Branagh’s Hamlet is a version that sets the “to be or not to be” scene in a palace, in a room surrounded by mirrors (Eirion HyperApps, 2012). The choice of mirrors is a deliberate decision by the director to symbolize Hamlet’s internal conflict. He is contemplating suicide because his life has become difficult for him (Eirion HyperApps, 2012). The mirrors help Hamlet reflect on life and also see the advantages and disadvantages of whichever decision he would make.
Branagh uses the tone and gestures that make it possible for the audience to feel what he feels (Eirion HyperApps, 2012). He has to choose between life and death. He clenches and then raises his hand to threaten and express his anger in the way life is taking him. As the actor and the camera approach the mirror, his image also gets closer to it.
This brings out his emotions, which would be invisible in the real world. It is symbolic in the sense that dreams might come true. When Branagh jerks out his knife and directs it towards the reflection, it emerges that the desire to live overshadows that of dying (Eirion HyperApps, 2012).. He only taps the dagger at the mirror rather than using it on himself.
Laurence Olivier’s production of Hamlet presents this soliloquy in a different way. This scene displays Hamlet sitting on a cliff staring at the sea (Karldallas, 2010). He is in deep thoughts. This can be clearly seen on his face and in his voice. Initially, Hamlet seems to have totally made up his mind. He speaks in a pessimistic tone, and his facial expressions agree with his words. From the beginning to when he says ”To die: to sleep; to sleep,” we believe that he will die.
At the peak of his disillusionment, he pulls out a dagger to commit suicide, but realizes that his death will not help to solve his problems (Karldallas, 2010). The man suddenly drops his ambition to kill himself and raises his voice while reciting the remaining part of the soliloquy.
The words and performances that follow carry a somehow optimistic tone. Hamlet’s attitude to life has changed. Now he seems livelier than before, which shows his renewed readiness to live (Karldallas, 2010). Hamlet looks at his dagger and disposes it into the sea. Then, he stands up and walks to the edge of the cliff, looks into the sea and walks away from this point. This performance, therefore, takes the audience through the whole process of attitude transformation within Hamlet.
Hawke’s version takes a different setting. In this version, Hamlet walks aimlessly in a library looking very depressed (MarceloCordioli, 2008). He looks at the books on the shelves as he walks back and forth, but seems not to notice them. His choice of setting is appropriate as it helps to bring out the picture of Hamlet’s mind. His lack of concentration on the books shows that he is in trouble. At some point, he even stands in one position not knowing what to do next.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The turning point is when he sees a man shooting another man in a movie (MarceloCordioli, 2008). This makes him wake up from his “sleep”. Before this point, Hamlet thinks without speaking, which shows the audience that he is too depressed. Shortly after the movie incident, the man speaks out his thoughts loudly, thus, showing a transformed attitude to life (MarceloCordioli, 2008).
The performance I like most is the one presented by Olivier. The director chooses a very befitting setting. He puts Hamlet on top of a cliff near the sea (MarceloCordioli, 2008). He speaks in a resigned tone and his facial expression changes with the direction of his thoughts. Hamlet looks very depressed at the beginning, but becomes somehow lively when he makes up his mind to live.
This version brings out Shakespeare’s original idea better than the other two. The author wanted to bring out a very depressed Hamlet; a Hamlet who lost a father and intends to kill the person who murdered his father, and married his mother. He even ends up killing the wrong person in the process.
Olivier captures this state of mind by his choice of setting (a cliff near the sea), and Hamlet’s actions when he point a dagger at himself, throws it into the sea and walks away after deciding to spare his life (MarceloCordioli, 2008). The actor’s facial expressions are also appropriate in showing his state of mind.
The other two performances do not express Shakespeare’s ideas fully. The setting Branagh chooses is not the best as he uses too much symbolism, especially the mirrors. The palace he depicts also does not make this version bring out a vivid picture of somebody who wants to commit suicide. The palace would have done better in the scenes involving happy moments than melancholic ones.
Hawke’s version, on the other hand, only concentrates on movements, tone and facial expressions, but not on actions. It portrays Hamlet as a person in deep thought, who would not want to commit suicide or kill somebody. The use of actions would have complemented the facial expressions, movements and tone. The result would have enabled the audience to envision what Shakespeare wanted them to see.
References Eirion HyperApps. (2012, September, 8). Hamlet, To be or not to be-Kenneth Branagh. [Video file]. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on To be or not to be specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Karldallas. (2010, January, 26). Olivier’s Hamlet Film. To be or not to be. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ks-NbCHUns
MarceloCordioli. (2008, April, 8). Hamlet-To be or not to be. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YHMYkUrV7A
Atrophy of the Muscles Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Atrophy of the muscles is a condition that occurs when the muscles have been in an inactive condition for a long period of time. The cast on the leg is the major cause of muscle atrophy. It reduces muscle activity and causes loss of the tissues. The major effect of the cast as indicated in this case is weakening of the leg muscles and reduced level of activity.
The cast restricts the movement of the muscles (Sandri, 2008). Restricted movement of the muscles leads to reduced muscle tone. The patient therefore develops movement difficulties, which may exacerbate the condition (Hannah, Andrew
The American Way of Dining Out Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure
Is Eating Out Healthy?
The Economics of Eating Out
Introduction For most Americans, dining out is a favorite pastime. Americans dine out when celebrating an event, when on a date or just to have a new dining experience. But, in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 economic downturn, people are dining out less often, instead preferring to eat at home to save money. This trend is already having a toll on hotels and restaurants. Nevertheless, on average, American’s prefer eating out to eating at home.
A survey by the United States Department of Labor [DoL] found interesting facts about the American’s way of dining out. A significant proportion of the respondents (63 percent) reported having dined out at least once the previous month with 53 percent of them dining out in fast food restaurants, 18 percent in full-service restaurants and 9 percent in other food restaurants (DoL Para. 2).
What is worrying, however, is that most of the foods consumed away from home tend to be energy rich but less nutritional compared to home prepared foods.
Though patrons may not like to eat unhealthy foods, they opt to eat out due to convenience, diverse meals on offer or simply for entertainment reasons. The argument presented in this paper is that, when it comes to eating out, Americans neither base their dietary choices on nutritional quality of the meals nor do they consider their budgetary constraints. Their restaurant choice and frequency of dining out is based on the prospects of entertainment, convenience and a variety of dishes on offer.
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure Nutritionists advise people to adopt healthy eating habits, which, along with physical exercises guarantee a healthy and quality life. However, it is not clear whether this message and the consumers’ desire for a healthy life influence their eating behavior or dietary choices when eating out.
The Department of Labor reports that, on average, the daily energy intake of an American when eating out rose from 18 percent in 1994 to 32 percent in 1996 (Para. 3). This indicates that eating out increases one’s caloric intake significantly. The same survey established that consumer spending on restaurant foods had increased with consumers, in 1996, spending over half of their dietary expenditure on restaurant foods. The rise in the number of consumers eating out implies that dining out is a preferred pastime for most Americans.
With regard to food expenditure, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that, on average, in 2010, restaurant spending by each American stood at $2,505 (DoL Para. 5). In comparison, in the previous years, 2009 and 2008, the average restaurant spending was $2,619 and $2,698 respectively (Para. 7). The drop in consumer spending in 2010 is attributed to the 2007/08 economic downturn. Nevertheless, Americans enjoy dining out often as opposed to eating home-cooked meals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers attribute their eating out habits to public suitability, entertainment value and availability of many dishes in restaurants. However, from the DoL statistics, eating out increases the consumers’ calorie intake, as restaurant foods tend to be calorie-rich but nutritionally deficient. Eating out more often increases one’s body fat level in adults leading to elevated body mass index. It is no wonder eating out has been associated with obesity and overweight especially in adolescents.
A survey by Technomic Inc. that interviewed a number of restaurant owners found that most restaurants are not keen on providing healthy foods for their patrons. They do not feel that providing healthy meals would increase the number of customers visiting their establishments. Some held the opinion that “most customers’ attitude is ‘when I go out to eat, I want to eat what I want’” (33). Nevertheless, the hotel executives felt that creating consumer awareness about eating healthy would help in the management of obesity.
To manage obesity, which has become an epidemic, nutrition educators have employed a number of approaches to promote healthy eating out habits. They educate consumers on nutrition and healthful diets that one can get in restaurants when eating out.
They sometimes incorporate aspects of consumers’ preferences, convenience and entertainment when providing the nutrition information to influence their eating behavior. One such campaign technique is the “5 A Day” program that encourages Americans to eat a minimum of five servings of vegetables/fruits daily (Stewart et al. 522).
The “Power of Choice” program is another example of these programs that aims at educating adolescents to eat healthy and engage in physical activities to stay healthy (Stewart et al. 522). Although these nutrition-education programs have the potential of promoting healthy eating habits among Americans, their impact largely depends on the patrons’ own knowledge on nutrition and whether they apply it when making choices on the type of restaurant or food to eat.
Is Eating Out Healthy? The statistics given by the United States Department of Labor show that more Americans prefer eating out to eating at home despite the low nutritional quality of restaurant foods. But, what factors influence Americans to continue to eat out despite the increased health risks associated with fast-foods?
From an economic perspective, a consumer’s preference and nutrition knowledge would affect his or her dietary choices. Thus, consumers who have knowledge on the nutritional value of foods would be expected to evaluate restaurant foods before placing an order. Food prices also influence the consumers’ dietary choices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Way of Dining Out specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides income and food prices, the consumers’ demographic characteristics can be used to explain the trends in consumer behavior. In the American context, psychological factors such as attitudes, information, perceptions shape consumer behavior, and by extension, the demand for restaurant foods.
In light of this, it is clear that the Americans’ rising demand for restaurant foods is shaped by the desire to eat healthy in a convenient location that provides entertainment value. Thus, when choosing among eating in a restaurant, eating at home and eating in a fast-food café, an individual will often consider each option’s entertainment value and convenience. Consumers with limited funds and/or time will tend to choose the option that is cheap but offers greater pleasure.
The Americans’ way of eating out can be explained using the traditional economic theory. This theory describes how consumers make decisions when they have limited product information at their disposal. The FDA specifies that “if a restaurant claims that a particular menu item is ‘low in fat’… then this requirement is satisfied by adding: ‘low fat – provides less than 3 grams of fat per serving” (Technomic 8). However, the FDA does not require restaurants to disclose a meal’s specific nutrient content.
Therefore, restaurants can choose to give the complete nutrient content of the foods sold or simply provide the mandated information. Nevertheless, if the majority of consumers want menu items with healthy nutrient content, the hotels/restaurants may give the complete nutrition information of the foods sold.
As restaurants always compete for customers, marketing themselves as providing healthful foods can give them a competitive advantage. Some popular restaurants voluntarily give complete nutrition information of the foods they sell.
A good example is the Subway restaurant, which supplies the caloric content of its popular sandwiches and compares them with the sandwiches sold by the other restaurants such as McDonald’s and Burger King. McDonald’s and Burger King, on the other hand, give pamphlets containing the details of the nutrient content of foods sold. However, other restaurants provide no such information making healthful eating away from home almost impossible for Americans.
The incomplete nutrition information provided by most restaurants can be attributed to the need to retain consumers as knowledge of a meal’s dietary composition may affect demand for foods with undesirable nutrient content. Thus, when little information is provided, the consumers cannot make an informed choice when eating out.
However, those who have nutrition knowledge can assess the nutritional quality of the products sold by restaurants. Even for those who prefer to eat at home, they are motivated by the need to save money, not to eat healthy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Way of Dining Out by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it can be argued that, most Americans’ eating out choices (where to eat, what to eat and how frequently to eat out) are largely dependent on entertainment and convenience, not on the nutritional value of the foods. In view of this, people with a good understanding of nutrition can effectively determine the restaurant food types that are healthful compared to those with little or no nutrition knowledge.
The Economics of Eating Out Although a third of Americans report reducing how often they eat out, 1 in every 10 people in America dine out more often (DoL Para. 4). A further 70 percent of Americans cook at home to cut down their food expenditure while another 57 percent believe that eating out is an unnecessary expense.
Interestingly, about 29 percent of Americans claim to have reduced their expenses in other areas to sustain their eating out habits (Para. 6). These statistics imply that Americans’ restaurant spending has, to some extent, been affected by the sluggish economy. Therefore, Americans have not changed their dining out habits; they have only reduced how often they eat out. The economic downturn has seen more Americans eat out less often with some shifting from eating in major establishments to casual food outlets.
Now with constrained budgets, many Americans have resorted to eating at home and when eating out, price consideration takes the center stage. They prefer casual restaurants when eating out because their prices are often low. This explains why popular casual restaurants have gained in profits over the past few years while the profits of full-service eateries have declined. For instance, The Cheesecake Factory gained 2.44 percent in profits while the McDonald’s profits declined by 12 percent in 2010 (Technomic 9).
The implication here is that consumers are increasingly becoming selective with regard to where to eat out due to budget constraints. But, what drives eating out habits besides prices? It is evident that cravings for exotic and foreign cuisines, restaurant location, entertainment value, healthy dishes offered and variety of food choices motivate Americans to eat out as opposed to cooking at home.
This indicates that the American way of eating out is not influenced by the need to eat healthy. Rather, entertainment value, convenience and variety of dishes available in restaurants drive many Americans to dine out in restaurants.
Conclusion Dining out in restaurants is a favorite pastime for most Americans. Most Americans prefer to eat out to eating at home because restaurants offer convenience, in terms of location, they offer a variety of meals/dishes and most offer entertainment for patrons.
Despite the recent economic downturn and the poor nutritional quality of fast-foods, most Americans still enjoy dining out. Therefore, until Americans recognize the high nutritional value of home cooked meals, eating out will continue to be the norm, as fast-food restaurants continue to rake in profits.
Works Cited Stewart, Hayden, Blisard, Noel, Jolliffe, Dean and Bhuyan, Sanjib. “The Demand for Food-Away-From Home: Do Other Preferences Compete with Our Desire to Eat Healthfully?” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30.3 (2005): 520-536. Print.
Technomic, Inc. Trends in Healthier Eating and Fruit and Vegetable Usage in Chain Restaurants. Wilmington, DE: Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2006. Print.
United States Department of Labor [DoL]. Economic News Release: Consumer Expenditures– 2012. Web. .
Chinas History and Relations Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations
How China Affected the Asian Countries
Spread of Buddhism
How Asian countries influenced China
China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations The Yuan Dynasty was one of the most influential authorities that reigned over the Chinese territory and preceded other dynasties which included the Song and Ming. The Yuan dynasty used Marc Polo to communicate with other countries. In regard to the relationship between the Yuan dynasty and its neighbors, it incurred a lot of rebellion from its rivals such as the Mongols.
During this struggle, the rebels could terrorize the allies of Yuan Dynasty and free them to China (Ebrey et al. 179). In the same light, the author reveals that the continuous rebellion by the neighboring countries led to the formation of anti-Yuan dynasty which aimed at conquering it (179).
The dynasty did not only solve its conflicts through war but also using diplomatic means. In this regard, they could use travelers to communicate with the European countries such as Italy. For instance, they sent Mac Polo to deliver a letter to Italy in order to create ties with the dynasty. The dynasty could also receive visitors such as John of Montecorvino who was a missionary from Italy (Sen and Victor 75).
Ebrey revealed that the Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who had experienced the plight of poverty during the Yuan Dynasty which had imposed a lot of disorders in China (227). In fact, Ebrey stated that Zhu had started his life from the bottom of society (228).
The author further states that the founder’s attempts to bring order on the society of the Chinese people were mostly considered as a draconian act (227). However, although the people were not always positive towards his acts, the author elaborates that 30 years of the Ming dynasty transformed China in a great way (227). This achievement was attained against many odds including intensive rebellion from the royalists of the Yuan government (Ebrey et al. 228).
During one of the struggle for power, the Yuan government troops burnt down the temple of Zhu showing disrespect (Ebrey et al. 228). The continuous military attacks show that the Chinese territories were not used to solving their difference in a diplomatic manner. Instead they used their power to outdo, conquer, and colonize other territories.
The song formed a separate and critical dynasty in the Chinese history. The dynasty was founded between 860 and 960 when the forces were devolved to deal with the local issues (Ebrey et al. 91). The author reveals that during this period any local man who was capable of organizing defense teams against the rebels could be declared as the king (91). This defense was quite crucial considering the strong rivals of the song dynasty who included Liao and others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How China Affected the Asian Countries China had profound effect on the various aspects of Asia countries including culture, religion, and political factors. For example, Ebrey stated that the expansion of Han dynasty in China incorporated the Peninsula’s north western part.
This expansion increased the interaction among Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese people leading to spread to Chinese culture and technology (Ebrey et al. 98). In this regard, the Korean gradually embraced the Chinese ideologies such as Buddhism, writing skills, and Confucianism as a result of the increased interaction.
The author then stated that in the fourteenth century, the outpost fell of Chinese dynasties evoked the creation of three different states of the Korean territory which was established in China (98). However, Ebrey elaborated that the domestic production of silver in China decreased significantly in 1430 requiring them to acquire it from the neighboring countries which produced the metal.
As a result, they bought about 50 percent of the Japanese silver as well as the one transported by the Portuguese ships in order to satisfy the demand (Ebrey et al. 267). In the same light, they also relied on Russia, which is one of the Asian countries, for silver that was mined in Mexico. It is thus evident that the Chinese influenced the Russian economy profoundly owing to silver trade that took place between the two nations.
Additionally, China affected the economic development of Japan following the trade between the two countries. In this regard, the Chinese monetary system used to sliver to make currency making it an important commodity in China (Ebrey et al. 267). The Chinese trading experience is revisited by Lockard when he stated that Chinese and Arabs were quite skillful in the technology of sea transport which enabled them to become active in the Southeast Asian trade (63).
He then stated that the trade between China and other countries continued to grow during the 700 to1500 era. While elaborating the role of China towards economic development of South Asia, he revealed that the Chinese were the main people who captained the ships which sailed to Japan and China (90).
This implies that the Chinese were probably the drivers of economic development in this region owing to the early technological knowledge. The author further focused on the spread of Chinese trade to the Arabian countries. In this case, the authors revealed that in 1296, Angkor conducted active trade with the Chinese merchants owing to the support provided by the Chinese ambassador in Angkor (39).
We will write a custom Essay on Chinas History and Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ambassador then left a detailed description concerning the society’s conduct as well as its authorities in order to create way for the future unions between China and Angkor (39). Further, Lockard described China as a country that inspired the development of trade in other countries. Between 1400 and 1650, the author revealed that China entered into an age of commerce where they practiced trade across the Indian Ocean (64).
This initiative increased the demand of the Southern Asian demands which probably inspired other Asian countries to enter participate in this trade. It is thus evident that China a perfect example of a country that motivated others Asian Countries to adopt trade. Moreover, China was a major threat to Vietnam especially when considering the political stability of this country. In this regard, Lockard pointed out that since the Chinese authorities frequently sent their forces to Vietnam, the Vietnamese could not ignore their sporadic attacks (62).
Spread of Buddhism Buddhism has already existed in the world for approximately 2500 years, and it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who was a prince of a tiny Indian realm (Lockard 22). Siddhartha was also well known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”) (Lockard 22). According to historical records, Buddhism had been highly praised during the time of India’s Mauryan empire by its third king Ashoka who himself devoutly believed in Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
During the period of Ashoka’s governing, Buddhism carried forward and flourished extensively (Ebrey et al. 57). According to historians, king Ashoka took advantage of the mechanism of his kingdom to widely promote Buddhism within India (Ebrey et al. 57). As a devote Buddhist, he banned animal sacrifices, and made an approximately one-year long pilgrimage to all the holy places of Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
Nevertheless Buddhism declined after 1200 C.E., it spread to the neighboring world due to Ashoka’s dispatch of Buddhist missionaries to the rest of Eurasia (Ebrey et al. 57-58). Thus, India established relationships with its neighboring world on military, trade, religion, and culture. Due to the fact that it is the birth land of two religions: Buddhism, which spread to Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia ((Trautmann 8).
For East Asia, one propagation path was northwest through Central Asia to China, which explains why the first Buddhist text was translated in the language from Central Asia rather than the language from India (Ebrey et al. 58). For Southeast Asia, the route started from east to Sri Lanka and then to most of the Southeast Asia (Ebrey et al. 58).
Though language diversity occurred along the path of the dissemination of the Buddhism, some translators like Kumarajiva made huge contributions to unify the language of Buddhist text and thus made the spreading of Buddhism more smooth (Ebrey et al. 59-60).
According to the research of some scholars, it was during the Han Dynasty that Buddhism was initially brought into China by the Buddhist monks travelling from the outside world with the development of diplomacy and trade. However, the development of Buddhism was quite limited due to the prosperity of Confucianism in Han times. After the decline of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., Buddhism started to flourish in 300 C.E. (Ebrey et al. 70).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinas History and Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhist emphasized that the quality of “kindness, charity, the preservation of life, and prospect of salvation” was significantly important (Ebrey et al. 70). Such emphasises attracted not only male followers but also female followers since becoming a nun emancipated women from being repressed in their traditional role in the ancient Chinese society (Ebrey et al. 70-71).
How Asian countries influenced China The Korean states appeared in China through the Tang Dynasties from Han such that they were in close contact with the people of China (Ebrey et al. 98). The author then stated that since the Tang and Sui authorities attempted to sabotage the Koreans, they developed a lot of resistance against the two governments in order to secure their livelihood in China (98). This evoked a lot of competition against the expansion of the two Chinese territories considering that the three territories wanted to expand geographically.
Additionally, the Manchurian were one of the most important dynasties which sahped the history of China and its culture. In this regard, the Manchus fought against the Chinese Ming dynasty so that they could rule China (Ebrey et al., 255).
Ebrey argued that conquering China was one of the Manchus’ priorities since they considered it as resourceful country as compared to its counterparts including Korea (255). After the conquest of China by the Manchus Qing reigned over the land Chinese territory seeking political ties with Joseon who helped them to extend their campaign in China.
Following the weakening of security in China, Qing expanded it by conquering other territories around the Chinese vicinity. This obviously led to the geographical expansion of China leading to the increased security. However, Ebrey pointed out that during an attempted conquest of Joseon, the Korean state proved it strength by portraying its resolve as a nonthreatening territory which could remain autonomous (255).
Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia, Anne Walthall, and James Palais. East Asia: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.
Lockard, Craig. Southeast Asia in world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sen, Tansen, and Victor Mair. Traditional China in Asian and world history. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Trautmann, Thomas. India: brief history of a civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The Eighteenth Amendment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The United States common tradition did not rule out the use or acquisition of any alcoholic drink. However, the Eighteenth Amendment proscribed the shipping, rummage sale, and production of alcohol. The devoted faction strived to support the control of alcohol purchase and consumption based on several reasons. In fact, the group discerned the direct association amid the inconsiderate social conducts and alcohol.
The faction believed that domestic violence and child abuse transpired from the uncontrolled alcohol consumption. According to Shay (2004), the pessimistic crash on the US labor output resulted from hysterical alcoholism (p.67). The dilemma of alcoholism was thus tossed into an act following the emotion of Anti-German. This occurred during the Second World War. This paper describes and analyzes the account of the eighteenth amendment.
Main Body The asylum seekers from Germany alias alien enemies controlled most of the United States breweries. The feeling of the Anti-German was not to manufacture alcohol but to feed the military using fashioned grain. Conversely, some other groups such as the NPR (National Prohibition Reforms) and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment) battled the growth of this project.
At the onset of the fiscal 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment got ratification from the Congress in spite of the attempts of anti-Prohibition factions. The prohibition of transporting, importing, exporting, selling, and manufacturing alcoholic drinks came into effect in the year 1920. The Amendment augmented when nearly twenty nations (65%) countrywide had banished alcohol.
The already stored wine cellar had to bother less since the Amendment had put a stop to the crouch of individual exploitation and ownership of alcohol. Therefore, the US central government grabbed the aptitude to enforce the ban through the Act of National Prohibition. The vital Amendment delineated the extent of intoxicating alcohol, usage exceptions, and penalties against the violation of law. The officially authorized and utmost value of alcohol in any drink was 0.50% percent (Shay 61).
Ratification of the 18th Amendment
The achievement of the Eighteenth Amendment approval occurred in early January of the fiscal 1919. The ratification cropped up after three hundred and ninety four days in over three quarters of the US nations. Ten days prior to the ratification, a formal certification by the stand-in Secretary of State ensued.
Besides, there was a time limit for the ratification following the necessitated number of states by the 18th Amendment. The Amendment could not come into effect provided few nations had ratified the Act in a period of seven years. Historically, there was a challenge on the legality of the Act with the inclusion of time bounds in the proposed constitutional amendment for the first time. In the mid 1921, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment (Wheeler 91).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 18th Amendment had three sections with the first and second sections proving to be the relevant part for the implementation and proscription of alcohol. The first section prohibited the exportation, importation, transportation, and production of alcohol for drinking purpose in the US or any territory under jurisdiction.
In order to enforce the Amendment through suitable legislation, the second section provided for the states and Congress to possess powers that concurred. In the last section, the editorial provided that if the parliament endorsed the revision in seven years founded on the legal requirements form, the submission date by the senate would make it out of order. Thus far, the specificity of the amendment and its enforcement did not come clear in the statements of this article (Blocker 1237).
The enabling legislation (1919 Act of National Prohibition) provided a resolution to the itching issues of alcoholism. According to Wheeler (1919), the Act was famous as Volstead Andrew who sponsored the legislation and chaired the committee on Senate Judiciary (p.45). Besides, the Congress superseded the President’s veto after he alluded to the constitutional and moral objections in October 1919.
The official entitlement of the Volstead Act strived to endorse scientific research and indemnify abundant supply and usage of alcohol in industries, drying, and energy growth. The Act aspired to control the sale and usage of high proof alcohol, production, and manufacture of spirits. The Amendment commonly aimed at forbidding the intoxicating drinks. Even though the 18th Amendment seemed short, its implementation was not easy as it was confusing and intricate in interpretation.
The effects of 18th Amendment
The implementation of the Amendment under certain exemptions existed as unlawful. In fact, particular illegitimate alcohol production industry substituted the legal businesses. Violence and murder engulfed between criminal gangs, organized criminals, and minor marketplace operators in rivalry over market rheostat. The consumers succumbed to painful fatalities, sightlessness, and paralysis given the haphazardly prepared bootleg drinks that contained creosote.
In effect, the Prohibition made consumers to switch to unsafe stuffs like liquid heat, hair tonic, cocaine, and opium that had adverse effects on their lives. Similarly, the prohibition led to dishonesty as bootleggers and moonshiners paid off the custodians of Prohibition Bureau, sheriffs, and police in order to carry out shoddy business (Blocker 1237). The spread of corruption in most cities and towns generally facilitated disrespect for the rule of law. Further, assassination and hostility transpired given the failure to use bribes.
On the other hand, the Amendment forced individuals to gulp alcohol given the obnoxious, intense, and infrequent consumption. The proscription saddled the taxpayer and depressed the returns generated by the government due to elevated confinement, courtyard, and decree enforcement operating costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Eighteenth Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The involvement of prohibition touched almost 70% of the entire expenses of national government. Taft asserted that the disenchantment came with Prohibition over a period of five years (p. 55). Actually, he wrote that reverence for the law had shrunk instead of intensifying and the government expenditure was higher. Moreover, journalist engraved that there was no condensed amount of mental illness, transgression, and drunkenness in the entire nation given that they were even more.
The Repeal of 18th Amendment
The United States continually suffered from the bottlenecks of the Eighteenth Amendment with threats evident in welfare, financial system, ethics, security, and health sector. The prohibitionists emphasized on the possibilities of repealing the Amendment despite its ratification. Over the years, the tribulation of Prohibition augmented to increase antagonism from the populace. A call for the Repeal of this article ultimately came from the diverse supporters of the Act.
Interestingly, a longevity abstainer called Rockefeller John felt the effect and consequences of the prohibition and supported the Repeal of this Amendment (Taft 61). The WTCU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) was essential in national Prohibition since they coveted to guard kids, women, and families from the cruel consequences of alcoholism. Women supported the Repeal owing to the fact that Prohibition did not meet their endeavors.
The command for Repeal from numerous organizations increased attributable to the discontent and disenchantment in the US. These associations encompassed VCL (Voluntary Committee of Lawyers), WMU (Women’s Modernization Union), URC (United Repeal Union), and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment). Nevertheless, specific organizations that supported the Prohibition were against the upsurge of Repeal.
These included, the Temperance Strategy Board, World League against Alcoholism, and Methodist Board of Temperance. The plank of anti-Prohibition along with the year 1932 election guaranteed by President Roosevelt of the Democratic Party came from such prohibitions (Barry 72). Merely a solitary US nation opposed the Repeal while the citizens casted off the Prohibition by seventy four percent of the ballots in favor of Repeal against the opposing twenty six percent.
In the year 1933, Repeal of the 18th Amendment occurred in December with the 21st Amendment. The Congress Act in the late 1935 saw the Repeal of the first and second sections of the Volstead Act. Separate Repeal of the laws of federal Prohibition took place in different provinces and localities.
The Volstead Act reprieved the influential funding of the Congress by the 18th Amendment. As such, the Act turned out to be unenforceable and illogical according to the Supreme Court in the US. In general, discharge emerged from the infringement of the Volstead Act pending the verdict of certainty before the Repeal date (Barry 54).
Conclusion After the Second World War, the temperance progress (neo-Prohibition) was latent and surfaced with fresh and customized ideologies as well as characteristics. Indeed, over the last quarter of the 20th century the consumption of spirits, wines and beer has radically begged off.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Eighteenth Amendment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The supposition that people are not trustworthy when making suitable choices in their lives cuts across the rehabilitated progress. The government is likely to employ legislations that impose restrictions on the liberty of an individual to safeguard the public or citizens from their ingestion actions. Instead of ascertaining strict legal prohibition, the administration ought to exercise tactics such as marginalizing the alcohol consumers and making liquor less communally allowable. This is what the eighteenth amendment is intended to do.
Works Cited Barry, James. The Noble Experiment, 1919-1933: The Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits Liquor in America, New York, Florida: Watts Press, 1972. Print.
Blocker, Jack. “Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment.” Journal of American History, 82.3(1995): 1235-37.
Shay, Gene. Amendment 18, Prohibition: Amendment 21, Repeal of Prohibition, Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004. Print.
Taft, William. The 18th Amendment, Detroit, MI: Henry Joy Press, 1930. Print.
Wheeler, Wayne. The Eighteenth Amendment, Chicago, IL: National Conference of Social Work, 1919. Print.