Table of Contents Introduction
The Torture Debate
Torture as a Counter-terrorism Measure
Introduction In September 11, 2001, the world woke up to the news of a transnational terrorist attack of a magnitude that had never been seen before. The United States of America, which is the world’s most powerful country, was caught by surprise. At the end of it all, over 3,000 innocent people lay dead while another 5,000 were injured both physically, emotionally, and financially (Wisnewski 2008).
What went wrong in this case? How did such a major terrorism attack escape the eagle eye of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other Counter-terrorism agencies, including military intelligence both within and outside the US?
The period signified the need to reflect back on the effectiveness of the existing counter-terrorism measures and henceforth putting mechanisms that will ensure that such an event does not ever again occur in the United States and the world at large.
In the aftermath of the September 2001 events, the world governments were more united and in agreement that there was a need to step up counter-terrorism measures and where possible introduce new ones to ensure that terrorist plans were thwarted before they could materialise (Slater 2006).
This paper discusses the concept of torture as a counter-terrorism measure by analysing the argument that torture is a legitimate tool because it provides a sense of justice to the victims, even though its effectiveness is limited.
In the paper, an extensive review of the existing literature will be done with a view of understanding how different authors have approached torture as a counter-terrorism measure. Further, case studies of scenarios where torture has been used successfully will be discussed with an aim of linking the lessons from such cases to the main argument of the paper.
The Torture Debate The question of whether torture is justified is a long-standing one in civilised societies. Historically, acts of torture can be traced to over 2,000 years ago, especially in the Roman Empire and other warring kingdoms of the time where it was used to subdue opponents and enemies to give vital information (Waltzer 1973).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, since the 18th century, with many gains on human rights, there have been extended efforts to eliminate torture throughout the world (Scarry 2004). Indeed, the prohibition of torture is a key issue in the modern human rights movements as reflected in many national and global declarations and laws against the act (Greer 2004).
For instance, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights completely prohibits any form of torture. Instead, it calls for the application of just, fair, and lawful methods of dealing with individuals who are suspected of any wrongdoing (Hoffman 2002). Bodies such as ‘The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment’ make torture their central focus.
They hold that it must be prohibited absolutely and unconditionally (Roth 2005). To show how deeply this issue is enshrined in the modern world, nearly all countries are parties or signatories of international or regional declarations against torture.
According to Sussman (2005), torture goes against all liberal visions of politics and humanity since it leads to serious inhuman acts against a person who is protected by the same human rights apparatus that protects all people in the world. Further, Sal (2004) summarises the debate on torture by asserting that liberal democracy’s history is itself tied to absolute prohibition of torture.
The human cost of terrorism has been universally felt, whether in Kenya, the streets of the abandoned Mogadishu, the United Kingdom, or even the Far East Asia. Organisations such as the United Nations have not been left out. They have suffered tragic human loss from terrorist attacks that have been targeted at their facilities and their personnel.
For instance, in August 2003, the UN offices in Baghdad were attacked. In the aftermath, 22 people, including the special representative of the secretary general were killed while other 150 persons were seriously injured (Felner 2008).
Financially, terrorism has cost the world over USD$4 trillion in terms of counter-terrorism measures, compensation for victims of terror, and disruption of business and economic activities (Lankford 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Torture as a Counter-terrorism Tool in 21st Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a consensus that terrorism goes against the all-acceptable norms of the society. Terrorism is an abuse to human rights due to its disruption of the right to life, liberty, and physical integrity of innocent victims (Slater 2006).
Further, it has the potential of disrupting governments, undermining harmony in the society, and jeopardising peace, security, and economic integrity of the society at a large scale.
For example, the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is directly linked to the continuing conflict in Syria and Iraq where innocent people are being killed, kidnapped, and properties destroyed and hence the evident negative effect on their way of life. People have a right to enjoy their human rights.
No one should take them. With the backing of their populations, it is the mandate of governments to protect their citizens and/or ensure that they enjoy these rights to the fullest (Foot 2006).
Since security is a basic right, respective governments have an obligation to guarantee this vital right to citizens. Besides, the government has the duty of taking positive measures that will protect its citizens from acts such as terrorism by bringing its perpetrators to justice (Wolfendale 2006).
In the efforts to protect citizens and the world from the infringement of their rights, security measures that have been taken in the ‘War Against” have become a hot topic for human rights activists, governments, the public, and the media.
For a long time, it was a consensus that in the quest to safeguard the rights of its humans, the actions of governments, and in this case the security apparatus, must not violate the same rights the actions seek to protect (Duff 2005). In other words, even those people who are suspected of terrorism and other grave acts are ‘human’ who are entitled to the same rights that protect the innocent ones.
However, to many scholars, policymakers, and human rights activists, the fight against terror has pitted the ideas of security and liberty against each other (Lukes 2005). In this case, the protection from terrorism has been reflected as being in conflict with the protection of human rights. In this debate, torture features prominently where the discussion is on whether it can be justified as a counter-terrorism measure.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Torture as a Counter-terrorism Tool in 21st Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the World War II, the question of whether to use torture for any purpose has been out of discussion in many countries (Macmaster 2004). Torture violates all rights that the world has managed to achieve. To many of its opponents, it should never be used.
Based on the increase of terrorist threats and their potential of killing hundreds of people in addition to other repercussions, torture is now increasingly becoming an acceptable option of preventing such attacks.
According to Hoffman (2002), supporters of the torture method assert that under carefully specified circumstances, torture on suspects is a lesser evil since it can help authorities to acquire vital information that can thwart terrorist attacks and as such a greater evil that menaces the global community.
Opposition to torture is not just a preserve of modernity and the secular world. However, it is also in religion. According to Gross (2004a), the present-day human rights movement knowingly and unknowingly draws heavily from theological thoughts, which place high value on human dignity.
According to Shatz (2002), although religious traditions have not offered a consistent message on torture and that they (traditions) have not been beyond the grasp of Christianity point of view, it must be said that the present ethical imperatives against torture are as much attributed to the religious class as it is linked to the high politics of human rights.
Therefore, Shatz (2002) concludes that torture, which uses physical, moral, or any form of violence to extract information through confessions to punish the guilty, instil fear in dissidents, or satisfy hatred, is against the respect for human dignity.
In terms of law and ethics, the opposing torture is incontestable based on the overwhelming clear expression that it is against human dignity and goes against all the fabric of human rights. This strong support against torture makes it unimaginable for any person to ever think of the review of current laws and declarations that have stated clearly and in strong words their stand against the vice (Crelinsten 2003).
However, the fact that torture has become a controversial topic among nations, law enforcers, and other interested parties makes the debate even more astounding (Morgan 2000). When did it reach a point where there would be a debate of whether torture should be used? To many opponents of torture, this debate is already closed and should not be a debate at all (Posner 2006).
For instance, introducing torture again would be returning the world to the ear of World War I and II when it was used as a war tactic of suppressing opponents and obtaining information from the captured enemies (Gross 2004b).
Despite the above clear stands on torture, especially through law and universally accepted declarations on the same, many thoughtful and morally serious thinkers have argued that there may be situations that torture can be legally and morally permissible. Wolfendale (2006) presents a substantial academic consensus that there may be situations where practice of torture can be a lesser evil to avert a greater iniquity in the society.
Torture as a Counter-terrorism Measure While the stand against torture is evident in laws, conventions, and instinctively on human populations, torture has never been eliminated from nations. For instance, much debate on the topic has emerged after the 9/11 event. However, Greer (2004) reports that torture has been a long-standing practice in the United States and many other countries of the world.
In his work, Greer (2004) explores reports and instances of torture going back to the cold war in Asia, Central America, and Latin America. For example, an Amnesty International report documented a widespread torture in 24 nations, including Iran, Brazil, Vietnam, and Philippines.
Further, the report also mentioned torture in European countries, including France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, and Austria where the practice was prevalent in the 1940s. Worldwide, while the practice has been common, in spite of the existence of declarations and laws against it, only Israel has practiced torture within the law (Foot 2006).
In justifying torture, the concept of ticking bomb scenario is used extensively. The ticking bomb scenario refers to a hypothetical situation where a known terrorist has planted a bomb in a location where he alone is aware of and it is counting down to explosion with the potential of killing many people. The terrorist is not ready to give information. Time is running out.
The only alternative is torture to force the information out of the suspect. According to Dershowitz (2002a), when presented with a ticking bomb scenario, many thoughtful and morally serious thinkers can support torture as a lesser evil where the pain of an individual leads to the saving of hundreds of lives. Posner (2006) asserts that in times of emergency, the law of necessity takes over.
In this case, in a ticking bomb scenario, it is a necessity to take drastic measures to protect innocent lives. The law of necessity, which is present in many nations’ constitutions, provides an avenue where the regulation should be amended during any urgent situation (Posner 2006).
In support of the argument of the law of necessity, which states that some deeds that might be criminal are declared legal by well-calculated reason or by the need of selecting between two wrongdoings, Wisnewski (2008) asserts that during extreme emergencies, while torture is prohibited, the necessity provides an overriding validation for situation.
Dershowitz (2002b) supports torture by saying that in ticking time bomb situations, defence of necessity serves as an alternative and effective tool of interrogation of terror suspects. Duff (2005) points out that torture is a valid option if it is the only chance of saving lives in imminent peril.
One of the most prominent and influential authors has been Derschowitz (2002a) who has elaborately discussed and supported occasional sanction of torture. In his book Why Terrorism Works, he explores in details the question of whether torture can be used in a ticking bomb scenario. In his work, Derschowitz (2002a) starts by accepting that liberal democracies have been highly attached to the prohibition of torture.
For instance, he gives an example of the case where terrorists kidnapped the former prime minister of Italy. While the authorities had a suspect in custody who possibly knew the prime minister’s whereabouts, the option of torture was denied. Subsequently, the minister was killed.
The situation clearly shows the price that Italian authorities were willing to pay to ensure that something as tragic as torture was kept out of the nation (Dershowitz 2002a).
Derschowitz goes on to disapprove those who are against torture on the argument that it is not effective and that it produces unnecessary information. In his response, he asserts that although many people wish torture did not work, the reality is that it does work (Dershowitz 2002a).
For instance, he points out to a 1995 case where a terrorist plan that was targeting the Pope and several commercial planes that were carrying passengers across the Pacific Ocean was thwarted after the Philippines authorities tortured a suspect until he revealed the crucial information.
In this case, Derschowitz (2002a) confirms that pretending that torture never works does not advance the debate on whether to torture a terror suspect in a ticking bomb scenario or not. However, he is quick to point out that torture does not always work just like other techniques of crime prevention.
Indeed, the choice of torture as a ‘necessity’ is a clear indication of the failure of alternative methods of crime prevention (Gross 2004b). The fact that torture works in producing valuable intelligence is the main reason why no nation has been able to eradicate it completely.
Despite all anti-torture movements, and in light of the current period where the threats of nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism are real, torture has to be brought as an alternative since tragic choices that require torture are inevitable (Duff 2005).
In another article ‘Want to torture? Get a Warrant,’ Derschowitz (2002b) asserts his case for a possible introduction of lawful torture. He gives an example of a hypothetical situation where the American authorities have captured a suspected terrorist with information of an imminent attack on innocent Americans. However, the suspect has refused to give any information.
What should the authorities do? In answering this question, Derschowitz (2002b) is without doubt that torture must be used. In addition, he confirms that majority of the members of the public will expect and support such a move, regardless of the existing anti-torture laws (Dershowitz 2002b).
The public expects the government to break any laws and/or treaties if that is what it would take to safeguard people’s lives. In this case, the debate should not be on whether or not to use torture but on whether torture should be used within law or outside law.
According to Macmaster (2004), Derschowitz’s (2002b) optimism and certainty that the US authorities should use torture in the above case is not farfetched. It is a public knowledge that all nations, including the established democracies such as the US have used torture outside law at some point. Only Israel has used torture within law to fight terrorism due to the threats it faces on a daily basis (Gross 2004a).
In defence of its use of terror, Israeli authorities say that since the threats they face are enormous and more than any other country of the world, torture comes as a viable option of getting vital information to safeguard the rights to security of its people (Gross 2004a). For instance, Gross (2004a) gives an example of case where the Israelite authorities have used torture and justified their acts.
In one famous case, Palestinian terrorists kidnapped Nachshon Waxman, a 19-year-old soldier. In the ensuing efforts to recover him, the Israelis captured the driver of the car that the soldier had been taken away in, and severely tortured him until he disclosed the location.
While Waxman was killed during the rescue operation, the Prime Minister of the time, Yitzhak Rabin, defended the acts of torture by arguing that it was due to such acts that they were able to locate Waxman and make a rescue attempt.
According to Dershowitz (2002a), the fact that the Prime Minister, a Nobel laureate, considered and allowed torture is a clear indication that torture can be justified in some situations. Many people might agree that the security challenges that Israel faces warrant the use of torture in some situations.
According to Derschowitz (2002a), although the ticking bomb scenario remains a hypothesis to many countries, it is a matter of time before the US finds itself in such a situation.
Consequently, to prepare appropriately for such an event, it is important for the US to design special torture warrants that are admissible within law. Judges or other relevant authorities can issue such warrants to allow specific agents to apply torture to protect the lives of innocent citizens (Wisnewski 2008).
In explaining further the concept of torture warrants, Derschowitz (2002a) explains that they should only be applied where lives on innocent members of the population are at stake and that there exists probable evidence that a suspected terrorist in custody has the vital information that can ensure the risk is averted, but has refused to give it up.
A good example is the capture of the Guzman Loera, a drug lord, who was one of the most wanted criminals in the world. The capture of two of his close aides aided his capture. That vital information was obtained only after the aides were tortured. Further, by making provisions of torture through law, the author insists that victims of torture should be given immunity due to the sensitive nature of information they give.
He claims that the victims should be awarded immunity from prosecution and be given large amounts of cash and a new identity as a reward for their information. However, torture should never be lethal. However, it should use methods that produce agonising pain without endangering lives such as the use of insertion of needles underneath the nails.
However, although the author admits that the use of warrants sounds like an awful ideal, failure to apply them can still lead to unlawful torture since there is no other way around it.
Regarding the possibly of torture warrants that lead to a slippery slope where such warrants are issued even in cases without ticking bomb scenarios , Derschowitz (2002a) dispels such fears by claiming that it can be harder to justify torture without warrants. Further, such warrants can lead to accountability, which is lacking in the current world where torture is prohibited, but continues to happen anyway.
Without a warrant, torture cannot happen. Further, fewer lawful tortures might be evident due to the conditions that have to be met in the issuance of certification.
Many authors have responded overwhelmingly to the calls for torture warrants by Derschowitz (2002a). Indeed, his assertions have attracted a lot of outrage and criticism. For instance, Gross (2004b) has called for total ban on torture as opposed to the circumstantial sanction of torture as suggested by Derschowitz (2002a).
Gross (2004b) asserts that from a pragmatic and moral perspective, torture is inhumane since it goes against all moral stands. Hence, it deserves to be eliminated. However, Gross (2004b) agrees that there are extreme ticking bomb situations where torture can be excused. In these extreme and unusual circumstances, torture warrants can be a good idea when used as a basis for a general policy.
He suggests an approach where truly extreme situations can give rise to what he refers to as official disobedience where officials may act ‘extra-legally’ and be ready to face the legal consequences for their actions.
While there are situations where torture is permissible, he argues that such ‘few’ situations cannot justify their need to be turned into law. Instead, he suggests a situation where the public pays a part in implementing the ‘Ex Post’ ramifications when an official acts extra-legally by torturing a suspect.
Gross (2004b) goes on to explain how his suggestions of Ex Post ramifications are a better alternative to Derschowitz (2002a) torture warrants. In his support for this position, Gross (2004b) confirms that by keeping torture outside the law, officials will be uneasy about breaking the law. This situation cannot be the case if torture is legalised as suggested by Derschowitz (2002a).
Gross (2004b) confirms that torture warrants can lead to slippery slope. In some cases, such warrants can be issued for wrong reasons. In liberal democracies where torture is prohibited, no official can allow torture unless it is extremely necessary and justifiable to break the law. There are three reasons to support his suggestion as opposed to Derschowitz (2002a).
Firstly, the fact that officials will have to explain why they want to break the law is a restraining factor for the option of torture. Secondly, since breaking the law requires an open declaration, it allows the government, citizens, and global community to have an open dialogue.
Thirdly, since the officials who break the law have to prove accountability to the public and accept the ramifications, the move ensures that torture is allowed only in extreme cases.
Another author who comes out strongly to disapprove Derschowitz’s (2002a) argument of torture warrants is Scarry (2004). She criticises Derschowitz (2002a) for basing his argument on an imaginary ticking bomb scenario instead of the numerous real scenarios where torture has been used. She points that it is unjustifiable to change our laws for an imaginary scenario.
She points various problems to Derschowitz’s (2002a) argument. The first argument is that Derschowitz (2002a) assumes that anybody in a ticking bomb scenario will opt for torture. However, Scarry (2004) claims that as much as Derschowitz (2002a) is convinced for this course of action, there is a possibility that other people in the same situation will not want to compromise their strong moral stands by torturing an individual.
It is possible that just as many people will not want to compromise the lives of potential victims, many other people will not want to compromise their anti-torture beliefs. The second argument is that Derschowitz (2002a) suggests that torture warrants might lead to accountability.
In this case, Scarry (2004) claims that since such warrants will be within the law, it is impossible to hold individuals to accountability after the torture since they have acted within the law. Therefore, Scarry (2004) concludes that it is important to prohibit torture than to introduce torture warrants.
Wisnewski (2008) supports Derschowitz’s (2002a) argument in many areas. However, he criticises Derschowitz’s (2002a) assertion that either torture warrants are introduced to increase accountability and/or reduce torture incidences, or the status quo is maintained where torture will continue its current trend where there is no accountability.
According to Wisnewski (2008), Derschowitz’s (2002a) proposal reflects his deep hatred for hypocrisy. Derschowitz (2002a) believes that it is counter-productive to have anti-torture laws while it is happening worldwide. In this case, Derschowitz’s (2002a) proposal is timely and relevant since it tries to reconcile the law with our actions.
However, Wisnewski (2008) confirms that it is not justifiable to have torture warrants simply because there is a lot of hypocrisy on torture. Torture warrants can be worse than the hypocrisy of having anti-torture laws.
Wisnewski (2008) posits that Derschowitz (2002a) selectively suggests two options (whose results are the same) to allow torture and/or ignores the option of never allowing torture. He quotes the United Nation’s Anti-torture Convention that prohibits torture and its permissibility under any circumstance.
More support for torture comes from Waltzer (1973) who asserts that it can be sanctioned under certain circumstances. In his book, Political action: The problem of dirty hands, Waltzer (1973) asserts that politicians face situations where they have to sanction torture, despite the fact that they are aware that it is not right.
In this case, Waltzer (1973) points out that the politician is facing a dirty hand scenario and must therefore sanction torture. He further observes that it is impossible to govern innocently in politics. It is easy to get one’s hands dirty. In most cases, it is the right thing to do.
Under certain circumstances, it is permissible to do bad things as long as an individual is aware he or she is doing something wrong and is ready to face the consequences that may ensue.
Any person who permits torture, despite its illegality due to the circumstances of the situation (ticking bomb), is justified. However, he should be ready to pay for the repercussions. Waltzer (2008) asserts that such a man should be judged for his actions at the time for he is a good man whose actions are said to be right.
The above assertions on torture have greatly relied on the utilitarian justification of torture, which centres on the law of necessity that allows extra-legal actions in certain circumstances. An increasing support is evident for the use of non-lethal torture to avert the greater evil where innocent lives are at risk of being lost.
One of these proponents is Felner (2008) who asserts that torture can be justified when it is not lethal since it only offers temporal pain to a suspected terrorist to avert permanent consequences such as death, serious injuries, and economic repercussions that might be incurred in the event the attack succeeds. For a long time, countries such as the UK and the USA were, and still are, in the forefront against torture.
However, since the events of 9/11, there has been a protracted opinion that the public in this countries is increasingly warming to the idea of torture with the premise of ‘if torture works’. The public is an important part of this debate since such acts are carried out and justified by asserting that they are intended for the greater good of the population.
In the United States, before the events of 9/11, it would have sounded crazy to imagine that the topic of torture would ever arise. However, the magnitude of the attack and the realisation that the US was not as safe as previously thought brought the issue to the forefront of political, media, and the public rhetoric. For instance, a study carried in 2009 showed that the US was equally divided for and against torture.
This observation is a clear indication of the increasing support for the method. This case was in great contrast to a 1975 Amnesty International report that put opposition for torture at 76% in the US and 75% across the world (Lankford 2010).
Since 2001, the public has been fed with information on various plots that have been thwarted by the US and other countries across the world based on information obtained from suspects in custody and/or under interrogation. By interrogation, it is obvious that torture has been used in the process.
Several cases can be cited to that effect. For instance, in 2002, an eleven-year-old boy was kidnapped. Over £1 million was paid as ransom for the release of the victim. However, even after the money was paid, the boy was not released. The police had tracked down Magnus Gafgen who had collected the ransom and went on a spending spree (Felner 2008).
When he was arrested and was not willing to disclose the boy’s whereabouts, he was threatened with torture. He was finally able to give information that led to the discovery of the boy’s body.
In this case, although police officers were not able to save the boy’s life, it was through torture that information was obtained to recover his body. Following the case, there was overwhelming support from the public that torture was the only possible option in such a situation, and thus justifiable.
For many proponents, it is right to say that although torture has limited effectiveness, just like any other crime prevention method, it offers a sense of justice to the victims of terrorism. According to Foot (2006), it is the norm where the public has experienced a devastating terrorist attack that the opinion on the use of torture becomes favourable.
Further, Hoffman (2002) argues that since terrorism has taken a global scope, it is evident why a global debate has ensued on the use of the method to extract information that can be used to thwart attacks. Security agents have an obligation to provide security to citizens. This responsibility is even more serious when dealing with terrorism, which has a high potential of killing many people at once.
Terrorists present the public’s worst nightmare and hence the increasing justification to keep them away in whatever means possible. After all, they deserve it. According to Wisnewski (2008), the use of torture can be justified as a self-defence act where the government has to take equally serious measures to keep away terrorists just as the terrorists put a lot of seriousness in their quest to attack.
For instance, in the search for Osama Bin Laden, the CIA and other security agencies captured, tortured, and detained many suspects. Regardless of such actions, it was seen and accepted by many people across the world as the only way through which the leader of Al-Qaida would be brought to Justice.
In other words, the war against terror is like a war between equally able states where the weakness of one leads to the demise of the other (Foot 2006). However, in this case, a win by terrorists stands to be more devastating to the society than a loss in torturing one terrorist to deny a win on the other participants. Consequently, there is always a feeling of victory and justice when terror attacks are thwarted, regardless of the applied methods.
Conclusion From the above discussions, there is an overwhelming argument against torture, which has a long-standing foundation in the history of human civilisation. It is against many liberal democracies and international conventions to subject an individual to torture as it is against human dignity and rights. However, it is evident that torture has never been eliminated.
Well-established democracies such as the US have to make their hands dirty and use torture for various reasons. World over, only Israel has used torture within law due to the security threats it faces on a daily basis. Since the events of September 11, 2001, the use of torture has become a heated debate in the fight against terror. It has also attracted support from different scholars and other important parties such as lawmakers.
For instance, the law of necessity in a ticking bomb scenario has been used overwhelmingly to advance the arguments of those who support torture. Other proponents such as Derschowitz (2002b) have come out to advocate for the changing of laws to accommodate torture as a reality that cannot be wished away.
The introduction of torture warrants will bring accountability and a reduction of torture cases since they will be limited to only extremely volatile ticking bomb scenarios. While this opinion is not popular, it has been supported by the existing literature since it points out to a shift from the hypocrisy of having anti-torture laws when torture is happening left, right, and centre.
However, other people cite that legalising torture will be an unacceptable drastic measure. Instead, they offer what is referred to as official disobedience where authorities are allowed to act extra-legally in serious ticking bomb situations. Despite the arguments that are against it, the sad reality is that it is works for the interest of the public.
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The Brenner Debate Essay essay help online free
The development of capitalism has often been discussed by historians who focus on the factors that could lead to the decline of the feudal society and emergence of the new socio-economic system. Much attention should be paid to the so-called Brenner debate because this discussion can throw light on various models that can explain the transformation of European societies.
This debate revolves around the claims made by Robert Brenner who emphasizes the idea that new class and property relations resulted in the development of capitalism. In turn, this debate is critically evaluated by other historians. On the whole, it is possible to argue that a single approach cannot account for the dramatic transformation that different countries underwent.
Much attention should be paid to the arguments advanced by Guy Bois who combines the elements of the demographic and class models. On the whole, it is vital to focus on such factors as the property relations between various economic agents, demographic trends, as well as the increase in the productivity. These are the main issues that should be examined in great detail.
It is possible to examine the arguments put forward by Robert Brenner who argues that the transformation of European societies can be explained primarily by the changing class structures1. In his opinion, much attention should be paid to the property relations. The capitalist system of production could emerge provided that economic agents such as peasants could secure their property rights.
This privilege can be viewed as a good incentive for increasing the volume of production. One should keep in mind that Robert Brenner rejects the demographic model according to which social and economic breakthrough were driven by population fluctuations. It is vital to remember that demographic patterns could significantly affect wages and the demand for products.
However, this model does not explain the differences in the socio-economic development of various countries. These are the main points that Robert Brenner makes. Overall, his work stimulated additional research on this topic. The validity of these claims should be discussed more closely.
Some of Brenner’s arguments are supported by other historians. For instance, it is possible to mention to mention Guy Bois who also examines the limitations of the demographic model2. In his opinion, this approach to the socio-economic development is too deterministic, and it cannot reflect the decisions of separate people. Moreover, this framework lays too much stress on such a factor as the struggle for resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, Guy Bois mentions that Brenner underestimates the importance of such a factor as productivity. In particular, he notes that the increase in productivity led to the surplus of goods. More importantly, this factor contributed to the intensification of trade between and within communities. In this case, one should not speak only about the adoption of new technologies.
One should also pay much attention to the way in which labor was organized. To a great extent, this view of the formation of capitalism is supported by Rodney Hilton3 who focuses on the pre-requisites for the development of the new socio-economic system. In his view, the differences in the productivity led to the accumulation of capital and the development of new institutions. This is why this notion should not be overlooked.
It should be mentioned that other historians such as Postan and Hatcher argue that Robert Brenner lays too much stress on political power of different economic agents. Nevertheless, one should not overlook the influence of such factors as inheritance customs or attitudes to innovation, or military confrontations4.
The main argument is that the economic stagnation of the feudal societies can be attributed to a diverse set of factors. Moreover, one should not suppose that the influence of demographic trends can be easily measured with the help of exiting research methods that require the study of quantitative data. The main problem is that these data are not always available to scholars.
Additionally, historians such as Emmanuel Ladurie5 argue that the bargaining power of peasants can be explained by the population trends. In particular, the surplus of labor could strengthen the position of landlords. In the long-term, these trends could result in the formation of serfdom. This is why the validity of the demographic model cannot be fully rejected.
Demographic trends are vital for showing how the bargaining power of different economic agents could change. For instance, the decline of the population could increase the wages of servants, as a result; these people could have more opportunities for accumulating capital. Similarly, the increasing population could contribute to increasing demand for various goods. Thus, the demographic model should not be disregarded.
Overall, the socio-economic advance to capitalism cannot be attributed to only one factor such as new property relations or the changing demographic patterns. The development of the new political and economic system is not a deterministic process that can be easily predicted.
We will write a custom Essay on The Brenner Debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More likely, researchers should pay attention to such factors as class relations, new forms of property, demographic trends, and the changes in the productivity. Robert Brenner’s views on the formation of capitalism are important because they can show how the bargaining power of producers could increase with time passing. These are the main details that can be singled out.
Bibliography Bois, Guy. “Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 107-119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Brenner, Robert. “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 10-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Hilton, Rodney. “A Crisis of Feudalism.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 119-138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Ladurie, Emmanuel. “A Reply to Robert Brenner.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 101-107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Postan, Michael and John Hatcher. “Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society.” In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 64-79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Footnotes 1 Robert Brenner, “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 30.
2 Guy Bois, “Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 112
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Brenner Debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Rodney Hilton, “A Crisis of Feudalism,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 120
4 Michael Postan and John Hatcher. “Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 66.
5 Emmanuel Ladurie, “A Reply to Robert Brenner,” in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 103.
Representation of the Plantation Women Compare and Contrast Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The functions of women in any given society have always been secondary and in support of the male gender. Women are believed to belong to the weak gender than even in the current civilized world are although the truth about such a claim is debatable1. Either way, their role and function from the pre-colonial periods were limited to caring for the homestead.
One of the societies with major differences between women and men in terms of the identity, functions, role and position in the community is the Antebellum South during the peak of US slavery. When one thinks of the women in the South, the idea that comes into mind is the figure of a submissive and loyal, passive and pious person who served the family and society with morality and devotion2.
According to the common perception, the southern woman was graceful, modest and obedient to her husband. She was mainly focused on the activities or behaviors that would please the farm master (her husband) and taking care of the house and children.
Innocence and restriction from taking interest in the intellectual pursuits is an idea that comes when one thinks about the position and role of the southern women during the antebellum. According to Boyd, the antebellum women were seen as the perfect resemblance of the cultural perfectionism of the antebellum moral, religious and social norms3.
However true these perceptions might be, it is worth noting that the media played a significant role in generating the ideas for the description of the antebellum women. The media, especially novels and poems written during the slavery era in the south, have developed most of these characteristics of the antebellum women.
The media has been very successful in passing these myths and ideas to the modern generations. In fact, most of these ideas and perceptions of the life and role of the antebellum women are still popular in the modern world because the 19th century author and poets have made people believe in myths.
In addition, recent films about the south have borrowed these myths and, surprisingly, made efforts to insinuate suggest that the myths were the true description of the plantation women. According to the media, position of a white woman was subtle but important to the antebellum society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A woman was a social figure associated with her background because she was grouped according to her race and social class. Thus, it is evident that the origins of the myths about the women are based on race and class. It also serves as the manifestation of the cultural attitudes of the antebellum south. Therefore, it appears that the media-described women is more mythological than real.
Therefore, the question is “what are the differences between the real and the media-portrayed women in the antebellum south?” Of course, there are several differences between what the media has been portraying about the characteristics, position, functions and roles of women in the plantations.
In particular, the media has been concentrating on the white upper class women when describing the southern women, leaving out other classes of women such as the slaved blacks, the peasant women, those in education, health and business sectors as well as the bunches of Hispanic and native Indian women in some of the plantations in the south. Do the media provide the correct portray of antebellum women in general?
The purpose of this paper is to distinguish the roles and positions of the plantation women as presented by the media from the actual roles and positions they held during the antebellum era.
Arguably, the media does not provide the correct description of the plantation women in the south because much of the ideas and characteristics given to women by the media are mythical and derived from novels and poems of the antebellum south.
The identity of the plantation woman: Real versus the media Historical background
Historically, the planation women are the wives of the plantation owners in the American south prior to and after independence. In reality, the women played a significant role in the plantations, right from working in the farms to housework, child rearing and cloth making and repair.
The social economic background of the southern states during the plantation era provides an important framework for analyzing the real description versus the media characterization of the women in the planation south. Therefore, it is worth describing the women based on the social, cultural and economic situation at the time.
We will write a custom Essay on Representation of the Plantation Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the antebellum era, the economy of most of the states in the southern parts of the United States mainly depended on agriculture. The agricultural industry in the south mainly supplied the northern industrial states with raw materials4.
In particular, cotton was the major crop in the south because of the large cloth making industries in the north that placed a huge demand for cotton. Thus, the plantations were a highly lucrative industry in the south. Labor was almost free due to the presence of a large number of slaves and pro-slavery laws.
Therefore, farmers were the most influential political icons in this period and a person’s wealth was measure by how big was his land. Land was the only factor of production and the main source of livelihood. Due to the low population, there were large pieces of land that were owned by the whites. These huge tracks of land were put under large-scale farming.
Nonetheless, the most of the black, native and Hispanic southerners did not own such wealth in their native land. Rather, the whites owned the massive plantations. The development of these plantations created a divided among the people since the natives became the labors and the whites were the owners.
Off course, the outcome was an emergence of social classes that divided the two societies depending on where an individual falls in the society. The plantation women were the wives of the white farmers who owned the plantations.
At this point, the contract between the rich and the poor was greater in the south compared to all other English colonies. The southerners were mainly the slaves, servants and workers for the whites. On the other hand, the white colonial masters owned the plantations and controlled the system. Their wives, the plantation women, are the focus of this essay.
The media’s ideas about the identity of the planation women
According to Welter, the media portrays the identity of the plantation women based on the dominant 19th century ideology5. According to this view, the ideology described women as “the cult of the true womanhood”.
To describe the plantation woman in the south, the ideology used four fundamental virtues – the women was supposed to show purity, devotion, obedience and domesticity. In addition, the term woman, as described in the popular media, includes the mother, wife, sister and daughter.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Representation of the Plantation Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, it is imperative to note that the “cult of womanhood” had a set of social expectations for the plantation woman in the south. It also served as a guide describe the expected behavior of the upper class women. In particular, it stated that a good woman is a female who was cultured, virtuous and compassionate.
The real identity of the plantation women
Noteworthy, the media follows the cult of true womanhood when describing the identity of the plantation women of the antebellum America. Nevertheless, this is not the real identity of women in the era. The mythical image of an antebellum woman emerged from this ideology. Nevertheless, this image fails to reflect the accurate identity of all the women during the antebellum.
Noteworthy, this ideology is based on the perceptions of the southern belle. Therefore, the historical and literal perception of the identity and position of the planation woman is relatively wrong6. In fact, it is evident that the ideology is derived from writers such as Harriet Jacobs, Frederick Douglass and Harried Jacobs.
Modern films such as “Gone with the Wind” have attempted to follow these ideologies. However, the writings of Mary Chestnut, Mattie Griffith and Harriet Stowe provide a more liberal description of the southern woman based on the reality on the ground7.
In particular, these authors describe the plantation mistresses and their roles, positions and functions in the antebellum society, which differs significantly from the media portray of the same women. In her 1982 book “The Plantation Mistress: Women’s world in the old south”, Catherine Clinton states that the cult of domesticity is wrong8.
She shows how the plantation women played a significant role in directing the success of the farm through the husband. The book further shows that women were involved in managing some aspects of the farming practices, including the selection and coordination of women slaves. It has also been shown that the farmers who had strong and commanding wives managed most of the farms that succeeded in profitability.
Women were also involved in educating the society, especially their children9. Clinton indicates that most of the mistresses determined how and where their children obtained education. As such, they were involved in ensuring the continuity of good management in the farms because the educated children of the farmers were supposed to become managers in their parents’ plantations.
In her book “Within the plantation household: Black and white women of the old south”, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese10 states that the white mistresses lead good lives in the plantations and were not necessarily meant to make their husbands happy. The author states that most of these women enjoyed the fruits of the antebellum slavery just like their husbands.
In addition, the author states that most of these mistresses determined the use and spending of the profits, including the management of their husbands’ farms. According to the author, the mistresses were responsible for some aspects of slave management, especially in terms of managing the large number of female slave workers in the plantations.
Women Roles During the antebellum: The media versus the reality
Women have always played very important roles in the society since time immemorial and in the pre-colonial period, the same was true. The roles of women at any given time depend on the period, the geographical location and the community.
Noteworthy, women were categorized into distinct groups depending of their race- the native Indians, the black slaves, and the whites. Each group had different roles spelt out for women since they were from very different backgrounds.
According to the media, the role of the white women in the south was confined to the domestic chores. The main role of the mistresses, according to the media, was to ensure proper handling of the house chores, directing black servants (the Mammy) and determining the best diet for the family11.
In addition, a mistress is portrayed as the family’s tailor and cloth maker. A woman was supposed to spend her time weaving garments, mending torn clothes, making and repairing household marts, curtains and carpets and other textile activities12.
It is worth noting that the white mistresses in the farms are thought to have played almost significant roles with the native Indian women. For instance, the native women were responsible for their families’ clothing, food and other domestic activities. However, unlike the white mistresses in the farms, the Indian women were also responsible for building their family’s huts.
However, the media has attempted to ignore some of the important roles played by the white mistresses in the antebellum south. For instance, it is clear that the development of the plantation society changed the roles of women in significant way in the south. The farm work required masculine activities, including the management chores
. Thus, the number of population of the white women in the south was significantly low compared to that of males. Nevertheless, the media does not describe the roles that women played in the south. The less number of women made them powerful since they became the center of attraction as the men sought them eagerly. Thus, most white farmers increasingly sought for the best mistresses in their farms.
Most farmers desired to marry women with the capacity to run their farms. Educated women were preferred for their ability to educate their children, especially boys because they were supposed to assume the management roles in the farms.
During the antebellum era, mortality rate was relatively high and even affected the white families. The rampant deaths and marriages dissolved as a result also created different phenomena in the society. Widows began to remarry and the outcome was a complex society of half brothers and sisters.
When a woman’s husband died, the property he owned was left under her care. For this reason, women had to learn and exercise managerial skills to help them manage the family estates. Nonetheless, women were not involved in the political platforms.
The media portrayal and description of the plantation women
The media has always covered the historic events in a way that can only be described as unfair to women. Especially with regard to the whites, the media has always covered their past in a very objective approach to portray only their negative characteristics. According to this perception, all the white women were hostile to their female slaves and secluded themselves as an elite class.
The media also tries to show that the plantation woman had a perfect life and an easy time in their homes. Going by the picture painted on our minds by the history journalists and researchers, the white women had all they needed and their live were simple.
This is not the same picture painted in the case of the black slaves and the native Indian women. Media coverage of the history of women in the pre-colonial period shows that the white women were better placed in the society than the rest.
The historic accounts of women have in past been selective and subjective. This is mainly due to the ageless opinions that the masculine gender is better than the feminine gender. Since time immemorial, women accomplishments have been seen as less important in comparison to what men have achieved.
The media deliberately downplays the roles played y the women in preparing their husbands and children every day in the morning. It lays its focus mainly on what the men did for their family and see it a way of supporting and providing for the family. On the other hand, whatever the women did is not recognized as an important activity in the society.
Poor historic account for the less powerful groups
The less powerful groups have been left to cope and deal with the historic accounts that have been recorded for them. The white women are portrayed as the ‘stay at home mums’ who did not participate in any of the farming activities.
This notion is supported by the assumption that all the white women enslaved blacks in their homes. With such a mentality, the media does not mention the involvement of the plantation woman in the contribution of the economy.
Very important information was left out about the functions of the women in the pre-historic period that could show just how much their roles were vital for the establishment of a strong economy. Women were the only group subject to this disparity in the historic factual recording.
Children and the slaves are also left out including the natives. The media has overemphasized the industrial revolution, the agricultural developments and the discovery of the sea routes all of which are the achievements of the white males.
The media has tried to cover the real historic accounts especially regarding the plantation woman’s plight and challenges. Evidently, the plantation woman did not have the perfect life as the media tries to portray in most of the historic accounts. She encountered numerous challenges everyday just like a normal human being.
The only variation was the fact the challenges were different. While the slaves African women were struggling to find a job and food to sustain their livelihood, the plantation woman had different struggles.
Women in the plantations had another level of challenges including maintaining their class. It was not automatic that the white women where all able to meet the cost of having a slave who would help in the family chores.
In this case, the woman of the house was tasked with all the family chores and this was quite a lot of work to handle. Most the plantation women had to deal with loneliness in the house since their husbands were too busy outside in the fields.
Conclusion The identity, roles and position of women in the antebellum America has long been portrayed based on the 19th century stereotypic perceptions of a woman. The ideology of “the cult of womanhood” depicted women as being loyal, submissive, kind, motherly and confined to the house.
On its part, the media has followed these ideologies in its portrayal of the antebellum women. Nevertheless, this is far from the reality because the white farm mistresses played a significant role not only in the house, but also in the farm management, management of slaves and the profits involved.
Bibliography Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford UP, 2009.
Boyd, Elizabeth Bronwyn. Southern Beauty: Performing Femininity in an American Region. Austin, TX: The U of Texas at Austin, 2000.
Cash, Wilbert. The Mind of the South. New York: Knopf, 2001.
Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman’s World in the Old South. New York: Pantheon, 2007.
Davis, Richard. Mrs. Stowe’s Characters-in-Situations and a Southern Literary Tradition. Clarence Gohdes. Durham: Duke UP, 2002.
Donovan, Josephine. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Evil, Affliction, and Redemptive Love. Boston: Twayne, 2001
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Duvall, Severn. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin: The Sinister Side of Patriarchy.” The New England Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2003): 3-22.
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008.
Gwin, Minrose. Black and White Women of the Old South: The Peculiar Sisterhood in American Literature. Knoxville: The U of Tennessee P, 2005.
Welter, Barbara. “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860.” American Quarterly 18, no. 2 (2006): 151-174.
Footnotes 1 Wilbert Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Knopf, 2001), 54
2 Minrose Gwin, Black and White Women of the Old South: The Peculiar Sisterhood in American Literature (Knoxville: The U of Tennessee P, 2005), 147
3 Elizabeth Bronwyn Boyd, Southern Beauty: Performing Femininity in an American Region (Austin, TX: The U of Texas at Austin, 2000), 97
4 John W Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (New York: Oxford UP, 2009), 137
5 Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860,” American Quarterly 18, no. 2 (2006): 152.
6 Josephin Donovan, e, Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Evil, Affliction, and Redemptive Love (Boston: Twayne, 2001), 38
7 Richard Davis, Mrs. Stowe’s Characters-in-Situations and a Southern Literary Tradition (Clarence Gohdes. Durham: Duke UP, 2002), 204
8 Catherine Clinton, The Plantation Mistress: Woman’s World in the Old South (New York: Pantheon, 2007), 62
9 Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (New York: Modern Library, 2000), 69
10 Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008), 78
11 Severn Duvall, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin: The Sinister Side of Patriarchy” The New England Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2003), 7
12 Duvall, 8
Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction It is without doubt that The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting will go down in history as the deadliest school shooting incident involving minors in America (Blad, 2013), and one which attracted a high number of calls to implement a multiplicity of school safety legislations aimed at protecting schools from gun-related violence (“School safety legislation,” 2013).
In this particular incident which occurred in Newton on December 14, 2012, a mentally-disturbed young man by the name of Adam Lanza forced his way into the elementary school and shot dead 20 school children and 6 adults before taking his own life to avoid arrest (Blad, 2013).
The main objective of this paper is to analyze this incident with the view to interrogating a whole set of issues related to school violence (e.g., gun control policies in schools, incident communication, and incident response) and developing a school safety policy based on the analysis.
School administrators responded to the shooting incident by calling for a change in gun laws and by requesting for the development and implementation of various pieces of legislation aimed at protecting the safety of children and workers within the school environment.
The decision to arm school teachers and workers attracted widespread attention in the wake of Sandy Hook School shootings, as it was felt that the lone gunman could have been easily overpowered if some teachers or workers had been armed (“School safety legislation,” 2013).
Indeed, some administrators and school districts requested for the training and arming of staff members to effectively deal with such shooting incidents in the future, although other educator groups felt that it was wrong for staff members to be allowed to possess guns (Blad, 2013).
Other school administrators and education stakeholders responded to the unfortunate school shooting by advocating for laws and policies that included
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More increasing police presence in learning institutions,
enhancing mental health and counseling services in schools,
introducing emergency planning measures in schools,
availing additional money to undertake school security upgrades.
Still, others advocated for loosening of general rules that make it illegal for teachers and workers to bring guns to schools, and a few advocated for proposals to change regulations governing firearms such as magazine size and purchasing limitations on particular guns (“School safety legislation,” 2013).
Analysis The Sandy Hook School shooting incident brings into the fore various issues that need to be carefully analyzed to note the weaknesses that could have played a part in providing an enabling environment for the lone gunman to attack and kill so many people.
An assessment of the policies that existed before this shooting incident demonstrates a general prohibition on the possession of guns in school compounds (“School safety legislation,” 2013), implying that no member of staff could have accessed a weapon when Adam Lanza entered the school compound and started to shoot indiscriminately.
Of particular importance here is the United States federal law known as the gun-free school zones act of 1990 and how it proscribes any unauthorized person from intentionally or deliberately possessing a gun at a place or location that may be perceived as a school zone (National Crime Prevention Council, 2014).
Although this and other related policies have acted to secure educational institutions from gun-related violence and crime, they have nevertheless failed to address a situation whereby an attacker may force his or her way into the school compound as happened in the Sandy Hook incident.
Owing to the elementary nature of the school in question, this paper assumes that the young students of Sandy Hook School were not aware of the policies related to this incident prior to its occurrence. However, although students may not have been aware of the existing gun regulation policies, it is evident that the school had implemented several policies related to the creation of a culture of safety.
The two mostly used safety strategies included (1) visible identification and screening of visitors using a security system, and (2) locking the school doors each day after the commencement of classes (“Sandy Hook shooting,” 2014).
We will write a custom Report on Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many policy changes have been proposed since the Sandy Hook shooting incident, with available documentation demonstrating that states such New York, Colorado, and Connecticut have already enacted various legislations aimed at reducing gun violence (Johnson, 2013).
According to this author, the various legislations being enacted by these states “include strengthening background checks on gun sales, bans on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, and other laws that aim to keep firearms out of the hands of violent individuals” (para. 8).
A law passed in Connecticut, which was epicenter of Sandy School shooting, aims to address mental health concerns ostensibly because the alleged shooter was suffering from a mental health illness. It is clear that the many fatalities witnessed in Sandy School shooting could have been avoided if some of the rules had been implemented prior to the attack.
Today, most educational activities include a component of mental health, as education stakeholders come face to face with the reality that many students could be suffering from psychological disorders and hence predisposed to violence and other socially undesirable behaviors.
It is also evident that students are taught how to cope with stress, which has been known to occasion socially unacceptable behavior including the predisposition to become violent.
Lastly, most students today receive educational instructions on how to deal with emergencies that may arise in school environments (“School safety legislation,” 2013). Such educational activities, in my view, will go a long way in ensuring that students develop the capacity to deal with own life stressors and emergency situations with the view to preventing unnecessary loss of life.
The introduction of mental health services and education in most curriculums is of immense importance in assisting students to identify and deal with abusive behavior in school, which may include but not limited to bullying, threatening behavior, intimidation, and abuse (Tsiantis, Beratis,
Worship and the Sacraments Coursework essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Holy Baptism
Why God Connects His Word of Grace with Water, Wine, and Bread
Holy Baptism The Bible teaches Christians about the importance of Holy Baptism. Matthew 3 explores the issue of baptism in details. The chapter encourages Christians to embrace this rite. John baptized Jesus Christ in order to show people the way. Christians should “be baptized in an attempt to see God’s kingdom” (Yancey, 2002, p. 49). This is the same “case when the heavens opened after John baptized Christ” (Welker, 2010, p. 9).
The Holy Spirit also descended to bless Jesus Christ. Matthew 28: 19-20 explains how Jesus Christ commanded his disciples to baptize all men in the name of God. Jesus encouraged all people to obey their God. Jesus also explained how he would remain with his people forever. The Book of Romans 6: 1-10 is a powerful text that explores the importance of baptism.
These verses give a comparison between Christ’s resurrection, burial, and death. The verses also explain why baptism remains a critical part of salvation. Colossians 2: 11-15 and 3: 1-17 gives useful verses about Baptism. The practice also makes Christians holy in Christ’s name. These verses also explain how Baptism becomes a guiding principle for all Christians.
Holy Communion Another unique aspect of Christian worship is the Lord’s Supper. Several passages and verses in the Holy Bible support the practice. Matthew 26: 17-30 explains how “Jesus and his disciples celebrated the Passover on the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread” (Welker, 2010, p. 11). Jesus encouraged his followers to embrace the practice. The supper symbolized Christ’s body and blood.
Luke 24: 13-35 explains how Jesus revealed himself to his disciples after resurrection. Christ appeared to his disciples and took the bread. He blessed and distributed it to his disciples. He repeated the same act that characterized the Last Supper. The early believers viewed the Lord’s Supper as the best way to come closer to their creator. They wanted to worship God and repent (Corinthians 10: 14 and 11: 1).
The practice became the Holy Communion. The book of Corinthians 11: 17-34 identifies some of the problems and misuses associated with the Lord’s Supper. Some people “failed to wait for one another during the Holy Communion” (Welker, 2010, p. 19). Some people also despised God’s Church.
Some individuals humiliated their neighbors since they nothing to eat. Some individuals decided to celebrate without honoring Christ’s body. Acts 2: 42-47 explains how every Christian called the Last Supper “the Fellowship of Believers” (Yancey, 2002, p. 62).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Lord’s Supper was a moment of remembrance. It encouraged believers to embrace new practices. It was the time to support the poor in the community. The Last Supper was a uniting factor that encouraged more people to enjoy God’s favor.
Why God Connects His Word of Grace with Water, Wine, and Bread Christians equate water, oil, wine, and water to God’s teachings. These things are readily available. They make it easier for individuals to remember their God. It is also agreeable that God created man and gave him a physical body. Christ used physical substances such as oil, water, and bread to teach new ideas. This approach makes these things holy and symbolic (Yancey, 2002).
Believers should sanctify and bless such things in order to represent Christ’s body on earth. Such physical things play a major role towards passing the message of salvation to different believers. Every Christian should embrace such things because they support his or her faith. Such “physical objects remind mankind about Christ’s promises” (Yancey, 2002, p. 98).
Reference List Welker, M. (2010). What Happens in Holy Communion? New York, NY: Eerdmans Publishing.
Yancey, P. (2002). What’s So Amazing About Grace. New York, NY: Zondervan.
The Impact of Crisis in Decision Making Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help
Various studies have attempted to examine the impact that crisis can have on making decisions, whether in organizations or in the public domain. In particular, the characteristics of crises have been studied in depth with an aim of discovering how they influence the mental and cognitive aspects of decision-making procedures.
For instance, tension, stress and uncertainty are the critical characteristics of crises that tend to have a profound impact on perceptual, motivational and affective dimensions of any decision making process1.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact that crisis has on decision-making. Considering the study by Maitlis and Ozcelik2, this paper argues that decision-making procedure relies on the cognitive aspects of humans, which influenced the leadership style, communication processes and goal orientations.
A crisis is defined as an event that threatens an organization’s existing high priority value, presents limitations in time needed to make decisions and is not expected. It has a profound impact on the organizational leadership, styles of leadership, positioning of organizational goals and the process of communication.
Emotion is perhaps one of the most important human aspects that come under the influence of the situations of an event when making decisions. According to Maitlis and Ozcelik, emotion has a profound role in the process of making decisions in any organization3.
Negative decisions are through to results from widespread negative emotions among the members involved in the process of making decisions. It has been argued that the nature of a crisis determines the emotions of the decisions makers. For instance, as noted earlier, a crisis is an event that is unexpected, occurs with limitation of time and threatens the condition of an organization or a society.
The fact that a crisis places an immediate threat to the wellbeing, survival or norms of a society implies that the individuals involved in the decision making process are not only posed with a major psychological problem, but also that their emotions are greatly affected. Some studies have shown that such situations tend to illicit decisions that are made out of desperation or negative emotions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maitlis and Ozcelic introduced the concept of toxic decision-making process4. According to their study, toxic decision-making process tends to generate widespread negative emotions in a given society or an organization. They argue that there is some interplay between the negative emotions and the action taken by the members to solve the crisis.
As previously indicated, the toxic decision-making process is a concept applied during a crisis. Studies have shown that it is a human response to desperation caused by a crisis. It elicits negative emotions, which results into major decisions that could not have been made in absence of the threat presented by the crisis. A good example of such a crisis is the 2006 war between Lebanon and Israel.
Prior to the war, both nations had not anticipated a full military conflict between them. Instead, the anticipations of a crisis were concerned with the illegal and hostile militia groups such as the Hezbollah5.
However, Lebanon’s continued support of the Hezbollah indicated that the nation’s military policy was oriented towards a possible combat against Israel. Therefore, this means that Israel was caught unaware by the Lebanese attacks.
The attacks on Israel posed a crisis to the nation’s decision-making body- the office of the prime minister. Since the attacks were sudden, time limiting and threatening, the amounted to a crisis. Therefore, it elicited negative emotions in Israel, which led to the immediate decision made by Israel to attack Lebanon as a country, killing hundreds of people, including innocent individuals.
Bibliography Das, Hari. “Impact of Crisis Situations on Organizational Decision-Making.” Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 16, no. 2 (October 2000): 181-193
Maitlis, Sally and Hakan Ozcelik. “Toxic Decision Processes: A Study of Emotion and Organizational Decision Making.” Organization Science 15, no. 4, (July-August 2004): 375–393
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Impact of Crisis in Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tür, Özlem. “The Lebanese war of 2006: reasons and consequences.” Perceptions 2 vol. 3 (Spring 2007): 109-122.
Footnotes 1 Hari Das, “Impact of Crisis Situations on Organizational Decision-Making,” Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 16, no. 2 (October 2000): 186
2 Sally Maitlis and Hakan Ozcelik, “Toxic Decision Processes: A Study of Emotion and Organizational Decision Making,” Organization Science 15, no. 4, (July-August 2004): 376
3 Maitlis and Ozcelik, 379
4 Maitlis and Ozcelik, 381
5 Özlem Tür, “The Lebanese war of 2006: reasons and consequences,” Perceptions 2 vol. 3 (Spring 2007): 109-122.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals Analytical Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of eight MDGs and their relation to health
Feasibility of accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals
Introduction In September 2000, 191 members of the United Nations ratified a charter known as the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The MDGs established goals that were to be achieved by all UN member states by 2015. The goals were premised on the desire to improve healthcare by improving access to universal education, gender equality, eradication of poverty and hunger and international cooperation.
Summary of eight MDGs and their relation to health The united nations MDGs were ratified by member states to the United Nations and this signified the beginning of a journey to improve living standards by the end of 2015. First, member states made a commitment to eradicate poverty and extreme hunger from their countries.
The United Nations noted that most member states had more than half their population living below the poverty line. By 2000, it was estimated that over 1.2 billion people were exposed to extreme poverty, hunger and deplorable living conditions. Developing countries contributed a larger number of people living below the poverty line according to the United Nations (Piebalgs, 2010).
Under the Millennium Development Goals, members made a commitment to achieve specific goals aimed at reducing the level of poverty in their countries. Based on the first goal of the MDGs, member states made a commitment to lower the number of people earning less than a one dollar per day.
Under this goal, the member states committed to providing productive employment and proper working condition for all without gender or age discrimination. Nations that ratified the declaration also committed to reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty.
A poor nation cannot be able to support the healthcare needs of its people due to lack of adequate facilities. By improving the economic status of the people through poverty eradication, the Millennium Development Goals sought to ensure that everyone had equal access to universal healthcare (Vilsack, 2013).
Achieving access to universal primary education by 2015 was the second goal of the declaration. Member states made a commitment to ensure that all children have access to universal primary education irrespective of their social and economic status. Before the ratification of the declaration, most developing countries lacked adequate capacity to provide universal primary education to children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With low literacy levels, residents of developing countries lack the capacity to control and manage infectious diseases. The high mortality and morbidity rates in Africa and some parts of Asia can be attributed to the low literacy levels (Vilsack, 2013).
The promotion of gender equality and access to employment opportunities, education and healthcare facilities was the third goal of the MDGs. Elimination of gender disparity within primary and secondary education in member states is essential in achieving other goals that are part of the declaration.
By 2015, signatories to the MDGs made a commitment to ensure that all its citizens have equal access to education and training opportunities irrespective of gender. The fourth goal of the declaration sought to reduce child mortality rates in member countries by two thirds (Kjorven, 2011).
In the developing countries, preventable diseases such as malaria, pneumonia and measles are the main causes of death in children under the age of five (Lomazzi
Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Traditionally, the concept of feudalism is discussed in relation to the ideas of vassalage and fiefs as the main characteristic features of the Medieval feudalism.
However, in her book Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted, Susan Reynolds states that it is inappropriate to follow the narrow discussion of feudalism with references to the concepts of vassalage and fiefs, and it is necessary to focus on the broad sense and explain feudalism in the context of the complex economic structure which affected the development of the Medieval society1.
According to Reynolds, feudalism is not directly linked to the traditional discussion of vassalage and fiefs promoted by F. L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch because of the historians’ failures while interpreting the medieval documents to support their arguments.
Thus, Reynolds tries to explore in her book “how far vassalage and the fief, as they are generally understood, constituted institutions which are definable, comprehensible, and helpful to the understanding of medieval history”2.
Reynolds’s thesis that feudalism should be discussed in the broad context as the influential economic and social structure opposes the ideas declared by Ganshof and Bloch, but the author’s statement can be discussed as successful because Reynolds provides the credible evidence to support her words while re-reading and interpreting the medieval documents.
Thus, Reynolds openly attacks the traditional vision promoted by Ganshof that vassalage and fiefs are the key features to characterize the nature of the Medieval feudalism. According to Ganshof, the vassalage based on the principles of vassals’ obedience and lords’ maintenance in the form of providing fiefs are the central institutions to determine the unique nature of the Medieval feudalism3.
Reynolds opposes this argument while noting that the term ‘vassalage’ “no longer matches either the evidence we have available or the conceptual tools we need to use in analyzing it. It is both too diffuse and too narrow”4. Furthermore, referring to the study of documents and analysis of the presented material, the author concludes that fiefs and vassalage are “post-medieval constructs”5.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is why, when historians try to apply the documents’ terminology to their discussions, they should “fit their findings into a framework of interpretation that was devised in the sixteenth century and elaborated in the seventeenth and eighteenth”6.
From this point, Reynolds focuses on the analysis of the medieval documents in the context of the studied historic period, and her discussion of vassalage and fiefs appears to be more complex and appropriate than the traditional view of Ganshof.
In spite of the fact that Bloch admits in his works that such terms as ‘vassalage’, ‘fiefs’, and ‘peasantry’ cannot serve to explain all the complexity of the feudal society, Reynolds does not accept the historian’s position. According to Reynolds, such discussions of the terms’ meanings are abstract, and it is necessary to refer to the detailed analysis of the medieval documents78.
Reynolds’s argument sounds convincingly because the author refers to the complete analysis of the medieval texts to support her thesis. Thus, Reynolds pays much attention to the meaning of words used during the Medieval era, and she states that “even if one context suggests some content for a word, that content cannot be assumed to be inherent in the word itself in such a way as to be transferred to other contexts and other cases”9.
That is why, many historians often misread the Medieval texts and documents while referring to the common vision of feudalism as an easy system based on the concepts of vassalage and fiefs. In this context, the evidence provided by Reynolds to support the argument is more convincing because of discussing the sources from many perspectives.
Reynolds’s approach to opposing Ganshof and Bloch’s arguments is successful because the author not only avoids focusing on the traditional narrow sense but also provides the effective evidence to support her basic ideas.
Furthermore, if Ganshof and Bloch discuss the basics of the feudal society only from social and economic perspectives, Reynolds goes far and provides the discussion of the legal sphere during the medieval period in order to explain her conclusions10.
We will write a custom Essay on Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why, in Reynolds’s book, much attention is paid to the explanation of the principles of the medieval property law with references to the normative statements and documents as the background for the author’s discussion.
Feudalism is usually considered as the main institution and social phenomenon associated with the period of the Medieval history. The book Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted written by Susan Reynolds includes an effective argument that the discussion of vassalage and fiefs as the basics to explain the whole system of the feudal society is inappropriate because of the narrowness of this vision.
Reynolds states that the focus on the context and the role of the social and economic structure is necessary, and the author successfully opposes the arguments declared by such historians as F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch while referring to her provocative, but reliable, interpretation of the medieval documents.
Bibliography Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. New York: Routledge, 1962.
Ganshof, Francois-Louis. “Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne”. Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 2 (1939): 147-175.
Reynolds, Susan. Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Footnotes 1 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 2.
2 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 2.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Francois-Louis Ganshof, “Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne”, Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 2 (1939): 149.
4 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 47.
5 Ibid., 2.
6 Ibid., 2.
7 Ibid., 4.
8 Marc Bloch, Feudal Society (New York: Routledge, 1962), 16.
9 Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, 119.
10 Ibid., 58.
History of Feudal System Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Feudalism as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and L. White
Marc Bloch on feudalism
The word ‘feudal’ was created by the Renaissance jurists of Italy to label what they saw as the usual customary law on land. It lacks a clear definition, but it may be inferred from the meaning created by historians, economists and philosophers. It was a social and economic structure defined by hereditary social lines. All these hereditary lines possessed natural, social, and economic benefits and responsibilities.
In this sense, wealth was primarily a creation of the land as a factor of production. However, it had been subjected to the cultured political economy at that time, which saw the serfs till it at the mercy of their lords. This concept is discussed in this paper, as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and Lynn White against the concept of feudalism by Marc Bloch.
Feudalism as articulated by F.L. Ganshof and L. White Feudalism was regarded as an administrative, martial, and societal creation that brought together the classes of aristocrats in medieval Europe and the vassalage by way of land as the uniting factor.
The principal advocate of this belief was F.L. Ganshof1, who viewed feudalism as a creation of the institutions that established and regulated the duties of obedience and service, mostly in military service, from the vassal towards the lord. In addition, there were reciprocal responsibilities of protection and upkeep on the lord the vassal. The lords would give out portions of lands to the vassals as goodies.
These portions of land were commonly known as fiefs. Feudalism to Ganshof was the possession of power by the lords in the form of land and its systematic transmission to the serfs.
Therefore, Ganshof’s observation and opinion were that classes had been effectively created by the feudal system, where the class of the lords or landowners protected and granted tenure of land to the vassals. Conversely, the vassals observed obedience and served the lords.2
Professor Lynn White, Jr., on her part, spoke of technological determinism. She used a set of writings to create her own compilation in 1962, known as, “Medieval Technology and Social Change”. This pamphlet contained a detailed discussion on technology and recent inventions of the middle ages, but more importantly it had a contentious theory regarding the foregoing issue of feudalism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More White3 reckons that the presence of technology during this age enabled the growth of the ambition of many lords, who would carry out spontaneous combat attacks on distant lands more easily.
She asserted that this was the impetus that drove a renowned man by the name Charles Martel to fast-track the annexation of lands that were held by the church. The lands were then distributed to his knights, who spent martial lives by buying expensive horses to back him in battle.
Additionally, White4 argued that there was a swing of political supremacy leaving the Mediterranean end of the planet and moving to the North of Europe. This wave of supremacy occurred as a result of the growing productivity in the technologized regions, whose farming was characterized by implements, such as improved carts for cultivation, improvement in harvest storage facilities, as well as industrialization.
These developments brought about a triple-annual harvest rotation for the lands. Professor White similarly studied the medieval machinery that improved motion and energy. All of this is what White refers to as the technological determinism of the people as a result of their empowerment for better lives through technological advancements.5
Marc Bloch on feudalism Unlike the above two philosophers who wrote their opinions earlier in the ages, Marc Bloch came at a time when there was a doubling of people in the western European region, the agrarian revolution which had a three crop rotation, heavyweight ploughs, horse carts, and the windmills. All these technological advancements were used for the growth and advancement of food production.
Similarly, there was a huge growth in trade, which led to the development of urban areas and the rebirth of a cash economy.6 The progress that was achieved economically helped the rulers in Europe to get more power and developed the modern Europe.
As a result, Marc had to define feudalism according to his age and times. In 1939, he described the “feudal society” as where class was not determined as superior based on the earnings of its members, but its warrior supremacy. The warrior classes were closely knit.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Feudal System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fragmentations led to disorder, but the family set up and the state helped maintain the ties, with the state during the feudal age seeking to restore the tight bonds in society.7
In contrast to the above two writers, Marc described the feudal system as a fundamentally dysfunctional system that brought about many vices and a huge disparity in the lives and the classes of the people.
Though both F.L. Ganshof and Lynn White had criticized the structure and working of feudalism, unlike Marc, they did not view it as a failed system that ‘led inevitably to disorder’. Instead, they viewed the feudal system as inevitable in the system of life of the day and saw it as the default economic system.8
Bibliography Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. New York: Routledge, 2014.
Ganshof, François Louis. “II. Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne.” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939): 147-175.
White, Lynn Townsend. Medieval Technology and Social Change, Vol. 163. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Footnotes 1 Louis François Ganshof, “II Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne,” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939), 147-175.
2 Louis François Ganshof, “II Benefice and Vassalage in the Age of Charlemagne,” Cambridge Historical Journal 6, no. 02 (1939), 147-175.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Feudal System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3 Townsend Lynn White, Medieval Technology and Social Change, Vol. 163 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964)
6 Marc, Bloch, Feudal Society (New York: Routledge, 2014)
The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery Critical Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Written by the American historian Eric Foner, the book “The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery” provides a detailed biographical portrait of Abraham Lincoln and his stance on slavery. Foner states that his purpose of writing the book was to examine what was Abraham Lincoln’s thought about slavery1.
The author focused on Lincoln’s public life and the speeches he made in regards to slavery and his position during the Civil War. In particular, Foner avoids engaging or referring to the previous works by historians. Instead, he focuses on the speeches and writings by Lincoln.
In this book, Foner states that the book is important in history classes as well as creating knowledge for the Americans about their history, especially by appreciating the important role that Abraham Lincoln played during the abolishment of slavery and the civil war.
The Author states that the American people have a reason to thank God for Abraham Lincoln, despite the deficiencies that the president had, because he was willing to grow. It is worth noting that the book has been written in a scholarly approach, suggesting that it was meant for scholarly work.
By the time of the book’s publication in 2010, Eric Foner was a professor of History at the Columbia University. He specializes in the American History, especially in the social, economic and political aspects of the country during the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras2.
Summary The author’s main argument is based on his review of Lincoln’s speeches and writings as well as his biography. By digging deep into Lincoln’s history, times, speeches and writings, Foner has attempted to examine the President’s stance on slavery in the United States and his reaction to the issue that greatly affected the American society and economy.
From these sources, Foner’s general argument (thesis) is that Abraham Lincoln had a moderate approach to the issue of slavery and expressed the willingness to ‘grow’, which changed his attitudes with time. Foner further argues that Lincoln’s hope was to see the slave-holding states choose preservation of the States’ union rather than defending slavery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Foner argues that Lincoln’s speeches and writings indicate that he initially supported the idea of colonizing the freed slaves back to Africa, but eventually abandoned the idea and supported the new idea of ending slavery and recognizing the black people as equal citizens of the US. In particular, Foner supports his thesis by showing how desperate Lincoln was to win the Civil War against the southern states by ending slavery.
Thus, he argues that the president’s ability to learn and take the right stance during the period not only ended the Civil War and Slavery, but also contributed to the preservation of the union of states.
In summary, Foner starts by tracing the evolution of President Abraham Lincoln’s ideas about the issue of slavery. The author starts with a biography of Lincoln. He analyzes the president’s early career in the Illinois legislature in the 1830s, his term in Congress during the 1840s and his career as the leader of the Republican Party in the 1850s.
In addition, a deep examination of Lincoln’s presidency during the Civil war has been developed. There is a clear focus on what Lincoln said in public and his writings. The author focuses on issues that Lincoln mentioned in his speeches. For instance, he examines Lincoln’s first experience with the problem of slavery when growing up in Kentucky.
When in Illinois, Lincoln was dealing with issues related to slavery because he was practicing law in the state. Then, Lincoln’s political career has received a lot of focus in the book. Foner shows how Lincoln’s stance on slavery changed significantly as his political career changed and his capacity faced serious problems associated with slavery, the civil war and the threat to the union.
Although he was a republican, he changed from his support of the idea of repatriating the freed slaves to the African continent and started supporting the idea of making the black people a part of the American population.
Critical analysis As stated above, Foner’s main source of evidence is the writings and speeches that Abraham Lincoln made in his public career, from his days in the legal practice up to the time of his assassination. For instance, Foner states that his intention was to use these sources to examine the evolution of Abraham Lincoln’s ideas, stance and policies about slavery from his early life in Kentucky to his career in politics (Foner XVII).
We will write a custom Book Review on The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foner states that Lincoln’s ability to grow was based on his early encounter with issues relating to slavery as well as marriage to a daughter of a slave owner. For instance, Foner indicates that Lincoln, when serving as a lawyer representing slave owner, said, “I am a natural antislavery individual. If the act of slavery is not wrong, then I do not believe there is any wrong action”.
However, Foner also states that Lincoln used such words as “nigger” and “dark” in his writings and speeches. Foner also cites cases in which Lincoln expressed his support of the idea that the black people were physically different from the whites3.
However, Lincoln states that Lincoln’s entry into politics and party affairs of the Whig party changed his perceptions towards slavery and the black communities in the US. Foner states that Lincoln steered a “middle course”. For instance, Foner states that Lincoln thought that slavery was violating the basic principles of the American constitution. According to Foner, Lincoln “remained devoted to the federal constitution of the US”.
Noteworthy, Foner’s work is based on an in-depth analysis of the speeches and writings Lincoln made in public. In addition, he examines Lincoln’s upbringing, including the issues that faced him when growing up in Kentucky and during his stay in Illinois.
It also examines the social, economic and political issues that took place when Lincoln entered active party politics. An in-depth examination of the private life of Lincoln, including his marriage, has been done.
Nevertheless, Foner’s methodology is biased because he refuses to engage or refer to other historian’s work, especially those who focused on Lincoln and his presidency.
Therefore, it is possible to develop counterarguments, especially by claiming that Lincoln hardly grew, especially on the issue of slavery because he was only responding to the changing circumstances in the American politics rather than being part of the change.
Conclusion Foner’s work proves that Lincoln experienced dramatic change in his life, especially in terms of his thought about slavery. This is demonstrated in the author’s ability to trace Lincoln’s perception of slavery from his early days in Kentucky to his presidency. Thus, this book contributes to the existing knowledge about Lincoln’s role in ending the civil war and slavery and preservation of the union of states.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Foner, Eric, and Lisa McGirr. American history now. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011.
Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.
VanderMey, Randall Verne Meyer, John Van Rys, and Patrick Sebranek. The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing, and Researching. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2014.
Footnotes 1 Randall VanderMey, Verne Meyer, John Van Rys, and Patrick Sebranek, The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing, and Researching (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2014), 222.
2 Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), i-446.
3 Eric Foner and Lisa McGirr, American history now (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011), 18-64.
Congress is a Broken Institution Evaluation Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Oversight over the Federal Government
The Health Care Reforms
Protection of Civil Liberty
Power over the National Budgeting Process
Control over the National Security and the International Wars
Introduction The unending public and political debates concerning the credibility of the present Congress House of the United States have provoked constitutional changes (Sinclair, 2009). Political analysts and some of the open-minded American citizens have considered the Congress to be an ineffective institution, because the American government seems to manipulate the organization.
Complaints against the sovereignty of the institution are diverse and range from its obvious partisanship, its demeaned civilization, to its record of numerous legislative ambiguities. America is embarking on a series of constitutional reforms that would stabilize the Congress (Sinclair, 2009). Pertinent to such notions, this essay analyzes some recently proposed constitutional amendments aimed to refurbish the Congress.
Oversight over the Federal Government The American constitution vested the executive powers upon the president (Sinclair, 2009). However, the recently witnessed close relations between the Congress and the president have made the congress seem ineffectual and partisan. The American Anticorruption Act of 2013 is a recent Congressional reform, which will probably assist the Congress to curb political corruption and bribery.
The levels of corruption have become unbearable, while the recent Democratic and Republican leaders have remained focused on raising money for elections (Ruby, 2010). The Act may thrive due to its promising power to reform the American politics, which have proven uneconomical to the nation.
The Health Care Reforms The healthcare department is one of the heavily affected national departments since the Congress became dysfunctional, and almost overpowered by the executive. According to Ruby, the government has been manipulative in its overall sovereignty in the healthcare department, since it imposes frustrating restrictions and reforms (2010).
The uncontrolled Obamacare health project has been costly and has caused severe economic crunches in America. Ruby (2010) also asserts that the Patient’s Choice Act of 2009 and the Empowering Patients First Act that may replace the Affordable Care Act might assist the Congress to have power over the executive on the important healthcare issues.
Protection of Civil Liberty The close relationship witnessed between the Congress and the president has hampered civil liberty (Sinclair, 2009). One of the proposed amendments is the improvement of the Sunset Extension Act of 2009. The Act is under the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. The USA PATRIOT Act 2001 was an effective Congressional law that strengthened the civil autonomy over the national issues about security and healthcare (Ruby 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The amendments of this Act may happen due to the rising concern over the uprising Islamic State of Iraq (ISIS), and its terror missions across the United States (Ruby 2010). In addition, the Justice Act of 2009 will transform the sovereignty of the American citizens and their rights to exercise their civil independence.
Power over the National Budgeting Process Congress lost its national responsibility of overseeing the budgeting process of America. Such loopholes have resulted to poor government control on the national expenditure. The proposed amendments of the constitution include efforts to revamp the 1974 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act (Ruby, 2010).
The Act allows the formation of a committee that consists of members from both the Congress and the Senate Houses. The committee is important in the control of the federal budgeting processes. According to Ruby (2010), the act will empower the Congress to reduce the direct power of the president over the budget. Such amendments may succeed because the parliament wants to minimize the budget.
Control over the National Security and the International Wars The biggest concerns of the American government are the rising levels of insurgency, the Muslim extremism, and the safety issues of America as a world giant economy (Sinclair, 2009). The American army and its security personnel have scattered across the world to counter extremists, terrorists and insurgents.
Such approaches are raising fear and national anxiety, although the government seems to ignore these tensions (Sinclair, 2009). The American parliament is seeking to reform the USA PATRIOT Act 2001, and the War Powers Act of 1973 to control the powers of the government over the national military and its engagement in the global warfare (Sinclair, 2009).
Conclusion The executive branch of America is unfair and manipulative. The close relationships between the Congress and the president have resulted to controversies that have inspired the people to consider Congress an ineffective institution. The American parliament has proposed credible amendments to the national constitution.
The reforms include Acts that support healthcare reforms, control the national budgeting process, the national and international security affairs, and protect the civil liberty. These Acts may succeed because they target the main concerns that affect the American economy, its national security, and its national cohesion.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Congress is a Broken Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Ruby, J. (2010). Sound and Fury, Confused Alarms, and Oversight: Congress, Delegation, and Effective Responses to Financial Crises. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 47(1), 210-252.
Sinclair, B. (2009). Question: What’s wrong with Congress? Answer: It’s a Democratic Legislature. Boston University Law Review 89(2), 387-397.
Organizational Behaviour and Negotiations Case Study online essay help
The duties of a management demand outgoing, elite, and sociable people. A manager must create an organized society that respects his/her decisions by upholding the key ideologies he or she sets (Mosadeghrad 2012). The attainment of such an attribute does not appear stringently in a moment. It is a character that is earned through continued working experience.
It involves becoming part of that society and understanding the requirement of such a community. The problem addressed in this paper involves how people can trust and be reliant to their manager as the centre of decision-making.
How can a manager motivate and boost the confidence of employees and other people in an organization? In a bid to answer this question, a case study on the personal attributes has been evaluated in respect to management.
Personal Assessment Strength
This module has been a source of many lessons that form the base of self-assessment. While conducting a personal evaluation, I noted that I have various attributes that can lead to successful management. In my management, I guide through doing what I expect my juniors to accomplish. In this regard, I exercise participatory management where the manager participates actively in the activities of a team.
This practise helps in analyzing the capabilities of the team members in order to assign them with appropriate roles (DuBrin 2004). For example, I have been a leader to an academic group where we were conducting research on the qualities of a good manager. During the study, we interviewed various departmental heads in the university in order to obtain their opinions towards proper management.
During the interviews, I participated in the recording of data while my colleagues asked questions to the staff. I took this minor role rather than interacting with the heads orally. It allowed the group members to improve their interpersonal communication and oral skills. In addition, the other group members accomplished their roles easily because I had set the pace. It was a perfect example of how managers should lead.
In fact, it was one of the ways that my colleagues learned about humility, dedication and active participation. Secondly, I noted that I was a motivational leader who hardly gave up when situations were very tough. In regard to this study conducted with my colleagues, there were very many difficulties because the departmental leaders were busy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, we found the offices closed when trying to look for the lecturers in charge of the departments. However, I remained optimistic and persuaded my colleagues to find an appointment despite the prolonged absence.
Despite the good attributes, I realized that there were various aspects that impair my management skills. In this case, one of the main poor aspects was the lack of accommodativeness. I did not give chance to the opinions of other people. In fact, I entered into frequent arguments in order to convince them on the viability of my idea rather than understanding their sentiments. I was tempted to make decisions alone and implement them.
This personality had developed a tendency of willing to implement the opinions I had provided and discarding the ones provided by other people. This behaviour had impacted on the unity of the academic group which I was leading for one year. The effect of this vice was neutralized by the validity of my opinions because I mostly provided viable ideas. However, it was not right to believe in personal opinions resolutely.
This behaviour was one of the main attributes that I had to eliminate in order to attain a highly reputable and effective management. Another vice that impact on the effectiveness of my management skills is the incapability in solving conflicts between team members (Eunson, 2007). When I was solving conflicts, I tended to favour one party over the other in accordance to my personal preferences and morals.
For example, I was tempted to make a premature judgment on a person’s identification about whether they had made mistakes in the past. During my research for this module, I realized that conflicts should be considered individually. When solving conflict, managers should not use past perception to adjudge a case. Instead, they should consider the aspects of that conflict as a separate case from the past ones.
Analysis Creation of a Vision
The most fundamental requirement of good managers is the power to create a vision for the companies. This requirement is based on the premises that an organization is formed on the basis of a vision. The vision comprises of common objectives of the company that defines what all stakeholders should attain (Bass
The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts Problem Solution Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction: Where the Conflict Begins
Conflict Analysis: History, Participants and Environment
Dispute Resolution: A “Portfolio” School System
Methods Implementation: The Negotiation Process
Mediation Process: In Search for a Compromise
Key Stakeholders and Major Factors: Evaluating the Situation
Conclusion: Revisiting the Principles of the Education System
Introduction: Where the Conflict Begins Charter schools have been an integral part of an education system in a range of states for quite a while. However, with the evolution of pedagogy, the development of new learning theories and teaching approaches, the necessity for teachers to adopt new approaches has emerged.
As a result, charter schools are currently experiencing the necessity to grow and expand, yet this growth is halted by the lack of financial support from school districts.
It should be born in mind that the emergence of the so-called charter schools is by no means an accident. The establishment of the charter school system was a response to the flaws of the U.S. education system, and an introduction of the model, that could authorise and build capacity in the education system of the state.
A closer look at the way in which the Boston charter schools are organised will reveal that the existing system presuppose a complete independency in terms of defining the program and the teaching strategies required for addressing the needs of the target students (i.e., the necessity to assist ESL students and the students, who lack financial support from their families) (Peyser para. 1–6).
Conflict Analysis: History, Participants and Environment The conflict between charter schools and school districts is not new; in fact, the history of confrontations between the local authorities and the people representing corresponding education establishments has been going on since the day that the two phenomena emerged.
However, charter schools being a rather recent and specific innovation in the history of education, the dilemma regarding the freedom, which schools should be provided with, has taken a new turn.
Among the key participants, Boston charter schools and the local school districts must be mentioned. Neither of the opponents is willing to compromise, the schools demanding that they should be given the right to expand, and the school district authorities refusing to provide financial support from the establishments that they have practically no control over.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The environment, in which the conflict has been brewing for several years, is quite specific. Boston is a unique city with a rather rich history; however, as far as its economic success is concerned, the number of people coming from a low income background is quite high.
Therefore, the school district does not consider investing into the development of the Boston charter schools a rational step and prefers to disregard the demands of the Boston charter school teachers.
Dispute Resolution: A “Portfolio” School System The significance of the conflict specified above is tremendous. While the confrontation between the parties involved into it is not as severe as military conflicts are (Harvard Business Review 69), it still causes a lot of concern and leads to a variety of questions, including the possible changes to the financial support for Boston public schools, which may suffer as a result of budget cuts that may be made by the school district.
Therefore, it goes without saying that the method for addressing the situation must satisfy the needs and meet the demands of both charter and public schools, as well as the school district.
The “portfolio” system, which has been suggested in order to address the problem specified above, truly is an original solution customised uniquely for the benefit of both Boston charter schools and local school districts. The solution suggested by the people concerned about the issue seems perfect; it hurts neither of the parties and at the same time works for the benefit of charter schools.
The very title for the new type of schools represents a perfect solution to the problem and the satisfactory result for all the parties involved, since it presupposes that the control over the new type of charter schools will be split in equal proportions between school districts and heads of the charter schools.
As a result, it will be possible for school districts to track down the financial transactions, which charter schools make, and check what charter schools’ administration spends the finances provided by the school district on. This is the power divide strategy that will help all those involved benefit (Melamed 1).
We will write a custom Essay on The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the conflict management perspective, the solution to the confrontation between charter schools and school districts is impeccable.
Though it does involve a compromise and demands it from each of the parties, it rewards a positive response with an opportunity for charter schools to expand and for school districts to control the financial transactions of the Boston schools, therefore, making the process of budget distribution much easier. This, however, raises the question whether BATNA could be developed in case the school district refuses to compromise.
Interpreted as the best alternative to a negotiated solution, BATNA actually does not require that a negotiation with the opponent should be carried out: “BATNAs are critical to negotiation because you cannot make a wise decision about whether to accept a negotiated agreement unless you know what your alternatives are” (Sprangler 1).
The incorporation of BATNA in the set of tools for addressing the problem, however, invites the question concerning the future communication between the school district and Boston charter schools.
Methods Implementation: The Negotiation Process While the solution described above seems quite obvious and presupposes that reasonable compromises should be made by both opponents, it would be too optimistic to assume that the negotiation process is going to be carried out impeccably and that the discussion procedure is going to flow smoothly.
Instead, it can be expected that the participants of the negotiation will be unwilling to accept their part of the compromise and refuse to make the final step towards reconciliation and the improvement of their relationships. Therefore, the negotiation process must be thought through outstandingly well.
Recognizing their mistakes will be the first step towards improving the situation for the Boston school district and the local charter schools. The process is not going to be easy, though, According to what Dunning’s research has shown, people traditionally fail to come to terms due to the inability to recognise their own mistakes:
“Recent research we have conducted, however, suggests that people are not adept at spotting the limits of their knowledge and expertise” (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger and Kruger 83). As a rule, the unwillingness to admit the obvious failure can be explained by the fear of being socially ostracised and labelled as incompetent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Conflict between Boston Charter Schools and School Districts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Herein the key to solving the conflict lies; it is essential to help the parties involved realise that their ability to recognise their fault redeems them as people, who are capable of telling the right solution from the wrong one. As Dunning put it, “If
poor performers are given the skills necessary to distinguish correct from incorrect answers, then they would be in a position to recognise their own incompetence” (Dunning et al. 85). The negotiation process, therefore, must be steered towards the compromising approach.
In other words, the emphasis must be put onto developing a compromising strategy instead of focusing on the competitive one. It would also be a good idea to steer the discussion to a more comfortable analysis of the financial changes with the help of accommodative approach.
Mediation Process: In Search for a Compromise Though it is desirable that the opponents in question, i.e., school district members and the people representing charter schools, should attempt at solving the issue on their own. Unless both sides of the conflict recognize the necessity to reconcile and find points of contact, there will be no point in addressing the situation.
However, it could be argued that with the introduction of a third party, which will represent and entirely objective point of view, the process of negotiation will take place faster and more smoothly.
Therefore, it will be reasonable to suggest that the mediation process should be facilitated by the Massachusetts Joint Committee on Education. As a third party that is not interested in the outcomes of the negotiation, yet is a major authority in the field of education, it will be a perfect mediator for resolving the specified conflict.
It can be suggested that charter schools should provide additional opportunities for students; thus, it will be possible to provide the schools with the status that they need.
For instance, creating courses for the students, who are willing to study specific subjects in depth, could be a way to solve the problem In addition, it is desirable that the Massachusetts charter schools should design a flexible system of upgrade based on the concept of economic and financial sustainability.
Thus, the costs will be reduced impressively, and the school districts will see the potential that charter schools and their students have. Finally, it will be a good idea to arrange basketball and soccer facilities in several charter schools so that major school sport related events could be held there.
Attracting participants from other schools will help raise the money that will be used as the means to upgrade charter schools to the necessary level.
Key Stakeholders and Major Factors: Evaluating the Situation When it comes to defining the major stakeholders involved into the conflict, one is most likely to mention teachers of Boston charter schools and the members of the Boston school districts. Indeed, these are the sides of the conflict that remain in the spotlight most of the time; they are the main participants, and they are involved in most of the discussions concerning the issue in question.
True, the Boston charter schools and the Boston school districts are obviously two essential stakeholders in the specified conflict. However, there are other stakeholders that deserve to be mentioned.
First and foremost, students of the Boston charter schools must be recognised as the key stakeholders, since their future academic life, as well as their career and success in the business world, hinges on the decision that the local authorities make in order to address the situation. Naturally, such a great dependence on the outcome of the conflict makes the Boston charter school students the key stakeholders.
However, it would be wrong to disregard the aforementioned opponents when listing the major stakeholders. The choice that the Boston school district will make will obviously affect the school staff as well, as the latter will have to alter the teaching approaches, as well as introduce new teaching strategies in order to meet new requirements.
Indeed, expansion of an education establishment presupposes that the diversity rates in charter schools are going to increase significantly, which will call for designing additional strategies for meeting the needs of children with various ethnic backgrounds, gifted children, children with disabilities, etc.
Moreover, the rise in the amount of students will also entail the necessity to hire more staff and, thus, to reconsider the school budget and the current schedule.
Needless to say, the school districts are also highly dependent on the solution that will be chosen in order to address the situation.
Using the budget funds for expanding charter schools means that the school district will have to cut costs for other issues concerning financial support of schools; therefore, it is in the interests of the school districts to address the issue in such a way that the costs should be minimised. Thus, the members of the school districts must also be viewed as the key stakeholders in the conflict in question.
As far as the factors are concerned, there are key financial, economic and social issues that may hinder the process of conflict resolution. The financial issues top the list of the key factors. Because of the need to re-establish the current principle of a charter school operation, the costs for the innovation are going to be impressive.
Carving the money out of the budget means that public schools will be left without the required support. The fact that charter schools are practically independent from school districts in terms of their education policy, in contrast to public ones, investing into the development of charter schools hardly seems reasonable for the Boston school districts.
More to the point, the fact that students from low income families, as well as students belonging to ethnic and national minorities, make most of the student population in charter schools in Boston, does not add any credibility to the plea of the heads of Boston charter schools.
Though the issue specified above seems to be financial, it, in fact, should be deemed as a social one, and related to the discrimination problems within the modern society.
Conclusion: Revisiting the Principles of the Education System Though the solution, which requires responsibilities distribution and power divide between school districts and school authorities, requires that major concessions should be made by both parties, mutual compromise is the only way to settle the conflict. Moreover, the specified strategy seems the only rational approach to be taken in this situation.
Once both sides of the conflict are secure about their control over the issue, they will be able to come to terms. The mediation process, which is the key towards reaching a compromise, must be based on the principles of cooperation and presuppose that the charter schools should use their key assets to solve the conflict. At present, to reach a compromise, charter schools need to prove that they are worth investing in.
Works Cited Dunning, David, Kerry Johnson, Joyce Ehrlinger and Justin Kruger. “Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12.1 (2014), 83–87. Print.
Harvard Business Review. Extreme Negotiations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review. 2010. 67–75. Print.
Melamed, James. Maximizing Mediation. 2014. Web. .
Peyser, James A. “Boston and the Charter School Cap.” Education Next 14.1 (2014), para. 1–6. Web. .
Sprangler, Brad. “Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).” Beyond Intractability. 2012. Web. .
Freedom of Speech and Expression Opinion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
It is indeed true that the freedom of individual expression largely emanates from the level of autonomy granted. When our individual autonomies are restricted, the freedom of expression is also affected. This implies that autonomy is the epitome of the freedom of expression in many ways.
Nonetheless, a certain level of restriction is usually applied by authorities in cases whereby the granted autonomy may lead to chaos or disruption of peace (de Zayas
McDonald’s and KFC Corporate Responsibility Report (Assessment) writing essay help
Introduction Organisations have a responsibility to function as good citizens by ensuring sustainability of their supply chains and protecting the interest of their shareholders. They have to establish mechanisms of enhancing corporate governance. An organisation can also protect shareholders from losing their investments by ensuring that risks that lead to a reduction of competitive advantage are proactively mitigated.
In the fast-food industry, such risks include changing the attitude and sensitisation on the sustainability of fast-food organisations and sourcing strategies from consumers and communities in which the organisations operate.
An effective supply chain arm of an organisation ensures that products and services are availed just whenever they are required in a manner that will ensure that the increasing number of products that need to be availed in the market is sustainable (Bakshi
Bureaucratic Politics Impact on Decision-Making Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Bureaucratic politics, as well as organizational dynamics are characterized by a long, categorized, and non-essential political process that involves too many players before a decision is made.
As a matter of fact, bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics’ time consumption are disadvantageous to the political players and the political playing field, as it slows down the process and does not serve to protect or respect the best interests of a nation.
Welch (1992, 125) notes that information on Soviet missiles launched in Cuba was brought to the attention of President Kennedy on October 14, instead of three weeks earlier as a result of the routines and processes of in the organizations that made up the U.S. intelligence community.
Often, the political leadership of a nation is faced with decisions that require fast determination and arrival at timely decisions, lest the agenda of the decision is rendered nugatory. These decisions require fast thinking, reasoning, and determination.
However, long and bureaucratic processes negate this aspect and deal with such matters too procedurally. Such slowing down of the processes brings about a lot of negative effects on the analysis of the situations and decision making is made ineffective in some circumstances (Bendor and Hammond 1992, 305).
Besides, bureaucratic politics and structural dynamics may make a nation’s political players arrive at wrong decisions in their quest to adhere and follow the requisite channels of procedure.
As Preston and Hart (1990, 50) note, after the first incursion of South Korea by North Korea in 1950, President Harry S. Truman dispersed a memo to his staff detailing the changes that he decided to carry out in the arrangement and working of the presidential advisory group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He no longer wished to receive proposals on policies regarding Korea. Instead, he ordered that such proposals be taken to him through the National Security Council body. He additionally restructured his advisory team to a limited number of trusted officials to carry out policy formulation.
The restructuring of the advisory arrangement brought about a lot of bureau-political struggle amongst factions in government, leading to a fundamentally incorrect set of recommendations being presented back to Truman.
Thus, it is undeniable that the longevity of a bureaucratic process of politics and structural dynamics will not only impact the political process by slowing it down, but it will similarly lead to confusion and incorrectness in arriving at decisions (Preston and Hart 90, 51).
Additionally, bureaucratic politics and the structural dynamic have an impact on the costs incurred in decision making, as well as policy formulation. One might argue that a single-time-period model is appropriate for crises. However, even in a crisis, the effects of options may be spread over multiple time periods.
Consider, for example, President Kennedy’s concern for the United States’ international reputation for firmness and resolve; such reputational consequences may endure for years. In estimating the consequences of any option that a government might choose, the same is to be done rationally in consideration of the costs to be incurred and the benefits enjoyed.
The benefits are spread over a long period (Bendor and Hammond 1992, 308). The application of a bureaucratic process in policy and decision making generally involves the coordinated work of a number of offices that are to be involved in rendering the decisions, instead of relying on a single entity to make decisions.
As is to be expected, the running of such many offices and personnel consumes many resources from the coffers of a nation, which deplete a lot of financial resources from a country’s treasury (Welch 1992, 114).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Bureaucratic Politics Impact on Decision-Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, bureaucratic politics and structural dynamics may also be said to be beneficial to the government’s analysis and decision-making process to a lesser extent.
This argument is based on the fact that bureaucracy respects legal processes stipulated for due decision making, thereby promoting democratic governance, transparency, and accountability. Additionally, it promotes the working culture of the teamwork spirit, where persons are united in the engagement of the task of decision making.
Reference List Bendor, Jonathan and Thomas Hammond T. 1992. “Rethinking Allison’s Models.” American Political Science Review 86, no. 2 (June): 301-322.
Preston, Thomas and Paul ‘t Hart. 1990. “Understanding and Evaluating Bureaucratic Politics: The Nexus between Political Leaders and Advisory.” Political Psychology 20, no. 1 (March): 49-98.
Welch, David A. 1992. “The Organizational Process and Bureaucratic Politics Paradigms: Retrospect and Prospect.” International Security 17, no. 2 (Fall): 112-146.
Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer Report essay help site:edu
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It seeks to explore the topic using a Dubai based organisation called Gulftainer. The main focus of the paper is to understand how the organisation relates to the environment, people and the community, and its management systems and whether these relations and systems are in line with CSR principles.
The paper begins with a description of the industry under which the organisation’s business falls. The description is followed by an overview of the components of CSR which is followed by an analysis of the organisation using the three aspects mentioned above, that is; the environment, people and the community, and management systems.
The analysis is accompanied by recommendations on where the organisation needs to improve.
Description of the Industry Gulftainer’s core business is provision of port and freight services to individual clients, companies, and institutions. The port and freight industry is one of the industries which are complex and sophisticated due to the nature of operations. The industry is characterized by intensive logistical operations, planning, networking, and coordination. If well managed, the industry is highly rewarding in terms of profits and returns.
The other characteristic of the industry is that it has barriers to entry owing to the huge investment capital required for a start up. However, the barriers do not guarantee monopoly for companies because of rivalry between existing competitors even if they are few. This rivalry between existing competitors calls for individual companies to have a competitive strategy so as to attract and retain customers.
The nature of the business also requires the companies to have good relations with the environment and the people. The reason is that the business has a high probability of damaging marine and other environments especially through oil spillage. As a result, developing and adhering to a strict code of ethics by the companies becomes compulsory because without doing so, there is no business success.
Corporate Social Responsibility Ethical conduct of corporations is intertwined with CSR. The concept of CSR is generally used to refer to the relationship between businesses and their environment. All businesses operate in social, political, economic, and natural environments. The concept therefore takes into account how businesses interact with these environments, either positively or negatively (Scarre 196).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The topic of CSR can be broken down into four main components namely the ethical, economic, philanthropic and legal components. The ethical component of CSR comprises the requirements or expectations of any business by the society.
Such requirements or expectations include things like doing what is just, fair and right, using the law as the basis of organisational behaviour, avoidance of questionable practices and doing business in a manner which is above the minimal requirements (Carroll 23).
The economic component comprises taking care of the interests of the shareholders, investors and customers, profit maximisation, the minimisation of the costs of undertaking a business and the formulation and implementation of strategic policies which propel the business forward (Aras and Crowther 87).
The legal component comprises the respect and compliance of a business to various laws such as environmental laws, consumer laws, laws which protect the employees, as well as the respect of contractual agreements between an organisation and its clients or employees (Kizza 20).
Finally the philanthropic component entails giving back to the society by a business. A business may do this in a variety of ways like establishing or supporting programs which directly benefit the society like health and education programs as well as programs which boost harmonious living of people from diverse backgrounds (Bratton and Gold 72).
How Gulftainer behaves in a morally responsible way towards the environment One area which is in the fore front in regard to the company’s environmental policy is the conservation of marine environment.
The reason is that most of its operations depend on the marine environment. The company has a comprehensive marine conservation policy which is clearly indicated at all the terminals where goods are dispatched and received. The idea is to make the employees and clients fully aware of the company’s high regard to conservation of the marine environment.
We will write a custom Report on Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has established very clear guidelines in form of a policy which outlines its relationship to the environment. It behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the environment through providing support to other organisations such as the EWS-WWF.
The support is through partnership between Gulftainer and EWS-WWF in a marine turtle conservation project which has been implemented in the last three years (Mühle 82).
Through the turtle conservation project, the company has managed to save the life of many turtles and extended their life span. It encourages people to take care of the beautiful creatures though educating the people on the dos and don’ts when dealing with the turtles.
The company in partnership with the Group Middle East launched a philanthropic program where philanthropists may adopt turtles. The adoption entails visiting any turtle conservation centre in the region and donating money which goes in the turtle conservation project.
The organisation also has a marine conservation policy which ensures compliance with all laws and regulations which are put in place to protect the marine environment. For instance, it takes the necessary actions to ensure that its operations do not negatively affect the marine environment either directly or indirectly.
Such a policy is a pointer of a morally responsible behaviour because environmental pollution by corporates affects the health of the community. Having a clean environment ensures that the community enjoys a healthy environment and leads a healthy life.
Another area where the company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the environment is through recycling of waste water. The company operates a department responsible of recycling of waste water to ensure that it is brought back to use. The recycling not only protects the environment from harmful toxins in the water but it also enables the company to reduce the cost of production.
Apart from recycling of waste water, the company has an elaborate infrastructure for disposing oil waste, used toner cartridges, steal, batteries, and other toxic by-products. The company also has an elaborate infrastructure for cleaning any spilled oil immediately to avoid damage to the marine environment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility for Gulftainer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the company’s managing director Mr Peter Richards, the company believes in the 3R policy of reduce, re-use and recycle. It does not only practice the 3R policy but also implements programs which aim at increasing the awareness of the community to practice the 3R policy in their homes and places of work.
The company also invests in providing its customers with services and products which help them understand their environmental challenges and how to mitigate risks associated with the environment. The company uses this approach because it believes that for sustainability purposes, it must build the capacity of the people and community to let them understand their environment and take good care of it.
The company is concerned about global warming which is caused by carbon emissions. In order to curb carbon emissions to the atmosphere, the company has installed Rubber Tyres Gantries (RTGs) in most of its terminals.
The RTGs not only prevent carbon emission but they also reduce noise pollution since they are powered by the main grid which means that when they are operational, the main engine of the company is usually switched off. The company also monitors the carbon emissions by its vehicles to ensure that there is full fuel combustion. The vehicles which are found to have faulty fuel combustion systems are repaired or replaced.
As a result of its commitment to environmental conservation and commitment to the 3R policy, the company was awarded a certificate of recognition by a delegation from Bee’ah, which is one of the largest Middle East organisations dealing with waste management.
While receiving the certificate, the company’s managing director acknowledged their partnership with Bee’ah and reiterated his company’s commitment to environmental conservation especially in the Sharjah region of the UAE.
How Gulftainer behaves in a morally responsible way towards the Community For many years since its inception, Gulftainer has engaged itself in various charitable initiatives especially in the Sharjah region of the UAE where it has sponsored various institutions in academics and co-curricular activities such as sports. Through the sponsorship, it buys school uniforms, learning, and sports equipments to the institutions with the aim of boosting their performance in academics and sports.
The organisation does not only provide sponsorship through purchase of equipments but it also encourages its staff to volunteer their time to coach and mentor communities for them to have crucial life skills such as interpersonal, public speaking, and sports skills among others.
The aim of the mentorship is to ensure that the company maintains a good relationship with the people and have a community which can sustain itself socially and economically.
Elsewhere in Iraq, the organisation has a policy of giving priority to Iraq citizens in employment opportunities. Giving the locals first priority in employment has a positive impact on the company in that it ensures domestication of the local culture in the organisation’s culture which has an overall effect of improving organisational efficiency and productivity due to cohesiveness in the organisation.
Apart from giving the Iraq citizens first priority in employment, the organisation participates in improving the welfare of the people through implementation of community centered projects such as donation of water purifiers to residents of Umm Qasr region.
Just like in other regions, the company also sponsors football clubs in Iraq with the aim of building rapport with them and especially the youth. The idea is to have a socially and economically empowered youth as future customers and employees.
The other way in which the company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the people is through building prosperous communities.
The company believes that prosperous communities are based on prosperous economy and that is why it helps the communities to flourish by investing in industries and organisations which bring people together in groups for economic prosperity. Such groups are financed by the company to tackle various issues such as social inclusion and education.
Gulftainer’s Management Systems The company has an integrated management system which has adequate linkages among various departments. The departmental heads usually consult each other and they put efforts in ensuring that all activities are in harmony with each other.
It has also embraced the concept of total quality management which comprises good and committed leadership, excellent product design, strategic planning, process management, customer involvement, employee involvement, dissemination of information and feedback, training and the management of supply quality.
The organisation also has in place a wide range of good practices such as customer satisfaction, care for the employees, teamwork, creativity, innovativeness, and observation of business ethics. It is a member of various quality focused bodies in the UAE.
Other quality practices include promotion of green and healthy environment, preservation of natural resources, employee development and prevention of pollution of the environment.
In regard to the relationship between the company and its employees, the company has a policy in form of employee code of conduct. The policy is guided by the principle that all employees should be treated fairly and accorded the dignity and respect which they deserve.
The policy reflects a morally responsible behaviour because the respect of employees is central to the success of any organisation. Treating employees with respect and dignity not only makes them motivated but also enables them get the intrinsic value of work.
The company also embraces the concepts of cultural diversity and gender sensitivity in its employment policy. It does so by ensuring that employees are not discriminated based on race, gender or colour.The Company also ensures that employees are trained from time to time so as to enhance their capacity to discharge their duties.
The training is part of the company’s initiative to ensure that the customers get quality services at any given time. Training of employees is a morally responsible behaviour because it not only improves the quality of services but also makes employees grow in their career.
Such training is also important for the employees because once they leave the company, it serves as an asset by giving them a competitive edge over other job seekers thus increasing their probability of being employed in other companies.
The company also has a policy which ensures that employees have a safe working environment which is not prone to accidents. It also ensures strict adherence to internal procedures not only by employees but also by suppliers as well. The staffs are also accorded what is referred to as supportive supervision to ensure compliance with the set rules and regulations for quality improvement.
The company has been ISO certified for three occasions; in 2008 for the implementation of the integrated management system, in 2004 for its environmental conservation efforts, and in 2007 for occupational health and safety. These ISO certifications and awards are a pointer of an excellent performance of the organisation. It has managed to establish a market niche for itself.
The leaders of the organisation are committed to a course of maintaining the unrivaled competition in the region. They also aspire to make the organisation more customers oriented by focusing on finding better ways of improving customer satisfaction.
Review of Gulftainer’s policies from a critical perspective with recommendations Towards the environment
I agree with the company’s CSR perspective towards the environment. The reason is that it has managed to have environmental conservation programs both at the macro and micro levels. However, it needs to allocate more funds to environmental conservation. Apart from the marine turtle conservation project, there is no evidence of significant activities which the company undertakes to conserve the environment.
It needs for example to contribute towards the management of greenhouse gases which cause global warming. It can also partner with other governmental and non governmental organisations to launch comprehensive environmental conservation programs both at the national and international platform.
The company needs to not only create awareness about the 3R policy to community members but it also needs to capacity build them through provision of equipments and funds for them to effectively embrace the policy for sustainability purposes.
Towards People and Community
I do not agree with the company’s CSR perspective towards people and community. The reason is that people’s interests should be the central concern for any business and there is no evidence for that in the company’s operations. Even though the company has put in place some elaborate measures to fully engage the community, it has not done enough.
For instance, there is no evidence of its intensive involvement in programs or activities which improve the social well being of the people and communities where it has operations. Its programs seem to target educational institutions which in most cases have young people.
Such an approach is biased because the community is composed of people of different ages, education levels, and religion and therefore, there is need to come up with programs which meet the specific needs of different categories of people within a community.
For example, there is need to have programs which target married couples with the aim of providing them with guidance and counseling for happy unions. The company may also consider initiating programs which target people living with chronic illnesses such as HIV/ AIDS.
Through such programs, the company may focus on improving the social well being of such people through formation of support groups and educating the communities to become agents of fighting stigma.
I do not agree with the company’s management system from a CSR perspective. Even though the company has several ISO awards, there are some areas where it has not done well. According to the naked office website, the company has been accused of having poorly trained and inexperienced personnel at top leadership positions.
While it pays attention to the training of other staff, it has neglected the training and capacity building of its leaders and therefore, there is need for change so that it can have leaders who are not only experienced but also visionary and well equipped with the necessary skills and techniques of leadership. Such leadership would ensure that the company comes up with strategic business decisions which would propel it towards excellence.
There are also claims that the company places a lot of emphasis on cutting costs. The cutting on costs makes it have few employees in the branches serving the increasing number of clients. The employees therefore feel overworked without any additional compensation which is a form of exploitation.
For the company to make its customers more satisfied, there is need to recruit more employees to ensure that customers are served without delays. If it is not able to increase the number of employees, it needs to ensure that the employees are paid overtime so as to motivate them.
The company needs to as well scale up its employee motivation efforts by introducing more employee motivation programs and policies such as sponsorship programs for employees to further their studies, provision of retirement benefits, medical scheme for the workers, and promotions based on merit.
Conclusion Gulftainer is one of the companies listed in the data base of the world’s most ethical companies. The company behaves in a morally responsible manner towards the community, the environment and employees through policies and guidelines which govern its business strategy and operations.
It ensures that the communities are supported to improve their living standards through empowering them with skills and implementing programs which boost their social well being. It also has a policy which ensures that local citizens are given priority in employment.
In regard to the environment, the company partners with other organisations to ensure the conservation of marine environment. It also embraces the 3R policy which advocates for utilisation of resources in an efficient manner and conservation of the environment through proper waste disposal.
However, the company can do better through deployment of more staff, payment of overtime to the employees, widening the scope of its social programs, and provision of employees with more benefits for them to become more productive. It also needs to partner with other organisations to launch comprehensive environmental conservation programs as a way of scaling up its efforts towards environmental conservation.
Works Cited Aras, Güler, and David, Crowther. A Handbook of Corporate Governance and CSRSeries, Farnham: Gower Publishing Ltd, 2010.Print.
Bratton, John, and Jeff, Gold. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Palgrave: Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Carroll, Archie. A History of Corporate Social Responsibility, Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008. Print.
Kizza, Migga. , Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, New York, NY: Springer, 2010. Print.
Mühle, Ursula. The Politics of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Rise of a Global Business Norm, New York: Campus Verlag, 2010.Print.
Scarre, Geoffrey. Utilitarianism, New York, NY: Routledge, 1996. Print.
Shale Inc. Code of Ethics Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Introduction Shale Inc. is a company that has dedicated itself to being a reputable organization that is committed to upholding ethical business practices. To maintain the company’s reputable image, employers, employees, contractors, and anyone who is affiliated with Shale must act ethically at any given time.
Adherence to a specified code of ethics enables Shale to carry on with its reputation as a fair, just, community-friendly, and environmental-friendly company.
A well-defined code of ethics makes the company an employer of choice, a leading energy solutions provider, and a viable investment vehicle. All Shale Inc. employees, directors, investors, business partners, and contractors are expected to honor and comply with this code of conduct.
Violation Reporting Policies This code of ethics is not exhaustive and some matters that are outside its scope might arise. In cases where violation against the code of ethics is witnessed, it is always advisable to exercise good judgment. A violation should first be communicated to the immediate superior. However, it is advisable to ensure that one is comfortable when talking with his/her leader.
Furthermore, employees should be steadfast and honest in their violation reports. If the violation involves a superior officer, an employee can proceed to report the matter to the next leader or go directly to the human resource department. All violations should be reported without fear of retaliation because Shale Inc. has zero tolerance for retaliatory behavior.
Prohibited Items and Practices Shale employees have to operate under a hazardous environment where the risk of fire is often eminent. Consequently, smoking is prohibited to eliminate unnecessary hazards within the company’s work environment. Smoking can only take place within specified locations around the company’s premises.
The use of alcohol and drugs in the line of work is prohibited whether it occurs during regular work hours or during overtime duties. All company employees are forbidden from taking tools or equipments of any kind from the company’s premises. Any form of stealing is also prohibited and if it is discovered, legal and administrative actions should be expected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political Activity, Employee Unions, and Political Lobbying Shale encourages its employees to engage in healthy politics, civil courses, and charitable activities within their communities. However, employees should distance any of their political or civil activities with the company’s image. Employees who wish to engage in any major political activity such as competitive politics should communicate their intentions to the company’s management.
Employees should refrain from engaging in civil, political, or solicitation activities within the company’s premises. Any discontent within the employees’ ranks should be communicated to the management either directly or through appointed representatives. Shale Inc. prohibits the use of the company’s name in relation to the support of any political faction in a local or national capacity.
Employment Practices Shale Inc. is a company that treats its employees with outmost respect and ensures that interpersonal relationships between workers are of high standard. The company can hire any qualified individuals regardless of their religious, racial, gender, age, and regional affiliations. Furthermore, it is in the company’s best interests to maintain a highly qualified work force.
The employee hiring process involves all the relevant employee handlers including the supervisors on the ground. The company’s management in conjunction with the human resource department should ensure that all the hired employees match the expertise of the existing ones. The only exception for this rule is for trainees and other apprentices.
Harassment The company forbids any form of harassment that may be based on color, origin, sexual orientation, weight, height, citizenship, marital status, or disability. Harassment leads to abuse, which in turn degrades the quality of the company’s work force.
The company also stands against sexual harassment within the workplace. Sexual harassment refers to any unwelcome and unwanted sexual overtones.
It is the duty of the human resource department to ensure that all cases of harassment within the workplace are heard and determined fairly. The company’s overall policy when it comes to harassment within the workplace is that everyone should treat other people the way he/she expects to be treated.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Shale Inc. Code of Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discrimination Discrimination within the workplace is prohibited by the country’s constitution. Shale Inc. seeks to go far and beyond this call of duty and ensure that the company shows respect to all its employees. Therefore, Shale does not discriminate employees, clients, or business partners on basis of gender, race, religion, marital status, pregnancy, or sexual orientation.
The company will not put up with any discrimination that stems from the above factors. The company endeavors to foster equal rights for women, minorities, and the aged. Shale will take into consideration the plight of individuals with special needs such as pregnant women and religious adherents.
Safety and Health Safety is a prime issue in the company’s day-to-day operations. Both the company and its employees are responsible for safe work environments. The company is responsible for ensuring that the work environment is as per the industry’s standards. Furthermore, the company fosters safe practices in the work environment by enforcing habits such as the wearing of helmets and protective clothing at all times.
All the equipment that is used within the company’s premises guarantees the safety of the employees by being at par with the industry standards. Due to the physical nature of the work that is undertaken at Shale, employees should maintain a healthy lifestyle and remain fit.
Annual medical checkups are facilitated by the company and it is the responsibility of the employees to follow up on this provision. Employees are also provided with up to fourteen days of paid sick leave to eliminate the possibility of employees reporting to work when they are sick.
Environmental Commitment The company takes great care to ensure that the integrity of the environment within its area of operation is not compromised by its activities. The company’s founder and most employees call Wheeling their home. Consequently, it is in the company’s best interest to ensure that no damage is done to the local environment.
The company endeavors to abide to the specified environmental codes of operation. Furthermore, the company seeks to promptly report and act on any damage to the environment that may occur as a result of its operations.
Business Continuity Shale Inc. aims to continue with its activities as an energy solutions provider. The company remains open to cooperation with other like-minded players in the energy provision industry. Over the course of time, the company seeks to grow in terms of its capital base, its employee size, and scope of operation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shale Inc. Code of Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company is also well equipped to handle disasters of any nature. To prepare for unseen events in future, Shale has collaborated with insurance companies and government agencies.
Wawa: Supply Change Management Problem Solution Essay college essay help: college essay help
Issues Some competitors such as Tesco and Sheetz are making Wawa’s supply chain system less flexible. The company’s supply chain cannot produce the best goals. The company wanted New Jersey Distribution Center (NJDC) to become the best model for collaboration and learning. The supply chain system is currently unsustainable. Wawa Company is planning to come up with a new supply chain system (Keidel, 2011).
This fact explains why Wawa’s Supply Chain Management has constrained its business strategy. The “company lacks enough drive-through for its supply chain” (Keidel, 2011, p. 4).
The company does not have appropriate strategies to support its customers. Wawa’s culture is “no longer supporting the needs of different customers, employees, and collaborators” (Keidel, 2011, p. 12). The company’s supply chain makes it impossible for every customer to get the required products.
Alternative Solutions Use of Modern Technologies
Wawa can use modern technologies to inform more consumers about its products. Such IT systems will ensure the company liaises with both customers and suppliers. The approach will improve the speed of delivery, communication, and transportation (Keidel, 2011).
New IT systems will “ensure the company identifies the major Demand Influencing Factors (DIFs) such as promotions, weather changes, and holidays” (Keidel, 2011, p. 13).
Use of “Drive-Through” Approach
Starbucks and McDonalds use “drive-through” approaches for customers who want to get quality services while in their cars. This approach works effectively and promotes convenience. Wawa can use this approach to deal with the above challenges.
A New Supply Chain Management and Product Variety
A new supply chain management (SCM) will promote the level of performance. This new supply chain will also promote the company’s brand. The company should supply its products to more consumers in different parts of the world. The new SCM should also embrace the use of modern technologies. Wawa can use partnerships to support its new SCM.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisational Culture
A positive organisational culture is critical towards the success of Wawa’s supply chain system. This culture will ensure every manager addresses the issues affecting the company (Keidel, 2011). The approach will ensure Wawa’s new SCM becomes more humanistic. The strategy will produce positive results at the company.
Analysis of the Above Solutions: Pros and Cons
Alternative Solutions Pros Cons Use of modern technologies Promotes performances
Technology changes fast
Expensive to implement
Can affect current supply chain
Drive-through approach It is convenient
Attracts more customers
Promotes customer support
Expensive to implement
Customers may not get the best services
New SCM Fosters partnerships
Easy to implement
May become unsustainable
The approach is costly
May fail to support Wawa’s expectations
Organisational culture Can produces positive results
Deals with organisational challenges
Takes long to implement
It can be costly
It might not support the company’s SCM
Recommendations Wawa should identify the major issues affecting its supply chain in order to succeed. The first recommendation is using new IT systems. The company should identify the best systems towards supporting its performance. The company should use drive-through approaches to address the needs of its customers. Wawa should hire new HR managers to support every stakeholder.
The company should also identify new locations to market its products (Keidel, 2011). Collaboration should be a critical part of Wawa’s new supply chain. These “strategic alliances will ensure every product is processed, warehoused, and marketed in a professional manner” (Keidel, 2011, p. 12).
Reference Keidel, R. (2011). Wawa: Supply Change Management. Richard Ivey School of Business, 1(1), 1-14.
Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics Expository Essay essay help site:edu
The effectiveness of the decision-making process is influenced by external influences that include politics, organization dynamics, and the outcome of the policies. Therefore, bureaucratic politics and organization dynamics have a profound influence on the decision-making process.
Collective bargaining by a group of individuals who are guided by available decision-making alternatives has an impact on bureaucratic politics.1 In fact, this becomes a possibility if the decision-making process attracts public interest.
However, there are individuals with different approaches on issues and abilities that can help achieve the desired goals for the organization. On the other hand, every individual possesses a different perspective on issues that have a directly or indirect impact on self or the organization.
Therefore, arriving at a decision requires a combined reaction of the people involved in the process. The following discussion explores the negative impact of bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics on the decision-making process.
Organizations tasked with the process of decision-making cannot operate without outside interference or influence.2
The culture of a department and the individuals involved has a great influence on the decisions-making process. In this regard, organizations known to be bureaucratic impede the process due to the red tape policies. Therefore, it is difficult to initialize a change process and implement the same in bureaucratic-ridden organizations.
Bureaucratic policies involve politics and influences from governmental leadership, social, economical accountability demands. Therefore, a heightened public interest on how decision-making processes are conducted is expected. As a result of bureaucratic politics, organizational autonomy and freedom are impeded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, bureaucratic bodies support policies that serve individual and personal interests at the cost of efficiency in the organization. In addition, policies made to serve individual interests do not benefit the public.3 From this perspective, it is clear that poor organizational dynamics and structures are associated with negative and pluralistic decisions on public policies.
Similarly, organizational dynamics has influences on the decisions that may serve personal interests and not the public. In this context, group polarization, obedience to authority, and the bystander effect are three factors that explain the reaction and choice of individuals or groups.4
In the presence of confederates who are considered of a higher standing in the society or community, the decisions made are of similar impact. Due to the external factors such as the people, the impact of the decision and the public perspective of the same influence the process.
In conclusion, the ability to make sound decisions is influenced by both the internal and external environments. Bureaucratic politics and organizational dynamics have an influence on people and institutions. In most cases, bureaucracy impedes efficiency of the decision-making process.
Bureaucratic politics inhibits autonomy and the possibility of unitary decisions since the issues discussed are represented in different perspectives and approaches. From this perspective, the decision-making process is difficult and time-consuming.
On the other hand, people from diverse social classes slow down the pace of the decision-making process. The negative influence of the two factors denies the decision-making stakeholders from providing the public with policies that suit their interests. Therefore, a critical analysis and consideration of bureaucratic politics and organization dynamics must precede the decision-making process.
Bibliography Harris, Joe. “Intelligence and Policy Making for the 21st Century.” Small Wars Journal, (February 2014): 1-2.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pettigrew, Andrew . The politics of organizational decision-making. New York: Routledge, 2014.
Rogers, Paul, and Todd Senturia. “How Group Dynamics Affect Decisions.” Decision Insights, (December 2013): 2-3.
Footnotes 1 Andrew Pettigrew, The politics of organizational decision-making (New York: Routledge, 2014), 23.
2 Paul Rogers and Todd Senturia. “How Group Dynamics Affect Decisions.” Decision Insights, (December 2013): 2-3.
4 Joe Harris, “Intelligence and Policy Making for the 21st Century.” Small Wars Journal, (February 2014): 1-2.
“How Large U.S. Companies Can Use Twitter and Other Social Media to Gain Business Value” by Culnan, McHugh, Zubillaga Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Major Strengths of the Article
Major Weaknesses of the Article
Key Issues to Address in Class
The targeted article discusses how companies can use different social media applications to achieve their potentials. According to the authors, firms can use social sites such as Facebook and Twitter to collaborate with their customers, suppliers, stakeholders, and business partners. Social networks can make it easier for businesses to interact with their stakeholders (Singh, 2009).
Firms can use three major elements in order to develop the most appropriate implementation strategies. These “three elements include community building, absorptive capacity, and mindful adoption” (Culnan, McHugh,
Policies and Products of Alibaba Group, China Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
History of Alibaba Group Alibaba Group’s origin dates back to the late 1990s. Jack Ma who was initially an English instructor in Hanzhou established the Alibaba Group in the late 1990s together with almost 20 other members. They had a common conviction that small companies had the ability to influence expertise and novelty via the internet to develop and rival more efficiently in the local and international markets.
The company launched its website, Alibaba.com that assisted small Chinese entrepreneurs, manufacturers, and exporters to sell their products on the international market. Over the years, the firm has grown into a world leader when it comes to mobile and online commerce (Liu
Work Life Balance Analytical Essay custom essay help
The ability of a person to maintain the healthy work-life balance is critical for his performance and commitment to the goals set by leaders. Therefore, managers should enable workers to attain this goal (Bogenschneider, 2014). The key issue is that non-profit organizations usually provide more support to employees.
It is important to understand why they act in this way. Overall, it is consider a wide set of factors such as inability to compete in terms of salaries, regulations, unionizations of workforce, and changes in the labor market. The analysis of these issues can be useful for understanding the methods for retaining the most skilled professionals.
At first, it is important to mention that non-profit organizations are not able to compete with various enterprises in terms of salaries that they can offer to workers. Therefore, they need to attract potential candidates by offering some non-monetary rewards (Valcik
“The People Who Make Organisations Go or Stop” by Cross and Prusak Essay essay help: essay help
Contrary to the views held by most corporate managers that social networks are intricate webs of ungovernable networks, Cross and Prusak argue that the networks provide effective communication platforms to improve organisational productivity and performance using the right scientific management tools (105).
Results from 50 organisations show that informal networks are important for central connectors, boundary spanners, information brokers, and peripheral specialists in driving organisations towards better productivity and success using well-established social networks and analytical tools for personal network management (Cross and Parker 85).
According to Cross and Prusak, central connectors link organisations to the right information sources that are important for decision making at corporate levels (106). Connectors enable managers at the formal or informal levels to collect and map the right solutions to problems by enhancing the generation of new ideas to improve the productivity of organisations.
However, it is crucial for managers to ensure that connectors are not used to fulfill personal goals such as political or financial gain that are inconsistent with organisational objectives. The focus on personal goals can be overcome by using “boundary spanners that consist of roving ambassadors who serve as the group’s eyes to nurture the external connections of the informal network” (Cross and Prusak 110).
According to Cross and Prusak, boundary spanners provide the platform for sharing different expertise among different people such as those involved in research and development (110). However, research shows that corporate life does not provide a good environment for connectors to thrive on.
For instance, senior executives recommend the idea of lower level managers getting involved in creating links with boundary connectors to learn new knowledge such as emerging product development technologies and new project management techniques which have evidently benefited many organisations in Europe and North America that operate on large information networks.
Information “networks operate under information brokers who connect different sub networks within a company in tightly knit groups that are isolated from one another” (Cross and Prusak 110). Research shows that information brokers are important because they improve information sharing among different groups in their areas of expertise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, to avoid the risk of tearing apart informal networks, organisations should not entirely rely on information brokers but rather emphasize on creating central connectors that are tightly linked to each organisation. In addition, peripheral specialists make use of informal networks to provide specialised information from the outside for use within the organisation to improve productivity.
Cross and Prusak maintain that peripheral specialists often operate from outside of the organisation and have specialised technical skills and knowledge that include research data, customer preferences and software skills that are critical for an organisation to use to be successful (111).
To gain from the specialised information, it is important to integrate peripheral specialists into the organisation’s information networks to optimise the information provided by the specialists for corporate success (Weick 67). In conclusion, using a good personal network management enables employees with customised views to build better relationship within the organisation to improve their productivity.
Works Cited Cross, Rob, and Laurence Prusak. “The people who make organizations go-or stop.” Harvard business review 80.6 (2002): 104-112.Print.
Cross, Robert L., and Andrew Parker. The hidden power of social networks: Understanding how work really gets done in organizations, Harvard: Harvard Business Press, 2004.Print.
Weick, Karl E. Making sense of the organization: Volume 2: The impermanent Organization, New York: John Wiley
The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence Research Paper argumentative essay help
The success of any strategic intelligence is denoted by achievement of pre-established objectives in accordance with a country’s policies. However, neglect of strategic intelligence has far-reaching effects that are unfavorable to the expected outcomes of security operations.
It is worth noting that the role of intelligence in any jurisdiction cannot be ignored owing to its critical nature. Honig (2007, 702) is quite categorical that strategic intelligence entails complicated analysis of all the prevailing factors that dictate the actual outcomes of different actions.
As part of the holistic remedial measures, the author explores all the possibilities and methodologies available for a military group to emerge victorious when handling matters related to security. Intelligence is a major factor that should be considered by a nation whenever there is need to win the tactics of an enemy. Therefore, it is evident that any slight neglect of strategic intelligence presents numerous challenges towards effective management of security issues.
Brief background and significance of the problem
The demand to advance national intelligence and maintain the required security competence of a nation is very critical in anchoring holistic socio-economic growth and political development. Notably, the role of the US national intelligence community has been commendable over the years (Champion 2005, 1673).
However, instances of neglect of strategic intelligence are continually creating security gaps across the nation. As a result, several tactical and military operations tend to take long before succeeding. Lillbacka (2013, 300) indicates that several years of war against terrorism and related threats are yet to be concluded. The latter has been occasioned by poor research in the assembling of intelligence information and vital data on security.
According to Champion (2005, 1675), “the history of government involvement in intelligence matters can be traced to the early days of the Revolutionary War.” The above lapse has culminated into several questions regarding the role of strategic intelligence and effectiveness in gathering relevant data for managing security affairs.
There is a lot of doubt whether the current approach is being employed to collect intelligence data. Is the neglect of strategic intelligence the main reason for failure in successful containment of insecurity issues? What are some of the possible and available mechanisms that can be employed to seal gaps and minimize future security challenges? These are some of the questions that need urgent redress before effective management of intelligence information can be initiated (Scott 1999, 218).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Neglect of strategic intelligence
The neglect of strategic intelligence is indeed tragic and can be considered to be extremely perilous in any jurisdiction. In the US, some critics lament that the National Security Act of 1947 provided one of the best mechanisms for managing strategic intelligence.
This piece of legislation outlasted many hurdles including the Cold War. However, the enactment of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 brought about amendments that negatively impacted strategic intelligence when the creation of the annual National Security Strategy took place. This provided the president with powers to produce a avail security documents to be perused by the Congress. As Lillbacka (2013, 300) notes, this officialdom unwittingly created several security gaps that ended up in a weak strategic intelligence on security matters.
The report by CIA presents a report on the role and effects of strategic intelligence towards the creation of national strategy (Central Intelligence Agency 1995, par. 3). It brings out the changing approach of the United States’ intelligence towards defeating the rise of insurgence both at the domestic and international levels. From the beginning of the article, the need for an improved intelligence community is evident.
The Central Intelligence Agency cites that strategic intelligence should always provide the last and most viable line of action to take before a president declares war or peace. Neglecting strategic intelligence might lead to devastating impacts on national stability. Lillbacka (2013, 301) builds his arguments by pointing out that during the Cuban missile crises, neglect of intelligence was evident.
The latter led to a rush decision by the military. Though it was considered an important step in preparing the country for any eventuality, it curved a major niche which almost drifted the globe into a state of nuclear warfare. Robert Stanberg’s conception of human intelligence model best explains the role of intelligence and its management. It observes that successful collection of intelligence involves three distinct and related approaches, which include practical, creative and analytical thinking.
On the same note, human beings and events exists in different contests and as such calls for the application of a variety of intelligences, mostly strategic to gather needed data. He compares current strategic intelligence in the US to a work of journalism that lack adequate investigation before reporting. He cites that this is due to the much neglect in the government to advance its national security operations.
On the same note, Krizan (1999, 38) cite that the implementation of an effective strategic intelligence platform is tangential and tied closely to administrative competence. In the 2003 war in Iraq, the US intelligence failed to account for the much-taunted Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The military wing was rushed into action at the detriment of the Iraqi people.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The aspects of neglecting intelligence, poor surveillance and politicizing security matters are largely responsible for the overall weak nature of strategic intelligence. The discord between the United Nations’ inspectors and the US intelligence personnel regarding the presence of WMDs has remained a major source of commotion with no forthcoming solution.
Furthermore, appraising the security situation and conducting research to enhance awareness and attain goals that meet the interests of a nation are some of the practical intelligence measures that should be put in place. Lillbacka (2013, 302) inquires how the United States intelligence justified the advice to President Bush to take actions against acts of terror in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The question has culminated into a major debate on the efficacy and actual aftermath of the Operation Iraq Freedom. Since the beginning of the war on WMDs, justifiable evidence is yet to be tabled in public. It is apparent that several investigations have been done on strategic intelligence owing to its importance. Krizan (1999, 6) observes that “intelligence is more than information.
It is knowledge that has been specially prepared for a customer’s unique circumstances.” The theory and practice of strategic intelligence in the United States are still crucial areas of concern. Quite a number of the theories in strategic intelligence are hardly exercised. Moreover, there is a sharp rise of academic inquiry on issues related to intelligence.
As a matter of fact, a lot of inquiry into the subject of strategic intelligence has been carried out ever since the end of the Cold War period. According to Orton and Callahan (2008, 413), there has been an altitudinal transformation in regards to official secrecy, security functions and intelligence matters.
It is pertinent to note that the responsibilities of Intelligence in international affairs and world politics are still below the anticipated levels. Needles to say, In actual sense, the society needs to comprehend the concept of “intelligence” and what its underlying meaning.. Thereafter, nations need to appreciate the elements of strategic intelligence bearing in mind that it is an effective tool of defense.
Gaps in literature
It is evident that appreciating intelligence is critical since it assists in decision-making at both the national and international levels. Many research studies ought to be carried out on a number of factors such as the input of human intelligence on technical warfare and nuclear weapons. Moreover, it is necessary to examine the aspect of collaboration in international intelligence alongside the cognitive setbacks affecting strategic intelligence (Hymans 2006, 456).
This literature review elaborates the invaluable role of intelligence in international relations and how it has transformed over the years. The trans-national cooperation on intelligence issues maps a major shift in global politics (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks 2005, 12).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Neglect of Strategic Intelligence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The inefficiency of the US intelligence is perhaps a major challenge in handling acts of terror. President Bush and the intelligence team initially thought that the war in Iraq would be a good lesson to leaders supporting terrorism (Orton and Callahan 2008, 421). However, the latter led to negative effects both to the United States and victimized nations.
The extended stay of the US troops in Iraq is a costly affair. Worse still, several soldiers have lost their lives in the war-torn countries. The capacity of the intelligence community to produce requisite data relies on the methodologies used. Collection methods are vital in developing reliable results.
It is essential to mention that data collection methods ought to be accurate for the sake of obtaining desired results. In this case, the Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and Signal Intelligence (SiGINT) methods of data collection are yet to be effectively utilized by the intelligence community. These methods may minimize inherent ambiguity during the process of collecting intelligence data on security issues.
According to CIA, “it is clear that the individual cannot expect to be helped more than half way by systems and methods” (Central Intelligence Agency 1995, par. 23). Therefore, personal responsibility and training are crucial when collecting data.
Challenges facing the US national intelligence community are immense. Some critics wonder whether the current intelligence system will ever be improved. Moreover, research has shown that there is lack of appropriate resources for gathering, translating and evaluating intelligence.
The political leaders in the global realm lack the understanding of the value and limitation of intelligence. Evidence to back up this claim has been obtained from the surprise attack that took place in the United States in December 1941. From the attack, more than 2000 lives were lost.
This propelled the US to wage war against Asia and Europe whereas the recent September 11 twin attacks led to the US entry into war with Iraq and Afghanistan. This implies that intelligence still demands a lot of input from the global community. It is irrefutable that the various pieces of literature reviewed in this section will help to close the existing research gaps on strategic intelligence.
Conclusion To recap it all, it is crucial to reiterate that strategic intelligence on matters related to security is a fundamental area of concern that needs to be addressed by the entire global community. In particular, the methods used to collect data should be thorough as much as possible.
Most of the lapses witnessed on intelligence issues emanate from poor data collection methods. In addition, it is pertinent for the intelligence community to realize that the current body of literature offers a large and invaluable pool of knowledge that can be put into practical use.
References Central Intelligence Agency. 1995. “A Fresh Look at Collection Requirements”. Web.
Champion, Christopher. 2005. “The Revamped FISA: Striking a Better Balance between the Government’s Need to protect itself and the forth amendment.” Vanderbilt Law Review 58, no. 5 (October):1671-1703.
Honig, Arthur. 2007. “A new direction for theory-building in intelligence studies.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 20, no. 4 (August): 699-716.
Hymans, Jacques. 2006. “Theories of nuclear proliferation: The state of the field.” Nonproliferation Review 13, no. 3 (May): 455-465.
Krizan, Lisa. 1999. Intelligence essentials for everyone. Washington DC: Books for Business.
Lillbacka, Ralf. 2013. “Realism, constructivism, and intelligence analysis.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 26, no. 2 (February): 304-331.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. 2005. “Staff Statement No. 9”. Law Enforcement, Counterterrorism, and Intelligence Collection in the United States Prior to 9/11. Web.
Orton, Douglas, and Jamie, Callahan. 2008.”Important “folk theories” in intelligence reorganization.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 8, no. 4 (January): 411-429.
Scott, Rogers. 1999. “Territorially Intrusive Intelligence Collection and International Law.” AFL Rev 46, no 1 (June): 217-223.
Svendsen, Adam. 2009. “Connecting intelligence and theory: Intelligence liaison and international relations.” Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 5 (.October): 700-729.
The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Abstract
Political regimes of the two countries
Importance of these relations for both countries
Abstract The bilateral relations between the UAE and Japan have been important for the sustained development of both countries. In particular, these states have established economic cooperation involving the exchange of natural resources and technologies.
Additionally, they have common foreign policy interests such as the elimination of nuclear threats and preservation of maritime security. These countries can differ profoundly in terms of their culture or political system, but these differences do not undermine their cooperation.
Overall, these countries perceive each other as strategic partners, and the situation is not like to change in the near future because Japan and the UAE have been able to resolve several important disputes such as the question related to the taxation of businesses. These are the main issues that should be discussed more closely because it is important for understanding the relations between these states.
Introduction This paper is aimed at examining the bilateral relations between the United Arab Emirates and Japan. In particular, one should pay close attention to the economic aspects of their cooperation because it strengthens the ties between these states. Additionally, one should examine the political aspects of their relations.
Furthermore, it is critical to examine the similarities and differences in the foreign policy since this issue is important for understanding how these countries interact with one another. Overall, it is possible to argue that each of these states is interested in fostering this partnership since it contributes to the sustained development of their economies.
Admittedly, these states are not strongly dependent on one another, but they value their cooperation and try to promote it by reaching agreements that can foster the work of various businesses. These are the main questions that should be examined in greater detail. This discussion can be useful for studying the relations between Asian countries and their counterparts from the Middle East.
Economic partnership One should mention that Japan established the diplomatic relations with the UAE in 1971 at the time, when the country proclaimed its independence (Lenze 145). The partnership between these states has been critical for their economic development. Much attention should be paid to the trade between the two states.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, the UAE provides oil and natural gas which are important for the functioning of the Japanese economy as well as infrastructure. In particular, the UAE provided 25 percent of Japanese oil supplies (Nusrat). In turn, the UAE government attaches importance to Japan as a buyer because approximately 40 percent of the oil produced in this country is sold to Japan.
The government of Japan strives to maintain productive relations with various suppliers of natural resources, and the UAE is one of the most important ones. In turn, Japanese companies offer vehicles and various electronic devices. Moreover, they bring technologies that are used by various UAE enterprises. One should keep in mind that in 2012, the trade between the two countries equaled $53.9 billion.
In particular, UAE imports to Japan were worth $43.9 billion while Japanese exports amounted $8.96 billion (Nusrat). Furthermore, one should mention that the amount of Japanese investment has increased dramatically during the period between 2005 and 2012 (Nusrat).
In 2005, Japanese investments in the UAE economy equaled only 19 million, but seven years later, they constituted 364 million (Nusrat). These are some of the main trends should be taken into consideration. Additionally, both countries are the members of the World Trade Organization. Thus, one can say that there are relatively few economic barriers that may hinder trade.
While discussing the economic cooperation, one should also mention, that the two countries have established closed educational partnership. For example, Tokyo University established its research centers in Abu Dhabi (Vijayan 368). The functioning of these centers is critical for the preparation of more effective labor force and adoption of technologies that increase the productivity of businesses.
To a great extent, this educational cooperation is critical for the technological modernization of the UAE economy. For example, one can speak about the adoption of renewable energy (“Co-chairmanship of two Japanese ministers in the 5th IRENA Assembly”). One can argue that the relationship between these countries have been mutually profitable. Moreover, in the future, this trend is not likely to reverse itself.
It should be mentioned that these states have recently been able to reach an agreement regarding he taxation (“UAE, Japan sign treaty on taxation”). The main goal of this agreement is to eliminate double taxation which creates significant challenges for businesses working at the international level. This step can be important for fostering bilateral cooperation between the two states.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the future, Japanese businesses and UAE regulators will have fewer reasons for entering into conflicts with one another. This is one of the details that can be distinguished. One should keep in mind that Japan is interested in the preservation of peace in the Middle East because such events can disrupt oil supplies in the country (Miyagi 102).
This is why the government of Japan is opposed to such an organization as Islamic State (Fackler 15). In turn, the UAE wants to attract investors and businesses that have made considerable achievements in various sectors of economy, especially those ones requiring the use of sophisticated technologies.
In the long term, such partnership has been important for the strengthening of the UAE economy. It is possible to say that the economic benefits received by the two countries can be regarded as the main driver of their continued relationship. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
Political regimes of the two countries Admittedly, much attention should be paid to internal differences. It is important to mention that these countries differ in terms of political regimes. For example, Japan can be described as the constitutional monarchy with a well-developed parliamentary system.
In turn, the government of the UAE has the elements of both absolute and federal monarchies (Stewart 155). It should be mentioned that the UAE can be regarded as the federation of monarchies. Furthermore, the policies of separates emirates can differ considerable. Thus, foreign companies may need to follow different sets of regulation.
This comparison has been included in order to highlight the idea these two countries have been able to overcome these significant differences. It is importantly that the diplomats accept that idea that the UAE and Japan differ in terms of their political culture. However, they do not lay much stress on these differences. This is one of the issues that one should take into account while examining the interactions between these states.
Foreign policy It should be mentioned that there are significant similarities in the foreign policy of the two countries. These countries play a critical role in the regions that they represent. Additionally, one should point out that the governments of both countries attach the importance of nuclear disarmament.
This policy can be partly explained by the fact that both countries have to face the threats of nuclear war that can be posed by such countries as North Korea and Iran. This is one of the details that should be taken into account. Apart from that, both countries lay stress on maritime security.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bilateral Relationships between the UAE and Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This policy is also critical for the preservation of trade in the region. Apart from that, both countries recognize the need to minimize the threats that can be poses by the terrorist organization Islamic State. Some of Japanese citizens have already been affected by this terrorist group (Yoshida).
The government of the UAE also recognizes the dangers posed by Islamic State. Therefore, it is possible to argue that these countries common geopolitical goals. These objectives can be important for minimizing potential conflicts or disputes between these states.
Admittedly, there is the risk of potential conflicts which can be explained by the differences in their foreign policy. One should mention that Japanese government has traditionally provided support to American foreign policies, especially those ones related to the Middle East.
In turn, the UAE tries to act as an independent player in this region. It is possible that at a certain point, this difference can undermine the bilateral relations of Japan with the UAE. This is one of the risks that should not be overlooked.
However, researchers note that Asian countries have been able to settle potential disputes with the states representing the Middle East (Eberling 65). Yet. as it has been noted before these states have a strong economic interest that will shape the decisions of the governments.
Importance of these relations for both countries It is possible to say that the relations with the UAE have been critical for Japan because this country provides natural resources that are important for the functioning of the Japanese economy. Moreover, the UAE creates additional demand for the products manufactured in Japan.
This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished. In turn, the government of the UAE attaches importance to the partnership with Japan because the interactions with the country can be important for the economic diversification (Gorgenl 21). In particular, one should speak about the intention of this country to become less dependent on the exportation of oil.
This is one of the overarching goals that have to be attained in the near future. Additionally, one should bear in mind since the early seventies, Japanese companies have acted as important investors in the Middle East. To some degree, they spurred the development of various industries in the UAE.
This is why the UAE focuses on the cooperation with Japanese governmental institutions and private businesses. It is rather difficult to say that these states are strongly dependent on one another. This assumption would be rather inaccurate. However, each of these states values these bilateral relations.
Conclusion On the whole, this discussion indicates Japan and the UAE have established close relations and productive relations with one another. Although, these countries differ dramatically in terms of culture or religion, they have been able to achieve results that have been benefited each of the parties.
There has been no cause for considerable disputes between the two countries. Furthermore, the governments of both states have identified those areas of cooperation that are critical for both partners. In particular, one should speak about the supply of natural resources, transfer of technologies, foreign direct investment and so forth. Therefore, the ties between Japan and UAE will not weaken in the near future. These are the main details that can be singled out.
Works Cited “Co-chairmanship of two Japanese ministers in the 5th IRENA Assembly,” UAE-emb. 2015. Web.
Nusrat, A. “Building Bridges Between Japan And The UAE.” Gulf Business, 2014. Web.
Eberling, G. Future Oil Demands of China, India, and Japan: Policy Scenarios and Implications, New York: Lexington Books, 2014. Print.
Fackler, M. “Departing From Japan’s Pacifism, Shinzo Abe Vows Revenge for Killings.” The New York Times, 2015: 15. Print.
Gorgen, V. A Strategic Analysis of the Construction Industry in the United Arab Emirates: Opportunities and Threats in the Construction Business, New York: Diplomica Verlag, 2011. Print.
Lenze, N. Converging Regions: Global Perspectives on Asia and the Middle East, New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2014. Print.
Miyagi, Y. Japan’s Middle East Security Policy: Theory and Cases, New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Stewart, D. The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives, New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.
“UAE, Japan sign treaty on taxation.” 2012. Web.
Vijayan, S. Application of Agents and Intelligent Information Technologies, New York: Idea Group Inc.
Yoshida, R. “Islamic State threatens to kill two Japanese hostages.” The Japan Times. Web.
The Iridium Constellation Project Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction and Summary At the end of the 20th century, when the impending alterations to the existing concept of communication seemed inevitable, the Iridium Project was conjured. In order to advance the specified realm and promote more efficient communication, the project creators attempted at building a satellite network that would permit telephone transmission of all sorts of data possible (i.e., images, sounds, texts, etc.).
The Satellite Electronic Division R
South Delaware Coors, Inc Case Study essay help free
Table of Contents Overview
Overview Larry Brownlow, a master’s degree student, resigned from his job with the view of acquiring more knowledge about his business idea. He wanted to invest in a beer distributorship business in Delaware. Therefore, he planned to apply for a distributorship opportunity at Coor, Inc.
However, he lacked enough information about the market, and had to engage a research company to help him make a feasibility study before he could put his money in the business. The study was meant to test the potential of Coor, Inc. to carry out the distributorship in two counties within the region.
He arrived at the conclusion to carry out the study due to his past experience with his family business. He had to carry out the study using $ 15, 000 before he could reach his 30th birthday in order to start operating the business immediately he would reach thirty.
He sought the assistance of Manson and Associates, who came up with a proposal from which he was supposed to choose the most appropriate research for his project. However, he found it very difficult choosing one since all of them seemed important.
Diagnostic Several problems exist in this case. For example, Larry did not have enough time to study the research proposal in order to identify the most relevant study. Therefore, he had to leave everything for the research company. Secondly, he had limited time to make the decision.
Precisely, he was supposed to meet John Rome in two days for the purpose of giving him his choice. The main problem was the actual selection of the relevant study. The proposal had nine studies, and all of them looked important.
Some were needed immediately while others could be important to the business in the future. Larry found it very difficult to arrive at a particular study that would be more necessary compared to the other studies. Nevertheless, studying Coors market share estimates in the region is more important than other issues such as population estimates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason for this situation is knowledge of the market share helps project the likely outcome of its involvement in Larry’s business. On the contrary, using population estimates may lead to wrong projections since not everybody in the population will drink beer. Some people do not drink while others drink only some brands of beer.
Analysis The industry is very competitive. Consumers go for high quality and tasty beer. Therefore, each company works hard to produce the required standards of beer. The main competitors in the industry are Budweiser and Miller. Their strengths include their ability to consider all types of employees, especially through encouraging the activities of unions.
They also ensure that their beer is tasty and to the standards that customers prefer. However, their weakness is their inability to change with the needs of their customers. They do not know when their customers require improvements in their products. Many consumers, usually, buy their drinks in the evenings, after work, from pubs near them.
Some buy in small quantities for immediate consumption while others buy many bottles and cans for later consumption. The beer market can be segmented according to the quantity consumers buy and the amount of alcohol in the drinks. It has large scale and small scale sellers and consumers. Some of the consumers prefer drinks with little alcohol while others prefer those with more alcohol.
Success in this industry requires a keen assessment of consumer behavior in the region. Otherwise, sellers may end up incurring losses due to bringing products that consumers do not like to the market. I once, went to a cinema where people did not like the movie on display: everybody left the hall, leaving the owner to bear the loss.
Recommendations Larry should mainly study consumer behaviors and the potential of Coor, Inc. and forget about the other studies for the sake of being economical.
He should also look for ways to outdo his competitors in the market.
Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Capitalist development The existence of systematic barriers to economic and capitalist developments poses several challenges to social economic theorists. According to Biggart (2002), capitalist development can be defined as an economic system leading to capital accumulation through privatization of property.
In his work, Swedberg advocates a gradual privatization that involves feudal relations turning to capitalists in what he terms as ‘capitalism from below’. He argues that mass privatization, viz. capitalism from above, led to an incomplete and undesirable separation of producers from the means of subsistence.
This assertion meant that capitalism from above did not necessarily lead to accumulation of capital; on the contrary, in some cases, it ended up causing massive destruction and deindustrialization. In the recent past, economic theorists have been involved in heated debates on the concept of economic development.
In this analysis, The Readings in Social Economics by Nicole Biggart will be reviewed to examine the opinions presented about capitalist development. The second article is an excerpt from the Handbook of Economic Sociology by Swedberg. In part, these readings in social economics bring forth a healthy reaction to the Weber’s mature theory of capitalism among other social economic views that present general economic development ideas.
Biggart shows the extensive contribution of institutional factors, which Weber considered as necessary in developing his overall view on capitalism. On the other hand, Swedberg’s view about capitalist development is a mission geared towards accumulating capital as well as enhancing industrialization.
Swedberg indicates that socialism came up first to demonstrate that it had the capacity to provide defense to the public sector from privatization. However, the main idea in this paper is that Biggart’s view on capitalist development as being a rationalized way of human needs’ Swedberg through enterprise outweighs Swedberg’s argument on capitalism, which entails gradual privatization of property in parts rather than as whole.
During the time of transition to a capitalist economy, socialism had caused over industrialization due to the readily available labor force. The socialism strategy emerged to be a production of excess, which led to a drop when the world manufacturing systems suffered from excess production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a bid to emphasize on gradual privatization, Swedberg gives the case of China where the fall of socialism had no impact since the country’s agrarian sector, which was gradually transiting, remained dominant. The regimes that favored capitalism from above or radical transition to capitalist economies experienced deindustrialization and massive unemployment (Swedberg, 1994).
Swedberg’s opinion on capitalism development Strengths
Swedberg’s ideology on capital development, which advocates transition from below, brings forth one of the best options to adjust quickly to the capitalist economy. For instance, its foundations are laid on agrarianism, which enhanced a move up in the capitalist economy from the periphery of the world systems.
Swedberg underscores the impact of capitalism from above, which seems to be moving towards the edges of the capitalist world systems. In a bid to affirm his opinion, he argues that countries whose communist parties maintained political supremacy strengthened the power of socialist ideology, thus ensuring defense against the privatization of the public sector.
As it gradually happened in China in 1994, the privatization agenda was under consideration (Swedberg, 1994). In a bid to avoid massive unemployment, capitalism from below offered privatization through fair auctions with consideration focused on domestic capitalists. On his part, Baggart does not transcribe to this notion, but he holds that massive change from above may be through revolution.
Swedberg’s opinion is highly conservative and indifferent to some extent. The argument is conservative in the sense that he acknowledges the inevitable forces leading to capitalist development, but he insists on moving gradually. He talks of dismantling collective farms to allow private ownership by parts and later full time.
This idea blocks the giant multinationals by only giving chance to small and conservative investors. His view invites a market transitional debate with one side claiming gradual capitalism to benefit the direct producers whilst demeaning the role of redistributors.
He fails to make a firm stand on this debate, thus leaving the readers to make their own constructions. In addition, Swedberg emphasizes that gradual capitalism contributes to slow demand and supply of major investments, which is not true in all cases.
We will write a custom Essay on Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Biggart’s opinion on capitalism development Strengths
Biggart’s view is substantially based on Max Weber’s work particularly the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Biggart elaborates that divergent ideas were key factors that fuelled transformation of the world systems’ economy especially in the Christian West.
Biggart’s idea emphasizes a rationalized system by arguing that the capitalist model determines its production capacity due to its simple methods and predictability. Biggart identifies some of the components that rationalize capitalism as analyzed in Weber’s work.
These components include private ownership of all means of production to ensure responsibility. In addition, decisions about their utilization can be calculated with optimum efficiency. Unlike in Swedberg’s idea about gradual transition, which involves less freedom of labor, rationalized capitalism allows free movement of labor in response to the state of demand.
Biggart elaborates the religious issues that led to the rise of economic ethics, which encouraged ties between the internal and external economies. Unlike capitalism from below, which discourages big investors and fast development, Biggart identifies how religious and social institutions eventually led to new economic systems. This aspect brings out the issue of capitalism in a sensible and ideal way rather than a set of conventional constructions about economic change.
Biggart fails to capture and resolve the unrestricted competitiveness brought in by open markets. Biggart highlights the shortcomings of Swedberg’s idea and insists that capitalism does not need to rise from below, because in such a case, the need for revolution is inevitable towards capitalist transition.
For instance, the rise of capitalism in England involved revolutions of 1640 and 1688. Biggart sees capitalism as the most rationalized option because it brings freedom in markets. However, Biggart fails to acknowledge the importance of gradual capitalism, which undermines the role of small investors who are vulnerable to collapse during revolutions.
Biggart’s emphasis on religious legitimation in capitalism is exaggerated as the argument implies that in the absence of religious legitimation then capitalism will decline. Biggart focuses on the economy as being critical in the shaping of society as opposed to cultural and political factors. Biggart takes different standpoints about the issue of capitalist development by showing wavering opinions.
For instance, she views capitalism as a constructed system organized around the search of profit and individuals pursue personal interests. Biggart acknowledges that societies organized around the pursuit of individual goals are easy to dissolve (Biggart, 2002). Nevertheless, Biggart does not share Swedberg’s idea of gradual capitalism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Biggart’s stand on capitalism is the most rationalized way of interaction in the world markets and it is well supported by showing the challenges and opportunities that exist in the system. On the other hand, Swedberg’s opinion encourages slow change, thus limiting growth.
Even though the two authors have different opinions about capitalism development, the future of capitalism depends on the regulations formulated to control the system and the criteria for making these regulations.
References Readings in economic sociology by author Biggart.
The handbook of economic sociology by author Swedberg.
Germany’s Secret Gamble Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The video, WWI Germany’s Secret Gambles, analyzes the way Germany turned to covert operations, which included sabotage, espionage, biological weapons and secret communications to win the First World War. The video evaluates the measures and strategies, which Germany adopted to undermine the authority of the British Empire.
For example, the film analyzes the outcomes of Germany’s secretive involvement with independent Irish groups. The film suggests that Germany collaborated with Irish Republicans in planning the revolt to end the British rule in Ireland. The planning of the Easter Rising began a couple of months after the British government declared war on Germany.
The planners of the Eastern Rebellion met with the German Ambassador in Washington and agreed on the involvement of a German expeditionary force to aid the uprising. The “interception of the German arms shipment by the Royal Navy” led to the quick suppression of the Eastern uprising and execution of key leaders of the Irish Republicans.1 The failure by Germany to deliver on its promises on the Eastern Rebellion enabled the British forces to overpower Irish Republican militants and curtailed Germany’s efforts to destroy the British Empire.
The control of areas such as Texas, New Mexico and Arizona was a chief WWI strategy by Germany. The pursuit of close diplomatic ties was a covert operation to facilitate a secret alliance between Germany and the Mexican government. The enticement of Mexico into a secret alliance against the U.S was one of the factors, which influenced the U.S to severe its relations with Germany.
The interception of top-secret communications between the German Foreign Minister and German Ambassador in Mexico confirmed President Woodrow suspicions regarding “a secret alliance between Germany and Mexico”.2 Germany promised to provide the relevant strategic support to recover the territories Mexico had lost to the United States in return for the Mexican government support of Germany’s First World War agendas.
Biological warfare was one of Germany’s most immoral covert operations in various parts of the world. Germany bioterrorism covert operations included the use of anthrax to infect animals or contaminate animal feed in enemy countries. The infection of livestock shipments designated for Allied countries was a core bioterrorism strategy by Germany.
The German scientists assumed that infecting a few animals would help to spark epidemics in the enemy countries. Germany was largely unsuccessful in its use of biological and chemical weapons considering the negligible effects of its biological sabotage. Germany operated spies within America with the objective to use the spies to instigate political unrest throughout the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The covert operations by German spies in America included sabotage and propaganda directed at the German-American population, culture and political institutions. Some of the covert operations by Germany spy rings in America included the New York Harbor explosion and San Francisco Bay attack.
The swift response by federal agents and local police departments led to anti-German sentiments and the “enactment of sedition and anti-espionage laws”, which targeted Germany sympathizers.3 The suspicions regarding German spy networks in America had detrimental effects on Germany’s strategic plan to turn Americans against their country.
Germany’s covert operations failed mainly due to quick counter-intelligence measures and systems implemented by the Allied countries. Germany overlooked the existence of spy programs and robust intelligence infrastructure by the Allied countries, which enabled them to detect the First World War maneuvers by Germany.
Bibliography Best, Richard A. “Leadership of the U.S. Intelligence Community: From DCI to DNI.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 2 (2014): 253-333.
Hammond, Thomas H. “Intelligence Organizations and the Organization of Intelligence.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 4 (2010): 680-724.
Director of National Intelligence, “An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress,” January 1, 2009. Accessed from https://fas.org/irp/eprint/overview.pdf
Footnotes 1 Best, Richard A. “Leadership of the U.S. Intelligence Community: From DCI to DNI.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 2 (2014): 253-333.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Germany’s Secret Gamble specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2 Director of National Intelligence, “An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress,” January 1, 2009.
3 Hammond, Thomas H. “Intelligence Organizations and the Organization of Intelligence.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 4 (2010):680-724.
Labor Market – Superior Energy Services Company Essay online essay help
The oil and gas industry has experienced significant growth in the past four years, becoming one of the leading employers of trained and well-educated people in the United States. To qualify for employment in Superior energy services, one should belong to a pool of qualified applicants ready to fill any vacancy that arises in the company.
Despite the company being an equal opportunity employer, it is necessary to investigate the demographic profiles and the educational status of the pool of trained people available in the USA to determine any additional training necessary to qualify them to work for Superior Energy Services Company.
An investigation into how Superior energy services and its subsidiaries recruit employees to fill open positions shows that the company is an equal opportunity employer which takes employees from the pool of prospective employees with different demographic profiles and educational status. Superior energy Services Company deals in natural gas and oil-well by providing services to oil and gas production and exploration companies.
The company verifies the eligibility of job applicants for the positions that fall vacant using electronic techniques and social security numbers. A summary of the demographic profiles of the people in the pool of those eligible to work for the company with some college qualifications but no college degree and aged 25 and above were 34,532, those with associate degree and above were 20,506 and those with bachelor’s degree and above were 65,430 by 2014.
A statistical analysis of the demographic profiles shows that the people eligible or with qualifications to work for the company were143, 929 aged 16 years and above, and 54,712 had the qualifications necessary to work at the management and professional levels. The study showed that 26,458 of the pool of eligible workers were men aged 20 and above, 28,114 were women aged 16 and above, and 27,928 were women aged 20 and above.
A statistical summary of the educational status of the labor force eligible to work for Superior energy Services based on age, sex, race, and educational attainment showed that 24,424 people had diploma education, high school graduates were 61,949, and those with associate degrees were 55,038 by February 2014.
Those with some college qualifications but no college degree were 34,532; those with associate degree and above were 20,506 and those with bachelor’s degree and above were 65,430. The study shows that the above academic and professional qualifications were critical for anyone interested to work in any industry but be hired and work for Superior Energy Services, Inc.; applicants are required to undergo further training to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to work in the industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Enhanced skills make employees to optimise their abilities and work hard to increase productivity and meet the additional requirements necessary to sustain their jobs. It is important for the workers to recognize the need to work and protect the environment, ensure a secure working environment, develop better leadership qualities, and foster cultural growth (Autor, Katz
Human Services Organization Analysis in Canada Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction The majority of governments and organizations value social justice as a way of upholding quality service delivery. The objective of this paper is to evaluate ethical and social justice values in the Canadian government to show that despite the progress made towards achieving equality and fairness, there are persisting loopholes in the implementation process.
This analysis will bring forth a critical review of the emerging and enduring ethical issues facing the Canadian government and responses to these challenges in ensuring sustainable human service delivery within all sectors. Since the societal context of human service delivery is constantly changing, all-time reforms in ethical issues are inevitable.
Canada’s journey to a desirable dispensation by the public service can be traced back in 2003 when the government committed to adopt the Values and Ethics Code to govern public service delivery. However, it is necessary to define some of the major terms used in this context. Ethics refers to standards of desirable conduct in professional human service delivery.
On the other side, values are defined as beliefs by an organization, which are set to control the choices that workers make to influence service delivery. Rules are a set of certain statements agreed upon to define what is either acceptable or prohibited by an organization (Carniol, 2010).
Organizations and the public have huge expectations about the personal conduct of every worker, and thus it is the mandate of every firm to set these regulations in a bid to provide a sustainable and acceptable workplace environment. Despite the endless efforts to reform the ethics and social justice issues in the Canadian government, issues of social injustices, inequality, abuse of human rights, and oppressive working conditions persist in the contemporary times.
The role of human service delivery The Canadian public service constitutes one of the most fundamental national entities. The crucial organization of the Canadian legislatures, public officials, and the entire society has a special role in contributing to the continuity and democracy for all Canadians (Knowles
Opening Ceremony Company Coursework cheap essay help
Channel Overview Opening Ceremony is a specialty store located in West Hollywood. The channel type that I chose is the physical (brick and mortar) specialty store. The West Hollywood store is a shop that deals in fashion, art, and traveling products.
The store has also cleverly rolled out a traditional client interaction strategy as part of its business channel. This element revolves around investing money by offering unique and diverse products to customers who buy in the store. In addition, the Opening Ceremony’s customers have better offers due to consistent and attractive discount.
The store has always aspired to provide quality products and services to customers. The store currently offers direct sales to its consumers within admirable standards of flexibility. Apparently, the success of the physical specialty store channel forms the rationale for this research.
This channel has been customized to ensure that clients are served within the most reliable and efficient methods. The success of the channel could be attributed to its partnerships and quality assurance to its diverse customer segments. I am interested in this type of store because of the unique merchandise categories it carries. Besides, I want to run a store like this in the future.
Background of Opening Ceremony in West Hollywood
The Opening Ceremony store was founded in New York by UC Berkeley graduates Carol Lim and Humberto in the year 2002 as a joint partnership venture. After a trip to Hong Kong, the dynamic duo decided to start the company through the integration of the Olympic Games mission statement, which is to adopt a multinational strategy to their retail business.
The company is renowned for retailing household and emerging fashion designs. The designs range from known brands to small brands that are emerging in the domestic and international market. The Opening Ceremony has branches in New York (headquarters), Los Angeles, Tokyo, and London.
Each year, the store in West Hollywood, Los Angeles has activities that showcase the originality and quality of merchandises form different countries across the world as a result of it strong partnership approach in market expansion. As a result, the specialist store has been able to proactively transform the Los Angeles store into an open and expansive market for international capacity and exotic souvenirs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the years, the company has been consistent in growth within its business mission “of exploration and friendship, working with a family of contributors to forge a creative environment that reaches far beyond the fashion world” (Opening Ceremony par 3). Among the collaborating brands that have made the Opening Ceremony to expand its scope of operations include “Rodarte, Topshop, Pendleton, and Maison Martin Margiela” (Opening Ceremony par 3).
The most renowned projects that are carried out by the Los Angeles store include “Spike Jonze, Terence Koh, and Chloë Sevigny” (Opening Ceremony par 4). As a result of the consistent growth over the years, the store in West Hollywood has become very popular with customers within the age of 15 and 40 years.
Customer Service Philosophy and Programs
The store operates from 8.00 am to 8.00pm every day. The most notable CRM strategy adopted by the Opening Ceremony is the contact management since it provides a decision support system to select the best market access on suitability, distribution structure, and integration of contact channels among the customers.
The contact management system in the store takes the form of Debit card services and a 12-hour call center to connect to their customers (from 8.00am to 8.00pm) (Opening Ceremony par 3). This system is constantly upgraded through value –added services. Keeping these channels restricted has helped the store to boost customer confidence in keeping their particulars safe.
In order to guarantee customer satisfaction, the Opening Ceremony’s contact management system is built using standard operating procedures to promote consistency in processing customer orders and all other channels. The more the consistency, the more the information that can be shared amongst various channels creating more business resources to be used in customer service delivery.
For instance, the Opening Ceremony’s call center has been successful in addressing client concerns in a timely and professional way (Best Buy, par. 5). Opening Ceremony has employed the laggard activism strategy to not only capture the global market, but also leapfrog its dominant competitors. The store operates on the Customer-to-Customer (C2C) platform and Business-to-Business (B2B) platforms.
As a result, the Opening Ceremony has penetrated the fashion market due to a balance in factors such as the Western business style, global business approach, and flexible business channel. In order to penetrate the expanding market, Opening Ceremony’s business platform includes services such as premium customer experience, compact support from the local community, and low charges for loyal customer.
We will write a custom Coursework on Opening Ceremony Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the Customer-to-Customer platform adopted by Opening Ceremony has created and successfully implemented the marketing strategy to ensure customer loyalty and market expansion. The company’s product multi-branding as a positioning strategy has enabled it to survive competition. For instance, the direct shopping is tailed to address the individual customer needs.
Besides, the company has managed to balance the elements of intangibility, inseparability, and heterogeneity in the 4Ps of its market mix due to improved product visibility for each target customer segment (Rai 23). The goal of these CRM strategies at the Opening Ceremony is to concentrate on the local market through use of an open-system business model.
The strategy was meant to take advantage of the challenge of ‘smallness’ as compared to other giant specialty stores offering similar products. The store depends on the closed-system approach in execution of its business strategies. Unlike other stores which developed a fixed entry strategy in the market that was characterized by overconfidence and inertia, the Opening Ceremony was packaged as a humble and flexible fashion products trading platform (Opening Ceremony par 5).
The Opening Ceremony store has made the shopping experience an easy task with its strategy of all-under-one-roof, from renowned designer products to upcoming designer products. A customer is in a position to literally find all types of fashion products within a single location. This saves on time besides allowing a customer to plan for a single shopping activity that covers for all his or her needs.
To support this mission, the store has one of the most attractive reward plans for its loyal customers in the form of shopping points that are redeemable, seasonal discounts, and annual rewards. For instance, the store has special promotions and discounts on holidays such as Christmas Day, Thanksgiving Day, Independence Day, Black Friday, and spring sale.
In addition, the store has special vouchers that target corporate organizations and private customers. The offers are in the form of price, quality, and quantity. The store has a 24 hour return policy for goods sold as long as the product is returned in its previous condition (Opening Ceremony par 7).
In summary, the Opening Ceremony has the best CRM strategies since they are incorporated in the offline customer management systems. For instance, adoption of the hybrid system of customer service management by the Opening Ceremony is meant to ensure direct contact with customers within the shortest time possible. The hybrid system is very successful in contact management and positive attitude reassurance at the store.
Employee Relations, Philosophy and Programs
In the Opening Ceremony store, there is a laid down structure formulated in order to keep its staff in healthy and stable mind in their duty of serving the store’s interest. A stable mind performs optimally with little or no supervision.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Opening Ceremony Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In line with this, store always work alongside its staff to promote healthy working habits by recognizing and where necessary supporting staff that make a steady commitment in practicing accepted desirable healthy habits in their work department. At the Opening Ceremony store, programs are periodically designed in line with objectives and goals for sustained happy employee-employer relationship.
The methods used at the Opening Ceremony include direct participation by the employees, who after interaction with each other identify hale and hearty workplace interventions, and promotion of health organization culture through different training programs (Opening Ceremony par 8).
The Opening Ceremony store has attractive employer paid benefits that offer health cover, mileage, work compensation, retirement, and disability among others. The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony inspires optimal performance through job satisfaction since the total annual compensation and different benefits are relatively attractive.
Besides, the store has a continuous 401k retirement plan for employees. Each year, employees are given the opportunity to buy 1% of the Opening Ceremony stocks at a discount of 10%. The actual hourly salary for the sales associates is $50, besides a comprehensive medical cover and annual salary increment of 5% of the previous year salary (Opening Ceremony par 9).
The corporate governance structure of the Opening Ceremony store has a strong system for promoting the elements such as culture, structure, systems, and strategic alignment among the employees. The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony store are aligned to a supportive work environment, concrete learning processes, and personal development that reinforce competency.
The company has annual promotion plan and continuous employee training program. The promotion is based on performance and academic qualifications. The training program is in-house and is managed by the HRM department (Opening Ceremony par 6).
Employee selection at the Opening Ceremony is focused to evaluate resumes of applicants for essential requirements which in this case include possession of management and analytical skills in fashion design environment. In this case, the process is systematic, and through aptitude test, elimination of those lacking analytical skills is possible within minimal prejudice or biasness. In the Opening Ceremony store, social and highly skilled employees are allocated the right duties than keeping them in a secluded environment (Opening Ceremony par 4).
Conclusion Apparently, the store has the strengths of strong brand presence, expansive distribution channel, diverse product multi-branding, and strong customer base within the specialty channel. However, there is strong competition from similar stores such as Satine, Boutique, Madison, and Kitson. Besides, the store operates in a dynamic market where changed customer preference may negatively affect its profitability.
Works Cited Rai, Alok. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Cases, London, UK: Kogan Page, 2012. Print.
Opening Ceremony. About Us. 03 Dec. 2014. Web.