To believe without sufficient evidence William Clifford strongly held on his epistemological dictum that people should believe without systematic evidences. His idealism clung on the fear or error through questioning on evidences. He committed his pragmatist view on empiricist basis of verification. I do not believe in this perception whatsoever. I don’t want to believe on phenomenon or ideas without solid evidences. Clifford’s biased imperialism principles are greatly erroneous (Moore 98).
Our beliefs are efficacious at levels beyond what is personal. They affect the social integration among people. For this reason, it makes less sense to believe things with regard to fear of making an error. We cannot therefore believe without sufficient evidences as Clifford postulates (William 524).
This is especially so when it comes to such things where empirical data can be used as evidences. However, in cases where such evidence is exempted, it becomes very difficult to believe. This should be a personal choice and no one should be forced in whatever means to take any line of thought. Every person should be given the opportunity to choose whether to believe or not to.
Religious and metaphysical beliefs on the other hand should be respected but as James believes they should not be believed fallaciously especially when they affect the people rationally or irrationally. They should however be analyzed for the greater good of the people. No believe therefore should be accepted on mere faith (William 524).
Scientific theories should be hypothesized and scientific methods should be incorporated to ensure that we have a ground to believe in these theories. Evidentialism for instance led to scientists like Lamarck to postulate fallacious hypothesis about evolution. He said that acquired characteristics were inheritable and therefore could be passed from one generation to another. This was however disapproved through evidenced approaches and hypothesis.
It therefore leads to a general conclusion that the fear of error should not lead individual to believe in non-evidenced approaches especially in social and natural sciences (William 524). This phenomenon puts across the numerous errors that are made upon believes with sufficient evidence. The effects in our decisions are much more rampant and could have far reaching effects in our social lives.
For this reason, it becomes greatly important to re-evaluate circumstances and seeking of empirical evidences before we can solidly conclude some issues. I strongly disagree with Clifford and I believe that it is quite vulnerable to make an error from assumptions and insufficiently evidenced beliefs than in properly researched and evidenced cases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People should understand that evidentialism leads them into constrictive skepticism and irrational subjectivism. Philosophy should therefore cut in and allow people to understand decision making especially in such dogmas that cuts across epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophy of science (Moore 98).
It should also allow us to think rationally and be in a position to classify genuine believes and those that try to avoid error. Clifford’s point of view is erroneous and reinforced by fear and it should therefore not form any basis of decision making in individuals (Moore 98).
As James observed, life changing ideologies based on metaphysical beliefs and religion should be purely on free will. Clifford’s perceptions that scientific probabilities as mere assumptions was wrong as scientific methods with substantiated empirical data are applied to come up with the probabilities (William 524).
Works Cited Moore E. C. William James: The Great American Thinker Series, New York: Washington Square Press, 1965. Print
William J. Pragmatism in William James Writings: 1902-1910, New York: The Library of America, 1987. Print
Machinery and Modern Industry Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Development of Innovative Practices
Analyzing Market Orientations
In the essay “Machinery and Modern Industry”, Karl Marx sought to clarify the distinction between considering machines as tools or as mechanisms to replace the “human element” in the course of producing particular goods or implementing certain services. He does so by first succinctly breaking down the difference in capabilities between man and machine.
Marx points out that machines are more efficient than human beings since they are not limited by human biology, rather they can be easily modified or adapted in order to perform ever more complex tasks.
Such a feat is not possible with an average worker since they can neither be expected to move 10 times faster, grow 2 more heads or have 10 arms. He goes on to elaborate on how ubiquitous machines have become through their development during the industrial era. The paper utilizes examples in looming, shipping as well as other such activities to point towards the transition from human workers to machine made items.
The main thrust of the essay though was not to point out how effective machines are in increasing the means of production, rather, it was the intention of Marx to reveal how the use of various machines in production lines is meant to benefit the owner of the business rather than the employees themselves.
Marx attempts to show this distinction by clarifying that the machines utilized in the production of goods and services should not be considered tools to make the lives of workers easier, rather, machines are meant as a means of limiting their ability to influence the process of production. The less workers are involved in creating particular goods, the more they can be easily replaced and, as a result, their rights are slowly being taken away from them without them even realizing it.
The essay proves this by showing how the concept of a “tool” is meant as a means of accomplishing a particular task. This can take the form of a variety of objects such as a sewing needle, a pair of clippers, a hammer, a chisel or a variety of other implements meant to aid in the production of a particular good or to perform a unique kind of service.
Yet, what must be understood is that the use of a tool requires a certain degree of skill and experience on the part of a worker which cannot be easily replicated or replaced, this creates a necessary place for them in the production line thereby solidifying the necessity of keeping them happy and upholding their rights to prevent them from leaving.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, once the concept of “skill” is removed from production equation wherein the tool itself is incorporated into a mechanical mechanism this, as a result, removes the protections workers enjoyed. Once a job becomes easily replicable, a worker easily replaceable and the necessity of skill is removed from the equation of production, this is when workers lose all their rights and become beholden to the owners of factories, corporations and other such entities since they lose their bargaining power against them.
Introduction When examining Moriarty’s claim that engineering developments are not simply driven by market forces, it is necessary to examine what factors drive innovations in engineering developments in the first place and how do these relate to market forces.
First and foremost, studies such as those by Nutt(2007) explain that market forces are a fundamental driver of innovative practices within most industries as evidenced by the drivers related to making technology more cost effective, efficient as well as user friendly in order to appeal to the current market segment that a company is targeting (Nutt, 2007).
Evidence of this can be seen in the Smartphone industry today wherein the competition between manufacturers such as Apple, Samsung, HTC and other manufacturers have in effect made smart phones cheaper, more innovative and flexible when it comes to the preferences of individual consumers.
One problem with the assessment of Nutt (2007), is that despite demand in markets for innovation it is at times noticeable that no significant engineering developments occur. One clear example of this is seen in the case of the telecommunications infrastructure within the U.S.
As seen in the study of Malhotra
Effects of Globalization Cause and Effect Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Definition of Globalization
Drivers of Globalization
Effects of Globalization
Definition of Globalization Globalization is defined as interaction among different countries in order to develop global economy. It entails political, technological, cultural and political exchanges which are facilitated by infrastructure, transport and communication. Some of the traditional international theories of globalization include Ricardian theory of international trade, Heckscher-Ohlin model and Adam Smith’s model (Scholte, 2005).
Drivers of Globalization For globalization to take place, it must be driven by certain factors. The first factor that drives globalization is competitiveness in the market, which focuses on aspects such as global competitors, interdependence among countries and high two-way trade. The second factor that drives globalization is the government.
The government drives globalization through regulation of marketing activities, provision of technical standards that are compatible and elimination of restrictions imposed on trade and investment procedures. The third factor that drives globalization is cost.
Cost in globalization deals with efficiency in sourcing activities, world economies and emerging technological trends. The fourth factor that drives globalization is market, which covers ordinary needs of customers, channels of world markets and marketing techniques that can be transferred to different regions.
Effects of Globalization Globalization is associated with both positive and negative effects. Its first positive effect is that it makes it possible for different countries to exchange their products. The second positive effect of globalization is that it promotes international trade and growth of wealth as a result of economic integration and free trade among countries.
However, globalization is also associated with negative effects. Its first negative effect is that it causes unemployment. Since companies compete with their rivals in the market, sometimes they are forced to sack some of their employees in order to reduce salary costs and instead maximize profits. This is common in developing countries, where large numbers of unemployed people live in urban areas.
The second negative effect of globalization is that it promotes terrorism and criminal activities because people, food and materials are allowed to move freely from one country to the other. Individuals with evil intentions take advantage of this freedom and carry out terrorism activities and other crimes (Negative Effects of Globalization, 2013).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Negative Effects of Globalization. (2013). Web.
Scholte, J. (2005). Globalization: A Critical Introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
The Dura Europos Synagogue Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Dura Europos
Introduction Jewish artists have real pieces of art works as history reveals. Jewish artists have created pieces of arts for at least the last 2,000 years. These are evident from paintings of “18th century, 500 years of making ritual objects and illustrated prayer books, haggadahs, megillas, ketubos and the extensive production of illuminated manuscripts between 1300 and 1500” (Sed-Rajna 237). In addition, there are several pieces of arts in Israel mainly in synagogues. These reveal arts of fourth to sixth centuries (the Common Era). The origin of such works was Dura Europos.
The Dura Europos The Dura Europos paintings represent a great deal of the Jewish art. According to Sed-Rajna, a Jewish art scholar, Jewish art portrays an iconographical language with elements of narrative language. He notes that there are three types of narrative arts as follow:
This category has murals of Joshua, Messiah, Moses ascending Mount Sinai and at the Bush, Torah niche, and Abraham and the Covenant (Sed-Rajna 229).
This area has murals of the Exodus, Elijah, Ezekiel, Triumph of Mordechai, and the Valley of the Dry Bones (Sed-Rajna 230).
There are paintings of the Well in the Wilderness, the Ark in the Temple of Dagon, and Tabernacle (Sed-Rajna 230).
There are many categories and identifications of Dura Europos and frescos paintings. However, most of these classifications are under scholarly debates. It is only these three areas, which scholars have reached a consensus. Based on such differences, various art scholars have expressed different views on Jewish arts.
For instance, some scholars have focused on didactical and historical elements of the art. Others have considered frescos as commentary part of the official Roman art. In addition, thematic concerns usually involve Messianic elements according to Erwin. There are other different opinions on Jewish art (McBee 1). Such views only express how Jewish art can draw various meanings due to its richness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Symbolic Narrative Torah niche is a striking part of the synagogue with various paintings, which bear different interpretations. It has murals of Jacob blessing his sons. However, much repainting has damaged the piece. This painting may depict Moses, Abraham, and Joshua at different occasions.
The Torah niche has a definite figurative representation. It represents “a closed temple, temple menorah, and a lulav and esrog on the left” (McBee 1). This was the ideal form of representation for over 300 years in synagogues. On the right, there is the Binding of Isaac. We can also observe a tied ram and Abraham with a knife. “Isaac is on the altar while a hand from heaven” (McBee 1) prevents the pending sacrifice to God.
Others argue that there is an insertion of Sarah standing outside the tent on the upper right of the painting. It shows Sarah’s reaction and comprehension of the ongoing events. According to Sed-Rajna, “the scene is the first attempt in Jewish art to transpose a literary account into visual form” (Sed-Rajna 239). As a result, it signifies the change in representation from symbolic art to narrative. This mural is important because it is among many Jewish paintings attributed to sacrifice.
Figure 1: the Akeida (Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria) We cannot underestimate the relevance of these murals in Jewish art. This painting was among the earliest works of art in Jewish paintings.
It became a model for many synagogues for over a period of 300 years. Akeida was the pictorial narrative that focused on representing the Jewish religion in the form of painting. The painting achieved this by utilizing the local culture to reinforce the Jewish religion and the role of God and mercy in their lives. It is also interesting to note that some of the images do not represent Sarah as others do.
This painting marked the start of Jewish art. This mural is complex and many scholars agree that it has a rich history, but a thorough study of Dura Europos reveals unknown mysteries.
Figure 2: Akeida: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria Sequential Narrative Most of Dura Europos paintings relied on Torah narrative in order to capture complex issues and affairs of communities. Dura Europos paintings bear the greatest representation in the Jewish art history.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Dura Europos Synagogue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also has various aspects of Torah subjects, which are the most outstanding form of paintings in Jewish art. However, some paintings with illuminated Haggadahs from Spain took this legacy after thousands of years. We also note that the idea of “decorated synagogue only reappeared later in the 17th century due to shuls paintings of Russia, Poland, and Lithuania” (McBee 1).
Figure 3: Exodus from Egypt: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria Dura Europos murals in synagogues also have extensive figuration. There are images, which show followers on the walls. However, according to McBee, close examinations of these images reveal that they represent “Torah figures, Abraham, Moses, Samuel, and Elijah” (McBee 1) in Roman attires. These show that such figures were statesmen and heroes of the time. However, they lead to confusion on the difference between Gentile and Jew.
Figure 4: Rescuing Moses: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria These murals have also presented problems in relation to factual consistencies. For instance, murals of Exodus do not concur with the narrative sequence. The Temple of Aaron during sanctification highlights “a bull about to be killed with an ax” (McBee 1). This does represent the normal Jewish tradition of slaughtering bulls.
Still, on the Solomon’s Temple, the doors have decorations with pagan elements. Lastly, the painting on Rescuing Moses shows that Pharaoh’s daughter had no cloths. These variations in interpretations of Jewish art in synagogues represent various ideas, which scholars have attached to these paintings.
Such differences in representation of paintings may have taken place due to borrowing of non-Jewish styles for Jewish paintings. For instance, we have the application of Zodiac that highlights God’s power over the world by his worldly agents. This representation also has a chariot and sun. Artists combined both elements to reflect paintings of the time in the synagogue.
The most represented form of painting in the Dura synagogue painting is Moses at the time of the Exodus. It occupies the upper right wall with depiction that across run from left to right. Moses is conspicuous with his soldier has he leads them out of Egypt. A closer look reveals that there is an open entrance of Egypt, which has deities. These deities show paganism in Egypt, which Israelites must leave.
We also have a flat aerial view that depicts the sea. It is full of drowned Egyptian soldiers. Again, Moses leads Israelites with his rod in his stretched hand over the sea. Moses also leads Israelites across the sea as they match along 12 lanes. We also notice the ‘Hand of God’ on these paintings has it directs Moses through the Exodus event.
The artist must have been familiar with the events of the time and Jewish tradition. The Exodus painting shows Moses as he leads Israelites out of Egypt with God’s guidance. It depicts the Jewish triumph over Pharaoh’s paganism and the oppression.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dura Europos Synagogue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 5: Exodus from Egypt: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria The paintings of Dura Europos synagogue also have significance in the third century. Most scholars look at the importance of such murals in relation to their place in history.
They serve the purpose of encouraging modern Jewish artist and showing them possibilities from the past. Dura Europos is the only Jewish narrative art that has “Torah, midrash and individual creativity, which span a gap of 1700 years and, with imagination, finding parallels and inspiration between their worlds” (McBee 1).
A thorough review of Dura Europos paintings and frescos shows fundamental elements of early Jewish art. Torah niche employed both the use of symbols and narrative techniques in order to create meanings evident in the Temples.
Exodus paintings reveal the triumph of Israelites against Pharaoh’s paganism and slavery. Rescuing of Moses shows Pharaoh’s daughter rescue the infant. These pieces of art works use both midrashic and Biblical elements in order capture history of the time. They also use non-Jewish elements to enhance visual features of paintings.
Some of the most important paintings in Duran Europos painting are those of Elijah and Ezekiel. These paintings also attack paganism at the time. Scholars draw this conclusion by performing comparative narratives.
Figure 6: Elijah on Carmel: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria Scholars have used continuous narrative in order to explain paintings depicting Elijah. Such paintings depict divine intervention for the community and for himself. There is also the unsuccessful struggle that involves Elijah and Prophet of Baal on Mount Carmel. We can see eight priests in their Roman attires next to the altar with the god’s sacrifice. Below the altar, there is also a small animal ambush by a snake.
It represents the evil, Hiel of Ahab. He wanted to light the fire. However, the serpent from God consumed him before he could light the fire. We can also see Elijah’s sacrifice on fire. He is evoking the heavenly fire and calling for drenching of the sacrifice because of the interference by evil forces. These paintings depict a war against paganism in which God comes to the rescue of true believers.
In the paintings of Ezekiel, the presence of God is eminent through the visible hands on the top of the paintings. This reflects the important prophetic role of Ezekiel among the Jews. He stands for the redemption of the entire community. The first image reveals how “Ezekiel ended up in the valley of the dry bones” (McBee 1).
In the valley, we have features that represent feet, hands, and heads. Ezekiel must provide his prophecy about the importance of these features. The meaning represents coming back to life because this is the interpretation from God. Further, we also see the three angels and another one on the ground as they perform miracles.
Figure 7: Ezekiel Valley of Dry Bones: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria We also notice Ezekiel adorned in Roman attire in another part of the painting. This represents the return of ten tribes that disappeared. These are the ten men with Ezekiel. It also shows resurrection of Israelites during the period of Ezekiel. The presence of the ‘Hand of God’ is also conspicuous in this painting. Scholars claim that these paintings highlight the role of God in resurrection of Israelites as a nation and individuals after their deaths.
According to Elsner, “one fundamental theme to the Dura murals is something called Cultural Resistance (Elsner 269). Elsner argue that Jewish paintings rebuked cult religion that was in Dura. Therefore, these paintings aimed to eliminate paganism and restore the Jewish monotheism among people who were losing their cultural identity.
Figure 8: Aaron’s Temple: Dura Europos (245 CE) Courtesy of National Museum, Damascus, Syria Such paintings in the synagogue dispel the claims that Jewish did not allow visual images in the synagogue. Scholars consider this prohibition has the most misunderstood part commandment in relation to arts. They point out that it refers to the creation of idols and not artistic representations in arts.
However, the interpretation this command often varied with time. This because others followed it strictly while others gave a loose interpretation. In this context, we can argue that earliest works of Jewish celebrated art works and used visual arts as ways of honoring God. This was the purpose of paintings in the Dura Europos synagogue. Therefore, we can see how religion influenced lives of Jewish through arts.
Comparative Narrative From the comparative, we look at the Aaron’s Temple and the Miraculous Well. The paintings depict variations in Jewish arts. We have the Ark and the Dagon Temple in which we interpret a message of victory. Other paintings depict rigid systems with no human beings present. Such paintings represent broad ideas and schematic representation.
Scholars consider such images as non-Jewish because of the pagan elements on the closed door. Therefore, it is a wasteland in which no religion or life can thrive. The comparative narrative aimed to depict that paganism did not stand a chance in the Jewish land because of the destruction of the idols.
Conclusion The Dura Europos has demonstrated the three interpretations of the paintings in the synagogue. These are various narratives like symbolic, continuous, and comparative. These paintings are complex, and we can only understand them through classification. This is because the paintings involve a number of elements from both the Bible and the midrash. In addition, we also have to deal with the artist’s point of view.
The artists have depicted ‘Hands of God’ to mark his presence in most of the events of the Jewish. Such Jewish arts show possibilities that paintings can capture with imaginative approaches. We have to understand various figures, attires, and motifs of the paintings, which give us rich imageries and depictions of Jewish art.
The Dura Europos represents the earliest work of arts by Jewish. Scholars and artists have to start from this foundation in order to understand contemporary works of Jewish arts. Therefore, Dura Europos paintings shaped the way for future arts of Jewish.
Works Cited Elsner, Jas. “Cultural Resistance and the Visual Image: The Case of Dura Europos.” Classical Philology, 96.3 (2001): 269-304. Print.
McBee, Richard. Dura Europos Project II at UJA New York . 6 July 2010. Web. .
Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle. Ancient Jewish Art: East and West. Secaucus, NJ : Chartwell Books, 1985. Print.
The US Government Role in the Declining Quality of Education Essay college admission essay help
Introduction The United States of America is the nation that controls the economy of the world. Consequently, the USA is the founder of equality. Despite its efforts however, the nation is currently facing problems in its education system. Ironically, the US government comes up with a new idea almost every decade that are parenthetical good but they are not as effective in practice.
The main question that comes up as a result is, who it to blame for this? In the United States of America, the government controls the education system. Due to this fact, I believe that due to its institutional inefficiencies, the American government has failed to successfully manage the education system in America. As a result, there is a huge disparity between the education that is offered in public schools and the one offered in private school.
In practice, private school education in the United States of America is of a higher quality as compared to the education offered in public schools. With regards to these factors, this paper will thus focus on the role played by the United States government in the declining quality of education that is offered in public schools.
It is important that the problem is understood from its root cause. As stated above, the United States of America is the leading economy in the world. The country is also home to some of the best educational institutions in the world. According to Tyack (82), the United States of America is one of the countries that receive the highest number of foreign students who come for the quality education offered in this country. It is a fact that the quality education offered in this country is in the private sector.
Carrasco (67) appreciates the effort that the government has made in subsidizing education in the private sector. He says however, that the qualities of education in these public schools are compromised. It is not fair when the education offered to a learner in the third grade in a public school is not in the same level as that of a third grade learner in a private school.
Education is not limited to class work. A learner should have access to various facilities that would help in improving growth and development, besides their academic developments. This means that they should have access to various facilities that would put them at a place where they will develop in all the aspects of their life.
Government as an Institution that has failed to Take Care of the Education System The government of the United States of America may score well when it is pitted against other countries around the world on the basis of development of the education system. However, when the analysis is done internally, the score will be much lower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Private educational institutions have managed to offer quality education to their students, while learners in the public schools struggle to meet basic necessities in the school. According to Tyack (113), basic needs are changing, and the government should be ready to change with these changes.
This scholar notes that twenty years ago, access to a computer to students in college was a luxury, only afforded by those students who were from the rich families. This has changed. The current society is defined by technology. Access to internet connectivity through personal computers is now a basic need. Students need to conduct research, and this can only be possible if they have access to computers.
They also need to have a good storage facility where they can store their literatures for future references. These are some of the facilities that are still missing in most of the public schools. In most of the developed private schools in this country, students at high school level have access to personal computers which they can freely use as long as they are within the institution.
They can conduct research easily in the internet and they find it easy accessing any form of information that may be available in the internet. On the other hand, learners in high school who are in public schools can hardly access these facilities. They do not have enough computers that they can use in their research.
Another fact that points out to the disparity between public and private schools is the ratio of teacher to student. On average, the ratio of teacher to student in public schools is 1: 35. One teacher is expected to take care of 35 learners. In private schools however, this ratio is 1: 10. When a teacher is given as little as only ten students to take care of, the quality of education will definitely be high.
This is because a teacher will be in a position to offer personalized attention to the student. A teacher will be in a position to understand the uniqueness of every student and prepare tailor-made instructions that will create maximum benefits to the learner. This is a sacrifice that the government is yet to make.
It is also a fact that the government has failed to give enough attention to school when one is to conduct a comparison of the budget that it awards to other departments, and that of the department of education. The department of defense has a budget that is several times that offered to the department of education.
We will write a custom Essay on The US Government Role in the Declining Quality of Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a sign that the government gives more emphasis to this department at the expense of the education system in the country. Russell (58) has always argued that the Government of the United States has been keen to develop all its sectors equally, based on the pressing needs.
This scholar has held that the United States of America still remains one of the countries with the best education in the world, whether in public or private sector. This claim may be true. The claim may be factual when this comparison is to be done with other countries. However, the analysis should be based on what other institutions within this country offer.
Conclusion The government of United States has made an effort to ensure that government sponsored schools receive enough funding to help in the development. However, the gap between the private and public schools is too wide to be ignored. The private schools offer quality education because they have heavily invested in development of various academic facilities.
The government has focused so much on other problems it considers fundamental to an extent that it has limited attention on education. This explains the low quality education offered in public schools. It would therefore, be recommendable for the government to reconsider its focus on the education sector of this country.
Works Cited Carrasco, Frank. The American Education System Fails the Mexican American. New York: Cengage, 1971. Print.
Russell, John. The American Educational System: An Introduction to Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2010. Print.
Tyack, David. The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print.
Adidas in 2009 Case Study writing essay help
At the beginning of the year 2009, Adidas Company marked the first quarter by closing its European and Asian headquarters as a result of a sharp drop in its profits.
Herbert Hainer, the CEO and Chairman of the Adidas Group, claimed that this would go a long way in ensuring that great savings would be achieved. In the description of the restructuring process, there has been a new creation of the organisational structure aimed at yielding some long-term developments in the company. In the restructuring process, the aim of the company was to get closer to the consumer through its products.
The company sought to develop new levels of management in its structure, where different initiatives would be developed to come up with more effective sales strategies. This restructuring was also meant to look at key markets, in which a global retail market structure would be adopted to enhance financial gains. Lastly, the company sought to have a € 100 million as its annual savings for all the costs incurred (Barton 2).
These restructuring processes were of importance in the financial aspect and business situation. As with the creation of a structure in the organisation, this would enhance realignment in the business. In turn it would report Adidas efforts to successfully compete with the international markets, albeit in a challenging environment.
A joint model with Reebok has been established to restructure the company’s strategy, which has made it possible to achieve synergy. It is through such collaboration that Adidas products have found their way into foreign markets throughout the world. With this strategy, the consumer and the company are in a good relationship. In addition, this has made finances in the company gain increased significance due to increase in volume of sales.
The Chairman of the Adidas Group firmly states that adopting some game changing structures, such as collaborating with other companies, has the potential to refine their business, which is a core task in bringing the consumer and the Adidas brands closer. The first quarter had reported a drop in sales. Therefore, to the business, it was necessary to seek new ideas in an aim to eliminate any unnecessary cost that would in turn contribute to business success.
To adopt a restructuring process that would be flexible and effective, Adidas (in partnership with other companies such as Reebok) came up with a joint operating model in European and American. With this strategy, major markets have been accessed with less difficulty. Through this form of collaboration, either partners remains as a single entity, but with renewed strength in its financial sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Complexity reduction is another restructuring strategy at Adidas Group, where simple products have been greatly accepted in the society. This, in turn, increases the volume of sales.
With the above initiatives, a better and healthy business environment has been achieved and financial sustainability will be achieved in the long run. One of the financial and business reasons that influenced restructuring at Adidas was to save on cost of up to € 100 million. Through this, the company expected € 1.8 billion of its annual sales (Beaudry and Groves 2).
Another reason was to reduce the regional offices to retail shops, which would bring the consumer closer to the company. Avoiding subsidiaries in the company would contribute to the cutting on costs and an increase in revenue.
The business restructuring observed in 2009 was primarily through management. It reported an increase in the company’s revenue and healthy financial reports. With the elimination of regional office, there has been a strong bond resulting from an interaction between global organisation and the local markets.
This holistic approach is still being adopted, especially with an increased market speed supported by technologies that are connecting Adidas Group to the rest of the world. In the process of restructuring the company’s own retail business, there is evidence of improved growth in retailers.
For instance, this has motivated Adidas Group to appoint a Chief Retail Officer with the responsibility of managing the company’s products (Barton 4). The development of a new organisational structure in different departments such as Finance and Information Technology has enhanced sharing of services. In addition, it has cut on costs, hence a good way of financial saving.
The collaboration between Adidas Group and other companies such as Reebok helps the company to identify different synergies. In fact, this is achieved through restructuring process where clear strategies have been developed. With these strategies, company and employees interests have been considered. Synergy has brought about success, with all the strategies under implementation being handled and planned adequately. Through this, a lot of cost is saved due to collective sharing of responsibilities.
We will write a custom Case Study on Adidas in 2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is much creativity derived from synergy and through integration, restructuring and dependency, the group has adopted a corporate culture that has helped in achieving its financial and business goals. Synergy has also been a good way of creating sustainability because it has brought about a strong relationship between the company and its material suppliers and stakeholders. This restructuring strategy of having supportive members in the group has the effect of achieving collective performance.
Works Cited Barton, Elena. “Adidas Aims For Brighter Half.” FN: Footwear News 65.31 (2009): 4-1. Print.
Beaudry, Jennifer and Ellen Groves. “Adidas Plans Restructuring.” FN: Footwear News 65.18 (2009): 2-1. Print.
The Role of Steinbeck’s Women in The Grapes of Wrath (the Movie): When the Wind of Changes Blows Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Ma Joad
It is hard to ignore the fact that up until the beginning of the XX century, most of the deeds that the history ended up caring about were men.
For quite long, the role of women was restricted to household and child upbringing; however, in the first decades of the twentieth century, the stereotypical image of a humble housewife seemed to have started wearing out, which a number of the writers like Steinbeck expressed at the time.
Though the emphasis on the social, political and economical changes that gripped the South of the USA in 1930ies, John Ford in his adaptation of Steinbeck’s novel offered the audience completely new images of women and made it clear that women started gaining new social roles. The above-mentioned meant that female characters in literature were no longer the bland housewives or damsels in distress, but original characters with unique personalities.
Ma Joad First and foremost, Ma Joad must be mentioned. Allowing a character like this on a screen truly heralded the beginning of the feminist era. Even though Ma Joad is portrayed as a typical housewife, she does as much as any male protagonists in the movie. On the one hand, she is a perfect supportive mother who takes care of her family:
Sometimes they do somethin’ to you, Tommy. They hurt you – and you get mad–and then you get mean – and they hurt you again – and you get meaner, and meaner – till you ain’t no boy or no man any more, but just a walkin’ chunk a mean-mad. Did they hurt you like that, Tommy? (The Grapes of Wrath)
On the other hand, she is into the social and political changes that happen to the state. As a matter of fact, at certain point, she summarizes the entire movie, if not the entire era, quite in a nutshell:
Rich fellas come up an’ they die, an’ their kids ain’t no good an’ they die out. But we keep a’comin’. We’re the people that live. They can’t wipe us out; they can’t lick us. We’ll go on forever, Pa, ’cause we’re the people. (The Grapes of Wrath).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rosasharn Compared to the previous character, Rose of Sharon, or, as her friends and family call her, Rosasharn, is quite a downgrade. She does have a personality, too, but she comes nowhere near energetic Ma Joad. Instead of being protective like Ma Joad, she whimpers and moans: “Ma… all this, will it hurt the baby?”, while her mother reasons with her: “Now don’t you go gettin’ nimsy-mimsy” (The Grapes of Wrath).
Grandma Joad Grandma Joad is not given much screen time, unlike Ma or Rosasharn. However, it would be wrong to leave Grandma Joad out of account. According to what the characters who used to know her as she was younger say, she deserves to be mentioned as a female character whose personality was groundbreaking for the American cinematography of the time: “Your granma was a great one, too. The third time she got religion she go it so powerful she knocked down a full-growed deacon with her fist” (The Grapes of Wrath).
It is worth mentioning that, despite a new portrayal of women and establishing their new role in society, the movie still contains the clichés of the time. Even the leading female character, Ma Joad, is pretty much a staple of a typical housewife and the mother of the family. From the given perspective, she can be considered the typical caring mother of the family whose main concerns are her children and her household chores.
However, Ma Joad’s character is much more complex than that. She does possess certain features that were characteristic of female characters of the time, yet she takes actions, makes choices and decisions, which, in turn, makes her a complex and compelling female lead. The features that make Ma Joad somewhat stereotypical serve only to make her real; otherwise, Ma Joad would have lost half of the credibility and likeability that she has.
Finally, Mae, who is given a rather peculiar role in the movie, does not look as strong as Ma Joad or Mrs. Wainwright. Though she has a scene in which she makes a decision, giving children candies “two for a penny” (The Grapes of Wrath), she still does not have that much of personality, since her decision, as well as the rest of her actions are based on what Bert tells her: “Go ahead – Bert says take it” (The Grapes of Wrath).
Another female character in the movie who quite honestly should be considered a solid step back in the development of women perception in literature, is Granma Joad. Apart from the fact that she does or attempts to do little to nothing, she becomes so grief-stricken with the death of her husband that she loses her will to live, which results in her untimely death in the middle of a desert.
At one point, the audience can see her taking responsibilities and acting like a mature person would; however, her religiousness and the tendency only to supply color commentaries brings the significance of her character a few notches down: “Praise the Lord!” (The Grapes of Wrath). Therefore, out of all female characters, Ma Joad seems the most complex, challenging and well-rounded one.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Steinbeck’s Women in The Grapes of Wrath (the Movie): When the Wind of Changes Blows specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is essential that she is not portrayed as a completely out-of-epoch feminist and the person who always does the right thing and knows what to say; she has her sad moments, and the moments when she would rather have someone help her: “I dunno what to do. I got to feed the fambly.
What’m I gonna do with these here?” (The Grapes of Wrath). She gets angry, happy, and even irritated, like an everyday person does: “You can’t make us wait!” (The Grapes of Wrath), which altogether makes her a very believable and compelling new character.
Though it would be wrong to say that Ma Joad pulls the role of a self-sufficient woman alone, since there are a couple of other female characters who display similar qualities, Ma Joad definitely leaves the greatest impression. She truly represents a new female character in the American literature, a self-sufficient woman who, while caring about her family, also is socially active and engages into the activities that are typically considered the realm of men.
Apparently, Ford’s, as well as Steinbeck’s, intent was to focus on the social issues that affected the lives of the American farmers on the large scale, i.e., the events that occurred at the time of the Great depression, as well as personal dramas that evolved in this environment. However, together with the aforementioned issues, Steinbeck also touched upon a very peculiar feminist issue. To be more exact, whether he did it intentionally or not, Steinbeck offered the readers a completely new portrayal of women.
It would be a mistake to say that the women that the author depicted did not exist before; nevertheless, Steinbeck was one of the first to notice the tendency for women to try new social roles, and Ford in his adaptation was the first to display, which The Grapes of Wrath should be given credit for.
Works Cited The Grapes of Wrath. Dir. John Ford. Perf. Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell and John Carradine. 20th Century Fox, 1940. Film.
Book Review of American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us by Robert D. Putnam and David E. Campbell Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Robert Putnam is currently a professor of public policy at the Harvard University (Cullen, 2011). David Campbell is presently employed at the university of Notre Dame as a professor in the department of political science (Cullen, 2011). Both the authors of this book are experienced writers who are well known for their literary works. Since both of them are social scientists, most of their books are based on societal analyses (Cullen, 2011).
At the time when this book was published, there were many controversies in religious practices in America. For instance, there were noticeable killings that were associated with religious conflicts (Alba, Raboteau
September 11th 2001 Analysis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction After the aftermaths of the 11th September, 2001 terrorism attacks, many questions become unanswered as to the mystery behind this act of terrorism. On a mission to solve these mysteries, a commission was formed; The Bipartisan 9/11 Commission to investigate the base of al-Qaida. Countries such as Afghanistan and suspects such as Osama bin Laden became famous to the public. It was because of these events that Lawrence attempted to answer questions about the 9/11 mysteries through a series of investigations.
Wrights accomplishment With a similar mission like the commission, Lawrence Wright, the American journalist, sought to investigate the reason as to why three thousands Americans lost their lives, who attacked them, why did the attackers hate them, and why did the American government avoided or was unable prevent these attacks. In his investigation, he traced the roots and linage of the al-Qaida. These were the main suspects of the attack as evidence revealed later.
Dozens of writers have written very many books on the 9/11 attacks and the attempts of the United States intelligence to stop them. However, the author of this book having lived in Cairo for two years, he had adequate knowledge about the Islamic environment and that is how easy it was for him to dig deeper in his investigations than the rest by relating his ideas and proving evidence of his data support. He screens and investigates the actions of many of those who were partially and impartially involved in the attacks.
One of his key findings was that all through there has been a crash between the west and the Arabs. The author creates his title from the 9/11 quote in the Quran by Osama bin laden. It occurred at a wedding and the words were ‘death is everywhere and can find you even in the looming tower’ (Wright 9).
Analysis The book authored by Wright is based on a research that took five years to complete, with interviews from men such as the counterterrorism chief John O Neil, Osama bin Laden, and Al-Zawahiri. He also based his research on documentary reviews and took into account what was the reason behind the formation of the al-Qaida and what was like in the inner circle of the al-Qaida.
He took interviews with over one thousand Arabs. His project was able to track down former friends of Osama as far as Sudan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.
Behind the scenes, he draws his attention to Sayyid Qutd, the intellectual activist in the Islamic regime. In his findings, the ideologue returns to Egypt after a trip to the US with anti west Islamic movements. The influence was what has typically led to all these terrorist attacks (Wright 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason is that his two year stay in Colorado collage made him hate the United States due to their modern way of living. He could not understand the reason as to why there was sexual freedom, more enrollments of the girl child in college Judaism, and active Christianity.
He considered this to be secular and colonialism since most people from his native Islamic world were being assimilated into this culture. After his return to Egypt, he became so radical due to his opposition and dislike of the secular regime in his homeland. His plan to overthrow the government fails, which leads to his imprisonment and execution in 1966. The failure is what made him a martyr (Kakutani 1).
He introduces his next character, DR. Zawahiri, an Egyptian doctor and an admirer of Mister Sayyid works. He is an evil mentor and goes on forming the jihad. Wright thinks that were it not for Mister Zawari, Osama bin laden would not have turned his mind to jihad.
In his investigations with some of the close friends of Osama bin Laden, he is able to learn that Osama was not more into politics as well as Muslim opposition, but due to the influence of Mister Zawahri. Again, in his wealthy position, he was able to join the fight against the soviets. It was from this military success that Osama and his group gained their roots in religion. He frequently mentions Saudi Arabia which was Osama’s homeland and the country that was responsible for financing the most notorious groups.
Wright emphasizes that Al Qaeda was so limited on its objectives in its early development stages (Madison 12).It was seen as a harmless organization with an aim of fighting communism in Asian countries so as to restore hope to the people. America through the CIA was ignorant and ended up supporting some of the anti communist Muslim groups in order to fight the communists. Little did they know that these groups would take on them later.
Through the different actions, way of thinking, and policies taken by his characters, Wright tries to portray that the base of Islamic militancy is anti-modernly, anger, and pride for murder. He is not against the Islamic religion since it has played its roles in nurturing people to do what is right, but against some of its mentors who negatively interpret the word. They use religion to lie about Islam humiliation and degradation in an attempt to create enmity, militancy and achieve dominance.
However, his blame to the September 11th terrorist attack does not go to Islamist militant alone. He is also concerned about his government’s failure to delegate its duties. He is almost convinced that they undermined the existence of Al-Qaida though they had some basic ideas about them.
We will write a custom Essay on September 11th 2001 Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To criticize the fact that the 9/11 commission findings tried to favor the CIA and the FBI, he develops his argument through investing some of the security agents. He shows how ignorant the government was on John O’Neil’s report and how the CIA and the FBI lacked co-operation.
Notably, these are the dominant events and character traits that Wright uses to convince as to how we arrived at the September 11th 2001 booming and other attacks. That is from the rapid and complex growth of the Islam fundamentalism to the rise of the al-Qaeda and finally the failures of the intelligence services. The explanation reveals how he relates his ideas to give us a basic overview of his investigations.
Why al-Qaeda attacked the United States Wright argues that the attack began in the sixties after Qutb was upset with the western culture. He considered these cultures to have elements of godlessness and materialism. For instance, he does not understand why the girl child exposes most of her body with more priorities for her.
Sexual freedom is allowed to an extent where one could see the inside instinct of screaming in these women with an arousing smell of their feminine bodies. In the Arab countries, it was a taboo for women to expose their bodies or share the same environment with men. It is this hatred of modernization, materialism, Judaism, and culture that became the base of these conflicts (Fouda and Fielding 73).
Wright creates suspense to the reader of whether it would have been possible to have similar attacks were it not for Osama. He is partly convinced but his opinion can be contradicted to Huntington’s thesis, which shows that most conflicts in the post cold war were brought about by cultural differences between people. According to him, it is because of culture that the west is seen to undermine Islam. Other factors could be economical, ideological or political factors.
The theory of MacWorld versus jihad urges that the Islamic civilization and revolution is spurred by their religion, the western beliefs, political systems and values change with globalization, technology, and modernization (Barber and Benjamin 29). However much Osama would have been absent, conflicts could still have risen. They still could have looked for ways of justifying themselves to achieve an end and degrade the secular empire.
Another reason that would have motivated the attacks was failure of the Arabs to defeat the western dominance. Osama had an ambition of creating a Muslim modern world. That is why he used clerics to twist words in the Koran with the aim of recruiting militants for the mission.
The attack on the US would become a break through to victory against their cultural rival forces in Israel and America. Away from cultural rivalry, the September 11th attacks could be more of revenge against the American policies (Gertz 1). Maybe, the US backup policy in support of Israel or the presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia or the libel lion against the Iraq sanctions would have triggered the attacks
Not sure if you can write a paper on September 11th 2001 Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, I believe that the way Wright brings out the personalities of these characters and their ways shows an element of degrade that biases the reader. Osama is created as an idealistic, spoilt, and ignorant fellow who is horrifying. Wright goes ahead to explain that the formation of these groups was an escape to jealousness and humiliation to accepting the facts of the real world. However much his story is persuasive, critically it is not easy to believe that such an international conflict can be ruled in favor of one side.
The reason why the United States did not stop the 9/11 attack Another major finding that Wright developed in his work is that the United States has no one to blame for the attacks. The failure to stop the 9/11 attacks began from the homeland securities to the intelligent services. He mentions the holding of very vital information by the CIA from the FBI (Diamond 150).
He does not understand the reason as to why the CIA was hiding the identity of the hijackers and why they never reported them to have been residing in the USA before the attacks. A fascinating scene is shown in the book through photos of FBI agents having a conversation with two of the men about their identities. Cultural differences, personal conflicts as well as fear of loosing intelligence are some of the reasons Wright puts down that led to the failure of these agencies.
However, there is a major contradiction that lies in this chapter of the novel. Wright is very well convinced that only the FBI and the CIA can deal with terrorism. He argues that the September 11th plots would have been prevented if and only if the United States had weeded out suspects such as Osama bin laden, Al-Zawahiri, and the hijackers.
Evidently, this is rather weak finding for Mister Wright because it is just a short term solution whose investigations do not touch the base of the conflict. Alan Dershowitz contrasts Wright’s ideas by suggesting that even though we would have prevented these attacks, these people who are bound by oaths, beliefs and ready to die would still have continued with their mission.
The act would have continued even with the death of their leaders (Dershowitz and Alan 33). He comments that, “the Al-Qaeda movement is an all rounded movement, very complex and clustered all over the world and has back up to fill any loss of a leader”( Dershowitz and Alan 46).
Dershowitz suggests that effectual dealing with these threats and attacks can only be successful if we stop potential terrorists. The attempt would involve creating international policies that discourage and heavily penalize those who benefit from terrorism. The endeavor would include suppliers of terrorist materials and sympathizers.
He advocated for other strategies such as increasing and creating new agencies that specialize in intelligence over the aAl Qaeda, liberating the Middle East, giving voice to those who need to be heard in the Islam world, and getting hard on nations that sympathize with terrorism. Wright focus on the FBI and the CIA is not a very efficient approach.
It limits the critical thinking of the reader who is led to think of the FBI and the CIA as the core saviors of this situation. It is not fully satisfying to submit his opinion since no intelligence can address these future attacks fully in the US if the Middle East issues are not addressed. The reason is that Islam is a religion that has followers everywhere and Al Qaeda easily uses some of their sympathizers to militate for their war.
Strengths of the book In an opinion count, Wright can be seen to have a special way of conducting his search. When going over his work, the reader can have a clear background of what terrorism means. Having lived in Cairo in Egypt for two years, he has adequate knowledge on the roots of al Qaeda that developed from Egypt.
He designed his books in such a way that it outlines the main characters in a ten page list, a summary list of interviews, held and a clear bibliography of those in this investigation. He also attaches picture of those addressed so that the reader can have a clear picture of who is being addressed. Another unique aspect is his ability to compress such a bulk of information into a simple narrative that greatly provides the satisfaction of the readers urge to acquire the investigations and events of the 9/11.
Wright creates his work in two sets, the story of Osama and his counterparts, and on the opposite tries to explain the US anti terrorism effort to stop this. As you read along the book, Wright creates a flow of information from learning about the life of the characters such as Osama bin laden. To find the roots of the matter, he takes us back to the understanding of how the ant west policy was developed and the reason behind the birth of al-Qaeda.
On the opposite he is quick to investigate the US counter terrorist squad leader, John O’Neil, whose interest on the activities of Mister Bin laden aroused as early as 1990. However, he finds out that his investigations were greatly ignored by the then president Mister Clinton. He brings out the bureaucracy in the CIA and the FBI which gambled with the lives of many.
The facts in this book are backed up by background materials so as to bring sense to the reader. Reading this book is emotional as you imagine the collapse of the twin towers. It creates a distressing experience as one pictures the cries and loss of loved ones.
People do not see any sense in the al Qaeda tactics and with their counterparts. However, Wright helps his readers to understand the driving forces behind the al Qaeda from the history connections of events which are based on tribal rivalry to the terror attacks. Wright creates an undertone that contrasts and compares the American and Islamic cultures to try and show that these differences are the core to the 9/11 attacks.
Limitations Throughout his arguments, Wright places his blames mostly on the failure of the US security, the intelligence agencies and a limited number of individuals. The argument is not a solution to the fight against terror attacks as he puts down. He is so narrow in his thoughts since this is not a long term solution. In addition, he does not clearly explain the cause of these conflicts.
The way he portrays some of his characters really distracts the readers understanding. By always having so many negatives for the al-Qaeda, he is always ruling in favor of the Americans. Hence, he becomes so limited in finding a solution. He sees the counterparts of the al Qaeda group as spoilt, murderous, idealistic, radicals, and ignorant.
However, this is not the solution because these people have their own way of thinking that is created by their own culture and environment that tend to differ with the western values. That is why they see the westerns as seculars, godless and materialistic yet the westerns are God fearing.
Learning about different cultures across generations can help resolve these global conflicts among the upcoming generations. His argument can never allow the readers to appreciate the position of these people in the society. For instance, if the trend was to continue, young Muslims would be born with this or more anti western attitude and easily become assimilated in these militant groups even though they are born in America.
In contrast, their Christian brother would grow with the knowledge that Muslims are horrifying and murderous so they will have to do their best to eliminate them. However much his arguments seem to be highly persuasive, these elements of being one-sided lead to the distraction of the readers understanding of the occurrences.
It would be practically possible to end global conflicts through negotiations. The point is an aspect that Wright left out in his recommendations and failure to stop the 9/11 attracts. Research has shown that only one out of ten negotiations fail (Neumann 254; Bolton 66). The remaining nine either have their grievances fulfilled or moved to dominant level with little violence.
Relevance of Mister Wright’s works in relation to terror threats in the US The looming tower can be considered to be a deep research on the events of the 9/11 attacks from the numerous eyewitness stories, recommendations, and interviews from different personalities, some of who are close personalities of the suspects of these attacks. Wright was able to expose many of the riddles behind the 9/11 through his artistic portrayal of the main players.
It is from his findings that the government can learn that most of its intelligence and security agencies are not cohesive. They tend to be bureaucratic, non cooperative, divided by politics and culture. According to Wright, if the CIA had been cooperative with the FBI, they would have stopped the hijackers from entering the American soil. However, the CIA knew the existence of the people yet they were adamant.
It explains how easy three thousand lives were lost. Mister Wright is highly persuasive on this matter and goes ahead to show the repercussions of ignorance by Mister Clinton and President Bush on John O’Neil’s report in the 90s. According to Mister Wright, it is relevant to set policies and strategies that promote co-operation and teamwork amongst agencies because division means failure.
Wright shows the effects of religion especially the Islamic religion which the militants use by twisting it in a mission to recruit young militants. He shows how these men fear no death and are determined to do acts of terror with a feeling that they are doing gods work.
To offer answers to Jason’s analysis about centralization of the Al-Qaida, Wright finds out that the Muslim has a lot of cohesion amongst its followers. It is due to this cohesive nature of the Islamic religion that brings about effective co-operation among members even in the US born Muslim citizens. The weakness explains why we have a very complex decentralized network of al-Qaida groups.
Conclusion Mister Wright’s accounts have very strong back up support which makes him more unique than other writers of the 9/11 attacks. He is able to enhance the reader’s quest by having a detailed narration of the biography of each of his characters and facts about their actions.
However, his bias towards al Qaeda does not respect the position of these men in the society the core reason as to why they are fighting. It would have been fair if he reflected on the western part too. His evidence about the failure by the FBI and the CIA is not fully addressed. It does not offer solutions either.
The reason is that even though they eliminated the Al-Qaida leaders or the plane hijackers, their network is very complex and others would have taken into their foot steps. The finding is very limited as a solution. Inured to create a wider scope of recommendations, he would have widened his investigations by looking at aspects such as culture, race, environmental factors liberation, and international relations.
Works Cited Barber, Fred, and R. Benjamin. Jihad vs. MC World Course Materials; a Faculty of Political Science, London, UK: University of British Columbia, 2007. Print.
Bolton, Kent. U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking after 9/11: Present at the Re-Creation, New York, NY: Rowman
Amarika Case and Core Concepts Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Child and family’s experience of trauma According to one of the core concepts, traumatic experiences are inherently complex. All traumatic events usually involve varying traumatic experiences. In the case of Amarika and her family, their traumatic experience was that of witnessing an injury that was life threatening. Amarika’s mother, Makisha Lawrence, had been shot in the presence of her daughter. This was traumatizing to the child (Amarika) since she actually witnessed the incident. She watched her mother fall on her back after the bullet hit her.
Such traumatized children usually experience subjective reactions to such experiences. Amarika showed these reactions by behaving differently. She refused to eat and could not go to sleep. She also behaved differently when with her aunt, Latanya. She did not want to play with her and could not calm down even when her favourite show was on.
Similar to any traumatized child, Amarika considered a possible protective action during her trauma. She could not let her mother off her eyes since she was scared of losing her. However, this led to feelings of conflict. Her mother did not like the fact that she followed her around everywhere and this led to feelings of anger in Amarika’s part since she did not understand why her mother avoided her. Her mother’s reactions further added layers of complexity to Amarika’s traumatic event.
Understanding risk factors Amarika’s trauma occurred within a context that included both child-intrinsic and child-extrinsic factors. The child-extrinsic factors included her familial environment since her grandmother always left her behind when she went to visit her daughter in hospital. The risk that is associated with such traumatic experiences is the fact that they usually generate secondary adversities and may act as reminders to the child of such traumatizing moments (core concept).
Even after Amarika’s mother was discharged, Amarika always wanted to accompany her wherever she went since her mother’s absence acted as a trauma reminder and this affected her recovery. Amarika’s doll also acted as Makisha’s trauma reminder since it reminded her that she was not with her daughter at the time of the incident.
According to another core concept, children usually exhibit varying reactions to trauma and loss. Amarika’s reactions varied in intensity, frequency and duration. For example, she could not go to sleep and did not want to eat either. She only took milk. Her mother also observed that she usually fell intentionally on her back and lied down there motionless.
This particular course of posttraumatic reaction was influenced by the nature of her traumatic experience. She had witnessed her mother being shot and also watched as she fell on her back and lied motionless. Imitation of this event was in an attempt to understand what it felt like for her mother when she fell to the ground after being shot. This was also her only way of communicating her concerns for her mother’s well being.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traumatic experiences not only affect the child but also the entire family and other caregivers (according to another core concept). In Amarika’s case, her grandmother was obviously affected. She feared mostly for her daughter’s safety. However, this usually disrupts the interaction between the caregiver and the child.
In this case, the grandmother seemed to be neglecting Amarika as she went to see Makisha in hospital. She was so worried about her daughter that she did not realize what she was doing to her granddaughter. Therefore, her concerns impaired her ability to provide care. Consequently, this reduced sense of protection and security caused Amarika to react negatively to Latanya and Mrs. Lawrence’s efforts to support her. Amarika’s family needed to know how to provide care for her in order for her to adjust.
Carla explained to Mrs. Lawrence about how her actions were affecting little Amarika. She knew that something bad had happened to her mother and instead of her grandmother attending to her, she left her alone. Her grandmother’s concern about the effects on her granddaughter helped in Amarika’s adjustment from the traumatic experience.
Traumatic experiences may significantly affect development in children (core concept). Carla had suspected that Amarika’s development had been affected. Particularly, she thought that Amarika’s ability to walk had been affected. Fortunately, Amarika was only trying to communicate something with actions.
According to another concept, culture may influence the traumatic experiences that a child and family go through. Amarika’s family is made up of black Americans and their neighbourhood is characterised by frequent violent. Amarika’s grandmother explained to Carla about the history of shootings in the neighbourhood.
She disclosed personal information and explained how she lost several close family members to such violence. The fact that their own people killed among themselves made them feel that they could not be safe in their own neighbourhood.
Challenges to the social contract usually influence how one responds to trauma and how he or she recovers from it (core concept). This usually happens when the influential figures in the society such as police officers and judges do not protect them from harm or ensure that justice is served.
We will write a custom Case Study on Amarika Case and Core Concepts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of Amarika and her family, the police officers in the region did not do anything to help them in their situation. This was also the case for the previous cases of violence that resulted in the loss of family members such as Gus. Mrs. Lawrence complained that the police did not do anything.
Instead, they asked if Gus was involved in drugs. To make things even worse, they did the same thing when it came to Makisha’s case. They inquired whether she was involved in a gang. This made the grandmother feel as if the people who were meant to help bring solutions only made things worse.
Another risk involved in working with traumatized children is that it may cause distress in providers. This may make it difficult for the care provider to care for the victims effectively. For example, Carla had to reassure Amarika severally that her mother loved her. In several occasions, Amarika’s mother neglected her daughter since she did not understand what she wanted.
She also denied her cookies claiming that Amarika had to understand that she could not always get whatever she wanted. Makisha was also not comfortable when Amarika followed her everywhere. However, this was negatively affecting her since she had expectations about her mother’s social roles and responsibilities.
According to Amarika, Makisha was not fulfilling them. Therefore, Carla had to strengthen the child’s belief in the social contract. She had to reassure Amarika that her mother understood that she was scared and that she had missed her too. She also explained to her that her mother was not neglecting her but only wanted her privacy at some occasions.
An understanding of protective factors Danger and safety are major concerns in the lives of traumatized children (core concept). What Amarika experienced greatly undermined her sense of protection and safety. Watching her mother being shot and lying helplessly on the park grounds was very traumatizing to her and this explains her weird behaviour thereafter.
The fact that she could not let her mother go away from her without showing concern shows that she felt insecure. Her mother had to understand how to tell her that they were safe and that Amarika did not have to follow her around everywhere. In order to ensure her recovery from the traumatic experience, her mother had to reassure her that she recovered from the ‘injury’ and that the incident was not going to happen again. Amarika had to win over her trust in order to feel secure.
Protective and promotive factors are usually helpful in the reduction of the adverse impacts of trauma (core concept). Promotive factors played a role when Amarika’s mother was in the hospital. Amarika had to be encouraged in order to ensure that she positively adjusted even as her mother was still in the hospital.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Amarika Case and Core Concepts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Promotive factors were introduced after the traumatic effects and Carla played an important role in guiding Amarika’s mother and grandmother in the proper way of handling the situation. The protective and promotive factors were mainly the child-extrinsic factors.
Amarika had a strong social support network that consisted of her mother, grandmother and aunt, Latanya. Her family members cared and supported her and this shows that these factors were strong. The strength of these factors both before and after the traumatic experience ensured that Amarika could quickly recover from the harmful effects of the particular traumatic experience.
Galveston Hurricane Influence on America in1800s and 1900s Cause and Effect Essay essay help online
The confrontation between nature and science has always been the main cornerstone for humanity as soon as people start gaining knowledge in various fields. Throughout the history, people have been struggling with natural powers to prove their superiority over it. However, their confidence in the possibility to conquer the nature did not help them much when they encounter Galveston hurricane.
Indeed, Isaac Cline was an honorable meteorological community; he had strong confidence in scientific knowledge that allowed him to predict storms by cloud motions and behavior. Therefore, the idea that a hurricane could destroy the entire city of Galveston was not even considered.
Nevertheless, in 1900, the American society felt stronger than it did before and, therefore, nothing in nature could prevent the prosperous development of Galveston. However, blind confidence had become the reason for the most horrible disaster in the American history.
At the threshold of the 20th century, the city of Galveston was considered a prosperous city with the population of about 37.000 residents. Due to its beneficial geographic location, Galveston had also become the biggest commercial city in Texas, which made the citizens become more proud of it.
The rapid development of trade relations had also contributed to technological advancement and, therefore, Galveston community believed that their progressive technologies could overcome the natural forces. In the book, Larson introduces his own research findings by stating, “…if things continued as there were Galveston soon would achieve the stature of New Orleans, Baltimore, or San Francisco” (12).
Hence, all scientists, businesspeople, and investors were more concerned with commercial and economic growth of the city rather than with meteorological situation. Gaining a reputation of a future cosmopolitan, people were, indeed, proud of the achievements and potential of the community development.
Galveston citizens had been reassured that no hurricane could destroy Galveston because of accurate temperature and meteorologist forecast. In the book, Larson refers to the characters as well-educated, confident citizens, who strongly believed that technological progress and scientific knowledge were reliable protection mechanisms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, the author writes, “Isaac was aware of himself and how he moved through the day, and saw himself as something bigger than a mere recorder of rainfall and temperature” (Larson 4). The scientist was able to explain even the strangest phenomena that ever happened.
In addition, Isaac had a clear view of the Gulf to make possible calculations and predictions concerning any threats to the city. He also knew about the peculiarities of the climatic conditions. However, the author emphasized this fact to prove the possibility of eliminating the tragedy if Mr. Cline admitted the probability of hurricane approaching the Gulf.
Cline’s extreme confidence in his knowledge of storm phenomenon was the major reason for ignoring the message from the Cuban meteorologists who identified the incoming storm on September 5. However, this weather information was not taken seriously by Galveston weather bureau, since they believed that their Cuban colleagues had failed to accurately forecast.
In particular, the meteorologist believed that “the Cuban…seemed to care more about drama and passion than science” (Larson 112). As a result of stereotypic judgment and false assumptions, the scientists had explicitly ignored the possibility of any hazards to the city.
Moreover, the government considered that telegraph messages sent by the Cuban meteorological status sought to conspire against their weather bureau. In fact, Larson introduced a number of facts proving that the Cubans could forecast weather with much higher accuracy than the U.S. weather station (113).
The history and evidence shows that there was indeed a storm in Cuba. So, should meteorologists believed their Cuban colleagues and consider the information, they could conclude that all tropical systems would turn north. The scientists, including Isaac Cline, did not even admit that the Gulf could be destroyed by the hurricane.
Rather, the national weather bureau had issued the news for the citizens, assuring that “The storm will probably continue slowly northward and its effects will be felt as far as the lower portion of the middle Atlantic cost by Friday night” (Larson 113). However, their predictions were mistaken and were largely affected by their extreme reliance on scientific knowledge. Negligence of the information sent by neighboring meteorological stations had led to irreversible consequences.
We will write a custom Essay on Galveston Hurricane Influence on America in1800s and 1900s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even when Isaac Cline admitted the fact of the approaching hurricane, the government never granted the permission to release information about hurricane warning because it would mean the admittance of the mistake. Moreover, the bureau refused to use the term hurricane in order to avert panic and preserve their reputation. Informed about storm, but not dangerous hurricane, citizens remained confident that there was no any danger.
Although the signs of the approaching storm were evident, the meteorologist firmly believed that no natural disaster could do tangible damage to the city. Mr. Cline was also sure that the town was not vulnerable to serious destructions because of the beneficial geographic location.
People’s reluctance to accept the superiority of natural forces had led to horrible consequences. The compelling story about the impact of stereotypes and increased confidence proves that the American society had failed to oppose the disaster, regardless of its advanced technological and scientific development.
After the hurricane, Galveston lost its reputation of a commercially prosperous seaport. Instead, it had become the symbol of the national tragedy, as well as a memorial for more than 8 thousand people. After the event, Galveston community fully realized their mistakes and constructed a seventeen-foot high wall to protect the city from hurricanes in future.
The fact that the citizens had totally reconsidered the protection systems in the city signified to the loss of confidence in their exceptional experience and knowledge, as well as their superiority over nature. Hence, Larson manages to portray the Weather Bureau in the light of insufficient experience and inaccurate previous forecasts predicting the hurricane. Cline should have listened to his intuition and knowledge rather than to his pride and complacency.
In conclusion, Galveston hurricane exemplifies the most horrible episode in the American history and presents an account on the meteorologists’ negligence that had become the reason for numerous deaths. Extreme willingness to gain power over nature was a priority for the Weather Bureau that strived to maintain its high reputation. Galveston community was also overwhelmed with confidence due to the prosperity and rapid development of the city.
Being one of the biggest commercial centers, the government failed to listen to the Cuban broadcast. Following false stereotyped did not allow the citizens to admit the possibility of threat. Even Isaac Cline, who was recognized as an expert meteorologist failed to predict the disaster. Hence, the blind confidence prevented them from protecting themselves. After the disaster, American confidence was entirely lost.
Works Cited Larson, Erik. Isaac’s Storm. Vintage, USA. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Galveston Hurricane Influence on America in1800s and 1900s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Strategic Analysis of Target Corporation Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Corrective Measures The firm is involved in a law suit in which it has been accused of disposing off hazardous waste illegally. In a law suit that was ruled in 2011, a California judge ruled that the firm is liable for illegal disposal of hazardous waste since 2002 and should pay a penalty of $22.5 million while at the same time undertaking corrective measures concerning waste disposal. The firm took the corrective measures positively.
In addition to corrective measures, Target Corporation is environmental friendly since it is concerned with conservation of the environment. To this end, the firm has undertaken measures to reduce carbon emission as well as minimize energy consumed. For instance, it has adopted energy efficient LED lights and motion sensors in the refrigerators in a bid to protect the environment (Target Inc., “lawsuit”, 2011).
Corporate Governance Corporate Governance Structure
Target has strong corporate governance practices that are embedded in the original corporate guidelines that were set by the company’s founders, 50 years ago. At the top of the firm is the board of directors that understands that corporate governance practices must evolve continuously in order to balance the ever changing interests of the company’s stakeholders such as the management, the Board and the consumers among others (Target Inc., “Business Conduct”, 2013).
The board of directors is independent and the candidates for the board seats are selected with regard to the success they have achieved in their fields of specialization.
The tenure directors retire based on age and a maximum period of serving in the board. This is accompanied by a separate period of five years for retired directors. It is the duty of the board to conduct annual review of the firm’s management and succession planning (Target Inc., “Corporate Governance Guidelines”, 2011).
The board of directors of Target Corporation is helped by the management team of the firm that is headed by the company’s chief executive officer. The top executives in management are offered ownership of stock in the firm while part of compensation is in terms of long term equity awards. In addition, the executives are subjected to incentive compensation that is based on the achievement of set goals.
Concerning corporate responsibility, Target Corporation has adopted policies in which it is involved in the community’s welfare. Through its initiatives, the firm participates in giving back to the community and serving the community in various ways. For instance, the firm gives 5% of its profits annually to the community. According to Target Corporation (2006), this is about $4 million weekly. In addition, Target supports a strong, healthy and safe community that constantly consumes its products (Target Inc., “Issues Advocacy”, 2013).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Policies and Procedures
Policies of an organization could be determined through set procedures on performance of the operations of the firm. The firm is involved in civic activities in the country. The company has policies of uniting the country in all its activities.
To enhance this, members of the firms have been engaged in various civic activities such as stepping up for national service where the members went and served in their respective communities (Target Inc., “Corporate Political Contribution”, 2013). 10,000 volunteers participated in the UNITE America in Service event that was held on 19 January 2013. They packed 100,000 care kits to benefit members of the U.S. forces.
In another event, Target Corporation worked together with the U.S. Department of Justice to host a symposium that supported the cooperation of public and private companies in enhancing public safety (Target Inc., “Civic Activity”, 2013).
Politically, Target has a policy that allows its management to use funds set aside by the management as political contributions especially if the management feels that the funds will help advance company issues and therefore enhance meeting of the company’s goals.
Based on this, Target has contributed funds for political purposes in its financial periods. It has also established TargetCitizens PAC contributions in which it receives voluntary contribution towards this purpose. This is always good for the company as it enables the firm to be politically connected, which is essential for business operations of the firm.
With respect to sustainability, Target Corporation has established various policies that ensure that the firm conserves the environment. Target Corporation has established sustainable living through its manufactured products and services offered. First, the firm minimizes the energy consumed by utilizing equipment that consumes less energy such as LED lights and motion sensors in the refrigerators.
Target promotes healthy communities through its health programs. This is followed by production of sustainable products such as the seafood assortment that are wholly consumed and if they are disposed, they decompose thereby causing no threat to the environment. Wastes are recycled to ensure there is no harm to the environment while efficiency in operations ensures that quality products are manufactured. The production process utilizes clean energy that is environmental friendly (Environment, 2013).
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Analysis of Target Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Community Programs
Various community programs Supported by Target involve community giving, support of veterans, civic activities and engaging in training and development (Community Event, 2013). In addition, the corporation is targeting to increase the number of customers by providing cheap products and services to the customers in their residing places.
Examples are the Target family matinee, Target free Sundays and Target free second Tuesdays. The firm sells its products in such activities at a low price that only meets production cost while capitalizing on increased awareness. These activities enhance customer loyalty since Target shows that is caring concerning customers’ needs.
References Target Inc., “Business Conduct”. (2013). Business Conduct Guide. Web.
Target Inc., “Civic Activity”. (2013). Discover Target. Web.
Target Inc., “Community Event”. (2013). Corporate Responsibility. Web.
Target Inc., “Corporate Governance Guidelines”. (2011). Corporate Governance. Web.
Target Inc., “Corporate Political Contribution”. (2013). Political Engagement. Web.
Target Inc., “Environment”. (2013). Environmental Sustainability: Our Commitment. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Analysis of Target Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Target Inc., “Issues Advocacy”. (2013). Corporate Responsibility: Issues Advocacy. Web.
Target Corporation. (2006). Target Corporation Corporate Responsibility Report. Web.
Target Lawsuit. (2011). Company Settles California Lawsuit over Illegal Waste Disposal. Huff Post Los Angeles. Web.
The State of the Union Address Analytical Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Main Points
Introduction This is an analysis of the State of the Union address delivered by President Barack Obama recently. In this article, I will outline the main points he addressed and show how he stated his social contract to the citizens of the US. My views and opinion are added to this analysis.
The Main Points The President touched on eight areas that are of great interest to the US. He touched on the US debt and showed commitment to reducing it. He outlined various ways on how the debt will be reduced. He also touched on taxation and argued that local businesses struggling to create American jobs should have taxes levied on them reduced.
He was very clear on job creation and challenged Congress to pass the American Jobs Act and the Paycheck Fairness Act, increase the minimum wage and generally help American firms to employ more Americans. Climate change was also of concern to him and he pledged to take several steps towards fighting climate change. He also talked about immigration reforms, education reforms, security, and gun control proposals.
Social Contract This address was a social contract to the people of the US. The President touched on key areas that affected everyday life of the citizens. Through the speech, he showed his commitment to run the government in a manner that will trickle benefits to the citizens.
The US debt affects the economy of the nation and he was loud and clear on his wishes to reduce it. Reduction of the debt will stabilize the economy and the people will benefit from this. This is expected of the government as the people governed are not in a position to manage the debt.
Another area that is sensitive to the people is that of job creation. The President promised to work hard and ensure a favorable environment is created to develop businesses that create American jobs. Creation of jobs is a government business and this is what he was exactly doing. By asking Congress to pass the American Jobs Act and the Paycheck Fairness Act, and also increase the minimum wage, he is fighting on behalf of the people to improve their welfare.
Reforming the immigration policies has been a very controversial topic in the US and a social issue affecting the people that need to be solved for once and for all. The President addressed this issue and noted that it was time to tighten the borders to avoid more illegal immigrants from flowing into the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Education and U.S. troops in foreign lands are two other sensitive issues to the people that he also addressed. The social calamities affecting people were also addressed showing the commitment of the president to creating a better environment for them.
Conclusion There were eight areas that the President addressed in his speech namely: the US debt, taxation, job creation, climate change, immigration reforms, education reforms, security, and gun control proposals. These are sensitive areas and affect people on a daily basis.
He showed good will in the light of social contract law by addressing areas the government has a duty to fix and promising that action will be taken to ensure that reforms are realized in these areas for the benefit of the people. In my opinion, the president did well in the address and touched on issues that concern the people.