works Cited Lytton, Rosina. Chevely, or Man of Honor. London: Swan Sonnenschein Press, 1839. Print.
The Concept of String Theory Essay online essay help: online essay help
String theory is a concept developed by physicists trying to explain the fundamental nature of matter and space. The concept has various interpretations, but has the ability to explain the phenomenon of existence. Since the most fundamental particles do not exhibit the properties of matter that bigger objects have, some scientists consider them non-dimensional (Van Proeyen 12).
This means they do not have width, length or depth. General relativity holds that all matter and space exists in four dimensions. Depth, width, and length of all matter and space exist through time (Kane 46). This means that time is the fourth dimension.
Distortion of time results in distortion of the other three dimensions, which are the dimensions of space. This is quite different from Newtonian physics, which does not consider time a dimension.
However, practical science is based on Newtonian physics. Although the theories of relativity are not applicable in practical science to a satisfactory extent, they are accepted as the true explanations of the phenomenon of existence (Zwiebach 16). The effort to understand the seemingly dimensionless nature of fundamental particles and the four dimensional nature of matter and space in one theory has led to development of string theory.
According to string theory, there are other more fundamental dimensions contained in the four dimensions of physical existence that are normally experienced. The additional dimensions add to the four known dimensions to make eleven-dimensional world (Van Proeyen 41). Compression of these dimensions into the fabric of universal existence makes them undetectable by any physical means. However, several mathematical models have been used to prove their existence and the nature of their interaction.
The string theory explains the manner in which the one-dimensional basic particles interact to result into a four dimensional existence. Matter, space, and time are a yield of this interaction. Fundamental particles are made up of one-dimensional strings, which interact with unidirectional membranes to create a particle (Zwiebach 18). Gravitational force, a phenomenon that has not yet been understood by scientists is explained as a product of string interaction. Scientists have already developed a mathematical form for gravity.
The wave nature of matter is a part of the theory explaining how the fundamental particles exist. One certain kind of wave motion is responsible for all behaviors of matter and space. The string theory is the only theory that offers a single explanation to the nature of matter and space. However, since the theory proposes the existence of dimensions that cannot be physically assessed, it is not possible to test its integrity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other challenging theories have endured criticism to emerge as possible alternatives to the string theory since they can be tested, and have an observable fundamental constant. Advocates of the string theory believe that a universal constant exists within the string theory, but a mathematical proof has not been developed yet (Zwiebach 22). This constant and a testing mechanism for the string theory are the only remaining constituents that can establish the theory as a proven fact.
The nine-dimensional vibration of each string is unique and yields the properties of fundamental particles. The ends of a single cosmic string are joined such that an indefinite loop is formed. Forces of interaction attract the string towards the centre of the loop (Van Proeyen 45). This action is responsible for the appearance of fundamental particles as singular points with no dimensions at all.
The dimensions of the physical world are fixed in certain directions according to Newtonian physics. In string theory, dimensions are mathematical representations with no directional properties of the three spatial dimensions. Moreover, these dimensions are compressed into a manifold such that they are not testable by any physical means (Zwiebach 30). This is attributed to the infinitesimal distances that represent the particular dimensions.
Since mathematics is largely based on spatial dimensions, there is no method to test the presence of cosmic strings within the current mathematical scope. Several propositions assume that the invisible dimensions are responsible for the unexplained forces that are observed in nature.
Electromagnetic wave is assumed to be made up of a certain combinations of the dimensions. Gravity, a force whose presence is established by empirical evidence only, is also considered a product of the additional dimensions (Van Proeyen 15). This is why gravitational force and its characteristics such as inertia do not seem to emanate from any one physical location.
The string theory presents a single explanation for existence of all matter and space. Through the string theory, it is possible to understand the relation between space and time. The relative relationship that makes time similar to space can be understood through string theory. The small dimensions of the strings make it impossible to investigate the pattern in which they are woven together (Van Proeyen 7).
If a definite pattern in which the strings are woven is identified, it is possible to understand the construction of forces and the difference between various forces. However, the ability to understand the fundamental constituents of time and force can discredit all conventional physics, as it is understood today (Zwiebach 74). Such knowledge could also result in breakdown of phenomena such as the construction of time towards the future.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of String Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kane, G. L.. Perspectives on supersymmetry II. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010. Print.
Van Proeyen, Antoine. “A First Course in String Theory.” Intensive Theoretical Studies 5.3 (2008): 5-60. Print.
Zwiebach, Barton. A first course in string theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Comparison of Life at Home and Away Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Life at home and life away
Introduction Staying at home with one’s family is an easier and more preferable choice to make than going anywhere, but people may not realise that living without family support may help them develop a stronger character. It is evident that the last option is tougher but better for one’s personal growth.
Life at home and life away Living far from home may be inconvenient and troubling owing to the numerous adjustments one should make. If a person lives in a facility, such as a hostel, that hosts a range of residents, he or she may have to share the kitchen or pool with several other people. Sometimes, it may not be possible to do exactly what a person wants because one must accommodate to the needs of many other individuals (Flynn 56).
On the other hand, if an individual lives at home, one may not have to make many adjustments because there are few individuals to consider. Furthermore, as people live with the same family members throughout their life, they adjust to their habits and particular way of life
When one lives away from home, one must become highly organised. This is necessary in order to manage one’s obligations. Relocating away from home requires one to create a new routine that will facilitate one’s transition. A person may have to sort out his or her things a day before a big event in order to avoid confusion at some particular moment. Conversely, an individual may not be highly organised at home and still get away with it. The person has the advantage of having family around; consequently, a mother or sister may help in organising something (Klinenberg 15).
Living away from home requires one to become diligent. A person living alone will need to perform all the house duties alone, cleaning, cooking, and shopping. As a result, there is no room for laziness. In contrast, a person living with family may not have as many household chores or personal responsibilities as the person who is living alone. This is because most of the duties are assigned to different family members. In fact, one can get away with laziness in the family setting because others will clean or cook on their behalf (Flynn 67).
Perhaps, one of the most attractive components of living away from home is that it teaches a person to become independent. An individual must take charge of his or her living expenses and income (Klinenberg 92). Furthermore, a person must plan for his or her healthcare services as well as his or her diet.
An individual living alone needs to take care of his social activities, and his life, because there is no one else to do it for him/her. On the other hand, if a person lives at home, one tends to rely on others for certain things. For instance, if the individual lives with his or her parents, then they may be responsible for the provision of all basic needs. Alternatively, if one lives with one’s spouse, then the partner may make the family budget on his or her behalf.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Living away from home may foster tolerance if the current location is far from home. Going to a different country or town may expose a person to the situations where he/she will deal with the people of various religions, morals, social values, political values, political opinions, and cultural backgrounds. This causes the individual to learn how to tolerate other people with different viewpoints. Sometimes, a roommate can challenge a person about a certain issue, and this may cause an individual to think about it in a different light. Living at home with one’s family may not expose one to diverse communities as a person interacts with the same people continuously (Flynn 81).
Staying at home with one’s family gives one a strong sense of identity and belonging. Family members give support when one faces difficulties, thus lessening his/her life challenges. It is difficult to feel lonely at home because a person can spend his time with the other family members. Conversely, it is difficult to cultivate a sense of identity when living away from home, especially when no strong workplace or school culture exists in the new location.
Feelings of isolation or loneliness can creep in, and this may cause emotional distress. When left unchecked, the situation can cause one to engage in unwanted activities. For instance, a person may become a television addict or start an unhealthy habit. Alternatively, one may become depressed.
If a person has a wife and children, then living away from home can sometimes provide one with a sense of freedom. This is especially true when the concerned children are young and troublesome. Some may perceive it as selfish, but living away from home can offer a much-needed break from the stresses of taking care of a family (Klinenberg 101). When a person lives at home with one’s family, one must always take into account the needs of other family members. This may minimise one’s options with regard to time and resources.
Conclusion The analysis above has shown that living away from home may help one become strong, organised, free, diligent, independent, inconvenienced and culturally tolerant. Staying with one’s family gives one a sense of belonging and constant support but limits one’s freedom.
It does not teach one to be independent or how to deal with cultural differences. Further, one may become lazy and ignorant how to live in harmony with other people who are not one’s family members. In essence, living away from home fosters maturity and thus is a better option.
Works Cited Flynn, Elizabeth. Coping with living alone. London: Catholic Truth Society, 2001. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Life at Home and Away specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Klinenberg, Eric. Going solo: The extraordinary rise and surprising appeal of going alone. NY: The Penguin press, 2012. Print.
Across Time and Space: Solving the Mysteries of the Ancient Cultures Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Nowadays, in the era when the humankind has reached the bar people never thought they will ever be able to, it is hard to believe that thousands of years ago, there were different cultures and a completely different civilization, just as well-developed as ours, only in a different way. One of the most famous and the least explored, the Sumerian civilization is worth taking a closer look at.
The first issue to discuss, the Uruk vase is closely connected to worshipping of Inanna, the Sumerian Goddess. The impressions of animals and grain of the vase speak for themselves, making it clear that the vase was supposed to be used in the ceremonies worshipping fertility.
Cuneiform is the method of writing which was invented before people learned how to produce paper. Carving letters in clay tablets, people managed to keep certain information.
As for the Stele of Naram-Sin, the artifact tells the story of the king who was considered to be nearly divine. An obvious element of the ancient worship, the stele offered an innovation I writing art for the Sumerians, since it is written in a horizontal format instead of the old-time diagonal one.
Standing motionlessly in the calmness of The Square Temple, Votive Statues are supposed to represent the people who used to come of the temple to pray. The exact copies of the then men and women, these statues are a great study of the Sumerian traditions and even fashion.
A peculiar alternative for alphabet, hieroglyphs are specifics signs which are meant to define certain people, objects, notions or phenomena. They are used to write down information. For instance, Japanese and Chinese people use hieroglyphs instead of letters.
Considered to be the symbol of Egypt unification, the Palettes of King Narmer have the impression of the pharaoh with the crown of Upper Egypt on the one side and him wearing the crown of Lower Egypt on the reverse. The two impressions are supposed to symbolize that Egypt became an entity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The elements that most people associate with such cultures as the Egyptian one, mastabas are the burial place with rooms in it for the tombs of the diseased.
Another element of the Egyptian culture, serdab is the chamber in a mastaba.
An integral element of a serdab, a serdab sculpture, such as the statue of King Djoser, was supposed to be a kind of homage to the diseased person and to serve as a specific “reservoir” for the soul of the diseased. Placed in the serdab, it was supposed to be the necessary element of the Egyptian burial tradition.
The modern world knows Hatshepsut, the famous pharaoh of Egypt, only owing to the fragmentary sculptures. Most of them depict the pharaoh in her royal dresses and devoted to her royal routines. However, some of the statues portray her as Osiris.
Speaking about the Nanna Ziggurat, the Sumerian temple, one must mention that it was apparently built to honor Nanna, the Sumerian deity of the night and moonlight. Unlike Nanna Ziggurat, which was made of mud bricks, the Pyramid of Djoser was made of stone blocks; however, the two still look much alike, with their pyramidal structure and sharp angles.
Thus, it is clear that the Sumerian people, as well as the people of the Ancient Egypt, reached the peaks which the present-day world has never heard of. Though the has-been kings of the universe knew nothing about the technological discoveries of the present-day science, they still managed to create the culture which still remains a mystery and is filled with the most incredible legends. Taking a closer look at their artworks, one can reach the ancient culture and see the magnificence of the human race.
A Rose for Emily Essay best college essay help
One of the most appealing aspects of William Faulkner’s short story A Rose for Emily is that the readers’ exposure to the main character of Emily Grierson provides them with a better understanding of what accounts for the effects of socially oppressive circumstances onto the process of an individual becoming mentally insane.
This is because it was namely the fact that, ever since her early years Emily was indoctrinated to believe that she had no other option but to live up to the expectations of her traditionally minded relatives and neighbors, which caused her to murder Homer Barron in the end. Let us elaborate on this suggestion at length.
As it appears from the story, throughout the course of her young years, Emily did not exhibit even a single sign of being predisposed to act in a socially withdrawn manner. At that point of her life, she was nothing but a pretty girl who strived to attain happiness by marrying a man she could love. In fact, Emily’s father also wanted her to do this.
However, being the representative of a Southern aristocracy, he never ceased insisting that his daughter may only marry a ‘worthy’ man. In its turn, this prevented Emily from being able to find a husband, while her father was still alive. Nevertheless, being the product of an elitist upbringing, Emily was having a particularly hard time while coping with the fact that, after having turned thirty, she ceased being desired by men, as a potential fiancée.
This is exactly the reason why, after her father’s death, Emily choose in favor of leading a socially alienated lifestyle, while going as far as making a deliberate point in not even stepping out of her house. Apparently, such Emily’s decision reflected the fact that, because of her failure to get married, she never ceased experiencing an acute sensation of guilt for not being able to lead a life she prepared herself for.
Therefore, it is fully explainable why, after having met Homer, Emily decided to marry him, despite the fact that she did not truly love him and despite the fact that Homer was not taking much interest in marrying her either. Yet, it was only the matter of time before it would eventually dawn on Emily that her expectations, in this respect, were vain.
The realization of this fact proved little more than Emily could take. After all, just as it happened to be the case in all highly religious/traditional societies, single women that spend time with single men, without entering into a marital relationship with them, are being commonly regarded ‘unworthy’ and ‘morally wicked’.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was exactly the reason why Emily decided to poison Homer – she simply could not let him go, as it would result in the remains of her elitist sense of self-worth being thoroughly destroyed. Such a strong was Emily’s desire to live up to the socially constructed and religion-based dogmas of public morality that, after having murdered Homer, she continued to sleep with his corpse for years. By doing it, she strived to reaffirm her worthiness as a potential wife.
Thus, the character of Emily Grierson can be well discussed as a victim of social circumstances, which triggered the process of her becoming ever more insane and which brought about Emily’s ultimate demise. Therefore, even though Emily did commit murder, the story of her life suggests that she cannot be held responsible for what she had done. Instead, the blame must be placed upon a moralistically oppressive society, in which Emily had the misfortune to be born to this world.
Paranoid Personality Disorder Research Paper writing essay help
Paranoid personality disorder is a way of interpreting other people’s actions as the ones, intentionally causing a threat to the person. This disorder is usually shown by mistrust and suspicion and may lead to people being misunderstood or misinterpreted. It becomes evident in early adulthood where negative thoughts, attitudes and feelings are rejected.
The people suffering from this disorder feel mistreated and exploited, thereby failing to interpret good comments and others’ behavior. As a result, they do not accept reality as it is and remain rigid in their way of thinking (Alper 28).
This condition is characterized by paranoia, mistrust and uncertainty. Fear harbors hidden motives and wrong intentions rendering the people with paranoid personality to be unable to work with the others. They end up socially withdrawn, detached and hostile. They tend to scan the environment for clues that can prove their prejudicial knowledge as valid. Their minds are preoccupied with looking for some sources of danger and fighting very hard to find any suggestive sign.
They hold many grudges and mistrust towards others. People with this disorder show lack of self-sufficiency. Others may develop poor self-image and an inability to incorporate right attitude. In addition, they have a poor sense of humor and are unable to adapt to participation quickly in a group activity. As a rule, they appear cold, rigid and litigious. People with this disorder have poor relationship with the others as they seem odd and eccentric.
According to Freeman, “People with paranoid personality disorder doubt being committed , loyal, trustworthy as they believe they may be deceived or used in a wrong way ” (32). Sometimes, they are quite reluctant to confide in the others or fear of revealing some personal information that might be used against them. In addition, they do not easily forgive and tend to harbour a grievance.
They are hypersensitive, poorly take criticism and innocently read the remarks. They wrongfully judge their spouses or lovers as being unfaithful. They do not fulfil their role, while trying to handle their desease, and always believe that they are right. In addition to being hostile, they are stubborn and argumentative.
Researchers still do not know the exact cause of the paranoid personality disorder. Some argue that it occurs due to biological and psychological factors. It is genetically common in families with psychotic disorders. However, the environment may also have a great influence on its cause.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus there are biological or psychological causes. They include schizophrenia and delusional disorder. It is more common in men than women. Paranoid personality disorder can be associated with negative childhood experiences and a pure replication of hostile domestic environment. Sometimes, parental influence and rage may foster child insecurity.
It is important to note that treatment of paranoid personality disorder is possible unless the patient fears the doctor or becomes suspicious. Early treatment is necessary since the disorder may become chronic. The common way of treating this disorder is by medication and therapy.
It is evident that mostly, this disorder is caused by disruption of family, and employment loss. Perhaps, comprehensive therapy may be applied to recovery and prevent further stigmatization. It is recommended to carry out some consumer education programs, family counseling and advocacy and vocational assistance (Alper 41).
Proper diagnosis should be done by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist. The psychologist should be able to understand the extent of symptoms. Examples of symptoms are such as fear of being rejected, suspicion of others and a habit to distort events. These conditions must be keenly monitored not to interfere with normal interpersonal relationships.
Careful inspection of person’s normal life should be done. At this point, it is also important to be careful not to confuse the symptoms of paranoid personality disorder with schizophrenia or any manic depressive disorder. This will require a careful examination and evaluation of person’s mental health (Freeman 122).
Appropriate and individualized psycho-therapical program should be considered. This will help find the initial causes and the best treatment possible. The person is sometimes reluctant to seek therapy. This is because he/she does not trust any therapist so his/hewr way to recovery may take a lot of time.
Group therapy may be necessary for addressing some positive behavior. It also provides a person with an opportunity to interact in a constructive way. It allows a person to relate to likeminded peoplem, though this may develop more paranoid conditions. An individual gets rid of distrust and isolation by developing a sense of belonging and also a normal relationship with the others. This is when this program should be combined with self-help group. (Freeman 56).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Paranoid Personality Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Giving medications causes high level suspicion, and this in turn leads to withdrawal from therapy. Such an action is, therefore, not encouraged. Medication is preferred for treatment of specific conditions associated with this disorder. It is only administered in cases where symptoms impede normal functioning. Medications for severe anxiety or delusion should be used within the shortest possible period.
Psychotherapy is considered as the best method of treating paranoid personality disorder. People who have this disorder develop problems which require intense therapy. It is, therefore, necessary for a therapist-client relationship to be good enough to ensure great care and a given level confidence (Alper 58).
One way of managing the paranoid personality disorder is through self-care. This does not require any kind of treatment as social groups help in alleviating mistrust and suspicion in an individual. After examination, the doctor should begin to evaluate the medication to be prescribed and patien’s medical history, if any. Absence of any biological tests makes it necessary to use diagnostic approach as a way of evaluating any physical illness.
Patients may also seek for some health care professionals to check and diagnose any mental illness. Tools for assessing and evaluating the disorder are supposed to be designed by the psychologist. People suffering from paranoid personality disorder do not seek for any medical attention on their own.
This is because they cannot judge themselves as suffering from such a condition. Any treatment offered should focus on developing more skills for coping with every situation that may occur. This will further enhance developing more communication, interaction skills and feeling of self-esteem.
Trust is regarded as a tool for treating this disorder. Distrust of the others makes it difficult for people with paranoid personality disorder to be treated as it becomes almost impossible to implement treatment plans. The use of antidepressant or anti-psychotic drugs may be prescribed if condition goes extremely beyond a certain level (Freeman 102).
In conclusion, paranoid personality disorder affects individual’s way of life. It totally ruins the relationship with the others, even at the workplace. Affected individuals find it hard to adapt in any work situation. They usually fight or sue people whom they regard as their enemies.
This disorder can last for the entire life of a person, if not effectively addressed and treated. Some people suffering from paranoid personality disorder may marry and get employed while others may intensively be disabled by this condition. Their resistance to treatment is quite alarming as it worsens the outcome of any treatment strategy. Prevention of this disorder is impossible nowadays but treatment, if not well managed, may cause even more problems than no treatment at all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paranoid Personality Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Alper, Gerald. Paranoia of Everyday Life: Escaping the Enemy Within. New York: Prometheus Books, 2005. Print.
Freeman, Daniel. Overcoming Paranoid and Suspicious Thoughts: A Self-Help Guide Using Cognitive Behavioral Techniques . New York: Basic Books, 2008. Print.
The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Abstract The report commences with an examination of women’s professional opportunities in the early twentieth century. At the time, most women could only access low-paying jobs in poorly-maintained industries. During the First and Second World War, women took up unconventional jobs in order to replace the male workers that had joined the military.
However, these women’s husbands displaced them when they came back from war. In subsequent years, this group fought for its rights through the women’s movement and other organisations. By the end of the twentieth century, several females started owning their own enterprises. Today, a number of company CEOs are female, and they do a good job.
Nonetheless, barriers that prevent women from reaching for leadership positions at work are causing most of them to become frustrated. It was recommended that the government should make legislations to even out the playing field. Women should undergo confidence building and be entitled to flexible hours of work. This would narrow the gap between men and women in the business world.
Introduction Women’s role in business has improved dramatically since the early twentieth century. Society’s attitude towards this group affected its level of achievement in the business arena. The paper will examine some historical developments in the female movement and how these relate to the role of women in business.
This study will assist in bringing out the challenges that women in business face as seen through a historical lens. By starting with the twentieth century, the study will illustrate some of the historical injustices faced by women and how societies can deal with that inequality.
Women in the early twentieth century and the First World War Females in the early twentieth century had minimal access to job opportunities. However, a few sectors provided women with work, such as art and literature. Female writers like Dorothy Richardson highlighted the challenges that women faced in their society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This era also recorded an increase in female artists who used their craft to portray powerful images of working women. Although society frowned upon the participation of women in work, a small proportion of them (20%) had jobs. Most women in the 1900s were factory employees who worked under squalor conditions for minimal pay.
The 1920s were the roaring twenties; this was a progressive era in which women defied the submissive stereotype of the late nineteenth century. They were daring in their social and professional lives. Some of them took up jobs in the public sector. Female clerical workers were widespread at the time; others participated in the field of journalism, law and mining. However, these opportunities were largely available to middle class Caucasian women; ethnic minorities and older women struggled to secure employment.
The number of women who participated in the labour force rose by 50% in this decade. Nonetheless, some sections of society felt threatened by this new breed of independent and hardworking women. Therefore, stakeholders in the film industry quelled men’s insecurities by portraying images of married women. Nonetheless, those images did not depict the true goings-on in society.
As professional roles began changing, women embraced opportunities in healthcare, education and other professions designed to cater to the needs of manufacturers. When the First World War started many men left for military service. This created a vacuum in the workplace that only women could fill. Many of them rose to the occasion; however, when the war ended, they had to step aside for their male counterparts. Those who stayed behind could only do low-paying jobs as men took all the lucrative opportunities (Hameed, 2008).
Women in the Second World War When the United States entered the Second World War, it required a lot of military supplies. Suppliers converted automobile factories into aircraft facilities. This demand for military supplies created a labour shortage that only women could reverse. The government wanted women to do this only temporarily, so they made a call to work.
Since few women responded to it, the government decided to launch a propaganda campaign in which it created a fictional character called Rosie the Riveter. The US government looked for a series of individuals who could fit the profile of a patriotic, attractive and efficient female. Advertisers displayed images of such women in various media channels, and the public responded positively to the portrayals (Ross, 1993).
In the beginning, most women took factory jobs, but there was still a need for more qualified workers. Employers began hiring women who had just completed high school; these efforts were still not sufficient to fill the labour gap. Companies needed to tap into a demographic group that they had forbade from working; married women.
We will write a custom Report on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They initially started with mothers who had older children. Most females took low-paying jobs in order to free up men for higher-paying jobs. Furthermore, few of them had access to powerful positions in their places of work. Women enjoyed the economic incentives associated with work and also appreciated the fulfilment they found in these new roles as employees.
However, they had to fight negative attitudes from men. It should be noted that although a large proportion of women entered the labour force, stakeholders still felt that their greatest strength was at home. Many perceived career women as unattractive prospects for marriage. Therefore, when the war ended, women got into low-paying jobs or went back home. Nonetheless, this era paved the way for participation of women in unconventional professions. Future generations of women would follow their path.
The Women’s Movement In the 1960s, female writers articulated the challenges of women in society. They asserted that domestic roles defined women, and this disempowered them. The writers urged their colleagues to find new roles and define their own identities through professional opportunities.
It was such sentiments that led to the birth of the women’s movement. Many participants drew inspiration from the civil rights movement of the 1970s. It should be noted that the birth control pill contributed to the prevalence of this movement, as well. The decade 1960 was an era of rebelliousness. Many middle class youth joined the women’s movement because of these sentiments.
During this decade, civil rights bills prompted female supporters to call for their own protective laws. In 1964, women secured their first antidiscrimination bill. A number of women formed the National Organisation for Women which fought for women’s rights and prompted other members to participate in the same. It was these developments that eventually spread to other parts of the western world such as the UK and Australia.
Women in business today Women have made enormous strides in the business world today. Some are CEOs of Fortune 500 companies while others own medium and small enterprises. Their participation in the workforce is indicative of the degree of advancement that women have undergone over the past century. Better educational opportunities, strong antidiscrimination legislation and positive attitudes towards the female gender have contributed to these advancements.
Women are now leading powerful institutions such as PepsiCo. The CEO of this institution is Indra Nooyi; she is the most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. This leader started as a company manager and climbed the company ranks to become CEO. Indra became a chief financial officer seven years after she joined the institution and a CEO five years later (Kalyan, 2009).
Other women have started their businesses from scratch and grown them into international empires. A case in point was Archer Daniels Midland. The President of this organisation is Pat Woertz, and she is the fourth most powerful woman in the fortune 500 list. Andrea Jung, Brenda Barnes, Irene Rosenfeld, Meg Withman, and Anne Mulcahy lead or own Avon, Sara Lee, Kraft Foods, eBay, and Xerox respectively.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role Of Women In Business From The Past Century To Today by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These women have worked hard to get to these positions, yet their achievements would have been unrealistic in the 1950s. The CEO of Yahoo Inc is also female, and is known as Marrissa Mayer. The born leader took up responsibility for running an ailing internet firm at the beginning of this year (2012). It is too early to judge whether her leadership has been extraordinary, but one can already see how committed she is to the firm.
She only took a two-week long maternity leave and resumed her duties immediately after the break. Another example of a strong female executive is Reg Leaver who is a leader at Australia.wana. She first purchased a newsagency in 1995 and then went on to form various news groups. Leaver has the title of 2010 Nextra Australia’s winner.
The above-mentioned women are not the only ones who have made a mark in the business world. Statistics indicate that women around the world own 10.4 million organisations. In some countries, women started approximately 40% of all companies. Furthermore, studies show that the number of businesses owned by this demographic group is increasing at an impressive rate.
Over the past decade, female-owned businesses have grown by 42.3%. Additionally, sales generated from these organisations have increased by 4.4%. Female entrepreneurs have entered various sectors such as retail, real estate and manufacturing. Although most of these participants belong to the service sector (68%), a substantial proportion of these business owners are trying real estate (7.7%) and retail (14.4%) (Kalyan, 2009).
Representation of female participants in business
Clearly, women have done well for themselves. It is necessary to understand why these figures have been improving with time. One obvious explanation is the level of educational attainment among members of the group. Studies indicate that the number of women with master’s degrees has increased by 40.7% over the past 32 years.
Additionally, the world now has 44.1% more first degree holders in this demographic group. Even the number of female doctoral degree holders has increased by 43% since 1980. These advancements in education have increased women’s chances of becoming business leaders.
Another reason behind such impressive growth rates in entrepreneurship is the diversification of business portfolios. 38% of all female employees belong to sales and office occupations. 36% of these women handle managerial and other professional positions. 18% of them engage in service occupations while 8% of female employees handle the production, transportation and movement of goods.
Participation in various sectors of the economy opens up opportunities for advancements and this increases one’s chances of owning one’s organisation.
Shown is a graphical representation of the diversification of business among women
Challenges faced by female workers Although the above advancements exist in the labour force, a disproportionate number of men dominate leadership positions in business. Experts assert that an invisible barrier, known as the glass ceiling, prevents women from becoming company leaders. It is imperative to understand some of the challenges that women in business face when reaching for these leadership positions (Mason, 2012).
A firm’s management style may impede women’s advancement in the business world. Men and women have divergent management styles; company stakeholders may misinterpret female managerial styles and accord men more latitude. People often condemn females who adopt a masculine style.
Additionally, recruitment behaviours tend to mirror prevailing demographic patterns in a company. If a firm is male-dominated, then it is more likely to hire people who represent this image. As a result, females lack opportunities to participate in such companies. Discrimination still exists in certain companies that overlook qualified women for men. Some occupations segregate women naturally.
Firms in these industries are male-dominated and will rarely offer women opportunities for advancement. Typical examples include engineering, shipping or construction. In order to climb the corporate ladder, one needs access to informal and formal networks. Female employees lack access to these networks and thus have limited advancement opportunities. Some employers perceive women as problematic because they have to attend to their families’ needs.
Because of this, employers may overlook mothers when promotion opportunities arise. All the above challenges have caused many women to consider entrepreneurship as the ultimate solution to the glass ceiling. Many women are leaving the workforce to start their own organisations. This shields them from the unfairness of the corporate arena (Miller, 2009).
Recommendations More women should consider entrepreneurship because this allows them to create their own rules; they can also succeed on the basis of their personal input. Currently, costs of starting businesses are quite low. Further, businesses allow women to create corporations that match their personal values (Bullock, 1994).
However, before more women can enter into the world of entrepreneurship, governments and other stakeholders need to do a number of things. They need to work on the concept of work-life balance through legislations and provision of relevant facilities. Women need to be enlightened about how to build their confidence as well as how to cope with new roles.
Flexible scheduling should be considered by potential female entrepreneurs. This will prevent them from perpetuating the same discrimination that caused them to leave the corporate arena. Stakeholders should start creating female business networks in order to foster growth and development.
Conclusion At the beginning of the twentieth century, society restricted women to low-paying jobs. Economic necessity prompted employers to hire females; however, the group never gained access to leadership positions. This has changed today because a number of women own their own enterprises. Such patterns stem from better education, legislation and business diversification. Covert discrimination places a barrier in career advancement thus compelling many women to consider entrepreneurship.
References Bullock, S. (1994). Women and work. London: Zed Books.
Hameed, Z. (2008). Gender differences in business roles. Web.
Kalyan, S. (2009). The changing role of women in the workplace. Web.
Mason, W. (2012). Women in business. Web.
Miller, B. (2009). Encouraging women into senior management positions. Web.
Ross, S. (1993). The rights of women. London: McMillan.
Concept Of “Four Idols” Essay writing essay help
Sir Frances Bacon identified and explained the reasons for different human behaviors. He applied the concept of “four idols” in his investigations (Mazlish 7). There are extensive debates on the significance of these four idols.
Accordingly, there exist several investigations concerning the practicality and effects of these four idols. Bacon observed that the human being fully emerges from the enslavement of their mind. Particularly, this enslavement relates to the intellectual idolatry. It is vital to note the disparities eminent from these four idols.
Ideally, diverse elements dictate the character and beliefs of human beings. Such elements emerge either from the external or internal influences in the environment. Sir Frances Bacon denotes that four idols have significant influences in these processes. This discussion in the paper analyses these four idols. In addition, it reviews the impacts of these disparities on the human nature and their beliefs.
The four idols pose critical threats to individuals. The “idols of the theater” provides a typical example (Solomon 16). Some people indicate the risk of various types of idols; some philosophers observe that the “idols of the theater” has the capacity to manipulate the thinking capacity of people.
Apart from this, they also hinder critical understanding which relies on a philosophical assumption under normal circumstances. Nonetheless, the process may also rely on a system of theology and custom. The particular idol has a remarkable influence on human dignity and individuality.
He may reduce the capacity to initiate and exercise critical thinking skills. Notably, most individuals influenced by the idol depict deviant behavioral tendencies. The effect might lead them to biased assumptions and judgments in their daily activities (Mazlish 16). Leaders and all managers within private and public institutions must consider the detrimental impact of the idols that minimize the potential of personalities to exercise transformative leadership skills.
It is necessary to examine the effects of specific idols on the operation of human mind. The logical processes involved in human understanding have significant influences on the level of integration as well as interrelation between individuals. Ideally, it enables different personalities to perceive and conceptualize issues within their external environments. This might also entail their immediate and remote surroundings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it is imperative to take note of the particular idols that hinder logical thinking. Bacon also identifies the “idols of the marketplace” (Solomon 25), which idols cause hindrances to individual understanding. However, this deterrence relies on the different words and semantics applied within typical conversations.
Words form the basis of effective socialization and integration in the present society. Therefore, individuals require adequate precaution against the negative influence of these idols. Words are some of the critical tools used in the comprehension of particular concepts within most communities (Mazlish 34). They are also significant in the recognition of various facts; they also interfere with the thinking processes.
Individuals may imagine and name occurrences that are beyond existence. The imagination relies on certain words in these processes. All words have vital implications. Therefore, individuals must take precaution of the different words (Solomon 27) depending on their application within different social environments. The observation is crucial since words form the fundamental foundations for effective relationships and mutual understanding.
Idols may make individuals to commit fallacious assumptions and statements. Such instances are easily notable within the present society. These idols derive from the intrinsic nature of humans, the condition being very different from the confusion emanating from words.
Individuals always think of themselves as being right at all times. Justification becomes the centre of interest for most people within the society during such instances. Evidently, words also have diverse meanings. Individuals might apply different words to generate confusions within the society (Solomon 41). In such contexts, understanding becomes very difficult and complicated.
Misuse of words may cause chaos and conflicts amongst people. All individuals must keep the maximum level of caution. This helps to avoid such idols and increase the level of understanding within the community. The “idols of the tribe” refers to a category of idols that require minimal precaution (Solomon 56).
These idols also limit the competency for a personal understanding due to the human nature. Individuals prefer to force things to conform to their preferred outlook due to their nature. Personalities struggle to find illogical support during fallacious conclusions. This behavior emanates from the “idols of the tribe.”
We will write a custom Essay on Concept Of “Four Idols” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idols are dangerous and might cause disquiet within the society. People are likely to make hurried decisions without adequate engagement of their mental capacity. This situation arises due to the influence of the idols (Mazlish 69). Individuals suffering from these idols are also prone to making generalized assumptions.
This generalization leads to unnecessary behaviors and beliefs. The process also leads to the emergence of conflicting interests within groups. The last category is the “idols of the cave.” They require very negligible attention portraying the different capacities and characters pertinent to every individual. Therefore, they are not detrimental to the general society. It is appropriate to have an adequate knowledge of these idols.
Works Cited Mazlish, Bruce. The Uncertain Sciences. London: Transaction Publishers, 2007. Print.
Solomon, Julie R. Francis Bacon and the Refiguring of Early Modern Thought: Essays to Commemorate the Advancement of Learning (1605-2005). Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. Print.
E-Marketing For Small Businesses Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Marketing problems in general Marketing is gaining a new approach in the current society. Immediately after the Second World War, most companies had huge markets in the developing countries.
The level of competition was very low and firms only worried about production. Marketing was considered a unit in the production department. Most firms used an inside out approach as a technique of marketing. However, this has changed with the changing environmental factors. Currently, most firms face stiff competition in their various industries. They have forced to change this approach.
The marketplace is full of so many challenges. Many firms face various challenges that they have to overcome in order to be considered relevant in the market. In order to bring a clear understanding of the challenges a firm would face in the current competitive market, an external PESTEL analysis of business would be appropriate.
Analysis of the external business environment (PESTEL) Environmental scanning can be done using PESTEL Analysis. This involves the analysis of political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal environments.
Politically, various firms in Kuwait have experienced a relatively stable government. The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations.
However, the political stability of the country was at jeopardy in some past years, a fact that made it very difficult to conduct business in this country. Lack of political stability would mean that various businesses are not in a position to conduct business normally. Some may even be forced to wind up their operations in the market, which may amount to huge losses in case the instability is accompanied by looting and arson.
Economically, various firms in this country have faced difficulties. The firms have been faced with economic recession that hit various countries in the world, especially the US economy that had a direct effect on various economies in Asia.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This had serious negative effects on the firms’ revenues, as many customers considered the products non-basic. When the economy of the country is on a decline, the purchasing power is reduced. This reduces the viability of various businesses. They will be forced to cut down their operation costs, as the market will have a reduced capacity to sustain their products. During such times, weak firms are always faced out of the market.
The socio-cultural environment of this country is diversified. This is because this country has firms from all over the world. There are those countries that cherish equality and women have equal economic strength just as men. In such countries, the firm does not segment the market based on sex but age.
Kuwait is one such country. However, other countries such as the neighboring Saudi Arabia perceive women to be subordinates to men. It forces this firm to target the male members of the society because they have bigger purchasing power.
The technological environment that firms in this country operate in is very dynamic. Technology inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication, have been the main challenge, as well as the strength of various firms.
While these firms are left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with, some have use this technology to emerge leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come into terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms to wind up the operations in the market.
Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in Kuwait and many other countries in the world have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations.
Of importance to note is that this country is largely an Islamic state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the strict Islamic principles. For this reason therefore, there are business practices that are not allowed in this country. Failure to follow the industry and national laws may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm but also a closure of the firm.
We will write a custom Essay on E-Marketing For Small Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are some environmental concerns that would be considered a challenge for the firm. Kuwait is one of the developing nations in Asia. The infrastructural development is not to the standard. This causes serious problems to various businesses in the country.
Although the government has made efforts to improve the road network, other sectors still need serious improvement in order to be considered as of the right standards. The facilities at various institutions of higher learning also need improvement for them to be in a position to produce fully capable employees.
The main threat that firms in this country face pertains to dealing with competition. The market has is currently very competitive. Charantimath (75) notes that many firms have come up with products, which are close substitutes of those that are offered by other firms in the same market.
This scholar notes that there is lack of creativity in various countries. Various firms that come into the market are not creative but instead they just imitate the production system of other firms. They come to the market with similar products as those of existing companies and this brings about serious competition in the market.
Tackling the challenges In order to tackle the challenges identified in the above discussion, Porters five forces would be very important. Most firms have been in a position to manage these challenges by applying this strategy. They have been able to implement Porters five forces. To tackle the threat of new competition, most firms have been keen on producing new products to rival those of new competitors. They have been keen to introduce new products in the market to counter any possible threat.
To manage the threat of substitute products, some of these firms have developed different lines of products to satisfy different markets so that they may not be adversely affected if substitute products invade one line. To increase their bargaining power with buyers, some of these firms have continued to produce high-end products, with qualities that make it easy for customers to appreciate their high prices. In so doing, these firms have been keen on ensuring that the lower end of the market is not assumed.
To increase their bargaining power with suppliers, some have created a scenario where they are single buyers, with various sellers. This makes them be able to dictate the terms of buying the products. To counter the intensity of competition, some have been able to acquire a special niche in this market, rendering their competitors irrelevant as their products are turned into mere substitutes of such company’s products.
Small businesses Small-scale businesses are numerous not only in the economy of Kuwait but also in many other nations across the world. The small-scale firms operate in both developed industries and developing ones. Those firms that operate in developing industries find it a little easier to penetrate the market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Marketing For Small Businesses by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because of the fact that the market leaders do not have total control of the market. Small firms would therefore get the opportunity to capture new markets in the industry before they are taken over by large firms. However, the small-scale firms operating in developed industries encounter a big challenge to assert their presence in the market. This is because large market leaders have total control of the market and can easily dictate various factors, most of which would be unfavorable to the small firms.
There have been so many challenges, especially in the urban markets. Small-scale firms would easily excel in the urban centers where there is higher number of people. However, it is in the urban centers where the competitors are also strongest. Large firms prefer large cities and towns where their products can easily be sold, and at a relatively higher rate.
The urban centers are also attractive to both the small-scale and large firms because of the purchasing power in the towns. Most of the urban dwellers are employed, and therefore have a higher purchasing capacity. The small-scale firms should therefore select industries where they can offer stiff competition to large firms. In this country, one such industry is the bakery industry. This industry faces stiff challenge from various players.
The biggest challenge comes from small-scale traders in the lower ends of the market. They make the majority and hence the most attractive market segment. However, presences of small-scale traders who manufacture doughnuts and other confectionaries have a huge control of the market, especially in the morning hours when big companies expect the biggest sales. However, the competition from the large firms is still relatively strong in this industry
These small-scale firms have the responsibility to fight this competition in order to be in a position to stay any longer in this market. In order to achieve this, it would be recommended that such firms specialize in a number of niches within the Kuwaiti markets. There are three main classes of people in this country, based on their purchasing power, hence their general behavior.
The three categories include the rich, the middle class, and the poor. The rich have the behavior of being loyal to one brand, if they develop trust towards it. Winning them over may not be an easy task. The middle class also tend to be loyal, but not as much as the rich are. Loyalty of the poor is based on cheapness of the product and the mass it offers. Small-scale firms should focus on this market segment when starting operations.
They should therefore capture the poor first, for they make the majority. This would give it ground to move to the second segment of the middle class and finally the rich. In so doing, the firms must realize that the brand that was used to attract the poor will be associated with the poor.
For this reason therefore, it would require these firms to develop a new brand when moving to the next class that would be associated with the higher class. Although pricing strategy may be useful for these firms when capturing the segment for the poor, the strategy should completely be avoided when targeting the rich and the middle class.
Marketing Problems Faced By Small Businesses Small business faces a number of problems when operating in this country. These challenges have denied these firms opportunity to expand, as some of them are faced out of the market. The biggest challenge that small business faces is the competition from established firms. Large firms have the power to suppress small firms and even send them out of the market.
One way of doing this is through reduced prices. Because they enjoy economies of scale, large firms are able to set low prices that may not allow small firms to continue being operational. Another challenge is technology. Their small size may not allow them to adopt new technologies that the market requires.
They are also less capable of doing comprehensive market research due to limited funds to do so. Based on their small size, they are not able to open various lines of products as discussed above to cushion them from competition. Their limited financial capacity also makes it difficult for them to venture into new markets that may increase their profitability hence help them grow in size.
Solution for the above problems These firms are able to overcome the challenges mentioned above by employing various strategies that would ensure that they are able to operate in the market with minimal threat.
They have to make use of the strength they have to overcome their weaknesses. The fact that they are small is in itself an advantage that they should exploit as an advantage against their competitors. Small firms are easy to manage as the person involved can make a clear short term plans to be achieved within stipulated time. They should also try to embrace technology.
More specifically, it is a smarter decision to switch from typical marketing approach to electronic form of advertising and on the other hand, entire investment outcome is an important determining factor that effectively shaped organisation’s obligatory needs and functional strategies.
Meanwhile, the considering factors are listed as pattern of the business firm either service provider or product manufacturer or both, product documentation style and product line specification with pricing sheets as well as legal documents, product development and movements of dynamic forces that forced to transforming marketing and advertising strategies.
The workflow of the organisational legal, financing and marketing wings as well as their documentation status, approvals and updating and availability of current technological platform within the organisation should be monitored closely. All of these forces are strategically unique to recommend right track for any marketing, sales, and advertising dilemma and subsequently there have several supplementary technical approaches those also enough efficient resolving marketing crisis as early described.
For instance, availability of shared drives separated from organisation’s website for advertising, marketing and sales, effective solution for official document management featuring integration availability with related group technologies, system available to web content management in order to concern marketing and sales requirements of the organisation, system available to collateral management through.
It may reduce hostile consumer behaviour towards excessive marketing and their attitude would neutralised by specialised storing method, organising, distribution of goods as well as tracking materials and at last, available hybrid or collaborative solutions to convey Web based marketing collaborative opportunities that would effectively compose bridge among employees and valuable consumers through coordinate, communication and collaboration (Warner 94).
The small-scale organizations should also consider creating a healthy environment within the organisation that would encourage their employees. They should ensure that they make use of all the possible strategies they have to compensate for the fact that they are small, and therefore have limited finances. The managers would ensure a cooperative workplace environment for the staff where staffs know that they may not be undermined at the workplace.
The job satisfaction of the staff is another dominating factor where all the features of the job including working environment evidence as rewarding by gratifying and pleasing the staff and mitigating their frustrations. In the organisation, to unsatisfying staff in comparison to the non-sales context, would align them to conduct unethical behaviour and it is very much common within various industries within this country.
Thus, it is suggested that the management of these small-scale firms would be more careful to ensure the job satisfaction of the staff and the unethical conduct would be reduce while the staff would perceive that their company is careful regarding ethical conduct and rewarding them for steady performance with ethical conduct. It is general norm for the staff that while the organisation would provide higher job satisfaction, they would demonstrate their highest honesty and sound performance with ethical standards.
E-marketing problems faced by small businesses In Kuwait, small-scale firms face a number of challenges as they struggle to capture the market. Although some of these challenges are conventional and would be faced by any other small-scale business in any other part of the country, some are specific to this country. E-business in Kuwait has faced a number of problems based on the strict provisions of the Islamic laws practiced in the country.
Cultural problems Although some of the Islamic laws may act towards improving electronic business, the law is very restrictive to this business in some respects. The Islamic religion, unlike other religions, strongly dictates the way people live. It has a number of practices it strongly prohibits.
In case the adherents break laws, they would receive immediate punishment some of which may even lead to death. This distinguishes it from other religions, especially Christianity. Unlike the Christian religion that holds that punishment would come after one dies, the Islamic religion believes on immediate punishment here on earth. This has made Muslims follow the teachings of Quran.
One such country that closely follows this religion is Kuwait. This is a majorly Islamic state. Businesses are closely controlled by this religion. As Freeman (51), Shariah law has been entrenched into the national law. The two are inseparable. The law dictates the products that may be allowed into the country. The law has had mixed fortunes for the electronic businesses. Although this religion has been advantageous to various business as stated above, it has posed a major threat to electronic business.
Islamic law strictly prohibits certain practices among its citizens. There is a strict manner in which men and women should behave and relate. For instance, a man and a woman should not have body contact with each other unless they are close relatives. However, most of the international television channels air movies that show that such behaviors are normal. Such movies sold by small-scale traders may lack market in this country.
Women make very attractive market segment for such products as mobile phones. This product has become a necessity. According to a report by Clinton (143), for every a hundred adult people sampled, over ninety-seven of them are regularly user of mobile phones in the developed nations.
In developing nations, this figure is slightly lower, at 68 adult individuals for every a hundred sampled. As Weiss (110) reports, in some Islamic society, women do not have the freedom men have. They have to seek consent from men in order to do certain things. When it comes to such items as mobile phones, women can only own them when their husbands approves of it. This would reduce the sale of this product among the small-scale traders.
Most of the small-scale traders who are in the e-market heavily rely on the social media to reach out to the customers, especially the youths. However, the government has been very keen to regulate the social media, given the events, which took place in some Arabic nations like Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia.
Although it has not completely banned the social media, as was the case in China, the government has used religion to discourage the use of social media. Religion has given social media as a rebellious media that should be avoided by God-fearing individuals. Because of this, online marketing has been very slow to pick pace.
The perception and attitude of the society towards the emerging technologies has been an impediment to the electronic business. The older generation of this society who are deeply entrenched in the Shariah law view emerging technologies as a thing of the west. They consider technological advancements as a way through which America and its allies are trying to influence the world and further their culture.
The Hollywood movies have been a strong pointer to these members of the society of America’s determination to poison the culture that the Muslim society has held closely. Their music is also negatively influencing their youth as far as the principles of Shariah law are concerned.
Youths who watch these movies would try to behave like the stars they see, while the songs make the girls feel that the world society offers much freedom to them with regard to dressing and general way of conduct. This perception has seen this group vehemently oppose the development of electronic businesses, because electronics introduces the youths to the outside world.
Annotated Bibliography Cohen, William A. The Entrepreneur
Freedom of expression Essay essay help free: essay help free
Freedom of expression refers to the right to express one’s opinions or thoughts freely by utilizing any of the different modes of communication available. The ideas aired should, however, not cause any intentional harm to other personality or status through false or ambiguous statements. Communication of ideas can be achieved through speech, writing or art. Freedom of expression, unlike freedom of thought, may be regulated by the appropriate authorities in any society in order to avoid controversies between different individuals.
The extent to which this limitation or censorship is done varies from nation to nation and is dependent on the government of the day. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every individual has the right to search for information, access and impart variety of ideas irrespective of the frontiers.
The subject of freedom of expression has always been controversial, especially when considering political aspects. A state is perceived to have the mandate to impede people from convening groups in which they air their opinions if those views can result in direct harm to other people.
However, the interference would only be an exception if doing so results in more beneficial outcomes than standing aside. For one to be in a position to gauge the eventuality of a gain or a loss, then there should be absolute freedom of expression on all matters irrespective of the nature of the sentiments made.
Arguments for absolute freedom of expression can be a made by evaluating the purpose for which the ideas are expressed and the manner in which we evaluate what is true or false. According to Mill (Eisenach, 2004), the right to express one’s opinions offers humanity a rare chance to switch over an error for the truth if the idea expressed happens to be true.
In case the opinion happens to be wrong, mankind stands a chance of getting a clearer picture of the known truth through collusion with a mistake. Therefore, freedom of expression acts in the best interests of mankind as it endeavors to progress and its limitation deprives people of the prospects of growth.
Whether we let expression of an opinion to be limited or censored, whereas it could be true, then we present ourselves as beyond reproach. We consider all that we know to be the truth and therefore dispel all opinions that question this truth. It is possible for people or authorities to be in fault. For instance, what we consider to be morally right or wrong may not be so.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The lines that define moral rights and wrongs were set by people who could possibly have mistaken. In order to draw the limit, one must differentiate between sureness and the truth. Our certainty that a particular idea is false does not in any way excuse its expression. Suppressing such an idea would not only justify our confidence of the opinion being wrong, but also proves that we are flawless.
If limitation of people’s freedom of expression in matters such as racism is based on certainty that mankind does not stand to lose any benefit, then this sureness should be founded in the freedom itself. We can only consider ourselves to be certain when there have been no opinions raised to question the truths we hold. Therefore, in order to boost our certainty, we have to leave room for the opposing beliefs.
There are governments that censor the expression of certain ideas not because they are false, but because they are considered to be hazardous to the society. Mill argues that in such a situation, the hazard in the expressed opinions is questionable. The only way to ascertain that the opinion is in fact dangerous is not to suppress its expression but to allow its free discussion.
Secondly, if the opinion that is being limited is true, then the alternative view held by the government must be false. Experience has shown that all beliefs that are false are never constructive in the long run. Therefore, the government that prefers to hold a false conviction in place of a hazardous truth does not act in the best interests of its people.
In many instances, the silenced view may be a mistake. However, most of these mistakes do carry with them a scrap of truth. On the other hand, the existing view on each of the different topics often does not contain the entire truth. By listening to the opinions of others on the matter, an opportunity to learn the rest of the uncovered truths presents itself.
For instance in politics, we could have two political parties with different agendas. One wants to institute reforms while another desires to ensure stability. People may not be in a position to discern what should be retained or altered, but ensuring the parties at opposing ends ensures each party checks on the performance of the other. In the long run, we strike for a beneficial balance between their supposed agendas (Bhargava, 2008).
Moreover, if the opinion being expressed is entirely true, it may not be considered so with certainty. For confidence to feature, these views must be contested against other rational opinions of others in order to single out the supporting arguments. It is expected that those who believe in their opinions will place strong arguments in their favor (Matravers, 2001).
We will write a custom Essay on Freedom of expression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If an authority believes in the rationality of its ideas, then it should leave room for the expression of opposing ideas. For instance, if any reigning political party has faith in the views it has concerning the development of the country’s economy, it should not be wary of an opposition party with contradicting views. After all what they stand for has factual backing (O’Rourke, 2001).
Lastly, the battle for supremacy between different opinions opens up a more comprehensive understanding of our beliefs. We begin to comprehend what is required of us and are, thus, in a position to act on them. Human beliefs do not exhibit any motivation and the debates that arise are what add fuel to the fire.
Holding beliefs with a conservative mindset only serves to hinder our acceptance of the possible alternatives (Jones, 2001). Therefore, opposition exhibited in the freedom of speech opens up a lee way for open-mindedness besides posing a challenge to hypocrisy and logical sluggishness.
The absence of restrictions on people’s freedom of oppression allows for the exchange of error for truth or the clarification of the existing truth. It also reinforces our certainty in the opinions we consider true besides increasing our open-mindedness and thoughtfulness. For governments, it ensures those entrusted with the leadership of the country have reasonable opinions that work for the common good of the country’s citizens.
Free discussion and analysis of different ideas will, thus, result in the prosperity of mankind rather than the detrimental effects it is assumed to bring.
References Bhargava, H. (2008). Political Theory: An Introduction. Delhi: Pearson Education
Eisenach, E. (2004). Mill and Moral Character. New York: Penn State Press.
Jones, T. (2001). Modern Political Thinkers and Ideas: An Historical Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Freedom of expression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Matravers, D. (2001) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill. New York: Routledge.
O’Rourke, K. (2001). John Stuart Mill and Freedom of Expression: The Genesis of a Theory. Connecticut: Taylor
Benefits of Preparing for Emergencies and Terrorism Term Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters
Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers
Benefits to the Authorities
Benefits to the General Population
Introduction The last 13 years have brought to the attentions of all Americans the devastating effects that natural disasters and terrorism can have on the society. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the devastating hurricane Katrina in 2006 demonstrated the adverse effects of disasters.
In both instances, the emergency services responded promptly and they were able to mitigate the damages and save many lives. Even so, Cetron and DeMicco (2006) suggest that these responses were not optimal since the responders were not well prepared for such catastrophes.
In light of increased concern of terrorist-related incidents and the ongoing risk of major domestic incidents in the country, making preparations is a prudent approach. This paper will set out to highlight the benefits of preparing for emergencies and terrorism for emergency workers, government authorities, and the general population.
Prevalence of Terrorism and Natural Disasters While terrorism is not a new phenomenon, terrorists today pose significantly greater danger than they ever have in the past. These terrorists are better financed, organized, and they demonstrate greater eagerness to engage in higher levels of carnage; factors that significantly increase the risk that they pose to the public.
Hoffman (2006) notes that in the last decade, terrorism has emerged as the most perilous global problem that threatens to disrupt society life. Taking preemptive actions to prepare for an imminent terrorist attack is therefore in the best interest of the society.
The impacts of natural disasters on society have increased dramatically over the past few decades (Schaefer-Jones, 2007). The reason for this is that human population has increased and many settlements have been established in areas that are prone to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.
The concentration of populations in urban areas also increases the severity of damage when natural disasters strike at a particular location. For this reasons, being prepared for natural disasters is crucial to reducing the hazards posed by such events.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of Preparations to Emergency Workers Preparations will familiarize emergency workers with unconventional weapons that may be used by terrorists. Alexander and Klein (2006) suggest that it is plausible that these terrorists will pursue chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) methods in the near future. While most emergency workers are proficient in dealing with conventional terrorist attacks, they may lack the expertise to deal with CBRN.
Preparation will familiarize the emergency personnel with impacts of such attacks and inform them on how to respond. Alexander and Klein (2006) reveal that training will help emergency workers to address the heightened physical risk of children and adolescents to CBRN effects. Emergency personnel will also be trained on how to identify the various agents used by the terrorists and the effective countermeasure against them.
Preparation will entail determination of priority and authority for incident safety management. In most disasters, significant amount of time and resources are wasted due to lack of a command structure and priority. Emergency workers therefore end up dealing with matters in a haphazard manner and lack of central command leads to poor coordination. Preparation will help establish a priority order that will be used when dealing with disaster. Authority will also be given and a command structure established to help in joint emergency activities.
Reissman and Howard (2008) reveal that proper preparations include delineation of roles to ensure cross-agency consistency and effective communication during a disaster. During training, mock drills are carried out and emergency personnel including, but not limited to, medical teams, fire fighters, and police are given roles and responsibilities that they will carry out in the event of a real emergency. Training ensures that emergency personnel familiarize themselves with protocols to be used in emergencies.
Anticipating likely hazards within the planning scenarios will help identify the kind of equipment and technical expertise that will be needed in the real disaster. This will assist response organizations to acquire the needed equipment and expert staff. If this is not possible, the organization will have an inventory of where this equipment and expert staff can be obtained from on short notice.
This early identification will aid in the quick acquisition of necessary technical staff and monitoring equipment when responding to a disaster. Reissman and Howard (2008) reiterate that having an inventory of such assets will facilitate quick decision-making.
The emergency response team needs to be medically, emotionally, and cognitively ready to face disaster. If these workforce is not ready in these important dimensions, their efficiency will be lowered and this will hamper the entire disaster response operations. The planning phase will include pre-deployment medical reviews to ensure that the emergency response personnel are fit for duty. Individuals who have risk factors that might compromise the mission success will be removed from active participation (Reissman
A Man for All Semesters Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of Main Points
Introduction Dameron’s article titled “A man for All Semesters” explores misdeeds of Tomar as well as the indolent nature of learners in higher institutions. The article gives an account of how Dave Tomar made vast amounts of money by helping students to complete their assignments.
Tomar earns a decent living from his work as a freelance writer in a custom essay company. The article explains how Tomar completed loads of papers for learners who were either indolent or not prepared for tasks associated with completion of their college, graduate and doctoral programs. The interest of learners is just to present exactly what the teacher asks for so that they can obtain excellent grades.
Hence, they keep on confirming whether the writer is writing what the teacher requires. Also, Dameron uses some clients served, by Mr. Tomar, to show that these learners are not ready to think on their own at all. Rather, they expect Mr. Tomar to provide them with an excellent piece of work that meets the criteria asked for by their instructors. Besides, the article demonstrates parents to these learners as being key facilitators to the entire process of cheating in institutions of higher learning.
Other aspects that this article explores are relationships between unemployment and academic cheating. Mr. Tomar was happy with his work as he could earn more than most of his peer lectures in prominent universities. Further, the article shows that the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Writing dissertations for the doctorate and graduate learners as well as completing term papers for college learners produces learners, who cannot think or apply education learnt to real situations.
Besides, completing such vital tasks on behalf of learners leaves them with less time to study and learn. This, in turn, compromises the value and significance of education in American universities. As a result, these institutions end up producing graduates who cannot think critically, and whenever they find themselves in a situation that requires complex reasoning, they make efforts to contact freelance writers who can complete these tasks on their behalf.
This article is of immense significance today to instructors, learners, readers and parents. The article demonstrates that current instructors have neglected their work of ensuring that learners present original work in higher institutions of learning. Whenever instructors offer assignments to learners, they have a responsibility of ensuring that learners submit their original work in order to maintain academic integrity.
Besides, this article demonstrates that learners have lost moral values related to education and their parents are paying little attention to their misdeeds. Every time learners receive assignments while, in learning institutions, they should complete these assignments individually, or as required in order to avoid compromising values related to education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current economic issues in the United States, particularly in the area of employments, may have made learners develop the act of cheating in examinations Also, parents have a responsibility of ensuring that their children complete home assignments individually rather than presenting these assignments to other people to assist them.
Further, this article is of immense significance to any reader who believes in academic integrity and moral development. This is because this topic seems to compromise these key aspects of education purpose.
As revealed by this account, both undergraduate and graduate schools and learners have fallen into a trap of low quality education and cheating because of little attention by instructors in American institutions.
Summary of Main Points Dameron’s article highlights the issue of academic cheating. Another key point that is clear in this work is that learners in higher institutions of learning just seek to excel in their assignments as opposed to obtaining knowledge.
Besides, Dameron’s article demonstrates how students cannot think independently. Dameron also demonstrates that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. In addition, Dameron uses Mr. Tomar to demonstrate that the current situation of exam cheating has roots in lack of adequate employment.
The article by Dameron further explains that if the story by Mr. Tomar is true, then the current university education in America has many shortcomings. Also, this article highlights that instructors in American institutions of higher learning have failed in their role of molding characters of learners.
Analysis The author fulfilled his purpose through this argument. The main purpose of the author was to demonstrate that cheating in American institutions of higher learning is prevalent due to both economic and institutional issues. However, this work has both logical and illogical ideas.
We will write a custom Essay on A Man for All Semesters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, the article claims that Mr. Tomar’s clients are lazy and incompetent. While this could be true for most clients, it cannot be generalized. This is because some learners ask for Mr. Tomar’s hand due to sickness, ethnical issues or engagement in other activities that they value as much as education. Hence, this fallacy is illogical.
Second, the article claims that learners are extremely conscious while delivering writing instruction as the teacher requires. On the same paragraph, the article demonstrates that the learner has concern of what the paper will entail.
These two ideas are contradicting as one idea seeks to demonstrate that these learners only care about following instructions given in order to pass exams, whereas the other idea demonstrates that learners have a concern on details of the paper as they know what should be contained in the paper. Hence, these two statements are contradicting and seem to be illogical.
Third, the article speculates that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. A study referring to the trend of studying and learning, in higher institutions, by Marks and Philip Babcock indicates that there is a tremendous decline in the time spent by learners on their studies. This study made reference to students’ behavior between 1961 and 2003. This argument seems to be illogical as it draws from inductive arguments.
The fact that there is a tremendous decline, in the time that students spend on their studies, does not necessary mean that learners are always learning and studying little than the system requires. Besides, the last date that the study made reference to was 2003, 0r 9 years ago. The fact that a situation existed 9 years ago does not necessary means that the same situation exists. All these arguments seem to be informal fallacies.
Response The first issue that I support is the perspective on academic cheating. The practice of academic cheating is prevalent in most American institutions of higher learning (McCabe, Trevino,
How Leaders Create and Use Networks Essay (Article) college essay help near me
This article mainly focuses on how leaders create and use networks in their work place for their success in discharging their duties, a skill that non leaders do not posses. This article was written by Herminia Ibara and Mark hunter.
Ibara is a professor of leadership and learning at the University of Insead, Fontainebleau, France and the director of the faculty of leadership initiative, an executive program for managers moving into broader leadership at Insead. She has also written numerous books. Hunter is an investigative journalist and a professor of communications at Insead and has written different books (Ibara and Hunter 108).
The authors while examining the networks which are the personal connections that will provide support, information and resources, found that they are the most challenging for managers who are transitioning into new leadership roles.
When managers move up the ranks, they will be addressing issues that will impact the whole organization and not only their areas of specialization, these new roles require relational tactics, which involves exchange and interaction with the current and potential stakeholders. All these contacts are particularly critical to the new roles of the leader.
The authors identified three different types of networks which are interdependent on each other. They are operational networks, personal networks and strategic networks. Personal networks will help to improve personal development of the manager.
These based on the relationships forged with the immediate superiors, juniors, the peers and outsiders like suppliers and customers who have the potential of supporting or blocking the project. Personal networks are for the purposes of coordinating and cooperation between individuals who know one another when they are accomplishing any task. This form of networking comes almost naturally to most managers (Ibara and Hunter 107).
Operational networks will assist the managers on present internal responsibilities so that they can perform their duties well. These are relationships built outside the inner circles and are established through professional associations, clubs and other interest groups that will serve to advance careers while giving new insights and perspectives. Operational networks serve as an important tool for personal development and can be a convenient point to establish the next network of relationship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Operational networks are made of flexible connections between people who share or have something in common and are vital for referrals and getting daily tasks done. Strategic networks will help the individual in seeing the new directions of the business, and the stakeholders because this is the inflection point where the manager moves from the functional responsibilities into being a business leader. The concerns at this juncture are the broad business strategic issues.
The relationships established here will be the foundation of information that will enable the leader to achieve both personal and organizational goals. Strategic networks are the most underutilized among the three networking types, yet it is the most important for the success of a manager moving to undertake new responsibilities (Ibara and Hunter 109).
The authors have been studying networking strategies and social networks used by managers for over 20 years and their findings are, the useful and meaningful networks do not happen instantly, but needs time, and all three have to be used to ensure success and not just one or two.
They studied 30 managers for a period of two years who were transitioning into positions of leadership in the organization, and their findings were that those who employed all the three types of networking were successful while those who did not end up failing (Ibara and Hunter 106). These findings support the principles of reciprocity that are common in leadership management to influence followers of a leader.
People find they are obligated to support anybody they are closely associated or share something in common. These networks are based on interpersonal trust because when a person trust another, they are likely to offer support and, therefore, ensuring the success in the transition process. The findings also support the principle of six degrees of separation which simply says there are at least six people connections between one person and another in the world (Ibara and Hunter 108).
On the other hand, over reliance on networks could lead to other problems because not everybody is reliable to give the required and appropriate support and may give some misleading information. Besides, operational networks would address the assigned objectives and not the overall strategic objectives of the organization.
Personal networks are easy to establish and almost comes naturally, but the strategic networks are difficult to establish especially if it involves the superiors in the organization. There is no step by step formula to be followed in order to establish these networks, but they are intuitive based on general guidelines and would largely depend on individuals and situations. This means that they can be extremely hard for some individuals while it may be easy for others (Ibara and Hunter 106).
We will write a custom Article on How Leaders Create and Use Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, this article contains valuable information particularly to any aspiring manager who wants to climb the career ladder by leverage the concept of networks in pursuit of their careers while making solid contributions in their organization. This is because the findings were observable facts on managers working in different organizations and are supported by sound principles of management (Ibara and Hunter 112).
Works Cited Ibara, Herminia and Hunter, Mark. How Leaders Create and Use Networks. Jan. 2007. Harvard Business Review. Web.