Theory Of Second Best Term Paper Writing Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of Second Best

Trade Barriers between Turkey and the EU

Non-Economic Issues



Introduction The European Union (EU) integration has been a long process coming and so far, it has incorporated a lot of countries. EU integration is centered on political, legal and economic integration but some countries are seen to integrate even on a social and cultural front. European integration has majorly been forged on geographical regions such as the Baltic region, Low Countries region, black sea region, British Aisles, central Europe, and the Nordic region (Euractv 2011).

Recently, Turkey has tried to join the EU but there seems to be significant concerns about its ability to smoothly integrate into the union. This process started in the late 80s because Turkey has historically been an associate member of the European Union, Council of Europe, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Western European Union and other similar unions across Europe (Euractv 2011).

Turkey’s integration with the UE can be traced back to its signing of a Customs Union agreement with the EU, in 1995, which has been followed by negotiations between the Union and the country years later. However, the process of integration is estimated to last a decade because of the logistics and other underlying concerns between the two parties (Euractv 2011). Nonetheless, once the process is completed, Turkey is expected to be the biggest beneficiary.

This study seeks to analyze Turkey’s integration capability with the EU through the second best theory that analyzes optimal conditions to be met between two parties before economic satisfaction can be attained (Lipsey 1956, p. 11).

This theory will be useful in analyzing Turkey’s integration into the EU because over the past few years, there have been increased concerns by some EU members of the country’s ability to smoothly integrate with the other EU members but more concern has also been voiced regarding the country’s impact on EU’s expansion (Euractv 2011).

Theory of Second Best The theory of Second best was developed by Richard Lipsey and it establishes the variables to be considered before economic optimality is attained (Suranovic 2009, p. 1). At the basic core of this theory is the assumption that if one variable does not meet economic optimality, then other variables (not considered to affect optimality) may have to be changed to create a general, optimal economic environment (Lipsey 1956, p. 11).

This assumption creates a number of problems in the economy because if one variable of the economy is corrected by another variable from another economic sector, the chances that economic efficiency will be attained are low. Though not practically evidenced, two imperfect variables in the economy should be left to cancel each other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This observation has often led many governments to undertake fiscal and monetary policies which are out of the ordinary and in research circles, more caution has been directed at economists to analyze the theory-based conclusion that when one sector of the economy is improved, the likelihood of the entire economy improving is high (Lipsey 1956, p. 11).

The theory of second best has been applied to international integration from the premise that international economic integration is in itself a second best solution (Lipsey 1956, p. 11). This fact is true because the theory of second best solution narrates the different stages of integration (for instance through an abolishment of economic tariffs, non-tariff barriers and the likes) (Bohm 1987, p. 280).

The second best theory is normally compared to the first best solution (free trade) which is normally evidenced when economic integration ultimately results in political integration (this is the situation evidenced to have led to the European Union integration in 1999) (Lipsey 1956, p. 11). However, the first best solution does not exist in any country because no single economic integration has led to political integration yet. For instance, though the EU exists, all the member countries still hold on to their nationalistic identities.

The second best theory specifically applies to Turkey’s integration process because there have been a number of concerns regarding Turkey’s population, Economy, relations with other EU members, and its effects on the EU. These concerns are voiced as some of the major factors bound to lead to the lack of economic efficiency upon integration.

When analyzed according to the second best theory, the above factors are likely to shift the economic equilibrium expected to be derived from the Turkey-EU integration. These factors can be easily summarized as the trade barriers between Turkey and the EU.

Trade Barriers between Turkey and the EU Trade barriers between Turkey and the EU are summed up as the variable elements leading to economic inefficiency. The first major barrier between Turkey’s integration with the EU is that Turkey’s population will give it a majority number of members in the European parliament.

It is estimated that since the country has more than 70 million people, the country’s number of members of the European parliament will be the second highest (World Bank 2006). In fact, it is said that Turkey’s number of members of European parliament will surpass Germany’s (The Economist 2007). Concern is also registered regarding the country’s impact on the future expansion of the EU because it will significantly limit the number of nations that can join the EU.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Theory of Second Best specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More concern has also been voiced on the number of inhabitants Turkey’s integration into the EU is going to bring because the country has a very large population which is more than 5% of EU’s population and therefore, the current state of affairs in the EU is going to be changed (The Economist 2007).

Moreover, there is more concern over the shift in balance of trade that EU’s integration will bring to Turkey, considering some of its major export and import partners are already members of the EU (People’s Daily 2008).

In addition, Turkey does not share a cordial relation with some EU member states such as Cyprus and Greece because of historical conflicts and therefore, objection is likely to be registered by these countries (Daily Telegraph 2010).

Turkey’s geographic location has also been voiced as one of the disadvantages or limitation to its integration with the EU because it has been compared to Morocco that has been denied membership to the EU on geographical grounds (The Economist 2007). Turkey’s geographical intrusion into the EU is estimated at only 3% of the European Union’s geography and it is feared that if the country is allowed into the EU, it will provide grounds for other countries (out of EU’s geography) to apply for membership.

Turkey’s customs barriers have also hindered its integration, or ability to trade with other countries, not only in EU but also in the rest of the world. Conventionally, Turkey’s custom laws have hindered the resale or return of goods to third parties or exporters. Moreover, the custom laws of the country bear strict penalties of noncompliance that scares aware traders, most of the time ( 2011, p. 1).

More importantly, Chinese exporters have had a problem with such laws because they have incurred several financial losses as a result and they have equally spent countless months in the courts solving trade disputes arising from the customs regulations ( 2011, p. 1).

According to the second best theory, the custom laws of the country fail to realize the optimal economic condition of the country’s import and export trade because the financial loss and legal costs associated with solving disputes arising from such custom laws beats the economic advantage of trading with Turkey in the first place.

According to the second best theory, the substitution of one economic advantage with another is likely to result in economic problems that are bound to affect the overall economic efficiency of a nation in the long run. To affirm this relationship, Turkey’s population, production capacity, fertile land, and demand have increasingly been cited by proponents of its integration with the EU that it will substitute the disadvantages the country poses to the EU (Öymen 1999).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Second Best by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, these proponents have often cited Turkey’s military power as one of the advantages Turkey brings to the EU because it will position the EU as a global geostrategic player in the world, considering it has the second largest military force in NATO (Öymen 1999).

Also, the extent to which Turkey produces its goods and services is deemed one of the highest in the world because of the fact that it has the 15th largest economy in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) (and a very high economic growth rate as well) (The World Bank 2010).

The economic growth rate has been further spurred by the fact that the country is slowly divesting its economy from its traditional agricultural backbone that until 2009 constituted approximately 9% of the total country’s GDP (CIA World Fact book 2009). The following graphs best portray Turkey’s economic competitiveness

These positive economic facts about Turkey have been advanced by proponents of its integration as beneficial to the EU. These economic pluses have made Turkey stand out as a very competitive economy.

However, the positive attributes of the country over its barriers to trade still leaves a lot of concern in the eyes of proponents of the second best theory (based on the false assumption that a substitution of one sector of the economy over another is likely to create an economic balance).

However, when focusing on the country’s supply and demand, it should be understood that Turkeys’ supply and demand significantly affects its exports and imports and in the same manner, it affects its ability to trade with existing EU members because it already has a solid relationship with some of its members (with regards to demand and supply or export and imports) (People’s Daily 2008).

The above factors are summed up in the second best option theory as the elements leading to economic inefficiency when Turkey integrates with the EU. In a more comprehensive manner, the above elements are likely to cause an economic equilibrium in the EU.

Non-Economic Issues Turkey’s women rights have been cited as one of the impediments to its integration with the EU because it has had a history of suppressing human rights (European Parliament 2007). For instance, Turkey has been cited to have only given women the right to vote in 1930 and even though women rights have been expanded, the country has yet to cover ground on the implementation of the reforms (European Parliament 2007).

The country’s religious makeup has also been frowned upon by most EU nations because there is fear that Turkey’s large Muslim population is going to lead to an increased immigration of Muslim inhabitants into the EU and this is likely to cause serious security threats (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. U.S. State Dept 2006).

Lastly, the country’s article 301 that governs censorship laws in Turkey has often been cited by EU members that it is repugnant to the spirit of the EU. Article 301 states that: “a person who publicly insults the Turkish nation, the State of the Republic of Turkey, or the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment of between six months and two years…..expressions of thought intended to criticize shall not constitute a crime” (BBC 2005, p. 1).

These non-economic factors have been identified to cause a lot of jitters to some EU members, thereby making them oppose Turkey’s integration into the EU. According to the second best theory, these factors still constitute reasons likely to lead to economic equilibrium in the EU.

Conclusion This study analyses Turkey’s integration with the EU in the context of the second best theory and it establishes that though Turkey poses significant challenges and advantages to the EU, the advantages it poses to the EU cannot be substituted with its disadvantages to create economic equilibrium.

Moreover, from a general assessment of the impediments to Turkey’s integration with the EU, we can see that Turkey poses more disadvantages to its integration than its advantages. Comprehensively, Turkey provides a good analysis of the second best theory, considering its economic challenges and consequent fears regarding the economic equilibrium shift it is likely to bring if it joins the EU.

References BBC. (2005) Turkey’s Insult Laws Maybe Dumped. Web.

Bohm, P. (1987). Second Best. The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, 4, 280 – 84.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. U.S. State Dept. (2006) International Religious Freedom Report. Web. (2011) Tariff and Tariff Administrative Measures. Web.

CIA World Fact book. (2009) Turkey. Web.

Daily Telegraph. (2010) Greece Calls On Turkey To Pull Out Of Cyprus. Web.

Euractv. (2011) EU-Turkey Relations. Web.

European Parliament. (2007) Women’s Rights in Turkey: Meps Say Improvements Still Needed. Web.

Lipsey, R. (1956) The General Theory of Second Best. The Review of Economic Studies, 24(1), 11–32.

Öymen, O. (1999) Turkey: My Country


Social Class and Voting patterns in Britain Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Social class can be termed as an unofficial grading of people in a society based on their earnings, profession, schooling, residence, among other factors.

Diverse cultures however, vary according to social class, owing to various societal aspects. Britain was at one point in time a class-ruled society. Class was an affixed part of the people’s lifestyle. Today, multiculturalism and a shifting financial system are steadily wearing down the prevalent class system. Over the years, one area where the influence of social class has been felt in Britain is in the area of voting behaviour.

When we talk of voting behaviour one is simply talking of the way or manner in which people tend to vote. If the voting patterns in Britain are analyzed, one will notice that social class is the most significant reason in the way people traditionally voted in the 20th century. In short, people tend to vote according to their existing class. However, the class de-alignment that was experienced in the dying years of the 20th century greatly altered the voting patterns in Britain. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Unlike the United States where social class merely refers to capitalism, the term means different things in the West. When talking of class in Britain, one might be talking of the upper class people or the middle class people in the society. Additionally, the term might be used to refer to the upper working class, the lower working class or even the temporary workers in the society.

Towards the middle of the 20th century, a large number of voters in Britain were associated with one of the two major political parties. Although the whole population cannot be said to have followed this trend, a close analysis shows that people in a social cleavages tended to vote in a certain way.

In fact, people in the upper working class and lower working class tended to vote for the Labour Party while people in the middle class mostly voted for the Conservative Party. In the mid 20th century, the middle class, upper working class and the lower working class accounted for close to 64% of the total votes received by the Labor Party. This pattern of voting shows that the social class was a good indicator of twentieth-century voting patterns in Britain. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Naturally, there has been extensive attention in the changing patterns of class voting in Britain. Several writers argue that there has been a continuous process of class dealignment, which has seen all social classes begin voting in the same pattern. (Franklin 24) In fact, recent research shows that class voting reached an all time low in the 1997 elections when the Labour Party approached the heart of the political continuum. (Evans 43)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although attention on the effects of the social environment on voting is not something new, it has rarely been incorporated within the context of class voting. Most studies done on the matter have taken an idiosyncratic advance to the issue of tendencies in class voting, examining the shifting affiliation between a person’s class membership and his vote.

However, the sociological premises upon which the fundamental presumption of social grouping rests highlight the function of social processes, in particular the creation of class-based communities which produce social strains on folks to throw their weight behind a certain party. These theories presume that the individual voting decision is not merely a result of the person’s own class characters but it also relies on the class positions of the individual’s associates. (Evans 50)

According to Hauser (1974), “contextual effects” are methodical variations in individual behavior across backgrounds that cannot be accounted for by explanations in terms of personal distinctiveness. In layman’s language, what Hauser is simply saying is that contextual effect is any upshot on personal behavior that arises due to social relations within an environment. (Hauser 374)Perhaps, Hauser’s claim can well be understood if examined in light of Miller (1977) who claims that;

If Mr A and Mr B have similar social characteristics but Mr A lives in an area where the middle class form twice as large a fraction of the local population as in the area where Mr B lives, then Mr A is likely to have more middle-class contacts than Mr B even if he is unlikely to have twice as many. Thus, Mr A’s contact group will be biased towards the middle class compared with Mr B’s contact group. (Miller 259)

According to Miller, Contextual effects are usually consensual regardless of whether people’s social contacts are comparable to themselves in their social class positions or not. This means that people tend to be inclined towards political harmony with their social contacts. Subsequent to this explanation, we would expect to find predispositions towards class voting to be resistant among electorate who frequently associate with people from the same social class.

Alternatively, we would expect to find the inclination towards class voting to be destabilized among voters who regularly interact with people from different social classes since the association would be inclined to alter their opinion to conform to that of the other social classes. This simply means that class voting is weakened as people begin to interact with members of other social classes. (Franklin 30)

Apart from Miller’s observations, Przeworski and Soares (1971) agree contextual effects are consensual on the working class but differ with him by observing that contextual effects may be reactive on other classes under certain circumstances. An example of this is where an area with a high ratio of voting class may exert pressure on people in other classes to become more cognizant of their own class wellbeing and this in effect may lead to voting against parties that are perceived as not being on their side.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Class and Voting patterns in Britain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This suggests that there will definitely be an association between personal class, contextual social class, and voting performance. I.e. the influence of related social class will differ in the situation of middle-class and of individuals in the working class. (Przeworski


The Analyzing of Paintings “Cranes” in Edo Period Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The paintings under consideration, Cranes, date back to the Edo Period, the time of humanistic and rational evolution. During this period, a significant shift from religious topics to secular motifs was observed. Elements of nature and classic representation of images were also included into the salient features of this time.

Despite secularism and predominance of mundane elements, the paintings still contain some religious trends, particularly Neo-Confucianism philosophical underpinnings that one of the leading movements in Edo period. In this respect, Cranes are endowed with spiritual atmosphere and natural vitality that are expressed through an ideal combination of flora and fauna. Everything – from texture, fabric, and tone to color, shapes, and lines – reflect the common traits of Edo artistic movement.

Painted in ink on silk and paper, Cranes are represented through extreme delicacy that is achieved by means of the materials used. Cautious lines made by the painter require extreme attention because at least one wrong movement or brush can spoil the entire work.

Refinement of the materials used also contributes to better representation of artistic motives and themes. Judging from this, the artist strives to make use of these materials in order to achieve the effect of weightlessness, lightness, and simplicity. In addition, ink, paper, and silk are considered to be one of the main attributes of painting culture in Japan.

It reflects Japanese cultural and historical heritage. Along with accuracy and delicacy of the image representation, the painting is also closely associated with spontaneity, subjective sensitivity, and grace. Incorporating all these features creates a complete picture of what ink painting is all about.

While talking about the thematic concerns presented in the paintings under analysis, it can be stated that they are fully attached to the natural vision of the world with slight accent on illusion. At a glance, the cranes and surrounding natural elements are depicted in a realistic manner. We can easily compare those with real-to-life objects.

However, realistic vision of the painting will not allow to see the essence and ideas that the author intends to convey. In fact, in order to understand the main motifs and themes of the works, one should understand the artist’s perception of the work and his/her emotional state.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regarding light, use of colors, and composition, the primary concern here is to capture not the object itself, but its essence, landscape and interaction between the objects depicted on the picture. Beside accurate forms, minimalism of refined lines, the author also strives to render the traditional aesthetics of simplicity combined with intuitive expression. Apparently, this is the main feature of Japanese artistic trend in the seventeenths century.

Particular attention should be paid to color usage that also contributes to the concept of simplicity and delicate expression. Black and white hues, shadows, and tones provide exceptional harmony to the described scenes. Hence, postures are colored in darker colors indicating the thematic center of the paintings; their movements and positions render their grace and beauty that are supplemented by virtuously presented background.

Though being identical in composition centers, the backgrounds distinguish this picture from each other. At the left, the crane looks more superior and proud because all his movements and positions convey this idea. Strength and dignity are also represented through straight lines. In contrast, the crane depicted on the right painting seems to be more gracious and yielding. A slightly raised leg and a half-opened beak render openness, lightness, and grace.

Its metaphorical meaning can be presented through the artistic desire to express his openness to the world. Comparing these two birds, these cranes oppose each other in terms of character, position, and the painters’ expression. In addition, the birds are surrounded by different environments. Hence, left picture depicts some trees in bloom that, eventually, presents trees spring or summer period whereas pictures on the right is presented in autumn motifs

Taking a closer look at the paintings concerned, a few words can be said about the dynamic character of scenes and objects. While studying the main elements, lines, and shapes, it is necessary to resort to artists’ emotional perception of the world described within a picture.

In this respect, these lines, themes, and tender shades can be transformed into powerful energy that can endow the viewers with the main concepts and ideas of Japanese art and philosophy. In addition, the brushwork presented on the canvas also provides the entire work with greater range of expression and feelings. All these peculiarities and techniques are the main attributes of Edo painting whose primary purpose is narrowed to aesthetic and cultural representation of picture.

In conclusion, artistic representation, usage of delicate techniques, and peculiar materials contribute to conveying the artist’s perception of the surrounding world.

We will write a custom Essay on The Analyzing of Paintings “Cranes” in Edo Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cranes do not only represent the natural world, they also render the artist’s emotional and psychological state. Particular emphasis is placed on brushwork, colors, and techniques that amplify the paintings’ cultural and historical affiliation to Edo period, the era of humanistic movement. Finally, the pictures also reflect spirituality and vitality through the disclosure of natural world motifs.


Problems of the Poorest People, Capital Flight, and Migration Essay essay help

Introduction Globalisation is probably on of the most controversial issues in the world history: many people find it as an amazing possibility to achieve success and make use of a number of opportunities, still, some people, for example the citizens of South Africa, suffer a lot because of inabilities to solve their problems and eliminate poverty that decreases the level of human lives considerably.

There are many writers and researchers like Dicken (2007) or Ravenhill (2008) who investigate the economic perspective of globalisation, however, not all of them manage to discuss the chosen issue in a proper way.

In this paper, the work by a famous British professor, Paul Collier, will be evaluated in order to prove that the poorest billion of people have already integrated into the world economy by means of capital flight and migration, still, the outcomes of such integration are not as successful as they are in the countries like the USA or China.

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Falling and What Can Be Done about It is the book where the author evaluates the level of developmental aid offered to the developing countries like Africa and underline the advantages and disadvantages of the process of globalisation.

Africa has bad governance, one of the four traps defined by Collier in the book, that is not ready to use the full potential of the country. This is why the citizens of South Africa have to make use of capital flight and migration in order to continue developing and becoming a recognisable country on the world’s arena.

Collier’s attempt to discuss the difficulties existed in developing countries is powerful indeed; poverty is the challenge that has to be overcome by the Africans by means of proper understanding of the main ideas of globalisation, four traps which are dangerous for the country, and the possible instruments like capital flight or migration, which may be used to overcome poverty and find another way to success.

Poverty as the problem to be solved Poverty is the challenge that not all nations are able to overcome. Sachs (2005, p. 10) admits that even if some countries like China or Canada are lucky enough to overcome poverty and stabilize citizens’ lives, it does not mean that poverty will never influence human lives again or create some new risks for human survival.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is wrong to believe that poverty may be completely illuminated from human lives, and in order to succeed in development, people have to understand the main reasons of poverty and the conditions under this problem may appear again.

However, there are a number of countries where poverty is not that huge problem anymore; China, Canada, the USA are the best examples of such countries. Collier explains that even such developing countries like Africa are able to create a certain paradigm by means of which people can shift away poverty and set new goals to be developed.

Acemoglu and Robinson (2006) discover that “the European presence in South Africa began in 1652 when the Dutch East Indian company founded a colony in Table Bay” (p. 10). It was a kind of the starting point after which the country was not able to control the activities which took place on its land, and the Africans could help but fighting poor conditions of living.

Types of traps for people In order to understand how poorest people may integrate in the world economy through capital flight and migration, Collier offers to define poverty as not the only trap which the countries may fall into. What he suggests is to pay more attention to the four types of traps which are dangerous for different countries.

These traps are the conflict trap, the natural resource trap, the bad governance trap, and the landlocked with bad neighbours trap (Collier 2007, p. 5). The author underlines that poverty cannot be intrinsically a trap as much more countries remain to be poor; this is why Lesotho, Botswana, and other countries in the South Africa still get a chance to overcome this challenge in case they clearly identify what else may lead to poverty.

The citizens of South Africa are actually in several traps at the same time, still, the most terrible trap for the country is the one of bad governance. In a number of small countries, governance plays a very important role in promoting economic development. However, it happens that small governments are usually eager to achieve some personal benefits and decide to corrupt or choose some bad policies.

This is why it is hard to understand how economic development may occur under such conditions. It is necessary to admit that South Africa as well as the rest of the countries on the continent is characterized by impressive workforce that may be developed along with the coast. Unfortunately, the government of the country does find it beneficial to make use of natural sources but rely on aid-flows which may be received from different developed countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Problems of the Poorest People, Capital Flight, and Migration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bad governance trap is not the only one that exposes to danger the whole country. Collier says that the landlocked with bad neighbours trap may also challenge the country. Most African countries have to be geared to the world market or be enclosed. And even if some countries have appropriate geographic location, its citizens are not able to benefit from this natural gift.

For example, African economies are more inward looking, this is why when the time to increase its neighbour comes, the vast majority of Central African countries which are far from the coast do not have enough sources to take the step required and the countries suffer because of such landlocked trap.

Switzerland is another example of a landlocked country; still, it continues advantaging from cooperating with Germany and Italy in the market sphere. Though the natural resource trap is not as dangerous for Africa as for other billion countries, the government cannot find practical application to the already defined sources. This is why even this trap may become dangerous for the country under consideration.

The last trap that plays a crucial role in economic development in Africa is connected to the conflicts which are inherent to the country. Brett (2008) mentions that during the 1970s, post-colonial Africa overcame the economic crisis that was based on the “intense conflict over political control and resource allocation, and a shift to military or authoritarian rule” (p. 340).

The possibility to escape the traps The peculiar feature of the book introduced by Collier is that the author does not lose hope to improve the economic conditions in billion poorest countries and does offer a number of ideas of how and when the country should start its development.

The examples of how African countries may be developed are observed in the successful development of Botswana that “had the highest rate of per-capita growth of any country in the world in the last 35 years” (Acemoglu, Johnson,


Human resource management Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Human resource management involves management of people in the organisation, and such other important functions as recruitment, selection, performance, appraisal, and other personnel functions in the organisation. The objective of HRM is for the success of the organisation through its assets, the working force. HRM maximises human resource potentials, including their talents, skills, and capabilities for the strategic advancement of the organisation.

Armstrong (2006, p. 3) defines human resource management as the “strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation’s most valued asset – the people”. The ‘people’ are the workforce, who spends a lot of time working for the success of the company’s objectives. Storey’s (1989) definition states that HRM is “a set of interrelated policies with ideological and philosophical underpinning.”

Human resource management system involves recruiting qualified people for the organisation. This is known as staffing. The organisation’s objective plays a critical role in the staffing process. The management is responsible for identifying and selecting persons capable of implementing the organisation’s plans.

Traditionally, personnel management took the functions of HRM. When functions and responsibilities multiplied due to various organisational and environmental factors in these times of intense globalisation, changes had to be introduced in the organisation. HRM has taken over the function of personnel management, which range from recruitment to training to managing the personnel and their various functions and roles in the organisation.

The objective of this essay is to analyse and determine the advantages and disadvantages of human resource management with respect to two case studies, Apple Inc. and Sony Corporation. The importance of HRM and how it affects Apple and Sony are given enough space for discussion.

Literature Review In the age of globalisation, knowledge is both a product and resource. Organisations are now focused on knowledge-based economies, and are more concerned with the knowledge people possess, or what is termed ‘people-embodied knowhow’. Firms invest much on intellectual capital. (Rodriguez and de Pablos, 2002, p. 174)

Companies attain competitive edge through constant innovation. The first periods of the new century marked profound shifts in organisation’s strategies with aims for talents, technologies and customer’s focus and loyalty (Venkatraman and Henderson, 2008, p. 258). Organisations keep constant contact with customers, looking for ways to satisfy their needs and wants. Good customer relation is an important aspect of business (McColl-Kennedy


Uzbekistan’s History, Economic and Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Uzbekistan is a country in central Asia which boarders Kazakhstan in the northern side, Kyrgyzstan in the eastern side and Tajikistan in the southern eastern side. During the 4th century B.C it was under the Persian rule that had been conquered by Alexander the Great.

The region incorporated Islam as a religion in 8th century when the Arab forces invaded the land. Around the 13th century the region was taken over by the Mongols from the Seljuk Turks. The 16th century saw the region been merged with their neighbors but was not to last for long as the region broke into principalities (Adams 19).

However, the city-states, which included khanates, Kokand and Bukhara were not to last for long as the Russians conquered them in the 19th century. In 1924, the territory was a republic but it is in 1925 that it became an independent under socialist republic. However, in 1991 the country declared its independence making September 1st their national holiday. The country today enjoys independence with a presidential rule.

Economically, the people of Uzbekistan are agriculturalist, however, the country is endowed with many minerals. Cotton has been their main produce but has recently been replaced by natural gas. The other minerals that the Uzbekistan people are involved with are gold and uranium. The country has recently grown to be a manufacturing country, especially in the automobiles industrial where they are a big exporter to Russian market.

The state has always been in control of most business enterprises, but in the recent past free market has been endorsed (Oliker 46). It is not easy to determine the growth rate of the country because the government keeps unreliable records. However, it is notable much of the wealth of the country is held by the elite in the society with almost a quarter of the population living below the poverty line.

The government has been instrumental in preventing the country from facing capital outflow by ensuring that the country adopts the policy of substitution of their imports. The actions of the government to control economic activities have even made convertibility of different currencies of the world. The low economy has transformed to some of the individuals in the country getting involved to human trafficking business. The business usually involves girls, as they are traffics to other countries as prostitutes (Boĭkova 181).

Amongst the people of Uzbekistan, the elders are the most respected people in the society. They have a mode of greetings where the men put their hands on the heart of other men when greeting them, while women usually put their right hands on each other’s elbow. The mode of dressing especially to women was such that they were to cover their bodies with their heads looking down to avoid any attention. The people of Uzbekistan are mostly Muslims with a small percentage of people enjoying other religions like Buddhist and Jewish.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally, matters of marriage were left to the man and the women but the approval of the parent was important. Virginity among the women was upheld and women were expected to be married much earlier than the men. Bride price had to be paid by the family of the man, and the cost incurred in the marriage ceremony was covered by the family of the wife (Hanks 83).

There were defined duties of both men and women. While men were expected to work outside, the house women were expected to work indoors engaging in activities like weaving and spinning using cotton. Women were expected to cover the whole of their bodies when in public and they viewed it as observance of their faith (Adams 17). Traditional medicine was also incorporated in their treatment where herbs were used for treatment.

There was also a taboo of drinking cold drinks since it was viewed as the reason why people caught cold. Arts performance that dated back during the soviet rule is still practiced. They include the crafts work as well as miniature painting. However, the practice of their music by the instruments they used in past is still in practice. Dotars that were put on the legs, flutes, and small drums are still used in the performance of their art.

Unlike other countries in central Asia, Uzbekistan has adhered to the principle of legal stability. The constitution gives rights to the people to own private property and it views it as a way of giving self-respect to the people as well as a way of developing the society. Solid constitutional bases have been laid down through the years to promote and upgrade political and social relations.

Economic freedom of the citizens has been highly promoted as well as the spirit of entrepreneurship with an aim of eliminating the repugnant old command-administrative system. The country has also incorporated a legal and organization environment where the society of Uzbekistan integrates with the world. Uzbekistan has adopted an open door policy that grants foreign investors reliable regal guarantee and broad economic opportunities in the economic activities.

The environment for foreign investors has continually been improved as well as simplification of the procedures that are involved in creation of manufacturing enterprise for foreigners (Karimov 172). Regulatory acts created by Uzbekistan have had a comprehensive system of taxation and incentive against poetical and commercial risk for the foreigners. In turn, there has been active participation by foreign investors in this country.

Some of their favorable policies to the foreigners are: freedom of buying property that the state has already privatized as well as ownership rights to these properties. Enterprises owned by foreigners are allowed to export without licenses as well to import duty free property from joint ventures (Karimov 173).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Uzbekistan’s History, Economic and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic relations between Uzbekistan and the United States have mostly been controlled by the bi-literal trade agreement signed by the two countries. The agreement was signed in 1994 and one of the benefits the agreements had to Uzbekistan was that it had an exemption provision to many of the United States importing tariffs.

In the year 2000, the two countries signed a bilateral investment treaty but it did not come into force because of the weak economic reforms in Uzbekistan. In terms of imports and exports, Uzbekistan imports machines and equipment. Also inclusive in the list of the imports are chemical products and food items, especially the ones that deal in plastics. The exports to the United States include inorganic chemistry products machines and equipment (Group Taylor


Heathrow Airport Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Heathrow airport


Issues that passengers might face



Modern business strategies are considering the effects of internal processes on stakeholders as a strategy to create and maintain health business relationships.

Business stakeholders include shareholders, customers, governments, and internal customers; their needs and expectations are paramount when developing business processes (Weiss, 2008). Heathrow airport is a London based international airport that connects over180 destinations in more than 90 countries; it offers departure services, arrival services and inter-fright connection services, the airport is managed by BAA.

Stakeholder theory is management tool that looks into how ethical businesses are conducted in a certain industry or company; the theory advocates for mutual benefit of an organization and stakeholders through the impact that business processes have on social, economic and environmental attributes of life (Sassower,1988). This report analyzes how travelers, as stakeholders, are affected by Heathrow airport; it will use stakeholder’s theory for the analysis.

Heathrow airport Heathrow airport is operated by BAA, according to 2010, airports review, the airport was ranked as the fourth busiest airport in the world and the busiest in United Kingdom in terms of passage and cargo volume. On average, the airports received 67 million passengers, with 11% traveling to UK destinations, 46% are long-haul and the rest are in short-haul international travelling (Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011).

Discussion BAA is committed to understand and look into all spheres of customers that use the airports, they have facilities that enable the old, the disabled and other passengers to have a pleasant environment or stay in the airport. The airports policies respect Disability Discrimination Act (DDA); it has enacted appropriate measures to ensure that its services are continually improved to meet the needs of such people with special needs. The information is contained in it accessibility report and the management aims at improving the approach further.

When a customer is in the airport, there are some guiding posts and signs that are aimed at guiding the customer to the destination; this happens at the time of departure and when arriving. The airport management has adopted the spirit of freelance organizational culture that ensures that every employee within the compound can be trusted to guide a passenger effectively. The company has five terminals each named effectively to direct a customer effectively.

Under the stakeholders theory a firm addresses investors, employees, suppliers, and customers needs, the airport in recognition of the theory has enacted environmental conservational measures that facilitate good cooperation with stakeholders. As far as travelers are concerned, in the efforts of offering adequate and reliable information for decision making, the company has 24hou online chatting and checking system which travelers can use; incase there is a change in-flight schedules, then efforts are taken to advise customers effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under the stakeholder’s theory, customer’s interest should be the forefront phenomenon; customers experience should be improved consistently; in this effort, the airport embarks on various rebranding, and compound conservations.

Within the airport, the management has allowed some hospitality industry players to establish high quality and standards businesses, these businesses are allowed to fetch business form passengers; however, they should maintain high quality and efficiency.

The establishments include five and four star hotels, massage setups, salons and barber shops, fast food joints, duty free shops, entertainment sites and shopping establishments. The reason to encourage such establishment is to ensure that travelers experience when using the airport is improved. In between flights and departure, or when a customer jets in the airport, the airport has invested in that time to offer a memorable experience.

Taxi operators from companies with high reputation, and which maintain high standard vehicles operate the transport networks in the airport. The taxi operation and their safety is guaranteed by the management of the airport and incase of any misfortune the management takes up the issue. At periodical bases, there are some publics means of road and railway transport that are given access the airport, they include passenger busses, trains, bicycles and motor cycles. The flow of traffic is well regulated with the assistance of computer networks.

Within the airport, a number of forex bureaus that are regulated by the airport management and expected to adhere to UK banking rules and regulations. The system is meant to offer foreign currency to travelers at the prevailing rates (Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011).

Issues that passengers might face Although the airports performance is commendable, new users are likely to face culture shocks and language barriers. The airport receives passenger from different part of the world that have people with different cultures, experiences and expectations; the challenge offered by the cultural difference is that people might be stranded in the airport.

Another challenge that might face travelers is lack of understanding of signs and language used; the adoption of the airports culture is more skewed to English setting thus non-English people might face difficulties understanding some of the signs and symbols.

We will write a custom Report on Heathrow Airport specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remedy Heathrow airport should implements culture intelligence programs in its operations such that airport operators, whether dealing with travelers directly or indirectly, can guide travelers effectively. Secondly, at different points, the management should have language-translating machines that are user friendly that travelers from different parts of the world can use; this will boost communication within the airport.

References Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011. Heathrow airport. Web.

Sassower, R., 1988. The Business of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, (7)4,PP. 279-282.

Weiss, J., 2008. Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach: New York: Cengage Learning.


Personality Theories Matrix Essay best essay help: best essay help

Theory Assumptions Reliability Validity Application Social Cognitive Theory- Bandura Plasticity which is recognized as one of the most important human characteristics allows people to choose various behavior patterns depending upon the situational context.

People can control their lives through a triadic reciprocal causation model which consists of behavioral, environmental and personal components.

People can influence the quality of their lives. The higher the individual’s self-efficacy is, the higher his/her chances for success are.

Bandura’s social cognitive theory can be regarded as reliable. It is based on the two reliable components, including the accurate observation theoretical speculations. Bandura’s theoretical speculations are well-developed but not overdistanced from his empirical observations. Thus, placing his assumptions only one step in front of his observations, making his social cognitive theory reliable. Bandura’s social cognitive theory can be regarded as valid disregarding certain weak points of the self-efficacy part. Thus, Bandura claims that the choice of a behavioral pattern and the efforts made for achieving certain goals depend upon the individual’s belief in following success. Further research of particular components of this assumption could result in falsification of this part. Muammar Gadaffi is known as one of the longest-ruling leaders in the world with the 42 years of ruling the Lybian Arab Republic since the military coup on 1 September 1969. Ban dura’s social cognitive theory can be implemented for explaining certain episodes of this motivated and charismatic person as well as the preconditions for the heights which he achieved on his life path.

A triadic reciprocal causation model can be useful for explaining the combination of Gadaffi’s personal and behavioral characteristics and the environmental context as the cluster of influential factors which allowed him not only to get the power, but also maintain it for 42 years and contribute to the development of the country.

On the one hand, organizing the military coup and becoming its leader can be defined as a fortuitous event in his life. On the other hand, these were his personal traits of a leader and a strategist as well as his courage which allowed Muammar to get the power.

Self-efficacy was another influential factor which allowed Gadaffi to make responsible decisions for his country. His success required strong faith in his own abilities and talents. Though becoming a leader of a country requires certain favorable situational context, Gadaffi believed in his power to rule the country and take the responsibility for the destinies of the whole nation.

For instance, in 1981 Gadaffi invalidated the US passports for travel in Lybia because he was insulted by Reagan. It caused the American ban or the import of Lybian oil. This situation can be viewed through the lens of a triadic reciprocal causation model because it was not only situational context but also Gadaffi’s personal qualities that triggered the political decision of this charismatic leader.

Reference Feist, G. (ed.). (2009) Theories of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.


“Paint a face” on the Audiences of Outdoor Magazine and PC Photo Magazine Essay scholarship essay help

Writing for a specific magazine, the writer should take into consideration many important details that will make it possible to create the article interesting for the readers. In other words, the writer should direct his writing on a particular audience. For example, writing for a professional magazine, the writer will choose topics relevant to the subject and use specific terms.

In fact, there are many means used to attract and, what is more important, hold the reader’s attention. These means are the author’s language choice, tone of the voice, specific descriptions, example and details. All these means should be focused on the interests and knowledge of the target audience. Stark and Pitt are the writers who create articles for magazines with different audience.

Consequently, their articles cover the topics relevant to the target audiences and use voice and terminology that are understandable for the readers. However, how would their writings change if they switch audiences with each other? Thus, in order to attract and keep the attention of their new audience, the writers would have change the manner of representation of the material, terminology and voice of their articles.

As it has already been mentioned, the author should focus his writing on the knowledge and interests of the target audience. Edward Jay Friedlander and John Lee in their book Feature Writing for Newspapers and Magazines: The Pursuit of Excellence say that, “writers, if they are to be successful, must learn not only to write in different voices, but also deliver the topics in a manner expected by readers” (76).

In other words, the writer should define a target audience. Each magazine has a specific target audience. It can be a professional magazine, scientific, a magazine for teenagers, housekeepers or car drivers, etc. In each case, the writer should take into account.

Thus, if the authors switch the audience, the first thing they should do is to correct the titles of their articles. According to the settled condition, the authors should make the topics of their articles interesting for audience of a different journal. Pitt would have to change the manner of presentation of the material, as a majority of the target audience of the Outside magazine would not understand the terminology applied to digital technologies.

His article is aimed at teaching people work with Photoshop and some of its new versions. Thus, it presupposes that readers can use the program and knows the terminology, “we used Jasc Paint Shop Pro 8 for our example, but most photo imagine has the same or similar tools” (Pitt n. pag.). The readers of the Outside Magazine, who might be interested in the digital edit of the photography by themselves, hardly know these tools.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the author should introduce explanations for the terms and usage of the tools. Moreover, as the audience much of the context of the writing, the author might change the subject matter, for example, instead of editing human photo, he could suggest editing of the nature or animals pictures. Finally, he uses the first first-person voice, and then switches to the second-person voice to teach his readers.

In case with the audience of the Outside Magazine, he must change the way of addressing to the audience. It should be less straightforward, as the majority of articles in the Outside Magazine are the stories that happen to people and look like literature stories. Thus, Pitt must change the tone of instruction to less straightforward, more get-to-know one and switch to the second or third voice.

If Peter Stark writes for the PC Photo Magazine, he also must change many things in his article. It is very important to remember that:

“The words in the text should reflect an author’s knowledge of the topic with the intent of informing the reader. Most authors not only want the information to be accessible, but also want to achieve their purpose by allowing the reader to “enter” into the text comfortably. Authors do this by making the word choice and language interesting, compelling, and appropriate to the audience’s knowledge level, age, and experience” (Medina 41).

For him, it would be a bit difficult to attract the attention of people who are interested in the digital technologies, to the topic of his article “As Freezing Persons Recollect the Snow – First Chill, then Stupor, then the Letting Go”. Thus, the first thing that can be done is changing the title into more appropriate.

For example, “What Should One Do if…”. The form of the writing should be changed as well. It should contain some instructions or helpful advice. The article should be written in second voice and include some conclusion, for example, some addition to the story after the experience. In addition, the terminology, such as “hypothermia” should be changed to more common words.

Thus, we can come to a conclusion that the target audience of the magazine article, as well as other writings has a great meaning, and the writing interesting for one reader can be absolutely indifferent to other reader. If Pitt and Stark change the target audience of their articles, they will have to change many issues, such as title, examples, terminology, idea, voice, manner of representation of the material.

We will write a custom Essay on “Paint a face” on the Audiences of Outdoor Magazine and PC Photo Magazine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Friedlander, Edward Jay, and John Lee. Feature Writing for Newspapers and Magazines: The Pursuit of Excellence. Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996.

Medina, Conni. Successful Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas. Huntington Beach: Shell Education, 2007.

Pitts, Wes. “Photo Exorcism”. Motives for Writing 5th Ed. Ed. Robert Keith Miller. Online Learning Center. Web.

Stark, Peter, “As Freezing Persons Recollect the Snow – First Chill, then Stupor, then the Letting Go”. Motives for Writing 6th Ed. Ed. Robert Keith Miller. Online Learning Center. Web.


Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Aspects of colonialism

Postcolonial identity


Anti colonial resistance

Cultural differences


Works Cited

Introduction Chinua Achebe is an African writer from Nigeria born in the year 1930. He comes from the Ibo tribe. He grew up in Nigeria in a village called Ogidi.

At the university Achebe took English literature and while studying he encountered novels written by Europeans about Africa which he called appalling. He realized that no one was better placed to tell the African story than the African themselves and thus he began writing to tell the African story (Innes 11). The short story Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe is a story written to tell the postcolonial experience.

The story was written in 1949 after the British had colonized Nigerian at the beginning of the twentieth century. The colonizers despised the culture and beliefs of the Igbo people which they considered as barbaric and inferior. To that effect, they introduced Christianity and western form of education through the missionaries. The introduction of Christianity led to weakening of the tribal affiliations. The meeting of the two cultures led to a conflict.

Aspects of colonialism The protagonist in the story is Michael Obi a young man aged twenty-six years. He is a teacher who has been promoted to head Ndume Central school because he is a “young and energetic” man besides being very modern and progressive (Spack 113). He also got the position because he had sound academic qualifications above other headmasters in that area and he was “outspoken in his condemnation of the narrow views of these older and often less educated ones” (Spack 113).

He sees the older less educated teachers as representatives of the conservative way of life and narrow views that he wanted to replace with modern progressive methods. He wants his teachers to work very hard to bring about the adaption of the modern methods in his school. He is very happy that the teachers are unmarried and thus they will devout all of their energies to school work.

Obi had embraced the white’s way of life and his wife Nancy had also been caught up in his fascination with modern ways at the expense of the traditional way of life practiced by his people. Nancy wanted to have modern beautiful gardens, which symbolize the western way of life. Just like her progressive husband, she has adapted the western lifestyle as she speaks to her husband she reads a woman’s magazine and calls him Mike.

Postcolonial identity Due to Michael’s progressiveness, he has no regard for the traditional practices of his village. The village in which Ndume Central is situated is traditional. The people believe in shrines and spirits. They have a footpath that runs through the school that even though it is often disused. The path joins the village shrine and the place where they bury their dead. Michael does not understand why the villagers have been allowed to continue using the path yet it trespasses through the school compound.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is against the footpath and in the spirit of converting the school, which he considers backward he wants the path closed. He wants it closed to please the inspector of schools and he is afraid that the villagers might turn the school into a site for some pagan rituals. Calling the practices of his people, pagan ritual shows how much he hated the traditional ways and considered anything about his culture to be backward and retrogressive. Michael is an African man who is trying to adapt foreign ways.

Just like the white who developed ambivalence towards the African culture, Michael has a negative attitude towards his culture due to hybridity. He feels that the culture of the white man is superior and thus he should strive to copy the white man’s ways. He is a man who is trying to change his own self-consciences and see it through the eyes of the whites because he has a double conscience. He regards them highly and thus will do anything he thinks will help to modernize the school at whatever cost (Izzo 89).

Others The villagers see the colonizers as others in the text. The villagers feel that the white man has intruded upon their life and disrupted the smooth running of their way of life. They are unhappy with the attempt of the white man through agents such as Michael of trying to change their way of life.

The villagers also consider Michael as an outsider because he does not respect the traditions of the village, which have been practiced for a long time. The outsiders represent as people who are unwilling to listen to reason. They are pushy and do not care who they offend as long as they achieve their goal. In this case, Michael refuses to listen to reasons given for the existence of the path and goes head to order its closure (Izzo 90).

Anti colonial resistance The villagers resist the colonialists but eventually they accept some of their ways. For instance, they embrace education and send their children to European schools. The villagers are willing to accommodate the whites and coexist peacefully. However, some people like Michael do not see the possibility of mixing the traditional and modern ways. According to him, the traditions must be discarded in favor of modern progressive ways.

Ini, the village priest goes to talk to Michael about the closure of the path because a baby had died and the reason given by the villagers for the death was closing the path. The priests tells Michael “ let the hawk perch and let the eagle perch” because he felt that the two cultures could coexist as he tells Michael the he only needs to reopen the path and the quarrel will be over (Spack 115; Emenyonu and Uko 66).

Cultural differences The cultural differences in the text reveal the way the operations of the people. Through the story, the author shows that progress no matter how well intent it is cannot be forced down the throats of people. The people must be engaged in the change and if they support the idea then a change can happen. Michael, the head teacher fails because he is pushy and does not understand how deep the tradition is engrained in the village.

We will write a custom Essay on Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He tries to force the people to abandon their ways but his plan backfires on him as the villagers tear down the wall he had erected to block the footpath and ruin the gardens and the schools inspector finds the school in a mess and a writes him a bad report. His lack of respect for the culture of the Igbo people leads to the conflict as people retaliate. It shows that both cultures have failed to respect each other hence the clash.

The educated Africans consider their fellow less educated colleagues as backwards who need to be educated or given low jobs in the market. The educated people such as Michael consider themselves superior than their fellow blacks just as the whites consider themselves superior to the Africans. They consider their culture superior and a gift to humankind hence strive to pass it to the communities they consider backward and uncivilized.

They teach the Africans to loath their own culture as we see Michael telling the village priest that the school going children ought to be taught to laugh at the traditional beliefs. The school aims to eradicate the beliefs altogether and give the students new ideas based on the western beliefs. The Africans believe in spirits and thus they keep the footpath open according to their religion.

Michael fails to respect their religious beliefs and closes the path, as he does not identify with pagan rituals. He shows his lack of respect for the villagers’ religion by telling the priest that they should make an alternative path that skirts outside the school compound because he does not think that the spirits would mind the little detour.

Conclusion Finally, the two cultures clash in the story because of lack of tolerance. Michael is self-centered and uncooperative. He insists on having his way even in matters that require cooperation. He wants to make the school modern and he will do anything to make his project successful. Nonetheless, he fails in his ambitions because he sidelines the people he needs to help him succeed. People must learn to tolerate each other to coexist peaceful which is something that Obi fails to understand hence his failure.

Works Cited Emenyonu, Ernest and Iniobong Uko. Emerging Perspectives on Chinua Achebe: Isinka, The Artistic Purpose: Chinua Achebe And The Theory Of African Literature. Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press, 2004. Print.

Innes, Catherine Lynette. Chinua Achebe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Print.

Izzo, David Garrett. The influence of mysticism on 20th century British and American literature. North Carolina: McFarland, 2009. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Spack, Ruth. The International Story: An Anthology with Guidelines for Reading and Writing about Fiction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.


How has rebellion or defiance of those in power been an integral trait of American essay help: essay help

Possessing certain power over the American colonies, the British government tended to control the processes going on in the new lands. However, as the national identity started forming within the colonies under the British surveillance, it became obvious that the process of independence shaping has been launched.

Creating a specific culture differing from the European one, the colonists also contributed to the formation of the American economics. In addition, they needed certain space to continue their economical growth, yet they were bound by the British Empire controlling their actions. Thus, rebellious ideas started brewing as soon as the settlers integrated into the new society.

Becoming an integral part of colonists’ character, rebellious ideas were put into practice as the British Empire lost its grip on the newly obtained lands. Although the American colonists were to wait for quite a while until they had the chance to fight powerful Britain, it is doubtless now that sooner or later, the rebellion would have taken place. However, what could be called a lucky coincidence finally caused the American resistance to the British colonial oppression. The last straw for the colonists, the new taxation laws made people act.

As King George came to reign in Britain, the country was troubled by the unstable government (Hughes 360), which in its turn resulted in slackening of Britain’s control over the American colonies.

Unable to trace both the political discord in Britain and the moods in the American colonies, King George chose England as the key priority, leaving the state of affairs in America for the further considerations, which the American colonists made efficient use of.

Brewing within the society since the first ideas of national identity and economical issues have been shaped, the rebellious ideas finally found their vent.

Resulting in the Revolutionary War, the resistance to the British influence finally ended in creating an independent state. Analyzing the past experience, on can say with certainty now that the dramatic events led to creating national culture and identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the most dramatic changes in the American society was the fact that the population started realizing the national problems and, which is even more important, was willing to eliminate them (Bessette 35). Thus, it can be considered that the Revolution had its effect on the shaping of national identity.

Another reason to think the Revolution as the beginning of the new epoch was the fact that the Revolution brought together the first thirteen states (Bessette 36). This can be considered as a major breakthrough in the American fight for independence and reunion.

Finally, the fact that the Congress suggested a more or less clear program for the further development of the country heralded a new epoch in the history of the continent. Suffering from the results of the devastating Revolution, country was rising from economical and political ashes and needed support from the Congress and the population.

Thus, it cannot be doubted that the defiance of the American colonies had a crucial effect on the further history of the land and the colonists. However, since it was impossible to take into account every single piece of the economical mechanism, certain layers of society were left forgotten. Among them, farmers were neglected most, which resulted in a number of rebellions in its turn.

Therefore, it becomes clear that the process of the American society foundation was rebellious and uneasy. Still the results of the Revolution show that this game was well worth the candles.

Works Cited Bessette, Joseph M., and John J. Pitney, Jr. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy and Citizenship. Stanford, CN: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Hughes, David. The British Chronicles. Vol. 1. Berwyn Heights, MD: Heritage Books, 2007. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on How has rebellion or defiance of those in power been an integral trait of American colonists since the founding of the colony by the British? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles Report custom essay help

Byars (1991) emphasized Management entails harnessing the various management principles to generate revenues and profits. The research focuses on the importance of implementing the management principles in increasing the company’s revenues and profits. The research centers on the awareness, adaptation, and management changes aspect of achieving the company’s goals and objectives. The implementation of the different management principles catapults the company in generating higher revenues and profits.

I. Cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes been reflected in this case study. The company focuses the philosophy of offering “consistently exceptional service”.

Hallowell, Bowen, and Knoop (1) were right in stating the Four Seasons hotel focuses on delivering high quality, truly personalised service to enable guests to maximise the value of their time”. The firm’s top managers were at home in any diverse international setting. Antoine Corinthios, president of Europe, Middle East, and Africa, explained the cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes with the state “French in France, French in France”.

Baumueller (2007) theorized Corinthios’ leadership success is based on his “chameleon” leadership style. A chameleon is an animal that changes its color to blend with the color of the environment; it turns green in a green environment and turns brown in a brown environment to protect itself against predators and capture its elusive insect meals.

Likewise, Churchill (1995) insisted the company policy of “no bragging, no excuses” works wonders on the increase in hotel client loyalty. The hotel line and staff focus their services on being “very professional and not pretentious; detail oriented’ and interested in people”. Excuses for failing to meet the hotel’s standards in terms of customer service and other job performance standards were never options.

In addition, the line and staff had strong allegiance to the firm. Many of the company’s management team continues to work for the company for more than 25 long years. The line and staff classified the hotel employees and management as their “family”. The hotel family is coated with lots of rules, traditions, and love.

The changes are important in today’s management. Chapman (2007) proposed the cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes are important to the accomplishment of the Four Season’s approach to international growth. The growth is clearly stated in the Four Seasons founder and chief executive officer Isadore Sharp’s statement “Today, we have opened enough properties overseas that we can go in any city or town and pull people together to fulfill our mission”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To accomplish the Isadore Sharp statement, Corinthios leads the entire hotel organisation to use its strengths to increase hotel occupancy and other hotel business –generating activities with the statement “ Our strength is our diversity and our singularity”. Accordingly, change management should be prioritized (Griffin, 2008).

II. There are worldwide company core values instilled in the Four Seasons team. According to Czinkota (2006), the company’s core values are grounded on diversity and singularity. The company implements globally uniform standards in all its hotel chains spread outside and inside the Canadian hotel industry landscape. The company’s core values include adapting to the local diverse culture of the foreign country where Four Seasons opens its doors to the discriminating hotel clients.

The core values focus on providing an international home way from home hotel atmosphere for the leisure and business travelers looking for comfort and service. Kreitner (2009) opines the core values include pampering the clients with the best quality service any time of the day or night from the time of registration at the front desk to checking out of the hotel’ premises. The company’s singular core value is to offer a singular universal service known as the “Four Seasons” international service standard.

The company’s international service standard includes getting the clients’ messages on time, cleaning the room on scheduled hours, offering a good breakfast, being pampered by an engaging, anticipating, and eagerly responsive hotel staff, and being able to partake of an exciting and innovative meal.

Further, the singular international hotel standard is fused with the local cultures to make the visitors have a “home away from home” cozy feeling. Specifically, the each hotel staff incorporates the clients’ culture such as including a Mexican touch for Mexican clients, a French touch for French clients, an Egyptian touch to an Egyptian client, a German touch for German clients, and a Japanese touch for Japanese clients.

The leading figures have been standing out in this process. How. The leading figures are successfully and profitably implementing a client-based service standard. The standard of the company focuses on harnessing all its scarce resources and personnel to implement a uniquely innovative service.

The hotel clients can easily distinguish the Turkish culture in the company’s Istanbul branch. The hotel clients can easily savor the Canadian atmosphere in the hotel chain’s Canadian branch. Unlike the Walt Disney name which speaks of a United States atmosphere, the Hotel’s Chameleon philosophy caters to “mimicking” the local culture in all its international branches. The hotel has been very fruitful in adapting to each hotel location’s environment.

We will write a custom Report on Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, a Bali hotel client can feel the Bali culture while inside the hotel’s premises. This is the very essence of the hotel’s Chameleon core value. Crowl emphasised “Four Seasons learned from each country and property because we are an international hotel company, we take our learning across borders”. Specifically, the hotel’s Egypt branch incorporates the local Egyptian indigenous culture to its spa amenities.

The Egyptian element complements the hotel’s international quality service being implemented in its Bali hotel branch. For example, the universal core values include leaving the coffee pot on the restaurant table; the hotel guests are free to refill their coffee cup without need to call any restaurant employee. On the other hand, leaving the coffee pot on the hotel table is not culturally conducive in a hotel located in France.

III. The current internal and external environment affects managers to become more entrepreneurial in comparison to Four Seasons’ years of management in Paris.

As proof, Hengst recalls one of the satisfied hotel clients’ comments “We have been obsessed by the service standard. Each hotel line and staff personnel prioritise zealous compliance with preset local culture- influenced international hotel service standards. The internal environment focuses on compliance with standards. The external environment focuses on incorporating the local culture into the hospitality service equation.

In addition, Griffin (2009) reiterated the company’s management employs the five management principles in the Four Seasons Case Study to increase client patronage. First, the management employs the planning principle to the fullest. The company strongly emphasises the importance of fulfilling the organisation’s vision and mission.

Four Seasons hires the Pierre-Yves Rochon, an expert interior designer, to retain the Medieval palace atmosphere of King George V’s time to comply with the company’s policy of incorporating the local culture with the company’s international service standard. The metamorphosis of the original palace into a hotel takes into consideration the local French and French cultures.

The company does not infuse Canadian architectural culture on the French hotel to instill in the local residents that the company respects and incorporates the local culture in the construction and management of the hotel. The company enjoins each member of the hotel organisation to give their best shot in achieving the organisation’s goals and objectives. In addition, the company complies with the local laws. The laws include the employment laws, tax laws, environmental laws, and other related statutes.

Second, Mullins (2004) reiterated the management employs the organising functional principle seriously. Management fits each delicate job function with persons qualified for the job. For example management appoints some personnel as waiters. Another set of personnel are assigned a bell boys.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another set of personnel are assigned to perform housekeeping responsibilities. Another set of personnel are assigned as kitchen crew. Management coordinates the functions of the kitchen, housekeeping, room service, front desk, backdoor (accounting services), and other services.

Third, the management employs the controlling functional principle effectively. The company sets standards based on the company’s objectives of pampering the clients with a localised version of its international hotel service standard. Specifically, management requires each employee to have several sets of uniforms; each employ is trained to comply with basic job responsibilities (proper uniform decorum, avoiding absences, reduce costs and wastages to allowable levels).

Controlling includes taking corrective action to resolve any client complaints. Controlling includes resolving any variance that occurs between actual services done and preset service standards (suspension, seminar, termination, retraining, etc of lackluster performing line and staff employees).

Fourth, the management employs the staffing functional principle efficiently. Management recruits both local employees and Canadian employees to harness the company’s scarce resources to fill each discriminating client’s hotel wants, needs, and caprices. The company selects the cream of the crop or best of the entire organisation’s line and staff to take on delicate responsibilities in different departments and jobs of the hotel.

The company hires the recruitment applicant who hurdles all pre-job and on the job training persons who show promises in terms of achieving personal and organisational goals and objectives.

Crowl emphasised “A service culture is about putting what we all believe in into practice” (Hallowell, R., Bowen, D., Knoop, C. (2002;1). We learn it, we nurture it, and most important, we do it” (4). Management continually trains its line and staff each time they are transferred, promoted, or retained in different jobs within the Four Seasons hotel. The company retrains the employees who fail to muster enough strength, intellectual prowess, and interpersonal skills to surpass benchmarks.

Fifth, the management employs the directing functional principle successfully. Management offers perks and other benefits to effectively motivate its line and staff to go that extra mile in offering superb hotel service to the discriminating hotel clients. Management communicates its policies, benchmarks, and standards to its line and staff personnel in a vivid manner.

Management appraises the subordinates’ performance to determine if they have complied with company’s preset standards with flying colors. Management instills discipline among its subordinates by penalising lackluster performing employees. John Naylor (2004) emphasized lackluster performance includes poor client service.

Management steps in the way resolving conflicts among employees and between employees and the few disgruntled clients. Brigham and Houston (2002) theorized the financial statement analysis indicate the directing function contributes its own huge share to the company generating net earnings of $86,486 for the year 2001 and net earnings of $103,074 for the year 2000 alone.

Further, the different identified management strategies covered in class apply in today’s reality. The company generated an increase in revenues between 1996 to 2000 at 22.6% from 1996 to 2000. The Four Seasons operating profit grew by more than 65 percent (higher than the estimated prior 59 %) during the same accounting period.

House, R. (2007) emphasised culture plays a vital role in increasing new and prospective hotel client loyalty. The French hotel restaurant client would not like to hear the Mexican Waiter employee speaking in Mexican language or broken English. Likewise, a German hotel client would prefer talking a Canadian employee speaking in French.

Another French hotel client would prefer to order the local French breakfast food choices instead of Canadian food choices. Clients would prefer to return to clients where they are pampered and where all their requests, wants, needs, and caprices are being filled to the brim with exquisitely unique Four Seasons hotel hospitality.

Further, management’s hiring of below standard employees will result to lackluster service; lackluster service precipitates to a decline in revenues and profits because the disgruntled clients will surely not return. The absence of the planning, organising, controlling, staffing, and directing management principles covered in class will cause the hotel to decline to the brink of bankruptcy and economic gloom; disgruntled customer will surely abhor poor hotel services (food service and hotel client staff services).

Based on the above discussion, the setting into motion of the different management principles skyrockets the company into generating higher revenues and profits. Management maximises the benefits of the various management principles to enhance current revenues and profits. The management principles are important in improving the company’s current revenues and profits. Indeed, the awareness, adaptation, and management changes are effectively in hastening the achievement of the company’s goals and objectives.

References Baumueller, M. (2007). Managing Cultural Diversity. London, Lang Press.

Bernstein, J. (1993). Financial Statement Analysis. London: Irwin Press.

Brigham, E. and Houston, J. (2002). Fundamentals of Financial Management, New York: Thomson South-Western.

Byars, L. (1991). Strategic Management. Formulation and Implementation – Concepts and Cases. New York: HarperCollins.

Chapman, C. (2007) Handbook of Management Accounting Research. London, Elsevier Press.

Churchill, P. (1995). Marketing, Creating Value for Customers. Sydney: IRWIN

Czinkota, S. (2006). International Marketing. London, Wiley


Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction With the ever-increasing need for an educated society that can survive in the present competitive world, most nations have started to appreciate the need of a well educated citizenry. In addition, because education is the greatest promoter of culture, every country’s education system is a representation of its history and cultural values.

Therefore, although there may exist some similarities between different country’s education systems, each country’s education system has some unique features that give that country an added advantage in terms of developing its social, cultural, political, and economic systems.

These like differences are evident in the Chinese and American education systems, because of the varying importance given to different aspects of education by these two nations. China’s education system primary emphasizes on the input and accumulation of skills, promotion of learners’ appreciation of knowledge and the respect those in power. Contrary to this, the American education system primarily emphasizes on imparting in learners practical skills meant to help learners to question knowledge and authority (Si-jing 1).

Considering this, the American education system emphasizes not only on imparting basic skills such as reading and writing, but also emphasizes on the physical and mental wellbeing of learners, whereas the Chinese education system mainly focuses less on creativity, but emphasizes the need to impart in the necessary survival skills.

Differences between the U.S. and China’s Education Comparison of the social environment and culture tradition between China and America

As compared to China, the U.S is an open society that has abandoned most of its traditional practices to adopt a new era of education reforms to accommodate the diverse nature of cultures that comprise its citizenry.

In addition, because the American economy lays a strong emphasis on the significance of practical skills, its education system appreciates the significance of independence in thinking and creativity. Therefore, the American education system generally prepares individuals to be “social beings” who must endeavor to discover and put their talents into use in order to get material wealth.

In contrast to this, the Chinese empire is a historically rich economy that appreciates very much its cultural traditions; hence, the rigorous nature of its education curriculum that lays a strong emphasis on morals and attainment of education that is relevant to its needs. As compared to the U.S., the stress of living in China is bigger, because most jobs dictates that an individual must go to college and get the relevant education, failure of which can lead to a miserable life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the Chinese education system strongly emphasizes on laying a strong education foundation that is characterized by less thought and extra learning. Different to this, because of the significance of creativity in America, its education appreciates the need for more thinking and less forma learning, because of the readiness of the American society to adopt new concepts, so long as they have a positive impact on its citizenry (Rybak 1).

Differences between China and U.S’s Education Curriculum

Both in the U.S. and China learners must o through a total of twelve years elementary and high school that are broken into six years of elementary school, two years of middle school (in the U.S. it is called junior high), an finally three years of senior high school.

Although this similarity exists, China’s system is more rigid, because of the nature of its education principles; a case that is different in the U.S., where learners have the freedom of selecting lessons that that they should attend. In addition, unlike in the U.S. where wearing of school uniform depends on a school’s policies hence, not a must, in China wearing of special attires to school is compulsory.

Further, the Chinese education system is more competitive, because of the numerous and tough examinations that learners are supposed to take before proceeding to another level of learning. As results of this, learners in China always spend their entire school life preparing for exams; exams which in most cases are very tough as compared with the SATs taken in the U.S (Guihong 1).

Another disparity between U.S. and China’s education is in how students join their desired colleges. Although in both of these countries learners have to take some special test, whose results are used as the primary method of determining the type of college that one will join, in China these results are more important as they are also the primary determinant of the type of major that a learner will take.

In China learners are supposed to write a list of majors that they want to pursue, after which depending on their exam results their tutors will pick for them a major that fits them.

The scenario is different in America as learners are supposed to make applications to their preferred colleges, after which they will have to wait for feedbacks from these colleges, before making any decision on the type of major to pursue. Moreover, as compared to the U.S. where entry into a major and changing from one major to another is not a big struggle, in China getting into a preferred program is a very competitive endeavor and in most cases it is impossible to change from one major to another (Rybak 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to these differences, because of the significance the U.S. places on the need for practical skills, learners in the U.S. spend a lot of time in labs, something that is a little bit different in China where rote learning and theory work is common. Although at some point learners in China practice their hands on work, most Chinese learners do not appreciate the significance of work experience before commencing their graduate studies.

It is important for individuals to note that, although this is the case in most learning institutions in China, because of the realization by the Chinese government about the significance of practical experience, the Chinese government is the process of reforming its education system to accommodate the ever-changing global educational needs (Li, Paranto and Rong 3-5). Additionally, when it comes to higher education, each of these countries’s higher education is a reflection of its economic needs.

The U.S. higher education is structured in way that it is supposed to respond to the ever-changing societal social, political, and economic needs. The scenario is a little bit different in China, because most of its specialty programs lack the required flexibility required for an education curriculum to be responsive to changing societal needs. Further, China’s higher education lays a strong emphasis on the significance of systematic study, as it is requirement for tutors to adhere to specific teaching programs.

Although to some level teacher-learner interactions are common in this type of teaching environment, such interactions are limited as compared to most typical classes in the U.S. where it is must to give learners the required autonomy and freedom to express their ideas (Mark Para. 8-13).

Conclusion In conclusion, although the American system of education shares some similarities with the Chinese one, because of the nature of varying cultures that are appreciated in these two nations, there exist numerous differences between two country’s systems of education.

As compared with the American system of education that is flexible and accommodative, the Chinese system of education is more rigid and although to some level it aims to build learners with the desired skills needed in the competitive world, it is less practical and sensitive to changing global educational demands.

Works Cited Guihong, Zheng. Education systems in China and the U.S. China International Information Center. 2003. Web.

Li, Ding, Paranto, Sharon, and Rong, Yihong. Management information systems curricula: a comparison between China and the USA. Research in Higher Education Journal. 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mark, Klutcher. Te differences of higher education between China and U.S. U.S. Study Service. 2009. Web.

Rybak, Grace. Education differs in China and America. China Insight. 2009. Web.

Si-jing, Li. A comparative study of educational differences between U.S. and China. Journal Of Wuhan Institute of Shipbuilding Technology, 4.3 (2009). Web.


The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The world economic systems are driven by two main components namely production and consumption. These two components are interrelated through the dynamics of demand and supply relationship. The economic theory stipulates that a commodity once produced has to be consumed.

As such an equilibrium between production and consumption has to be established if the product is to survive the in the market. If there is any disequilibrium between demand and supply, then the commodity will have experienced market failure, as too much production will lead to wastages, increased storages prices and complicated warehousing logistics while underproduction of the commodity will lead to shortages and as possible price hike of the commodity.

Production and consumption are linked by the distribution chain that ensures that a commodity reaches the intended market. Production of a commodity involves several variables such as land labor capital and raw material. Firms have to reduce the cost involved in these variable especially labor and land.

Raw materials have to be sourced and prepared well so as to make sure that they meet best quality standards. The distribution of a commodity is facilitated by the extensive and complex transport and communication network, information technologies and the increased liberalization of world markets. As such, between production and consumption, there exists a chain of interrelated activities.

Commodity chain analysis is the inter related series of activities that involve production, trading and marketing and it also covers all activities from the processing of raw materials, the intermediate activities involved in valued addition of the semi finished good to the transportation of the final product to the market (Rodrigue 2011b).

These activities are interdependent and also sequential. Commodity chain analysis also involves other variables such as the pricing of the products, the laws regulating the ownership of the products, and also value addition to the product at every stage of production (Rodrigue 2011a). Commodity chain thus ensures an efficient production and supply of a commodity such as the Apple iPhone to the market with minimum hindrance for maximum returns.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is involved in the designing, production distribution and selling of consumer electronics such as mobile phones, software’s, laptops, desk tops, and accessories. Some of the products include the the Apple brand of electronics such computer, the apple laptop, the iPod, the iPad, iMac ,soft wares such as the Mac OS X operating system, the Macintosh computer and the Apple iPhone (Apple 2011a).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The apple iPhone is one of its most popular commodities and offers some of the most advanced features in the iPhone market such as WiFi internet connection, inbuilt 2MB camera, touch screen technology, 2.5g edge network as well as a host of other functions (Apple 2011; Reading et al n.d.).

Designing the Apple iPhone is not a very complicated procedure. Apple designs the commodity and holds the exclusive rights for the designs. Apple designers take s great care examining the raw materials that goes into making its parts.

A lot of attention goes to understanding the properties of material so as to understand the best procedure to use in processing those materials before the final product is made (Abilla 2010). Most of the iPhone’s raw materials are environmental friendly and reduce environmental impacts such as the emission of green house gases. Such parts as the LCD screen is mercury free, the glass is Arsenic free while most of the packaging f materials are from recyclable sources (Aplle 2009).

The main raw material that goes into making the commodity are plastic, metals such as aluminum and silver, foam rubber and glass. Much attention is taken to reduce the levels of harmful chemicals in these materials such as lead, mercury, polyvinyl chloride, brominated flame retardants and phthalates (Davies 2011). Apple has gathered experienced designers for its iPhone. Designing is also a learning process where designers learn from previous designs and make necessary improvements.

The new iPhone 4 is thus the result of the learning experience from the previous design as it has a variety of new features that makes it stand out amongst its peers in the market. Some of the new values added features at the designing level are: the 9.3 mm enclosure making it the thinnest iPhone, the 326 pixels/ inch LCD screen making it the highest resolution screen in the market, a more powerful A4 chip that also guarantees longer battery life and better multi tasking efficiency for the new iPhone among others (Apple 2011b).

Apple does not design all the parts for the commodity and therefore has to source some of the parts from established manufacturers. The company sources almost all its material from Taiwan as a cost effective measure. These are the main components that Apple sources from Taiwan for its iPhone. The iPhone connectors are manufactured by Entery Industrial, Taiwan.

The iPhones Bluetooth sets are sourced from Cambridge Silicon, Taiwan while circuit boards and stainless steel metal casings are imported from Umicron Technology and Catcher Technology respectively both from Taiwan. Primax Electronics Taiwan makes the commodities Digital Camera Modules while the internal circuitry is made by Foxconn International Taiwan. Other main parts that go into making the commodity include CPU as well as the Video processing chips which are made by Samsung Singapore.

We will write a custom Essay on The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Infineon Singapore makes the Baseband Communications hardware while Broadcomm U.S makes touch screen controllers. All these parts are then shipped into the company’s Shenzhen manufacturing facility in china. The company also pays other manufacturers to manufacture its own designed parts. Such manufacturers include Samsung Germany, which produces Apple deigned applications processor (Abilla 2007; Barboza 2010).

Foxconn International is the company that is most involved in the production process of this commodity. It has been reported that it is involved in sourcing and supply of most of the parts that go in the production of the commodity. It is also involved in supplying other part such as the products outer Case and other mechanical parts.

Other than sourcing parts for iPhone Foxconn is also involved in production some of the cheap parts with the intention of reducing the cost of production. As such Foxconn also sources for raw materials for this parts from local mines and suppliers of such raw materials (Barboza 2010).

All this parts are shipped to Foxconn assembly pant in Shenzhen, China. Foxconn Shenzhen is the main assembler of Apple iPhones as well as other world major brands such as Dell and HP. At Foxconn Shenzhen, the plant management uses a military like precision and efficiency in assembling of these commodities.

Foxconn Shenzhen employs the Henry Ford model of production where the plant establishes a production line for the commodity. The result is that Foxconn Shenzhen produces high quality Apple iPhones that meets market demand (Barboza 2010). From Foxconn Shenzhen, the commodity is shipped to the market.

The figure below summarizes the commodity’s chain map

Source: Abilla 2007

Apple has adopted series of distribution techniques for its iPhone. This is intended to reach a wide market with its products. The company has an online distribution store where clients order commodities online. Online sourced commodities are shipped to the client in record time. Apple also has signed deal with mobile service provider in different countries. These service providers act as distribution outlets and retail points for the gadget.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These mobile service providers get the commodity from regional logistic distributors. At the Apple online store, clients can create an online account and test the product before signing a contract to buy the phone (Slide Share 2011). The commodity has recorded increasing profits from the year 2008 and the company has even put higher limits on expected profits for the year 2011. The figure below shows the company’s’ profits analysis.

Source: Elmer-DeWitt 2010

Compared to other products of the same nature iPhone outsmarted them in the market in terms of revenues and percentage contribution to the makers overall turn over. The figure below reflects the commodities performance against other products of the same nature.

Source: Elmer-DeWitt 2010

Apple, in calculating is pricing factors in the cost of the parts sourced from suppliers before determining the final price of the commodity. The sourcing and manufacturing of the commodity is one of the less expensive aspects of production. Foxconn China therefore makes very little from the profits accrued from sales.

Most of the money goes to Samsung Germany and Broadcomm USA which makes and supplies the main parts such as the commodities internal processors. Apple Inc, being the patent owner of the iPhone also takes a considerable amount of profits while distributors and suppliers of the finished products also share in the profits (Barboza 2010).

In the process of manufacturing the commodity, there has emerged a number of ethical issue that may worry not only the consumer but also the parent company Apple Inc of America, foreign governments especially in china and human rights bodies.

Reports from its Chinese assembly plant in china indicate that there has been a number of bizarre suicides involving a number of Foxconn Shenzhen workers. These workers are under 26 years of age and are first time workers. The deaths have been connected to very poor working conditions and increased work place pressure to meet standards mostly associated with the scientific method of management employed at the plant. This, accompanied from pressure from family members has lead to the suicides.

It was reported that the assembly plant witnessed 9 suicides from workers who jumped from top floors of the assembly plant building in the year 2009. The highlight of the suicides has been the death of Sun Danyong, after being accused of loosing the iPhone 4 prototype and was also subjected to gross mistreatment by company security guards. Suffice to say that the workers earn the US $ 130 minimum wage per month payable in the state of Shenzhen, and as such they have to work overtime to increase their earnings.

The suicides have generated rebuke from various quarters including Apples CEO, who demanded a quick fix to the problem at Shenzhen. Foxconn Shenzhen responded by awarding an increase of 30% in wages to all workers, among other measures. It also promised to implement other measures and improve the working conditions at the assembly plant (Ramzy 2010).

Another of the ethical issue that would be of consumer concern especially in the UK is whether the commodity is envorormntaa friendly. It has been proved that electronic gadgets are some of the greatest contributor of increased level of carbon in the environment. The Apple iPhone is a considerable energy consumer because of its expanded consumption and as such emits greenhouse gasses into the environment.

The process of the production including the transport mechanism also produces carbon to the atmosphere. As a result the company has responded by incorporating various countermeasures to reduce the effects. The Apple iPhone is now being packaged in materials made by recycling wastes, while the material that make the products are free of harmful elements such as lead, mercury, PVC among others (Apple 2009).

Making the Apple iPhone begins in the parent company’s plant in America but it also involves several other companies which are involved in manufacturing various parts that are used to assemble the final products. Assembling of these parts involves and tens of thousand of workers. The Apple Inc. parent company only imports the designs to China’s Foxconn Shenzhen. Foxconn Shenzhen assembles the final product and ships it back to the US and other markets.

A lot of logistics goes into the whole commodity chain and sometimes delays have been experienced. However the Apple iPhone has not disappointed the user because of the care that goes into the whole [production chain from carefully examining the raw materials to sourcing parts from reputable makers such as Samsung. The assembly process is characterized by military like efficiency. The result is high quality product that has outperformed its peers in the market.

Reference List Abilla, P. 2007. The apple iPhone supply chain. Shmula. Web.

Abilla, P. 2010. Material informs form: the apple, iPhone 4. shmula. Web.

Apple, 2009. Iphone 3gs environmental report. Web.

Apple, 2011. IPhone: the future is in the details. Web.

BARBOZA, D. 2010. Supply chain for iPhone highlights costs in china. New York Times. Web.

Davies, C. 2011. What is apple’s manufacturing footprint for the iPhone, iPad and IPod? Global warming and climate change are big issues for apple. Web.

Elmer-DeWitt, p. 2010. IPhone gross profit margin nears 60%. cnn money. Web.

Ramzy, A. 2010. Chinese factory under scrutiny as suicides mount. Time. Web.

Reading, S., et al n.d. Apple iPhone. Web.

Rodrigue, J. 2011a. Commodity chains and freight transportation. Web.

Rodrigue, J. 2011b. Commodity chain analysis. Web.

Slide Share, 2011. Apple’s iPhone launch marketing strategy analysis. Web.


Internet and E-Business Term Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Nature of E-business Communication

Business-Business and Business-Customer Communications

How Businesses Benefit from Websites

Message Transfer


Intranet, Extranet and Internet



Electronic business is no different from conventional types of businesses; only that, it heavily relies on the use of information technology (IT) to carry out business transactions. IT tools are often used to facilitate the exchange of information between businesses and external or internal parties such as suppliers, creditors and the likes (for external business communication) or departmental heads (for internal communications).

Managers have often attributed the success of their business to the adoption of IT and many more say that IT has helped their businesses grow and become more efficient because it integrates their data processing systems to provide better goods and services to their customers (Li 2007, p. 1).

Often times, e-business has been substituted with the term ‘e-commerce’ but the term e-business is broader than e-commerce because e-commerce is only a fragment of the overall e-business strategy. For instance, e-commerce has often been used by many companies to boost their sales because it works through the worldwide web where business relationships between organizations, customers and shareholders are enhanced through knowledge management systems.

In this light, when e-commerce is compared to e-business, we can see that the scope of e-business is much wider than e-commerce because e-business spans through all value chain systems including purchasing management, supply chain management, electronic order processing, customer service processes, cooperation with external partners (and the likes); moreover, special technical standards are normally needed for e-business operations to be materialized (for instance, the use of e-business software enables the synchrony of intra and inter business communications) (Li 2007, p. 1).

E-business communications works through the use of several modes including the web, internet, intranets and extranets (but in some cases, two or more of these modes can be combined together to make e-business a reality).

This study will focus on the concept of e-business and how it works in organizations today. Emphasis will be made on communication between businesses to customers, businesses to businesses and how businesses benefit from adopting the use of the worldwide web. These three elements will collectively provide an analysis of the nature of e-business.

In the final part of this study, an analysis of how messages are transferred through the internet will be done and a more critical analysis will be done on the languages used when communicating through the worldwide web, including how the HTML (which is commonly used in e business communications) works. Comprehensively, this study will conclude by describing the different modes of e-business including intranet, extranet and internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nature of E-business Communication E-Business communication has been known to create a lot of buzz in the corporate world, probably because it is not regulated (E-articles 2010). The deregulated nature of e-business communication is the basic framework through which e-business communication derives the nature of its other qualities. However, this excludes the lack of face-to-face communication between businesses and customers, or between the communicating parties.

E-business is different from other conventional corporate communication approaches because it lacks the ‘trust’ element between two people and evidently, there is very little ethical concern among communicating parties. The fact that someone cannot put a face to the communicator also gives e-business communication the aspect of being an impersonal form of communication which is coupled with many ethical concerns.

Ethical concerns are at the centre-stage of e-business communications because it is very easy to falsify information, impersonate a person or company (and such like vices) because one cannot prove the authenticity of a given piece of information. Close to ethical concerns are security concerns which have been voiced as some of the major problems of e-business communications (E-articles 2010).

E-business communications are deemed insecure because they lack the sense of privacy, especially where an unauthorized person hacks into a company’s system and extracts confidential information. However, companies and internet security experts have recently come up with security solutions such as access and data integrity, encryption, digital certificates (and the likes) to improve the security of business information in e-business (E-articles 2010).

Business-Business and Business-Customer Communications Businesses to customer transactions are usually defined by the exchange of goods and services between a business and its customers (Carroll 2008, p. 357). This can be explained by a person buying a car from a car sales man.

However, a business-to-business transaction normally occurs when there is an exchange of goods and services between a business and another business (Kurtz 2009, p. 1). For instance, in the above example, when the car sales representative buys several cars from the car manufacture, it constitutes a business-to-business transaction.

In e-business, these transactions are facilitated by ICT tools. For instance, in a business-to-business transaction, the car seller may import a given car from a car manufacturer using online means and have the car shipped to his location. The same situation is also evidenced in a business to customer relation where a customer orders for goods, say from a grocery shop, and have them delivered to his or her doorstep.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Internet and E-Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In both scenarios, we can therefore establish that the exchange of goods and services is done online for both business-to-business transactions and business-to-customer transactions. In a practical set up, business-to-customer transactions have been evidenced through platforms such as Amazon but recent times have seen the growth of electronic business-to-business transactions through online banking, online travel, online auctions and the likes.

Business-to-business transactions are normally evidenced when businesses intend to collaborate in a given venture or when they want to communicate among themselves (this includes the most recent trend in corporate circles – outsourcing) (Kurtz 2009, p. 1). Communication between one employee and another is also referred to as a business-to-business transaction because employees are fragments of the entire business.

Conventionally, sales and marketing companies have relied on business-to-business operations and though many service oriented customers are focused on business-to-customer interaction, it is estimated that the volumes of business-to-business transaction is more than business-to-customers (Kurtz 2009, p. 1).

How Businesses Benefit from Websites Many businesses have in the recent past adopted the use of websites in their businesses because of the growing advantages associated with websites. Top among the list of the benefits businesses enjoy when they have a website is the fact that websites are cheaper and more flexible to use when compared to other conventional modes of communication such as print media (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

The difference is exposed by the fact that getting a space to advertise or communicate to business stakeholders in a website is cheap when compared to print media. Moreover, a company’s advertisement can be accessible by a wide audience for a longer period of time and the content of the advertisement is easy to change without necessarily having to contact a given authority, say a newspaper company.

Some researchers have however noted that other forms of communication such as print, television and radio should not be shunned for websites because it would be more beneficial for businesses to use conventional media channels to entice people to visit their websites because in this manner, they can reach a wide audience (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

Businesses can also benefit from websites because websites help them easily break geographical barriers and access these markets from whichever country they are in (so long as they have an internet connection). Companies which have deeply explored the benefits of websites know that a website is not only a tool to represent the company because it can also be used to increase a company’s revenue stream by selling advertising space. Web World directory (2005) affirms that:

“A recent trend has risen where businesses feature their very own directory of complimentary services, where the visitor can search for information on a business that will enhance the use of their service. The business sells complimentary business listing in their directory. A good example is a catering company featuring a directory with businesses such as event co-coordinators, electronic equipment rental companies, and the likes” (p. 6).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet and E-Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Websites can also be beneficial to businesses because they can be accessed by customers any time of the day, week or year because they are not subject to closing business hours, like conventional business environments.

This means that customers can be able to get information or communicate with the company at whatever time they please. Websites also offer businesses an opportunity to add value to their services and products since they give businesses the chance to offer convenience where customers can access information, thereby making a great majority feel satisfied with the services offered by the company (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

Businesses can also add value to their customers through websites because they allow businesses to entertain, give tips and offer free advice to their customers regarding various company contents (Web World directory 2005, p. 4).

Marketing and sales companies can also find websites very useful in using the highest pitch to interact with their customers instead of training its sales force to attain a high pitch all over again (Web World directory 2005, p. 4). In a more general platform, studies have shown that companies which have a website fare better than their counterparts who do not (in terms of company credibility).

This is true because websites are a platform for companies to introduce themselves and explain to their customers what value can they bring to the customers’ businesses or lives. Some researchers have even associated websites to viral marketing, whereby, if one customer becomes satisfied with a company or trusts a given company through its web content, he or she is likely to spread the word to other customers (Web World directory 2005, p. 11).

Websites are also noted to increase a company’s brick and mortar presence because they accommodate the publishing of a dummy map to their premises or locations and customers can in turn print these maps and use them to trace the brick and mortar premises of such companies (Web World directory 2005, p. 11).

Most companies usually include this provision as an advertisement in their websites, enticing their customers to visit a specific branch as brick and mortar premise. This advantage is usually compared to a directory because if a directory is used and a business changes location, it will have to wait for the next edition of the directory to change its address accordingly; however, websites provide an opportunity for businesses to change their locations instantly.

Finally, websites enable companies to receive instant feedback regarding their products or services and therefore they can easily improve their products accordingly. An associated benefit is the fact that businesses can also use websites to carry out cheap market research through customer feedback as opposed to going out into the field and getting such information (or through hiring a research agency to do the job on their behalf).

Message Transfer Messages are transferred via the internet through a number of ways. The most common way of transferring messages is through electronic mail where businesses and customers instantly send mails to each other, electronically. However, there are a number of concerns voiced over this communication tool (emails) and one of them is the fact that emails have the potential threat of bearing harmful viruses and spyware (Laganà 2004, p. 867).

Another disadvantage is the fact that emails lead to slow response in communication, especially when the respondent is not online. However, this disadvantage has led to the invention of the chat feature, where two businesses (or businesses and customers) talk in real-time. The internet also provides open discussion forums through discussion boards, blogs, video conferencing and the likes. New mediums are still invented to date and some are being rendered redundant as well.

HTML The Hypertext markup language (HTML) is one of the basic forms of web languages used in online communication (Hayes 2001, p. 1). This markup language is normally written in the form of opening and ending tags and is synonymous with the symbols ‘’.

The HTML is normally referred to as the basic element through which all websites are developed and it allows for the attachment of images and text, all of which are made in structured documents (Hayes 2001, p. 1). HTML is also synonymous with semantics for different texts and they are normally represented in the form of headings, paragraphs, links and the likes, although it can sometimes embed scripts in languages like JavaScript which is normally known to affect how basic HTML works (Hayes 2001, p. 1).

HTML works in collaboration with the internet protocol, which relays messages via the internet, or in simpler terms, it is used to deliver datagrams from the source to destination hosts (Mustell 2009). Their HTML addresses define the channel of communication using the internet protocol.

Intranet, Extranet and Internet The most significant difference between the intranet, extranet and internet is evidenced between the intranet and extranet (MWS 2004, p. 1). The intranet is used as an information portal designed for internal communication between employees working for any organizational size or sophistication (or between businesses or institutions of any kind).

Usually, intranets can be designed to suit the needs of the employees, businesses or institutions but in conventional business setups, main users have been identified to be members of the executive team, accounting, order billing, managers, directors, sales people, support staff, customer services, help desk and such like departments or individuals (MWS 2004, p. 1).

An extranet on the other hand bears close similarity to the intranet, only that it is designed for external access of a company’s computer files, information and systems (MWS 2004, p. 1). Normally, such sort of information is released to individuals or groups such as exclusive business customers, selected industry partners, specific suppliers, subcontractors and the likes.

Carefully designed extranet connections are likely to increase a business’s operations but both intranets and extranets are known to: use secured internet access to external parties, significantly reduce company costs associated with company communication and use identification codes and passwords to access or control company information, or systems (MWS 2004, p. 1).

The major distinction between the intranet and internet is the fact that the internet is meant for public communication while the intranet is strictly meant for private communication (Newman 2009, p. 117). However, the intranet is normally accessible through the internet, but with the administration of passwords and identification codes, it is almost impossible to access such information. In other words, only authorized users are allowed to access information on the intranet.

If the intranet is accessed within a company, it is much faster in response when compared to how a website would be accessed from the internet. Normally, it is assumed that the internet responds in this manner because it is quite vulnerable to traffic spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that are likely to slow down internet speeds (Newman 2009).

The basic advantage of the intranet over the internet is the fact that within a company context, users have more bandwidth while the network hardware maybe more reliable when compared to the internet, making it easier to serve higher bandwidth content (including audio and video content) over the intranet (Newman 2009).

Most intranets block the access of videos, social networking sites or any other content that may be deemed “fun” because it derails employee performance. Contrary to what most people believe, the extranet is only apart of the intranet and it is only a medium to enable authorized, external business partners to access company information (but not the entire company information).

Conclusion This study explains the scope of e-business through an understanding of the fact that e-business works in the context of business-to-business communication or through business-to-customer communication. The main channel through which e-business operates is though websites and through this medium, businesses can endlessly gain a lot of advantages in the corporate world.

However, in comprehensively analyzing how the internet works, it should be understood that each company needs to know whether to use the intranet, extranet or the internet in undertaking its activities, depending on the nature of its activities. Regardless of the advantages e-business brings to the corporate environment, companies should take caution of the risk associated with e-business communications.

References Carroll, A. (2008) Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. London, Cengage Learning.

E-articles. (2010) The Changing Nature of E Business. Web.

Hayes, D. (2001) Sams Teach Yourself HTML and XHTML in 10 Minutes. New York, Sams Publishing.

Kurtz, D. (2009) Contemporary Marketing. London, Cengage Learning.

Laganà, A. (2004) Computational Science and Its Applications: ICCSA 2004, International Conference, Assisi, Italy, May 14-17, 2004: Proceedings, Part 3. New York, Springer.

Li, F. (2007) What Is E-Business? How The Internet Transforms Organizations. London, Wiley-Blackwell.

Mustell, E. (2009) Internet Protocol Version 6: The Next Generation? New York, ProQuest.

MWS. (2004) Difference between Intranet


Demand and supply Report essay help: essay help

Introduction The February cyclone which hit most of the fruits farms between Caddwell and Innisfail in Australia has greatly affected the demand and supply of bananas in the markets compared to previous years. From the article it is clear that after the catastrophe, the supply of this crop lowered greatly leading to a rise in its prices as well as its demand. It also showed how the increase in the prices facilitated to more supply for more income.

Background Study Theory: Increase in supply of a product or service leads to reduction in its demand and price, while decrease in its supply leads to a higher demand and price. When the supply of a commodity lowers, its demand lowers due to acceleration in its prices. More often the increase in demand of a commodity leads to an increase in its supply due to the higher prices it is accorded. When there is an over-supply, the demand and the prices are very low. This is the case in Australia after Yasi Cyclone destroyed banana farms affecting their supply (Weekly Times 2011, 2).

Models: In economics, it is fundamental to understand the concept of demand and supply of a commodity or service in the market. Usually, this concept is primary as it is seen as the backbone of economics. Demand can be defined as the quantity of a product or a service required by the buyers while supply is the much that is available in the market at a given price. Supply and demand will always reflect on the price. Graphs have been used as models to explain this concept.

Law of demand; as the price of a commodity increases, its demand decreases. People are not always ready to forgo other valuable products or services at the expense of others that see their prices go up due to their lower supply (Baumal


Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM Report cheap essay help

Executive Summary There are several issues be it ethical or social responsibility that are involved in Human Resource Management on the international platform. It is usually upon the decision makers to ensure that the welfare of the society is improved. Every decision made within the organization has an effect on people. These include; automation, outsourcing, laying-off some of the employees, closing down an existing branch or opening a new one.

It is therefore important for decision makers to put the interests of the society in mind while making any decision. There is need for multinational firms to consider ethics as well as corporate social responsibility in their operations. Despite the fact that different scholars hold different opinions about ethics and corporate social responsibility, there is need for a multinational firm to include the two in its operations so as to create a good business environment and benefit the society.[1]

Introduction A human resources manager within a multinational firm has the responsibility of overseeing the human resource issues within his organization as well as in the overseas operations. An international firm is usually prone to more challenges concerning their operations as well as decision making.

Human resource managers within multinationals are usually challenged to ensure the overall economic development particularly in the countries where they are situated, carter for the needs of the employees as well as their families and ensuring that the society benefits as well. Business ethics are supposed to be observed for the organization to succeed.

Legal procedures are to be observed in the operations of the organization. In the case of an international firm, the societies that benefit from the firm are not just local but different people across the globe. There is therefore need to put into consideration different issues like environmental protection, the protection of people’s human right, creating employment as well as fighting and preventing HIV/AIDS. The firm needs to empower the people economically hence improving their living standards.[2]

Main Body International Human Resource managers have a great task in ensuring that as much as an international firm aims at maximizing the profits, they have they responsibility of ensuring that the people are not rendered jobless due to its operations or the adoption of technology in its operations. The firm is supposed to have a qualified workforce with efficient processes of administration that are transparent.[3]

Demand Conditions The firms are usually faced with the challenge of providing quality goods and services to the customers that are scattered across the globe. It is usually a requirement for the firm to provide quality goods or services so as to satisfy the needs of the local as well as international customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firms are usually pressured to go by the current technological advancements so as to ensure quality production and service delivery. A company might for instance adopt social responsibility techniques by starting projects for the communities in the areas where they are situated so as to market its products.

Apple for instance managed to expand its consumer base by offering computers to schools across the globe so as to make its applications known to the market and this improved the sophistication of the students as well as tutors. This was therefore an example of corporate social responsibility not just at the local but at the international level as well.

Related/Supporting Industries Before a firm opts to outsource its services, it is always good to consider options that are cost effective like using a taskforce and machinery that is less costly. This usually ensures responsive and cost effectiveness. The transportation costs are supposed to be reduced and it should have many benefits to the locals as well as the international population by providing employment hence improving their living standards. It should be easy to exchange information as well as innovation.

Strategy and Rivalry Multinational firms are usually prone to issues of unfair competition as well as issues of corruption. They face the challenge of fighting corruption as well as opening up the market and encouraging fair competition hence an environment that is productive and transparent is encouraged. Most of the firms have for instance supported organizations like Transparency International in their efforts to fight corruption in organizations across the globe. The society is therefore able to benefit as well as opening up the market for such firms.[4]

Corporate social responsibility for a multinational is therefore beneficial not only to the firm but to the society at the local and international level as well. The sole purpose of a firm should be to benefit all the people involved and not just a few. Any business organization is supposed to benefit the society. If this is not the case then the organizations charter can be amended or revoked as the community will be having no reason to have it around if its needs are not met.

With globalization and internalization of most corporations, such firms have been able to expand their operations to countries that have lower economic developments and living standards. Most of them have therefore engaged in corporate abuses.

Most of them have engaged in irresponsible activities that lead to environmental pollution among other vises. Oil companies for instance have engaged in water, soil, sound as well as air pollutions issues that affect the community negatively. This has resulted into the need for social action so as to ensure that these companies engage in responsible actions.[5]

We will write a custom Report on Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate social responsibility at the international level usually ensures that the contribution of the firm is positive towards the community in which it is located and this result in a good relationship between the firm and the community. This makes it easy for the firm to get employees across the globe and the cost of retaining the workforce is usually lower.

There is a significant reduction in absenteeism and turnover. The firm is therefore in a position to thrive. Bettering the environment usually results in a better working/business environment. Less money is therefore spent on ensuring that the firm is secure as well as the executives of the firm.

Argument against Corporate Social Responsibility Several people have argued against corporate social responsibility each giving their own reasons for their stand. Milton Friedman who is an economist for instance has argued against corporate social responsibility basing his argument on social, legal as well as economic perspectives. Arguing on the economic perspective, he argued that allocating the funds of a firm to other areas rather than those meant to increase the profits, or ensuring efficiency in the market only result in misallocation of resources within the economy.

He argued that managers are legal representatives of the firm’s stakeholders and allocating funds on something else rather than maximizing the profits amounts to stealing from the stakeholders. He states that if the stakeholders had the interest of spending money on social purposes, then they need to do so personally using the dividend. He argues that social responsibility is a sign of short sightedness and it is suicidal.[6]

An international firm is posed with the challenge of ensuring that a firm maintains high standards, the firm has to ensure that the compensation as well as the benefits of the workers are met.

The policies and practices of these firms are supposed to be abided by and all the records of the employees in various branches of the firm be kept well. The firm has the responsibility to ensure that its activities are carried out in an ethical way and etiquette is observed. The company employees across the various nations are supposed to be updated over the same so as to avoid embarrassing situations.[7]

The firm is supposed to ensure that the issues like drug and substance abuse among the employees as well as the communities in which they are situated are prevented. The firm is endowed with assisting the employees as well as ensuring spirituality and diversity among the workforce. The firm must ensure that the laws and standards set by the respective countries are followed to the later.

It must channel its effort towards ensuring job creation in the countries where they are based and not causing job loses. It is usually a challenging task for the firm to ensure that its human resource is fully utilized. The firm’s management has to ensure that there is effective resource planning, carrying out training and development of the staff as well as ensuring there are positive labor relations, the employees are safe and healthy. It is also responsible for the management of change and culture.[8]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most firms usually find it difficult to adapt to the new environments in which they are situated be especially due to the cultural differences between the new environments and the places where they are situated. Their human resource practices tend to differ. It becomes a big challenge for these firms to align themselves to the new economic, political, legal as well as cultural environments.

It has particularly been a big challenge to come up with a global approach to Human recourses given that different regions have their own approaches and policies governing the issues of human resources management. There is therefore for no consistency or integrity in the issues of Human Resource Management on the international platform.

The management of cross-boarder alliances has proved to be a very tasking endeavor given that the cost of production across boarders is a big challenge due to the issues of cost as well as hardships in penetrating new markets.

Conclusion Multinational firms face different issues which include ensuring that the firm maximizes its profits, the employees’ needs are met, the environment is protected, there is efficiency within the firms and they have a competitive advantage over the other competitors. Above all these it is usually upon the firm to ensure that its operations are carried out in a way that is ethical and responsible.

The firm needs to be accountable to the community around as well as other stakeholders. The firm is supposed to benefit the society by improving their living standards through provision of employment opportunities as well as starting programs that benefit the community like educating the community against substance abuse as well as HIV/AIDS.[9]

With the increase in globalization, many firms have found the issues of observing corporate social responsibility as a huddle and have resorted to activities that have negative impact on the society.

Human Resources Management at the international level is therefore aimed at ensuring that companies or firms that have their operations across boarders adhere to the set standards and they obey the law besides raising the living standards of people that are linked to them in a way, for instance the communities around or the employees. They are supposed to engage in activities that are environmental friendly and ensure a good working or business environment.

International Human Resources is aimed at ensuring that a check is put on the activities of the firms and ethics as well as etiquette is observed in the operations of these firms. Companies or firms are supposed to ensure that corporate social responsibility is at the center of their objectives. At times they might have to use corporate social responsibility consultants or expertise in ensuring that its activities are beneficial to the society.[10]

Firms must have strategies in place to ensure corporate social responsibility within their operations. Through ensuring corporate social responsibility, a firm creates a good business environment hence helping in the success of its operations. Although corporate social responsibility has been encouraged at many levels, there are those who perceive it as a misallocation of resources and a way of stealing from the stakeholder.

Recommendations Any multinational needs to do several things so as to ensure success in its operations for instance, firms need to;

Reward its hardworking employees and adopt compensation systems for its employees in the various nations.

Carry out training to ensure that the employees are updated on the skills as well as technological advancements.

Monitor the performance of the employees to ensure accountability.

Ensure they stick to the set standards of quality.

Adhere to etiquette and ethical ways of carrying out their operations at the places where they are situated.

Focus its efforts towards ensuring that the problems of the society are solved. Its impact must be felt not just in their environments but in other places.

Promote multiculturalism by coming up with ways of eliminating cultural boundaries given that multinationals employ people from different cultural backgrounds.

Bibliography Hofstede,G. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill. 1991.

Ibarra,H. “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework.” Academy of Management Review, 18 no.1 (1993): 56-87.

Legge,K. Human resource management: rhetorics and realities. London: Macmillan.1995.

Liff,S. “Diversity and equal opportunities: Room for a constructive compromise?.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 65-75.

Marini,M. and Fan,P. “The gender gap in earnings at career entry.” American Sociological Review, 62 no. 1 (1997): 588-604.

Pfeffer,J. Competitive advantage through people: unleashing the power of the work force. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 1994.

Ragins,B. and Scandura,T. “Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships.” Academy of Management Journal, 37no.4 (1994): 957-971.

Shappiro,G. “Quality and equality: Building a virtuous circle.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 76-86.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.

Storey,J. “Equal opportunities in retrospect and prospect.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9no.1 (1999): 5-8.

Footnotes Hofstede,G. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill. 1991.

Storey,J. “Equal opportunities in retrospect and prospect.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9no.1 (1999): 5-8.

Ibarra,H. “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework.” Academy of Management Review, 18 no.1 (1993): 56- 87.

Legge,K. Human resource management: rhetorics and realities. London: Macmillan.1995.

Liff,S. “Diversity and equal opportunities: Room for a constructive compromise?.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 65-75.

Marini,M. and Fan,P. “The gender gap in earnings at career entry.” American Sociological Review, 62 no. 1 (1997): 588-604.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.

Pfeffer,J. Competitive advantage through people: unleashing the power of the work force. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 1994.

Ragins,B. and Scandura,T. “Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships.” Academy of Management Journal, 37no.4 (1994): 957-971.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.